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Sample records for contrast enhanced ultrasonography

  1. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncica, Ana Maria; Saftoiu, Adrian;

    2011-01-01

    agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents. Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion. In the future, these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion, to assess...

  2. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nischita K Reddy; Ana Maria Ioncic(a); Adrian S(a)ftoiu; Peter Vilmann; Manoop S Bhutani

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest,to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures.We review the mechanisms of action of first,second and third generation contrast agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract.Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy,assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal,gastric and gall bladder cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices.In addition,contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions.The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies.The sensitivity of power Doppler sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents.Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion.In the future,these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion,to assess and monitor the efficacy of antiangiogenic agents,to assist targeted drug delivery and allow molecular imaging.

  3. International guidelines for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, Christian Pállson; Lorentzen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    The intent of this review is to discuss and comment on common clinical scenarios in which contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) may play a decisive role and to illustrate important points with typical cases. With the advent of CEUS, the scope of indications for ultrasonography has been...

  4. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncică, Ana Maria; Săftoiu, Adrian;

    2011-01-01

    cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices. In addition, contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions. The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies. The sensitivity of power Doppler...

  5. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Enterography and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Rune; Peters, David A; Nielsen, Agnete Hedemann

    2017-01-01

    Purpose e Cross-sectional imaging methods are important for objective evaluationof small intestinal inflammationinCrohn'sdisease(CD).The primary aim was to compare relative parameters of intestinal perfusion between contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic...

  6. Contrast-enhanced breast ultrasonography: imaging features with histopathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Liu, Ji-Bin; Zhu, Qing-Li; Sun, Qiang; Chang, Xiao-Yan

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify histopathologic correlates for the varied appearances of breast masses on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed in 104 patients (age range, 19-86 years) after administration of a sulfur hexafluoride microbubble contrast agent, and enhancement patterns were classified as no enhancement, peripheral enhancement, homogeneous enhancement, regional enhancement, and heterogeneous enhancement. All patients' histologic slides were reviewed and correlated with CEUS findings. In malignant masses, heterogeneous enhancement corresponded to tumor cell cords or clusters in a variable amount of desmoplastic stroma. Homogeneous enhancement corresponded to hypercellularity in the whole mass, or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was predominant. Regional enhancement corresponded to a DCIS component. Peripheral enhancement corresponded to a DCIS component, hypercellularity or adenosis at the periphery, and low-degree cellularity, degeneration, fibrosis, or necrosis in the center. No enhancement was present in 1 case of low-grade DCIS. In benign masses, heterogeneous enhancement corresponded to loose cell proliferation in a more sclerotic stroma. Homogeneous enhancement corresponded to diffuse hypercellularity, an inflammatory cell infiltrate, or intraductal papilloma. Regional enhancement corresponded to focal hypercellularity or intraductal papilloma within a dilated duct. No enhancement corresponded to desmoplastic stroma. Peripheral enhancement was shown in 1 case of granulomatous mastitis with an inflammatory infiltrate at the periphery and necrosis in the center. Breast mass CEUS findings correlated with histologic features.

  7. Diagnostic vascular ultrasonography with the help of color Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Rübenthaler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of ultrasonography and especially of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS in the diagnosis of vascular pathologies before and after interventions has significantly increased over the past years due to the broader availability of modern ultrasound systems with CEUS capabilities and more trained user experience in this imaging modality. For the preinterventional and postinterventional work-up of carotid diseases, duplex ultrasound as well as CEUS have been established as the standard-of-care examination procedures for diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up. In addition to its use for carotid arterial diseases, ultrasonography has also become the primary modality for the screening of vascular pathologies. This review describes the most common pathologies found in ultrasonography of the carotid arteries, the abdominal aorta, and the femoral arteries.

  8. Diagnostic vascular ultrasonography with the help of color doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

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    Rubenthaler, Johannes; Reiser, Maximilian; Clevert, Dirk Andre [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich-Grosshadern Campus, Munich (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The use of ultrasonography and especially of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnosis of vascular pathologies before and after interventions has significantly increased over the past years due to the broader availability of modern ultrasound systems with CEUS capabilities and more trained user experience in this imaging modality. For the preinterventional and postinterventional work-up of carotid diseases, duplex ultrasound as well as CEUS have been established as the standard-of-care examination procedures for diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up. In addition to its use for carotid arterial diseases, ultrasonography has also become the primary modality for the screening of vascular pathologies. This review describes the most common pathologies found in ultrasonography of the carotid arteries, the abdominal aorta, and the femoral arteries.

  9. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

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    Jang, Sung Il [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ki [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS). Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  10. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ill Jang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS. Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  11. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Crohn's Disease Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Liebert, Ariel; Kłopocka, Maria; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    The chronic nature of Crohn's disease (CD) implicates necessity of multiple control assessments throughout patient's life. It is accepted that in patients with CD requiring disease monitoring, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) are--apart from endoscopy--imaging studies of first choice. In practice, diagnostic imaging of patients with CD is troublesome, since MRE is an expensive and complicated study, and CTE exposes patients to high doses of ionizing radiation. Therefore, there is a need for new, both non-invasive and effective, methods of imaging in CD. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) is a relatively new method using gas-filled microbubbles serving as contrast agent. It allows for detailed assessment of blood perfusion within intestine wall and peri-intestinal tissues, which enables detection and monitoring of inflammation and its qualitative assessment. The purpose of this paper is to describe CEUS examination technique and its clinical applications in patients with Crohn's disease.

  12. Mass-forming pancreatitis: Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirko D'Onofrio; Giulia Zamboni; Alessia Tognolini; Roberto Malagò; Niccolò Faccioli; Luca Frulloni; Roberto Pozzi Mucelli

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with a second-generation contrast medium in the differential diagnosis between mass-forming pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma.METHODS: From our radio-pathology database, we retrieved all the patients affected by mass-forming pancreatitis or pancreatic carcinoma who underwent CEUS. We evaluated the results of CEUS in the study of the 173 pancreatic masses considering the possibilities of a differential diagnosis between mass-forming pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor by identifying the "parenchymographic" enhancement during the dynamic phase of CEUS, which was considered diagnostic for mass-forming pancreatitis.RESULTS: At CEUS, 94% of the mass-forming pancreatitis showed intralesional parenchymography.CEUS allowed diagnosis of mass-forming pancreatitis with sensitivity of 88.6%, specificity of 97.8%,positive predictive value of 91.2%, negative predictive value of 97.1%, and overall accuracy of 96%. CEUS significantly increased the diagnostic confidence in the differential diagnosis between mass-forming pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, with receiver operating characteristic curve areas from 0.557 (P = 0.1608) for baseline US to 0.956 (P < 0.0001) for CEUS.CONCLUSION: CEUS allowed diagnosis of massforming pancreatitis with diagnostic accuracy of 96%. CEUS significantly increases the diagnostic confidence with respect to basal US in discerning mass-forming pancreatitis from pancreatic neoplasm.

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to diagnose complicated acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrini, Elisabetta; Pecorelli, Anna; Pettinari, Irene; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Stefanini, Federico; Bolondi, Luigi; Piscaglia, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    Gangrenous cholecystitis and perforation are severe complications of acute cholecystitis, which have a challenging preoperative diagnosis. Early identification allows better surgical management. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) is the current diagnostic gold standard. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is a promising tool for the diagnosis of gallbladder perforation, but data from the literature concerning efficacy are sparse. The aim of the study was to evaluate CEUS findings in pathologically proven complicated cholecystitis (gangrenous, perforated gallbladder, pericholecystic abscess). A total of 8 patients submitted to preoperative CEUS, and with subsequent proven acute complicated cholecystitis at surgical inspection and pathological analysis, were retrospectively identified. The final diagnosis was gangrenous/phlegmonous cholecystitis (n. 2), phlegmonous/ulcerative changes plus pericholecystic abscess (n. 2), perforated plus pericholecystic abscess (n. 3), or perforated plus pericholecystic biliary collection (n. 1). Conventional US findings revealed irregularly thickened gallbladder walls in all 8 patients, with vaguely defined walls in 7 patients, four of whom also had striated wall thickening. CEUS revealed irregular enhancing gallbladder walls in all patients. A distinct wall defect was seen in six patients, confirmed as gangrenous/phlegmonous cholecystitis at pathology in all six, and in four as perforation at macroscopic surgical inspection. CEUS is a non-invasive easily repeatable technique that can be performed at the bedside, and is able to accurately diagnose complicated/perforated cholecystitis. Despite the limited sample size in the present case series, CEUS appears as a promising tool for the management of patients with the clinical possibility of having an acute complicated cholecystitis.

  14. Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and ultrasonography scores in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Han; Yang, Shu-Ping; Shen, Hao-Lin; Lin, Li-Qing; Zhong, Rong; Wu, Rui-Ming; Lv, Guo-Rong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic value of ultrasonography scores (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in evaluating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity. 39 patients with RA were included and the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, wrist, elbow and knee joints of them were examined by high frequency ultrasound. The severe joints and the related indexes (synovial thickness, synovial blood flow, joint effusion and bone erosion) were exposed. Then scores (0~3) were obtained and the sum was calculated. For 12 patients of the 39, 2.4 ml SonoVue was intravenously injected with observation of synovial enhancing. ROIs time-intensity curve (TIC) was obtained and the parameters including area under curve (AUC), peak intensity (PI) and time to peak (TTP) were analyzed. For 39 patients, the relationships among each parameters, ultrasonography scores, DAS28 scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP, RF, anti-CCP) were analyzed. The US were significantly correlated with DAS28 Scores (r=0.823, PrAUC=0.832, rPI=0.809, PrAUC=0.907, rPI=0.851, rUS=0.836, PrAUC=0.855, rPI=0.854, rUS=0.692, P<0.01. US was almost identical with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP) in diagnosis of RA activity, while CEUS was almost identical with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP). In diagnosis of RA, US may be better than DAS28 Scores, while CEUS better than US. Both of them were useful for evaluation of RA activity.

  15. Quantitative Assessment of Hepatic Fibrosis by Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-bo Zhang; En-ze Qu; Ji-Bin Liu; Jin-rui Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic features for quantitative assessment of hepatic fibrosis.Methods 86 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B were enrolled in this study from March 2007 to August 2009.The patients were classified into 5 groups (S0-S4) according to fibrosis stage evaluated with ultrasound guided liver biopsy.New contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) features including area under the time-intensity curve (TIC) of portal venous phase/hepatic arterial phase (Qp/Qa) and intensity of portal venons phase/hepatic arterial phase (Ip/Ia) were used to detect the blood supply ratio (portal vein/hepatic artery) in each group.Arrival time of portal vein trunk (Tp) and decreasing rate of TIC (β) were also analyzed.Results Qp/Qa and Ip/Ia decreased from So to S4,while Tp and β increased These 4 features were significantly correlated with the degree of fibrosis (P<0.001) and were significantly different among the five groups (P<0.001).Sensitivity and specificity of Ip/Ia were 80% and 86% for groups ≥S1,75% and 86% for groups ≥ S2,71% and 84% for groups ≥ S3,and 76% and 80% for group S4,respectively.Sensitivity and specificity of Qp/Qa were 70% and 88% for groups ≥ S1,80% and 76% for groups ≥ S2,74% and 70% for groups ≥ S3,and 81% and 95% for group S4,respectively.Conclusion Ip/Ia and Qp/Qa could be adopted as reliable,non-invasive features for quantitative assessment of hepatic fibrosis.

  16. Contrast-Enhanced Endoscopic Ultrasonography for Pancreatic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography (CE-EUS for histological differentiation of pancreatic tumors. Methods. CE-EUS was performed for consecutive patients having a pancreatic solid lesion, and tumors were classified into three vascular patterns (hypervascular, isovascular, and hypovascular at two time phases (early-phase and late-phase. Correlation between vascular patterns and histopathology of resected pancreatic cancer (PC tissues was ascertained. Results. The final diagnoses of 147 examined tumors were PC (n=109, inflammatory mass (n=11, autoimmune pancreatitis (n=9, neuroendocrine tumor (n=8, and others (n=10. In late-phase images, 104 of 109 PCs had the hypovascular pattern, for a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 71%, respectively. Of 28 resected PCs, 10 had isovascular, and 18 hypovascular, patterns on the early-phase image. Early-phase isovascular PCs were more likely to be differentiated than were early-phase hypovascular PCs (6 well and 4 moderately differentiated versus 3 well, 14 moderately, and 1 poorly differentiated, P=0.028. Immunostaining revealed that hypovascular areas of early-phase images reflected heterogeneous tumor cells with fibrous tissue, necrosis, and few vessels. Conclusion. CE-EUS could be useful for distinguishing PC from other solid pancreatic lesions and for histological differentiation of PCs.

  17. Ultrasonido con contraste de masas hepáticas Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in hepatic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojun Yu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El ultrasonido (US con contraste constituye una poderosa herramienta diagnóstica en la caracterización de masas hepáticas. Las modernas técnicas de ultrasonido con contraste presentan alta sensibilidad con dosis bajas de contraste, lo que juntamente con la técnica de supresión de ecos resulta en imágenes de muy alta resolución temporal y espacial, propiciando el resurgimiento de la ultrasonografía en la era de la tomografía computada (TC y de la resonancia magnética (RM. El agente de contraste utilizado es muy seguro, sin efectos de nefrotoxicidad y apropiado para pacientes con función renal disminuida. La posibilidad de utilizar múltiples inyecciones de micro burbujas y de realizar observaciones reiteradas de patrones de vascularización de las masas hepáticas, la convierten en una herramienta diagnóstica segura y confiable en la resolución de lesiones hepáticas indeterminadas previo a la TC y RM. En este artículo describimos los principios básicos del US con contraste, consideraciones prácticas en la realización de los estudios, debilidades y fortalezas del método en comparación con la TC y RM y patrones de vascularización en las cinco masas hepáticas más comunes: hemangioma, hiperplasia nodular focal, adenoma, carcinoma hepatocelular y metástasis.Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS is a powerful tool in the characterization of various liver masses. Modern techniques of contrast ultrasonography are highly sensitive to minute doses of the contrast agent and with the suppression of background tissue echoes result in images with very high contrast resolution. Added to this advantage are the high temporal and spatial resolution intrinsic to sonography in general, which have resulted in a robust resurgence of sonography in this era of CT and MRI. The excellent safety profile of the contrast agent with no nephrotoxicity allows for multiple injections of microbubble in deciphering the vascular structure and enhancement

  18. Contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography of the metacarpophalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Court-Payen, Michel; Strandberg, Charlotte;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine, with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI as the reference, if contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography (CE PDUS) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints provides additional information for evaluation of synovial inflammation compared...... additional information in selected cases but did not in the present study increase the sensitivity of the method...

  19. Focal Liver Lesions: Real-time 3-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Compared With 2-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Chieh; Yan, Kun; Lee, San-Kan; Yang, Wei; Chen, Min-Hua

    2017-06-24

    This study sought to evaluate the application of real-time 3-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) to diagnose focal liver lesions and to compare these results with those from 2-dimensional (2D) contrast-enhanced US and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with focal liver lesions were examined by 2D contrast-enhanced US, 3D contrast-enhanced US, and contrast-enhanced MRI for lesion characterization, and biopsies and comprehensive clinical diagnoses served as reference standards. The sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and intermodality agreement were assessed. The number of contrast agent injections and lesions observed per injection were calculated for 3D and 2D contrast-enhanced US. The number and display quality of the feeding arteries observed with 3D and 2D contrast-enhanced US were assessed. A total of 117 patients with 151 focal liver lesions were enrolled, including 67 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 51 cases of liver metastasis, and 33 cases of benign liver lesions. No significant differences were found among the modalities. The sensitivity values for 3D contrast-enhanced US, 2D contrast-enhanced US, and contrast-enhanced MRI were 96%, 95%, and 93%, respectively; the specificity values were 87%, 84%, and 89%; and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were 0.92, 0.90, and 0.92. The intermodality agreement was excellent (κ > 0.77). Fewer contrast agent injections were needed, and more lesions and feeding arteries were more clearly displayed on 3D than 2D contrast-enhanced US (P < .001). Real-time 3D contrast-enhanced US is useful for diagnosing focal liver lesions and for observing feeding arteries with fewer contrast agent injections. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography of the metacarpophalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Court-Payen, Michel; Strandberg, Charlotte;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine, with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI as the reference, if contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography (CE PDUS) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints provides additional information for evaluation of synovial inflammation compared...... with PDUS. One MCP joint in each of 15 RA patients and 3 healthy control persons were examined with PDUS before and after intravenous bolus Levovist contrast injection. Corresponding rates of early synovial enhancement (RESE), previously shown to be closely related to histopathological synovitis, were...... calculated from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images obtained the same day. Prior to ultrasonography, the joint was evaluated clinically. Levovist increased the flow signal in 7 of 9 joints with pre-contrast flow-signal and in 0 of 9 without pre-contrast signal. No healthy controls showed CE PDUS signal...

  1. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Angelette, Nik; Stout, Rhett

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we describe the normal contrast-enhanced harmonic, color, and power Doppler ultrasonographic characteristics of the medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of the medial iliac lymph nodes was performed on 14 healthy dogs after intravenous administration of the lipoprotein-bound inert gas-filled microbubble contrast media Definity. Time-pixel intensity curves were generated for 1-min postinjection. Quantification of these curves was performed using Philips QLab software. Non-contrast-enhanced power and color Doppler examinations were performed in each node to assess vascular patterns subjectively. Normal lymph nodes exhibited a mean contrast wash-in phase beginning at 6.3 s from the time of injection with mean peak pixel intensity at 12.1s. Angioarchitecture was best visualized with contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound compared with power and color Doppler. Normal lymph nodes in dogs have a central artery with a centrifugal and uniform branching pattern. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography is a noninvasive examination that demonstrates improved visibility of the intranodal architecture of healthy medial iliac lymph nodes in dogs compared with conventional, non-contrast-enhanced Doppler methods that may have future clinical applications.

  2. International guidelines for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: Ultrasound imaging in the new millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolsoe, Christian Pallson; Lorentzen, Torben [Ultrasound Section, Dept. of Gastric Surgery, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev (Denmark)

    2016-03-15

    The intent of this review is to discuss and comment on common clinical scenarios in which contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) may play a decisive role and to illustrate important points with typical cases. With the advent of CEUS, the scope of indications for ultrasonography has been dramatically extended, and now includes functional imaging and tissue characterization, which in many cases enable tumor diagnosis without a biopsy. It is virtually impossible to imagine the practice of modern medicine as we know it in high-income countries without the use of imaging, and yet, an estimated two thirds of the global population may receive no such care. Ultrasound imaging with CEUS has the potential to correct this inequity.

  3. Radiofrequency ablation of liver cancer: early evaluation of therapeutic response with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

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    Choi, Dong Gil; Lim, Hyo K.; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Seung Hoon; Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Seung Kwon; Jang, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    The early assessment of the therapeutic response after percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation is important, in order to correctly decide whether further treatment is necessary. The residual unablated tumor is usually depicted on contrast-enhanced multiphase helical computed tomography (CT) as a focal enhancing structure during the arterial and portal venous phases. Contrast-enhanced color Doppler and power Doppler ultrasonography (US) have also been used to detect residual tumors. Contrast-enhanced gray-scale US, using a harmonic technology which has recently been introduced, allows for the detection of residual tumors after ablation, without any of the blooming or motion artifacts usually seen on contrast-enhanced color or power Doppler US. Based on our experience and reports in the literature, we consider that contrast-enhanced gray-scale harmonic US constitutes a reliable alternative to contrast-enhanced multiphase CT for the early evaluation of the therapeutic response to RF ablation for liver cancer. This technique was also useful in targeting any residual unablated tumors encountered during additional ablation.

  4. Contrast-Enhanced Harmonic Ultrasonography for the Assessment of Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness: a Preliminary Study

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    Zhu, Yunkai; Chen, Yaqing; Jiang, Jun [Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ren; Zhou, Yongchang; Zhang, Huizhen [Sixth People' s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-02-15

    To determine whether contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography can be used to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography was performed in 103 patients suspected of prostate cancer before biopsy. Time intensity curves were reconstructed for systematic biopsy sites and sonographic abnormalities. The characteristics of the curves were described using hemodynamic indices including arrival time (AT), time-to-peak (TTP), and peak intensity (PI). The differences of hemodynamic indices between high-grade and low-grade cancer were analyzed and the correlations between the hemodynamic indices and biopsy Gleason score were studied. Prostate cancer was detected in 41 of 103 patients and there were significant differences in the hemodynamic indices between the biopsy sites of the non-malignant patients and prostate cancer lesions (p < 0.05). The prostate biopsies revealed 154 prostate cancer lesions, including 31 low-grade lesions and 123 high-grade lesions. The hemodynamic indices AT and TTP of highgrade tumors were significantly shorter than those of low-grade tumors (p = 0.001, 0.002). In addition, high-grade peripheral zone (PZ) tumors had higher PI than low-grade PZ tumors (p = 0.009). The PZ prostate cancer Gleason score correlated with PI, AT and TTP, with Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.223, -0.335, and -0.351, respectively (p = 0.013, < 0.001 and < 0.001). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound measurements of hemodynamic indices correlate with the prostate cancer Gleason score.

  5. Imaging of the acute scrotum: is there a place for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moschouris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present and evaluate the findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS in typical cases of acute painful scrotum. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients aged from 19 to 61 years old were included in the study. All patients underwent grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US of the scrotum, followed by imaging after i.v. administration of 2.4 mL of a second generation ultrasound contrast agent (microbubbles of sulphur hexafluoride. A dedicated, contrast-sensitive technique was used (Contrast Tissue Imaging - CnTI. The diagnosis was confirmed surgically in 6 cases while in the remaining 8 cases it was based on the combination of clinical, imaging and laboratory findings. Results: The final diagnosis was testicular torsion (n = 4, epididymitis (n = 2, one of the cases complicated by abscess, testicular abscess (n = 1, scrotal abscess (n = 1, testicular trauma of varying severity (n = 6. Five out of 19 cases were true negatives: neither clinical examination nor laboratory tests revealed any pathology. CEUS showed complete lack of enhancement in all cases of torsion, permitting a rapid and definitive diagnosis. In the cases of infection complicated by abscesses, CEUS delineated the lesions much better than the combination of B-mode/Color Doppler US. The severely traumatized testicles showed minimal, inhomogeneous or patchy enhancement, while cases of minor trauma showed no significant enhancement defects. Hematomas were presented as non-enhancing lesions. Conclusion: Generally, there was no advantage over Doppler US as has been previously shown. However, CEUS can be used supplementary to traditional Doppler US in the investigation of blunt testicular trauma especially when there is uncertainty in diagnosis after appropriate clinical and radiographic evaluations occurs. Further studies are required to clearly define the indications of this method.

  6. Imaging of the acute scrotum: is there a place for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography?

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    Moschouris, H.; Stamatiou, K.; Lampropoulou, E.; Kalikis, D.; Matsaidonis, D. [General Hospital of Pireas Tzaneio, Pireas (Greece). Dept. of Radiology and Urology

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: to present and evaluate the findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in typical cases of acute painful scrotum. Materials and methods: nineteen patients aged from 19 to 61 years old were included in the study. All patients underwent grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) of the scrotum, followed by imaging after i.v. administration of 2.4 mL of a second generation ultrasound contrast agent (microbubbles of sulphur hexafluoride). A dedicated, contrast-sensitive technique was used (Contrast Tissue Imaging - CnTI). The diagnosis was confirmed surgically in 6 cases while in the remaining 8 cases it was based on the combination of clinical, imaging and laboratory findings. Results: the final diagnosis was testicular torsion (n = 4), epididymitis (n = 2, one of the cases complicated by abscess), testicular abscess (n = 1), scrotal abscess (n = 1), testicular trauma of varying severity (n = 6). Five out of 19 cases were true negatives: neither clinical examination nor laboratory tests revealed any pathology. CEUS showed complete lack of enhancement in all cases of torsion, permitting a rapid and definitive diagnosis. In the cases of infection complicated by abscesses, CEUS delineated the lesions much better than the combination of B-mode/Color Doppler US. The severely traumatized testicles showed minimal, inhomogeneous or patchy enhancement, while cases of minor trauma showed no significant enhancement defects. Hematomas were presented as non-enhancing lesions. Conclusion: generally, there was no advantage over Doppler US as has been previously shown. However, CEUS can be used supplementary to traditional Doppler US in the investigation of blunt testicular trauma especially when there is uncertainty in diagnosis after appropriate clinical and radiographic evaluations occurs. Further studies are required to clearly define the indications of this method. (author)

  7. Value of three-section contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography in the detection of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ting-Yue; Sun, Hong-Guang; Li, Nian-Fen; Feng, Hao; Ding, Yong-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Xiang

    2017-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of three-section contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography (CETRUS) in prostate cancer (PCa) detection. A total of 169 consecutive patients with either PSA level ≥ 4 ng/ml or abnormal digital rectal examination findings were prospectively enrolled in this single center study. All patients underwent baseline transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and three-section CETRUS by one investigator blinded to any clinical data before TRUS-guided transperineal biopsy. The performances of baseline TRUS, single-section, and three-section CETRUS for PCa detection were compared. On a per-patient basis, the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for detecting PCa with three-section CETRUS was 92.3%, 69.2%, and 78.1%, respectively. In comparison with conventional (single-section) CETRUS (sensitivity 75.4%, specificity 72.1%, and accuracy 73.4%), three-section CETRUS performed significantly better (p section CETRUS was significantly higher than that of conventional CETRUS (26.7% versus 10.2%, p section CETRUS relative to conventional CETRUS, and this technique may find more PCa patients eligible for active surveillance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:304-309, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases and efficacy evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Wei Yang; Shanshan Yin; Jinyu Wu; Wei Wu; Kun Yan; Minhua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To retrospectively investigate the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with liver metastases and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of RFA assisted by CEUS.Methods:From May 2004 to September 2010,136 patients with 219 liver metastatic lesions received CEUS examination 1 h before RFA (CEUS group),and other 126 patients with 216 lesions without CEUS examination in the earlier period were served as a historical control group.The mean tumor size was 3.2 cm and the mean tumor number was 1.6 in the CEUS group,while 3.4 cm and 1.7 in the control group,respectively (P>0.05).The clinical characteristics,recurrence results and survival outcomes were compared between two groups.Results:In the CEUS group,two isoechoic tumors were not demonstrated on unenhanced ultrasonography (US),and 63 (47%) of 134 tumors examined with CEUS were 0.3 cm larger than with unenhanced US.Furthermore,in 18.4% of 136 patients,additional 1-3 tumors were detected on CEUS.The CEUS group showed higher early tumor necrosis and lower intrahepatic recurrence than the control group.The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate and the 3-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rate in the CEUS group were 50.1% and 38.3%,in contrast to 25.3% and 19.3% in the control group,respectively (P=0.002 and P<0.001).Conclusions:CEUS provides important information for RFA treatment in patients with liver metastases and better therapeutic effect could be attained.

  9. Color Doppler velocity profile and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in assessment of liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wu Lin; Xue-Jun Duan; Xiao-Yan Wang; En-Sheng Xue; Yi-Mi He; Shang-Da Gao; Li-Yun Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:This study was designed to probe the clinical value in assessing the degree of liver cirrhosis by using the arrival time of contrast agent in the right portal vein in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, as well as the velocity and lfow volume in the right portal vein using the color Doppler velocity proifle technique. METHODS:Twenty-eight patients with HBV post-hepatic cirrhosis were grouped into compensated (13 patients) and decompensated cirrhosis (15); 30 patients without hepatic cirrhosis served as controls. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient. All the patients with hepatic cirrhosis were pathologically conifrmed by percutaneous biopsy. SonoVue was injected to detect the arrival time in the right portal vein. The velocity and lfow volume in the right portal vein were measured. The value of each parameter was compared for correlation analysis. RESULTS: The arrival time in the right portal vein in the cirrhosis group was much longer than that in the control group (24.92±1.34 vs. 20.81±0.55 sec, respectively, P CONCLUSIONS:With the development of liver cirrhosis, the arrival time of contrast agent in the right portal vein is gradually prolonged, whereas the velocity and lfow volume in this vein decreases markedly, and there is a negative correlation between the results of the two methods.

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using cadence-contrast pulse sequencing technology for targeted biopsy of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Friedrich; Pallwein, Leo; Mitterberger, Michael; Pinggera, Germar M; Mikuz, Gregor; Horninger, Wolfgang; Frauscher, Ferdinand

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) using cadence-contrast pulse sequencing (CPS) technology, compared with systematic biopsy for detecting prostate cancer, as grey-scale US has low sensitivity and specificity for detecting prostate cancer. In all, 44 men with suspicious prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and CPS findings were assessed; all had CPS-targeted and systematic biopsy. Transrectal CPS images were taken with a low mechanical index (0.14). A microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco International BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) was administered as a bolus, with a maximum dose of 4.8 mL. CPS was used to assess prostatic vascularity. Areas with a rapid and increased contrast enhancement within the peripheral zone were defined as suspicious for prostate cancer. Up to five CPS targeted biopsies were taken and subsequently a 10-core systematic biopsy was taken. Cancer detection rates for the two techniques were compared. Overall, cancer was detected in 35 of 44 patients (80%), with a mean PSA level of 3.8 ng/mL. Lesions suspicious on CPS showed cancer in 35 of 44 patients (80%) and systematic biopsy detected cancer in 15 of 44 patients (34%). CPS-targeted cores were positive in 105 of 220 cores (47.7%) and in 41 of 440 systematic biopsy cores (9.3%) (P biopsy was 6.7 and for CPS-targeted biopsy 6.8 (P > 0.05). The sensitivity of CPS for detecting cancer was 100% (confidence interval, 95%). However, limitations in the series included that only CPS-positive cases were investigated, and CPS-targeted biopsy should be evaluated in a more extended biopsy scheme. Contrast-enhanced US using CPS enables excellent visualization of the microvasculature associated with prostate cancer, and can improve the detection of prostate cancer compared with systematic biopsy.

  11. Ultrasonido con contraste de masas hepáticas Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in hepatic masses

    OpenAIRE

    Hojun Yu; Korosh Khalili; Hyun-Jung Jang; Tae Kyoung Kim; Mostafa Atri

    2009-01-01

    El ultrasonido (US) con contraste constituye una poderosa herramienta diagnóstica en la caracterización de masas hepáticas. Las modernas técnicas de ultrasonido con contraste presentan alta sensibilidad con dosis bajas de contraste, lo que juntamente con la técnica de supresión de ecos resulta en imágenes de muy alta resolución temporal y espacial, propiciando el resurgimiento de la ultrasonografía en la era de la tomografía computada (TC) y de la resonancia magnética (RM). El agente de contr...

  12. Assessment of postoperative perfusion with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangzhu; Yu, Zexing; Guo, Ruijun; Yin, Hang; Hu, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to evaluate renal perfusion after kidney transplantation and investigate the clinical significance of CEUS in monitoring postoperative renal perfusion. Thirty-five patients who underwent kidney transplantations were included in this study and divided into two groups-normal and abnormal-based on their serum creatinine (SCr) levels. Conventional ultrasound and CEUS were used to monitor renal perfusion after kidney transplantation. The differences in the results between the two groups were then compared. Color doppler ultrasonography showed that there were significant differences in the resistance index (RI) and the pulsatility index (PI) of the interlobar artery between the groups. Furthermore, CEUS indicated a significant difference between the two groups regarding the slope rate of the cortical ascending curve (A1), the medullary ascending curve (A2), and the derived peak intensity (DPI1). CEUS precisely showed the characteristics of microcirculation in renal parenchyma after kidney transplantation. It also detected changes in the microcirculation, which was a new method of evaluating tissue perfusion in transplanted kidneys.

  13. Ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT findings of tularemia in the neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Serap; Ekinci, Afra; Demiraslan, Hayati; Kılıç, Ayşegül Ulu; Mavili, Ertuğrul; Öztürk, Mustafa; İmamoğlu, Hakan; Doğanay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) findings of tularemia in the neck. METHODS US and CECT findings of 58 patients with serologically proven tularemia were retrospectively evaluated. Forty-eight patients underwent US and 42 patients underwent CECT. Lymph node characteristics and parotid preauricular region involvement were analyzed using US and CECT. In addition, involvement of larynx, oropharynx, and retropharynx; presence of periorbital edema; and neck abscess formation were evaluated using CECT. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results of enlarged lymph nodes were analyzed in 29 patients. RESULTS Hypoechoic pattern, round shape, absence of hilum, and cystic necrosis were seen in most of the lymph nodes especially at level 2 and 3 on US and CECT. Matting was more commonly observed than irregular nodal border on US and CECT. Parotid preauricular region involvement was seen in 20.8% of patients on US. Oropharyngeal, retropharyngeal, laryngeal and parotid preauricular region involvement and periorbital edema were seen in 52.4%, 19.1%, 4.8%, 31%, and 9.5% of tularemia patients, respectively. Neck abscess was found in 59.5% of patients on CECT. Suppurative inflammation was the most common finding of FNAC. CONCLUSION Tularemia should be considered in the presence of level 2 and 3 lymph nodes with cystic necrosis, matting, absence of calcification, oropharyngeal and retropharyngeal region involvement, and neck abscess, particularly in endemic areas. PMID:27498683

  14. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography for assessment of lymph node metastases in pancreatobiliary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Takeshi; Kitano, Masayuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Kamata, Ken; Imai, Hajime; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Nisida, Naoshi; Harwani, Yogesh; Murakami, Takamichi; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CH-EUS) for lymph node metastasis in pancreatobiliary carcinoma. METHODS: All patients suspected of pancreatobiliary carcinoma with visible lymph nodes after standard EUS between June, 2009 and January, 2012 were enrolled. In the primary analysis, patients with successful EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) were included. The lymph nodes were assessed by several standard EUS variables (short and long axis lengths, shape, edge characteristic and echogenicity), color Doppler EUS variable [central intranodal blood vessel (CIV) presence] and CH-EUS variable (heterogeneous/homogeneous enhancement patterns). The diagnostic accuracy relative to EUS-FNA was calculated. In the second analysis, N-stage diagnostic accuracy of CH-EUS was compared with EUS-FNA in patients who underwent surgical resection. RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients (143 lymph nodes) fulfilled the criteria. The short axis cut-off ≥ 13 mm predicted malignancy with a sensitivity and specificity of 72% and 85%, respectively. These values were 72% and 63% for the long axis cut-off ≥ 20 mm, 62% and 75% for the round shape variable, 81% and 30% for the sharp edge variable, 66% and 61% for the hypoechogenicity variable, 70% and 72% for the CIV-absent variable, and 83% and 91% for the heterogeneous CH-EUS-enhancement variable, respectively. CH-EUS was more accurate than standard and color Doppler EUS, except the short axis cut-off. Notably, three patients excluded because of EUS-FNA failure were correctly N-staged by CH-EUS. CONCLUSION: CH-EUS complements standard and color Doppler EUS and EUS-FNA for assessment of lymph node metastases. PMID:27022220

  15. The value and limitations of contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography for the detection of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Han-Xue, E-mail: zhaohx861@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Dong-Jiao-Min-Xiang, Dong Cheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Xia, Chun-Xia, E-mail: star9901482@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Dong-Jiao-Min-Xiang, Dong Cheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Yin, Hong-Xia, E-mail: hongxia_yin79@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Dong-Jiao-Min-Xiang, Dong Cheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Guo, Ning, E-mail: ningguo99@sina.com.cn [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Dong-Jiao-Min-Xiang, Dong Cheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhu, Qiang, E-mail: qzhutrhos@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Dong-Jiao-Min-Xiang, Dong Cheng District, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the role of contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography (CE-TRUS) for detecting prostate carcinoma. Methods: Sixty-five patients with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) were assessed using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and CE-TRUS. In all the patients, CE-TRUS was performed with intravenous injection of contrast agent (SonoVue, 2.4 ml) before biopsy. The cancer detection rates of the two techniques were compared. False-positive and false-negative findings related to CE-TRUS were analyzed in comparison to the pathological results of biopsy or radical prostatectomy. The targeted biopsy to abnormal CE-TRUS areas was also compared to systematic biopsy. Results: Prostate cancer was detected in 29 of the 65 patients. CE-TRUS showed rapid focal enhancement or asymmetric vessels of peripheral zones in 28 patients; 23 of them had prostate cancer. CE-TRUS had 79.3% sensitivity, compared to 65.5% of TRUS (P < 0.05). There were five false-positive and six false-negative findings from CE-TRUS. Benign prostate hyperplasia, and acute and chronic prostatitis were important causes related to the false-positive results of CE-TRUS. Prostate cancer originating from the transition zone or peripheral zone with lower PSA levels, small-size foci, and moderately or well-differentiated tumor was missed by CE-TRUS. The cancer detection rate of targeted biopsy (75%, 33/44 cores) was significantly higher than one of systematic biopsy (48.2%, 162/336) in those 28 cases (P < 0.05). In addition, no significant correlation was found between the cancer detection rate with CE-TRUS and serum PSA levels. Conclusion: CE-TRUS may improve the detection rate of prostate cancer through targeted biopsy of contrast-enhanced abnormalities. Our findings indicate that systematic biopsies should not be eliminated on the basis of false-positive and false-negative findings related to CE-TRUS.

  16. Antiangiogenic effects of pazopanib in xenograft hepatocellular carcinoma models: evaluation by quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wei-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiangiogenesis is a promising therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, but the effects are difficult to be evaluated. Pazopanib (GW786034B is a pan-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, the antitumor effects or antiangiogenic effects haven't been investigated in HCC. Methods In vitro direct effects of pazopanib on human HCC cell lines and endothelial cells were evaluated. In vivo antitumor effects were evaluated in three xenograft nude mice models. In the subcutaneous HCCLM3 model, intratumoral blood perfusion was detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS, and serial quantitative parameters were profiled from the time-intensity curves of ultrasonograms. Results In vitro proliferation of various HCC cell lines were not inhibited by pazopanib. Pazopanib inhibited migration and invasion and induced apoptosis significantly in two HCC cell lines, HCCLM3 and PLC/PRF/5. Proliferation, migration, and tubule formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were inhibited by pazopanib in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo tumor growth was significantly inhibited by pazopanib in HCCLM3, HepG2, and PLC/PRF/5 xenograft models. Various intratumoral perfusion parameters changed over time, and the signal intensity was significantly impaired in the treated tumors before the treatment efficacy on tumor size could be observed. Mean transit time of the contrast media in hotspot areas of the tumors was reversely correlated with intratumoral microvessel density. Conclusions Antitumor effects of pazopanib in HCC xenografts may owe to its antiangiogenic effects, and the in vivo antiangiogenic effects could be evaluated by quantitative CEUS.

  17. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography parameters in neural network diagnosis of liver tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Costin Teodor Streba; Mihaela Ionescu; Dan Ionut Gheonea; Larisa Sandulescu; Tudorel Ciurea; Adrian Saftoiu; Cristin Constantin Vere

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the role of time-intensity curve (TIC) analysis parameters in a complex system of neural networks designed to classify liver tumors.METHODS:We prospectively included 112 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n =41),hypervascular (n =20) and hypovascular (n =12) liver metastases,hepatic hemangiomas (n =16) or focal fatty changes (n =23) who underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology,Craiova,Romania.We recorded full length movies of all contrast uptake phases and post-processed them offline by selecting two areas of interest (one for the tumor and one for the healthy surrounding parenchyma) and consecutive TIC analysis.The difference in maximum intensities,the time to reaching them and the aspect of the late/portal phase,as quantified by the neural network and a ratio between median intensities of the central and peripheral areas were analyzed by a feed forward back propagation multi-layer neural network which was trained to classify data into five distinct classes,corresponding to each type of liver lesion.RESULTS:The neural network had 94.45% training accuracy (95% CI:89.31%-97.21%) and 87.12% testing accuracy (95% CI:86.83%-93.17%).The automatic classification process registered 93.2% sensitivity,89.7% specificity,94.42% positive predictive value and 87.57% negative predictive value.The artificial neural networks (ANN) incorrectly classified as hemangyomas three HCC cases and two hypervascular metastases,while in turn misclassifying four liver hemangyomas as HCC (one case) and hypervascular metastases (three cases).Comparatively,human interpretation of TICs showed 94.1% sensitivity,90.7% specificity,95.11% positive predictive value and 88.89% negative predictive value.The accuracy and specificity of the ANN diagnosis system was similar to that of human interpretation of the TICs (P =0.225 and P =0.451,respectively).Hepatocellular carcinoma cases showed

  18. A novel screening test for detecting graft thrombosis after pancreatic transplantation using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with sonazoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T; Kenmochi, T; Nishikawa, T; Maruyama, M; Kusaka, M; Sasaki, H; Asano, T; Matsubara, H; Hoshinaga, K

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic graft thrombosis is the primary cause of nonimmunologic graft loss, with an incidence ranging from 5% to 15%. Therefore, developing a screening test to detect graft thrombosis after pancreatic transplantation is important. We created a screening test to assess graft thrombosis after pancreatic transplantation using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid in addition to Doppler ultrasonography. A total of seven patients were examined using CEUS after undergoing pancreatic transplantation. All patients were observed to have a clear blood flow from the horizontal region to the peripheral region of the splenic vein in the pancreatic graft, and only one of the seven patients exhibited a blood flow in the horizontal portion of the splenic vein on Doppler ultrasonography performed immediately after pancreatic transplantation. Results from CEUS with Sonazoid showed the blood flow in the splenic vein and parenchyma of the pancreatic graft in detail, despite the slow and lateral blood flow in the splenic vein of the pancreatic graft immediately after transplantation.

  19. Can contrast-enhanced ultrasonography replace multidetector-computed tomography in the detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars P.S.; Rosenkilde, Mona; Christensen, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    consecutive patients referred to the Department of Colorectal Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital with primary or local recurrence of CRC. The patients underwent liver ultrasonography (US), CEUS, MDCT and intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS). Fine-needle biopsy was performed on all suspicious lesions......PURPOSE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and 4-slice multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Candidates for this prospective study were 461....... The examinations were interpreted blindly and the combination of US, CEUS, biphasic MDCT, IOUS, follow up and biopsy was the gold standard. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty-five patients were included. All patients had undergone preoperative US, CEUS and MDCT and 65.5% had received IOUS. The gold standard found...

  20. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jing-Jing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Zhe; Li, Na; Song, Chen; Li, Man

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. The scientific literature databases PubMed, Cochrane Library and CNKI were comprehensively searched for studies relevant to the use of CEUS technique for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian cancer. Pooled summary statistics for specificity (Spe), sensitivity (Sen), positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR-), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and their 95%CIs were calculated. Software for statistical analysis included STATA version 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) and Meta-Disc version 1.4 (Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain). Following a stringent selection process, seven high quality clinical trials were found suitable for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The 7 studies contained a combined total of 375 ovarian cancer patients (198 malignant and 177 benign). Statistical analysis revealed that CEUS was associated with the following performance measures in differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors: pooled Sen was 0.96 (95%CI = 0.92∼0.98); the summary Spe was 0.91 (95%CI = 0.86∼0.94); the pooled LR+ was 10.63 (95%CI = 6.59∼17.17); the pooled LR- was 0.04 (95%CI = 0.02∼0.09); and the pooled DOR was 241.04 (95% CI = 92.61∼627.37). The area under the SROC curve was 0.98 (95% CI = 0.20∼1.00). Lastly, publication bias was not detected (t = -0.52, P = 0.626) in the meta-analysis. Our results revealed the high clinical value of CEUS in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Further, CEUS may also prove to be useful in differential diagnosis at early stages of this disease.

  1. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography in the diagnosis of IgG4-negative autoimmune pancreatitis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-Min; Zou, Duo-Wu; Wang, Yin; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Yang, Hua; Jin, Zhen-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare disorder frequently manifesting as a mass-like lesion that may lead to obstructive jaundice. We report here a case of pancreatic obstruction with painless jaundice, and elevation of CA 19-9 without elevation of serum IgG4. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CE US) revealed the possibility of AIP, and the final pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:22586534

  2. Contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography for the detection of diffuse prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Liao, X H; Lu, L; Wang, L; Ma, Y; Qin, H Z; Yan, X; Guo, P

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography (CE-TRUS) versus baseline TRUS (combination of grey-scale and colour Doppler imaging) for diffuse prostate cancer. Forty-six patients without an obvious focal mass on baseline TRUS (grey-scale and colour Doppler), underwent additional CE-TRUS and TRUS-guided biopsy due to elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA ≥4 ng/ml) and/or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE). In all patients, CE-TRUS was performed with intravenous injection of a contrast agent (sulphur hexafluoride microbubble; SonoVue, 2.4 ml) before biopsy. TRUS-guided biopsy targeted suspicious areas detected on CE-TRUS imaging or sampled the outer gland of the normal prostate. The final diagnosis was based on results of the TRUS-guided biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of baseline TRUS and CE-TRUS for diffuse prostatic lesions was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Diffuse prostate cancer was present in 32 (69.5%) patients and absent in 14 (30.5%) patients. Nineteen patients had diffuse prostate cancer that was not detected by baseline TRUS, whereas 15 cases were identified using CE-TRUS. Conversely, five patients had benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) that was diagnosed as cancer by CE-TRUS, and two of these patients were diagnosed with BPH by baseline TRUS. The combined sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 87.5%, 64.2%, and 80.4%, respectively, for CE-TRUS, and 40.6%, 78.5%, and 52.1%, respectively, for baseline TRUS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) values for the diagnostic accuracy of baseline CE-TRUS versus TRUS for diffuse prostate cancer differed significantly at 0.904 and 0.667, respectively (Z=4.098, pprostate cancer than baseline TRUS. CE-TRUS may improve cancer detection over baseline TRUS imaging for the diagnosis of diffuse prostate cancer in patients with an elevated PSA level. CE-TRUS detects diffuse prostate cancer without an obvious focal mass

  3. Enhanced ultrasonography using a nano/microbubble contrast agent for islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, N; Sax, N; Yoshimatsu, G; Tsuchiya, H; Kato, S; Aoki, T; Ishida, M; Katayose, Y; Egawa, S; Kodama, T; Unno, M

    2015-06-01

    Recent basic and clinical studies have assessed the use of highly sensitive imaging modalities for visualizing transplanted islets. We investigated the utility of enhanced ultrasonography, combined with fluorescent acoustic liposome nano/microbubbles (FALs), for evaluating angiogenesis and the endocrine function of transplanted islets. BALB/c mice were classified into three groups: Diabetic mice that underwent syngeneic islet transplantation into the subrenal capsule and achieved normoglycemia (Tx group); those that failed to achieve normoglycemia (Tx-DM group); and those not receiving any treatment (DM group). Mice were examined by FAL-enhanced high frequency ultrasonography. The echogenicity of the islets increased rapidly within the first minute after injection of FALs and remained at a higher level in the Tx group, while small increases were observed in the other two groups. In histological assessments, fluorescently stained erythrocytes could be seen in and around the transplanted islets, indicating that the transplanted islets were enhanced by infusion of FALs via vessel networks between the engrafted islets and tissue. Furthermore, the echogenicity correlated significantly with endocrine parameters, including blood glucose (BG), serum insulin, and the BG change in the glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, the echogenicity of the islets under FAS-enhanced ultrasonosonography correlated with the endocrine status of transplanted islets.

  4. Clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the characterization of focal liver lesions:a prospective multicenter trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ping Wang; Yan Wang; Jian-Jun Yuan; Ying Wu; Yan Luo; Rui Li; Xiao-Dong Zhou; Jun Zhang; Chao-Wen Qian; Xu-Yan Tan; Qing-Hua Xu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly accepted in clinical settings for diagnostic imaging of focal liver lesions (FLLs). This study aimed to assess the efifcacy of CEUS in the characterization of FLLs in comparison with ifnal diagnosis based on gold standard assessment. METHODS: The study was approved by the local ethics committee and participating patients provided written informed consent. A total of 148 patients with 164 FLLs were studied. Unenhanced ultrasonography (US) and CEUS were performed using fundamental and harmonic imaging, respectively. Contrast enhancement was assessed during the arterial, portal and late vascular phases after intravenous administration of contrast (SonoVue®, Bracco, Italy). Sensitivity, speciifcity and diagnostic accuracy of US and CEUS were compared in identifying the lesion as benign, malignant or indeterminate and its actual tumor type. Final diagnosis was established by biopsy (129/164), MR imaging (11/164) or medical history (24/164). RESULTS: When compared to the gold standard, the number of indeterminate diagnoses was reduced from 56.7% (93/164) as assessed by fundamental imaging to 6.1% (10/164) after SonoVue® enhanced US examination. Sensitivity and speciifcity improved from 49% and 25%at baseline US to 93% and 75% with CEUS, respectively (P<0.01). Diagnostic accuracy of CEUS was 88% in contrast to 41% of baseline US. CONCLUSION: SonoVue® enhanced US improves the characterization of FLLs and may limit the need for further investigations.

  5. Characterization of focal hepatic lesions with contrast-enhanced C-cube gray scale ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ping Wang; Hong Ding; Qing Qi; Feng Mao; Zhi-Zhang Xu; Masatoshi Kudo

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To characterize enhancement patterns of focal hepatic lesions using C-cube gray scale sonography with a microbubble contrast agent and to evaluate its usefulness in differential diagnosis of hepatic lesions.METHODS: Fifty-four patients with 58 focal hepatic lesions were examined with Levovist-enhanced C-cube gray scale sonography. The final diagnosis of hepatic lesions was 29primary liver cancers, 4 metastases, 8 hemangiomas, 12focal nodular hyperplasias, 2 inflammatory pseudotumors of the liver and 3 angiomyolipomas. The initiation time of enhancement in various lesions and enhancement duration after administration of contrast agent were compared.Vascular findings in lesions were classified as peripheral enhancement, homogenous enhancement, mosaic enhancement and no enhancement depending on microbubble signals in the lesion relative to the liver parenchyma.RESULTS: The initiation time of enhancement in hemangioma (48±12 s) was significantly later compared to other lesions (P<0.05). The enhancement duration of malignancies (69±33 s in primary liver cancer, 61±23 s in metastasis) was significantly shorter compared to benign lesions (P<0.05).Intranodular enhancement appearing at arterial phase and decreasing at portal venous phase was considered characteristic for malignancy. Intranodular enhancement did not appear earlier than the liver parenchyma, and peripheral enhancement pattern was regarded as positive findings for hemangioma. Intranodular enhancement appeared in the arterial phase, and homogenous enhancement pattern sustained in the whole portal venous phase were regarded as positive findings for focal nodular hyperplasia. No microbubble signals appeared in two inflammatory pseudotumors of the liver.CONCLUSION: C-cube gray scale sonography can demonstrate dynamic intranodular enhancement in various focal hepatic lesions. The information provided by this methodology may be useful in the differential diagnosis of hepatic lesions.

  6. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the detection and characterization of prostate cancer: Correlation with microvessel density and Gleason score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J. [Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen, Y., E-mail: joychen_1266@163.com [Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhu, Y.; Yao, X.; Qi, J. [Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Aim: To determine whether there is a correlation between the peak intensity of the lesion at contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and the microvessel density (MVD) and Gleason score in biopsy specimens of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using cadence-contrast pulse sequence (CPS) technology was performed in 147 patients with suspected prostate cancer before biopsy. An auto-tracking contrast quantification (ACQ) software was used to analyse the peak intensity (PI) of the lesion. The Gleason score and MVD immunoreactivity were determined in the prostate biopsy specimens. Ultrasound findings were correlated with biopsy findings. Results: Prostate cancer was detected in 73 of 147 patients. The PI values of prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those of non-malignant patients [9.81 (4.23) versus 5.69 (3.19) dB; p < 0.01]. The mean (SD) PIs of prostate cancer lesions with a Gleason score of 6-9 were 7.08 (3.80), 8.65 (4.08), 9.76 (3.75), and 9.85 (4.13) dB, respectively. The PI value increased significantly with a higher Gleason score (p < 0.01). The mean (SD) MVDs observed in prostate cancer lesions with a Gleason score of 6-9 were 52.50 (10.54), 56.85 (10.31), 59.91 (9.29), and 66.04 (11.82), respectively. There was a positive correlation between PI and MVD in prostate cancer, with a correlation coefficient of 0.617. No correlation was found between PI value and age, prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) level (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The PI obtained by CPS harmonic ultrasonography appears to be of value as an indicator of MVD and increases with a higher Gleason score. CPS harmonic ultrasonography could be promising as a useful imaging technique in the detection and characterization of prostate cancer.

  7. EFFECT OF SEDATION ON CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE SPLEEN IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federica; Fina, Caroline; Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen enables the dynamic assessment of the perfusion of this organ, however, both subjective and quantitative evaluation can be strongly influenced by sedative agent administration. The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to test effects of two sedative agents on splenic perfusion during contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen in a sample of healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen was repeated in six healthy Beagles following a cross-over study design comparing three protocols: awake, butorphanol 0.2 mg/Kg intramuscular (IM), and dexmedetomidine 500 μg/m(2) IM. After intravenous injection of a phospholipid stabilized sulfur hexafluoride microbubble solution (SonoVue®, Bracco Imaging, Milano, Italy), the enhancement intensity and perfusion pattern of the splenic parenchyma were assessed and perfusion parameters were calculated. Normal spleen was slightly heterogeneous in the early phase, but the parenchyma was homogeneous at a later phase. Sedation with butorphanol did not modify perfusion of the spleen. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced splenic enhancement, providing diffuse parenchymal hypoechogenicity during the entire examination. Measured parameters were significantly modified, with increased arrival time (AT; (spleen in the early venous phase was determined to be a normal finding.

  8. Evaluation of Feline Renal Perfusion with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography and Scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Bosmans, Tim; Dobbeleir, André; Duchateau, Luc; Hesta, Myriam; Lybaert, Lien; Peremans, Kathelijne; Vandermeulen, Eva; Saunders, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an emerging technique to evaluate tissue perfusion. Promising results have been obtained in the evaluation of renal perfusion in health and disease, both in human and veterinary medicine. Renal scintigraphy using 99mTc-Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) is another non-invasive technique that can be used to evaluate renal perfusion. However, no data are available on the ability of CEUS or 99mTc- MAG3 scintigraphy to detect small changes in renal perfusion in cats. Therefore, both techniques were applied in a normal feline population to evaluate detection possibilities of perfusion changes by angiotensin II (AT II). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound using a bolus injection of commercially available contrast agent and renal scintigraphy using 99mTc-MAG3 were performed in 11 healthy cats after infusion of 0,9% NaCl (control) and AT II. Angiotensin II induced changes were noticed on several CEUS parameters. Mean peak enhancement, wash-in perfusion index and wash-out rate for the entire kidney decreased significantly after AT II infusion. Moreover, a tendency towards a lower wash-in area-under-the curve was present. Renal scintigraphy could not detect perfusion changes induced by AT II. This study shows that CEUS is able to detect changes in feline renal perfusion induced by AT II infusion. PMID:27736928

  9. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography versus MR angiography in aortocaval fistula: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Mona; Platon, Alexandra; Khabiri, Ebrahim; Becker, Christoph; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-06-01

    Aortocaval fistula (ACF) is a rare, life threatening complication of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Time to diagnosis is crucial as preoperative diagnosis and early surgical intervention significantly improve the outcome. The clinical spectrum being varied, the challenge of prompt and reliable diagnosis rests on emergency radiology. While the gold standard for detecting ACF today is CT angiography (CTA), frequently complicating renal insufficiency discourages the use of iodinated contrast making MR angiography (MRA) a useful alternative. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) provides a promising new diagnostic option allowing rapid, non invasive and bedside diagnosis, especially in hemodynamically unstable patients. We present a case of prompt diagnosis of ACF by CEUS in comparison to modern MRA, thus establishing the new potential role of CEUS.

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drudi, F M; Di Candio, G; Di Leo, N; Malpassini, F; Gnecchi, M; Cantisani, V; Iori, F; Liberatore, M

    2013-02-01

    The main objective was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract malignancies by comparing with multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) and magnetic resonance urography (MRU). Secondary objectives were to compare the tumor size measured with CEUS, MDCTU and MRU and to assess the usefulness of CEUS in distinguishing high-grade tumors from low-grade ones. In connection with this prospective study carried out from January 2009 to September 2011, 18 patients underwent MDCTU or MRU, grayscale ultrasonography (US), color Doppler ultrasonography and CEUS followed by surgery and histological examination of the specimen. Quantitative analysis was performed using perfusion software. Time intensity curves were extracted and the following parameters were considered: wash-in time, time-to-peak, maximum signal intensity and wash-out time. Grayscale US identified 15/18 lesions; color Doppler showed no flow signal in 8 lesions, low color signal in 9 lesions and an intense color signal in 1 lesion; CEUS identified 17/18 lesions with the undetected lesion being the smallest one (1.2 cm) located in the upper pelvicalyceal system. Semi-quantitative analysis produced different data for high-grade and low-grade urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). All detected upper urinary tract masses were UCCs. MRU, MDCTU and grayscale US overestimated the tumor size, while CEUS was the most accurate. CEUS is useful for evaluating upper urinary tract masses as this method permits differentiation between high-grade and low-grade tumors as well as distinction of the tumor from the adjacent structures and accurate mass measurements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the bowel wall can predict disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanini, Laura, E-mail: laura.romanini@libero.it [Department of Radiology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Passamonti, Matteo, E-mail: matteopassamonti@gmail.com [Department of Radiology-AO Provincia di Lodi, Via Fissiraga, 15, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Navarria, Mario, E-mail: navarria.mario@tiscali.it [Department of Radiology-ASL Vallecamonica-Sebino, Via Manzoni 142, 25040 Esine, BS (Italy); Lanzarotto, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.lanzarotto@spedalicivili.brescia.it [Department of Gastroenterology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Villanacci, Vincenzo, E-mail: villanac@alice.it [Department of Pathology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Grazioli, Luigi, E-mail: radiologia1@spedalicivili.brescia.it [Department of Radiology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.calliada@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Pavia, Viale Camillo Golgi 19, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Maroldi, Roberto, E-mail: rmaroldi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of quantitative analysis of bowel wall enhancement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) by comparing the results with vascular density in a biopsy sample from the same area of the intestinal tract, and to determine the usefulness of this analysis for the prediction of disease activity. Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institute's ethics committee and all patients gave written informed consent. We enrolled 33 consecutive adult patients undergoing colonoscopy and biopsy for IBD. All patients underwent CEUS and the results were quantitatively analyzed. Vessel count per high-power field on biopsy specimens was compared with colonoscopy, baseline ultrasonography, and CEUS findings, and with analysis of peak intensity, time to peak, regional blood volume, mean transit time, and regional blood flow. Results in patients with high and low vascular density were compared using Fisher's test, t-test, Pearson's correlation test, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Cutoff values were determined using ROC analysis, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: High vascular density (>265 vessels per field) on histological examination was significantly correlated with active disease on colonoscopy, baseline ultrasonography, and CEUS (p < .0001). Quantitative analysis showed a higher enhancement peak, a shorter time to peak enhancement, a higher regional blood flow and regional blood volume in patients with high vascular density than in those with low vascular density. Cutoff values to distinguish between active and inactive disease were identified for peak enhancement (>40.5%), and regional blood flow (>54.8 ml/min). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of CEUS data correlates with disease activity as determined by vascular density. Quantitative parameters of CEUS can be used to predict active disease with high sensitivity and

  12. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Enterography and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Crohn’s Disease: An Observational Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Rune; Peters, David A.; Nielsen, Agnete H.; Hovgaard, Valeriya P.; Glerup, Henning; Krogh, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Purpose e Cross-sectional imaging methods are important for objective evaluationof small intestinal inflammationinCrohn’sdisease(CD).The primary aim was to compare relative parameters of intestinal perfusion between contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance enterography (DCE-MRE) in CD. Furthermore, we aimed at testing the repeatability of regions of interest (ROIs) for CEUS. Methods This prospective study included 25 patients: 12 females (age: 37, range: 19–66) with moderate to severe CD and a bowel wall thickness>3mm evaluated with DCE-MRE and CEUS. CEUS bolus injection was performed twice for repeatability and analyzed in VueBox®. Correlations between modalities were described with Spearman’s rho, limits of agreement(LoA) and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC). ROIrepeatability for CEUS was assessed. Results s The correlation between modalities was good and very good for bowel wall thickness (ICC=0.71, P<0.001) and length of the inflamed segment (ICC=0.89, P<0.001). Moderate-weak correlations were found for the time-intensity curve parameters: peak intensity (r=0.59, P=0.006), maximum wash-in-rate (r=0.62, P=0.004), and wash-in perfusion index (r=0.47, P=0.036). Best CEUS repeatability for peak enhancement was a mean difference of 0.73 dB (95% CI: 0.17 to 1.28, P=0.01) and 95% LoA from −3.8 to 5.3 dB. Good quality of curve fit improved LoA to −2.3 to 2.8 dB. Conclusion The relative perfusion of small intestinal CD assessed with DCE-MRE and CEUS shows only a moderate correlation. Applying strict criteria for ROIs is important and allows for good CEUS repeatability PMID:28286879

  13. Detection of parenchymal abnormalities in experimentally induced acute pyelonephritis in rabbits using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seung Kwon; Seo, Jin Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Laboratory Animal Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We evaluated the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) using the rabbit kidney model and compared it with CT and MRI. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. In a total of 20 New Zealand White rabbits, APN was induced experimentally. CEUS, CT, and MRI were performed on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. After imaging studies, the subjects were sacrificed and the pathological diagnosis of APN was confirmed in each animal by a pathologist. Imaging studies were obtained in eight animals, including eight CEUS, four computed tomography (CT), and four magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. CEUS depicted diffuse renal enlargement (7), diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement (6), and focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement (6). These findings were well correlated with the CT and MRI findings in five cases in which these studies were available. CT and MRI showed diffuse renal enlargement, diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement, focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement, focal contour bulging, and the finding of perinephric spread of infection. In a rabbit model, CEUS could depict the parenchymal lesions of APN similar to CT or MRI; however, it was limited in depicting the perinephric extension of inflammation.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma treated with transarterial chemoembolization: Evaluation with parametric contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschouris, Hippocrates; Malagari, Katerina; Marinis, Athanasios; Kornezos, Ioannis; Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Nikas, Georgios; Papadaki, Marina Georgiou; Gkoutzios, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using a simplified protocol of parametric contrast-enhanced ultrasound (pCEUS). METHODS: Eighteen patients with HCC (18 target tumors, diameter: 2.8-12 cm) were evaluated before, and 20 d after TACE. The distribution and morphology of TACE-induced necrosis in these tumors precluded accurate evaluation by visual assessment or by simple measurements. For pCEUS, a 4.8 mL bolus of SonoVue (Bracco, Milan, Italy) was intravenously administered and analysis of tumor perfusion during the initial phase of enhancement (0-30 s post injection) was performed with dedicated software (Qontrast, Bracco, Milan, Italy). Time-intensity curves were plotted and three parameters were calculated: peak intensity (PI, in percentage %), time to peak (TTP in seconds, s) and area under the curve during wash-in (AUC-WI, in arbitrary units, a.u). Magnetic resonance imaging was the standard imaging modality for post-treatment evaluation. Changes in tumor size were recorded and response was assessed according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors criteria. RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in PI and AUC-WI was observed in the treated tumors post TACE; PIpre: 21.5% ± 8.7% (mean ± SD), PIpost: 12.7% ± 6.7%, P < 0.001, AUC-WI pre: 17493 ± 9563 a.u, AUC-WI post: 9585 ± 5494 a.u, P < 0.001. A slight increase in TTP was noted post TACE, but this was not statistically significant; TTP pre: 13.1 ± 4.3 s, TTP post: 13.6 ± 4.2 s , P = 0.058). The changes in the aforementioned parameters were not accompanied by significant tumor shrinkage. CONCLUSION: pCEUS, even when limited to the study of the arterial phase of tumoral enhancement, can detect and quantify early perfusional changes in HCC post TACE. PMID:22937217

  15. Double contrast-enhanced two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography for evaluation of gastric lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Shi; Xiu-Hua Yu; Xin-Zhang Guo; Yuan Guo; Hong Zhang; Bin Qian; Zhang-Rui Wei

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the value of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) double contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCUS) imaging for evaluation of gastric lesions.METHODS:2D and 3D DCUS imaging with both oral and intravenous administrations of contrast agents was used to assess gastroscopiclly-confirmed gastric lesions in 46 patients with benign and malignant diseases.Initially,liquid-based ultrasound contrast agent (Xinzhang(R)) was given orally at dose of 500-600 mL for conventional ultrasound examination of the gastric lesions,and then a microbubble-based contrast agent (SonoVue) was injected intravenously at dose of 1.2-2.4 mL in bolus fashion to assess the perfusion pattern of the lesions using contrast imaging modes.The parameters derived from time-intensity curves including the arrival time (AT),time to peak (TTP),peak intensity (PI) and enhanced intensity (EI) were measured on the 2D DCUS imaging.3D DCUS of the lesions was acquired to demonstrate the value of this imaging mode.RESULTS:There were 22 cases with benign lesions including chronic gastritis (n =5),gastric ulcer (n =9),gastric polyps (n =3),gastric stromal tumors (n =5),and 24 cases with malignant lesions including gastric cancer (n =20),gastric cardia carcinoma (n =3) and post-operative recurrent gastric cancer (n =1) in the study.The oral contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) imaging of the stomach clearly demonstrated the anatomy of the stomach and morphologic features of gastric lesions.With optimal scanning window and imaging display under oral CEUS,intravenous CEUS clearly showed the perfusion of gastric lesions with various characteristic manifestations.Both 2D and 3D DCUS images clearly demonstrated normal gastric wall as a three-layer structure,from the inside out,hyperechoic mucosa,hypoechoic muscularis and hyperechoic serosa,respectively.There were statistical significant differences of AT (8.68 ± 2.06 vs 10.43 ± 2.75,P =0.017),PI (34.64 ± 6.63 vs 29.58 ± 8.22,P =0

  16. The Influence of Oxytocin on the Blood Perfusion of Uterine Fibroids: Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This CEUS study demonstrated that the use of parenteral oxytocin can significantly reduce the blood perfusion of the uterine fibroids, which may help to enhance the therapeutic efficacy for high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids.

  17. Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the characterization of ovarian tumors().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sconfienza, L M; Perrone, N; Delnevo, A; Lacelli, F; Murolo, C; Gandolfo, N; Serafini, G

    2010-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: La ricchezza della componente vascolare dei tumori ginecologici influenza le caratteristiche dell'imaging diretto, utilizzando metodiche che evidenziano la componente macrovascolare delle lesioni (color e power Doppler), e di quello indiretto, mediante somministrazione di mezzi di contrasto (MdC) per lo studio del microcircolo e della perfusione interstiziale. Lo scopo di questo lavoro è di valutare l'aggiunta di informazioni diagnostiche fornite dalla valutazione ecografica con MdC nello studio delle lesioni ovariche. MATERIALI E METODI: Abbiamo valutato 72 lesioni annessiali in 61 pazienti con lesioni ovariche di incerta interpretazione mediante somministrazione di 4,8 ml di MdC ecoamplificatore di II generazione. Per ogni lesione, abbiamo valutato la morfologia basale, quella contrastografica e le curve intensità/tempo. RISULTATI: La valutazione post-contrasto confrontata con la basale non ha apportato informazioni aggiuntive morfovascolari in 8 pazienti (13,1%); in 38 pazienti (62,3%) ha apportato informazioni senza modifiche del comportamento clinico; in 15 soggetti (24,6%) ha apportato elementi che hanno modificato il comportamento clinico. Le lesioni maligne presentavano valori di tempo massimo di enhancement significativamente minori (11,9 ± 3,1 s vs 19,8 ± 4,0 s p < 0,01) e intensità di picco massimo significativamente maggiore (24,7 ± 4,2 dB vs 17,8 ± 3,3 dB p < 0,01) rispetto alle lesioni benigne. CONCLUSIONI: La CEUS consente di migliorare la confidenza diagnostica nelle lesioni liquide corpuscolate in cui l'indagine convenzionale non risulta dirimente, proponendosi nella diagnosi differenziale di un limitato numero di lesioni complesse, in alternativa a TC ed RM. Le informazioni ottenute influenzano tuttavia il successivo iter diagnostico e terapeutico in una limitata percentuale di casi (24,6%).

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Synovial Vascularity Using Contrast-Enhanced Power Doppler Ultrasonography: Correlation with Histologic Findings and MR Imaging Findings in Arthritic Rabbit Knee Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Seong Moon; Kim, Namkug; Suh, Sang Hyun [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    To validate contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography (PD US) for the evaluation of synovial vascularity in an arthritic rabbit knee model in correlation with MR and histological findings. Power Doppler ultrasonography was performed for carrageenin-induced arthritic left knee and control right knee of 13 rabbits, first without and then with sonic contrast agent enhancement (Levovist, Schering, Berlin Germany), followed by gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Synovial vascularity was quantitatively assessed by calculating the color pixel area in power Doppler sonography using a computer-aided image analysis program and by grading the enhancement on MR images: grade 1, enhancement of knee joint is less than one-third of the area; grade 2, one-third to two-thirds enhancement; and grade 3, more than two-thirds enhancement. Microvessel density (MVD) was measured on slides stained immunohistochemically for CD31 antigen for histological assessment. The mean area of color pixels in PD US changed from 4.37 to 16.42 mm{sup 2} in the arthritic knee after enhancement (p < 0.05), whereas it changed from 0.77 to 2.31 mm{sup 2} in the control knee (p < 0.05). Arthritic knees had greater power Doppler signal than control knees both before and after contrast administration (p < 0.05). The average MVD was 88 in arthritic knees and 46 in control knees. MVDs correlated with color pixel areas of contrast-enhanced power Doppler imaging in arthritic knees. In MR grading of arthritic knees, five were grade 2 and eight were grade 3. MVD and PD US revealed no significant difference between grade 2 and 3 arthritic knees (p > 0.05). Sonic contrast-enhanced PD US improves the visualization of synovial vascularity and allows quantitative measurement in experimentally induced rabbit arthritic knees.

  19. 乳腺纤维腺瘤超声造影特征表现及诊断%Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography in Character and Diagnosis of Breast Fibroadenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小燕; 蓝春勇; 韦海明; 黄向红; 农美芬; 贺琰; 裴华洁

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨实时超声造影检查对乳腺纤维腺瘤病灶的诊断及鉴别价值.方法 选用SonoVue超声造影剂,对经手术及病理证实的47例乳腺纤维腺瘤患者进行彩色多普勒超声造影,对肿块的增强形态、强度及造影时间-强度曲线特征进行分型,并将其超声造影的特征与病理组织学特征进行对照分析.结果 纤维腺瘤组47例造影强度分别为高增强12例,等增强12例,低增强16例,极少至无增强7例,照影剂进入肿块的大小及范围常与二维超声图像一致,且边界常呈环状增强或半环状增强;内部可呈均匀及不均匀增强,当纤维腺瘤伴广泛玻璃变及钙盐沉积时,内常无造影剂进入;该组时间-强度曲线常呈“慢上快下及快上快下”型;超声造影诊断良性肿瘤的符合率为89.4% (42/47).结论 乳腺纤维腺瘤病灶在超声造影下可具有一定的造影特征,超声造影有助于提高乳腺肿瘤的诊断准确率.%Objective To observe the value of real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in character and diagnosis of breast fibroadenoma. Methods Totally 47 patients of breast fibroadenoma were observed by Color Doppler real-time contrast enhanced ultrasonography using SonoVue. The enhancement form, intensity and time-intensity curve were classified respectively, and characteristics of contrast-enhanced and pathological were analyzed. Results The contrast-enhanced intensity of 47 patients of breast fibroadenoma, 12 cases were high enhancement, 12 were equal enhancement, 16 were low enhancement and 7 were no enhancement, The size and scope of contrast agent into the lump' were similar to those of the two-dimensional ultrasound image, linear ring and half-ring enhancement were very common in lump's boundary . Inhomogeneous partial enhancement and entire enhancement appeared in most of lump's inside. The breast fibroadenoma with a wide range of glass transition and calcium deposition, often appeared

  20. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in nodular splenomegaly associated with type B Niemann-Pick disease: an atypical hemangioma enhancement pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, E; Proietti, A; Miccoli, P; Basolo, F; Ciancia, E; Erba, P A; Galimberti, S; Orsitto, E; Petrini, M

    2009-09-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: La malattia di Niemann-Pick (NPD) tipo A e B è una patologia da accumulo di lipidi. Il tipo A è un disordine fatale dell'infanzia. Il tipo B è una forma non-neuronopatica ossevata sia nei bambini che negli adulti con possibile riscontro di epatomegalia e/o splenomegalia (nodulare) durante un esame ecografico. Il tipo C dipende da un difetto nel trasporto del colesterolo. METODI: Una donna di 21 anni si è presentata al Pronto Soccorso con febbre, faringodinia e dolore al quadrante addominale superiore sinistro. Gli esami ematochimici hanno evidenziato anemia, piastrinopenia, aumento delle AST, ALT, GGT, FA, LDH trigliceridi, colesterolo totale, e ridotto HDL. La PCR per CMV ed EBV era negativa. La radiografia del torace era negativa. L'ecografia transaddominale ha rilevato splenomegalia (>22 cm long axis) con una lesione ipoecogena irregolare subcapsulare al polo superiore compatibile con infarto splenico e la presenza di multiple lesioni nodulari iperecogene con diametro da 1 cm fino a 5. RISULTATI: È stata quindi eseguita una ecografia con mezzo di contrasto con SonoVue (Bracco) che ha confermato la presenza di un infarto splenico. Le lesioni nodulari mostravano un enhancement in fase arteriosa con wash out in fase parenchimatosa tardiva. La F-FDG-PET ha mostrato un uptake nodulare splenico. Nel sospetto di un processo linfoproliferativo è stata eseguita una splenectomia. La diagnosi è stata di NPD tipo B con infarto splenico e le lesioni nodulari sono risulate essere emangiomi. DISCUSSIONE: Concludendo, la CEUS ha confermato la diagnosi e l'estenzione dell'infarto splenico, ma l'enhancement nodulare atipico supportato dalle immagini F-FDG-PET è stato fuorviante, suggerendo l'ipotesi di lesioni linfomatose.

  1. Assessment of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the hepatic vein for detection of hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Keitaro; Hiramoto, Akira; Michishita, Asuka; Takagi, Satoshi; Hoshino, Yuki; Itami, Takaharu; Lim, Sue Yee; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Sayuri; Ochiai, Kenji; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of the hepatic vein for the detection of hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES A prospective study was conducted. A catheter was surgically placed in the portal vein of each dog. Hypertension was induced by intraportal injection of microspheres (10 to 15 mg/kg) at 5-day intervals via the catheter. Microsphere injections were continued until multiple acquired portosystemic shunts were created. Portal vein pressure (PVP) was measured through the catheter. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed before and after establishment of hypertension. Time-intensity curves were generated from the region of interest in the hepatic vein. Perfusion variables measured for statistical analysis were hepatic vein arrival time, time to peak, time to peak phase (TTPP), and washout ratio. The correlation between CEUS variables and PVP was assessed by use of simple regression analysis. RESULTS Time to peak and TTPP were significantly less after induction of portal hypertension. Simple regression analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between TTPP and PVP. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CEUS was useful for detecting hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs, which was characterized by a rapid increase in the intensity of the hepatic vein. Furthermore, TTPP, a time-dependent variable, provided useful complementary information for predicting portal hypertension. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Because the method described here induced presinusoidal portal hypertension, these results can be applied to idiopathic portal hypertension in humans.

  2. Study of portal vein abnormal echoes with contrast enhanced ultrasonography%门静脉异常回声的超声造影研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志容; 殷军; 宋鑫; 吴小利; 周丽; 肖海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨提高门静脉异常回声的超声诊断准确性。方法对常规超声检查发现的30例门静脉异常回声进行超声微泡造影。6例经穿刺活检或手术病理检查证实,24例结合临床资料及增强C T或M R检查证实。结果27例癌栓动脉相21例癌栓呈整体性高增强,6例癌栓部分高增强,部分充盈缺损;门脉相呈等或低增强,延迟相呈低增强。3例血栓造影过程中,2例无增强,1例门脉相节段性增强。结论超声造影能准确鉴别癌栓与血栓,为进一步明确病变的检出、性质、分期、治疗及预后提供参考价值。%Objective To improve the accurate ultrasonography of the portal vein abnormal echoes .Methods 30 cases of portal vein abnormal echo with conventional ultrasound examination were contrast-enhanced by ultrasound microbubble .6 cases were con-firmed by biopsy or surgical pathology ,24 cases were confirmed after clinical data and enhanced CT or MR .Results 27 cases of tumor thrombus in the arterial phase ,of which 21 cases were overall uniformity enhanced ,6 cases was part of the high enhance-ment ,partial filling defect ;In portal venous phase all was equal or lower enhancement ;in delayed phase all showed low enhance-ment .3 cases of thrombosis were contrast-enhanced process with 2 cases without enhancement ,1 case of portal vein segmental en-hancement .Conclusion Contrast-enhanced ultrasound microbubble can accurately identify tumor thrombus and thrombosis ,and provid the reference value to further clear of the disease detected in nature ,staging ,treatment and prognosis .

  3. A Case of Contiguous Primary Hepatic Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma and Hemangioma Ultimately Diagnosed Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Shiozawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic marginal zone B-cell malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is extremely rare. We present a case in which a lesion was diagnosed as 2 contiguous tumors (MALT lymphoma and hemangioma using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US with sonazoid. There has been no previous case of contiguous hepatic MALT lymphoma and hemangioma. The present case was a female with no medical history. We detected a snowman-like appearance, which was a tumor of 15 mm in diameter with hypo- and hyper-echogenicities in the lateral and medial parts, respectively, in the Couinaud's segment (S6 of the liver on US. The tumor appeared as a single lesion with a low-density area in the unenhanced phase and prolonged enhancement in the equilibrium phases on dynamic CT. On MRI, the whole lesion showed a low-intensity signal on T1-weighted imaging, but isointensity in the lateral part and high intensity in the medial part were seen on T2-weighted imaging. On contrast-enhanced US, the lateral hypoechoic region was homogenously hyperenhanced in the early vascular phase, and the contrast medium was washed out after about 30 s; in contrast, the medial hyperechoic region was gradually stained from the margin toward the central region. The tumor showed a defect in both hypo- and hyperechoic regions in the postvascular phase. Hemangioma was suspected for the medial part based on the typical image findings, but the lateral part was not given a diagnosis. Thus, surgical resection was performed. The medial part was a hemangioma, and the lateral part was a MALT lymphoma by histopathological findings.

  4. Comparison of the Mammography, Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography and Ultrasonography in a Group of 116 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczyńska, Elzbieta; Heinze, Sylwia; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Rys, Janusz; Mitus, Jerzy W; Hendrick, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Mammography (MG) is the gold-standard in breast cancer detection - the only method documented to reduce breast cancer mortality. Breast ultrasound (US) has been shown to increase sensitivity to breast cancers in screening women with dense breasts. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a novel technique intensively developed in the last few years. The goal of this study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MG, US and CESM in detecting malignant breast lesions. The study included 116 patients. All patients were symptomatic and underwent MG, US and CESM. A radiologist with 20 years of experience in US and MG breast imaging and 1 year of experience in CESM reviewed images acquired in each of the three modalities separately, within an interval of 14-30 days. All identified lesions were confirmed at core biopsy. BI-RADS classifications on US, MG and CESM were compared to histopathology. MG, CESM and US were compared among 116 patients with 137 lesions encountered. Sensitivity of CESM was 100%, significantly higher than that of MG (90%, p<0.004) or US (92%, p<0.01). CESM accuracy was 78%, also higher than MG (69%, p<0.004) and US (70%, p=0.03). There was no statistically significant difference between AUCs for CESM and US (both 0.83). The AUCs of both US and CESM, however, were significantly larger than that of MG (p<0.0004 for each). CESM permitted better detection of malignant lesions than both MG and US, read individually. CESM found lesion enhancement in some benign lesions, as well, yielding a rate of false-positive diagnoses similar to that of MG and US.

  5. Analysis of contrast enhanced ultrasonography in detection of solitary thyoid nodules%甲状腺良恶性结节的超声造影分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄阳; 罗定存; 陈利民; 贺军; 方阳

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyse the sonographie characteristics of thyroid nodules after injection and investigate the contrast enhanced ultrasonography. Methods Analysed the sonographic characteristics in 32 cases and observed the dynamic enhancement pattern of nodules by the time-intensity curve(TIC). The evaluated parameters were arrival time (AT), time to peak(TTP), peak intensity(PI). Results Thyroid cancer (12 cases) showed early wash in an early wash out in comparison with the adjacent thyroid parenchyma, and the enhancement intensity [AT(7.49 ± 4.45), TIP( 17.41 ± 2.84), PI( 18.56 ± 5.24) s] were lower than nodular goitre (20 cases) [ AT ( 13.22 ± 3.30), TIP (20.92 ± 2.59), PI ( 19.15 ± 5.47 ) s ] (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion The contrast enhanced ultrasonography may provide a useful method for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.%目的 探讨超声造影对甲状腺良恶性结节的鉴别诊断意义.方法 分析32例甲状腺良恶性结节超声造影的灌注过程,通过时间-强度曲线进行分析,比较结节及周围正常腺体及良恶性结节间造影剂到达时间(AT)、达峰时间(TTP)、峰值强度(PI)参数的差别.结果 12例甲状腺乳头状癌造影后表现为结节早于周围实质开始增强及消退,与邻近甲状腺实质比较呈高增强,甲状腺乳头状癌超声造影参数AT、TTP、PI分别为(7.49±4.45)、(17.41±2.84)、(18.56±5.24)s,与20例结节性甲状腺肿各项参数[分别为(13.22±3.30)、(20.92±2.59)、(19.15±5.47)s]比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 超声造影技术可以为鉴别甲状腺良恶性结节提供更多有效的定量分析方法.

  6. Preoperative planning of renal transplantation: a comparison of non-contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance angiography with observations from surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankholm, Anne Dorte; Pedersen, Bodil G; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Andersen, Gratien; Hørlyck, Arne; Østrat, Ernst Ø; Laustsen, Sussie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    Many candidates for kidney transplantation need to undergo vessel examination before the transplantation procedure. To identify the optimal preoperative modality for the examination of vessel status without the use of contrast agents in kidney transplant candidates. Fifty-three consecutive patients were examined and 31 patients were transplanted. Ultrasonography (US), non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT), and non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCMRA) were compared using inspection during kidney transplantation (TX) as a reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity to severe arteriosclerotic changes and the accuracy were calculated. Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between TX and the different examination modalities, and McNemar's test was used to test for significant differences. US had higher sensitivity (1.0) and better agreement with observations from surgery (k = 0.89) than both NCCT (sensitivity = 0.60; k = 0.72) and NCMRA (sensitivity = 0.20; k = 0.30). No significant difference was found between TX and US (P = 0.3173) or TX and NCCT (P = 0.1573), but there was a significant difference between TX and NCMRA (P = 0.0455). US was inconclusive in 20% of cases, and the internal iliac artery could not be visualized in 69% of cases. Either US or NCCT can be used as the preferred preoperative imaging modality to examine vessel status before kidney transplantation, but a combination of the two is preferable. NCMRA should not be used as the sole imaging modality for preoperative imaging before kidney transplantation because of its low sensitivity in detecting severe arteriosclerotic disease without the presence of stenosis. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis for classification of focal liver lesions on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: feature extraction and characterization of vascularity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Doi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for classifying focal liver lesions (FLLs) into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver metastasis, and hemangioma, by use of B-mode and micro flow imaging (MFI) of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. We used 98 cases in this study, in which 104 FLLs consisted of 68 HCCs, 21 metastases, and 15 hemangiomas. MFI was obtained with contrast-enhanced low-mechanical-index (MI) pulse subtraction imaging at a fixed plane which included a distinctive cross section of the FLL. In the MFI, the inflow high signals in the plane, which were due to the vascular patterns and the contrast agent, were accumulated following flash scanning with a high-MI ultrasound exposure. In this study, in addition to the existing 29 image features extracted from MFI images, such as replenishment time, the average and the standard deviation of pixel values in a FLL, and the average thickness of vessel-like patterns, four types of image features were extracted from MFI, temporal subtraction and B-mode images based on small square regions of interest (ROIs: 4x4 matrix size) placed to cover a whole region of the FLL. The four features were 1) uniformity of average pixel values for all ROIs, 2) peak pixel values in a histogram of average pixel values of ROIs, 3) fraction of hypoechoic regions within an FLL, and 4) cross-correlation of pixel values within an FLL between B-mode and MFI images. Overall classification accuracies performed by this CAD scheme were 87.5% for all 104 liver lesions.

  8. Harmonic Contrast-Enhanced Endoscopic Ultrasonography for the Guidance of Fine-Needle Aspiration in Solid Pancreatic Masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seicean, A; Badea, R; Moldovan-Pop, A;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The global accuracy of fine-needle aspiration guided by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS-FNA) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma is about 85 %. The use of contrast agents during EUS to highlight vessels and the necrotic parts of pancreatic masses may improve biopsy guidance. Our aim was to assess w...

  9. Evaluation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography in detection and location of prostate transition-zone cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R; Chen, J-J; Zhou, Y-C; Huang, M-M; Zhang, X-R; Miao, H-D

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography (CEHU), diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and CEHU plus DW-MRI for the diagnosis of prostate transition-zone (TZ) cancer. In total, 31 TZ cancers in 28 patients and 25 peripheral zone (PZ) cancers in 21 patients without a TZ cancer were evaluated. All patients underwent DW-MRI and CEHU followed by radical prostatectomy. Predictors for the diagnosis of prostate cancer were evaluated in three protocols (CEHU, DW-MRI, CEHU plus DW-MRI). Statistical analysis of the differences between these protocols and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were carried out. CEHU plus DW-MRI had a significantly higher sensitivity, accuracy and negative-predictive value (90.3%, 73.2% and 81.3%, respectively) for TZ cancer than either method alone. The area under the ROC curve values were 0.659, 0.679 and 0.712 for CEHU, DW-MRI, and CEHU plus DW-MRI, respectively. In conclusion, CEHU plus DW-MRI might be a useful protocol for the detection and location of TZ cancer.

  10. 超声造影和增强CT诊断肾盂癌的比较研究%Comparative study of renal pelvic carcinoma by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 黄备建; 李丛; 燕翠菊; 范培丽; 李超伦; 王文平

    2012-01-01

    目的 对比分析超声造影和增强CT显示肾盂癌血流灌注特点的异同点,探讨超声造影的临床应用价值.方法 对40例行超声造影和增强CT检查并经手术病理证实的肾盂癌病例进行回顾性分析,观察肿块的增强时相和增强方式,包括肿块的增强、消退时间和灌注表现.结果 超声造影显示皮质期40个肿块全部增强;同步增强14个,缓慢增强26个;达峰值呈低回声31个,高回声4个,等回声5个;实质期快速消退35个,同步消退2个,缓慢消退3个;显示最小病灶为1.5 cm.增强CT显示38个肿块增强,多呈轻、中度均匀强化,增强程度低于周围肾实质.超声造影诊断准确率为77.5%(31/40),增强CT诊断准确率为82.5%(33/40),两者比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 超声造影和增强CT对肾盂癌均有较高的诊断准确率,联合检测可提高早期诊断的检出率.%Objective To compare and analyze the similarities and differences of the blood perfusion characteristics of the renal pelvic carcinoma displayed by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography(CECT).Methods The characteristics of CEUS and CECT were anzlyzed retrospectively in 40 confirmed renal pelvic carcinoma cases by operation and pathology.The modality and phases of enhancement,including wash-in and washout time,as well as the perfusion appearances,were observed by CEUS and CECT.Results CEUS detected the cortical phase enhancement in all renal pelvic tumors,including synchronously enhancement in 14 tumors and delayed enhancement in 26 tumors.At peak times,hypoechogenicity compared to the normal renal cortex was shown in 31 tumors,hyperechogenicity in 4 tumors and isoechogenicity in 5 tumors.Fast wash-out in medulla phase was displayed in 35 tumors,isochronously wash-out in 2 tumors and delayed wash-out in 3 tumors.The minimum diameter in 40 renal pelvic tumors was 1.5 cm.CECT showed the enhancement in 38 tumors

  11. Comparison of preoperative T staging by oral contrast enhanced ultrasonography and double contrast enhanced ultrasonography in advanced gastric carcinoma%胃窗超声造影与超声双重造影对进展期胃癌术前T分期的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞杰; 黄品同; 李艳萍; 郑志强; 赵雅萍; 黄福光; 薛念余; 王力

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价胃窗超声造影与超声双重造影对进展期胃癌术前T分期的价值.方法 143例行手术治疗的胃癌患者术前行胃窗超声造影及超声双重造影检查,根据胃窗超声造影病灶二维图像质量分为病灶显示满意组和不满意组,并进行T分期,将超声检查结果与术后病理结果进行对照分析.结果 143例胃癌患者胃窗超声造影后均表现为局部胃壁不均匀增厚,其中病灶显示满意117例,病灶显示满意率为81.8%(117/143);26例病灶二维图像显示轮廓模糊,病灶溃疡面充满高回声,后方伴声影,病灶浆膜面与周边组织界限不清.胃窗超声造影对胃癌术前T分期的准确率为74.1%(106/143),其中病灶显示满意组的准确率为78.6%(92/117),病灶显示不满意组的准确率为53.8%(14/26).143例患者超声双重造影表现为病灶动脉期高增强,静脉期造影剂廓清早于周围正常组织,呈低增强.超声双重造影对胃癌T分期的准确率为86.7%(124/143),其中病灶显示满意组的准确率为88.9%(104/117),病灶显示不满意组的准确率为76.9%(20/26).胃窗超声造影与超声双重造影的T分期准确率比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=9.031,P<0.01).结论 超声双重造影对进展期胃癌术前T分期的准确性显著高于胃窗超声造影.%Objective To compare the accuracy of preoperative T staging of gastric cancer by oral and intravenous contrast-enhanced gastric ultrasonography. Methods One hundred and forty three patients who had been diagnosed as gastric cancer by endoscopic biopsy and confirmed by pathology after operation were examined by oral and intravenous contrast-enhanced gastric ultrasonography, and they were divided into satisfied group and non-satisfied group according to the 2-D image quality of lesion. The results were compared with postoperative pathologic findings. Results All the patients with gastric cancer presented regional gastric wall thickening. Among them, 117 cases

  12. The value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma%肝内胆管细胞癌超声造影表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛枫; 李超伦; 黄备建; 王文平; 袁海霞; 丁红

    2013-01-01

      目的总结肝内胆管细胞癌的超声造影表现。方法回顾性分析2009年1月至2011年12月复旦大学附属中山医院收治的经手术及穿刺活检病理证实的56例肝内胆管细胞癌患者超声造影表现。结果56例肝内胆管细胞癌患者共70个病灶,所有病灶超声造影均表现为“快进快出”,门脉期及延迟期均呈低回声。肝内胆管细胞癌超声造影开始增强时间、达峰时间、表现为等回声时间、表现为低回声时间分别为(14.50±3.82)s、(22.29±4.97)s、(30.38±7.97)s、(43.54±16.80)s。70个病灶中,42个(60.0%,42/70)表现为动脉期病灶边缘不规则环状增强,28个(40.0%,28/70)表现为整体增强;动脉期增强过程中,49个病灶(70.0%,49/70)表现为“树枝状”由周边向中央延伸的特征性的增强方式。超声造影增强达峰值时,51个病灶(72.9%,51/70)表现为不均匀增强,19个(27.1%,19/70)表现为均匀增强。21个病灶(30.0%,21/70)常规二维超声检查病灶边界显示不清,超声造影病灶边界均清晰。所有病灶在门脉期及延迟期均表现为低回声。56个病灶(80.0%,56/70)超声造影表现为“快进快出”、环状增强和(或)树枝状增强。结论肝内胆管细胞癌的超声造影具有“快进快出”、环状增强和(或)树枝状增强等表现,对其诊断和鉴别诊断具有一定的价值。%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS ) for peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma .Methods Fifty-six cholangiocarcinoma cases confirmed by pathology in Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University had been analyzed retrospectively .Results All lesions manifested“fast in and fast out”after contrast injection and hypoechoic in portal and delayed phase.The enhancement start time,peak time,time to

  13. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in diagnosis of orbital lymphoma%超声造影技术在诊断眼眶淋巴瘤中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力; 陈琴; 杨吟; 黎静; 樊映川; 曲超

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析眼眶淋巴瘤的超声造影的影像学特征,探讨超声造影技术在诊断眼眶淋巴瘤中的价值.方法 收集2010年10月至2012年3月经病理检查证实的眼眶淋巴瘤15例20只眼,其中双侧发病者5例,单侧发病者10例.全部病例术前行二维超声、超声造影、CT、MRI检查,回顾性分析其影像学特征.结果 眼眶淋巴瘤在超声造影中具有特征性显像,病变形态呈不规则“倒三角”,造影剂充盈状态呈现为快进.15例患者的造影剂消退状态中13例18只眼表现为快出,2例2只眼表现为慢出.结论 超声造影对于眼眶淋巴瘤的术前诊断可以提供重要的鉴别诊断信息,结合CT、MRI的检查,可以更准确地完成眼眶淋巴瘤的定性诊断.%Objective To study the application value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the diagnosis of orbital lymphoma.Methods Form October 2010 to March 2012,15 patients with malignant lymphoma were studied in our hospital.Before the surgery,all the patients were checked by two dimensional ultrasound,contrast-enhanced ultrasonography,CT,and MRI.The results of the measurements were tested by pathological examination.All cases were retrospectively analyzed.Results The orbital lymphoma had characteristic images during contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.Conclusions Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography can provide important information for the differential diagnosis of orbital lymphoma.

  14. 超声造影诊断输尿管占位的初步探讨%Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in ureteral lesions: a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 黄备建; 夏罕生; 李超伦; 俞清; 范培丽; 王文平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in ureteral lesions.Methods The ultrasonogram of conventional ultrasound and CEUS were retrospectively analyzed in 19 confirmed ureteral lesions cases by operation and pathology.The size,inner echoes,boundary and color blood signal of ureteral lesions were observed by conventional ultrasound.The modality and phases of enhancement,including arrival time,peak time,washout time and appearance of internal structure,were observed by CEUS.Results The 19 ureteral tumors were of maximum widths between 2.1 to 7.7 cm.Conventional ultrasound showed 7 hypoechoic masses,10 isoechoic masses,1 hyperechoic mass and 1 unclear mass.Color Doppler flow imaging showed fairly rich blood signal in 8 tumors,a small amount of blood signal around tumor in 6 tumors and no blood signal in the rest.In early phase,CEUS showed enhancement in all 19 ureteral lesions,including synchronously enhancement in 8 tumors and delayed enhancement in 11 tumors.In peak time,hypoechogenicity compared to the normal renal cortex was shown in 3 tumors,hyperechogenicity in 11 tumors and isoechogenicity in 5 tumors.In late phase,fast wash-out was displayed in 16 tumors,isochronously wash-out in 1 tumor,delayed wash-out in 1 tumor and unclear in 1 tumor.The detection rates of blood supply and clear boundary in ureteral lesions and the diagnostic sensitivity for ureteral cancer were 74% (14/19),16% (3/19),50% (8/16) by conventional ultrasound respectively.The detection rates of blood supply and clear boundary in ureteral lesions and the diagnostic sensitivity for ureteral cancer were 100% (19/19) ,58% (11/19) ,94% (15/16) by CEUS respectively.The change of these performances was statistically significant between conventional ultrasound and CEUS.Conclusions CEUS can improve blood supply,boundary and the diagnostic sensitivity of ureteral lesions.%目的 探讨超声造影诊断输尿管占位的可行性及声像表现.方法 对19

  15. 眼眶肿瘤术前超声造影的影像学研究%Imaging analysis for orbital tumors with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography before surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力; 陈琴; 樊映川; 杨吟; 彭洁; 黎静

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the application value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the diagnosis of orbital tumors.Methods Form March 2010 to September 2011,38 cases (38 eyes) with different kinds of orbital tumors (included intraocular tumors) were studied in our hospital.Among the patients,there were 7 cases with orbital cavernous hemangioma,5 cases with dermoid cyst and mucous cyst,2cases with orbital dermoid cyst,5 cases with pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland,2 cases with adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands,4 cases with malignant lymphoma,6 cases with malignant melanoma of choroids,4 cases with hemangioma of choroids,1 case with inflammatory pseudotumor and 2 cases with subretinal hemorrhage.Before the surgery,all the patients were checked by two dimensional ultrasound,contrast-enhanced ultrasonography,CT and MRI.The results of the measurements were tested by pathological examination and treatment effect.Results Most of the orbital tumors (included intraocular tumors) had characteristic imagings in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was statistically different ( P < 0.05 ) from CT or MRI in diagnostic accordance rate.Conclusions Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography can provide important information for the differential diagnosis of orbital tumors,and can give correct qualitative diagnosis in combination with CT and MRI.%目的 探讨超声造影在眼眶肿瘤诊断和治疗中的应用价值.方法 收集我院2010年3月至2011年9月收治的各类眼眶肿瘤(包括眼内肿瘤)38例(38眼).其中眼眶海绵状血管瘤7例;皮样囊肿及粘液囊肿7例;泪腺多形性腺瘤5例;泪腺腺样囊性癌2例;恶性淋巴瘤4例;脉络膜恶性黑色素瘤6例;脉络膜血管瘤4例;炎性假瘤1例;视网膜下出血2例.全部病例术前行二维超声、超声造影、计算机断层摄影(CT)、磁共振成像(MRI)检查,检查结果结合临床治疗以及手术后病理检查结果进行分析.结果 几种眼

  16. The contrast study on the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the patients with mammary cancer and mammary fibroma%乳腺癌及乳腺纤维瘤超声及造影特征的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑贤; 闫国珍; 李爱华; 刘扬

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography( CEUS) in the diagnosis of mammary cancer. Methods:66 cases of mammary cancer and 85 cases of mammary fibroma from January 1st, 2013 to December 31st, 2014 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College were selected to perform routine ultrasound examination and CEUS before the operation so as to observe the characteristics of breast masses. All the cases were confirmed by operation and compared with the results of pathology examination. Results:The 66 cases of mammary cancer were significantly dif-ferent from the 85 cases of mammary fibroma in the initiation time, peak time, transit time, fading time and disappearing time on CEUS ( P 0. 05);The radiocontrast agent entered slowly and came slowly out of the perforator vessel;The radiocontrast agent in the lesion was homogeneously dis-tributed and enhanced centripetally, without signs of retention. Conclusions:CEUS has important instructional value to the diagnosis of mammary cancer and mammary fibroma clinically.%目的:探讨超声及造影特征对乳腺癌的临床诊断价值. 方法:2013年1月1日至2014年12月31日在包头医学院第一附属医院住院的66例乳腺癌及85例乳腺纤维瘤患者,术前行常规超声及超声造影检查,观察肿块超声及造影特征,所有病例均经手术证实并与病理结果相对照. 结果:66例乳腺癌患者与85例乳腺纤维瘤患者超声造影的开始增强时间、达峰时间、渡越时间、开始消退时间、完全消退时间相比较均有统计学意义( P 0. 05),可见环绕血管并呈慢进快出,病灶内造影剂分布均匀,造影剂呈向心性增强,无造影剂滞留. 结论:超声及造影检查对乳腺癌和乳腺纤维瘤的鉴别诊断具有重要的指导价值.

  17. 超声造影对增强计算机层析成像肝脏低密度病灶的诊断价值%Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography diagnostic value of the liver low-density focus on contrast-enhanced CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛改琴; 郭荣荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography diagnostic value of the liver low-density focus on contrast-enhanced CT. Methods The contrast-enhanced ultrasonography results of 47 cases of the liver low-density focus on contrast-enhanced CT. were retrospectively analyzed. Results The pathological diagnosis in 47 focuses was metastatic carcinoma 20 cases, inflammatory pseudotumour 9 cases,hepatic hemangioma 6 cases, primary liver carcinoma 4 cases, cyst 2 cases, abscess 2 cases, tuberculosis 2 cases, FNH (focal liver nodular hyperplasia) 1 case, local adipose tissue infiltration of liver 1 case. 45 cases of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography diagnosis was consistent with pathological or clinical diagnosis. Cysts and inflammatory pseudotumour had not ultrasound contrast enhancement in the entire phase, but the crossed blood vessels was observed in inflammatory pseudotumour. The local adipose infiltration of liver had synchronous ultrasound contrast enhancement accompanied with liver tissue enhancement. 80% (12/15) of liver metastases of lack of blood supply showed fast contrast enhancement around the tumour edge and homogeneous and light contrast enhancement in the tumour center. 80 % (4/5) of liver metastases of rich of blood supply showed heavy and rapid contrast enhancement in the whole tumour. The enhancement degree in bscess and tuberculosis in the ultrasound contrast enhancement was correlated with necrosis degree, which showed fast and uneven contrast enhancement, hepatic hemangioma showed gradually contrast enhancement from its edge to center, whose enhancement time lasted for longer time than that of metastatic tumour with a statistically difference. FNH showed a typical contrast enhancement pattern, fast enhancement and fast weakening from center to edge. Hepatic cell carcinoma showed fast enhancement and fast weakening in the whole tumour. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography have diagnostic value of CT liver focus of low-density, which

  18. 2D ultrasonography and contrast enhanced ultrasound for the evaluation of cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome in a patient with refractory celiac disease and enteropathy T cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pojoga Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome (CMLNS is a rare manifestation of celiac disease, with an estimated mortality rate of 50%. Specific infections and malignant lymphoma may complicate its clinical course and contribute to its poor prognosis. Diagnosing the underlying cause of CMLNS can be challenging. This is the first report on contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS findings in enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL complicating CMLNS in a gluten-free compliant patient with persistent symptoms and poor outcome. Case presentation We present the case of a 51-year old Caucasian male patient, diagnosed with celiac disease and CMLNS. Despite his compliance to the gluten-free diet the symptoms persisted and we eventually considered the possible development of malignancy. No mucosal changes suggestive of lymphoma were identified with capsule endoscopy. Low attenuation mesenteric lymphadenopathy, without enlarged small bowel segments were seen on computed tomography. CEUS revealed arterial rim enhancement around the necrotic mesenteric lymph nodes, without venous wash-out. No malignant cells were identified on laparoscopic mesenteric lymph nodes biopsies. The patient died due to fulminant liver failure 14 months later; the histopathological examination revealed CD3/CD30-positive atypical T-cell lymphocytes in the liver, mesenteric tissue, spleen, gastric wall, kidney, lung and bone marrow samples; no malignant cells were present in the small bowel samples. Conclusions CEUS findings in EATL complicating CMLNS include arterial rim enhancement of the mesenteric tissue around the cavitating lymph nodes, without venous wash-out. This vascular pattern is not suggestive for neoangiogenesis, as arteriovenous shunts from malignant tissues are responsible for rapid venous wash-out of the contrast agent. CEUS failed to provide a diagnosis in this case.

  19. Hemodynamics of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography%肝局灶性结节性增生的超声造影血流动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文平; 范培丽; 魏瑞雪; 丁红; 黄备建; 季正标; 李超伦

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨肝局灶性结节性增生的实时灰阶超声造影表现及其诊断价值.方法 对经手术病理证实的34例肝局灶性结节件增生(FNH)患者共36个病灶进行超声检查,观察病灶的常规超声表现和超声造影增强方式及表现并进行分析.结果 36个病灶多为低回声,39%(14/36)病灶周围见低回声环.65%(20/31)病灶内显示特征性的星状或轮辐状彩色血流.超声造影后动脉相观察到3种增强形式:整体型增强28%(10/36),泉涌状增强44%(16/36)和放射状增强28%(10/36).超声造影中搬痕出现率17%(6/36),而对照病理标本瘢痕检出率为40%(6/15).若以超声造影出现其中一种征象(泉涌状增强、放射状增强或瘢痕)作为FNH的诊断指标,则超声造影诊断FNH的符合率达78%(28/36),明显高于常规超声的诊断符合率(28%,10/36).结论 超声造影对诊断FNH有很大价值.%Objective To investigate enhancement appearance of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia(FNH) at real-time gray-scale contrast enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS),and evaluate the value of CEUS in the diagnosis of FNH. Methods Thirty-four patients (36 lesions) with histologically proved FNH were examined by ultrasonography. Appearance on conventional ultrasonography and the enhancement pattern on CEUS were investigated. Results Thirty-six lesions were mostly hypoechoic.39% (14/36) of lesions had peripheral hypoechogenic circle. Color Doppler flow imaging showed a asteroid-like or spoke-and-wheel pattern in 65% (20/ 31) of lesions.Three enhancement patterns were observed in the early arterial phase: whole-enhancement pattern (28%, 10/36), gushing-spring enhancement pattern (44%, 16/36), and spoke-and-wheel enhancement pattern (28%,10/36).The frequency of central scar on CEUS was 17% (6/36), and detection rate of central scar by CEUS compared with pathology was 40% (6/15).Regarding one of the features (gushing-spring enhancement, spoke-and-wheel enhancement and scar) as standard of

  20. Power Doppler ultrasonography of painful Achilles tendons and entheses in patients with and without spondyloarthropathy-a comparison with clinical examination and contrast-enhanced MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiell, Charlotte; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Hasselquist, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at painful Achilles tendons and entheses in patients with and without spondyloarthropathy (SpA and non-SpA) and healthy control persons (CTRLs). Particularly, we aimed to investigate....../or enthesis due to sports-related causes and 10 CTRLs were examined at the Achilles tendons and entheses with US, MRI and clinical assessment. Intratendinous changes, entheseal changes, bursitis and peritendonitis were assessed. An US interobserver substudy was performed in nine persons. US findings showed...

  1. Hemodynamic and morphologic changes of peripheral hepatic vasculature in cirrhotic liver disease: A preliminary study using contrast-enhanced coded phase inversion harmonic ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Qin Zheng; Bo Zhang; Masatoshi Kudo; Yasuhiro Sakaguchi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To provide the useful information for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis by observing the morphology of peripheral hepatic vessels and the hemodynamics of microbubble arrival time in these vessels.METHODS: Twenty-one subjects including 5 normal volunteers and 16 patients (liver cirrhosis, n=10;chronic hepatitis, n=6) were studied by contrast-enhanced coded phase inversion harmonic sonography (GE LOGIQ9 series) using a 6-8 MHz convex-arrayed wide-band transducer. The images of peripheral hepatic artery,portal and hepatic vein were observed in real-time for about 2 min after intravenous injection of Levovist. The time when microbubbles appeared in the peripheral vessels (microbubble arrival time) was also recorded. The morphologic changes of peripheral hepatic vasculature were classified as marked, slight, and no changes based on the regularity in caliber, course, ramification, and the delineation of vessels compared to normal subjects.RESULTS: The microbubble arrival time at peripheral artery, portal, and hepatic vein was shorter in cirrhotic patients than in chronic hepatitis patients and normal subjects. The marked, slight and no morphologic changes of peripheral hepatic vasculature found in 5 (5/6,83.3%), 1 (1/6, 16.7% ), and 0 (0/6, 0%) liver cirrhosis patients, respectively, and in 1 (1/10, 10%), 6 (6/10,60%), and 3 (3/10, 30%) chronic hepatitis patients,respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the hemodynamics and morphology of peripheral hepatic vasculature by contrast-enhanced coded pulse inversion harmonic sonography can provide useful information for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.

  2. High and low frequency contrast-enhanced comparison with color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosis of testicular torsion%高、低频超声造影与彩超对睾丸扭转的诊断比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇辉; 罗毅; 丘岳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the perfusion of testicle by high and low frequency contrast-enhanced ultrasonography( HF-CEUS, LF-CEUS)comparison with color Doppler ultrasonography( CDU). Methods Sixteen suspected testicular torsion patients were examined by these three methods. The images of three different methods were compared retrospectively. Results The diagnostic sensitivity of blood flow of tes-ticle by CDU was high. While this method can not make a correct diagnosis at the first visit. The physician can make entirely perfusion images by CEUS. LF-CEUS,while HF-CEUS could show them in detail. Conclusion Combined application of HF-CEUS with LF-CEUS would be more sensitivity,and could be an assistance in diagnosis of testicular torsion.%目的:应用高、低频超声造影对比彩超观察睾丸扭转的微循环灌注表达的差别。方法对16例可疑睾丸扭转的病例,进行彩超及高、低频超声造影的检查,并将其图像进行对比。结果彩超对睾丸实质内的血流检出较为敏感,但仍有部分病例在初诊时无法判断,经高、低频超声造影后,正常睾丸实质出现较丰富的造影剂显像,而扭转的睾丸则出现灌注缺失。结论睾丸扭转的超声造影诊断可以利用高低频相结合,使造影剂的显影更为敏感,是彩超的有效补充手段。

  3. 超声造影用于肝硬化合并小肝癌的早期诊断价值%Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis combined with small hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静芳; 韩秀清; 胡海燕; 韩转宁

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨超声造影用于肝硬化合并小肝癌的早期诊断的价值。方法选取西安医学院第二附属医院住院超声科2014年7月-2015年7月收治的50例肝硬化合并小肝癌患者,对于肝脏占位性病变进行超声造影检查,记录各个病灶造影增强模式,分析造影前后的占位性病变良恶性评分。结果超声造影对于肝硬化合并小肝癌的灵敏度为94.00%(47/50)。中-低分化癌组开始增强时间明显短于透明细胞癌组,开始消退时间明显短于高分化癌组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。中-低分化癌组小肝癌动脉期多快速增强,即快进,当肿瘤内造影剂迅速廓清,实质期小肝癌肿瘤内超声回声强度低于正常肝实质,即为快出,本组占65.83%(79/120),穿刺活检经手术确诊78个为中-低分化癌病灶,其余1个为0.95 cm的透明细胞癌。高分化癌组动脉期快速增强,实质期缓慢退出,呈“快进慢出”模式,透明细胞癌组,超声造影呈“慢进慢出”模式。120个小肝癌病灶造影前典型图像较少,仅57.50%(69/120)有疑似或明确恶性诊断,超声造影后评分提高≥2分的病灶为35灶,占29.17%,造影后评价为5分的病灶为103灶,超声造影对小肝癌诊断准确性为85.83%(103/120)。结论超声造影用于肝硬化患者肝内合并多种类型小肝癌的早期诊断有重要价值,造影可提高超声的诊断率,可作为辅助诊断小肝癌的影像学方法,其灵敏度与准确度均较高,安全简便,值得临床上进一步推广应用。%Objective To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis combined with small hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods Fifty cases of liver cirrhosis combined with small hepatocellular carcinoma in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’ an Medical College from Jul.2014

  4. 复发性与初发性肝细胞肝癌实时超声造影比较研究%Comparison of enhancement features of primary hepatocellular carcinoma and recurrent hepatocelluar carcinoma on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏瑞雪; 王文平; 丁红; 黄备建; 李超伦; 韩红; 季正标

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较复发性与初发性肝细胞肝癌实时超声造影时相特征.方法 对初发性肝细胞肝癌患者83例(93个肿瘤)和复发性肝细胞肝癌患者56例(70个肿瘤)进行实时灰阶谐波超声造影,比较初发性肿瘤与复发性肿瘤的造影增强时相变化.结果 从注射造影剂开始到肿块回声较肝实质低的时间,复发性与初发性肝细胞肝癌组分别为(104.0±51.8)s和(85.5±43.0)s,两组间差别有显著统计学意义(P=0.010).复发性和初发性肝癌在门脉期中表现为等回声的比例分别为34.3%(24/70),17.2%(16/93),前者明显高于后者(P=0.012).结论 复发性肝细胞肝癌与初发性肝细胞肝癌超声造影表现有一定差异,认识这一规律将有助于复发性肝细胞肝癌的早期诊断.%Objective To compare enhancement features of primary hepatocellular carcinoma(PHCC)and recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma(RHCC) on.contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS). Methods CEUS was performed in 56 patients with 70 RHCC and 83 patients with 93 PHCC. The enhancement features of these two groups of hepatocellular carcinoma were compared. The time used for the enhancement material to arrive the lesion(Ta ), that used for the lesion to become isoechoic(T1 ) and hypoechoic relative to the surrounding hepatic parenchyma(To) were analyzed. The echogenicity change between the lesion and the parenchyma was observed during arterial phase,portal phase and delayed phase. Results The time used for the lesion to become hypoechogenicity of RHCC and PHCC was (104.0 ± 51.8)s, (85.5 ± 43.0)srespectively,there was significant difference between the two groups( P = 0.010). There were 24 (34.3 % )cases of RHCC and 16 ( 17.2% ) cases of PHCC becoming isoechoic during portal phase,the former rate was significantly higher than the later one( P = 0. 012). Conclusions There is significant difference between PHCC and RHCC in the performance of CEUS,this is useful for the early diagnosis of RHCC.

  5. 超声造影对肝细胞癌与肝局灶性结节增生的定量对比分析%Quantification analysis of contrast enhanced ultrasonography on hepatocellular carcinoma and focal nodular hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莺; 杜雅灵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of quantification analysis of contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS)in differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)and focal nodular hyperplasia(FNH). Methods 64 HCCs and 21 FNHs were off-line analyzed with dynamic images. Quantitative parameters such as derived peak intensity (DPI), time to peak(TTP), area under the curve(AUC), slop of rise, the absolute vslue for slop of down were acquired , and the standardized values (sDPI, sAUC) included the ratio of parameters from the focus to those from hepatic parenchyma. These quantitative parameters were analyzed by statistics. Results Quantitative parameters such as AUC, slop of rise, sDPI and sAUC in HCC group were smaller than those in FNH group(P0. 05). Conclusion TIC of contrast enhanced ultrasonography can provide quantitative analysis for HCC and FNH with preferable clinical application value.%目的 探讨超声造影(CEUS)对肝细胞癌(HCC)与肝局灶性结节增生(FNH)的声学定量对比价值.方法 回顾性分析64例HCC和21例FNH患者,对其CEUS检查结果进行定量分析,从时间-强度曲线(TIC)上得到下列定量参数:达峰绝对值(DPI)、达峰时间(TTP)、曲线下面积(AUC)、曲线上升支斜率、下降支斜率的绝对值以及病灶与肝实质相应参数相比所得的标化值sDPI、sAUC,进行统计学分析.结果 HCC组的AUC、曲线上升支斜率、sDPI及sAUC分别均小于FNH组(P<0.05),而TTP、曲线下降支斜率的绝对值大于FNH组(P<0.05),两组的DPI无显著差异(P>0.05).结论 超声造影技术结合时间-强度曲线定量分析对HCC和FNH的鉴别诊断有重要的临床应用价值.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  7. High mechanical index post-contrast ultrasonography improves tissue structural display of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Min-hua; YANG Wei; DAI Ying; WU Wei

    2005-01-01

    Background The advent of second generation agent-SonoVue and low mechanical index real-time contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) imaging have been shown to improve the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). But no report has described the effect of high mechanical index (MI) post-CEUS. This study aimed to investigate the value of post-CEUS in displaying tissue structures of HCC. Methods Seventy-six HCCs in 65 patients were included in the study. Each patient underwent three scans, high-MI (MI: 0.15-1.6) pre-contrast ultrasound, low-MI (MI: 0.04-0.08) CEUS with contrast agent SonoVue, and high-MI post-contrast ultrasound, which was performed within 3 minutes after CEUS. The size, boundary, echogenicity, internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of the HCCs in the conventional scans before and after CEUS were evaluated. According to pathological evidence, diagnosis rates of pre-contrast, CEUS and post-contrast scans were determined and compared. The potential mechanism of post-contrast ultrasound imaging was also discussed. Results Compared with pre-contrast, post-contrast ultrasound showed improvement in image quality in most HCCs: twenty-six (34.2%) more lesions showed well defined margins and fourteen (18.4%) more nodules showed halo sign; twenty-three (30.3%) lesions demonstrated enlarged in sizes; changes in echogenicity were seen in 30 lesions (39.5%); eighteen (23.7%) more lesions showed heterogenecity and 20 (26.3%) more lesions showed "mosaic" or "nodule-in-nodule" sign; twelve (15.8%) more lesions showed posterior acoustic enhancement. Post-contrast ultrasound showed increased diagnostic accuracy of 93.4% (71/76), compare with 88.2% (67/76) of CEUS alone. Conclusions High-MI post-contrast ultrasound utilizes harmonic signals during the rupture of microbubbles, and significantly improves the display of echo-characteristics of HCCs in ultrasound images, which adds diagnostic values for CEUS. Post-contrast

  8. Contrast Agent Ultrasonography before and after HIFU Treatment of Parathyroid Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatcheva, Roussanka; Arnaud, Françoise; Lacoste, François

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: To observe changes in the parathyroid tissue treated by extracorporeal HIFU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 5 patients were treated for primary hyperparathyroidism by thermally ablating enlarged parathyroid glands using an external HIFU applicator. The treated glands were visualized with B-Mode and contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) before, 1 week and 4 weeks post HIFU. Serum iPTH, calcium, and phosphorus levels were monitored before and after the treatment. RESULTS: The initial results showed a correlation between contrast agent uptake of treated parathyroid tissue, the reduction of volume of the gland and the decrease of iPTH levels. CONCLUSIONS These results show it is possible to use CEUS to monitor the thermal ablation of parathyroid glands.

  9. Application of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in diagnosis of digestive system tumors%三维超声造影增强显像在消化系统肿瘤诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施红; 李黎; 余秀华; 张宏; 钱斌; 卫张蕊; 汪贤臣; 孔梓祥; 徐建平; 郭心璋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of three-dimensional contrast -enhanced ultrasonography ( 3D CEUS) in the diagnosis of digestive system tumors . Methods 81 digestive system tumor patients , which were verified hy pathology or CT , were divided into benign and malignant groups. Ultrasound contrast agent SonoVue was delivered by intravenous injection and the low mechanic index was used. 3D CEUS was practiced on the basis of two -dimensional(2D) CEUS. Time-Intensity curves of 2D CEUS was traced and 3D CEUS imaging characteristic was scored ,then the sensitivity , specificity and expected accuracy of 3D CEUS to malignant tumor was calculated. Results 3D CEUS could display the integrated stereoscopic image , structure order and angio-spatial distribution of tumor, which was more visualized than 2D CEUS , and could view the angio -characteristic of malignant tumor from hetero -views. The sensitivity,specificity and expected accuracy of 3D CEUS to digestive system malignant tumors were 97. 7%,94. 7% and 95. 5% ,respectively. Conclusions 3D CEUS may improve the imaging quality and provide more supplementary information for the clinical diagnosis of digestive system tumors .%目的 探讨三维超声造影增强显像(3D CEUS)技术在消化系统肿瘤诊断中的应用价值.方法 经手术病理或CT 印证的消化系统肿瘤81 例,分成良性病灶组和恶性病灶组.静脉注射超声造影剂SonoVue,应用低机械指数造影方法,在二维超声造影增强显像(2D CEUS)的基础上进行3D CEUS.描记二维造影的时间-强度曲线,将三维造影显像特征进行评分,计算3D CEUS 对恶性病灶诊断的敏感性、特异性和预期准确性.结果 3D CEUS 可显示病灶整体的立体影像、结构层次和血管空间分布,较2D CEUS 更为形象,并可从不同角度观察恶性肿瘤的血管特征.应用3D CEUS 特征评分,得出对本组消化系统恶性病灶诊断的敏感性、特异性和预期准确性分别为97.7%、94

  10. Gray-scale contrast-enhanced utrasonography in detecting sentinel lymph nodes: An animal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuexiang, E-mail: wangyuexiang1999@sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Cheng Zhigang, E-mail: qlczg@sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li Junlai, E-mail: junlai555@sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Tang Jie, E-mail: txiner@vip.sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Objective: To investigate the usefulness of gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for detecting sentinel lymph nodes. Methods: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed in five normal dogs (four female and one male) after subcutaneous administration of a sonographic contrast agent (Sonovue, Bracco, Milan, Italy). Four distinct regions in each animal were examined. After contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, 0.8 ml of blue dye was injected into the same location as Sonovue and the sentinel lymph nodes were detected by surgical dissection. The findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were compared with those of the blue dye. Results: Twenty-one sentinel lymph nodes were detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography while 23 were identified by blue dye with surgical dissection. Compared with the blue dye, the detection rate of enhanced ultrasonography for the sentinel lymph nodes is 91.3% (21/23). Two patterns of enhancement in the sentinel lymph nodes were observed: complete enhancement (5 sentinel lymph nodes) and partial enhancement (16 sentinel lymph nodes). The lymphatic channels were demonstrated as hyperechoic linear structures leading from the injection site and could be readily followed to their sentinel lymph nodes. Histopathologic examination showed proliferation of lymphatic follicles or lymphatic sinus in partial enhanced sentinel lymph nodes while normal lymphatic tissue was demonstrated in completely enhanced sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusions: Sonovue combined with gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography may provide a feasible method for detecting sentinel lymph nodes.

  11. Value of color Doppler ultrasonography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and serum CA-125 detection in differential diagnosis of ovarian masses%彩色多普勒超声、超声造影及CA-125对卵巢病变的鉴别诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琦; 刘百灵; 姜珏; 雷小莹

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨彩色多普勒超声、超声造影及CA-125对卵巢病变的鉴别诊断价值.方法 分析总结65例卵巢病变的彩色多普勒超声、超声造影资料及血清CA-125水平,并对其诊断的准确性进行评价.结果 65例卵巢病变中,21例(21/35)良性病变者血清CA-125测值35μ/ml,而14例良性及2例恶性病变者血清CA-125测值存在交叉;彩色多普勒超声提示良性病变30例,恶性肿瘤22例,13例不能明确诊断(其中良性5例,恶性8例);超声造影提示良性病变34例,恶性肿瘤29例,误诊2例(1例卵泡膜细胞瘤,另1例交界性囊腺瘤);血清CA-125、彩色多普勒超声及超声造影对卵巢良恶性病变诊断的敏感性分别为66.7%、73.3%、96.7%,特异性为60.0%、85.7%、97.1%.结论 血清CA-125及超声检查有助于卵巢病变的诊断及鉴别诊断,而超声造影在显示肿瘤的血流灌注信息方面具有优越性,能进一步提高卵巢病变的早期诊断及鉴别诊断准确性.%Objective To assess the value of color Doppler ultrasonography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and detection of serum CA-125 levels in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses. Methods The findings of color Doppler ultrasonography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and the serum levels of CA-125 were comparatively analyzed in 65 patients with ovarian masses, and the diagnostic accuracy of the 3 methods was estimated. Results Of the 65 cases of ovarian masses, 21 of the 35 patients with benign ovarian masses had serum CA-125 levels below 35 U/ml, and 28 of the 30 patients with malignant masses showed CA-125 levels over 35 U/ml. Color Doppler ultrasonography identified 30 benign and 22 malignant cases, but failed to produce definite results in 13 cases (including 5 with benign and 8 with malignant masses). By contrast-enhanced ultrasound, benign masses were found in 34 cases and malignant masses in 29 cases, and misdiagnosis occurred in 2 cases (including 1 case of thecoma and 1 of ovarian

  12. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  13. 转移性肝癌的超声造影灌注特征及其临床价值%Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography Perfusion Characteristics and Its Clinical Value in Metastasis Hepatic Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓莉; 司芩; 黄声稀; 吕校平; 黄艳丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) perfusion in metastasis hepatic carcinoma (MHC) and evaluate the clinical value of CEUS. Methods One hundred and twenty-seven MHC patients with 194 hepatic lesions confirmed by pathology were examined by CEUS. The characteristics of blood supply perfusion were analyzed and compared with contrast-enhanced CT (CECT). Results (1) One hundred and seventy-three MHC lesions and 21 benign lesions in 194 hepatic lesions were diagnosed by pathology. MHC lesions detection rate by CEUS was significantly higher than that before contrast and superior to that of contrast-enhanced CT. The results were as follows: pre-contrast 124 lesions, post-contrast 171 lesions, contrast-enhanced CT 168 lesions(in-cluded 1 false positive lesion). (2) The detection rate was 95. 7%(45/47) by CEUS in smaller lesions (length-diameter 0. 9, 95% CI: 0. 985 ~ 1. 004 in CEUS and 0. 904~1. 014 in CECT). Conclusions CEUS has an important clinical value for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MHC.%目的 探讨转移性肝癌超声造影特征性表现并确立临床价值.方法 127例转移性肝癌中194个占位性病灶进行超声造影检查,并与增强CT、病理对比分析.结果 (1) 194个占位性病灶经病理证实转移癌灶173个,良性病灶21个.超声造影前检出癌灶124个,造影后检出癌灶171个,增强CT检出癌灶168个(假阳性1个).超声造影后癌灶检出率明显高于造影前,优于增强CT.(2)超声造影新检出癌灶主要为长径<1.0 cm微小病灶95.7% (45/47).(3)转移癌灶超声造影特征性表现:动脉期89.6% (155/173)周边环状凸起样或稀疏状快速填充,9.2% (16/173)整体快速填充;95.9% (166/173)动脉期迅速廓清,2.9% (5/173)门脉中晚期或实质期缓慢廓清;1.2% (2/173)未见明确填充与廓清.(4)超声造影、增强CT与病理比较其敏感性、特异性、准确性分别为98.8% (171/173)、100% (21/21)

  14. The value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of cystic renal carcinoma%超声造影在肾脏囊性病变良恶性鉴别中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    忻晓洁; 毛怡然; 张晟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the values of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosis of cystic renal cell carcino-ma. Methods A total of 73 patients with renal cystic lesions were included in this study. The image features of ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination were analysed. All of patients underwent surgical treatment and had patholog-ical results. The diagnostic values of the ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound were analyzed by evaluating the im-age features of cystic renal cell carcinoma. Results There were 64 cases of cystic renal cell carcinoma, 9 cases of benign cyst. With ultrasound and color doppler ultrasound,irregular shape, thickness wall, solid ingredients, divisions and more blood flow signals were found in cystic renal cell carcinoma. Renal cyst showed regular shape, few solid component and thin separation and inconspicuous blood flow signals. In contrast-enhanced ultrasound, cystic renal cancer contrast agent appear-ing time was (15.13±4.21)s, and reached the peak time (23.42±5.68)s, fade time was (28.42±4.27)s. The enhanced mode for fast in and fast out was found in 22 cases (34.3%), fast in and slow out in 30 cases (46.8%), slow in and fast out in 2 cases (3.2%), slow in and slow out in 4 cases (6.4%), and synchronously in and out in 6 cases (9.3%). The hyper-enhancement was found in 42 cases (65.6%), the iso-enhancement and hypo-enhancement in 22 cases (34.4%). In renal cyst, There were three cases out of contrast filling. In other 6 cases, the contrast agent appearing time was (16.67±2.73)s, the peak time was (25.83±3.06)s and fade time was (34.17±4.26)s. The enhanced mode for fast in and fast out was found in 1 case (16.7%), fast in and slow out in 1 case (16.7%) and synchronously in and out in 4 cases (66.6%). The hyper-enhancement was found in 2 cases (33.3%), the iso-enhancement and hypo-enhancement in 4 cases (66.7%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predic-tive value, negative predictive value and accuracy

  15. Experimental study on enhanced ultrasonography of normal abdominal aorta using self-made perfluorocarbon ultrasound contrast agent in rabbits%自制氟碳声学造影剂对正常兔腹主动脉造影的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马娜; 任卫东; 杨欣

    2006-01-01

    目的观察自制氟碳声学造影剂对正常兔腹主动脉造影效果及不同造影剂注入方式造影的时间-强度曲线变化.方法经兔耳缘静脉注入0.5 mL/kg自制造影剂,常规成像观察实时造影过程,触发成像模式定量分析团注和推注法(0.1 mL/s)造影的时间-强度曲线变化.结果造影后腹主动脉灰阶及多普勒信号显著增强.团注法同推注方式比较,峰值强度显著增高,但曲线下降斜率快,平均通过时间短(P<0.001);而推注方式可显著延长造影剂平均通过时间(P<0.001).结论自制氟碳声学造影剂显著增强血流显像,根据不同检查目的选择合适的造影剂注入方式,对提高造影效果有重要价值.%[Objective ] To observe the effect of enhanced ultrasonography on normal rabbit abdominal aorta using self-made perfluorocarbon ultrasound contrast agent and the time-intensity curve changes by different injection methods. [Methods] Self-made contrast agent was injected via rabbit ear vein at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg, real-time abdominal aorta enhancement was observed by conventional imaging, and changes of time-intensity curves were quantitatively analyzed using triggered imaging by bolus injection and infusion (0.1 mL/s). [Results] Gray-scale and Doppler signal of abdominal aorta were significantly enhanced by contrast agent. Peak intensity and descending slope were much increased by bolus compared with by infusion, but mean transit time was reduced (P <0.001); while mean transit time was longer using infusion (P <0.001). [Conclusion] Self-made perfluorocarbon ultrasound contrast agent can significantly enhance blood flow display,it is importance to choice ideal injection method according to checking aim to improve the effect of enhanced ultrasonography.

  16. Contrast enhancement in light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst Keller, H; Watkins, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The optical microscope is a fundamental component of an image cytometry system. This unit covers the basic concepts of light microscopy, including Köhler illumination, resolution, contrast, and numerical aperture, and reviews the many types of instruments and techniques for contrast enhancement.

  17. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast...

  18. The diagnostic values of serum prostate specific antigen and transrectal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of prostate cancer%血清 PSA 指标与经直肠超声造影对前列腺癌的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱林; 黄君; 詹洁群; 贾天利; 刘灿

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血清前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)指标,游离前列腺特异性抗原(f-PSA)、总前列腺特异性抗原(T-PSA),前列腺特异性抗原密度(PSAD)与经直肠前列腺超声造影对前列腺癌(Prostate Cancer,PCa)的诊断价值。方法:获取59例血清 PSA 升高的患者的 fPSA 及 T-PSA、前列腺体积的三个径(L、W、H),所有病例均经直肠超声造影检查,并在超声引导下进行前列腺穿刺。结果:前列腺癌组患者的发病年龄要比良性前列腺增生(Benign prostate hyperplasia,BPH)组大,PSAD 比 BPH 组高。前列腺癌组的 f/T-PSA 比良性前列腺增生组低。前列腺癌组患者的显影时间、达峰时间、加速时间较良性前列腺增生组患者短,绝对增强强度较良性前列腺增生组高。前列腺癌组患者的强度减半时间比良性前列腺增生组患者短。结论:前列腺癌组的前列腺造影结果表现为“快进快出”。血清 f/T-PSA、PSAD 及经直肠超声造影技术对前列腺良恶性病变的鉴别诊断具有一定的临床价值。%Aim:To study the value of serum PSA indicator (f/T-PSA,PSAD)and CETRUS (con-trast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound)in diagnosis of prostate cancer.Methods:Fifty-nine patients were elevated with serum PSA had fPSA (free prostate specific antigen)and T-PSA (total prostate specific an-tigen),three size (Long,Wide,Height),the 59 patients carry through CETRUS (contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound)and biopsy.Results:Prostate cancer patients’age of onset are older than benign prostate hyperplasia group,PSAD in prostate cancer group are higher than that of benign prostate hyper-plasia group,f/T-PSA in prostate cancer group are lower than that of benign prostate hyperplasia group. AT (arrival time),TTP (time to peak),ACT (acceleration time)in prostate cancer group are shorter than those of benign prostate hyperplasia group,absolute enhance intense (△PI =PI

  19. Assessment of changes in vascularity and blood volume in canine sarcomas and squamous cell carcinomas during fractionated radiation therapy using quantified contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bley, Carla Rohrer; Laluhová, Dagmar; Roos, Malgorzata; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Radiation therapy does not only target tumour cells but also affects tumour vascularity. In the present study, changes in tumour vascularity and blood volume were investigated in five grade 1 oral fibrosarcomas, eight other sarcomas (non-oral soft tissue and bone sarcomas) and 12 squamous cell carcinomas in dogs during fractionated radiation therapy (total dose, 45-56 Gy). Contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound was performed before fraction 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 15 or 16 (sarcomas) or 17 (squamous cell carcinomas). Prior to treatment, median vascularity and blood volume were significantly higher in squamous cell carcinomas (P=0.0005 and 0.001), whereas measurements did not differ between oral fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas (P=0.88 and 0.999). During the course of radiation therapy, only small, non-significant changes in vascularity and blood volume were observed in all three tumour histology groups (P=0.08 and P=0.213), whereas median tumour volume significantly decreased until the end of treatment (P=0.04 for fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas, P=0.008 for squamous cell carcinomas). It appeared that there was a proportional decrease in tumour volume, vascularity and blood volume. Doppler measurements did not predict progression free interval or survival in any of the three tumour groups (P=0.06-0.86). However, the number of tumours investigated was small and therefore, the results can only be considered preliminary.

  20. Investigation on Conventional and Contrast Enhanced Transrectal Ultrasonography in Granulomatous Prostatitis%肉芽肿性前列腺炎经直肠常规超声及超声造影特征探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩密; 唐杰; 郭爱桃; 费翔; 张艳; 李秋洋; 何恩辉; 周昀

    2011-01-01

    Objective Granulomatous prostatitis mimics prostate cancer clinically. This study evaluated conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CELTS) findings of granulomatous prostatitis. Methods Thirty-seven cases of granulomatous prostatitis were culled from 2 215 consecutive men who underwent needle biopsy. Patients underwent TRUS. CEUS and histopathologic examination. Results Sonographically, 25 cases appeared solitary or multiple hypoechoic nodules in glands. Heterogeneous hypoechoic lesions with poor-defined margin in the peripheral zone were observed in 8 patients. One case presented multiple cysts and solid nodules in the gland and hypoechoic lesion involved seminal vesicles. In the remaining three patients, the gland showed a homogeneous normal echotexture. Three patients underwent CEUS. After administration of SonoVue, the lesion of one case displayed wash in simultaneously and rapidly wash out. The other two cases displayed no-enhancement areas and the boundaries were conspicuous. Conclusions It's difficult to make a specific diagnosis of granulmoatous prostatitis with nodules or differentiate it from prostate cancer only by conventional TRUS, and biopsy is still necessary. The sign of CEUS, which is no-enhancement areas, might be possible to distinguish granulmoatous prostatitis from prostate caner and very helpful in guided biopsy.%目的 肉芽肿性前列腺炎与前列腺癌难以鉴别,本研究分析肉芽肿性前列腺炎的经直肠常规超声(TRUS)和超声造影(CEUS)图像特征,以提高该病的超声诊断水平.方法 在我科行TRUS引导下前列腺穿刺活检的2 215例中经病理确诊为肉芽肿性前列腺炎者37例,分析其TRUS及CEUS特征、临床症状及病理资料.结果 TRUS示25例前列腺有单发或多发低回声结节;8例表现为周围区边界不清的低回声区;1例可见腺体内多发性囊、实性结节,病变累及精囊腺;3例常规

  1. 常规超声及超声造影对大体积肾包块诊断的对比研究%Imaging diagnosis of large renal tumors: Conventional ultrasonography versus contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦光亮; 雷丽; 傅宁华; 魏淑萍; 杨斌; 翁志强

    2013-01-01

    目的 近年来,超声造影技术应用于临床,为肾肿瘤良恶性的鉴别诊断提供了重要信息,文中探讨常规超声及超声造影对大体积肾包块(直径≥5.0cm)的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析151例大体积肾包块的常规超声及超声造影结果,对比2种方法的鉴别诊断价值.结果 常规超声及超声造影对大体积肾包块的良恶性鉴别诊断差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但超声造影对包块内的血供尤其是微小血流的显示明显优于常规超声.结论 超声造影是诊断肾脏包块的一种重要影像学方法,其对肾包块的血供情况显示优于常规超声.%Objective Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CELTS) provides important information for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant renal tumors. This study was to evaluate CELTS in the diagnosis of large renal tumors ≥5.0 cm in diameter. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 151 cases of large renal tumor diagnosed by conventional ultrasound and CELTS , and compared the diagnostic value of the two methods .Results There were no significant differences between conventional ultrasound and CELTS in the diagnosis of large renal tumors (P>0.05). However, CELTS exhibited its unique advantages over conventional ultrasound in dis -playing microvascular blood flow in renal tumors . Conclusion CELTS is an important imaging method for the diagnosis of renal tumors, obviously superior to conventional ultrasound in exhibiting the blood flow of kidney tumors .

  2. The Comparison of Ultrasonography and Non Enhanced Helical Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Ureteral Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Kılınç

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous urography, ultrasonography, and non-contrast spiral computed tomography have been used to diagnose ureteral calculi. We aimed to compare the accuracy of non-contrast spiral computed tomography with ultrasonography in the evaluation of patients with renal colic.Fourty-one patients with flank pain were examined with both computed tomography and ultrasonography over a period of 11 months. Findings of ultrasonography and computed tomography of 28 patients in whom üreteral stones were confirmed by standart methods were comparedUreteral calculi were diagnosed in 28 of 41 patients. Ureteral stones could be demonstrated in 18 patients by ultrasonography and in 27 patients by computed tomography. Ultrasonography showed 64.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the diagnosis of ureterolithiasis; computed tomography showed 96.4% and 100%, respectively. Spiral computed tomography is superior to ultrasonography in the demonstration of ureteral calculi in patients with renal colic. But because of higher cost and higher radiation dose, it should be reserved for symptomatic cases in whom ultrasonography is non-diagnostic.

  3. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)], E-mail: dromain@igr.fr; Balleyguier, Corinne; Adler, Ghazal [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Garbay, Jean Remi [Department of Surgery, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Delaloge, Suzette [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2009-01-15

    CEDM is a recent development of digital mammography using the intra-venous injection of an iodinated contrast agent in conjunction with a mammography examination. Two techniques have been developed to perform CEDM examinations: the temporal subtraction technique with acquisition of high-energy images before and after contrast medium injection and the dual energy technique with acquisition of a pair of low and high-energy images only after contrast medium injection. The temporal subtraction technique offered the possibility to analyze the kinetic curve of enhancement of breast lesions, similarly to breast MRI. The dual energy technique do not provide information about the kinetic of tumor enhancement but allows the acquisition of multiples views of the same breast or bilateral examination and is less sensitive to patient motion than temporal CEDM. Initial clinical experience has shown the ability of CEDM to map the distribution of neovasculature induced by cancer using mammography. Moreover, previous studies have shown a superiority of MX + CEDM, either for the assessment of the probability of malignancy than for BIRADS assessment comparing to MX alone. The potential clinical applications are the clarification of mammographically equivocal lesions, the detection of occult lesions on standard mammography, particularly in dense breast, the determination of the extent of disease, the assessment of recurrent disease and the monitoring of the response to chemotherapy. CEDM should result in a simple way to enhance the detection and the characterization of breast lesions.

  4. Measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and duplex ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Liu, Jie; Tarumi, Takashi; Lawley, Justin Stevan; Liu, Peiying; Zhu, David C; Lu, Hanzhang; Zhang, Rong

    2017-02-01

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) and color-coded duplex ultrasonography (CDUS) are commonly used for measuring cerebral blood flow in the internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral arteries. However, agreement between the two methods has been controversial. Recent development of high spatial and temporal resolution blood vessel wall edge-detection and wall-tracking methods with CDUS increased the accuracy and reliability of blood vessel diameter, hence cerebral blood flow measurement. The aim of this study was to compare the improved CDUS method with 3 T PC-MRI for cerebral blood flow measurements. We found that cerebral blood flow velocity measured in the ICA was lower using PC-MRI than CDUS (left ICA: PC-MRI, 18.0 ± 4.2 vs. CDUS, 25.6 ± 8.6 cm/s; right ICA: PC-MRI, 18.5 ± 4.8 vs. CDUS, 26.6 ± 6.7 cm/s, both p blood flow velocity measured in the left vertebral artery with PC-MRI was also lower than CDUS, but no differences in vertebral artery diameter were observed between the methods. Dynamic changes and/or intrinsic physiological fluctuations may have caused these differences in vessel diameter and velocity measurements between the methods. However, estimation of volumetric cerebral blood flow was similar and correlated between the methods despite the presence of large individual differences. These findings support the use of CDUS for cerebral blood flow measurements in the ICA and vertebral artery.

  5. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for liver imaging: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Veronica; Borghi, Alberto; Piscaglia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), providing relevant informations not available with non-enhanced ultrasonography, greatly impacted the practice of liver imaging. The characterization of focal liver lesions (FLLs), is obtained in a rapid, accurate and safe way and is considered the main hepatic indication; however CEUS offers other established or emergent relevant applications. Metastases detection and assessment of response to locoregional tumor treatment are accepted applications with specific indications. Needle guidance in case of poorly or non visible target lesions at conventional ultrasound is also accepted. The early assessment of response to systemic treatment, and in particular to antiangiogenic ones, by quantification software is an emergent application. The manageability of CEUS determined also its use in the operating theatre, improving the accuracy of intraoperatory US with a significant impact on final surgical strategy. In cirrhotic patients, the role of CEUS was proven highly accurate and sensitive in the characterization of portal vein thrombosis, by identification of contrast arterial enhancement inside the thrombus, that occurs only in case of neoplastic origin. In recent years microbubbles taken up by Kupffer cells, thus possessing a "postvascular" phase, were registered as ultrasound contrast agent in Japan (Sonazoid). During the post-vascular phase tumoral tissue tend to appear as a contrast defect image due to the lack of Kupffer cells, strongly contributing to tumor staging beside characterization. Newly developed techniques, such as fusion imaging or real-time three dimensional US, in addition to other applications of CEUS, in terms of post-transplantation or cholecystitis-related complications, have been recently proposed and will be discussed.

  6. Clinical utility of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the differentiation between noninvasive and invasive neoplasms of urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiu-yang, E-mail: qiuyang0925@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Tang, Jie, E-mail: txiner@vip.sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); He, En-hui, E-mail: nkvhg@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Yan-mi, E-mail: liyanmimen@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhou, Yun, E-mail: zhouyun_369@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhang, Xu, E-mail: xzhang@tjh.tjmu.edu.cn [Department of Urology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Chen, Guangfu, E-mail: chen_gf@yanhoo.com [Department of Urology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in differentiating invasive and noninvasive neoplasms of urinary bladder. Methods: A total of 60 lesions in 60 consecutive patients with bladder tumors received three dimensional ultrasonography, low acoustic power contrast enhanced ultrasonography and low acoustic power three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination. The IU22 ultrasound scanner and a volume transducer were used and the ultrasound contrast agent was SonoVue. The contrast-specific sonographic imaging modes were PI (pulse inversion) and PM (power modulation). The three dimensional ultrasonography, contrast enhanced ultrasonography, and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound images were independently reviewed by two readers who were not in the images acquisition. Images were analyzed off-site. A level of confidence in the diagnosis of tumor invasion of the muscle layer was assigned on a 5 Degree-Sign scale. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess overall confidence in the diagnosis of muscle invasion by tumor. Kappa values were used to assess inter-readers agreement. Histologic diagnosis was obtained for all patients. Results: Final pathologic staging revealed 44 noninvasive tumors and 16 invasive tumors. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound depicted all 16 muscle-invasive tumors. The diagnostic performance of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound was better than those of three dimensional ultrasonography and contrast enhanced ultrasonography. The receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.976 and 0.967 for three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound, those for three dimensional ultrasonography were 0.881 and 0.869, those for contrast enhanced ultrasonography were 0.927 and 0.929. The kappa values in the three dimensional ultrasonography, contrast enhanced ultrasonography and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced

  7. A case of eosinophilic cholangitis: Imaging findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, cholangioscopy, and intraductal ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Matsumoto; Masahiko Sugitani; Kiyoshi Yokoyama; Kazuhiko Nakai; Toshiki Yamamoto; Takeshi Otani; Masahiro Ogawa; Naohide Tanaka; Ariyoshi Iwasaki; Yasuyuki Arakawa

    2007-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman was referred to our institution due to epigastralgia. She presented with obstructive jaundice and eosinophilia. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse narrowing from the distal common bile duct to the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts. An endoscopic plastic biliary stent was inserted; the specimen obtained from the common bile duct wall revealed dense infiltration by eosinophils.Treatment was started with prednisolone 60 mg daily.The patient's biliary stenosis and eosinophilia gradually improved. Eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs or stomach is relatively common, but it is rare in the common bile dud. Most of the reported cases of eosinophilic cholangitis presented with eosinophilia; our patient's eosinophil count was over 1000/mm3. Since our patient had allergies to pollen and house dust, a relationship between the allergies and the eosinophilic cholangitis was suspected, but no cause was identified.

  8. Application of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in comparison of the two different artery remodling techniques for kidney transplantation%常规超声和超声造影对移植肾两种动脉重建方式的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖倩; 杜联芳; 沈兵; 范昱; 邢晋放

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用常规超声及超声造影(CEUS)评价肾移植患者供肾动脉与髂内动脉行端端吻合(EEA)或与髂外动脉行端侧吻合(ESA)两种方式的远期效果.方法 根据供肾动脉吻合方式将60名移植肾患者分为EEA组和ESA组,进行二维超声、彩色多普勒超声以及CEUS定量分析的比较.结果 两种动脉重建方式在二维超声和彩色多普勒超声的指标上差异无统计学意义;CEUS定量分析指标上,ESA组略优于EEA组.结论 两种动脉重建方式的血流灌注ESA略优于EEA.%Objective To assess long-term effect of two different types of arterial reanastomoses for kidney transplantation [an end-to-side anastomoses (ESA) of renal artery to external iliac artery and an endto-end anastomoses (EEA) of renal artery to internal iliac artery] by comparing conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) after five years of renal transplantation.Methods Sixty patients underwent kidney transplatation were included and divided into EEA group or ESA group based on the type of anastomoses. Data of renal blood flow perfusion,hemodynamic parameters,and renal anatomical structure were collected and analyzed in each groups using CEUS,color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI) and B-mode ultrasound.Results The patients of the two arterial reanastomoses had no significantly difference in B-mode ultrasound and CDFI. The ESA patients had a slightly better perfusion than the EEA ones in parameters of CEUS.Conclusions Transplant tissue perfusion imaging was performed by CEUS. The perfusion of ESA grafts was slightly better than that of EEA.

  9. Multispectral histogram normalization contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, J. M.; Schwartz, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    A multispectral histogram normalization or decorrelation enhancement which achieves effective color composites by removing interband correlation is described. The enhancement procedure employs either linear or nonlinear transformations to equalize principal component variances. An additional rotation to any set of orthogonal coordinates is thus possible, while full histogram utilization is maintained by avoiding the reintroduction of correlation. For the three-dimensional case, the enhancement procedure may be implemented with a lookup table. An application of the enhancement to Landsat multispectral scanning imagery is presented.

  10. Contrast Enhanced US in the Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Ki Whang [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Contrast enhanced ultrasound, which was introduced in 1996, has been widely used in Europe and Eastern Asia. Ultrasound contrast agent can be classified as first generation and second generation, depending on the gas within the microbubble. With the first generation contrast agent, the high MI technique was used, and only intermittent scanning was possible due to destruction of the microbubble during scanning. Use of the second generation contrast agent with the low MI technique makes continuous scanning possible. Contrast enhanced US can be used in detection and differentiation of focal liver lesions. It is also helpful for monitoring of radiofrequency ablation and for targeting of US guided biopsy. Currently, because morphologic criteria alone may not reflect the response of the tumor to treatment, new criteria are needed for treatment evaluation after administration of anti-angiogenic agents. Contrast enhanced US could provide quantitative markers for evaluation of the response to treatment via use of dynamic contrast enhanced US. Due to cost-effectiveness, contrast enhanced US is not yet widely used in Korea; however, considering recent issues regarding contrast agent related adverse reaction, such as contrast induced nephropathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and radiation exposure, contrast enhanced US might be more widely used in Korea, as an alternative imaging modality in the future.

  11. Effects of Gray-Scale Ultrasonography Immediate Post-Contrast on Characterization of Focal Liver Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the imaging features of conventional gray scale ultrasound (US before and after contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS for focal liver lesions and 22 evaluated the role of US post-CEUS in characterizing liver lesions. 126 patients with 158 focal liver lesions underwent CEUS and US post-CEUS examination and entered this study. There were 74 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC, 43 hepatic metastases, and 41 hemangiomas. Imaging features of US pre-CEUS and US post-CEUS were analyzed offsite by two blinded experienced radiologists to evaluate size, boundary, echogenicity, internal texture, posterior acoustic enhancement, spatial resolution, and contrast resolution. In the end with pathological and clinical evidence, the diagnostic accuracy rate of US pre-CEUS was 53.8% (85/158 lesions, lower than that of CEUS (88.0%, 139/158 lesions; with the complementation of US post-CEUS the rate rose to 93.0% (147/158 lesions. US post-CEUS could improve the visibility of typical structures of focal liver lesions and might provide important complementary information for CEUS diagnosis. It also increases the visibility of small liver lesions compared with US pre-CEUS and helps to guide local interventional procedure.

  12. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography vs computed tomography enteroclysis for assessing ileal Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Onali; Emma Calabrese; Carmelina Petruzziello; Francesca Zorzi; Giuseppe Sica; Roberto Fiori; Marta Ascolani

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To compare computed tomography enteroclysis (CTE) vs small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) for assessing small bowel lesions in Crohn's disease (CD),when using surgical pathology as gold standard.METHODS:From January 2007 to July 2008,15 eligible patients undergoing elective resection of the distal ileum and coecum (or right colon) were prospectively enrolled.All patients were under follow-up.The study population included 6 males and 9 females,with a median age of 44 years (range:18-80 years).Inclusion criteria:(1) certain diagnosis of small bowel requiring elective ileo-colonic resection; (2) age between 18-80 years; (3) elective surgery in our Surgical Unit; and (4) written informed consent.SICUS and CTE were performed ≤ 3 mo before surgery,followed by surgical pathology.The following small bowel lesions were blindly reported by one sonologist,radiologist,surgeon and histolopathologist:disease site,extent,strictures,abscesses,fistulae,small bowel dilation.Comparison between findings at SICUS,CTE,surgical specimens and histological examination was made by assessing the specificity,sensitivity and accuracy of each technique,when using surgical findings as gold standard.RESULTS:Among the 15 patients enrolled,CTE was not feasible in 2 patients,due to urgent surgery in one patients and to low compliance in the second patient,refusing to perform CTE due to the discomfort related to the naso-jejunal tube.The analysis for comparing CTE vs SICUS findings was therefore performed in 13 out of the 15 CD patients enrolled.Differently from CTE,SICUS was feasible in all the 15 patients enrolled.No complications were observed when using SICUS or CTE.Surgical pathology findings in the tested population included:small bowel stricture in 13 patients,small bowel dilation above ileal stricture in 10 patients,abdominal abscesses in 2 patients,enteric fistulae in 5 patients,lymphnodes enlargement (> 1 cm) in 7 patients and mesenteric enlargement in 9 patients

  13. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography vs computed tomography enteroclysis for assessing ileal Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onali, Sara; Calabrese, Emma; Petruzziello, Carmelina; Zorzi, Francesca; Sica, Giuseppe; Fiori, Roberto; Ascolani, Marta; Lolli, Elisabetta; Condino, Giovanna; Palmieri, Giampiero; Simonetti, Giovanni; Pallone, Francesco; Biancone, Livia

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare computed tomography enteroclysis (CTE) vs small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) for assessing small bowel lesions in Crohn's disease (CD), when using surgical pathology as gold standard. METHODS: From January 2007 to July 2008, 15 eligible patients undergoing elective resection of the distal ileum and coecum (or right colon) were prospectively enrolled. All patients were under follow-up. The study population included 6 males and 9 females, with a median age of 44 years (range: 18-80 years). Inclusion criteria: (1) certain diagnosis of small bowel requiring elective ileo-colonic resection; (2) age between 18-80 years; (3) elective surgery in our Surgical Unit; and (4) written informed consent. SICUS and CTE were performed ≤ 3 mo before surgery, followed by surgical pathology. The following small bowel lesions were blindly reported by one sonologist, radiologist, surgeon and histolopathologist: disease site, extent, strictures, abscesses, fistulae, small bowel dilation. Comparison between findings at SICUS, CTE, surgical specimens and histological examination was made by assessing the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of each technique, when using surgical findings as gold standard. RESULTS: Among the 15 patients enrolled, CTE was not feasible in 2 patients, due to urgent surgery in one patients and to low compliance in the second patient, refusing to perform CTE due to the discomfort related to the naso-jejunal tube. The analysis for comparing CTE vs SICUS findings was therefore performed in 13 out of the 15 CD patients enrolled. Differently from CTE, SICUS was feasible in all the 15 patients enrolled. No complications were observed when using SICUS or CTE. Surgical pathology findings in the tested population included: small bowel stricture in 13 patients, small bowel dilation above ileal stricture in 10 patients, abdominal abscesses in 2 patients, enteric fistulae in 5 patients, lymphnodes enlargement (> 1 cm) in 7 patients and

  14. CONTRAST ENHANCED SPECTRAL MAMMOGRAPHY (CESM (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Rozhkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of early diagnosis of a breast cancer is extremely actual. Growth of incidence at women from 19 to 39 years increased for 34% over the last 10 years. It defines need of acceleration of development and deployment of the latest technologies of identification of the earliest symptoms of diseases. The x-ray mammography is the conducting method among of all radiological methods of diagnostics. Nevertheless a number of restrictions of method reduces its efficiency. The technologies increasing informational content of x-ray mammography – the leading method of screening – due to use of artificial contrasting and advantages of digital technologies are constantly developed. In this review it is described works, in which the authors having clinical experience of application of CESM – contrastenhanced spectral mammography on representative group of women. Positive sides and restrictions of new technology in comparison with mammography, ultrasonography and MRT are shown in this article.

  15. Evaluation of microbubbles as contrast agents for ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbubbles (MBs can serve as an ultrasound contrast agent, and has the potential for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Due to the relatively low effect of MBs on MRI, it is necessary to develop new MBs that are more suitable for MRI. In this study, we evaluate the properties of SonoVue® and custom-made Fe(3O(4-nanoparticle-embedded microbubbles (Fe(3O(4-MBs in terms of contrast agents for ultrsonography (US and MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 20 HepG2 subcutaneous-tumor-bearing nude mice were randomly assigned to 2 groups (i.e., n = 10 mice each group, one for US test and the other for MRI test. Within each group, two tests were performed for each mouse. The contrast agent for the first test is SonoVue®, and the second is Fe(3O(4-MBs. US was performed using a Technos(MPX US system (Esaote, Italy with a contrast-tuned imaging (CnTI™ mode. MRI was performed using a 7.0T Micro-MRI (PharmaScan, Bruker Biospin GmbH, Germany with an EPI-T(2* sequence. The data of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR from the region-of-interest of each US and MR image was calculated by ImageJ (National Institute of Health, USA. In group 1, enhancement of SonoVue® was significantly higher than Fe(3O(4-MBs on US (P0.05. The SNR analysis of the enhancement process reveals a strong negative correlation in both cases (i.e., SonoVue® r = -0.733, Fe(3O(4-MBs r = -0.903, with P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: It might be important to change the Fe(3O(4-MBs' shell structure and/or the imagining strategy of US to improve the imaging quality of Fe(3O(4-MBs on US. As an intriguing prospect that can be detected by US and MRI, MBs are worthy of further study.

  16. 超声弹性成像联合超声造影在乳腺 BI-RADS 4级肿块良恶性鉴别诊断中的价值%Value of Ultrasonic Elastography Combined with Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography in Differential Diagnosis of BI-RADS 4 Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珍望; 吕志红; 韩鄂辉; 袁征

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨超声弹性成像(UE)联合超声造影(CEUS)在乳腺 BI-RADS 4级肿块良恶性鉴别诊断中的应用价值。方法对112例乳腺 BI-RADS 4级肿块患者行超声弹性成像和超声造影检测,并对术后病理结果进行对比。结果112例患者共125个乳腺肿块,病理学诊断良性85例,恶性40例。85个良性乳腺肿块超声弹性成像评分(2.56±0.48)分,40个恶性乳腺肿块评分(3.85±0.67)分,恶性乳腺肿块超声弹性成像评分较良性乳腺肿块显著升高(P <0.05);良、恶性乳腺肿块超声造影形态特征在增强水平、对比剂分布、增强方式、肿块内血管形态、增强后边界、肿块周边放射状增强、造影后肿块大小等方面比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。超声弹性成像、超声造影及二者联合诊断的敏感性分别为75.0%、82.5%、92.5%,特异性分别为89.4%、85.9%、94.1%,准确性分别为84.8%、84.8%、93.6%。二者联合诊断的的敏感性、特异性及准确性均显著高于二者单独应用,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论超声弹性成像联合超声造影技术更有助于乳腺 BI-RADS 4级肿块良恶性的鉴别。%Objective TO investigate the value of ultrasonic elastography(UE)combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS)in the differential diagnosis of Breast Imaging Repor-ting and Data System(BI-RADS)4 lesions.Methods A total of 112 patients with BI-RADS 4 le-sions underwent UE and CEUS.The diagnostic results were compared with postoperative pathol-ogy.Results Among the 125 breast masses,pathological diagnosis showed benign lesions in 85, and malignant lesions in 40.The UE score of malignant lesions(3.85 ± 0.67)was significantly higher than that of benign lesions(2.56±0.48)(P <0.05).Furthermore,there were significant differences between benign and malignant lesions in the morphological

  17. Evaluation of the short-time effect of radiofrequency ablation on kidney by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging%超声造影、磁共振评价肾射频消融短期效果的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐繁华; 胡兵; 张步林; 邝胜利

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of the modalities in revealing the results by observing the radiofrequency ablated (RFA) lesions with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS),magnetic resonance image (MRI) in comparison with histopathologic findings in normal rabbit kidney.Methods RFA was performed in the left kidneys of 10 rabbits.The ablated lesions were observed with conventional ultrasound(US),CEUS,MRI at 1 day,1 week after RFA.Then the rabbits subjected to postmortem and the kidney specimens were excised,stained and processed for conventional histologic study.The maximum lesion size as measured on US,CEUS and MRI was then correlated with the histopathologically determined lesion size.The utility of different imaging modalities were evaluated.Results In a relatively short time (at 1 day and 1 week),CEUS and MRI may reveal the location,shape and extent of ablated lesion.And the lesion sizes with CEUS,MRI and kidney specimens were well correlated (P>0.05).Conclusions Both CEUS and MRI are suitable for the accurate evaluation of the ablated lesions in the short time.CEUS can reveal the variation of flow perfusion in the ablated lesion dynamicly and in real time.%目的 应用超声造影(CEUS)、磁共振(MRI)观察正常兔肾射频消融灶的影像表现,并与大体病理进行对照,探讨超声造影、MRI在正常肾射频消融效果评估中的价值.方法 10只新西兰大白兔行肾经皮射频消融术,分别在射频术后1d、1周行超声造影及MRI检查,并与大体标本消融灶的测量结果进行比较.结果 在射频消融术后较短时间内(术后1d和1周),超声造影和增强MRI可以清晰地显示肾消融灶的部位、形态及范围,影像表现与大体标本、超声造影与增强MRI测量结果比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 超声造影和增强MRI均适用于肾射频消融灶短期情况的观察评价,超声造影可以实时动态地显示消融灶血流灌注的变化.

  18. Evaluating the effects of Albizia Julibrissin 298 on the angiogenesis by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in mice xenograft model of hepatocelluar carcionma%超声造影评价“合欢皮298”对小鼠移植瘤血管生成的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏西; 周峰盛; 朱巧英; 陈俊; 彭雁; 蔡兵; 邱丽颖; 冯磊

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨超声造影评价抗肿瘤血管生成疗效的可行性.方法 建立20只小鼠皮下H22肝癌异种移植瘤模型.24 h后,治疗组使用“合欢皮298”5 mg· kg-1 ·d-1灌胃治疗,连续7d,对照组给予等量生理盐水.在服药后第7天和14天分别对小鼠进行常规超声及超声造影检查,使用Sonoliver软件获得造影时间强度曲线(TIC),比较TIC参数的差异.于第14天超声造影检查完成后处死小鼠,完整剥离肿瘤,免疫组化检测肿瘤CD31表达情况,分析微血管密度(MVD)与超声造影参数的相关性.结果 治疗组肿瘤体积小于对照组(P<0.05);第7天和14天,治疗组小鼠CEUS定量参数最大峰值强度(IMAX)小于对照组(P<0.01).第14天,治疗组RT、TTP、mTT大于对照组,治疗组MVD明显少于对照组(P<0.01); MVD与IMAX呈正相关(r=0.73,P<0.01).结论 超声造影能客观反映肿瘤内微循环的灌注变化,用于临床抗肿瘤血管生成疗效观察方便易行.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of evaluating the efficacy of antitumor angiogenesis by contrast-enhanced ultra-sonography (CEUS). Methods The xenograft model of hepatocelluar carcionma was established by subcutaneously implanting H22 cells in 20 mice. The model mice were treated by feeding Albizia Julibrissin 298 5 mg · kg-1 · d-1 for 7 days (group A, 10 mice) or equivalent volume of normal saline as control (group B, 10 mice). The size of the xenografts was measured by CEUS on the 7th and 14th day after drug administration. With the software of SonoLiver. the time-intensity curve (TIC) and the perfusion parameters of the maximum intensity(IMAX), rise time(RT), time to initial peak(TTP) and mean transit time (mTT) were obtained. On the 14th day. the mice were euthanized and the xenografts were taken out for detecting the expression of CD31 and analyzing the correlation between CEUS parameters and microvascular density(MVD). Results The tumour volume of group A was less than that

  19. 亚甲蓝法与超声造影法检测乳腺癌前哨淋巴结的对比研究%Comparison of methylene blue dye injection and contrast enhanced ultrasonography in detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付明刚; 刘莎; 郭丽英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility of contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS)in detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN)in patients with breast cancer during operation and its clinical significance. Methods 21 patients who underwent radical resection of a primary breast cancer were enrolled.During op-eration,1% methylene blue was injected around the tumor,and SLN mapping was performed.Then the SonoVue was injected at the same sites,then CEUS was performed to observe changes of SLN in real time, and marked them.The SLN detection rate and accuracy of CEUS were compared to those of conventional dye guided method.Results SLN were successfully imaged by SonoVue,the detection rate of CEUS for SLN was 80.95%,and the accuracy was 93.55%.The detection rate of dye guided method for SLN was 85.71%,and the accuracy was 93.75%,there was no statistically significant difference between CEUS and dye guided method (P >0.05).Conclusion Peritumoral injection is a good method for evaluating and pre-dicting sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer.When injected SonoVue in peritumoral,the good mapping of SLN in patients with breast cancer can be obtained,and it will play an important role in clinical application to map SLN in patients with breast cancer.%目的:探讨超声造影法在乳腺癌术中检测前哨淋巴结(SLN)的可行性及临床应用价值。方法选择21例乳腺癌根治术患者,术中于肿瘤周围注射1%亚甲蓝,寻找被蓝染的 SLN;于相同注射部位注射超声造影剂声诺维(SonoVue),动态观察并标记显像 SLN。对比超声造影法和亚甲蓝法对 SLN 的检出率和准确率。结果注射 SonoVue 后能够获得清晰的传人淋巴管和 SLN 图像。超声造影法对乳腺癌患者 SLN 的检出率为85.71%,准确率为89.29%;亚甲蓝法对其检出率为80.95%,准确率为93.33%,2种方法检出率和准确率比较差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论超

  20. 超声造影在结直肠癌术中前哨淋巴结显像中的应用研究%Clinical research of sentinel lymph node imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in colorectal cancer during operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严婷; 王文; 李海

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨超声造影法在结直肠癌术中检测前哨淋巴结(SLN)的可行性及临床应用价值.方法 21例结直肠癌根治术患者,术中于肿块四周注射1%亚甲蓝,寻找被蓝染的SLN;于相同注射部位注射超声造影剂SonoVue,动态观察并标记显像SLN.对比超声造影法和亚甲蓝法对SLN的检出率和准确率.结果 注射SonoVue后能够获得清晰的传入淋巴管和SLN图像.超声造影法对腹膜反折以下的直肠癌患者SLN的检出率为92.31%,准确率为88.89%;亚甲蓝法对其检出率为84.62%,准确率为93.10%,两种方法比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 经黏膜下注射SonoVue可成功地定位腹膜反折以下直肠癌患者的SLN,预计在临床腹膜反折以下直肠癌患者SLN检查中具有潜在的应用价值.%Objective To study the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting sentinel lymph node(SLN) in patients with colorectal cancer during operation and their clinical significance.Methods Twenty-one patients who underwent radical resection of a primary colorectal cancer were enrolled.During operation,1 % methylene blue was injected around the tumor,SLN mapping was performed.Then the SonoVue was injected at the same sites,CEUS was performed to observe changes of SLN in real time,and marked them.The SLN detection rate and accuracy of CEUS were compared to those of conventional dye guided method.Results The rectal cancer of below peritoneal reflex,the detection rate of CEUS for SLN was 92.31 %,and the accuracy was 88.89%.The detection rate of dye guided method for SLN was 84.62%,and the accuracy was 93.10%,there was no statistically significant difference between CEUS and dye guided method (P >0.05).Conclusions When injected SonoVue in submucosal layer,the good mapping of SLN of patients with rectal cancer of below peritoneal reflex can be obtained,it will play an important role in clinical application to map SLN of patients

  1. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA. Technique and contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Yousef W. [Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital Bispebjerg, Bispebjerg (Denmark)], e-mail: ywnielsen@gmail.com; Thomsen, Henrik S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital Herlev, Herlev (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast agents. Peripheral CE-MRA is defined as an MR angiogram of the arteries from the aortic bifurcation to the feet. Advantages of CE-MRA include minimal invasiveness and lack of ionizing radiation. The basic technique employed for peripheral CE-MRA is the bolus-chase method. With this method a paramagnetic MRI contrast agent is injected intravenously and T1-weighted images are acquired in the subsequent arterial first-pass phase. In order to achieve high quality MR angiograms without interfering venous contamination or artifacts, a number of factors need to be taken into account. This includes magnetic field strength of the MRI system, receiver coil configuration, use of parallel imaging, contrast bolus timing technique, and k-space filling strategies. Furthermore, it is possible to optimize peripheral CE-MRA using venous compression techniques, hybrid scan protocols, time-resolved imaging, and steady-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged intravascular stay, due to macromolecular structure or protein binding. These agents can be used for first-pass, as well as steady-state MRA. Some Gd-based contrast agents with low thermodynamic stability have been linked to development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Using optimized technique and a stable MRI contrast agent, peripheral CE-MRA is a safe procedure with diagnostic accuracy close to that of conventional catheter X

  2. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, A; Dietrich, C F; Vilmann, P

    2012-01-01

    Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, and improving staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Although...... contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS based on a very low mechanical index (0.08 - 0.12). Quantification techniques based on dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound have been recommended for perfusion imaging and monitoring of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly based on time-intensity curve analysis. Most...

  3. Perceptual Contrast Enhancement with Dynamic Range Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Yuecheng; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Ding; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Recent years, although great efforts have been made to improve its performance, few Histogram equalization (HE) methods take human visual perception (HVP) into account explicitly. The human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to edges than brightness. This paper proposes to take use of this nature intuitively and develops a perceptual contrast enhancement approach with dynamic range adjustment through histogram modification. The use of perceptual contrast connects the image enhancement problem with the HVS. To pre-condition the input image before the HE procedure is implemented, a perceptual contrast map (PCM) is constructed based on the modified Difference of Gaussian (DOG) algorithm. As a result, the contrast of the image is sharpened and high frequency noise is suppressed. A modified Clipped Histogram Equalization (CHE) is also developed which improves visual quality by automatically detecting the dynamic range of the image with improved perceptual contrast. Experimental results show that the new HE algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art algorithms in improving perceptual contrast and enhancing details. In addition, the new algorithm is simple to implement, making it suitable for real-time applications. PMID:24339452

  4. Image evolution approach for contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, Guillermo; Casalles, Vicent

    1995-09-01

    An algorithm for histogram modification via image evolution equations is first presented in this paper. We show that the image histogram can be modified to achieve any given distribution as the steady state solution of this partial differential equation. We then prove that this equation corresponds to a gradient descent flow of a variational problem. That is, the proposed PDE is solving an energy minimization problem. This gives a new interpretation to histogram modification and contrast enhancement in general. This interpretation is completely formulated in the image domain, in contrast with classical techniques for histogram modification which are formulated in a probabilistic domain. From this, new algorithms for contrast enhancement, which include for example, image modeling, can be derived. Based on the energy formulation and its corresponding PDE, we show that the proposed histogram modification algorithm can be combined with denoising schemes. This allows to perform simultaneous contrast enhancement and denoising, avoiding common noise sharpening effects in classical algorithms. The approach is extended to local contrast enhancement as well. Theoretical results regarding the existence of solutions of the proposed equations are presented.

  5. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  6. Assessment of metastatic liver disease in patients with primary extrahepatic tumors by contrast-enhanced sonography versus CT & MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Strobel, Deike; Danse, Etienne; Fessl, Robert; Bunk, Alfred; Vossas, Udo; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Koch, Wilhelm; Blank, Wolfgang; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Hahn, Dietbert; Greis, Christian

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) using SonoVue (R) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with known extrahepatic primary tumors versus the combined gold standard comprising CT, MRI and clinical/histological data. METHODS: It is an international multicenter study,

  7. Shoulder Magnetic Resonance Arthrography: A Prospective Randomized Study of Anterior and Posterior Ultrasonography-Guided Contrast Injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, M.P.; Mustonen, A.O.T. (Dept. of Radiology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is an accurate imaging method for internal shoulder derangements and rotator cuff pathologies. Both anterior and posterior contrast injection techniques, under palpatory, fluoroscopic, or ultrasonographic guidance have been described in the literature. However, clinical comparisons of the injection techniques remain few. Purpose: To compare the performance of anterior and posterior ultrasonography (US)-guided arthrography injections of the shoulder regarding patient discomfort and influence on diagnostic MR reading, and to illustrate the typical artifacts resulting from contrast leakage in the respective techniques. Material and Methods: 43 MR arthrographies were prospectively randomized into anterior and posterior US-guided contrast injections and performed by two radiologists, with the study of artifacts from contrast leakage. Pain from the injections was assessed by a survey utilizing a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Of the 23 anterior injections, nine caused contrast artifacts in the subscapular tendon, and in three the leakage extended further anteriorly. Of the 20 posterior injections, 12 showed injection artifacts of the rotator cuff, extending outside the cuff in seven. Two of the anterior and none of the posterior artifacts compromised diagnostic quality. In posterior injections, the leakage regularly occurred at the caudal edge of the infraspinatus muscle and was easily distinguishable from rotator cuff tears. All patients completed the pain survey. Mean VAS scores were 25.0 (median 18, SD 22) for anterior, and 25.4 (median 16, SD 25) for posterior injections. The two radiologists achieved different mean VAS scores but closely agreed as to anterior and posterior VAS scores. Conclusion: Arthrography injections were fairly simple to perform under US guidance. Patient discomfort for anterior and posterior injections was equally minor. A tailored approach utilizing anterior or posterior injections

  8. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojia; Jin, Zhendong; Xu, Can; Zhang, Minmin; Zhu, Jianwei; Jiang, Fei; Li, Zhaoshen

    2015-01-01

    The negative predictive value of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration for the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions remains low, and the biopsy specimens are sometimes inadequate for appropriate pathological diagnosis. To evaluate the usefulness of a novel method of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration for the differential diagnosis and adequate sampling of solid pancreatic lesions. Patients with a diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions who underwent fine-needle aspiration guided by contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography or by endoscopic ultrasonography from October 2010 to July 2013 were retrospectively identified and classified into the CH-EUS or EUS group, respectively. Surgical pathology and/or follow-up results were defined as the final diagnosis. Operating characteristics and adequacy of biopsy specimens by fine-needle aspiration were compared between the two groups. Operating characteristics for contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration in solid pancreatic lesions were as follows: area under the curve = 0.908, sensitivity = 81.6%, specificity = 100%, positive predictive value = 100%, negative predictive value = 74.1%, and accuracy = 87.9%. The percentage of adequate biopsy specimens in the CH-EUS group (96.6%) was greater than that in the EUS group (86.7%). Simultaneous contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography during fine-needle aspiration is useful for improving the diagnostic yield and adequate sampling of solid pancreatic lesions.

  9. Contrast Enhancement through Clustered Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Chuan Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a contrast enhancement algorithm. Some methods enhance images depending on only the global or the local information, therefore it would cause over-enhancement usually and make the image look unnatural. The proposed method enhances image based on the global and local information. For the global part, we proposed mapping curves to find the new average, maximum and minimum intensity to try to suit the concept of Human Visual System (HVS for obtaining the better perceptual results. For the local part, we utilized fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm to group image and we can obtain the information of intensity distribution and pixel number from each group. Then we calculate weights according to the information and enhance images by Histogram Equalization (HE depending on the weights. The experiment results show that our method can enhance the contrast of image steadily and it causes over-enhancement with lower probability than other methods. The whole image not only looks natural but also shows detail texture more clearly after applying our method.

  10. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  11. 超声造影引导射频凝固治疗肝内不同级别门静脉创伤的动物实验研究%The evaluation of radiofrequency coagulation under the guidance of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in treating different branches of portal venous injury: an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦子育; 罗渝昆; 唐杰; 吕发勤; 刘强; 武荣; 陈继业

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨超声造影(CEUS)引导射频凝固治疗肝门静脉创伤的价值.方法 8只健康巴马猪,每只猪在超声引导下建立4个门静脉段及段以下分支血管创伤灶,该4个损伤门静脉内径(d)分别为:d <1 mm、1 mm≤d<2 mm、2 mm≤d<3 mm、d≥3 mm,并依次编入A、B、C、D组.采用CEUS引导下射频凝固法对各组创伤灶进行治疗.治疗前记录门静脉流速,计算每分钟血流量;治疗后2 h记录治疗时间、止血效果、CEUS无增强区最大切面面积,治疗后2周行病理学检查.结果成功建立32个门静脉创伤灶.治疗前A、B、C、D组每分钟血流量分别为(3.9±0.6)、(11.9±3.3)、(39.2±12.3)、(76.3±21.7)mL,组间差异有统计学意义(F=54.0,P=0.00),且A组与C组、A组与D组、B组与C组、B组与D组、C组与D组间差异均有统计学意义(q=7.93、16.27、6.13、14.48、8.34,P均<0.05).所有肝门静脉段及段以下分支创伤均获得有效止血.A、B、C、D组止血时间分别为(98.5±16.8)、(110.8±24.1)、(137.2±31.3)、(154.5±39.6)s,组间差异有统计学意义(F=6.01,P=0.00),且A组与C组、A组与D组、B组与D组间差异有统计学意义(q=3.75、5.42、4.23,P均<0.05).A、B、C、D组CEUS无增强区最大切面面积分别为(7.4±2.8)、(11.6±3.1)、(14.9±4.3)、(17.1±4.9)cm2,组间差异有统计学意义(F=9.52,P=0.00),且A组与C组、A组与D组、B组与D组间差异有统计学意义(q=5.48、7.09、4.02,P均<0.05).结论 CEUS引导射频凝固技术是一种方便、快捷、有效的猪肝门静脉段及段以下创伤止血方法.%Objective To discuss the value of radiofrequency coagulation under the guidance of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography( CEUS ) in the treatment of portal venous injury. Methods The experiment was performed in 8 healthy swine. Vascular injuries in the segmental and subsegmental branches of portal vein in each animal were created in diameters( d ) as followed: d < 1 mm, 1 mm≤d <2 mm, 2 mm ≤ d < 3 mm

  12. Dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound for therapy monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John M. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Williams, Ross [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Sheeran, Paul S. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Milot, Laurent [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bjarnason, Georg A. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Toronto, and Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Burns, Peter N., E-mail: burns@sri.utoronto.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative imaging is a crucial component of the assessment of therapies that target the vasculature of angiogenic or inflamed tissue. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) using microbubble contrast offers the advantages of being sensitive to perfusion, non-invasive, cost effective and well suited to repeated use at the bedside. Uniquely, it employs an agent that is truly intravascular. This papers reviews the principles and methodology of DCE-US, especially as applied to anti-angiogenic cancer therapies. Reproducibility is an important attribute of such a monitoring method: results are discussed. More recent technical advances in parametric and 3D DCE-US imaging are also summarised and illustrated.

  13. Optimization of subcutaneous vein contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2000-05-01

    A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This techniques uses a near IR light source and one or more IR sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using a n LCD video projector. The use of an IR transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults and children, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in all cases. The most difficult cases are those where significant deposits of subcutaneous fat are present which make the veins invisible under normal room illumination. Recent attempts to see through fat using different IR wavelength bands and both linearly and circularly polarized light were unsuccessful. The key to seeing through fat turns out to be a very diffuse source of RI light. Results on adult and pediatric subjects are shown with this new IR light source.

  14. Contrast-enhanced and targeted ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postema, Michiel; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2011-01-07

    Ultrasonic imaging is becoming the most popular medical imaging modality, owing to the low price per examination and its safety. However, blood is a poor scatterer of ultrasound waves at clinical diagnostic transmit frequencies. For perfusion imaging, markers have been designed to enhance the contrast in B-mode imaging. These so-called ultrasound contrast agents consist of microscopically small gas bubbles encapsulated in biodegradable shells. In this review, the physical principles of ultrasound contrast agent microbubble behavior and their adjustment for drug delivery including sonoporation are described. Furthermore, an outline of clinical imaging applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is given. It is a challenging task to quantify and predict which bubble phenomenon occurs under which acoustic condition, and how these phenomena may be utilized in ultrasonic imaging. Aided by high-speed photography, our improved understanding of encapsulated microbubble behavior will lead to more sophisticated detection and delivery techniques. More sophisticated methods use quantitative approaches to measure the amount and the time course of bolus or reperfusion curves, and have shown great promise in revealing effective tumor responses to anti-angiogenic drugs in humans before tumor shrinkage occurs. These are beginning to be accepted into clinical practice. In the long term, targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging and eventually for directed anti-tumor therapy are expected to be tested.

  15. Contrast-enhanced and targeted ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michiel Postema; Odd Helge Gilja

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is becoming the most popular medical imaging modality,owing to the low price per examination and its safety.However,blood is a poor scatterer of ultrasound waves at clinical diagnostic transmit frequencies.For perfusion imaging,markers have been designed to enhance the contrast in B-mode imaging.These so-called ultrasound contrast agents consist of microscopically small gas bubbles encapsulated in biodegradable shells.In this review,the physical principles of ultrasound contrast agent microbubble behavior and their adjustment for drug delivery including sonoporation are described.Furthermore,an outline of clinical imaging applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is given.It is a challenging task to quantify and predict which bubble phenomenon occurs under which acoustic condition,and how these phenomena may be utilized in ultrasonic imaging.Aided by high-speed photography,our improved understanding of encapsulated microbubble behavior will lead to more sophisticated detection and delivery techniques.More sophisticated methods use quantitative approaches to measure the amount and the time course of bolus or reperfusion curves,and have shown great promise in revealing effective tumor responses to anti-angiogenic drugs in humans before tumor shrinkage occurs.These are beginning to be accepted into clinical practice.In the long term,targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging and eventually for directed anti-tumor therapy are expected to be tested.

  16. Adaptive overlapped sub-blocks contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anqiu; Yuan, Fei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Siqi; Li, An; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an overlapped sub-block gray-level average method for contrast enhancement is presented. The digital image correction of uneven illumination under microscope transmittance is a problem in image processing, also sometimes the image in the dark place need to correct the uneven problem. A new correction method was proposed based on the mask method and sub-blocks gray-level average method because Traditional mask method and background fitting method are restricted due to application scenarios, and the corrected image brightness is low by using background fitting method, so it has some limitations of the application. In this paper, we introduce a new method called AOSCE for image contrast enhancement. The image is divided into many sub-blocks which are overlapped, calculate the average gray-level of the whole image as M and the calculate the average gray-level of each one as mi, next for each block it can get d = mi - m, each block minus d to get a new image, and then get the minimum gray-level of each block into a matrix DD to get the background, and use bilinearity to get the same scale of the image. over fitting the image in matlab in order to get smoother image, then minus the background to get the contrast enhancement image.

  17. 经皮超声造影检测兔 VX2乳腺癌前哨淋巴结的实验研究%Experimental study of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for sentinel lymph node detection in rabbit with VX2 breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 尹立雪; 李文华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for the detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer.Methods Eighteen VX2 breast cancer lymph node metastasis models in rabbit were established .Experimental methods:(1)Conventional two-dimensional, color and energy Doppler images and Doppler velocity tracings of axillary lymph nodes were obtained after injection of tumor cell suspension for 4 to 5 weeks;(2)After injected subcutaneously with SonoVue around the tumor,nodes perfusion images were collected;(3) Methylene blue tracer was subcutaneously injected around the tumor;(4)Axillary lymph nodes resected for pathological examination .Results Fifteen VX2 breast cancer lymph node metastasis models in rabbit were successfully established .A total of 39 lymph nodes were resected for pathologic examination and 30 were metastasis.(1)A total of 35 lymph nodes were detected by gray-scale ultrasound,of which,23 metastasized and 12 non-metastasized.The results showed that metastatic lymph nodes were mostly with rounded shape ( aspect ratio 0.05].The detection accuracy,sensitivity,specificity rate of metastatic lymph node by CEUS was higher than that by gray-scale ultrasound,but there was no statistically significant differences (χ2 =0.36,P>0.05;Fisher′s exact test,P=0.05).The detection accuracy rate of metastatic lymph node by CEUS was lower than that by gray-scale ultrasound,and there was no statistically significant differences too (Fisher′s exact test,P=0.08).Conclusions CEUS can be used for real-time observing both lymphatic perfusion and lymph node metastasis,and for non-invasive localization of SLN.It has the potential ability to determine lymph node metastases.CEUS has similar detection rate ,accuracy and sensitivity to blue dye test .It is suggested that the CEUS-guided method using SonoVue may be a novel useful method for SLN identification .%  目的探讨经皮超声造影在实验兔VX2乳腺癌前哨淋巴结

  18. Fast contrast enhanced imaging with projection reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dana Ceceilia

    The use of contrast agents has lead to great advances in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Here we present the first application of projection reconstruction to contrast enhanced MRA. In this research the limited angle projection reconstruction (PR) trajectory is implemented to acquire higher resolution images per unit time than with conventional Fourier transform (FT) imaging. It is well known that as FOV is reduced in conventional spin- warp imaging, higher resolution per unit time can be obtained, but aliasing may appear as a replication of outside material within the FOV. The limited angle PR acquisition also produces aliasing artifacts. This method produced artifacts which were unacceptable in X-ray CT but which appear to be tolerable in MR Angiography. Resolution throughout the FOV is determined by the projection readout resolution and not by the number of projections. As the number of projections is reduced, the resolution is unchanged, but low intensity artifacts appear. Here are presented the results of using limited angle PR in phantoms and contrast-enhanced angiograms of humans.

  19. Epinephrine enhanced double contrast knee arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Mun; Choi, Byung Ihn [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    It is well known that double contrast knee arthrography is useful in diagnosis of meniscal lesion and other knee pathology. But intra-articular structures become less well delineated shortly after injection into the knee joint with water soluble contrast media because of rapid absorption and dilution of the injected media. This limits the time when sharply detailed arthrograms are obtained and precludes repeat delayed arthrogram without reinjection of contrast media. In order to overcome this major disadvantage, the authors used epinephrine which has vasoconstrictive effect and is expected to reduce fluid movement across the synovial membrane temporarily. The authors attempted to compare epinephrine enhanced double contrast arthrographic group, epinephrine (+) group, to the double contrast arthrographic group without epinephrine, epinephrine (-) group, by statistical evaluation. Each group consisted of 35 cases and 7 lateral films of knee joint were taken sequentially 2, 6, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60 minutes after injection of contrast media, and were assessed by 5 certified radiologist. The results were as follows: 1. The differences of mean score of quality between epinephrine (+) group and epinephrine (-) group was statistically significant at every time interval (p value<0.01 at 2 minutes, p<0.001 at all other time interval). Epinephrine (+) group was superior to the epinephrine (-) group in quality of film. 2. Numbers of cases above score of 2 which was considered to be of diagnostic quality in evaluating meniscal lesions were larger in epinephrine (+) group than epinephrine (-) group at every time interval. And the differences between two groups was highly significant statistically (p,0.001). 3. Only 43% of cases was above score of 2 at 10 minutes in epinephrine (-) group, but 97% at 10 minutes and 80% at 20 minutes respectively in epinephrine (+) group. Therefore duration for adequate study of arthrogram is prolonged more than two times epinephrine (+) group. 4

  20. Quantitative contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winetraub, Yonatan; SoRelle, Elliott D. [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Biophysics Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liba, Orly [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zerda, Adam de la [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Biophysics Program, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a model to accurately quantify the signals produced by exogenous scattering agents used for contrast-enhanced Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This model predicts distinct concentration-dependent signal trends that arise from the underlying physics of OCT detection. Accordingly, we show that real scattering particles can be described as simplified ideal scatterers with modified scattering intensity and concentration. The relation between OCT signal and particle concentration is approximately linear at concentrations lower than 0.8 particle per imaging voxel. However, at higher concentrations, interference effects cause signal to increase with a square root dependence on the number of particles within a voxel. Finally, high particle concentrations cause enough light attenuation to saturate the detected signal. Predictions were validated by comparison with measured OCT signals from gold nanorods (GNRs) prepared in water at concentrations ranging over five orders of magnitude (50 fM to 5 nM). In addition, we validated that our model accurately predicts the signal responses of GNRs in highly heterogeneous scattering environments including whole blood and living animals. By enabling particle quantification, this work provides a valuable tool for current and future contrast-enhanced in vivo OCT studies. More generally, the model described herein may inform the interpretation of detected signals in modalities that rely on coherence-based detection or are susceptible to interference effects.

  1. Osteoblastic Metastases Mimickers on Contrast Enhanced CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Al-Lhedan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary osseous involvement in lymphoma is more common compared to primary bone lymphoma. The finding of osseous lesion can be incidentally discovered during the course of the disease. However, osseous metastases are infrequently silent. Detection of osseous metastases is crucial for accurate staging and optimal treatment planning of lymphoma. The aim of imaging is to identify the presence and extent of osseous disease and to assess for possible complications such as pathological fracture of the load-bearing bones and cord compression if the lesion is spinal. We are presenting two patients with treated lymphoma who were in complete remission. On routine follow-up contrast enhanced CT, there were new osteoblastic lesions in the spine worrisome for metastases. Additional studies were performed for further evaluation of both of them which did not demonstrate any corresponding suspicious osseous lesion. The patients have a prior history of chronic venous occlusive thrombosis that resulted in collaterals formation. Contrast enhancement of the vertebral body marrow secondary to collaterals formation and venous flow through the vertebral venous plexus can mimic the appearance of spinal osteoblastic metastases.

  2. Ultrasound elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in infants, children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Martin, E-mail: martin.stenzel@med.uni-jena.de; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim

    2014-09-15

    Objective: To describe prerequisites, use, and safety of ultrasound elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in infants, children, and adolescents. Method: This review deals with two latest developments in ultrasonography in children. The principle of strain elastography, transient elastography, and acoustic radiation force imaging is discussed, including limitations, and advantages of the different techniques in diagnosing focal and diffuse organ disease. The intravesical (contrast-enhanced voiding ultrasonography) and intravascular use of contrast-media to outline blood, and urinary flow is described, with special emphasis on indications, off-label use, and diagnostic gain. Examples of indications for performing the advanced ultrasound techniques are presented. Summary and conclusion: Latest developments in ultrasound machine engineering, and the availability of contrast-media that interact with ultrasound waves allow for assessment of tissue stiffness/elasticity properties, blood, and urinary flow. Thereby ultrasound is capable not only to depict morphology, but gives the additional information on organ, and focal lesion perfusion, and urinary flow dynamics. The information gap to other cross-sectional techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, that make potential harmful sedation, and anaesthesia in the youngest children necessary, thereby gets closer.

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for the evaluation of acute renal infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toru; Okayama, Hideki; Hiasa, Go; Kawata, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Tadakatsu; Kazatani, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old male in the dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and with persistent atrial fibrillation was admitted to our hospital because of an episode of ventricular fibrillation following an appropriate shock from an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD). At admission, electrocardiography showed a normal sinus rhythm. He had complained of back pain 7 days after the ICD shock. Renal infarction was suspected, although computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging could not be performed because of chronic renal failure and the presence of his ICD. We, therefore, used contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with a contrast agent to evaluate his acute kidney injury. This showed the left kidney contained a wedge-shaped area that was not enhanced by the contrast agent, indicating an area of infarction.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of small intestine ultrasonography using an oral contrast agent in Crohn's disease: Comparative study from the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatu, S., E-mail: schatu@hotmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, St George' s Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Pilcher, J. [Department of Radiology, St George' s Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Saxena, S.K. [Department of Primary Care and Public Health Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fry, D.H. [P.N. Lee Statistics and Computing Ltd, Sutton (United Kingdom); Pollok, R.C.G. [Department of Gastroenterology, St George' s Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of small intestine contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (SICUS) using an oral contrast agent in routine clinical practice by assessing the level of agreement with the established techniques, small bowel follow-through (SBFT) and computed tomography (CT), and diagnostic accuracy compared with the final diagnosis in the detection of small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) and luminal complications in a regional centre. Materials and methods: All symptomatic known or suspected cases of CD who underwent SICUS were retrospectively reviewed. The level of agreement between SICUS and SBFT, CT, histological findings, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level was assessed using kappa ({kappa}) coefficient. Sensitivity was demonstrated using the final diagnosis as the reference standard defined by the outcome of clinical assessment, follow-up, and results of investigations other than SICUS. Results: One hundred and forty-three patients underwent SICUS of these 79 (55%) were female. Eighty-six (60%) were known to have CD and 57 (40%) had symptoms suggestive of intestinal disease with no previous diagnosis. Forty-six (55%) of the known CD patients had had at least one previous surgical resection. The sensitivity of SICUS in detecting active small bowel CD in known CD and undiagnosed cases was 93%. The kappa coefficient was 0.88 and 0.91 with SBFT and CT, respectively. SICUS detected nine patients who had one or more small bowel strictures and six patients with a fistula all detected by SBFT or CT. Conclusion: SICUS is not only comparable to SBFT and CT but avoids radiation exposure and should be more widely adopted in the UK as a primary diagnostic procedure and to monitor disease complications in patients with CD.

  5. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzi, Roberto [Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robertoalonzi@btinternet.com; Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom); Synarc Inc. 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)], E-mail: anwar.padhani@paulstrickland-scannercentre.org.uk; Allen, Clare [Department of Imaging, University College Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.allen@uclh.nhs.uk

    2007-09-15

    Angiogenesis is an integral part of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and is key to the growth and for metastasis of prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using small molecular weight gadolinium chelates enables non-invasive imaging characterization of tissue vascularity. Depending on the technique used, data reflecting tissue perfusion, microvessel permeability surface area product, and extracellular leakage space can be obtained. Two dynamic MRI techniques (T{sub 2}*-weighted or susceptibility based and T{sub 1}-weighted or relaxivity enhanced methods) for prostate gland evaluations are discussed in this review with reference to biological basis of observations, data acquisition and analysis methods, technical limitations and validation. Established clinical roles of T{sub 1}-weighted imaging evaluations will be discussed including lesion detection and localisation, for tumour staging and for the detection of suspected tumour recurrence. Limitations include inadequate lesion characterisation particularly differentiating prostatitis from cancer, and in distinguishing between BPH and central gland tumours.

  6. Ultrasonography of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation in the spleen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We report three rare cases of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation(SANT) in the spleen.We compared the conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic appearance.The conventional sonographic examinations exhibited solitary lesions without common respects,while contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) revealed nodular appearance mimicking its pathologic characteristics.It suggests that CEUS can provide morphologic information for diagnosing SANT.

  7. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Asha; Freeman, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Abnormalities in the spleen are less common than in most other abdominal organs. However, they will be regularly encountered by ultrasound practitioners, who carefully evaluate the spleen in their abdominal ultrasound studies. Conventional grey scale and Doppler ultrasound are frequently unable to characterise focal splenic abnormalities; even when clinical and laboratory information is added to the ultrasound findings, it is often not possible to make a definite diagnosis. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is easy to perform, inexpensive, safe and will usually provide valuable additional information about splenic abnormalities, allowing a definitive or short differential diagnosis to be made. It also identifies those lesions that may require further imaging or biopsy, from those that can be safely dismissed or followed with interval ultrasound imaging. CEUS is also indicated in confirming the nature of suspected accessory splenic tissue and in selected patients with abdominal trauma. This article describes the CEUS examination technique, summarises the indications for CEUS and provides guidance on interpretation of the CEUS findings in splenic ultrasound.

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrsonography advanced and currrent status in abdominal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung Yong Eun; Kim Ki Whang [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    n the field of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US), contrast agents are classified as either first- or second-generation agents depending on the gas within the microbubbles. In the case of first-generation contrast agents, a high-mechanical-index technique is used and only intermittent scanning is possible due to the early destruction of the microbubbles during the scanning. The use of second-generation contrast agents in a low-mechanical-index technique enables continuous scanning. Besides the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions, contrastenhanced US is helpful in the monitoring of radiofrequency ablation therapy and in the targeting step of an US-guided biopsy. Recently, there has been a demand for new criteria to evaluate the treatment response obtained using anti-angiogenic agents because morphologic criteria alone may not reflect the treatment response of the tumor and contrast-enhanced US can provide quantitative markers of tissue perfusion. In spite of the concerns related to its cost-effectiveness, contrast-enhanced US has the potential to be more widely used as a complimentary tool or to substitute the current imaging modalities in some occasions.

  9. Effect of fatty liver background on contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic appearance of focal nodular hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wu Lin; Jia-Jia Yang; Xue-Ying Lin; En-Sheng Xue; Yi-Mi He; Shang-Da Gao; Long Yang; Li-Yun Yu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is increasingly diagnosed as a result of the advances in imaging studies such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, FNH with atypical features can be dififcult to differentiate from other benign and malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the inlfuence of fatty liver background on the CEUS characteristics of FNH. METHODS:Twenty-six patients with FNH were divided into two groups: group A included 14 patients with fatty liver and group B included 12 patients with normal liver background. Conventional two-dimensional ultrasonography and color Doppler lfow imaging (CDFI) were conducted and followed by real-time dual-frame CEUS. RESULTS:On two-dimensional ultrasonography, hypo-echoic nodules were present in most of the patients in group A (12/14) and hyperechoic nodules in most of those in group B (7/12). The difference in the nodule echotextures between the two groups was statistically signiifcant (P0.05). On CEUS, nodules with a central spoked-wheel-like enhancement pattern in the early arterial phase were observed in 8 patients in group A and those with an eccentric enhancement pattern in the remaining 6 patients. In this group, 3 patients had hypoechoic nodules in the delayed phase. Eleven of the 14 patients in this group were diagnosed accurately with CEUS. In group B, nodules with a rapid central spoked-wheel-like enhancement pattern in the early arterial phase were found in 8 patients by CEUS and those with rapid an eccentric enhancement pattern in 4. The nodules were found to be continuously enhanced in the delayed phase. All of the patients in group B were accurately diagnosed with CEUS. CONCLUSIONS:A FNH nodule on a background of fatty liver may present a hypoechoic pattern on two-dimensional ultrasonography and a hypoechoic wash-out pattern in the delayed phase on CEUS. At this time, punch biopsy is needed for the

  10. Peripheral arterial disease: clinical and cost comparisons between duplex US and contrast-enhanced MR angiography--a multicenter randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Ouwendijk, R.; Flobbe, K.; Nelemans, P.J.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Schurink, G.H.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Heijstraten, F.M.J.; Cuypers, P.W.; Duijm, L.E.M.; Engelshoven, J.M. van; Hunink, M.G.M.; Haan, M.W. de

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively determine the clinical and economic consequences of replacing duplex ultrasonography (US) with contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography for the initial imaging work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This rand

  11. Peripheral arterial disease: clinical and cost comparisons between duplex US and contrast-enhanced MR angiography--a multicenter randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Ouwendijk, R.; Flobbe, K.; Nelemans, P.J.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Schurink, G.H.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Heijstraten, F.M.J.; Cuypers, P.W.; Duijm, L.E.M.; Engelshoven, J.M. van; Hunink, M.G.M.; Haan, M.W. de

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively determine the clinical and economic consequences of replacing duplex ultrasonography (US) with contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography for the initial imaging work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This rand

  12. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  13. Contrast-enhanced US-guided Interventions: Improving Success Rate and Avoiding Complications Using US Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dean Y; Yusuf, Gibran T; Daneshi, Mohammad; Husainy, Mohammad Ali; Ramnarine, Raymond; Sellars, Maria E K; Sidhu, Paul S

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is an established modality for intervention. The introduction of microbubble US contrast agents (UCAs) has the potential to further improve US imaging for intervention. According to licensing, UCAs are currently approved for clinical use in restricted situations, but many additional indications have become accepted as having clinical value. The use of UCAs has been shown to be safe, and there is no risk of renal toxic effects, unlike with iodinated or gadolinium contrast medium. Broadly speaking, UCAs can be injected into the bloodstream (intravascular use) or instilled into almost any accessible body cavity (endocavitary use), either in isolation or synchronously. In microvascular applications, contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) enhances delineation of necrotic areas and the vascularized target to improve real-time targeting. The ability of CEUS to allow true assessment of vascularity has also been used in follow-up of devascularizing intervention. In macrovascular applications, real-time angiographic images can be obtained with CEUS without nephrotoxic effects or radiation. In endocavitary applications, CEUS can achieve imaging similar to that of iodinated contrast medium-based fluoroscopy; follow-up to intervention (eg, tubography and nephrostography) can be performed at the bedside, which may be advantageous. The use of UCAs is a natural progression in US-guided intervention. The aim of this article is to describe the indications, contraindications, and techniques of using UCAs as an adjunctive tool for US-guided interventional procedures to facilitate effective treatment, improve complication management, and increase the overall success of interventional procedures. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  14. Diagnostic utility of an echo-contrast agent in patients with synovitis using power Doppler ultrasound: a preliminary study with comparison to contrast-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magarelli, N.; Tartaro, A.; Bonomo, L. [Istituto di Radiologia, Universita di Chieti (Italy); Guglielmi, G. [Istituto di Radiologia, IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Di Matteo, L. [Istituto di Reumatologia, Pescara (Italy); Mattei, P.A. [Facolta di Medicina, Universita Chieti (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to first evaluate Levovist (Schering, Berlin, Germany), an echo-contrast agent, during power Doppler sonography (PDS) in patients with synovitis using asymptomatic joints as controls. Then we evaluated the accuracy of this technique against contrast-enhanced MRI. Forty patients (19 men and 21 women; mean age 40 years) were enrolled on the basis of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and radiographic findings positive for articular inflammatory disease. They were examined with conventional ultrasonography (US) and PDS techniques before and after intravenous contrast medium injection. Fourteen patients then underwent MRI with and without contrast medium 8-14 days after PDS studies. Three expert readers independently evaluated each examination. After contrast medium, synovium in inflammatory arthritis enhanced on PDS compared with normal joints in the same patient. Power Doppler sonography after contrast medium and MRI were concordant in all cases. Power Doppler sonography with contrast medium showed a qualitative increase in signal from synovial vessels, the first sign of synovial changes in inflammatory diseases. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for perfusion quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke

    2002-01-01

    to be more robust. Successful brain perfusion quantication based on R1 weighted signals has not previously been reported, due to the poor signal to noise ratio of the images. Initial experiments reported in this thesis show that improved sequence may provide more accurate perfusion estimates in the brain...... with the tissue IRF. To obtain the IRF, the tissue curves and the input curves are deconvolved and perfusion is related to the peak of IRF. In this thesis, a new method for deconvolution of perfusion data is introduced. It is the Gaussian process for deconvolution, GPD. The method is compared to singular value......Magnetic resonance imaging, during bolus passage of a paramagnetic contrast agent, is used world-wide to obtain parameters that reflect the pathological state of tissue. Abnormal perfusion occurs in diseases such as stoke and tumour. Consequently, perfusion quantication could have signi cant...

  16. Transabdominal Ultrasonography of the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Kralik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of double balloon enteroscopy, capsule endoscopy, CT, and MRI enterography is transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS underestimated method for evaluation of small bowel pathology. As often initial imagine method in abdominal complaints, nowadays has TUS much better diagnostic potential than two decades ago. High-resolution ultrasound probes with harmonic imaging significantly improve resolution of bowel wall in real time, with possibility to asses bowel peristalsis. Color flow doppler enables evaluation of intramural bowel vascularisation, pulse wave doppler helps to quantificate flow in coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography with oral contrast fluid, as well as contrast enhanced ultrasonography with intravenous microbubble contrast also improves small bowel imaging. We present a review of small intestine pathology that should be detected during ultrasound examinations, discuss technical requirements, advantages and limitations of TUS, typical ultrasound signs of Crohn's disease, ileus, celiac disease, intussusception, infectious enteritis, tumours, ischemic and haemorrhagic conditions of small bowel. In the hands of experienced investigator, despite some significant limitations(obesity, meteorism, is transabdominal ultrasonography reliable, noninvasive and inexpensive alternative method to computerised tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in small bowel examination.

  17. Temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced dedicated breast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of a framework of deformable image registration and segmentation for the purpose of temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced breast CT is described. An iterative histogram-based two-means clustering method was used for the segmentation. Dedicated breast CT images were segmented into background (air), adipose, fibroglandular and skin components. Fibroglandular tissue was classified as either normal or contrast-enhanced then divided into tiers for the purpose of categorizing degrees of contrast enhancement. A variant of the Demons deformable registration algorithm, intensity difference adaptive Demons (IDAD), was developed to correct for the large deformation forces that stemmed from contrast enhancement. In this application, the accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated in both mathematically-simulated and physically-acquired phantom images. Clinical usage and accuracy of the temporal subtraction framework was demonstrated using contrast-enhanced breast CT datasets from five patients. Registration performance was quantified using normalized cross correlation (NCC), symmetric uncertainty coefficient, normalized mutual information (NMI), mean square error (MSE) and target registration error (TRE). The proposed method outperformed conventional affine and other Demons variations in contrast enhanced breast CT image registration. In simulation studies, IDAD exhibited improvement in MSE (0-16%), NCC (0-6%), NMI (0-13%) and TRE (0-34%) compared to the conventional Demons approaches, depending on the size and intensity of the enhancing lesion. As lesion size and contrast enhancement levels increased, so did the improvement. The drop in the correlation between the pre- and post-contrast images for the largest enhancement levels in phantom studies is less than 1.2% (150 Hounsfield units). Registration error, measured by TRE, shows only submillimeter mismatches between the concordant anatomical target points in all patient studies. The algorithm was

  18. Power constrained contrast enhancement based on brightness compensated contrast-tone mapping operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Cheolkon; Su, Haonan; Wang, Lu; Ke, Peng

    2016-09-01

    We propose power constrained contrast enhancement based on brightness compensated contrast-tone mapping operation (BCCTMO). We adopt brightness compensation to restore the original perceptual luminance and combine tone mapping with contrast enhancement to improve image quality. First, we increase pixel values to compensate for the reduced brightness caused by backlight dimming while maintaining the perceived luminance. Then we perform a contrast-tone mapping operation to reduce the information loss caused by the brightness compensation and enhance contrast in images. Finally, we conduct color scaling to reproduce natural colors. We implement BCCTMO on an Android tablet with an LCD display using mathematical approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that BCCTMO produces high-quality images while minimizing distortions and saving power compared with state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Acute complicated pyelonephritis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla, Teresa; Minaya, Javier; Cortés, Cristina; Hernando, Concepción González; Arangüena, Rafael Pérez; Arriaga, Jesús; Carmona, Maria Soledad; Alcolado, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Imaging is required if complication is suspected in acute pyelonephritis to assess the nature and extent of the lesions, and to detect underlying causes. The current imaging modality of choice in clinical practice is computed tomography. Because of associated radiation and potential nephrotoxicity, CEUS is an alternative that has been proven to be equally accurate in the detection of acute pyelonephritis renal lesions. The aims of this study of 48 patients are to describe in detail the CEUS findings in acute pyelonephritis, and to determine if abscess and focal pyelonephritis may be distinguished. Very characteristic morphologic and temporal patterns of enhancement are described. These allow differentiation of focal pyelonephritis from renal abscess, and detection of tiny suppurative foci within focal pyelonephritis. The detection of abscesses is important because follow-up in 25 patients revealed a longer clinical course. Typical pyelonephritis CEUS features permit distinction from other renal lesions. As a whole, CEUS is an excellent tool in the work-up of complicated acute pyelonephritis, so it may be considered as the imaging technique of choice in the evaluation and follow-up of these patients who frequently are very young, so as to minimise radiation exposure.

  20. Arrival time parametric imaging using Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasonography is useful for the detection of spoke-wheel patterns of focal nodular hyperplasia smaller than 3 cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAKUI, NORITAKA; TAKAYAMA, RYUJI; KAMIYAMA, NAOHISA; KOBAYASHI, KOJIRO; MATSUI, DAIGO; MATSUKIYO, YASUSHI; KANEKAWA, TAKENORI; IKEHARA, TAKASHI; ISHII, KOJI; SUMINO, YASUKIYO

    2013-01-01

    It is considered difficult to make a definitive diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of <3 cm when using conventional diagnostic imaging modalities. Typical FNH imaging findings are: i) central scar formation, ii) nutrient vessels extending radially from the center and iii) the presence of Kupffer cells. In a clinical setting, identification of a spoke-wheel pattern formed by nutrient vessels extending radially is a key feature in the diagnosis of FNH. In this study, we investigated the detection rate of spoke-wheel patterns of FNH <3 cm using arrival time parametric imaging (At-PI) technology with Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasonography (US). Five patients with FNH <3 cm who had undergone Sonazoid-enhanced US at the Toho University Omori Medical Center between February 2008 and March 2009 were included in the study. The mean tumor diameter was 20.2±7.2 mm. Lesions were enhanced with 0.5 ml Sonazoid US contrast agent and a video of the procedure was saved and used for At-PI analysis of contrast agent dynamics in FNH. Three ultrasonographic specialists examined the images and made a diagnosis of FNH based on the findings of spoke-wheel patterns. Similarly, micro-flow imaging (MFI) was performed to evaluate the contrast agent dynamics in FNH. Using MFI, FNH was diagnosed in 3 of the 5 cases by the three specialists, whereas At-PI enabled the identification of spoke-wheel patterns in all 5 cases. At-PI using Sonazoid-enhanced US is superior for detecting spoke-wheel patterns of FNH <3 cm. PMID:23837029

  1. Contrast-enhanced angiographic cone-beam computed tomography without pre-diluted contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, K.I.; Kim, S.R.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Jeon, P. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Contrast-enhanced cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been introduced and accepted as a useful technique to evaluate delicate vascular anatomy and neurovascular stents. Current protocol for CBCT requires quantitative dilution of contrast medium to obtain adequate quality images. Here, we introduce simple methods to obtain contrast-enhanced CBCT without quantitative contrast dilution. A simple experiment was performed to estimate the change in flow rate in the internal carotid artery during the procedure. Transcranial doppler (TCD) was used to evaluate the velocity change before and after catheterization and fluid infusion. In addition, 0.3 cm{sup 3}/s (n = 3) and 0.2 cm{sup 3}/s (n = 7) contrast infusions were injected and followed by saline flushes using a 300 mmHg pressure bag to evaluate neurovascular stent and host arteries. Flow velocities changed -15 ± 6.8 % and +17 ± 5.5 % from baseline during catheterization and guiding catheter flushing with a 300 mmHg pressure bag, respectively. Evaluation of the stents and vascular structure was feasible using this technique in all patients. Quality assessment showed that the 0.2 cm{sup 3}/s contrast infusion protocol was better for evaluating the stent and host artery. Contrast-enhanced CBCT can be performed without quantitative contrast dilution. Adequate contrast dilution can be achieved with a small saline flush and normal blood flow. (orig.)

  2. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  3. Contrast Enhancement Using Brightness Preserving Histogram Plateau Limit Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Santhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrast enhancement is an important factor in the gray scale images. One of the widely accepted contrast enhancement method is the Histogram equalization (HE. HE achieves comparatively better performance on almost all types of image but sometimes produces excessive visual deterioration. The proposed Contrast Enhancement using Brightness Preserving Histogram Plateau Limit (CEBPHPL method provides better brightness preservation without allowing in excess of contrast improvement measure. This method decomposes the input image by computing the local maxima of the smoothed image using Gaussian filter which reduces the noise. Then the clipping process has been implemented which provides the good enhancement rate than the conventional methods. The experimental result of the proposed CEBPHPL is better than the existing methods.

  4. A Review of Image Contrast Enhancement Methods and Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Maragatham

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aim to provide a survey of existing enhancement techniques with their descriptions and present a detailed analysis of them. Since most of the images while capturing are affected by weather, poor lighting and the acquiring device itself, they suffer from poor contrast. Sufficient Contrast in an image makes an object distinguishable from the other objects and the background. Contrast enhancement improves the quality of images for human observer by expanding the dynamic range of input gray level. A plethora enhancement techniques have though emerged, none of them deem to be a universal one, thus becoming selective in application. In such a scenario, it has become imperative to provide a comprehensive survey of these contrast enhancement techniques used in digital image processing.

  5. A New Method of CT MedicalImages Contrast Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNFeng-rong; LIUWei; WANGChang-yu; MEILiang-mo

    2004-01-01

    A new method of contrast enhancement is proposed in the paper using multiscale edge representation of images, and is applied to the field of CT medical image processing. Comparing to the traditional Window technique, our method is adaptive and meets the demand of radiology clinics more better. The clinical experiment results show the practicality and the potential applied value of our methodin the field of CT medical images contrast enhancement.

  6. Cranial CT revisited: do we really need contrast enhancement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Buelens, C.; Wilms, G.; Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to define guidelines for intravenous contrast administration in cranial CT, as currently there are no recent guidelines based on a large series of patients. In 1900 consecutive patients (1480 adults and 420 children) pre- and post-contrast scan was analysed in order to assess the contribution of contrast enhancement to the diagnosis. The findings were grouped according to whether abnormalities were seen on the pre- and/or post-contrast scan, or whether no abnormalities were seen at all. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accurracy of a pre-contrast scan were used to determine validity. Intravenous contrast enhancement only contributes to the diagnosis if a suspicious abnormality is seen on the unenhanced scan or in the appropriate clinical setting (33.6 %). In the remaining patients (65.6 %) there is no diagnostic contribution, except for a small number of abnormalities (0.8 %). These are often anatomical variants and have no therapeutic impact. The number of contrast-enhanced cranial CT examinations can significantly be reduced by using four general guidelines for contrast administration resulting in considerable cost savings without affecting the quality of service to the patient. These guidelines are defined by the clinical findings/presentation or by the findings on the unenhanced scan. The number of contrast-related complications will be reduced, which may have medicolegal implications. These guidelines can be applied in any radiology department. (orig.) (orig.) With 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  7. Evaluation of sacroiliitis: contrast-enhanced MRI with subtraction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algin, Oktay; Gokalp, Gokhan; Baran, Bulent; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Yazici, Zeynep [Uludag University, Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced MRI using the subtraction technique in the detection of active sacroiliitis. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 8 asymptomatic volunteers and 50 patients with clinically suspected active sacroiliitis. On precontrast MR images, T1-weighted spin-echo images with and without fat saturation (T1WFS and T1W), STIR and 3D-FLASH images with fat saturation were obtained in the semicoronal plane using a 1.5 Tesla imager. Postcontrast MRI was performed using the same T1WFS sequence as before contrast injection for all volunteers and patients. Postcontrast images were subtracted from fat-suppressed precontrast images. Enhancement within the joint space and bone marrow was considered to demonstrate active sacroiliitis. In 50 patients (100 sacroiliac joints [SIJs]), 40 (76 SIJs) were considered to have active sacroiliitis based on MR images. Bone marrow edema was present in 33 patients (62 SIJs) on STIR images. Routine MRI allowed identification of contrast enhancement in SIJs on postcontrast T1WFS images in 31 patients (49 SIJs). Contrast enhancement was observed in 40 patients (76 SIJs) who were examined by MRI using the subtraction technique. Contrast enhancement was significantly more conspicuous on subtraction images than on non-subtracted postcontrast T1WFS images (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.001). Contrast-enhanced MRI with subtraction technique may be useful for early detection of active sacroiliitis. (orig.)

  8. Examination of patient factors and contrast medium factors that exert influence on contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Isao; Morimoto, Akira; Shouga, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Noriyuki [Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between patient factors and contrast medium factors, both of which influence contrast enhancement. Our goal was to achieve improved standardization and reproducibility of enhancement based on the findings of this study. Enhancement units (EU) and the contrast enhancement index (CE index) were calculated in the areas of the hepatic parenchyma and abdominal aorta in 370 subjects who underwent our hepatic dynamic study. We analyzed the obtained values in terms of differences in age, sex, body weight, iodine volume per body weight, and volume and concentration of contrast medium. Changes in EU values were dependent on total iodine volume and body weight, showing a positive correlation with iodine volume per body weight. When assessed in terms of fixed total volume, the values were found to show a negative correlation with body weight. The obtained CE index values were closely distributed on a fixed iodine volume per weight, with slight variations that were related to sex, body weight, and age. Particularly, in the analysis of changes in enhancement levels according to age, a notable increase in contrast enhancement in inverse relationship with decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with aging was observed. (author)

  9. Ileal Crohn disease: mural microvascularity quantified with contrast-enhanced US correlates with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franco, Antonio; Di Veronica, Alessandra; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Roberto, Italia; Marzo, Manuela; De Pascalis, Barbara; De Vitis, Italo; Papa, Alfredo; Bock, Enrico; Danza, Francesco M; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Guidi, Luisa

    2012-02-01

    To quantitatively assess microvascular activation in the thickened ileal walls of patients with Crohn disease (CD) by using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) and evaluate its correlation with widely used indexes of CD activity. This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The authors examined 54 consecutively enrolled patients (mean age, 35.29 years; age range, 18-69 years; 39 men, 15 women) with endoscopically confirmed CD of the terminal ileum. Ileal wall segments thicker than 3 mm were examined with low-mechanical-index contrast-enhanced US and a second-generation US contrast agent. The authors analyzed software-plotted time-enhancement intensity curves to determine the maximum peak intensity (MPI) and wash-in slope coefficient (β) and evaluated their correlation with (a) the composite index of CD activity (CICDA), (b) the CD activity index (CDAI), and (c) the simplified endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD, evaluated in 37 patients) for the terminal ileum. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman rank test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. MPI and β coefficients were significantly increased in the 36 patients with a CICDA indicative of active disease (P<.0001 for both), the 33 patients with a CDAI of at least 150 (P<.032 and P<.0074, respectively), and the 26 patients with an SES-CD of at least 1 (P<.0001 and P<.002, respectively). ROC analysis revealed accurate identification (compared with CICDA) of active CD with an MPI threshold of 24 video intensity (VI) (sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 83%) and a β coefficient of 4.5 VI/sec (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 83%). Contrast-enhanced US of the ileal wall is a promising method for objective, reproducible assessment of disease activity in patients with ileal CD. © RSNA, 2011

  10. Visual Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chung Ting

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement techniques primarily improve the contrast of an image to lend it a better appearance. One of the popular enhancement methods is histogram equalization (HE because of its simplicity and effectiveness. However, it is rarely applied to consumer electronics products because it can cause excessive contrast enhancement and feature loss problems. These problems make the images processed by HE look unnatural and introduce unwanted artifacts in them. In this study, a visual contrast enhancement algorithm (VCEA based on HE is proposed. VCEA considers the requirements of the human visual perception in order to address the drawbacks of HE. It effectively solves the excessive contrast enhancement problem by adjusting the spaces between two adjacent gray values of the HE histogram. In addition, VCEA reduces the effects of the feature loss problem by using the obtained spaces. Furthermore, VCEA enhances the detailed textures of an image to generate an enhanced image with better visual quality. Experimental results show that images obtained by applying VCEA have higher contrast and are more suited to human visual perception than those processed by HE and other HE-based methods.

  11. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in chronic Achilles tendinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärdin, Anna; Brismar, Torkel B; Movin, Tomas; Shalabi, Adel

    2013-11-22

    Chronic Achilles tendinosis is a common problem. When evaluating and comparing different therapies there is a need for reliable imaging methods. Our aim was to evaluate if chronic Achilles tendinosis affects the dynamic contrast-enhancement in the tendon and its surroundings and if short-term eccentric calf-muscle training normalizes the dynamic contrast-enhancement. 20 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy were included. Median duration of symptoms was 31 months (range 6 to 120 months). Both Achilles tendons were examined with dynamic contrast enhanced MRI before and after a 12- week exercise programme of eccentric calf-muscle training. The dynamic MRI was evaluated in tendon, vessel and in fat ventrally of tendon. Area under the curve (AUC), time to peak of signal, signal increase per second (SI/s) and increase in signal between start and peak as a percentage (SI%) was calculated. Pain and performance were evaluated using a questionnaire. In the fat ventrally of the tendon, dynamic contrast enhancement was significantly higher in the symptomatic leg compared to the contralateral non-symptomatic leg before but not after treatment. Despite decreased pain and improved performance there was no significant change of dynamic contrast enhancement in symptomatic tendons after treatment. In Achilles tendinosis there is an increased contrast enhancement in the fat ventrally of the tendon. The lack of correlation with symptoms and the lack of significant changes in tendon contrast enhancement parameters do however indicate that dynamic enhanced MRI is currently not a useful method to evaluate chronic Achilles tendinosis.

  12. Image enhancement by adjusting the contrast of spatial frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Chung

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate a brand-new method for image enhancement by adjusting the contrast of different spatial frequencies. Fine characteristics of an image are well enhanced with negligible side effects. This method is easy to implement owing to its simple optical basis.

  13. Contrast-enhanced photoacoustic tomography of human joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Keswani, Rahul K.; Gandikota, Girish; Rosania, Gus R.; Wang, Xueding

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) provides a unique tool to diagnose inflammatory arthritis. However, the specificity and sensitivity of PAT based on endogenous contrasts is limited. The development of contrast enhanced PAT imaging modalities in combination with small molecule contrast agents could lead to improvements in diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. Accordingly, we adapted and tested a PAT clinical imaging system for imaging the human joints, in combination with a novel PAT contrast agent derived from an FDA-approved small molecule drug. Imaging results based on a photoacoustic and ultrasound (PA/US) dual-modality system revealed that this contrast-enhanced PAT imaging system may offer additional information beyond single-modality PA or US imaging system, for the imaging, diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory arthritis.

  14. Contrast Enhancement of Radiographs Using Shift Invariant Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel approach using shift invariant wavelet transform is presented for the contrast enhancement of radiographs. By exploiting cross-scale correlation among wavelet coefficients, edge information of radiographic images is extracted and protected, while noise is smoothed out in the wavelet domain. Radiographs are then reconstructed from the transform coefficients modified at multi-scales by nonlinear enhancement operator. The method can achieve effectively contrast enhancement and edge-preserved denoising simultaneously, yet it is capable of giving visually distinct images and offering considerable benefits in medical diagnosis.

  15. Contrast enhancement pattern in MR imaging of acute cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Deok; Cho, Mee Young; Lee, Chae Guk; Song, Dong Hoon [Inje University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    To present the enhancement pattern of acute cerebral or cerebellar cortical infarctions aged 1-3 days on MR. Contrast-enhanced MR images of 26 patients with acute cerebral or cerebellar ischemic events were retrospectively reviewed. MR was performed within 3 days after ictus. Contrast enhancement in the area of infarction was observed in 61.5% (16/26) on MR. Of these 50% (13/26) showed non-parenchymal enhancement (NPE) representing either vascular or leptomeningeal enhancement, 7.7% (2/26) showed parenchymal enhancement (PE), and 2.8% (1/26) showed both NPE and PE. The earliest enhancement was seen in images obtained 12 hours after the onset of symptoms and appeared as NPE. One patient showed NPE without apparent high signal intensity at the corresponding area on T2-weighted images. In 38.5% (10/26), there was no enhancement. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging may be needed in acute ischemic infarction, because NPE may be seen as the earliest MR finding of acute cortical infraction aged 1-3 days.

  16. Facial nerve palsy: Evaluation by contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, T.; Ishii, K.; Okitsu, T.; Okudera, T.; Ogawa, T

    2001-11-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging was performed in 147 patients with facial nerve palsy, using a 1.0 T unit. All of 147 patients were evaluated by contrast-enhanced MR imaging and the pattern of enhancement was compared with that in 300 control subjects evaluated for suspected acoustic neurinoma. RESULTS: The intrameatal and labyrinthine segments of the normal facial nerve did not show enhancement, whereas enhancement of the distal intrameatal segment and the labyrinthine segment was respectively found in 67% and 43% of patients with Bell's palsy. The geniculate ganglion or the tympanic-mastoid segment was enhanced in 21% of normal controls versus 91% of patients with Bell's palsy. Abnormal enhancement of the non-paralyzed facial nerve was found in a patient with bilateral temporal bone fracture. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of the distal intrameatal and labyrinthine segments is specific for facial nerve palsy. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging can reveal inflammatory facial nerve lesions and traumatic nerve injury, including clinically silent damage in trauma. Kinoshita T. et al. (2001)

  17. A Nanocomplex System as Targeted Contrast Agent Delivery Vehicle for MRI Dynamic Contrast Enhancement Study

    OpenAIRE

    Korotcov, Alexandru; Shan, Liang; Meng, Huan; Wang, Tongxin; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Zhao, Yuliang; Liang, Xing-Jie; Wang, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and tested a liposomal nanocomplex system, which contains Gd-DTPA as a payload and transferrin on the surface, as a tumor specific targeting MRI contrast agent for studying prostate cancer tumors in mice. In vivo, the probe significantly enhanced the MRI signal. The image contrast between the peripheral region of the tumor and the non-involved muscle was nearly 50% higher two hours after administration of the nanocomplex. The liposomal nanocomplex increased the amount of Gd ...

  18. Contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing contrast-enhanced MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Ryusuke; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Sugizaki, Ken-ichi; Yoshida, Tamiko; Okazaki, Emi; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Owan, Chojin [Nippon Medical School, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    To evaluate the safety of contrast-enhanced MDCT in patients with renal impairment. We conducted a retrospective review of 938 patients with stable renal insufficiency (eGFR between 15 and 60 ml/min) who underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT. SCr levels were measured at baseline and 48-72 h after contrast medium administration. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in the total study population was assessed. As a control group, 1,164 separate patients with renal insufficiency who did not receive contrast medium for CT were also reviewed. The overall incidence of CIN in the patient population with renal insufficiency was 6.1 %; the incidence was 4.4 %, 10.5 % and 10.0 % for patients whose eGFR was 45-60, 30-45 and {<=}30 ml/min, respectively (P < 0.01). In the control group, 5.8 % of patients showed an increase in the SCr level from the baseline. The increase in the SCr level showed no significant difference between the patients who received CM and those who did not (P = 0.82) The risk of CIN from contrast-enhanced MDCT in patients with renal insufficiency appeared to be low, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of CIN in comparison with patients who did not receive CM. (orig.)

  19. Quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound in HCC: prediction of response to a new combination therapy of sorafenib and panobinostat in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Knieling, Ferdinand; Waldner, Maximilian J.; Goertz, Ruediger S.; Strobel, Deike

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the case of a patient, who showed an antitumour response to a new combination therapy of sorafenib and the histon deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH-589). D-CEUS (Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography) was able to predict response to the new therapy regime and may be an interesting tool in the early evaluation of response to therapy. It might be especially useful to differentiate between responders and non-responders of new-targeted pharmaceuticals like multikinase in...

  20. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  1. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of urogenital pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libero Barozzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is an innovative technique that employs microbubble contrast agents to demonstrate parenchymal perfusion. Although initial clinical application was focused on the liver pathology, a wide variety of clinical conditions can be assessed now with CEUS. CEUS is a well-tolerated technique and is acquiring an increasing role in the assessment of renal pathology because contrast agents are not excreted by the kidney and do not affect the renal function. CEUS demonstrated an accuracy similar to contrast enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (CEMDCT in detecting focal lesions, with the advantage of the real-time assessment of microvascular perfusion by using time-intensity curves. The aim of this paper is to review the main indications of CEUS in the assessment of renal and urogenital pathology. Imaging examples are presented and described. Advantages and limitations of CEUS with reference to conventional US and CE-MDCT are discussed.

  2. Patterns of contrast enhancement in the brain and meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirniotopoulos, James G; Murphy, Frances M; Rushing, Elizabeth J; Rees, John H; Schroeder, Jason W

    2007-01-01

    Contrast material enhancement for cross-sectional imaging has been used since the mid 1970s for computed tomography and the mid 1980s for magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the patterns and mechanisms of contrast enhancement facilitate radiologic differential diagnosis. Brain and spinal cord enhancement is related to both intravascular and extravascular contrast material. Extraaxial enhancing lesions include primary neoplasms (meningioma), granulomatous disease (sarcoid), and metastases (which often manifest as mass lesions). Linear pachymeningeal (dura-arachnoid) enhancement occurs after surgery and with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Leptomeningeal (pia-arachnoid) enhancement is present in meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Superficial gyral enhancement is seen after reperfusion in cerebral ischemia, during the healing phase of cerebral infarction, and with encephalitis. Nodular subcortical lesions are typical for hematogenous dissemination and may be neoplastic (metastases) or infectious (septic emboli). Deeper lesions may form rings or affect the ventricular margins. Ring enhancement that is smooth and thin is typical of an organizing abscess, whereas thick irregular rings suggest a necrotic neoplasm. Some low-grade neoplasms are "fluid-secreting," and they may form heterogeneously enhancing lesions with an incomplete ring sign as well as the classic "cyst-with-nodule" morphology. Demyelinating lesions, including both classic multiple sclerosis and tumefactive demyelination, may also create an open ring or incomplete ring sign. Thick and irregular periventricular enhancement is typical for primary central nervous system lymphoma. Thin enhancement of the ventricular margin occurs with infectious ependymitis. Understanding the classic patterns of lesion enhancement--and the radiologic-pathologic mechanisms that produce them--can improve image assessment and differential diagnosis.

  3. Research on Wavelet-Based Algorithm for Image Contrast Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ying-qian; Du Pei-jun; Shi Peng-fei

    2004-01-01

    A novel wavelet-based algorithm for image enhancement is proposed in the paper. On the basis of multiscale analysis, the proposed algorithm solves efficiently the problem of noise over-enhancement, which commonly occurs in the traditional methods for contrast enhancement. The decomposed coefficients at same scales are processed by a nonlinear method, and the coefficients at different scales are enhanced in different degree. During the procedure, the method takes full advantage of the properties of Human visual system so as to achieve better performance. The simulations demonstrate that these characters of the proposed approach enable it to fully enhance the content in images, to efficiently alleviate the enhancement of noise and to achieve much better enhancement effect than the traditional approaches.

  4. Immobilized contrast-enhanced MRI: Gadolinium-based long-term MR contrast enhancement of the vein graft vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Yu, Peng; Tao, Ming; Nguyen, Binh T; Campagna, Christina M; Karp, Jeffrey M; Mulkern, Robert V; Ozaki, C Keith; Rybicki, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    An implantable MR contrast agent that can be covalently immobilized on tissue during surgery has been developed. The rationale is that a durable increase in tissue contrast using an implantable contrast agent can enhance postsurgical tissue differentiation using MRI. For small-vessel (e.g., vein graft) MRI, the direct benefit of such permanent "labeling" of the vessel wall by modification of its relaxation properties is to achieve more efficient imaging. This efficiency can be realized as either increased contrast leading to more accurate delineation of vessel wall and lesion tissue boundaries, or, faster imaging without penalizing contrast-to-noise ratio, or a combination thereof. We demonstrate, for the first time, stable long-term MRI enhancement using such an exogenous contrast mechanism based on immobilizing a modified diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium(3+) dihydrogen complex on a human vein using a covalent amide bond. Signal enhancement due to the covalently immobilized contrast agent is demonstrated for excised human vein specimens imaged at 3 T, and its long-term stability is demonstrated during a 4-month incubation period.

  5. Dynamic contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound: A quantification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Dong, Yi; Froehlich, Eckhart; Hocke, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) has been recently standardized by guidelines and recommendations. The European Federation of Societies for US in Medicine and Biology position paper describes the use for DCE-US. Comparatively, little is known about the use of contrast-enhanced endoscopic US (CE-EUS). This current paper reviews and discusses the clinical use of CE-EUS and DCE-US. The most important clinical use of DCE-US is the prediction of tumor response to new drugs against vascular angioneogenesis. PMID:28218195

  6. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Andrea Sabine

    2005-12-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a useful tool in the assessment of rheumatic disease. It permits assessment of early erosive changes and vascularity detection in synovial proliferation, caused by inflammatory activity by using colour/power Doppler US (CDUS/PDUS). In the detection of slow flow and flow in small vessels, the CDUS/PDUS technique is limited. Contrast enhanced US can improve the detection of inflammatory vascularity but is not yet included in routine diagnosis of this condition. However, contrast enhanced US shows promising results in diagnosis, assessment of disease activity and follow up of inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  7. Dual energy contrast enhanced breast imaging optimization using contrast to noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Royle, G.; Speller, R.

    2007-03-01

    The properties of dual energy contrast enhanced breast imaging have been analyzed by imaging a 4 cm breast equivalent phantom consisting of adipose and glandular equivalent plastics. This phantom had superimposed another thin plastic which incorporated a 2 mm deep cylinder filled with iodinated contrast media. The iodine projected thicknesses used for this study was 3 mg/cm2. Low and high energy spectra that straddle the iodine K-edge were used. Critical parameters such as the energy spectra and exposure are discussed, along with post processing by means of nonlinear energy dependent function. The dual energy image was evaluated using the relative contrast to noise ratio of a 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm region of the image at the different iodine concentrations incorporating different breast composition with respect to the noniodinated areas. Optimum results were achieved when the low and high-energy images were used in such a way that relative contrast to noise ratio of the iodine with respect to the background tissue was maximum. A figure of merit suggests that higher noise levels can be tolerated at the benefit of lower exposure. Contrast media kinetics of a phantom incorporating a water flow of 20.4 ml/min through the plastic cylinder suggests that time domain imaging could be performed with this approach. The results suggest that optimization of dual energy contrast enhanced mammography has the potential to lead to the development of perfusion digital mammography.

  8. Normal or abnormal? Demystifying uterine and cervical contrast enhancement at multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitta, Silaja; Hecht, Elizabeth M; Mausner, Elizabeth V; Bennett, Genevieve L

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is not generally advocated as the first-line imaging examination for disorders of the female pelvis. However, multidetector CT is often the modality of choice for evaluating nongynecologic pelvic abnormalities, particularly in emergent settings, in which all the pelvic organs are invariably assessed. Incidental findings of uterine and cervical contrast enhancement in such settings may easily be mistaken for abnormalities, given the broad spectrum of anatomic variants and enhancement patterns that may be seen in the normal uterus and cervix. The authors' review of CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging enhancement patterns, augmented by case examples from their clinical radiology practice, provides a solid foundation for understanding the spectrum of normal uterine and cervical appearances and avoiding potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of benign cervical lesions, adenomyosis, infection, malignancy, and postpartum effects. This information should help radiologists more confidently differentiate between normal and abnormal CT findings and, when CT findings are not definitive, offer appropriate recommendations for follow-up ultrasonography or MR imaging.

  9. Contrast enhancement via texture region based histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Vishwakarma, Dinesh K.; Singh Walia, Gurjit; Kapoor, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two novel contrast enhancement approaches using texture regions-based histogram equalization (HE). In HE-based contrast enhancement methods, the enhanced image often contains undesirable artefacts because an excessive number of pixels in the non-textured areas heavily bias the histogram. The novel idea presented in this paper is to suppress the impact of pixels in non-textured areas and to exploit texture features for the computation of histogram in the process of HE. The first algorithm named as Dominant Orientation-based Texture Histogram Equalization (DOTHE), constructs the histogram of the image using only those image patches having dominant orientation. DOTHE categories image patches into smooth, dominant or non-dominant orientation patches by using the image variance and singular value decomposition algorithm and utilizes only dominant orientation patches in the process of HE. The second method termed as Edge-based Texture Histogram Equalization, calculates significant edges in the image and constructs the histogram using the grey levels present in the neighbourhood of edges. The cumulative density function of the histogram formed from texture features is mapped on the entire dynamic range of the input image to produce the contrast-enhanced image. Subjective as well as objective performance assessment of proposed methods is conducted and compared with other existing HE methods. The performance assessment in terms of visual quality, contrast improvement index, entropy and measure of enhancement reveals that the proposed methods outperform the existing HE methods.

  10. Enhanced representation of spectral contrasts in the primary auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eCatz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of early auditory processing may be to extract some elementary features from an acoustic mixture in order to organize the auditory scene. To accomplish this task, the central auditory system may rely on the fact that sensory objects are often composed of spectral edges, i.e. regions where the stimulus energy changes abruptly over frequency. The processing of acoustic stimuli may benefit from a mechanism enhancing the internal representation of spectral edges. While the visual system is thought to rely heavily on this mechanism (enhancing spatial edges, it is still unclear whether a related process plays a significant role in audition. We investigated the cortical representation of spectral edges, using acoustic stimuli composed of multi-tone pips whose time-averaged spectral envelope contained suppressed or enhanced regions. Importantly, the stimuli were designed such that neural responses properties could be assessed as a function of stimulus frequency during stimulus presentation. Our results suggest that the representation of acoustic spectral edges is enhanced in the auditory cortex, and that this enhancement is sensitive to the characteristics of the spectral contrast profile, such as depth, sharpness and width. Spectral edges are maximally enhanced for sharp contrast and large depth. Cortical activity was also suppressed at frequencies within the suppressed region. To note, the suppression of firing was larger at frequencies nearby the lower edge of the suppressed region than at the upper edge. Overall, the present study gives critical insights into the processing of spectral contrasts in the auditory system.

  11. Ultrasonographic contrast-enhanced study of sicca syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuseppetti, Gian Marco [Institute of Radiology, University School of Medicine, Umberto I Hospital, Via Conca 1, Ancona (Italy)]. E-mail: gm.giuseppetti@ao-umbertoprimo.marche.it; Argalia, Giulio [Institute of Radiology, University School of Medicine, Umberto I Hospital, Via Conca 1, Ancona (Italy); Salera, Diego [Institute of Radiology, University School of Medicine, Umberto I Hospital, Via Conca 1, Ancona (Italy); Ranaldi, Roberto [Institute of Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology, University School of Medicine, Umberto I Hospital, Ancona (Italy); Danieli, Giovanna [Institute of Internal Medicine, University School of Medicine, Umberto I Hospital, Ancona (Italy); Cappelli, Marida [Institute of Internal Medicine, University School of Medicine, Umberto I Hospital, Ancona (Italy)

    2005-05-01

    Objective: To assess the ability of US contrast-enhanced time-intensity curves to depict the changes connected with sicca syndrome, a fairly common condition that is often associated with autoimmune disorders such as Sjogren's syndrome or other diseases. Diagnostic criteria are complex and controversial and although no single test can be considered the gold standard, salivary gland scintigraphy and biopsy are reliable diagnostic methods. Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive patients with sicca syndrome, 40 of whom had primary (n = 23) or secondary (n = 17) Sjogren's syndrome and 20 had non-Sjogren's sicca syndrome, selected according to European Community Study Group diagnostic criteria for Sjogren's syndrome and subjected to contrast-enhanced US imaging of the parotids using a second-generation contrast agent with analysis of time-intensity curves at rest and during salivary stimulation, Tc99m salivary gland scintigraphy and labial gland biopsy. Results: In the 40 Sjogren's patients, US enhancement values were significantly lower (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.00003, respectively) than in the 20 non-Sjogren's patients both at rest and during stimulation. In the 23 subjects with the primary syndrome, values during stimulation were significantly lower than in the 17 subjects with the secondary syndrome (P < 0.0006), whereas at rest differences were not significant. Contrast-enhanced US imaging allowed to discriminate Sjogren's from non-Sjogren's sicca patients with 87.5% sensitivity, 85% specificity and 86.7% accuracy and the primary from the secondary syndrome with 78.2% sensitivity, 70.5% specificity and 75% accuracy. Interestingly, in eight patients with the primary syndrome, i.e. those with the more severe gland involvement, enhancement values were lower during stimulation than at rest. Conclusion: Preliminary results indicate that contrast-enhanced US imaging can provide useful information on sicca characterisation and

  12. Novel contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenge, M.; Mischi, M.; Laguna Pes, M.P.; de la Rosette, J.J.M.C.H.; Wijkstra, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to present the current status of contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound imaging and to discuss the latest achievements and techniques now under preclinical testing. Although grayscale transrectal ultrasound is the standard method for prostate imaging, it lacks accur

  13. Sentinel node detection in melanomas using contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. Rue; Klyver, H.; Chakera, A. Hougaard;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has proven to be a useful clinical method based on the combination of radionuclide tracer principles and the dye technique. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been used successfully for detection of SN in animals, but the use of CEUS has not been reported...

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma: perfusion quantification with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taouli, B.; Johnson, R.S.; Hajdu, C.H.; Oei, M.T.H.; Merad, M.; Yee, H.; Rusinek, H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of our study was to report our initial experience with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) for perfusion quantification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and surrounding liver.DCE-MRI of the liver was prospectively performed on 31 patients with HCC (male-female ratio, 26:5; mean ag

  15. Resolution enhancement phase-contrast imaging by microsphere digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxin; Guo, Sha; Wang, Dayong; Lin, Qiaowen; Rong, Lu; Zhao, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Microsphere has shown the superiority of super-resolution imaging in the traditional 2D intensity microscope. Here a microsphere digital holography approach is presented to realize the resolution enhancement phase-contrast imaging. The system is designed by combining the microsphere with the image-plane digital holography. A microsphere very close to the object can increase the resolution by transforming the object wave from the higher frequency to the lower one. The resolution enhancement amplitude and phase images can be retrieved from a single hologram. The experiments are carried on the 1D and 2D gratings, and the results demonstrate that the observed resolution has been improved, meanwhile, the phase-contrast image is obtained. The proposed method can improve the transverse resolution in all directions based on a single exposure. Furthermore, this system has extended the application of the microsphere from the conventional 2D microscopic imaging to 3D phase-contrast microscopic imaging.

  16. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Mitsue, E-mail: mmiyazaki@tmriusa.com [Toshiba Medical Research Institute, USA, 706N. Deerpath Dr., Vernon Hills, IL 60061 (United States); Isoda, Hiroyoshi [Toshiba Medical Research Institute, USA, 706N. Deerpath Dr., Vernon Hills, IL 60061 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) techniques have experienced a resurgence of interest in the MR community, in part because of safety concerns related to the possible link between gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). In abdominal MRA, NSF is of particular concern, given that many of the patients may have renal disease. After introducing various non-contrast-enhanced MRA techniques, this article focuses on MRA applications in the abdomen, specifically the renal arteries and portal and hepatic veins. Developments on the horizon are discussed, including techniques that provide standardization of renal artery imaging, challenges in imaging of the hepatic arteries, and further advancement at 3 T.

  17. Contrast-enhanced power Doppler US in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incesu, L.; Yazicioglu, A.K.; Selcuk, M.B.; Ozen, N

    2004-05-01

    Introduction/objective: To determine the value of power Doppler (PD) ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced power Doppler (CEPD) US in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and the prediction of histopathologic stages. Methods and material: 50 patients with suspected acute appendicitis were evaluated by the same radiologist with PD US and CEPD US. Air micro bubbles stabilized by a granulate of 'galactose and palmitic acid' were used as a contrast medium for sonography with the concentration of 400 mg/ml. PD US and CEPD US results were later correlated with the surgical and histopathologic findings. PD US and CEPD US findings were considered positive for appendicitis; if there was depiction of hyperemia in the wall of the appendix or if there was depiction of prominent peripheral vascularity when compared with normal soft tissues; and negative if both hyperemia and peripheral hyperemia were not prominent. Results and discussions: Of the 50 patients, 35 patients had histopathologically proven acute appendicitis. CEPD US showed prominent hyperemia in the appendiceal vessels or feeding vessels of the inflamed appendix, and resistance index (RI) calculations were easier. There was statistically significant difference between mean RI values of the normal appendix, suppurative appendicitis and gangrenous appendicitis. PD US has accuracy of 80%, sensitivity of 74% and CEPD US has 98%, and 100% in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. CEPD US identified 100% of suppurative appendicitis and gangrenous appendicitis. Conclusion: CEPD US is a promising method in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and determination of the inflammation stage.

  18. Evaluation of Therapeutic Effect of Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography in Hepatic Carcinoma Radiofrequency Ablation and Comparison with Conventional Ultrasonography and Enhanced Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichao Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: CEUS has important value of clinical application both prior to and after RFA operations. Prior to the operation, CEUS can accurately guide the RFA treatment, whereas after the operation, CEUS is an important method to evaluate the inactivation after the treatment, and can be an important means for follow-up visits for partial treatment of hepatic carcinoma.

  19. Contrast Enhanced MRI in the Diagnosis of HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Niendorf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the 6th most common cancer worldwide. Imaging plays a critical role in HCC screening and diagnosis. Initial screening of patients at risk for HCC is performed with ultrasound. Confirmation of HCC can then be obtained by Computed Tomography (CT or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, due to the relatively high specificity of both techniques. This article will focus on reviewing MRI techniques for imaging HCC, felt by many to be the exam of choice for HCC diagnosis. MRI relies heavily upon the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents and while primarily extracellular gadolinium-based contrast agents are used, there is an emerging role of hepatobiliary contrast agents in HCC imaging. The use of other non-contrast enhanced MRI techniques for assessing HCC will also be discussed and these MRI strategies will be reviewed in the context of the pathophysiology of HCC to help understand the MR imaging appearance of HCC.

  20. Pulmonary Vascular Tree Segmentation from Contrast-Enhanced CT Images

    CERN Document Server

    Helmberger, M; Pienn, M; Balint, Z; Olschewski, A; Bischof, H

    2013-01-01

    We present a pulmonary vessel segmentation algorithm, which is fast, fully automatic and robust. It uses a coarse segmentation of the airway tree and a left and right lung labeled volume to restrict a vessel enhancement filter, based on an offset medialness function, to the lungs. We show the application of our algorithm on contrast-enhanced CT images, where we derive a clinical parameter to detect pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients. Results on a dataset of 24 patients show that quantitative indices derived from the segmentation are applicable to distinguish patients with and without PH. Further work-in-progress results are shown on the VESSEL12 challenge dataset, which is composed of non-contrast-enhanced scans, where we range in the midfield of participating contestants.

  1. Adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm for point-based rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoping; Liu, Xiaoping P.

    2015-03-01

    Surgical simulation is a major application in computer graphics and virtual reality, and most of the existing work indicates that interactive real-time cutting simulation of soft tissue is a fundamental but challenging research problem in virtual surgery simulation systems. More specifically, it is difficult to achieve a fast enough graphic update rate (at least 30 Hz) on commodity PC hardware by utilizing traditional triangle-based rendering algorithms. In recent years, point-based rendering (PBR) has been shown to offer the potential to outperform the traditional triangle-based rendering in speed when it is applied to highly complex soft tissue cutting models. Nevertheless, the PBR algorithms are still limited in visual quality due to inherent contrast distortion. We propose an adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm as a postprocessing module for PBR, providing high visual rendering quality as well as acceptable rendering efficiency. Our approach is based on a perceptible image quality technique with automatic parameter selection, resulting in a visual quality comparable to existing conventional PBR algorithms. Experimental results show that our adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm produces encouraging results both visually and numerically compared to representative algorithms, and experiments conducted on the latest hardware demonstrate that the proposed PBR framework with the postprocessing module is superior to the conventional PBR algorithm and that the proposed contrast enhancement algorithm can be utilized in (or compatible with) various variants of the conventional PBR algorithm.

  2. Renal stones on portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT: does intravenous contrast interfere with detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dym, R. Joshua; Duncan, Dameon R.; Spektor, Michael; Cohen, Hillel W.; Scheinfeld, Meir H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sensitivity of portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT for the detection of renal stones. Methods This retrospective study included 97 CT examinations of the abdomen without and with intravenous contrast, including 85 (87.6%) examinations with at least one renal stone on the “gold standard” noncontrast images, as scored by a single radiologist. Three other radiologists each independently reviewed only the contrast-enhanced images from all 97 examinations and recorded all renal stones. Reviewer sensitivity for stones was categorized by stone diameter. Reviewer sensitivity and specificity for stone disease were also calculated on a per-kidney basis. Results The 97 cases included a total of 238 stones ≥1 mm, with a mean (±SD) of 1.2 ± 1.9 stones per kidney and a stone diameter of 3.5 ± 3.0 mm. Pooling data for the three reviewers, sensitivity for all stones was 81%; sensitivity for stones ≥2, ≥3, ≥4, and ≥5 mm was 88%, 95%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. Sensitivity for stone disease on a per-kidney basis was 94% when considering all stones; when considering only stones ≥2, ≥3, and ≥4 mm, sensitivity was 96%, 99%, and 100%, respectively. Specificity for stone disease on a per-kidney basis was 98% overall, 99% when considering only stones ≥2 mm, and 100% when considering only stones ≥3 mm. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced CT is highly sensitive for the detection of renal stones ≥3 mm in diameter and less sensitive for smaller stones. In cases where the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and performance of a CT examination is being contemplated, intravenous contrast utilization would allow assessment for stone disease while also optimizing evaluation for other conditions. PMID:24504541

  3. Pelvic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, M B; Valley, V T; Mateer, J R

    1997-11-01

    Pelvic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for the emergency physician in the evaluation of the wide spectrum of pelvic complaints presenting to the emergency department. The goal of this article is to outline pelvic problems that can be readily identified by the emergency physician using pelvic sonography early in the patient's evaluation. A special emphasis is placed on the sonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

  4. Application of plasmonic silver films in histology for contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevich, I. G.; Strekal, N. D.; Shulha, A. V.; Basinski, V. A.; Maskevich, S. A.

    2012-09-01

    We have studied the absorption spectra and micrographs of sections of cells of the epithelium and andenocarcinoma of the large intestine, immobilized between standard glass slides and cover glasses and plasmonic silver films. We have shown that when we use a microtome technique and specially selected plasmonic silver films, we can achieve enhancement of the image contrast in analysis of the cell morphology as a result of the increase in the light absorption and scattering cross sections with the contrasting stains hematoxylin and eosin.

  5. Recent Experiences and Advances in Contrast-Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Eisenbrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging schemes strive to suppress tissue signals in order to better visualize nonlinear signals from blood-pooling ultrasound contrast agents. Because tissue does not generate a subharmonic response (i.e., signal at half the transmit frequency, subharmonic imaging has been proposed as a method for isolating ultrasound microbubble signals while suppressing surrounding tissue signals. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the use of subharmonic imaging in vivo. These advances include the implementation of subharmonic imaging on linear and curvilinear arrays, intravascular probes, and three-dimensional probes for breast, renal, liver, plaque, and tumor imaging.

  6. Recent Experiences and Advances in Contrast-Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R; Sridharan, Anush; Liu, Ji-Bin; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging schemes strive to suppress tissue signals in order to better visualize nonlinear signals from blood-pooling ultrasound contrast agents. Because tissue does not generate a subharmonic response (i.e., signal at half the transmit frequency), subharmonic imaging has been proposed as a method for isolating ultrasound microbubble signals while suppressing surrounding tissue signals. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the use of subharmonic imaging in vivo. These advances include the implementation of subharmonic imaging on linear and curvilinear arrays, intravascular probes, and three-dimensional probes for breast, renal, liver, plaque, and tumor imaging.

  7. Automated mass detection in contrast-enhanced CT colonography: an approach based on contrast and volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, W. [University Hospital Essen, Clinic and Policlinic of Angiology, Essen (Germany); Multiorgan Screening Foundation (Germany); Tryon, C. [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Kroll, M.; Vogl, T.J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Toussaint, T.L. [Multiorgan Screening Foundation (Germany); Holzer, K. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Hoepffner, N. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Gastroenterology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to design and test an algorithm for automating mass detection in contrast-enhanced CT colonography (CTC). Five patients with known colorectal masses underwent a pre-surgical contrast-enhanced (120 ml volume 1.6 g iodine/s injection rate, 60 s scan delay) CTC in high spatial resolution (16-slice CT: collimation: 16 x 0.75 mm, tablefeed: 24 mm/0.5 s, reconstruction increment: 0.5 mm). A CT-density- and volume-based algorithm searched for masses in the colonic wall, which was extracted before by segmenting and dilating the colonic air lumen and subtracting the inner air. A radiologist analyzed the detections and causes of false positives. All masses were detected, and false positives were easy to identify. Combining CT density with volume as a cut-off is a promising approach for automating mass detection that should be further refined and also tested in contrast-enhanced MR colonography. (orig.)

  8. Contrast-enhanced microwave detection and treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang

    Contrast agents and heating agents have been proposed for microwave breast tumor imaging and treatment, respectively. The dielectric properties of the tumor are altered with contrast agents or heating agents that locally accumulate in the tumor. The resulting change in dielectric properties of the tumor has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of microwave imaging of breast tumors and increase the efficiency and selectivity of microwave thermal therapy of breast tumors. This dissertation addresses several key challenges in contrast-enhanced microwave imaging and treatment of breast tumors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been shown to enhance both the relative permittivity and effective conductivity of the host medium, and are promising as theranostic (integrated therapeutic and diagnostic) agents. Thus, our properties characterization work focuses on CNT dispersions. We performed in vitro microwave dielectric properties and heating response characterization of dispersions of CNTs treated by different functionalization methods and identified a CNT formulation that is very promising as a microwave theranostic agent. Stable dispersions of CNTs with concentrations up to 20 mg/ml are obtained with this formulation, and the enhanced microwave properties of these dispersions are extraordinary compared to the control. We also conducted in vivo dielectric properties characterization of mouse tumors with intra-tumoral injections of CNT dispersions and confirmed that the presence of CNTs increases the dielectric properties of the tumor. In parallel, we developed a contrast-enhanced microwave breast tumor imaging algorithm using sparse reconstruction methods. We demonstrated that this algorithm accurately localizes small tumors in 3D numerical breast phantoms. We also demonstrated the experimental feasibility of this method using physical breast phantoms. Lastly, we studied the sensitivity of the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) to initial guesses and developed a

  9. TMJ disorders and pain: Assessment by contrast-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Davide [Department of Radiology (School of Medicine), University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy)], E-mail: nappaje@yahoo.it; Bodin, Christiane [Division of Gnathology (School of Dentistry), University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Gandolfi, Silvia [Department of Radiology (School of Medicine), University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); De Gasperi, Werner [Division of Gnathology (School of Dentistry), University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Borghesi, Andrea; Maroldi, Roberto [Department of Radiology (School of Medicine), University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Though magnetic resonance (MRI) is a widely accepted standard for the assessment of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, efforts to correlate symptoms to MRI findings have often given controversial results. Aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between TMJ pain and findings of contrast-enhanced MRI. Thirty-eight consecutive patients with TMJ dysfunction syndrome (study group) were examined with MRI. Protocol included T2 turbo spin-echo sequence, T1 spin-echo sequence, and T2 gradient-echo (acquired with closed jaw, at intermediate and maximal opening). Post-contrast phase was obtained through a fat sat 3D T1 gradient-echo sequence (VIBE). Post-contrast findings in the study group were matched with those obtained in a control group of 33 patients submitted to MRI of the paranasal sinuses. Statistically significant difference was found between condylar medullary bone enhancement in painful TMJ, in painless TMJ and control group. In addition the average thickness of joint soft tissue enhancement in painful TMJ was superior to painless TMJ (p < 0.0001) and to control group. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio that a painful TMJ showed disk displacement, osteoarthrosis, effusion and JST enhancement were 3.05, 3.18, 1.2 and 11.36, respectively. Though not histologically proven, TMJ enhancement could reflect the presence of inflammation in painful joints. Furthermore, the administration of contrast could be of help for the assessment of patients with orofacial pain, particularly when clinical exploration is insufficient to ascribe the pain to TMJ.

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosis of gallbladder adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Xia Yuan; Jia-Ying Cao; Wen-Tao Kong; Han-Sheng Xia; Xi Wang; Wen-Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Gallbladder adenoma is a pre-cancerous neoplasm and needs surgical resection. It is dififcult to differ-entiate adenoma from other gallbladder polyps using imaging examinations. The study aimed to illustrate characteristics of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and its diagnostic value in gallbladder adenoma. METHODS:Thirty-seven patients with 39 gallbladder adenoma-toid lesions (maximal diameter≥10 mm and without metastasis) were enrolled in this study. Lesion appearances in conventional ultrasound and CEUS were documented. The imaging features were compared individually among gallbladder cholesterol polyp, gallbladder adenoma and malignant lesion. RESULTS:Adenoma lesions showed iso-echogenicity in ul-trasound, and an eccentric enhancement pattern, "fast-in and synchronous-out" contrast enhancement pattern and homo-geneous at peak-time enhancement in CEUS. The homogenic-ity at peak-time enhancement showed the highest diagnostic ability in differentiating gallbladder adenoma from cholesterol polyps. The sensitivity, speciifcity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and Youden index were 100%, 90.9%, 92.9%, 100%, 95.8% and 0.91, respectively. The characteristic of continuous gallbladder wall shown by CEUS had the highest diagnostic ability in differentiating adenoma from malignant lesion (100%, 86.7%, 86.7%, 100%, 92.9% and 0.87, respectively). The characteristic of the eccentric enhance-ment pattern had the highest diagnostic ability in differenti-ating adenoma from cholesterol polyp and malignant lesion, with corresponding indices of 69.2%, 88.5%, 75.0%, 85.2%, 82.1% and 0.58, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:CEUS is valuable in differentiating gallbladder adenoma from other gallbladder polyps (≥10 mm in diameter). Homogeneous echogenicity on peak-time enhancement, a con-tinuous gallbladder wall, and the eccentric enhancement pat-tern are important indicators of gallbladder adenoma on CEUS.

  11. Decreased accumulation of ultrasound contrast in the liver of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuki Miyata; Takeo Miyahara; Fuminori Moriyasu

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) using contrast ultrasonography in the NASH rat model. METHODS: The liver in methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) rats, a NASH model constructed by feeding an MCDD, was examined by contrast ultrasonography at weeks 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16, with late phase images of contrast ultrasonography (Kupffer imaging) in which contrast enhancement was achieved by incorporation of a contrast agent by Kupffer cells (KCs), and images were compared to those in rats taking a regular chow. RESULTS: Decrease in contrast enhancement was observed first in MCDD rats at week 2. KCs were counted based on immunohistochemistry, but their numbers were not reduced and it was assumed that attenuation of contrast enhancement was attributable to reduced phagocytic activity of the KCs. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that clinical application of contrast ultrasonography may be valuable for noninvasive diagnosis of NASH.

  12. Microvascular contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography using microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Homa; Demidov, Valentin; Karshafian, Raffi; Douplik, Alexandre; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2016-07-01

    Gas microbubbles (MBs) are investigated as intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) contrast agents. Agar + intralipid scattering tissue phantoms with two embedded microtubes were fabricated to model vascular blood flow. One was filled with human blood, and the other with a mixture of human blood + MB. Swept-source structural and speckle variance (sv) OCT images, as well as speckle decorrelation times, were evaluated under both no-flow and varying flow conditions. Faster decorrelation times and higher structural and svOCT image contrasts were detected in the presence of MB in all experiments. The effects were largest in the svOCT imaging mode, and uniformly diminished with increasing flow velocity. These findings suggest the feasibility of utilizing MB for tissue hemodynamic investigations and for microvasculature contrast enhancement in OCT angiography.

  13. Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Bi-Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramjit Singh,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histogram equalization is a widely used scheme for contrast enhancement in a variety of applications due to its simple function and effectiveness. One possible drawback of the histogram equalization is that it can change the mean brightness of an image significantly as a consequence of histogram flattening. Clearly, this is not a desirable property when preserving the original mean brightness of a given image is necessary. Bi-histogram equalization is able to overcome this drawback for gray scale images. In this paper, we explore the use of bi-histogram equalization based technique for enhancing RGB color images. The technique is based on cumulative density function of a quantized image. From the results it is concluded that bi-histogram equalization is able to improve the contrast of colored images significantly.

  14. Contrast enhanced exposure strategy in multi-beam mask writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belic, Nikola; Hofmann, Ulrich; Klikovits, Jan; Martens, Stephan

    2013-03-01

    Since multi electron beam exposure has become a serious contender for next generation mask making, proximity- and process effect corrections (PEC) need to be adapted to this technology. With feature sizes in the order of the short-range blurs (resist and tool), contrast enhancements need to be combined with standard linearity corrections. Different PEC strategies are reviewed and compared with respect to their suitability for multi-beam exposure. This analysis recommends a hybrid approach that combines the benefits of shape- and dose PEC and is optimally applicable for multibeam exposure. Exposure results on the proof-of-concept 50keV electron multi-beam mask exposure tool (eMET POC) and a standard 50 kV vector shaped beam tool (VSB) are shown to verify that the combined PEC with overdose contrast enhancement covers the whole pattern range from isolated to opaque.

  15. Angular compounded OCTA for flow contrast enhancement (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Li, Pei; Cheng, Yuxuan; Zhou, Liping; Ding, Zhihua

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a promising imaging modality that enables a label-free, high-resolution and high-contrast image of biological tissue microvasculature. Typically, the blood flow contrast is implemented by mathematically analyzing the temporal dynamics of light scattering, and setting a threshold to distinguish the dynamic blood flow from the static tissue bed. However, high flow contrast is degraded by the residual overlap that results in misclassification errors between dynamic and static signals. Our study has demonstrated that flow contrast can be enhanced using a single-shot angular compounded OCTA (AC-OCTA). Because a continuous modulation is induced by the offset that the probing beam is away from the beam center in the typical OCT sample arm, different incidence angles in the probing beam are encoded in B-scan modulation frequencies. The complex-valued spectral interferogram is reconstructed by removing the conjugate terms in the depth space and its Fourier transform along the transversal fast-scan direction generates a wide conjugate-free B-scan modulation spectrum in the full space of the spatial domain. By splitting the modulation spectrum, angle-resolved independent sub-angiograms are generated and then compounded to enhance the flow contrast. Both flow phantom and in vivo animal cerebral vascular imaging demonstrated that the proposed angular compounded OCTA can offer a 50% decrease of misclassification errors and an improved flow contrast and vessel connectivity. This AC-OCTA is beneficial to facilitating the interpretation of OCT angiograms in clinical applications.

  16. Predicting Neck Abscess with Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Neck abscesses are difficult to diagnose and treat. Currently, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is the imaging modality of choice. The study aims to determine the predictive value of CECT findings in diagnosing neck abscess, causes of neck abscess and the most common neck space involved in the local population. 84 consecutive patients clinically suspected to have neck abscess who underwent CECT and surgical confirmation of pus were included. Demographic and clinical data were reco...

  17. Molecular imaging with dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, K.A., E-mail: k.a.miles@bsms.ac.u [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a quantitative technique that employs rapid sequences of CT images after bolus administration of intravenous contrast material to measure a range of physiological processes related to the microvasculature of tissues. By combining knowledge of the molecular processes underlying changes in vascular physiology with an understanding of the relationship between vascular physiology and CT contrast enhancement, DCE-CT can be redefined as a molecular imaging technique. Some DCE-CT derived parameters reflect tissue hypoxia and can, therefore, provide information about the cellular microenvironment. DCE-CT can also depict physiological processes, such as vasodilatation, that represent the physiological consequences of molecular responses to tissue hypoxia. To date the main applications have been in stroke and oncology. Unlike some other molecular imaging approaches, DCE-CT benefits from wide availability and ease of application along with the use of contrast materials and software packages that have achieved full regulatory approval. Hence, DCE-CT represents a molecular imaging technique that is applicable in clinical practice today.

  18. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography in patients after kidney transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, A.; Heuck, A.; Scheidler, J.; Holzknecht, N.; Baur, A.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Stangl, M.; Theodorakis, J.; Illner, W.-D.; Land, W. [Dept. of Transplant Surgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography in detecting postoperative vascular complications after kidney transplantation in comparison with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Forty-one patients who underwent a kidney transplantation were examined with MR angiography and DSA. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography was performed as a dynamic measurement with one precontrast and three postcontrast measurements. Maximum intensity projection reconstructions were performed for all postcontrast data sets after DSA. The results were evaluated by two independent observers who were unaware of the DSA results. Twenty-three hemodynamically significant arterial stenoses were identified with DSA in the iliac arteries (n=7), the renal allograft arteries (n=12), and in their first branches (n=4). For a patient-based analysis the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for observer 1 were 100 and 97%, and for observer 2, 100 and 93%. Respective data were 100 and 100% after a consensus evaluation by two observers. Complications involving the renal veins were detected in 2 cases and perfusion defects of the kidney parenchyma were detected in 4 cases. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography is a reliable method in identifying postoperative arterial stenoses after kidney transplantation. In addition, dynamic MR angiography can be helpful in detecting venous complications and perfusion defects in kidney allografts. (orig.)

  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome: dynamic contrast-enhanced ovary MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Bayar, Ulku; Erdem, L. Oktay; Barut, Aykut; Gundogdu, Sadi; Kaya, Erdal

    2004-07-01

    Objective: to determine the enhancement behaviour of the ovaries in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging and to compare these data with those of normal ovulating controls. Method: 24 women with PCOS and 12 controls underwent DCE-MR imaging. Dynamic images were acquired before and after injection of a contrast bolus at 30 s and the min of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. On postprocessing examination: (i) the ovarian volumes; (ii) the signal intensity value of each ovary per dynamic study; (iii) early-phase enhancement rate; (iv) time to peak enhancement (T{sub p}); and (v) percentage of washout of 5th min were determined. Data of the ovaries of the women with PCOS and controls were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: the mean values of T{sub p} were found to be significantly lower in women with PCOS than in controls (p<0.05). On the other hand, the mean values of ovarian volume, the early-phase enhancement rate, and percentage of washout of 5th min of ovaries were significantly higher in PCOS patients (p<0.05). Examination of the mean signal intensity-time curve revealed the ovaries in women with PCOS showed a faster and greater enhancement and wash-out. Conclusion: the enhancement behaviour of ovaries of women with PCOS may be significantly different from those of control subjects on DCE-MR imaging examination. In our experience, it is a valuable modality to highlight the vascularization changes in ovarian stroma with PCOS. We believe that improved DCE-MR imaging techniques may also provide us additional parameters in the diagnosis and treatment strategies of PCOS.

  20. Shape perception enhances perceived contrast: evidence for excitatory predictive feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Biao; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-03-14

    Predictive coding theory suggests that predictable responses are "explained away" (i.e., reduced) by feedback. Experimental evidence for feedback inhibition, however, is inconsistent: most neuroimaging studies show reduced activity by predictive feedback, while neurophysiology indicates that most inter-areal cortical feedback is excitatory and targets excitatory neurons. In this study, we asked subjects to judge the luminance of two gray disks containing stimulus outlines: one enabling predictive feedback (a 3D-shape) and one impeding it (random-lines). These outlines were comparable to those used in past neuroimaging studies. All 14 subjects consistently perceived the disk with a 3D-shape stimulus brighter; thus, predictive feedback enhanced perceived contrast. Since early visual cortex activity at the population level has been shown to have a monotonic relationship with subjective contrast perception, we speculate that the perceived contrast enhancement could reflect an increase in neuronal activity. In other words, predictive feedback may have had an excitatory influence on neuronal responses. Control experiments ruled out attention bias, local feature differences and response bias as alternate explanations.

  1. Mammogram contrast enhancement in wavelet domain using fuzzy denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Amirpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the leading death causes among many women around the world. Diagnosing breast cancer in early stage before it gets the chance to spread helps patients treatment.Mammography is an effective screening test that helps to early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer in women. In many cases, due to the low-energy X-ray beams usedin mammography and microcalcifications position, mammograms are low contrast and noisy images and it is difficult for radiologiststo distinguish between normal and neoplastic breast tissues.Therefore, image enhancement algorithms have been proposed to improve mammograms quality for better detection. The main focus of this paper is to propose a procedure for enhancingthe contrast of mammogram images by using a fuzzy based wavelet transform. At the first step of the procedure, a multiscale wavelet transform is obtained in four levels. In the second step,the fuzzy logic approach is applied to the fourth level for denoising and improving image quality. In the final step, wavelet coefficients in all scales are manipulated by an enhancing factor, to improve the image contrast. The performance of the proposed procedure was investigated according to various factors by simulation data.

  2. Contrast-enhanced MRI of murine myocardial infarction - part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Bram F; Paulis, Leonie E M; Geelen, Tessa; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2012-08-01

    Mouse models are increasingly used to study the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction in vivo. In this area, MRI has become the gold standard imaging modality, because it combines high spatial and temporal resolution functional imaging with a large variety of methods to generate soft tissue contrast. In addition, (target-specific) MRI contrast agents can be employed to visualize different processes in the cascade of events following myocardial infarction. Here, the MRI sequence has a decisive role in the detection sensitivity of a contrast agent. However, a straightforward translation of clinically available protocols for human cardiac imaging to mice is not feasible, because of the small size of the mouse heart and its extremely high heart rate. This has stimulated intense research in the development of cardiac MRI protocols specifically tuned to the mouse with regard to timing parameters, acquisition strategies, and ECG- and respiratory-triggering methods to find an optimal trade-off between sensitivity, scan time, and image quality. In this review, a detailed analysis is given of the pros and cons of different mouse cardiac MR imaging methodologies and their application in contrast-enhanced MRI of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of hepatocarcinogenesis in liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; CHEN Min-hua; SUN Maryellen; YAN Kun; YANG Wei; LI Ji-you

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often occurs in association with liver cirrhosis.A stepwise carcinogenesis for HCC has been proposed.The purpose of this study was to observe the enhancement pattern of hepatocellular nodules in cirrhotic patients using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and to correlate patterns of enhancement at CEUS with the diagnosis of hepatocellular nodules using pathologic correlation as the gold standard.Methods Ninety-three cirrhotic patients with indeterminate hepatocellular nodules at ultrasound,underwent biopsy of each indeterminate nodule.Patients with nodules found to have pathologic diagnoses of regenerative nodules (RNs),dysplastic nodules (DNs),or DNs with focus of HCC (DN-HCC),were enrolled in this study.Enhancement patterns of all nodules were examined throughout the various vascular phases of CEUS and classified into five enhancement patterns:type Ⅰ,isoenhancement to hepatic parenchyma at all phases; type Ⅱ,hypoenhancement in the arterial phase,and isoenhancement in the portal venous phase and late phase; type Ⅲ,iso-to-hypoenhancement in arterial and portal venous phase,and hypoenhancement in the late phase (washout); type Ⅳ,slight hyperenhancement in the arterial and portal venous phase and hypoenhancement in the late phase (washout); and type Ⅴ,partial hyperenhancement in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement in the late phase; and another partial iso-to-hypoenhancement in the arterial and portal venous phase and hypoenhancement in the late phase (washout).The correlation between the contrast enhancement patterns and the pathological diagnoses was analyzed by the chi-squared test.Results Totally 132 lesions were examined with CEUS in 93 patients.Pathologic diagnoses included 45 DN,68 RN,and 19 DN-HCC.The enhancement patterns observed were as follows:type Ⅰ,49 (37.1%); type Ⅱ,27 (20.5%); type Ⅲ,28(21.2%); type Ⅳ,9 (6.8%); type Ⅴ,19 (14.4%).Nodules with type Ⅰ enhancement showed

  4. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zordo, Tobias de; Mlekusch, Sabine P.; Feuchtner, Gudrun M. [Department of Radiology II, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Mur, Erich [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schirmer, Michael [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of the Elisabethines Klagenfurt, Voelkermarkter Strasse 15-19, 9020 Klagenfurt (Austria); Klauser, Andrea S. [Department of Radiology II, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: andrea.klauser@i-med.ac.at

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this review is to describe the spectrum of sonographic findings in rheumatic diseases with respect to the diagnostic potential using US contrast media which prove activity or inactivity in synovial tissue where new treatment regimes target. Synovial activity can be found in non-erosive and erosive forms of primary and secondary osteoarthritis, and in inflammatory forms of joint diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and peripheral manifestations of spondyloarthritis including, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis and enteropathic arthritis. It can also be present in metabolic and endocrine forms of arthritis, in connective tissue arthropathies like systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma and in infectious arthritis. Ultrasound should be used as first-line imaging modality in suspected early cases of RA and other forms of arthritis, whereas contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can further enable for sensitive assessment of vascularity which correlates with disease activity.

  5. Signal Improvement and Contrast Enhancement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reports advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with the ultimate goal of improving signal and contrast in biomedical applications. More specifically, novel MRI pulse sequences have been designed to characterize microstructure, enhance signal and contrast in tissue, and image functional processes. In this thesis, rat brain and red bone marrow images are acquired using iMQCs (intermolecular multiple quantum coherences) between intermediate separated spins. As an important application, iMQCs images in different directions can be used for anisotropy mapping and tissue microstructure analysis. At the same time, the simulations prove that the dipolar field from the overall shape only has small contributions to the experimental iMQC signal. Besides magnitude of iMQCs, phase of iMQCs should be studied as well. The phase anisotropy maps built by our method can clearly show susceptibility information in rat brain. It may provide meaningful diagnostic information. To deeply study susceptibility, the m...

  6. Quantitative contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.H. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Rubinstein, D. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Brown, M. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Yuh, W. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Birch-Iensen, M. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Szumowski, J. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Stears, J. [Depts. of Radiology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    During the acute stages of optic neuritis damage to the blood-optic nerve barrier can be detected using i.v. paramagnetic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Quantification of the enhancement pattern of the optic nerve, intraorbital fat and muscle was determined in 15 normal subjects using 3 fat-suppression MR imaging methods: T1-weighted spin-echo and spoiled gradient-echo sequences preceded by a flat-frequency selective pulse (FATSAT+SE and FATSAT+SPGR, respectively) and a pulse sequence combining CHOPPER fat suppression with a fat-frequency selective preparation pulse (HYBRID). Pre- and postcontrast-enhanced studies were acquired for FATSAT+SE and FATSAT+SPGR. There was no significant enhancement of the optic nerve by either method (mean increase of 0.96% and 5.3%, respectively), while there was significant enhancement in muscle (mean 118.2% and 108.2%, respectively; p<0.005) and fat (mean increase of 13% and 37%, respectively; p<0.05). Postcontrast optic nerve/muscle signal intensity ratios (mean, SD) were 0.51 (0.07), 0.58 (0.05) and 0.75 (0.05) for FATSAT+SE, FATSAT+SPGR and HYBRID, respectively. These results suggest a practical methodology and range of values for normal signal intensity increases and ratios of tissue signal that can be used as objective measures of optic neuritis for natural history studies and treatment trials. (orig.).

  7. Subendometrial enhancement and peritumoral enhancement for assessing endometrial cancer on dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Shinya [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago (Japan); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kido, Aki, E-mail: akikido@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Baba, Tsukasa [Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fujimoto, Koji; Daido, Sayaka [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo [Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We have assessed the peritumoral enhancement (PTE), which mimics SEE on DCE. •We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SEE for the myometrial invasion and the frequency of PTE. •We assessed the relationship between these enhancements and important pathologic factors. •PTE Type 1 is the main factor causing the overestimation of myometrial invasion using SEE on DCE. •PTE Type 2 correlates the myometrial invasion and may play an important role in the diagnosis of LVSI. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of subendometrial enhancement (SEE) in assessing the myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer, the frequency and clinical significance of peritumoral enhancement (PTE) on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging. Materials and methods: MR images of 147 patients with endometrial cancer were retrospectively analyzed for intact SEE and PTEs: Type 1, a focal early enhancement peritumorally, and Type 2, an irregular thin-layered early intense enhancement peritumorally. Two radiologists independently assessed intact SEE and PTEs on DCE imaging and compared the lesions by the presence and depth of myometrial invasion, grade, lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis. The relationship between SEE, PTEs, and each factor was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for SEE. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for myometrial invasion based on SEE disruption on DCE were 96.6%, 32.1–46.4%, 85.8–88.5%, 69.2–76.5%, and 84.4–87.1%. According to multivariate analysis, SEE significantly predicted myometrial invasion (p < 0.0001). PTE Type 2 significantly predicted myometrial invasion presence (p < 0.05) and depth (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Diagnosis of myometrial invasion only by using SEE might be difficult on DCE-MRI due to the

  8. How to Develop a Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Richard G

    2017-02-02

    With the recent Food and Drug Administration approval of Lumason (sulfur hexafluoride lipid-type A microsphere, Bracco Diagnostics Inc, Monroe Township, NJ) for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to characterize focal liver lesions in both adult and pediatric patients, widespread use of CEUS is expected in the United States. This paper provides guidance in setting up a CEUS program, and reviews the practical details that will need to be instituted in a standard ultrasound department to provide both safe and efficient use of CEUS. A review of the indications, contraindications, adverse events, instructions for performing the exam, and image interpretation are discussed.

  9. Contrast enhancing solution for use in confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannous, Zeina; Torres, Abel; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2006-10-31

    A method of optically detecting a tumor during surgery. The method includes imaging at least one test point defined on the tumor using a first optical imaging system to provide a first tumor image. The method further includes excising a first predetermined layer of the tumor for forming an in-vivo defect area. A predetermined contrast enhancing solution is disposed on the in-vivo defect area, which is adapted to interact with at least one cell anomaly, such as basal cell carcinoma, located on the in-vivo defect area for optically enhancing the cell anomaly. Thereafter the defect area can be optically imaged to provide a clear and bright representation of the cell anomaly to aid a surgeon while surgically removing the cell anomaly.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of colour Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography and blood-pool-enhanced MR angiography in assessing carotid stenosis: a comparative study with DSA in 170 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, M; Napoli, A; Zaccagna, F; Di Paolo, P; Saba, L; Cavallo Marincola, B; Zini, C; Cartocci, G; Di Mare, L; Catalano, C; Passariello, R

    2012-02-01

    This study was undertaken to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), first-pass (FP) and steady-state (SS) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the carotid arteries using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. A total of 170 patients with previous cerebrovascular events and suspected carotid artery stenoses underwent CDUS, blood-pool MRA, CTA and DSA. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for CDUS, FP MRA, SS MRA and CTA. The McNemar and Wilcoxon tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to determine significant differences (p<0.05) between the diagnostic performances of the four modalities, and the degree of stenosis was compared using linear regression. A total of 336 carotid bifurcations were studied. The area under the curve (AUC) for degree of stenosis was: CDUS 0.85±0.02, FP MRA 0.982±0.005, SS MRA 0.994±0.002 and CTA 0.997±0.001. AUC analysis showed no statistically significant difference between CTA and MRA (p=0.0174) and a statistically significant difference between CDUS and the other techniques (p<0.001). Plaque morphology analysis showed no significant difference between CTA and SS MRA; a significant difference was seen between CTA and SS MRA versus FP MRA (p=0.04) and CDUS (p=0.038). Plaque ulceration analysis showed a statistically significant difference between MRA and CTA (0.04< p<0.046) versus CDUS (p=0.019). CTA is the most accurate technique for evaluating carotid stenoses, with a slightly better performance than MRA (97% vs. 95% for SS MRA and 92% for FP MRA) and a greater accuracy than CDUS (97% vs. 76%). Blood-pool contrast-enhanced SS sequences offer improved evaluation of degree of stenosis and plaque morphology with accuracy substantially identical to CTA.

  11. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of histologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia: diagnostic performance compared with contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Da; Liu, Guang-Jian; Xu, Zuo-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lu-Yao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Guangzhou (China); Lu, Ming-De [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Guangzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Guangzhou (China); Shen, Shun-Li [The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-09-15

    To investigate and compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the characterisation of histologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). CEUS was performed in 85 patients with 85 histologically proven FNHs. Enhancement, centrifugal filling, spoke-wheel arteries, feeding artery and central scarring were reviewed and correlated with lesion size or liver background. Independent factors for predicting FNH from other focal liver lesions (FLLs) were evaluated. Forty-seven FLLs with CECT were randomly selected for comparison of diagnostic performance with CEUS. Centrifugal filling was more common (P = 0.002) and the significant predictor (P = 0.003) in FNHs {<=}3 cm. Lesion size or liver background has no significant influence on the detection rate of the spoke-wheel arteries and feeding artery (P > 0.05). Central scarring was found in 42.6 % of FNHs {>=}3 cm (P = 0.000). The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity and specificity showed no significant differences between CEUS and CECT (P > 0.05), except that the sensitivity of CEUS was better for reader 1 (P = 0.041). CEUS is valuable in characterising centrifugal filling signs or spoke wheels in small FNHs and should be employed as the first-line imaging technique for diagnosis of FNH. (orig.)

  12. Optimum wavelet based masking for the contrast enhancement of medical images using enhanced cuckoo search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ebenezer; Anitha, J

    2016-04-01

    Unsharp masking techniques are a prominent approach in contrast enhancement. Generalized masking formulation has static scale value selection, which limits the gain of contrast. In this paper, we propose an Optimum Wavelet Based Masking (OWBM) using Enhanced Cuckoo Search Algorithm (ECSA) for the contrast improvement of medical images. The ECSA can automatically adjust the ratio of nest rebuilding, using genetic operators such as adaptive crossover and mutation. First, the proposed contrast enhancement approach is validated quantitatively using Brain Web and MIAS database images. Later, the conventional nest rebuilding of cuckoo search optimization is modified using Adaptive Rebuilding of Worst Nests (ARWN). Experimental results are analyzed using various performance matrices, and our OWBM shows improved results as compared with other reported literature.

  13. Image fusion for dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Martin O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multivariate imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI have been shown to provide valuable information for medical diagnosis. Even though these techniques provide new information, integrating and evaluating the much wider range of information is a challenging task for the human observer. This task may be assisted with the use of image fusion algorithms. Methods In this paper, image fusion based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA is proposed for the first time. It is demonstrated that a priori knowledge about the data domain can be easily incorporated into the parametrisation of the KPCA, leading to task-oriented visualisations of the multivariate data. The results of the fusion process are compared with those of the well-known and established standard linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA by means of temporal sequences of 3D MRI volumes from six patients who took part in a breast cancer screening study. Results The PCA and KPCA algorithms are able to integrate information from a sequence of MRI volumes into informative gray value or colour images. By incorporating a priori knowledge, the fusion process can be automated and optimised in order to visualise suspicious lesions with high contrast to normal tissue. Conclusion Our machine learning based image fusion approach maps the full signal space of a temporal DCE-MRI sequence to a single meaningful visualisation with good tissue/lesion contrast and thus supports the radiologist during manual image evaluation.

  14. Selective polarization imager for contrast enhancement in extended scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darren Alexis

    Improved imaging and detection of objects through turbid obscurants is a vital problem of current interest to both military and civilian entities. Image quality is severely degraded when obscurant fields such as fog, smoke, dust, etc., lie between an object and the light-collecting optics. Conventional intensity imaging through turbid media suffers from rapid loss of image contrast due to light scattering from particles (e.g. in fog) or random variations of refractive index (e.g. in medical imaging). Intensity imaging does not differentiate between rays scattered off particles in the obscurant field and those reflected off objects within the field. Scattering degrades image quality in all spectral bands (UV, visible, and IR), although the amount of degradation is wavelength dependent. This dissertation features the development of innovative system designs and techniques that utilize scattered radiation's deterministic polarization state evolution to greatly enhance the image contrast of stand-off objects within obscurant fields such as smoke, fog, or dust using active polarized illumination in the visible. The produced sensors acquire and process image data in real time using computationally non-intensive algorithms that differentiate between radiation that scatters or reflects from obscured objects and the radiation from the scattering media, improving image contrast by factors of ten or greater for dense water vapor obscurants.

  15. Assessing Tumor Angiogenesis with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Jackson, Edward F.

    2006-09-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a method able of assessing microvascular changes at high spatial resolution and without ionizing radiation. The microcirculation and structure of tumors are fundamentally chaotic in that tumor-derived factors stimulate the endothelial cells to form new small vessels (angiogenesis) and this vasculature deviates markedly from normal hierarchical branching patterns. The tumor-induced microvascular changes lead to blood flow that is both spatially and temporally more heterogeneous than the efficient and uniform perfusion of normal organs and tissues. DCE-MRI allows for the assessment of perfusion and permeability of the tumor microvasculature, including the network of vessels with diameters less than 100 μm, which are beyond the resolution of conventional angiograms. The microvessel permeability to small molecular weight contrast media as well as measures of tumor response can be assessed with different analysis techniques ranging from simple measures of enhancement to pharmacokinetic models. In this work, such DCE-MRI analysis techniques are discussed.

  16. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound evaluation of hepatic microvascular changes in liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Ridolfi; Teresa Abbattista; Paolo Busilacchi; Eugenio Brunelli

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess if software assisted-contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) provides reproducible perfusion parameters of hepatic parenchyma in patients affected by chronic liver disease.METHODS:Forty patients with chronic viral liver disease,with (n =20) or without (n =20) cirrhosis,and 10 healthy subjects underwent CEUS and video recordings of each examination were then analysed with Esaote's Qontrast software.CEUS dedicated software Qontrast was used to determine peak (the maximum signal intensity),time to peak (TTP),region of blood value (RBV) proportional to the area under the time-intensity curve,mean transit time (MTT) measured in seconds and region of blood flow (RBF).RESULTS:Qontrast-assisted CEUS parameters displayed high inter-observer reproducibility (k coefficients of 0.87 for MTT and 0.90 TTP).When the region of interest included a main hepatic vein,Qontrast-calculated TTP was significantly shorter in cirrhotic patients (vs non-cirrhotics and healthy subjects) (71.0 ± 11.3 s vs 82.4 ± 15.6 s,86.3 ± 20.3 s,P < 0.05).MTTs in the patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly shorter than those of controls (111.9 ± 22.0 s vs 139.4 ± 39.8 s,P < 0.05),but there was no significant difference between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups (111.9 ± 22.0 s vs 110.3 ± 14.6 s).Peak enhancement in the patients with liver cirrhosis was also higher than that observed in controls (23.9 ± 5.9 vs 18.9 ± 7.1,P =0.05).There were no significant intergroup differences in the RBVs and RBFs.CONCLUSION:Qontrast-assisted CEUS revealed reproducible differences in liver perfusion parameters during the development of hepatic fibrogenesis.

  17. Human cerebral blood volume measurements using dynamic contrast enhancement in comparison to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Liberman, Gilad; Vitinshtein, Faina; Aizenstein, Orna [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Nadav, Guy [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2015-07-15

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is an important parameter for the assessment of brain tumors, usually obtained using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI. However, this method often suffers from low spatial resolution and high sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts and usually does not take into account the effect of tissue permeability. The plasma volume (v{sub p}) can also be extracted from dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCE can be used for the measurement of cerebral blood volume in place of DSC for the assessment of patients with brain tumors. Twenty-eight subjects (17 healthy subjects and 11 patients with glioblastoma) were scanned using DCE and DSC. v{sub p} and CBV values were measured and compared in different brain components in healthy subjects and in the tumor area in patients. Significant high correlations were detected between v{sub p} and CBV in healthy subjects in the different brain components; white matter, gray matter, and arteries, correlating with the known increased tissue vascularity, and within the tumor area in patients. This work proposes the use of DCE as an alternative method to DSC for the assessment of blood volume, given the advantages of its higher spatial resolution, its lower sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts, and its ability to provide additional information regarding tissue permeability. (orig.)

  18. Abducens nerve enhancement demonstrated by multiplanar reconstruction of contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, T.; Adachi, M.; Sugai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Yamaguchi, K. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan); Kato, T. [3. Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    We describe contrast enhancement of the cisternal portion of the abducens nerve and discuss its clinical significance. We examined 67 patients with ophthalmoplegia using contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional (3D) MRI with multiplanar reconstruction along the nerves and found 16 patients (ten men, six women), aged 10-73 years (mean 34.4 years), with contrast enhancement of the abducens nerve. Of the 36 patients who had an abducens palsy, 14 (39 %) showed contrast enhancement. In the 16 patients, 23 abducens nerves enhanced; 13 were symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic at the time. The causes were disseminated tumour (1), an inflammatory process (3), trauma (2), ischaemia (2) and autoimmune diseases (8), such as the Miller Fisher syndrome, acute ophthalmoparesis, polyneuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Abducens and/or oculomotor nerve enhancement was the only abnormality on MRI in the patients with traumatic or ischaemic neuropathy or autoimmune diseases. There were 14 patients who recovered fully within 1-6 months after treatment, and resolution of the enhancement correlated well with recovery. (orig.)

  19. Design of a clinical vein contrast enhancing projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2001-06-01

    A clinical study has been initiated to compare an experimental IR device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE), with standard techniques for finding veins for venipuncture. The aims of this proposal are (1) to evaluate the performance of the VCE in a clinical setting, specifically by comparing its sensitivity of detection with existing vein-finding techniques used by experienced nurses or phlebotomists, (2) to study its usefulness in subjects who are obese, who have difficult venous access or thrombosed veins, or whose veins are not visible or difficult to palpate, and (3) to show that it performs as well on subjects with darkly pigmented skin as on subjects with lightly pigmented skin. The VCE will first be studied in adult subjects, and then in pediatric subjects.

  20. Toward contrast-enhanced, optically-detected NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriles, Carlos; Pagliero, Daniela

    2011-03-01

    Optical detection of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) takes place via a two-step process that relies on the interaction between optical photons and electrons on the one hand, and the hyperfine coupling between electrons and nuclear spins on the other. The latter depends on the material system under consideration while the former is dominated by the difference between the illumination and optical transition wavelengths. Here we use optical Faraday rotation to monitor nuclear spins in real time after resonant radio-frequency excitation at high-magnetic field. Comparison between inductively and optically detected NMR spectra in model sample fluids indicates that each of these mechanisms can lead to alternate forms of spectral contrast. Extension of these findings may find application in solvent suppression protocols, sensitivity-enhanced NMR of metalloproteins, or the characterization of molecular orbitals in diamagnetic systems. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation.

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT in patients with pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Carsten Ammitzbøl; Eriksen, Rie Østbjerg; Strauch, Louise Søborg;

    2016-01-01

    tissue, compared with measurements in pancreatic tissue outside of tumor, or normal pancreatic tissue in control groups of healthy volunteers. The studies were heterogeneous in the number of patients enrolled and scan protocols. Perfusion parameters measured and analyzed by DCE-CT might be useful......The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the use of Dynamic contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography (DCE-CT) in patients with pancreatic cancer. This study was composed according to the PRISMA guidelines 2009. The literature search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library...... in the investigation of characteristic vascular patterns of pancreatic exocrine tumors. Further clinical studies are desired for investigating the potential of DCE-CT in pancreatic tumors. Keywords:...

  2. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi, Libertario, E-mail: l.demi@tue.nl; Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Wijkstra, Hessel [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Urology Dept., University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  3. A simulation tool for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Adrien Pannetier

    Full Text Available The quantification of bolus-tracking MRI techniques remains challenging. The acquisition usually relies on one contrast and the analysis on a simplified model of the various phenomena that arise within a voxel, leading to inaccurate perfusion estimates. To evaluate how simplifications in the interstitial model impact perfusion estimates, we propose a numerical tool to simulate the MR signal provided by a dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE MRI experiment. Our model encompasses the intrinsic R1 and R2 relaxations, the magnetic field perturbations induced by susceptibility interfaces (vessels and cells, the diffusion of the water protons, the blood flow, the permeability of the vessel wall to the the contrast agent (CA and the constrained diffusion of the CA within the voxel. The blood compartment is modeled as a uniform compartment. The different blocks of the simulation are validated and compared to classical models. The impact of the CA diffusivity on the permeability and blood volume estimates is evaluated. Simulations demonstrate that the CA diffusivity slightly impacts the permeability estimates (< 5% for classical blood flow and CA diffusion. The effect of long echo times is investigated. Simulations show that DCE-MRI performed with an echo time TE = 5 ms may already lead to significant underestimation of the blood volume (up to 30% lower for brain tumor permeability values. The potential and the versatility of the proposed implementation are evaluated by running the simulation with realistic vascular geometry obtained from two photons microscopy and with impermeable cells in the extravascular environment. In conclusion, the proposed simulation tool describes DCE-MRI experiments and may be used to evaluate and optimize acquisition and processing strategies.

  4. Dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Philip; Kosik, Ivan; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a hybrid imaging modality that integrates the strengths from both optical imaging and acoustic imaging while simultaneously overcoming many of their respective weaknesses. In previous work, we reported on a real-time 3D PAI system comprised of a 32-element hemispherical array of transducers. Using the system, we demonstrated the ability to capture photoacoustic data, reconstruct a 3D photoacoustic image, and display select slices of the 3D image every 1.4 s, where each 3D image resulted from a single laser pulse. The present study aimed to exploit the rapid imaging speed of an upgraded 3D PAI system by evaluating its ability to perform dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. The contrast dynamics can provide rich datasets that contain insight into perfusion, pharmacokinetics and physiology. We captured a series of 3D PA images of a flow phantom before and during injection of piglet and rabbit blood. Principal component analysis was utilized to classify the data according to its spatiotemporal information. The results suggested that this technique can be used to separate a sequence of 3D PA images into a series of images representative of main features according to spatiotemporal flow dynamics.

  5. Nanoparticles and nanostructured carriers for drug delivery and contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godage, Olga S.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; German, Sergey V.; Zuev, Viktor V.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Gorin, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    Currently, nanotechnologies are widely used in science and industry. It is known that the application of drug delivery nanostructured carriers for biomedicine is one of the promising areas of nanotechnology. Nanostructured carriers can be used in the diagnosis process for detecting a neoplastic tumor cells in peripheral blood, for contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as for targeted drug delivery to tumor tissues. Agents for the targeted delivery (nanoparticles, liposomes, microcapsules, and etc) can affect the healthy tissues and organs, cause side effects and have a toxic effect. Therefore, it necessary to study the morphological changes that occur not only in the "target", such as a tumor, but also the internal organs, taking place under the influence of both the agents for targeted drug delivery and physical impact induced remote controlled drug release. Thus , the aim of our work is selection of the most promising agents for targeted drug delivery to tumor and contrast agents for in vivo visualization of tumor tissue boundaries , as well as their impact on the organs and tissues as results of nanostructured object biodistribution.

  6. Cerebellar dermoid cyst with contrast enhancement mural nodule: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Arsim; Kelmendi, Fatos; Morina, Qamile; Morina, Dukagjin

    2014-12-01

    Typical dermoid cysts are well-circumscribed fat-density masses with no associated contrast enhancement; rarely, they may appear hyperattenuating on CT scan. CT hyperattenuating dermoid cyst (CHADC) is very uncommon, with only nine case reports in the literature update, which occurs exclusively in the posterior fossa. CHADC with mural nodule is extremely rare and, to the best of our knowledge, only two cases have been documented previously in the literature. A 49-year-old farmer had a 2-month history of occipital headaches, which were not suggestive of raised intracranial pressure. During the last month, he experienced loss of balance, frequent falls, anorexia and loss of weight. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a huge mass from the tentorium to the foramen occipitale magnum with obliteration of the fourth ventricle; the lesion was well circumscribed. We completely removed the tumor and postoperative MRI showed no residual tumor. Epidermoid tumors with enhancing mural nodule on MRI and with hyperattenuating lesion on CT are extremely rare. Dermoid cysts are never associated with edema and extremely rarely cause obstructive hydrocephalus. MRI investigations are mandatory to diagnose these cases. The best curative treatment is total removal of the lesion.

  7. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of primary hepatic angiosarcoma: A pitfall of non-enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liang, E-mail: liangw_1983@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Lv, Ke, E-mail: lvke@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Chang, Xiao-Yan, E-mail: changxiaoyan@hotmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Xia, Yu, E-mail: yuxiapumch@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Yang, Zhi-Ying, E-mail: yangzhy@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Jiang, Yu-Xin, E-mail: jiangyx@pumch.ac.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Dai, Qing, E-mail: qingdai_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Tan, Li, E-mail: tanlixg@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jian-Chu, E-mail: jianchu.li@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► The contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) characteristics of primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) in three patients were retrospectively analyzed. ► PHA appeared similar peripheral enhancement pattern in our series. ► Non-necrotic tumor tissue of PHA unexpectedly demonstrated non-enhancement on CEUS. ► It may be associated with the very low velocity of blood flow in the central region of tumors. ► This interesting finding warrants further investigations, particularly on intratumoral hemodynamics. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) characteristics of primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA). Methods: The sonographic findings and CEUS images of PHA in three patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In our study, 3 cases of PHA (2 multiple nodules and 1 solitary mass) showed similar enhancement pattern on CEUS, characterized by remarkable central non-enhancement and peripheral irregular enhancement in the arterial and portal phase, and complete wash-out in the late phase. Furthermore, we unexpectedly found that abundant neoplastic tissues were present in the central area of non-enhancement on pathological evaluation. Based on literature review, we supposed that the unusual finding may be associated with the very low velocity of blood flow in the central region of tumors. Conclusion: CEUS could well depict PHA with some common features, which may provide valuable clues in diagnosis of this rare disease. And non-necrotic tumor tissue of PHA could also demonstrate non-enhancement on CEUS, which warrant further investigations.

  8. The cerebral intravascular enhancement sign is not specific: a contrast-enhanced MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakshi, R.; Kinkel, W.R.; Bates, V.E.; Mechtler, L.L.; Kinkel, P.R. [Lucy Dent Imaging Center, University at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The intravascular enhancement (IVE) sign, also known as the ``arterial enhancement sign``, is an abnormal finding in the brain on contrast-enhanced MRI studies. IVE has been described in arterial cerebrovascular disorders, most commonly in acute or subacute arterial ischemic infarcts. However, the specificity of this sign has not been established. We describe four patients with disorders other than arterial strokes in whom gadolinium-enhanced high-field (1.5 T) MRI suggested IVE. The conditions were herpes simplex viral encephalitis, idiopathic cerebellitis, pneumococcal meningitis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis with venous infarction. IVE in these cases may be due to multiple factors, including arterial, venous, perivascular, and leptomeningeal or sulcal contrast medium accumulation. Our observations suggest that arterial ischemia, previously described as the cardinal cause of IVE, probably does not explain all instances, and urge caution in interpreting this sign as a specific MRI manifestation of acute arterial infarction or ischemia. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 44 refs.

  9. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Erlend K.F. [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V. [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Sundfor, Kolbein [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Kristensen, Gunnar B. [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Institute for Medical Informatics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Lyng, Heidi [Department of Radiation Biology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Malinen, Eirik, E-mail: eirik.malinen@fys.uio.no [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  10. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kitami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  11. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Assessment of the enhanced duct sign on multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Yuichi, E-mail: kawai.yuichi@a.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, Kojiro, E-mail: kojiro@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Itoh, Shigeki, E-mail: shigeito@nagoya-1st.jrc.or.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Japan Red Cross Nagoya Daiichi Hospital, 3-35 Michishita-cho, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya 453-8511 (Japan); Takada, Akira, E-mail: takadaa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mori, Yoshine, E-mail: yoshine@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naganawa, Shinji, E-mail: naganawa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the usefulness of the computed tomography (CT) finding of main pancreatic duct (MPD) wall enhancement, termed the 'enhanced duct sign', for diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in comparison with diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Two radiologists independently evaluated the presence or absence of the enhanced duct sign on multiphase contrast-enhanced CT in patients with AIP (n = 55), pancreatic carcinoma (n = 50), and chronic pancreatitis (n = 50). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of AIP were calculated. In patients demonstrating the enhanced duct sign, additional findings were evaluated by consensus. Results: The enhanced duct sign was more frequently observed in patients with AIP (37/55, 67%) than in patients with pancreatic carcinoma (5/50, 10%) or chronic pancreatitis (0/50, 0%) (P < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the finding were 0.67, 0.95, 0.85, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively. In AIP, the lumen within the enhanced duct was completely or partially invisible in 29 of 37 (78%) patients, and the enhanced duct was observed within the affected pancreatic parenchyma in 35 of 37 (95%) patients. In pancreatic carcinoma, the lumen within the enhanced duct was visible in all patients (5/5, 100%), and the enhanced duct was observed downstream of the tumor (5/5, 100%). Conclusion: The enhanced duct sign is highly specific of AIP.

  12. Skeletonization approach for characterization of benign vs. malignant single thyroid nodules using 3D contrast enhanced ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Filippo; Mantovani, Alice; Deandrea, Maurilio; Limone, Paolo; Garberoglio, Roberto; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2011-03-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) has potentialities in differential diagnosis between malignant and benign thyroid lesions, but interpretative pitfalls remain and accuracy is still poor. We developed an image processing technique for characterizing the intra-nodular vascularization of thyroid lesions. Twenty nodules (ten malignant) were analyzed by 3-D contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. The 3-D volumes were preprocessed and skeletonized. Seven vascular parameters were computed on the skeletons: number of vascular trees (NT); vascular density (VD); number of branching nodes (or branching points) (NB); mean vessel radius (MR); 2-D (DM) and 3-D (SOAM) tortuosity; and inflection count metric (ICM). Results showed that the malignant nodules had higher values of NT (83.1 vs. 18.1), VD (00.4 vs. 0.01), NB (1453 vs. 552), DM (51 vs. 18), ICM (19.9 vs. 8.7), and SOAM (26 vs. 11). Quantification of nodular vascularization based on 3-D contrast-enhanced ultrasound and skeletonization could help differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

  13. Evaluation of the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Tao [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhao Xihai [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Liu Xin [Paul C. Lauterbur Biomedical Imaging Center, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Gao Jianhua [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhao Shaohong [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Li Xin; Zhou Weihua [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Cai Zulong [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhang Weiguo [Cardiovascular and Neurological Consulting Institute, 6771 San Fernando, Irving, TX 75039 (United States); Yang Li, E-mail: Yangli301@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque using contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and investigate the association between unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and early enhancement of the plaque. Methods: Forty-one patients presenting with angina pectoris and demonstrating single-vessel disease with non-calcified plaque and significant coronary stenosis ({>=}50%) on CTA were consecutively recruited for coronary CE-MRA. Contrast-to-noise ratio of the culprit plaque guided by CTA was measured on a cross-sectional multi-planar reconstruction image of the plaque on both pre- and post-CE-MRA. A 50% increasing of CNR was defined as plaque enhancement. The association between early enhancement of the plaques and UAP was analyzed. Results: Thirty-seven non-calcified plaques with significant coronary stenosis were detected in the 37 patients on MRA. 4 subjects were excluded because coronary atherosclerotic plaques were inadequate for identification on MRA. Of the 37 patients, 18 patients had UAP and other 19 patients presented stable angina pectoris (SAP). Of the 37 plaques on CE-MRA, 13 and 24 plaques presented early enhancement and no enhancement, respectively. Of the 13 early-enhanced plaques, 11 (85%) and 2 (15%) were found in the patients with UAP and SAP, respectively (p < 0.01). Of the 37 patients, 11 (61%) with UAP and 2 (11%) with SAP had early-enhanced plaques, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion: CE-MRA allows detection of early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. The early enhancement is common in unstable angina and could be a sign of vulnerability.

  14. Contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced computed tomography in mediastinal T-cell lymphoma with superior vena cava syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Gorla, Arun Kumar Reddy; Bhattacharya, Anish; Varma, Subhash Chander; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is a routine investigation for the staging of lymphomas. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is mandatory whenever parenchymal lesions, especially in the liver and spleen are suspected. We report a rare case of primary mediastinal T-cell lymphoma evaluated with contrast-enhanced PET/CT that showed features of superior vena cava syndrome.

  15. Contrast-enhanced dedicated breast CT detection of invasive breast cancer preceding mammographic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas D. Prionas, MD, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT generates high-resolution, three-dimensional images of the pendent uncompressed breast. Intravenous iodinated contrast during bCT provides additional physiologic information. In this case, a 10.0-mm invasive ductal carcinoma was visualized using contrast-enhanced breast CT one year before mammographic detection. Mammography four months before bCT was negative. The bCT contrast enhancement pattern closely matched the dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI obtained after diagnosis. Lesion enhancement at contrast-enhanced breast CT matched previously published enhancement values of breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced dedicated bCT provided high-resolution tomographic images and physiologic contrast enhancement data that facilitated the detection of an early breast cancer.

  16. Predicting Neck Abscess with Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Lim Seer Yee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neck abscesses are difficult to diagnose and treat. Currently, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT is the imaging modality of choice. The study aims to determine the predictive value of CECT findings in diagnosing neck abscess, causes of neck abscess and the most common neck space involved in the local population. 84 consecutive patients clinically suspected to have neck abscess who underwent CECT and surgical confirmation of pus were included. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. 75 patients were diagnosed as having neck abscess on CECT; out of those 71 patients were found to have pus. Overall CECT findings were found to have a high sensitivity (98.6% and positive predictive value (PPV (94.7% but lower specificity (67.2% in diagnosing neck abscess. The CECT diagnostic criterion with the highest PPV is the presence of rim irregularity (96%. The most common deep neck space involved is the submandibular compartment, which correlates with the finding that odontogenic cause was the most common identifiable cause of abscess in the study population. Thus, in a patient clinically suspected of having neck abscess, CECT findings of a hypodense mass with rim irregularity are helpful in confirming the diagnosis and guiding clinical management.

  17. Motion correction of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of the liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mariëlle J. A.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; van Leeuwen, Maarten S.; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2017-02-01

    Motion correction of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance images (DCE-MRI) is a challenging task, due to changes in image appearance. In this study a groupwise registration, using a principle component analysis (PCA) based metric, is evaluated for clinical DCE MRI of the liver. The groupwise registration transforms the images to a common space, rather than to a reference volume as conventional pairwise methods do, and computes the similarity metric on all volumes simultaneously. This groupwise registration method is compared to a pairwise approach using a mutual information metric. Clinical DCE MRI of the abdomen of eight patients were included. Per patient one lesion in the liver was manually segmented in all temporal images (N=16). The registered images were compared for accuracy, spatial and temporal smoothness after transformation, and lesion volume change. Compared to a pairwise method or no registration, groupwise registration provided better alignment. In our recently started clinical study groupwise registered clinical DCE MRI of the abdomen of nine patients were scored by three radiologists. Groupwise registration increased the assessed quality of alignment. The gain in reading time for the radiologist was estimated to vary from no difference to almost a minute. A slight increase in reader confidence was also observed. Registration had no added value for images with little motion. In conclusion, the groupwise registration of DCE MR images results in better alignment than achieved by pairwise registration, which is beneficial for clinical assessment.

  18. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Ø. Eriksen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the use of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography (DCE-CT in patients with pancreatic cancer. This study was composed according to the PRISMA guidelines 2009. The literature search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases to identify all relevant publications. The QUADAS-2 tool was implemented to assess the risk of bias and applicability concerns of each included study. The initial literature search yielded 483 publications. Thirteen articles were included. Articles were categorized into three groups: nine articles concerning primary diagnosis or staging, one article about tumor response to treatment, and three articles regarding scan techniques. In exocrine pancreatic tumors, measurements of blood flow in eight studies and blood volume in seven studies were significantly lower in tumor tissue, compared with measurements in pancreatic tissue outside of tumor, or normal pancreatic tissue in control groups of healthy volunteers. The studies were heterogeneous in the number of patients enrolled and scan protocols. Perfusion parameters measured and analyzed by DCE-CT might be useful in the investigation of characteristic vascular patterns of exocrine pancreatic tumors. Further clinical studies are desired for investigating the potential of DCE-CT in pancreatic tumors.

  19. CONTRAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Krogsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon.......Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon....

  20. Contrast enhanced two-phase spiral CT of urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeung Uk; Cha, Seong Sook; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Oh, Jeong Geun; Chang, Seung Kuk; Choi, Seok Jin; Eun, Choong Kie [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Chang Hye [Daedong General Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To determine optimal scan time for the early phase of two-phase spiral CT and to evaluate its usefulness in the detection and assessment of extension of urinary bladder lesions. In four normal adults, we performed dynamic scanning and obtained time-density curves for internal and external iliac arteries and veins, and the wall of the urinary bladder. Sixty patients with 68 lesions of the urinary bladder or prostate underwent precontrast and two-phase spiral CT scanning. After injection of 100ml of noninonic contrast material, images for the early and delayed phases were obtained at 60 seconds and 5 minutes, respectively. We measured CT H. U. of the wall, the lesion, and lumen of urinary bladder as seen on axial scanning, in each image in which the lesion was best shown. For the detection of bladder lesions and assessment of their extension, precontrast, early-, and delayed phsed images were compared. Dynamic study of normal adults showed maximum enhancement of bladder wall between 60 and 100 seconds. The difference of CT H. U. between bladder wall and the lesion was greatest in the early phase. The best detection rate(98.5%) was seen during this phase, and for the detection of bladder lesion, this same phase was superior or equal (66/68, 97.1%) to the delayed phase. The precontrast image was also superior or equal (31/68, 45.6%) to that of the delayed phase. For the assessment of extension of bladder lesion, the early phase was superior (36/68, 52.9%) to the delayed phase, and precontrast image was superiour (1/68, 1.5%) to that of the delayed phase. For determining the stage of bladder cancer, the early phase was most accurate if the stages was below B{sub 2} or D, while for stage C, the delayed phase was most accurate. In two-hpase spiral CT scanning, we consider the optimal time for the early phase to be between 60 and 100 seconds after injection of contrast material. For the detection and assessment of extension of urinary bladder lesion, the early phase was

  1. Infrared image enhancement through contrast enhancement by using multiscale new top-hat transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiangzhi; Zhou, Fugen; Xue, Bindang

    2011-03-01

    Infrared imaging sensor is sensitive to the variation of imaging environment, which may affect the quality of the obtained images and blur the regions of interest in infrared image. So, it is very important to enhance infrared image. In infrared image, the gray values of the regions of interest are bright or dim image regions, which are different from the surrounding regions. The new top-hat transform could extract image regions which are different from its surrounding regions. In light of this, an infrared image enhancement algorithm through contrast enhancement is proposed in this paper based on multiscale new top-hat transform. Firstly, the multiscale white and black new top-hat transforms are used to extract the multiscale light and dark infrared image regions. Then, the final light and dark infrared image regions for image enhancement are constructed by using the extracted multiscale light and dark infrared image regions. Finally, the contrast of the infrared image is enhanced through a power strategy. Experimental results on different infrared images show that the proposed algorithm could well enhance infrared image and make the possible interested targets brighter, which is very helpful for target detection and recognition.

  2. Assessment of metastatic liver disease in patients with primary extrahepatic tumors by contrast-enhanced sonography versus CT and MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph F Dietrich; Wolfgang Blank; Matthijs Oudkerk; Dietbert Hahn; Christian Greis; Wolfgang Kratzer; Deike Strobel; Etienne Danse; Robert Fessl; Alfred Bunk; Udo Vossas; Karlheinz Hauenstein; Wilhelm Koch

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) using SonoVue(R) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with known extrahepatic primary tumors versus the combined gold standard comprising CT,MRI and clinical/histological data.METHODS: It is an international multicenter study, and there were 12 centres and 125 patients (64 males, 61 females, aged 59 ± 11 years) involved, with 102 patients per protocol. Primary tumors were colorectal in 35%,breast in 27%, pancreatic in 17% and others in 21%.CEUS using SonoVue(R) was employed with a low-mechanical-index technique and contrast-specific software using Siemens Elegra, Philips HDI 5000 and Acuson Sequoia;continuous scanning for at least five minutes.RESULTS: CEUS with SonoVue(R) increased significantly the number of focal liver lesions detected versus unenhanced sonography. In 31.4% of the patients, more lesions were found after contrast enhancement. The total numbers of lesions detected were comparable with CEUS (55), triple-phase spiral CT (61) and MRI with a liverspecific contrast agent (53). Accuracy of detection of metastatic disease (i.e. at least one metastatic lesion) was significantly higher for CEUS (91.2%) than for unenhanced sonography (81.4%) and was similar to that of triple-phase spiral CT (89.2%). In 53 patients whose CEUS examination was negative, a follow-up examination 3-6 months later confirmed the absence of metastatic lesions in 50 patients (94.4 %).CONCLUSION: CEUS is proved to be reliable in the detection of liver metastases in patients with known extrahepatic primary tumors and suspected liver lesions.

  3. Synthesis and functionalization of Gd-based nanoparticles for MRI contrast enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Skallberg, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic metal oxide nanoparticles for contrast enhancement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proven to be one of the most promising applications in diagnostic science. The nanoparticles can provide better and more accurate diagnosis by their capability to enhance the contrast between different soft tissues. New and better contrast agents need to be developed, to further improve this contrast enhancement. This thesis is focused on biofunctionalization of gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanopa...

  4. Added value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound on biopsies of focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Min Woo; Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Mimi; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Seong Hyun; Ha, Sang Yun [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To assess whether contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid can improve the lesion conspicuity and feasibility of percutaneous biopsies for focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging of real-time ultrasonography (US) with computed tomography/magnetic resonance images, and evaluate its impact on clinical decision making. The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study. Between June 2013 and January 2015, 711 US-guided percutaneous biopsies were performed for focal hepatic lesions. Biopsies were performed using CEUS for guidance if lesions were invisible on fusion imaging. We retrospectively evaluated the number of target lesions initially invisible on fusion imaging that became visible after applying CEUS, using a 4-point scale. Technical success rates of biopsies were evaluated based on histopathological results. In addition, the occurrence of changes in clinical decision making was assessed. Among 711 patients, 16 patients (2.3%) were included in the study. The median size of target lesions was 1.1 cm (range, 0.5–1.9 cm) in pre-procedural imaging. After CEUS, 15 of 16 (93.8%) focal hepatic lesions were visualized. The conspicuity score was significantly increased after adding CEUS, as compared to that on fusion imaging (p < 0.001). The technical success rate of biopsy was 87.6% (14/16). After biopsy, there were changes in clinical decision making for 11 of 16 patients (68.8%). The addition of CEUS could improve the conspicuity of focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging. This dual guidance using CEUS and fusion imaging may affect patient management via changes in clinical decision-making.

  5. Contrast enhanced cartilage imaging: Comparison of ionic and non-ionic contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, Edzard [Department of Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, D-81675 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: ewiener@roe.med.tu-muenchen.de; Woertler, Klaus [Department of Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, D-81675 Munich (Germany); Weirich, Gregor [Institute of Pathology, Technical University Munich, Troger Str. 18, D-81675 Munich (Germany); Rummeny, Ernst J. [Department of Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, D-81675 Munich (Germany); Settles, Marcus [Department of Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, D-81675 Munich (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Our objective was to compare relaxation effects, dynamics and spatial distributions of ionic and non-ionic contrast agents in articular cartilage at concentrations typically used for direct MR arthrography at 1.5 T. Dynamic MR-studies over 11 h were performed in 15 bovine patella specimens. For each of the contrast agents gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine, gadoteridol and mangafodipir trinatrium three patellae were placed in 2.5 mmol/L contrast solution. Simultaneous measurements of T {sub 1} and T {sub 2} were performed every 30 min using a high-spatial-resolution 'MIX'-sequence. T {sub 1}, T {sub 2} and {delta}R {sub 1}, {delta}R {sub 2} profile plots across cartilage thickness were calculated to demonstrate the spatial and temporal distributions. The charge is one of the main factors which controls the amount of the contrast media diffusing into intact cartilage, but independent of the charge, the spatial distribution across cartilage thickness remains highly inhomogeneous even after 11 h of diffusion. The absolute {delta}R {sub 2}-effect in cartilage is at least as large as the {delta}R {sub 1}-effect for all contrast agents. Maximum changes were 5-12 s{sup -1} for {delta}R {sub 1} and 8-15 s{sup -1} for {delta}R {sub 2}. This study indicates that for morphologically intact cartilage only the amount of contrast agents within cartilage is determined by the charge but not the spatial distribution across cartilage thickness. In addition, {delta}R {sub 2} can be considered for quantification of contrast agent concentrations, since it is of the same magnitude and less time consuming to measure than {delta}R {sub 1}.

  6. Contrast-enhanced flair imaging in the evaluation of infectious leptomeningeal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Hemant [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore) and Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)]. E-mail: parurad@hotmail.com; Sitoh, Y.-Y. [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Anand, Pooja [Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng (Singapore); Chua, Violet [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Hui, Francis [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore)

    2006-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images with contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images for infectious leptomeningitis. Materials and methods: We studied twenty-four patients with a clinical suspicion of infectious meningitis with unenhanced FLAIR, contrast-enhanced T1 weighted and contrast-enhanced FLAIR MR sequences. Twelve patients had cytologic and biochemical diagnosis of meningitis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination obtained 48 h before or after the MR study. Sequences were considered positive if abnormal signal was seen in the subarachnoid space (cistern or sulci) or along pial surface. Results: Twenty-seven examinations in 24 patients were performed. Of the 12 patients (thirteen studies) in whom cytology was positive, unenhanced FLAIR images were positive in six cases (sensitivity 46%), contrast-enhanced FLAIR images were positive in 11 (sensitivity 85%), and contrast-enhanced T1 weighted MR images were positive in 11 patients (sensitivity 85%). Of the 12 patients (14 studies) in whom cerebrospinal fluid study was negative, unenhanced FLAIR images were negative in 13, contrast-enhanced FLAIR images were negative in 11, and contrast-enhanced T1 weighted MR images were negative in eight. Thus, the specificity of unenhanced FLAIR, contrast-enhanced FLAIR and contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images was 93, 79 and 57%, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that post-contrast FLAIR images have similar sensitivity but a higher specificity compared to contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images for detection of leptomeningeal enhancement. It can be a useful adjunct to post-contrast T1 weighted images in evaluation of infectious leptomeningitis.

  7. Transmission grating stretcher for contrast enhancement of high power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunxin; Hooker, Chris; Chekhlov, Oleg; Hawkes, Steve; Collier, John; Rajeev, P P

    2014-12-01

    We propose, for the first time, a transmission grating stretcher for high power lasers and demonstrate its superiority over conventional, reflective gold grating stretchers in terms of pulse temporal quality. We show that, compared to a conventional stretcher with the same stretching factor, the transmission-grating based stretcher yields more than an order of magnitude improvement in the contrast pedestal. We have also quantitatively characterized the roughness of the grating surfaces and estimated its impact on the contrast pedestal.

  8. Non-contrast enhanced MRI for evaluation of breast lesions: comparison of non-contrast enhanced high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) images vs. contrast enhanced fat-suppressed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, Milica; Fan, Xiaobing; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M.; Wood, Abbie M.; Shimauchi, Akiko; Kulkarni, Kirti; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer without injection of contrast media: to compare the performance of pre-contrast HiSS images to conventional contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, based on image quality and in the task of classifying benign and malignant breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten benign and 44 malignant lesions were imaged at 1.5T with HiSS (pre-contrast administration) and conventional fat-suppressed imaging (3–10 min post-contrast). This set of 108 images, after randomization, was evaluated by three experienced radiologists blinded to the imaging technique. BIRADS morphologic criteria (lesion shape; lesion margin; internal signal intensity pattern) and final assessment were used to measure reader performance. Image quality was evaluated based on boundary delineation and quality of fat suppression. An overall probability of malignancy was assigned to each lesion for HiSS and conventional images separately. RESULTS On boundary delineation and quality of fat-suppression, pre-contrast HiSS scored similarly to conventional post-contrast MRI. On benign vs. malignant lesion separation, there was no statistically significant difference in ROC performance between HiSS and conventional MRI, and HiSS met a reasonable non-inferiority condition. CONCLUSION Pre-contrast HiSS imaging is a promising approach for showing lesion morphology without blooming and other artifacts caused by contrast agents. HiSS images could be used to guide subsequent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scans, to maximize spatial and temporal resolution in suspicious regions. HiSS MRI without contrast agent injection may be particularly important for patients at risk for contrast-induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, or allergic reactions. PMID:21962476

  9. Diagnositc value of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Shim, Jeong Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To assess the usefulness of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (3D-DMRI) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and to determine the most useful parameter for this diagnosis. Using a 1.0T MR unit, (Magnetom, Siemens, Erlaugen, Germany), 3D-DMRI (TR/TE=3D30/12) with Gd-DTPA was performed in 38 cases of breast cancer, 22 of fibroadenoma, and in three normal volunteers. We retrospectively evaluated the findings according to the speed on dynamic study and maximal amount of contrast enhancement during the delayed phase;we calculated the contrast index and morphology of the cancers and compared diagnostic accuracy among these three diagnostic parameters. On conventional spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted images, there was no significant difference of signal intensity between benign fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma. Rapid contrast enhancement (within one minute) was noted in 35 breast cancer lesions (92.1%), but relatively low and slow contrast enhancement (after five minutes) was noted in three such lesions (7.9%). Gradual contrast enhancement was noted in 21 lesions of fibroadenoma(95.5%), but a moderate degree of rapid contrast enhancement (from three to five minutes) was noted in the other case (7.9%). of On the delayed enhanced phase of 3D-DMRI, the maximal amount of contrast enhancement showed no significant difference between fibroadenoma and cancer. On 3D-DMRI, an irregular, spiculated border, with high contrast enhancement was noted in all cases of breast cancer, in particular, irregular thick peripheral contrast enhancement with central necrosis was noted 11cases(28.9%). For the diagnosis of breast cancer, 3D-DMRI is a useful technique. Among the diagnostic criteria of speed, maximal amount of contrast enhancement and morphology, morphologic change after contrast enhancement study was the most useful diagnostic parameter.=20.

  10. 超声造影在卵圆孔未闭诊断中的应用%Application of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound in Patent Foramen Ovale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文燕; 何文; 杜丽娟; 张惠琴; 隗冬梅

    2011-01-01

    There are three major examination methods of diagnosis patent foramen ovale (PFO):transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD).Recently, contrast ultrasonography is applied extensively in clinical diagnosis, and it improves the diagnostic accuracy of PFO significantly.The paper will summarize the value of three contrast enhanced ultrasound methods in diagnosing of PFO, and provide more accurate and effective information for the clinicians.%目前评价缺血性卒中患者卵圆孔未闭(patent foramen ovale,PFO)的影像学检查方法主要有经食管超声心动图、经胸超声心动图及经颅多普勒超声等。近年来随着超声造影技术的发展,超声造影技术已被用于PFO疾病的诊断,明显提高了PF0诊断的准确率。本文旨在综述超声造影技术的原理以及PFO的各种超声检查技术利弊,为临床医生提供更加确切有效的信息。

  11. Staging accuracy of pancreatic cancer: Comparison between non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Tomohiro [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Tateishi, Ukihide, E-mail: utateish@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Endo, Itaru [Department of Surgery, Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Our aim was to clarify the diagnostic impact of contrast-enhanced (CE) {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)–positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for staging of pancreatic cancer compared to non-CE PET/CT. Method and materials: Between April 2006 and November 2009, a total of 95 patients (age range, 36–83 years [mean age, 67]) with primary pancreatic cancer underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations. Diagnostic accuracy was compared between non-CE PET/CT and CE PET/CT. Images were analyzed visually and quantitatively by two blinded reviewers. Reference standard was histological examination in 48 patients (51%) and/or confirmation of an obvious progression in number and/or size of the lesions on follow-up CT examinations in 47 patients (49%). Results: For T-staging, invasion of duodenum (n = 20, 21%), mesentery (n = 12, 13%), and retroperitoneum (n = 13, 14%) was correctly diagnosed by both modalities. The ROC analyses revealed that the Az values of celiac artery (CA), common hepatic artery (CHA), splenic artery (SV), and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) invasion were significantly higher in the CE PET/CT group for both readers. Nodal metastasis was correctly diagnosed by CE PET/CT in 38 patients (88%) and by non-CE PET/CT in 45 patients (87%). Diagnostic accuracies of nodal metastasis in two modalities were similar. Using CE PET/CT, distant metastasis, scalene node metastasis, and peritoneal dissemination were correctly assigned in 39 patients (91%), while interpretation based on non-CE PET/CT revealed distant metastasis, scalene node metastasis, and peritoneal dissemination in 42 patients (81%). Diagnostic accuracy of distant metastasis, scalene node metastasis, and peritoneal dissemination with CE PET/CT was significantly higher than that of non-CE PET/CT (p < 0.05). Conclusion: CE PET/CT allows a more precise assessment of distant metastasis, scalene node metastasis, and peritoneal dissemination in patients with pancreatic cancer.

  12. Attention enhances contrast appearance via increased input baseline of neural responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrone, Elizabeth K.; Heeger, David J.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Covert spatial attention increases the perceived contrast of stimuli at attended locations, presumably via enhancement of visual neural responses. However, the relation between perceived contrast and the underlying neural responses has not been characterized. In this study, we systematically varied stimulus contrast, using a two-alternative, forced-choice comparison task to probe the effect of attention on appearance across the contrast range. We modeled performance in the task as a function of underlying neural contrast-response functions. Fitting this model to the observed data revealed that an increased input baseline in the neural responses accounted for the enhancement of apparent contrast with spatial attention. PMID:25549920

  13. Value of contrast-enhanced CT in detecting arterial injury with pelvic fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Keigo; Iwase, Toshiki; Ohshima, Takeshi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Sugiura, Sakae; Hara, Suguru [Okazaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used for detecting ongoing pelvic hemorrhage in patients with pelvic fracture, and for deciding an indication or transcatheter arterial embolization. The authors compared plane CT with contrast-enhanced CT to examine the value of contrast-enhanced CT in detecting arterial injury with pelvic fracture. The diagnosis of arterial injury was made by angiography. CT-determined hematoma was detected in 10 parts according to bleeding sites. Each hematoma was counted and compared with angiographic arterial injury. Contrast-enhanced CT was more useful than plane CT, but the hemorrhage sites determined by contrast-enhanced CT were not identical with those of angiographic arterial injuries. (author)

  14. Temporal adaptation enhances efficient contrast gain control on natural images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Sinz

    Full Text Available Divisive normalization in primary visual cortex has been linked to adaptation to natural image statistics in accordance to Barlow's redundancy reduction hypothesis. Using recent advances in natural image modeling, we show that the previously studied static model of divisive normalization is rather inefficient in reducing local contrast correlations, but that a simple temporal contrast adaptation mechanism of the half-saturation constant can substantially increase its efficiency. Our findings reveal the experimentally observed temporal dynamics of divisive normalization to be critical for redundancy reduction.

  15. Dual-Frequency Piezoelectric Transducers for Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Heath Martin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For many years, ultrasound has provided clinicians with an affordable and effective imaging tool for applications ranging from cardiology to obstetrics. Development of microbubble contrast agents over the past several decades has enabled ultrasound to distinguish between blood flow and surrounding tissue. Current clinical practices using microbubble contrast agents rely heavily on user training to evaluate degree of localized perfusion. Advances in separating the signals produced from contrast agents versus surrounding tissue backscatter provide unique opportunities for specialized sensors designed to image microbubbles with higher signal to noise and resolution than previously possible. In this review article, we describe the background principles and recent developments of ultrasound transducer technology for receiving signals produced by contrast agents while rejecting signals arising from soft tissue. This approach relies on transmitting at a low-frequency and receiving microbubble harmonic signals at frequencies many times higher than the transmitted frequency. Design and fabrication of dual-frequency transducers and the extension of recent developments in transducer technology for dual-frequency harmonic imaging are discussed.

  16. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito

    2016-01-01

    %) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal...

  17. Automatic Characterization of Myocardial Perfusion in Contrast Enhanced MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Positano, Vincenzo; Santarelli, Maria Filomena; Landini, Luigi

    2003-12-01

    The use of contrast medium in cardiac MRI allows joining the high-resolution anatomical information provided by standard magnetic resonance with functional information obtained by means of the perfusion of contrast agent in myocardial tissues. The current approach to perfusion MRI characterization is the qualitative one, based on visual inspection of images. Moving to quantitative analysis requires extraction of numerical indices of myocardium perfusion by analysis of time/intensity curves related to the area of interest. The main problem in quantitative image sequence analysis is the heart movement, mainly due to patient respiration. We propose an automatic procedure based on image registration, segmentation of the myocardium, and extraction and analysis of time/intensity curves. The procedure requires a minimal user interaction, is robust with respect to the user input, and allows effective characterization of myocardial perfusion. The algorithm was tested on cardiac MR images acquired from voluntaries and in clinical routine.

  18. FDG-PET/contrast-enhanced CT as a post-treatment tool in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: comparison with FDG-PET/non-contrast-enhanced CT and contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Yuko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Ishihara, Takeaki; Sasaki, Ryohei [Kobe University Graduate, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe (Japan); Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi [Kobe University Graduate, School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kobe (Japan); Minamikawa, Tsutomu [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kobe (Japan); Kiyota, Naomi [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Kobe (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of PET/CT using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with IV contrast for suspected recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). One hundred and seventy patients previously treated for HNSCC underwent PET/CT, consisting of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT, to investigate suspected recurrence. Diagnostic performance of PET/contrast-enhanced CT (PET/ceCT), PET/non-contrast-enhanced CT (PET/ncCT) and contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) for local or regional recurrence, distant metastasis, overall recurrence and second primary cancer was evaluated. The reference standard included histopathology, treatment change and imaging follow-up. The patient-based areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for ceCT, PET/ncCT and PET/ceCT were 0.82, 0.96 and 0.98 for local recurrence, 0.73, 0.86 and 0.86 for regional recurrence, 0.86, 0.91 and 0.92 for distant metastasis, 0.72, 0.86 and 0.87 for overall recurrence, and 0.86, 0.89 and 0.91 for a second primary cancer. Both PET/ceCT and PET/ncCT statistically showed larger AUC than ceCT for recurrence, and the difference between PET/ceCT and PET/ncCT for local recurrence reached a significant level (p = 0.039). The accuracy of PET/ceCT for diagnosing overall recurrence was high, irrespective of the time interval after the last treatment (83.3-94.1 %). FDG-PET/CT was a more accurate HNSCC restaging tool than ceCT. The added value of ceCT at FDG-PET/CT is minimal. (orig.)

  19. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography of cavopulmonary connections in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Moritz; Nguyen, Kim-Lien; Khan, Sarah; Mirsadraee, Saeed; Satou, Gary M; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Finn, J Paul

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate combined time-resolved and high-spatial resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) for assessment of cavopulmonary connections in adult patients with congenital heart disease. Twenty-eight adults with various surgical cavopulmonary connections (Glenn shunt and Fontan connection) underwent high-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA (voxel size, 1.95 mm(3); temporal resolution, 22 seconds) and time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA (voxel size, 6.5-9.3 mm(3); temporal resolution, contrast-enhanced MRA) and pulmonary artery (PA) perfusion patterns (using time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA). High-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA yielded diagnostic-quality images for morphologic assessment of cavopulmonary connections in 27 of 28 (96%) patients. The anatomic dimensions (cross-sectional area) of the PA and cavopulmonary connections showed a wide variation (right PA, 0.99-5.67 cm(2); left PA, 0.80-5.69 cm(2); Glenn shunt, 0.93-6.94 cm(2); and Fontan connection, 1.25-6.67 cm(2)). The anatomic dimensions could be assessed with excellent interobserver agreement on high-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA (r = 0.895). Time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA yielded diagnostic-quality images in all patients and enabled characterization of PA perfusion via the superior vena cava as follows: preferential inflow to the right PA (n = 12), preferential inflow to the left PA (n = 5), and balanced inflow to the right and left PA (n = 11). In those patients who had technically successful flow quantification measurements, phase contrast data confirmed patency of the cavopulmonary connections. Combined time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA and high-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA allowed detailed morphologic and dynamic evaluation of cavopulmonary connections in adult patients with congenital heart disease. A wide variation in anatomic dimensions and perfusion patterns was confidently identified in this patient population.

  20. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging for tumor delineation in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korporaal, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging is frequently used for the detection and localization of prostate tumors. After injection of a bolus of contrast agent into the blood circulation, the behavior of the contrast agent in the prostate can be measured by repetitive imaging of the prostate. Pros

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging for tumor delineation in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korporaal, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging is frequently used for the detection and localization of prostate tumors. After injection of a bolus of contrast agent into the blood circulation, the behavior of the contrast agent in the prostate can be measured by repetitive imaging of the prostate. Pros

  2. A method for coronary artery calcium scoring using contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otton, James M; Lønborg, Jacob T; Boshell, David;

    2012-01-01

    Limitations to the coronary calcium score include its requirement for noncontrast imaging and radiation exposure that approaches current methods for contrast-enhanced CT angiography.......Limitations to the coronary calcium score include its requirement for noncontrast imaging and radiation exposure that approaches current methods for contrast-enhanced CT angiography....

  3. Microwave ablation of liver metastases guided by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T; Skjoldbye, B O; Nolsoe, C P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of microwave (MW) ablation of liver metastases guided by B-mode ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS).......The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of microwave (MW) ablation of liver metastases guided by B-mode ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS)....

  4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-operative management of pancreatic injury in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentino, Massimo; Sartoni Galloni, Stefania; Rimondi, Maria Rita; Barozzi, Libero [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Emergency Department, Bologna (Italy); Gentili, Andrea [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Bologna (Italy); Lima, Mario [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Department of Paediatrics, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    We report a 5-year-old child with pancreatic trauma from a blunt abdominal injury that was monitored with contrast-enhanced sonography. Unenhanced US failed to demonstrate the abnormality that was recognized by CT and MRI. The injury was well demonstrated by contrast-enhanced US which was therefore used for follow-up until its healing. (orig.)

  5. Liver Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Improves Detection of Liver Metastases in Patients with Pancreatic or Periampullary Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taimr, Pavel; Jongerius, Vivian L; Pek, Chulja J; Krak, Nanda C; Hansen, Bettina E; Janssen, Harry L A; Metselaar, Herold J; van Eijck, Casper H J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a diagnostic performance evaluation of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting liver metastases in patients with suspected of pancreatic or periampullary cancer. Computed tomography (CT) is often insufficient for detection of liver metastases, but their presence plays a crucial role in the choice of therapy. Eighty-nine patients with suspected pancreatic or periampullary cancer were included in this prospective study with retrospective analysis. Patients underwent an abdominal CT and CEUS. Fifteen patients had liver metastases. The CT sensitivity was 73.3% (11/15), the specificity 93.2% (69/74), the positive predictive value (PPV) 68.8% (11/16) and the negative predictive value (NPV) 94.6% (69/73). Based on CEUS, the sensitivity was 80% (12/15), specificity 98.6% (73/74), PPV 92.3% (12/13) and NPV 96.1% (73/76). CEUS improved characterization of liver lesions in patients with suspected pancreatic or periampullary cancer compared with CT. CEUS can better detect benign liver lesions and distinguish false-positive or indeterminate CT results.

  6. Sustained and transient covert attention enhance the signal via different contrast response functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Sam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of sustained and transient covert attention on contrast sensitivity. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) Using a zero-noise display, we assessed whether sustained (endogenous) attention enhances contrast sensitivity via signal enhancement, and compared the magnitude of the effect with that of transient (exogenous) attention. (2) We compared the contrast psychometric functions for both sustained and transient attention and evaluated them...

  7. An Algorithm of Image Contrast Enhancement Based on Pixels Neighborhood’s Local Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed an algorithm of Image Contrast enhancement based on local feature to acquire edge information of image, remove Ray Imaging noise and overcome edge blurry and other defects. This method can extract edge features and finish contrast enhancement in varying degrees for pixels neighborhood with different characteristics by using neighborhood local variance and complexity function, which can achieve local features enhancement. The stimulation shows that the method can not only enhance the contrast of the entire image, but also effectively preserves image edge information and improve image quality.

  8. Tuberculous abscess in hepatoduodenal ligament: Evaluation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Dong; Bin Wang; Ye-Quan Sun

    2008-01-01

    Two patients with tuberculous abscess in the hepatoduodenal ligament were studied. Both patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan. The abscess showed a low density with an irregular thick wall in the hepatoduodenal ligament on CT images, the margin was poorly defined. Contrastenhanced CT images showed the contrast-enhanced thick wall, homogeneous and peripheral-enhanced lymph nodes. Although features of the tuberculous abscess in the hepatoduodenal ligament could be conspicuously shown with contrast-enhanced CT, further experience is needed to evaluate the potential value of CT in detecting early tuberculous abscess in relation to other entities in the hepatoduodenal ligament.

  9. Contrast enhanced MR imaging of female pelvic cancers: Established methods and emerging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punwani, Shonit, E-mail: shonit.punwani@gmail.com [Department of Academic Radiology, 2nd Floor Podium, University College London Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of female pelvic cancers has been established for over 20 years. Conventional contrast enhanced imaging involves acquiring a set of pre-contrast T1 weighted images, followed by intravenous injection of an gadolinium based contrast agent and subsequent acquisition of a second set of contrast enhanced images. Developments in MR hardware and pulse sequences over the last 10 years have made dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) protocols possible. DCE-MRI entails imaging of the same volume repeatedly prior to, during and following contrast injection. There have also been developments in image analysis methods and tools to reflect the increased data acquired. Qualitative analysis of contrast enhanced imaging (whether a single set or temporal series) by radiologists remains the mainstay for clinical reporting. Semi-quantitative assessment of signal intensity versus time curves and full pharmacokinetic modelling methods have emerged for evaluation of DCE-MRI data. DCE-MRI has found an established role in the detection, localisation and staging of female pelvic malignancies. Emerging applications of DCE-MRI include assessment of tumour grade, histology prior to and following treatment and prediction of individual and final treatment outcome. This article reviews the biophysical basis of contrast enhancement, the technical aspects of performance and analysis of DCE-MRI studies, and the established and emerging clinical utility of DCE-MRI in female pelvic malignancies.

  10. HIFU Hemostasis of Liver Injuries Enhanced by Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Vesna; Vaezy, Shahram; Brayman, Andrew A.; Matula, Thomas J.; O'Keefe, Grant E.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2005-03-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) hemostasis can be achieved faster in the presence of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). Incisions (3 cm long and 0.5 cm deep) were made in surgically exposed rabbit liver. Optison at a concentration of 0.18 ml/kg was injected into the mesenteric vein, immediately before the incision was made. The HIFU applicator (frequency of 5.5 MHz, and intensity of 3,700 W/cm2) was scanned manually over the incision (at an approximate rate of 1 mm/s) until hemostasis was achieved. The times to complete hemostasis were measured and normalized with the initial blood loss. The hemostasis times were 59±23 s in the presence of Optison and 70±23 s without Optison. The presence of Optison produced a 37% reduction in the normalized hemostasis times (phemostasis of internal organ injuries.

  11. Anemia and the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing contrast-enhanced MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Ryusuke, E-mail: rywakana@nms.ac.jp; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Sugizaki, Ken-ichi; Okazaki, Emi; Kiriyama, Tomonari; Hakozaki, Kenta; Tani, Hitomi; Miki, Izumi; Takeda, Minako

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of anemia on the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with renal impairment undergoing MDCT. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was waived for this retrospective review of 843 patients with stable renal insufficiency (eGFR between 15 and 60 mL/min) who had undergone contrast-enhanced MDCT. Baseline hematocrit and hemoglobin values were measured. Serum creatinine (SCr) was assessed at the baseline and at 48–72 h after contrast administration. Results: The overall incidence of CIN in the patient population with renal insufficiency was 6.9%. CIN developed in 7.8% (54 of 695) of anemic patients, and in 2.8% (4 of 148) of non-anemic patients (P = .027). After adjustment for confounders, low hemoglobin and low hematocrit values remained independent predictors of CIN (odds ratio 4.6, 95% CI 1.0–20.5, P = .046). Conclusions: Anemia is associated with a higher incidence of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency. Anemia is a potentially modifiable risk factor for CIN, and has an unfavorable impact on prognosis in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing contrast-enhanced MDCT.

  12. The role of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2016-01-01

    of the parenchyma while chronic pancreatitis and neuroendocrine tumors are generally either iso-enhanced or hyper-enhanced. The development of contrast-enhanced low mechanical index harmonic imaging techniques used in real time during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allowed perfusion imaging and the quantification...... of intensity of the contrast signal through time-intensity curve analysis. Thus, contrast harmonic imaging-EUS has been used to differentiate pancreatic adenocarcinoma based on lower values of the peak enhancement. Future applications of CE-EUS in pancreatic adenocarcinoma include not only use of targeted...... contrast agents for early detection, tridimensional and fusion techniques for enhanced staging and resectability assessment but also novel applications of perfusion imaging for monitoring ablative therapy, improved local detection through EUS-guided sampling of portal vein flow or enhanced drug delivery...

  13. Improvement of Fuzzy Image Contrast Enhancement Using Simulated Ergodic Fuzzy Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Fathi-Vajargah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy enhancement technique using simulated ergodic fuzzy Markov chains for low contrast brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The fuzzy image contrast enhancement is proposed by weighted fuzzy expected value. The membership values are then modified to enhance the image using ergodic fuzzy Markov chains. The qualitative performance of the proposed method is compared to another method in which ergodic fuzzy Markov chains are not considered. The proposed method produces better quality image.

  14. Identifying the association between contrast enhancement pattern, surgical resection, and prognosis in anaplastic glioma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai; Li, Shaowu; Ma, Jun [Capital Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Jiangfei [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Dai, Jianping [Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2016-04-15

    Contrast enhancement observable on magnetic resonance (MR) images reflects the destructive features of malignant gliomas. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between radiologic patterns of tumor enhancement, extent of resection, and prognosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas (AGs). Clinical data from 268 patients with histologically confirmed AGs were retrospectively analyzed. Contrast enhancement patterns were classified based on preoperative T1-contrast MR images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of MR enhancement patterns on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The pattern of tumor contrast enhancement was associated with the extent of surgical resection in AGs. A gross total resection was more likely to be achieved for AGs with focal enhancement than those with diffuse (p = 0.001) or ring-like (p = 0.024) enhancement. Additionally, patients with focal-enhanced AGs had a significantly longer PFS and OS than those with diffuse (log-rank, p = 0.025 and p = 0.031, respectively) or ring-like (log-rank, p = 0.008 and p = 0.011, respectively) enhanced AGs. Furthermore, multivariate analysis identified the pattern of tumor enhancement as a significant predictor of PFS (p = 0.016, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.485) and OS (p = 0.030, HR = 1.446). Our results suggested that the contrast enhancement pattern on preoperative MR images was associated with the extent of resection and predictive of survival outcomes in AG patients. (orig.)

  15. Journal Club: Comparison of assessment of preoperative pulmonary vasculature in patients with non-small cell lung cancer by non-contrast- and 4D contrast-enhanced 3-T MR angiography and contrast-enhanced 64-MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Nishio, Mizuho; Koyama, Hisanobu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Seki, Shinichiro; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to prospectively and directly compare the capabilities of non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA), 4D contrast-enhanced MRA, and contrast-enhanced MDCT for assessing pulmonary vasculature in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) before surgical treatment. A total of 77 consecutive patients (41 men and 36 women; mean age, 71 years) with pathologically proven and clinically assessed stage I NSCLC underwent thin-section contrast-enhanced MDCT, non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced MRA, and surgical treatment. The capability for anomaly assessment of the three methods was independently evaluated by two reviewers using a 5-point visual scoring system, and final assessment for each patient was made by consensus of the two readers. Interobserver agreement for pulmonary arterial and venous assessment was evaluated with the kappa statistic. Then, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of anomalies were directly compared among the three methods by use of the McNemar test. Interobserver agreement for pulmonary artery and vein assessment was substantial or almost perfect (κ=0.72-0.86). For pulmonary arterial and venous variation assessment, there were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy among non-contrast-enhanced MRA (pulmonary arteries: sensitivity, 77.1%; specificity, 97.4%; accuracy, 87.7%; pulmonary veins: sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 98.5%; accuracy, 93.2%), 4D contrast-enhanced MRA (pulmonary arteries: sensitivity, 77.1%; specificity, 97.4%; accuracy, 87.7%; pulmonary veins: sensitivity, 62.5%; specificity, 100.0%; accuracy, 95.9%), and thin-section contrast-enhanced MDCT (pulmonary arteries: sensitivity, 91.4%; specificity, 89.5%; accuracy, 90.4%; pulmonary veins: sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 100.0%; accuracy, 95.9%) (p>0.05). Pulmonary vascular assessment of patients with NSCLC before surgical resection by non-contrast-enhanced MRA can be considered equivalent to

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusman, Charlotte M. [Emma Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lavini, Cristina; Hemke, Robert; Caan, Matthan W.A.; Maas, Mario [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Berg, J.M. van den; Kuijpers, Taco W. [Emma Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reade Institute location Jan van Breemen, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Marion A.J. van [Reade Institute location Jan van Breemen, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Emma Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-02-15

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI provides information on the heterogeneity of the synovium, the primary target of disease in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). To evaluate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the wrist of children with JIA using conventional descriptive measures and time-intensity-curve shape analysis. To explore the association between enhancement characteristics and clinical disease status. Thirty-two children with JIA and wrist involvement underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with movement-registration and were classified using validated criteria as clinically active (n = 27) or inactive (n = 5). Outcome measures included descriptive parameters and the classification into time-intensity-curve shapes, which represent the patterns of signal intensity change over time. Differences in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI outcome measures between clinically active and clinically inactive disease were analyzed and correlation with the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score was determined. Comprehensive evaluation of disease status was technically feasible and the quality of the dynamic dataset was improved by movement registration. The conventional descriptive measure maximum enhancement differed significantly between clinically active and inactive disease (P = 0.019), whereas time-intensity-curve shape analysis showed no differences. Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score correlated moderately with enhancing volume (P = 0.484). Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is a promising biomarker for evaluating disease status in children with JIA and wrist involvement. Conventional descriptive dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI measures are better associated with clinically active disease than time-intensity-curve shape analysis. (orig.)

  17. Prostate cancer characterization by optical contrast enhanced photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Qin, Ming; Mukundan, Ananya; Siddiqui, Javed; Takada, Marilia; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Tomlins, Scott A.; Kopelman, Raoul; Wang, Xueding

    2016-03-01

    During the past decades, prostate cancer (PCa), with an annual incident rate much higher than any other cancer, is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men. PCa has a relatively low progression rate yet the survival percentage decreases dramatically once the cancer has metastasized. Identifying aggressive from indolent PCa to prevent metastasis and death is critical to improving outcomes for patients with PCa. Standard procedure for assessing the aggressiveness of PCa involves the removal of tumor tissues by transrectal (TR) ultrasound (US) guided needle biopsy. The microscopic architecture of the biopsied tissue is visualized by histological or immunohistochemical staining procedures. The heterogeneity of the microscopic architecture is characterized by a Gleason score, a quantitative description of the aggressiveness of PCa. Due to the inability to identify the cancer cells, most noninvasive imaging modalities can only provide diagnosis of PCa at limited accuracy. This study investigates the feasibility of identifying PCa tumors and characterizing the aggressiveness of PCa by photoacoustic imaging assisted by cancer targeting polyacrylamide (PAA) nanoparticles (NPs). PAA is a biocompatible material used in clinics for the past 20 years. PAA NPs can protect capsulated optical contrast agents from interference by enzymes and enable prolonged systematic circulation in the living biological environment. The cancer targeting mechanism is achieved by conjugating the NPs to F3 peptides, which trace nucleolin overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells. Preliminary studies have shown that the NPs are capable of staining the PCa cells in vivo.

  18. Polymer-assisted nanoparticulate contrast-enhancing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology in medicine research has significant potential in modern biomedical research,disease diagnosis and therapy.Organic fluorophore-based detection techniques have been widely used as imaging and signal transduction tools for the detection of trace levels of analytes.The photosensitivity of the fluorophores,however,limits their application in such complex environments as living bio-systems where degradation or photobleaching occurs.Inorganic nanoparticles have unique and stable optical,electrical,magnetic and catalytic properties because of their various shapes,sizes and compositions.The potential of the nanoparticles as novel imaging agents has been studied as a possible solution to this problem.Surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles could enhance their biostability in physiological conditions and ability of targeting bioactive molecules.

  19. Non-enhanced MR angiography of renal arteries: comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeretti, M G; Lumia, D; Canì, A; Barresi, M; Nocchi Cardim, L; Piacentino, F; Maresca, A M; Novario, R; Genovese, E A; Fugazzola, C

    2013-09-01

    The main causes of renal artery stenosis (RAS) are atherosclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia. Despite contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) being a safe and reliable method for diagnosis of RAS especially in young individuals, recently it has been possible to adopt innovative technologies that do not require paramagnetic contrast agents. To assess the accuracy of steady-state free-precession (SSFP) non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) by using a 1.5 T MR scanner for the detection of renal artery stenosis, in comparison with breath-hold CE-MRA as the reference standard. Sixty-three patients (33 men, 30 women) with suspected renovascular hypertension (RVHT) were examined by a 1.5T MR scanner; NC-MRA with an electrocardiography (ECG)-gated SSFP sequence was performed in 58.7% (37/63) of patients; in 41.3% (26/63) of patients a respiratory trigger was used in addition to cardiac gating. CE-MRA, with a three-dimensional gradient echo (3D-GRE) T1-weighted sequence, was performed in all patients within the same session. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) image quality, number of renal arteries, and the presence of stenosis were assessed by two observers (independently for NC-MRA and together for CE-MRA). The agreement between NC-MRA and CE-MRA as well as the inter-observer reproducibility were calculated with Bland-Altman plots. MIP image quality was considered better for NC-MRA. NC-MRA identified 143 of 144 (99.3%) arteries detected by CE-MRA (an accessory artery was not identified). Fourteen stenoses were detected by CE-MRA (11 atherosclerotic, 3 dysplastic) with four of 14 (28.5%) significant stenosis. Bland-Altman plot demonstrated an excellent concordance between NC-MRA and CE-MRA; particularly, the reader A evaluated correctly all investigated arteries, while over-estimation of two stenoses occurred for reader B. Regarding NC-MRA, inter-observer agreement was excellent. NC-MRA is a valid alternative to CE-MRA for the

  20. Non-enhanced MR angiography of renal arteries - Comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeretti, M. G.; Lumia, D.; Cani, A.; Barresi, M.; Cardim, L Nocchi; Piacentino, F.; Genovese, E. A.; Fugazzola, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Insubria Univ., Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese (Italy)], e-mail: laranocchi@gmail.com; Maresca, A. M. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Insubria Univ., Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese (Italy); Novario, R. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Insubria Univ., Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Background: The main causes of renal artery stenosis (RAS) are atherosclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia. Despite contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) being a safe and reliable method for diagnosis of RAS especially in young individuals, recently it has been possible to adopt innovative technologies that do not require paramagnetic contrast agents. Purpose: To assess the accuracy of steady-state free-precession (SSFP) non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) by using a 1.5 T MR scanner for the detection of renal artery stenosis, in comparison with breath-hold CE-MRA as the reference standard. Material and Methods: Sixty-three patients (33 men, 30 women) with suspected renovascular hypertension (RVHT) were examined by a 1.5T MR scanner; NC-MRA with an electrocardiography (ECG)-gated SSFP sequence was performed in 58.7% (37/63) of patients; in 41.3% (26/63) of patients a respiratory trigger was used in addition to cardiac gating. CE-MRA, with a three-dimensional gradient echo (3D-GRE) T1-weighted sequence, was performed in all patients within the same session. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) image quality, number of renal arteries, and the presence of stenosis were assessed by two observers (independently for NC-MRA and together for CE-MRA). The agreement between NC-MRA and CE-MRA as well as the inter-observer reproducibility were calculated with Bland-Altman plots. Results: MIP image quality was considered better for NC-MRA. NC-MRA identified 143 of 144 (99.3%) arteries detected by CE-MRA (an accessory artery was not identified). Fourteen stenoses were detected by CE-MRA (11 atherosclerotic, 3 dysplastic) with four of 14 (28.5%) significant stenosis. Bland-Altman plot demonstrated an excellent concordance between NC-MRA and CE-MRA; particularly, the reader A evaluated correctly all investigated arteries, while over-estimation of two stenoses occurred for reader B. Regarding NC-MRA, inter-observer agreement was excellent

  1. A comparative study on preprocessing techniques in diabetic retinopathy retinal images: illumination correction and contrast enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Partovi, Mahsa Eisazadeh; Seyedarabi, Hadi; Javadzadeh, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of preprocessing techniques including contrast enhancement and illumination correction on retinal image quality, a comparative study was carried out. We studied and implemented a few illumination correction and contrast enhancement techniques on color retinal images to find out the best technique for optimum image enhancement. To compare and choose the best illumination correction technique we analyzed the corrected red and green components of color retinal images statistically and visually. The two contrast enhancement techniques were analyzed using a vessel segmentation algorithm by calculating the sensitivity and specificity. The statistical evaluation of the illumination correction techniques were carried out by calculating the coefficients of variation. The dividing method using the median filter to estimate background illumination showed the lowest Coefficients of variations in the red component. The quotient and homomorphic filtering methods after the dividing method presented good results based on their low Coefficients of variations. The contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization increased the sensitivity of the vessel segmentation algorithm up to 5% in the same amount of accuracy. The contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization technique has a higher sensitivity than the polynomial transformation operator as a contrast enhancement technique for vessel segmentation. Three techniques including the dividing method using the median filter to estimate background, quotient based and homomorphic filtering were found as the effective illumination correction techniques based on a statistical evaluation. Applying the local contrast enhancement technique, such as CLAHE, for fundus images presented good potentials in enhancing the vasculature segmentation.

  2. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound in CT-undetermined Focal Liver Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrose, S W; Karstrup, S; Gerke, O; Rafaelsen, S

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of CEUS in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions, which were undetermined at CT scan. Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2010, patients with CT-undetermined focal liver lesions were included in this study. A total of 78 patients were evaluated: 41 men and 37 women, mean age 61.8 years; age range 30-91 years. All patients were examined with GE LOGIQ 9E ultrasound scanners with contrast-specific software, and SonoVue intravenous bolus. The standard of reference was composite consisting of: percutaneous biopsy, surgical resection, PET/CT and clinical follow-up. Results: The 78 included patients had 163 undetermined focal liver lesions, mean size 1.1 cm, range 0.1-5.3 cm. There were 18 malignant and 145 benign liver lesions, as defined by the standard of reference. In differentiating between benign vs. malignant CEUS demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 94.4% (95% CI: 56.3-99.5%), 99.3% (95% CI: 94.9 -99.9%), 94.4% (95% CI: 56.3-99.5%), 99.3% (95% CI: 94.9-99.9%) and 98.7% (95% CI: 94.9-99.7%), respectively. If the CEUS-inconclusive results were assumed to indicate malignancy, then sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy would be 95.8% (95% CI: 66.4-99.6%), 98.6% (95% CI: 94.4-99.7%), 92.0% (95CI: 65.1-98.6%), 99.3% (95% CI: 95.0-99.9%), 98.2% (95% CI: 94.4-99.5%). Conclusion: The results of this study showed a high diagnostic accuracy for CEUS in undetermined focal liver lesions found by CT. Due to a high diagnostic accuracy of CEUS in this study, it was cautiously concluded that CEUS is useful in differentiating between malignant and benign focal liver lesions in clinical practice.

  3. Integrated processing of contrast pulse sequencing ultrasound imaging for enhanced active contrast of hollow gas filled silica nanoshells and microshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Casey N; Liberman, Alexander; Paul Martinez, H; Barback, Christopher V; Mattrey, Robert F; Blair, Sarah L; Trogler, William C; Kummel, Andrew C; Wu, Zhe

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing developments in the field of contrast-enhanced ultrasound both in the creation of new contrast agents and in imaging modalities. These contrast agents have been employed to study tumor vasculature in order to improve cancer detection and diagnosis. An in vivo study is presented of ultrasound imaging of gas filled hollow silica microshells and nanoshells which have been delivered intraperitoneally to an IGROV-1 tumor bearing mouse. In contrast to microbubbles, this formulation of microshells provided strong ultrasound imaging signals by shell disruption and release of gas. Imaging of the microshells in an animal model was facilitated by novel image processing. Although the particle signal could be identified by eye under live imaging, high background obfuscated the particle signal in still images and near the borders of the tumor with live images. Image processing techniques were developed that employed the transient nature of the particle signal to selectively filter out the background signal. By applying image registration, high-pass, median, threshold, and motion filtering, a short video clip of the particle signal was compressed into a single image, thereby resolving the silica shells within the tumor. © 2012 American Vacuum Society.

  4. Contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct in MR imaging: its frequency and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Naganawa, S.; Fukatsu, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Ishigaki, T. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, 466-8550, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Aoki, I.; Ninomiya, A. [Medical Systems Company, Toshiba Corporation, Nasu Operations, Otawara-shi, Tochigi (Japan); Nakashima, T. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    There have been no previous reports on contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct in magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and significance of this finding. Thirty-one patients (15 men and 16 women; age range 18-81 years) with otologic symptoms (sudden sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, or tinnitus) were examined using contrast-enhanced imaging on a 1.5-T MR scanner. The normal ear served as the control. Two radiologists evaluated contrast enhancement in the area of the cochlear aqueduct. Forty-eight of 62 ears (77.4%) showed contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct, but no significant differences in the frequency of contrast enhancement were observed between patients with and patients without vertigo, tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellopontine angle tumors, or a high-riding jugular bulb. In addition, no gender- or age-related differences were noted. Contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct was frequently observed, but the frequency of enhancement in symptomatic ears was not significantly higher than in control ears. The results of this study may prove helpful in avoiding unnecessary examinations and potential diagnostic confusion. (orig.)

  5. Novel nano-sized MR contrast agent mediates strong tumor contrast enhancement in an oncogene-driven breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per-Olof Eriksson

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to test the potential of a new nanomaterial (Spago Pix as a macromolecular magnetic MR contrast agent for tumor detection and to verify the presence of nanomaterial in tumor tissue. Spago Pix, synthesized by Spago Nanomedical AB, is a nanomaterial with a globular shape, an average hydrodynamic diameter of 5 nm, and a relaxivity (r1 of approximately 30 (mM Mn-1 s-1 (60 MHz. The material consists of an organophosphosilane hydrogel with strongly chelated manganese (II ions and a covalently attached PEG surface layer. In vivo MRI of the MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model was performed on a 3 T clinical scanner. Tissues were thereafter analyzed for manganese and silicon content using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The presence of nanomaterial in tumor and muscle tissue was assessed using an anti-PEG monoclonal antibody. MR imaging of tumor-bearing mice (n = 7 showed a contrast enhancement factor of 1.8 (tumor versus muscle at 30 minutes post-administration. Contrast was retained and further increased 2-4 hours after administration. ICP-AES and immunohistochemistry confirmed selective accumulation of nanomaterial in tumor tissue. A blood pharmacokinetics analysis showed that the concentration of Spago Pix gradually decreased over the first hour, which was in good agreement with the time frame in which the accumulation in tumor occurred. In summary, we demonstrate that Spago Pix selectively enhances MR tumor contrast in a clinically relevant animal model. Based on the generally higher vascular leakiness in malignant compared to benign tissue lesions, Spago Pix has the potential to significantly improve cancer diagnosis and characterization by MRI.

  6. Contrast medium enhancement of soft tissues and brain in CT examinations of dogs

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlicek, M

    2000-01-01

    CT is a x-ray based method which shows less contrast for soft tissue as has been known from radiography. Therefore, it is necessary to use intravenously administered iodine contrast media to detect and localize tumors, fistulas or other pathologic lesions. Usually contrast medium is administered manually which yields random patterns of media distribution due to varying application pressure during varying administration time, therefore enhancement of parenchymous organs could not be used to the optimum extent. The use of an automatic injection pump guarantees the necessary constancy during the examination procedure to undoubtedly detect pathologic enhancement of organs in the CT-image as known from human medicine. The standards which are expected of the injection pump and the contrast media are: a good contrast enhancement, a good accumulation in the examined organs, an accumulation, which lasts long enough during the diagnostic phase, and a rapid excretion without side effects. Because of the short scan time ...

  7. Recurrent Pulmonary Capillary Hemangioma: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT and Histopathologic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Joung Ho; Choi, Yong Soo [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Joong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    We report the dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and histopathologic findings of a rare case of recurrent pulmonary capillary hemangiomas. The findings consisted of peripheral nodular enhancement at the early arterial phase and a subsequent 'central filling-in' enhancement pattern on the delayed scans, which was identical to the well-known enhancement pattern of hemangiomas of the liver. Although there was no evidence of histological malignancy, pulmonary capillary hemangiomas manifested as multiple nodular lesions and showed postoperative recurrence.

  8. Aneurysms complicating inflammatory diseases in immunocompromised hosts: value of contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussel, C.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany); Kauczor, H.U. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany); Heussel, G. [Dept. of Hematology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany); Mildenberger, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany); Dueber, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    We studied the value of contrast-enhanced CT in the detection of aneurysms in immunocompromised patients suffering from inflammatory diseases eventually complicated by hemorrhage. Contrast-enhanced spiral CT was applied in three patients with immunocompromise due to chemotherapy, alcohol abuse or HIV. They suffered from invasive aspergillosis, chronic pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation, and acute pancreatitis together with HIV-associated lymphadenopathy. Complicating hemorrhage was present in two cases. Contrast-enhanced CT showed aneurysms complicating the underlying inflammatory disease in all three cases. The feeding vessels were identified and the patients with signs of bleeding were subsequently referred for angiography and embolization. Contrast-enhanced spiral CT is suited to detect aneurysms in immunocompromised patients suffering from inflammatory disease. It is recommended in these patients prior to angiography and intervention. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  9. Intravenous contrast-enhanced cone beam computed tomography (IVCBCT of intrahepatic tumors and vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Eccles, BSc

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Intravenous-CBCT may enhance the visibility of hepatic vessels and tumor in CBCT scans obtained during breath hold. Optimization of IV contrast timing and reduction of artifacts to improve tumor visualization warrant further investigation.

  10. CW-THz image contrast enhancement using wavelet transform and Retinex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Min; Hu, Qi-fan; Huang, Ying-Xue; Liang, Hua-Wei

    2015-10-01

    To enhance continuous wave terahertz (CW-THz) scanning images contrast and denoising, a method based on wavelet transform and Retinex theory was proposed. In this paper, the factors affecting the quality of CW-THz images were analysed. Second, an approach of combination of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and a designed nonlinear function in wavelet domain for the purpose of contrast enhancing was applied. Then, we combine the Retinex algorithm for further contrast enhancement. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method in qualitative and quantitative, it was compared with the adaptive histogram equalization method, the homomorphic filtering method and the SSR(Single-Scale-Retinex) method. Experimental results demonstrated that the presented algorithm can effectively enhance the contrast of CW-THZ image and obtain better visual effect.

  11. Biliary complications following orthotopic liver transplantation: May contrast-enhanced MR Cholangiography provide additional information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Boraschi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR Cholangiography may improve the level of diagnostic confidence provided by conventional T2-weighted MR Cholangiography in the evaluation of biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation.

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in testicular trauma: role in directing exploration, debridement and organ salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, V; Sellars, M E; Sharma, D M; Sidhu, P S

    2012-03-01

    We describe the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound as an additional imaging technique during an ultrasound examination of a traumatised testis, allowing for confident testicular preserving surgery to be performed.

  13. Hypovolemic shock ond contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuutinen, P.; Kivisaari, L.; Lehtola, A.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Lempinen, M.; Schroeder, T.; Talja, M,

    1986-01-01

    The effect of profound hemorrhagic hypovolemia on cardiac output and pancreatic blood flow was studied in pigs with the thermodilution method and microspere technique. Approximately 30 to 40% of the circulating blood volume was withdrawn slowly during 5 h. Cardiac output and pancreatic blood flow decreased by 35% and 32%, respectively. The animals underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) before hypovolemia and at 5 h after its onset. The changes in systemic and local blood flow were related to the contrast enhancement of the pancreas. In spite of profound hypovolemia and a significant decrease in pancreatic blood flow (p<0.005), the contrast enhancement remained normal. The results of the present study indicate that pancreatic hypoperfusion caused by hypovolemia does not effect the contrast enhancement of the pancreas in CT.

  14. Photon counting CT of the liver with dual-contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzel, Daniela; Proksa, Roland; Daerr, Heiner; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Noël, Peter B.

    2016-03-01

    The diagnostic quality of photon counting computed tomography (PCCT) is one the unexplored areas in medical imaging; at the same time, it seems to offer the opportunity as a fast and highly sensitive diagnostic tool. Today, conventional computed tomography (CT) is the standard imaging technique for diagnostic evaluation of the parenchyma of the liver. However, considerations on radiation dose are still an important factor in CT liver imaging, especially with regard to multi-phase contrast enhanced CT. In this work we report on a feasibility study for multi-contrast PCCT for simultaneous liver imaging at different contrast phases. PCCT images of the liver were simulated for a contrast-enhanced examination performed with two different contrast agents (CA), iodine (CA 1) and gadolinium (CA 2). PCCT image acquisition was performed at the time point with portal venous contrast distribution of CA 1 and arterial contrast phase for CA 2. Therefore, a contrast injection protocol was planned with sequential injection of CA 1 and CA 2 to provide a time dependent difference in contrast distribution of both CAs in the vessels and parenchyma of the liver. Native, arterial, and portal venous contrast enhanced images have been calculated based on the spectral separation of PCCT. In simulated PCCT images, we were able to differentiate between the tissue enhancement of CA 1 and CA 2. The distribution of both CA within the parenchyma of the liver was illustrated with perfusion maps for CA 1 and CA 2. In addition, virtual noncontrast enhanced image were calculated. In conclusion, multi-phase PCCT imaging of the liver based on a single scan is a novel approach for spectral PCCT imaging, offering detailed contrast information in a single scan volume and a significant reduction of radiation dose.

  15. Contrast enhancement of the facial nerve on MRI: normal or pathological?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Duverneuil, N. [Neuroradiologie Charcot, La Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Sola-Martinez, M.T. [Neuroradiologie Charcot, La Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Miaux, Y. [Neuroradiologie Charcot, La Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Cognard, C. [Neuroradiologie Charcot, La Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Weil, A. [Neuroradiologie Charcot, La Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Mompoint, D. [Neuroradiologie Charcot, La Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Chiras, J. [Neuroradiologie Charcot, La Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-03-01

    We prospectively analysed the normal contrast-enhanced MRI features of the facial nerve and determined criteria for pathological contrast enhancement. We studied 31 patients with clinically normal facial nerves with T1-weighted images before and after contrast medium. The intensity, thickness and right-left symmetry of enhancement were assessed in each segment and correlated with MRI features observed in abnormal facial nerves. Enhancement along at least one segment of the facial nerve was seen in 98% of cases, but only within the facial canal: Labyrinthine segment: 78.2%; geniculate ganglion: 96.9%; tympanic: 88.4%; mastoid: 66.6%. Marked (++) to intense (+++) enhancement was seen in the labyrinthine segment in 17.4%, the geniculate ganglion in 36.3%, and the tympanic (25.6%) and mastoid (7.1%) segments, whereas intense enhancement was only seen in the geniculate ganglion (6%) and the tympanic segment (11.6%). A right-left asymmetry was noted in 69% of cases. No correlation was found between enhancement and the thickness of the nerve. No enhancement of the eighth nerve was seen. We suggest three criteria for pathological enhancement: Enhancement outside the facial canal; extension of enhancement to the eighth nerve; and intense enhancement in the labyrinthine and/or mastoid segments. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Loo, C E

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis is to investigate the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in monitoring response of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The role of MRI with respect to achieving personalized breast cancer treatment by improving response monitoring is examined. Our findings demonstrate the potential clinical relevance of contrast-enhanced MRI for monitoring response of breast cancer during and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We defined MRI criteria ( reduction < 25%...

  17. Saltiness enhancement by taste contrast in bread prepared with encapsulated salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a technological approach to reduce the sodium content of bread whilst retaining its sensory profile by creating taste contrast using encapsulated salt. We demonstrate that sensory contrast in bread induced by encapsulated salt can enhance saltiness and allows for a salt

  18. Pulmonary nodule follow-up : be careful with volumetry between contrast enhanced and unenhanced CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A; Bülbül, Metin; de Jong, Pim A

    2016-01-01

    Incident pulmonary nodules are a frequent finding on chest computed tomography (CT) of the lungs requiring follow-up. This case illustrates the importance of taking differences in CT scanning techniques (contrast versus non-contrast enhanced) into account. Comparing nodule size on unenhanced follow-

  19. Saltiness enhancement by taste contrast in bread prepared with encapsulated salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a technological approach to reduce the sodium content of bread whilst retaining its sensory profile by creating taste contrast using encapsulated salt. We demonstrate that sensory contrast in bread induced by encapsulated salt can enhance saltiness and allows for a salt

  20. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography : a promising new imaging tool in breast cancer detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalji, Ulrich; Lobbes, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDM) is a promising new breast imaging tool for breast cancer detection. In CEDM, an iodine-based contrast agent is intravenously administered and subsequently, dual-energy mammography is performed. This results in a set of images containing both a regular

  1. Simple weight-based contrast dosing for standardization of portal phase CT liver enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbow, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Bournemouth Hospital, Bournemouth, Dorset (United Kingdom); Bull, R.K., E-mail: russell.bull@rbch.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal Bournemouth Hospital, Bournemouth, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Aim: To investigate the use of a weight-based volume of contrast media to optimize portal enhancement in patients undergoing abdominal computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients were assessed to establish whether a relationship existed between their weight and the portal liver enhancement achieved. Three methods of estimating weight were evaluated to establish which was the most appropriate to use in clinical practice. One hundred patients were then examined using 100 ml contrast media and 100 further patients using a weight-based contrast volume as dictated by a look-up table. The enhancement achieved by each technique was assessed. Results: A good correlation was shown between patient weight and contrast enhancement when a fixed volume of contrast media was used (r = -0.825, p < 0.0001). Asking the patient was shown to be the most appropriate method for estimating their weight. The mean portal liver enhancement using the fixed dose and weight-adjusted dose were 110 HU (SD = 25.1) and 108 HU (SD = 11.9), respectively. Weight-adjusted dose brought 37% more patients into the 'ideal' enhancement range of 100-125 HU. Conclusion: The use of a simple, practical, weight-based look-up table to decide contrast media volumes during portal phase liver CT can greatly reduce inter-patient variability compared to a fixed-volume technique.

  2. A new hardware-efficient algorithm and reconfigurable architecture for image contrast enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Wen-Chieh

    2014-10-01

    Contrast enhancement is crucial when generating high quality images for image processing applications, such as digital image or video photography, liquid crystal display processing, and medical image analysis. In order to achieve real-time performance for high-definition video applications, it is necessary to design efficient contrast enhancement hardware architecture to meet the needs of real-time processing. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware-oriented contrast enhancement algorithm which can be implemented effectively for hardware design. In order to be considered for hardware implementation, approximation techniques are proposed to reduce these complex computations during performance of the contrast enhancement algorithm. The proposed hardware-oriented contrast enhancement algorithm achieves good image quality by measuring the results of qualitative and quantitative analyzes. To decrease hardware cost and improve hardware utilization for real-time performance, a reduction in circuit area is proposed through use of parameter-controlled reconfigurable architecture. The experiment results show that the proposed hardware-oriented contrast enhancement algorithm can provide an average frame rate of 48.23 frames/s at high definition resolution 1920 × 1080.

  3. Experimentally enhanced model-based deconvolution of propagation-based phase-contrast data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichotka, M.; Palma, K.; Hasn, S.; Jakubek, J.; Vavrik, D.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years phase-contrast has become a much investigated modality in radiographic imaging. The radiographic setups employed in phase-contrast imaging are typically rather costly and complex, e.g. high performance Talbot-Laue interferometers operated at synchrotron light sources. In-line phase-contrast imaging states the most pedestrian approach towards phase-contrast enhancement. Utilizing small angle deflection within the imaged sample and the entailed interference of the deflected and un-deflected beam during spatial propagation, in-line phase-contrast imaging only requires a well collimated X-ray source with a high contrast & high resolution detector. Employing high magnification the above conditions are intrinsically fulfilled in cone-beam micro-tomography. As opposed of 2D imaging, where contrast enhancement is generally considered beneficial, in tomographic modalities the in-line phase-contrast effect can be quite a nuisance since it renders the inverse problem posed by tomographic reconstruction inconsistent, thus causing reconstruction artifacts. We present an experimentally enhanced model-based approach to disentangle absorption and in-line phase-contrast. The approach employs comparison of transmission data to a system model computed iteratively on-line. By comparison of the forward model to absorption data acquired in continuous rotation strong local deviations of the data residual are successively identified as likely candidates for in-line phase-contrast. By inducing minimal vibrations (few mrad) to the sample around the peaks of such deviations the transmission signal can be decomposed into a constant absorptive fraction and an oscillating signal caused by phase-contrast which again allows to generate separate maps for absorption and phase-contrast. The contributions of phase-contrast and the corresponding artifacts are subsequently removed from the tomographic dataset. In principle, if a 3D handling of the sample is available, this method also

  4. An Improved Local Equilibrium Contrast Enhancement Algorithm for Infrared Laser Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An improved local equilibrium contrast enhancement algorithm based self-adaptive contrast enhancement algorithm is proposed for infrared laser images, in which the image pixel value histogram is divided into three parts: background and noise area, targets area, and uninterested area. The targets parts are highlighted, while the background and noise parts and the uninterested parts are restrained. A comprehensive qualitative and quantitative image enhancement performance evaluation is presented to verify the proposed theory and algorithm validity, efficiency and reasonability. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can greatly improve the global and local contrast for both near infrared images and far infrared laser images while efficiently reducing noise in the infrared laser images,and the visual quality of enhanced image is obviously better than the enhancement of the traditional histogram equalization, double plateaus histogram equalization algorithm, etc.

  5. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine (Japan); Nakashima, Tsutomu [Department of Otolayngology, Nagoya University School of Medicine (Japan); Ichinose, Nobuyasu [Toshiba Nasu Operations, Tochigi (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss. Forty consecutive patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (20 males and 20 females; age range 11-82 years), 40 age-matched control subjects, and 5 patients with Meniere's disease were examined using the same imaging protocol on a 1.5-T MR system. Pre- and post-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence (3D SPGR; TR/TE=23/10 ms, no. of excitations=1, flip angle=30 ) images were obtained using a voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm{sup 3}. Contrast enhancement in the area of the endolymphatic sac was assessed by two radiologists, and the frequency of contrast enhancement was compared between the three study groups. Enhancement of the ipsilateral endolymphatic sac was observed in 30 of the 40 patients with sudden hearing loss (75%). Twenty of these 30 patients also showed enhancement on the contralateral side, and 1 patient showed enhancement only on the contralateral side. Only 1 of the 5 patients with Meniere's disease showed enhancement. Nine of the 40 control subjects (22.5%) showed enhancement (bilateral enhancement in 5 subjects, unilateral in 4). The frequency of enhancement in patients with sudden hearing loss was significantly higher than that in control subjects (P<0.0001) or patients with Meniere's disease (P<0.05). The frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac is significantly increased in patients with sudden hearing loss, but further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between this finding and the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. (orig.)

  6. Global and local contrast enhancement algorithm for image using wavelet neural network and stationary wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changjiang Zhang; Xiaodong Wang; Haoran Zhang

    2005-01-01

    A new contrast enhancement algorithm for image is proposed employing wavelet neural network (WNN)and stationary wavelet transform (SWT). Incomplete Beta transform (IBT) is used to enhance the global contrast for image. In order to avoid the expensive time for traditional contrast enhancement algorithms,which search optimal gray transform parameters in the whole gray transform parameter space, a new criterion is proposed with gray level histogram. Contrast type for original image is determined employing the new criterion. Gray transform parameter space is given respectively according to different contrast types,which shrinks the parameter space greatly. Nonlinear transform parameters are searched by simulated annealing algorithm (SA) so as to obtain optimal gray transform parameters. Thus the searching direction and selection of initial values of simulated annealing is guided by the new parameter space. In order to calculate IBT in the whole image, a kind of WNN is proposed to approximate the IBT. Having enhanced the global contrast to input image, discrete SWT is done to the image which has been processed by previous global enhancement method, local contrast enhancement is implemented by a kind of nonlinear operator in the high frequency sub-band images of each decomposition level respectively. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is able to adaptively enhance the global contrast for the original image while it also extrudes the detail of the targets in the original image well. The computation complexity for the new algorithm is O(MN) log(MN), where M and N are width and height of the original image, respectively.

  7. Parametric based morphological transformation for contrast enhancement of color images in poor-lighting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atluri Srikrishna; M Pompapathi; G Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    The objective of contrast operators consists in normalizing the gray levels of the input image for the purpose of avoiding abrupt changes in intensity among different regions. In this paper morphological transformations are used to detect the background in color images characterized by poor lighting. The disadvantage of contrast enhancement as studied in previous contrast enhancement algorithms is over illumination. An efficient algorithm is introduced to tackle the problem of over illumination by controlling the intensities at dark and bright regions of an image and preserve the geometry of the object. Finally the performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through the processing of gray scale images and color images with different backgrounds.

  8. Photonic crystal slabs for surface contrast enhancement in microscopy of transparent objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Becker, Tim; Reverey, Julia; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Rapoport, Daniel H; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2012-06-18

    In optical microscopy the contrast of transparent objects achieved with conventional methods is often not satisfactory, for example for the automated recognition of cells. In this paper we present a nano-optical label-free approach for contrast enhancement based on photonic crystal slabs (PCS) as the specimen holder. Quasi-guided modes inside these structures cause an intrinsic color of the PCS, which strongly depends on the wavelength and the quality factor of the optical mode. Objects on the surface of the PCS experience a significant color and intensity contrast enhancement, as they change properties of the optical modes.

  9. Pelvic congestion syndrome initially detected by contrast enhanced F 18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Myoung Hyoung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Chang Guhn [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is said to occur as a result of retrograde flow in an incompetent ovarian vein. Ovarian vein incompetence is seen in approximately 10% of women, and up to 60% with this abnormality can develop PCS. The etiology of PCS is poorly understood and is likely to be multifactorial. Absence of ovarian vein valves is an important factor in its development. The causes of ovarian varicoceles are multifactorial, involving both mechanical and hormonal factors. Dilatation of the ovarian veins can result in vascular incompetence and retrograde blood flow. On either CT or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies, pelvic varices in PCS appear as dilated, tortuous, enhancing tubular structures near the ovaries and uterus. In addition, the extension of varices to the broad ligament and paravaginal venous plexus can be appreciated. With CT, the tubular nature of these structures and the pattern of enhancement after intravenous contrast medium administration distinguish them from lymphadenopathy or adnexal masses. Unlike such masses, pelvic varices appear isodense with other veins after contrast enhancement. Contrast enhanced CT data as part of the combined PET/CT examination provide additional information when compared with non enhanced PET/CT. Because CT data supply the anatomic background for PET, the most important benefit relates to more precise anatomic localization of pathology by differentiation of the lesion from its surrounding structures. By supporting lesion detection and characterization, CT contrast agents can be of additional value in F 18 FDG non avid disease. As in the presented case, careful review of CT images in contrast enhanced PET/CT enables the detection of F 18 FDG non avid disease such as PCS. As contrast enhanced F 18 FDG PET/CT had been performed frequently, being familiar with the findings of PCS on the contrast enhanced CT images would have been helpful for the nuclear medicine physicians.

  10. Nanodiamond-Manganese dual mode MRI contrast agents for enhanced liver tumor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weixin; Toh, Tan Boon; Abdullah, Lissa Nurrul; Yvonne, Tay Wei Zheng; Lee, Kuan J; Guenther, Ilonka; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is critical for the diagnosis and monitoring of a number of diseases, including cancer. Certain clinical applications, including the detection of liver tumors, rely on both T1 and T2-weighted images even though contrast agent-enhanced MR imaging is not always reliable. Thus, there is a need for improved dual mode contrast agents with enhanced sensitivity. We report the development of a nanodiamond-manganese dual mode contrast agent that enhanced both T1 and T2-weighted MR imaging. Conjugation of manganese to nanodiamonds resulted in improved longitudinal and transverse relaxivity efficacy over unmodified MnCl2 as well as clinical contrast agents. Following intravenous administration, nanodiamond-manganese complexes outperformed current clinical contrast agents in an orthotopic liver cancer mouse model while also reducing blood serum concentration of toxic free Mn(2+) ions. Thus, nanodiamond-manganese complexes may serve as more effective dual mode MRI contrast agent, particularly in cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in ovarian tumors – diagnostic parameters: method presentation and initial experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAXIM, ANITA-ROXANA; BADEA, RADU; TAMAS, ATILLA; TRAILA, ALEXANDRU

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss and illustrate the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluating ovarian tumors compared to conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and the histopathological analysis and suggest how this technique may best be used to distinguish benign from malignant ovarian masses. We present the method and initial experience of our center by analyzing the parameters used in contrast-enhanced ultrasound in 6 patients with ovarian tumors of uncertain etiology. For examination we used a Siemens ultrasound machine with dedicated contrast software and the contrast agent SonoVue, Bracco. The patients underwent conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and i.v. administration of the contrast agent. The parameters studied were: inflow of contrast (rise time), time to peak enhancement, mean transit time. The series of patients is part of an extensive prospective PhD study aimed at elaborating a differential diagnosis protocol for benign versus malignant ovarian tumors, by validating specific parameters for contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Although the method is currently used with great success in gastroenterology, urology and senology, its validation in gynecology is still in the early phases. Taking into consideration that the method is minimally invasive and much less costly that CT/MRI imaging, demonstrating its utility in oncologic gynecology would be a big step in preoperative evaluation of these cases. PMID:26527912

  12. High-relaxivity contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, Frederik L. [German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Department of Radiology E010, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Mehndiratta, Amit [German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Department of Radiology E010, Heidelberg (Germany); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Essig, Marco [German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Department of Radiology E010, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Evaluation of brain lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information that is critical for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic intervention and monitoring response. Conventional contrast-enhanced MR neuroimaging using gadolinium (Gd) contrast agents primarily depicts disruption of the blood-brain barrier, demonstrating location and extent of disease, and also the morphological details at the lesion site. However, conventional imaging results do not always accurately predict tumour aggressiveness. Advanced functional MRI techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging utilise contrast agents to convey physiological information regarding the haemodynamics and neoangiogenic status of the lesion that is often complementary to anatomical information obtained through conventional imaging. Most of the Gd contrast agents available have similar T1 and T2 relaxivities, and thus their contrast-enhancing capabilities are comparable. Exceptions are gadobenate-dimeglumine, Gd-EOB-DTPA, Gadobutrol and gadofosveset, which, owing to their transient-protein-binding capability, possess almost twice (and more) the T1 and T2 relaxivities as other agents at all magnetic field strengths. Numerous comparative studies have demonstrated the advantages of the increased relaxivity in terms of enhanced image contrast, image quality and diagnostic confidence. Here we summarise the benefits of higher relaxivity for the most common neuroimaging applications including MRI, perfusion-weighted imaging and MRA for evaluation of brain tumours, cerebrovascular disease and other CNS lesions. (orig.)

  13. An Algorithmic Analysis of Variational Models for Perceptual Local Contrast Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira Ferradans

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Color cast cancellation and local contrast enhancement are very important problems in computervision. In this paper we review the algorithm proposed by Palma-Amestoy et al. [A perceptuallyinspired variational framework for color enhancement, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysisand Machine Intelligence, 21 (2009, pp. 458–474], present results and evaluate the impact of achange in the parameters.

  14. The role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in risk assessment of carotid atheroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Stanciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, used to assess atherosclerotic carotid plaques, improves visualization of vessel wall irregularities and depicts intraplaque neovascularization. This article illustrates the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the risk assessment of carotid atherosclerotic lesions, especially in challenging plaques evaluation. Materials and methods: For 23 patients with difficult duplex ultrasound examination due to carotid tortuosity or calcifications we assessed plaque morphology (contour, echogenicity and stenosis degree using contrast substance (Sonovue, Braco with dedicated vascular low mechanical index CPC software. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a new, noninvasive, and safe procedure for imaging carotid atherosclerotic lesions. It is a valuable tool for evaluating the vulnerable plaque at risk for rupture and for the diagnostic of the development and severity of systemic atherosclerotic disease

  15. Quantitative Characterization of Inertial Confinement Fusion Capsules Using Phase Contrast Enhanced X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozioziemski, B J; Koch, J A; Barty, A; Martz, H E; Lee, W; Fezzaa, K

    2004-05-07

    Current designs for inertial confinement fusion capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) consist of a solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layer inside of a copper doped beryllium capsule. Phase contrast enhanced x-ray imaging is shown to render the D-T layer visible inside the Be(Cu) capsule. Phase contrast imaging is experimentally demonstrated for several surrogate capsules and validates computational models. Polyimide and low density divinyl benzene foam capsules were imaged at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron. The surrogates demonstrate that phase contrast enhanced imaging provides a method to characterize surfaces when absorption imaging cannot be used. Our computational models demonstrate that a rough surface can be accurately reproduced in phase contrast enhanced x-ray images.

  16. Contrast-enhanced sonography versus biopsy for the differential diagnosis of thrombosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Sorrentino; Salvatore D'Angelo; Luciano Tarantino; Umberto Ferbo; Alessandra Bracigliano; Raffaela Vecchione

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To clarify which method has accuracy: 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound or biopsy of portal vein thrombus in the differential diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-six patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and portal vein thrombosis underwent in blinded fashion a 2nd generation contrastenhanced ultrasound and biopsy of portal vein thrombus; both results were examined on the basis of the follow-up of patients compared to reference-standard. RESULTS: One hundred and eight patients completed the study. Benign thrombosis on 2nd generation contrast- enhanced ultrasound was characterised by progressive hypoenhancing of the thrombus; in malignant portal vein thrombosis there was a precocious homogeneous enhancement of the thrombus. On follow-up there were 50 of 108 patients with benign thrombosis: all were correctly diagnosed by both methods. There were 58 of 108 patients with malignant thrombosis: amongst these, 52 were correctly diagnosed by both methods, the remainder did not present malignant cells on portal vein thrombus biopsy and showed on 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound an inhomogeneous enhancement pattern. A new biopsy during the follow-up, guided to the area of thrombus that showed up on 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound, demonstrated an enhancing pattern indicating malignant cells. CONCLUSION: In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by portal vein thrombosis, 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound of portal vein thrombus is very useful in assessing the benign or malignant nature of the thrombus. Puncture biopsy of thrombus is usually accurate but presents some sampling errors, so, when pathological results are required, 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound could guide the sampling needle to the correct area of the thrombus.

  17. Hepatic artery aneurysm: incidental diagnosis with abdominal ultrasonography and treatment by coil embolization

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Luis Jesuino de Oliveira; Silva,Antonio Carlos Botelho da; França,Larissa Santos; França,Luciana Santos; Souza,José Rebouças de

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic artery aneurysm (HAA) was first reported at autopsy in 1809, represents one fifth of visceral aneurysms and the mortality from spontaneous rupture is high in most of cases. We are reporting a case of an asymptomatic 48-year-old woman with an extrahepatic HAA, diagnosed initially and incidentally with abdominal ultrasonography, confirmed by a three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and angiography. Endovascular treatment was considered feasible and was successful...

  18. A novel simultaneous dynamic range compression and local contrast enhancement algorithm for digital video cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chi-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the problem of low dynamic range image enhancement for commercial digital cameras. A novel simultaneous dynamic range compression and local contrast enhancement algorithm (SDRCLCE is presented to resolve this problem in a single-stage procedure. The proposed SDRCLCE algorithm is able to combine with many existent intensity transfer functions, which greatly increases the applicability of the proposed method. An adaptive intensity transfer function is also proposed to combine with SDRCLCE algorithm that provides the capability to adjustably control the level of overall lightness and contrast achieved at the enhanced output. Moreover, the proposed method is amenable to parallel processing implementation that allows us to improve the processing speed of SDRCLCE algorithm. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method outperforms three state-of-the-art methods in terms of dynamic range compression and local contrast enhancement.

  19. Real-time contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging of focal splenic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, GuangJian, E-mail: liugj@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhu; Huang, Yang; Xu, ZuoFeng; Xie, XiaoYan [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lu, MingDe [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: To investigate the imaging features of focal splenic lesions (FSLs) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Methods: Thirty two patients with FSLs proved by pathology were retrospectively analyzed. CEUS was performed using intravenous bolus injection of 2.4 ml sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubble contrast agent and real time scanning. There were hemangioma (n = 7), lymphoma (n = 8), true cyst (n = 3), infarction (n = 4), hematolymphangioma (n = 2), metastasis tumor (n = 2), and one for each of the following entities extramedullary hemopoiesis, hamartoma, tuberculosis, Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis, inflammatory pseudotumor and myxofibrosarcoma. Results: Among 21 benign lesions, 4 infarctions and 3 cysts presented non-enhancement throughout CEUS scanning, and the other 14 lesions displayed various enhancement levels with 6 (42.9%) hyper-enhancement, 2 (14.3%) iso-enhancement and 6 (42.9%) hypo-enhancement in arterial phase and 11 (78.6%) hypo-enhancement, 1 (7.1%) iso-enhancement and 2 (14.3%) hyper-enhancement in late phase, respectively. The enhancement pattern included 9 (64.3%) homogeneous, 4 (28.6%) heterogeneous and 1 (7.1%) rim-like enhancement. As for the malignant FSLs, all the lesions became completely or extensively hypo-enhancement during the late phase no matter their vascularity during arterial phase. Conclusions: The CEUS features reported in this series may enrich the knowledge for CEUS characterization of FSLs.

  20. Breast Lesions: Correlation of Dynamic Contrast Enhancement Patterns on MR images with Tumor Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeifangLiu; RunxianBao; YunNiu; YongYu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features of the early -phase enhancement rate, enhancement amplitude, and signal-intensity (SI) time course are associated with the microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of malignant and benign breast lesions. METHODS Sixty patients with breast lesions, detected with physical examination or conventional mammography, were examined pre-operatively with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI from December 1998 to June 2000. Of these 60 patients, histopathological correlation was available in 38. These 38 patients(aged 29-73 years) formed the basis of this study. SI changes during dynamic scanning were assessed quantitatively. Early-phase enhancement rate and enhancement amplitude were calculated. Time-Sl curves of the lesions were obtained and classified according to their shapes as type I (which was steady enhancement to the end of the dynamic data acquisition at 7.5rain.), type Ⅱ (plateau of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement), or type Ⅲ (washout of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement). The mean MVD and VEGF expression of the lesions were measured with immunohistochemical staining methods in all the pathologic specimens by a pathologist without knowledge of the results of the MR examination. Care was taken to ensure identical location in the plane of the MR image and pathologic specimens. The relationships among dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features, MVD, and VEGF expression of benign and malignant breast lesions were analyzed. RESULTS Histology revealed 21 malignancies and 17 benign lesions. The mean MVD and VEGF expression for the 21 malignant lesions were significantly higher than the mean MVD and VEGF expression for the 17 benign lesions (P60%) MR early-phase enhancement rate and time-SI curve type Ⅱ or Ⅲ showed a significant association with MVD and VEGF expression. All the differences mentioned above showed statistical significance (P 0

  1. Detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic fatty infiltration of the liver: the added value of contrast-enhanced sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Taibbi, Adele; Picone, Dario; Anastasi, Andrea; Midiri, Massimo; Lagalla, Roberto [Dept. of Radiology-Di.Bi.Med., University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic liver fatty deposition on greyscale ultrasonography (US). Thirty-seven consecutive cancer patients (24 women and 13 men; age, 33 to 80 years; mean, 58.1 years) with geographic liver fatty deposition, but without any detectable focal liver lesion on greyscale US, underwent sulphur hexafluoride-enhanced US. Two readers reported by consensus the presence, size, and location of any detected lesion. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a confirmatory study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and accuracy were calculated. Seven focal liver lesions (size, 4 to 10 mm; mean, 6.1 mm) were detected in 4/37 patients (10.8%): four metastases (size, 5 to 10 mm; mean, 6.7 mm) were detected both by CEUS and MRI, with one hemangioma and two cysts (size range, 4 to 6 mm; mean, 5.3 mm) detected by MRI only. In 1/37 patients (2.7%), CEUS misdiagnosed geographic fatty change as three metastases. In 32/37 patients (86.5%), no lesions were detected. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of CEUS were 100% (95% confidence Interval [CI], 1.000 to 1.000), 97.1% (95% CI, 0.914 to 1.027), 75%, 100%, and 97.3%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between CEUS and MRI in the detection of focal liver lesions (P=0.480), whereas both of them performed better than baseline US (P<0.001). CEUS improves the detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic liver fatty deposition on greyscale US.

  2. The prevalence of undiagnosed abnormalities on non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography compared to contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Minné

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the gold standard investigation for intracranial pathology, it is not widely available in developing countries and computed tomography (CT of the brain remains the first-line investigation for patients with suspected intracranial pathology. It is generally accepted that certain intracranial pathology can be missed on non-contrast-enhanced CT (NECT of the brain if a contrast-enhanced CT (CECT is not done. We have to consider on the one hand the risk of delayed or missed diagnosis and on the other hand the cost, increased radiation exposure and contrast-induced reactions. Advances in CT technology have also improved the resolution of CT scan images, making it easier to identify pathology on an NECT of the brain. To date, no study comparing NECT to CECT of the brain, utilising 64-slice CT technology, has been published.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of undiagnosed abnormalities on non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NECT scans of the brain reported as normal, on a 64-slice CT scanner.Method: A descriptive retrospective study was undertaken of CT brain scans done during a 12-month period at a tertiary provincial hospital in the Northern Tshwane district of Gauteng, South Africa. The CT brain scans were evaluated by three reviewers (general radiologists. The NECT and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT scans of the brain were reviewed independently on separate occasions. Reviewers were blinded to patient history, each other’s interpretation, and to their own interpretation of the NECT when evaluating the CECT and vice versa. Discrepancies in interpretation were resolved during a consensus meeting between all three reviewers. The reviewers also re-evaluated the NECT scans of the cases with undiagnosed abnormal findings during this session. A decision was made pertaining to the visibility of the abnormal findings on the NECT scan.Results: In this study, 3.28% of cases

  3. Review of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound guidance in ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasunori Minami; Masatoshi Kudo

    2011-01-01

    Local ablative techniques-percutaneous ethanol injection, microwave coagulation therapy and radiofrequency ablation (RFA)-have been developed to treat unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The success rate of percutaneous ablation therapy for HCC depends on correct targeting of the tumor via an imaging technique. However, probe insertion often is not completely accurate for small HCC nodules, which are poorly defined on conventional B-mode ultrasound (US) alone. Thus, multiple sessions of ablation therapy are frequently required in difficult cases. By means of two breakthroughs in US technology, harmonic imaging and the development of second-generation contrast agents, dynamic contrast-enhanced harmonic US imaging with an intravenous contrast agent can depict tumor vascularity sensitively and accurately, and is able to evaluate small hypervascular HCCs even when B-mode US cannot adequately characterize the tumors. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced US can facilitate RFA electrode placement in hypervascular HCC, which is poorly depicted by B-mode US. The use of dynamic contrast-enhanced US guidance in ablation therapy for liver cancer is an efficient approach. Here, we present an overview of the current status of dynamic contrast-enhanced US-guided ablation therapy, and summarize the current indications and outcomes of reported clinical use in comparison with that of other modalities.

  4. Carotid Artery Stenosis: Comparison of 3D Time-of-Flight MR Angiography and Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography at 3T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Platzek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of 3D time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF MRA and contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CEMRA for carotid artery stenosis evaluation at 3T. Material and Methods. Twenty-three patients (5 f, 18 m; mean age 61 y, age range 45–78 y with internal carotid artery stenosis detected with ultrasonography were examined on a 3.0T MR system. The MR examination included both 3D TOF MRA and CEMRA of the carotid arteries. MR images were evaluated independently by two board-certified radiologists. Stenosis evaluation was based on a five-point scale. Stenosis grades determined by TOF and CEMRA were compared using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and the Wilcoxon test. Cohen’s Kappa was used to evaluate interrater reliability. Results. CEMRA detected stenosis in 24 (52% of 46 carotids evaluated, while TOF detected stenosis in 27 (59% of 46 carotids. TOF MRA yielded significantly higher results for stenosis grade in comparison to CEMRA (P=0.014. Interrater agreement was very good for both TOF MRA (κ=0.93 and CEMRA (κ=0.93. Conclusion. At 3T, 3D TOF MRA should not be used as replacement for contrast-enhanced MRA of the carotid arteries, as it results in significantly higher stenosis grades.

  5. Carotid Artery Stenosis: Comparison of 3D Time-of-Flight MR Angiography and Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzek, Ivan; Sieron, Dominik; Wiggermann, Philipp; Laniado, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of 3D time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF MRA) and contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CEMRA) for carotid artery stenosis evaluation at 3T. Material and Methods. Twenty-three patients (5 f, 18 m; mean age 61 y, age range 45-78 y) with internal carotid artery stenosis detected with ultrasonography were examined on a 3.0T MR system. The MR examination included both 3D TOF MRA and CEMRA of the carotid arteries. MR images were evaluated independently by two board-certified radiologists. Stenosis evaluation was based on a five-point scale. Stenosis grades determined by TOF and CEMRA were compared using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the Wilcoxon test. Cohen's Kappa was used to evaluate interrater reliability. Results. CEMRA detected stenosis in 24 (52%) of 46 carotids evaluated, while TOF detected stenosis in 27 (59%) of 46 carotids. TOF MRA yielded significantly higher results for stenosis grade in comparison to CEMRA (P = 0.014). Interrater agreement was very good for both TOF MRA (κ = 0.93) and CEMRA (κ = 0.93). Conclusion. At 3T, 3D TOF MRA should not be used as replacement for contrast-enhanced MRA of the carotid arteries, as it results in significantly higher stenosis grades.

  6. Is intravenous contrast enhancement effective in improving CT diagnosis of hepatic disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Katsuhide; Ono, Chiaki [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Kohno, Atsushi[Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital; Sumi, Yukiharu [Juntendo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Urayasu Hospital; Honda, Masanori [Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital (Japan); Uchimura, Fumiaki [Yamagata Prefectural Nihonkai Hospital, Sakata (Japan); Ogawa, Kenji [Nihon Koukan Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Ohtaki, Megu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of contrast enhancement in the diagnosis of hepatic disease. 2761 cases involving CT of the liver and abdomen were analyzed using logistic analysis. CT was either helical-CT (SDCT) or multi-detector CT (MDCT), with power injector. Contrast enhancement use was 92% in liver disease and 95% in tumor cases. A typical case involved a 66-year-old man given 2-4 ml/sec of contrast material using dual injection. CT imaging was done in the equilibrium stage. The use of contrast material was effective for the diagnosis of liver tumor except in the qualitative diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with SDCT where the odds ratio was 0.084. Intravenous contrast enhancement was effective for the CT diagnosis of hepatic tumor. Dynamic CT was effective using MDCT, and dual injection of contrast material was also valid for SDCT. Multiphasic studies were needed for detecting liver tumors not only on MDCT but also on SDCT. CT imaging during the equilibrium phase alone is inadequate to document diagnosis of metastatic liver tumors. The addition of various phasic contrast materials during CT was effective in evaluating liver tumors that showed angiogenesis. (author)

  7. Detection of postoperative residual cholesteatoma with delayed contrast-enhanced MR imaging: initial findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T.; Heran, Francoise; Lafitte, Francois; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Piekarski, Jean-Daniel [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophthalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25, rue Manin, 75940 Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophthalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25, rue Manin, 75940 Paris (France); Alberti, Corinne [Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Saint-Louis, 1 Avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010 Paris (France)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the value of delayed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo MR imaging in the detection of residual cholesteatoma in patients who have undergone canal wall-up tympanoplasty procedure. The MR imaging was obtained prior to revision surgery in 18 patients with opacity of the post-operative cavity at CT examination 12-18 months after canal wall-up tympanoplasty. In each patient the following was performed: precontrast T1- and T2-weighted images; and early and delayed contrast-enhanced axial and coronal T1-weighted imaging. Early and delayed MR imaging results were separately compared with surgical second-look findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were evaluated for early and delayed post-contrast MR imaging, compared with second-look surgery findings. A residual cholesteatoma was correctly identified in 8 of 9 cases with delayed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. Mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and interobserver agreement (evaluated by kappa statistics) were, respectively, 85.2, 92.6, 92.6%, and kappa=0.78 for the delayed contrast-enhanced MR imaging technique. The same parameters were, respectively, 96.3, 33.3, 60.6, and 0.30 for the early contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images. We conclude that delayed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging is reliable for the detection of residual cholesteatomas of the middle ear in patients who have undergone canal wall-up tympanoplasty. (orig.)

  8. [Contrast enhancement technique in brain 3D-CTA studies: optimizing the amount of contrast medium according to scan time based on TDC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Kazuaki; Hatcho, Atsushi

    2008-06-20

    In three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA), good reproducibility can be obtained by maintaining the maximum CT numbers (HU) at a specified level. However, the correlation between the scan time and the injection time showed that the maximum CT numbers increased and varied due to the additional contrast enhancement effect from recirculation of the injected contrast medium for longer injection times when the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit time (mgI/s) was maintained at a specified level based on the time-density curve (TDC) of the phantom. The amount of contrast medium employed at our hospital has been optimized based on an iodinated contrast medium dose per unit time providing a contrast enhancement effect of 300 HU in the middle cerebral artery. Using this standard, a TDC phantom was employed to obtain an iodinated contrast medium dose per unit time, permitting equivalent maximum CT values (used as standard values) to be obtained by changing the injection time. A contrast-enhancement technique that accounts for the variation in the scan time was evaluated. Strong correlations were observed between the scan time and the injection time (R2=0.969) and between the injection time and the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit body weight (R2=0.994). We conclude that adjusting the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit body weight per unit time according to the scan time permits optimization of the contrast-enhancement technique.

  9. Diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Fonseca Monjardim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the diagnostic capacity of abdominal computed tomography in the assessment of hepatic steatosis using the portal phase with a simplified calculation method as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase. Materials and Methods In the present study, 150 patients were retrospectively evaluated by means of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. One hundred patients had hepatic steatosis and 50 were control subjects. For the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in the portal phase, the authors considered a result of < 104 HU calculated by the formula [L - 0.3 × (0.75 × P + 0.25 × A] / 0.7, where L, P and A represent the attenuation of the liver, of the main portal vein and abdominal aorta, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated, using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the reference standard. Results The simplified calculation method with portal phase for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis showed 100% sensitivity, 36% specificity, negative predictive value of 100% and positive predictive value of 75.8%. The rate of false positive results was 64%. False negative results were not observed. Conclusion The portal phase presents an excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography. However, the method has low specificity.

  10. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of persistent fifth aortic arch in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yumin; Zhu, Ming; Sun, Aimin; Li, Yuhua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China); Jaffe, Richard B. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gao, Wei [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2007-03-15

    Cine angiography and echocardiography have been utilized to diagnose congenital aortic arch anomalies. However, the visualization of great vessels by echocardiography is limited, while cine angiography requires cardiac catheterization with ionizing radiation. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a noninvasive modality suitable for visualization of congenital aortic arch anomalies. To evaluate the utility of contrast-enhanced MRA in the diagnosis of persistent fifth aortic arch, a rare congenital aortic arch anomaly, and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRA with that of echocardiography and cine angiography. In four pediatric patients, contrast-enhanced MRA studies were performed for diagnosing persistent fifth aortic arch. The findings of MRA were compared with echocardiographic findings and confirmed by cine angiography and operation. Transthoracic surface echocardiography noted an aberrant vessel arising from the ascending aorta in two of four patients; the etiology of this vessel was uncertain. In the other two patients a diagnosis of coarctation was made. Of the four patients, only one was diagnosed with interruption of the aortic arch. Contrast-enhanced MRA clarified uncertain echocardiographic findings, enabling the correct diagnosis of persistent fifth aortic arch with fourth aortic arch interruption in all four patients. Contrast-enhanced MRA is a safe, accurate, and fast imaging technique for the evaluation of persistent fifth aortic arch and may obviate the need for conventional cine angiography. Cardiac catheterization may be reserved for some types of complicated congenital heart disease and for obtaining hemodynamic information. (orig.)

  11. Differentiation between ductal carcinoma in situ and mastopathy using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and a model of contrast enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Motoko; Tamaki, Yasuhiro; Murase, Kenya

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to differentiate between ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and mastopathy by analyzing their time-intensity curves (TICs) using the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with an assumption of instantaneous injection of contrast medium (TCPM). After the pre-contrast MRI was performed using a 1.5 T MRI system, DCE-MRI was performed four times after the intravenous administration of contrast medium. We set the volumes of interest (VOIs) on the tumor and normal mammary gland, and obtained the TICs in these VOIs. We calculated the following parameters by fitting these TICs to the equation derived from TCPM; the initial slope of the TIC (Slopeini), the area under the TIC (AUC), the time to peak enhancement (TTP) and the peak enhancement (PeakE). We calculated these parameters in both the lesion and normal mammary gland and the ratios of the parameters in the lesion to those in the normal gland (rSlopeini, rAUC, rTTP and rPeakE). There were significant differences in Slopeini (P=0.009), PeakE (P=0.019), rSlopeini (P=0.010), and rTTP (P=0.005) between DCIS and mastopathy. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for Slopeini, PeakE, rSlopeini, and rTTP were 0.67±0.06 (P=0.009), 0.65±0.06 (P=0.019), 0.67±0.06 (P=0.01), and 0.68±0.06 (P=0.005), respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that analysis of TICs obtained by DCE-MRI using TCPM appears to be useful for differentiating between DCIS and mastopathy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Iomeprol versus iopamidol in contrast-enhanced computed tomography of thoracic and abdominal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, A L; Tartaglione, T; Monti, L; Marano, P

    1994-05-01

    The aim of this double-blind, parallel-group study was to compare the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of iomeprol-350 (350 mgI/ml), iomeprol-400 (400 mgI/ml) and iopamidol-370 (370 mgI/ml) for use in contrast-enhanced body computed tomography (CT). Following written informed consent, 120 adult inpatients of either sex requiring CT of thoracic or abdominal organs were randomly assigned to receive iomeprol-350, iomeprol-400 or iopamidol-370. Pre- and post-contrast, all patients underwent clinical, instrumental and laboratory investigation to assess the safety of the test agents. Tolerance was assessed in terms of discomfort associated with contrast injection. Two experienced radiologists independently and blindly graded the quality of contrast enhancement obtained with the different contrast solutions by means of a five-point ordinal scale as follows: 1, insufficient; 2, sufficient; 3, good; 4, excellent; or E, excessive. Patients in the iomeprol groups needed fewer injections and a smaller volume of contrast medium to obtain examinations of adequate diagnostic quality. Contrast enhancement was judged as excellent or good in about 90% of the study examinations, without significant differences between the three study groups. During contrast injection, heat and pain sensations were minimal or absent in most cases. No serious adverse events occurred throughout the study. No significant changes in clinical, instrumental or laboratory safety parameters were observed. In conclusion, iomeprol-400 and iomeprol-350 appear to be contrast solutions at least as safe, well tolerated and effective as iopamidol-370 when used as contrast agents for body CT.

  13. Evaluation of contrast-enhanced helical hydro-CT in staging gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhou Wei; Jie-Ping Yu; Jun Li; Chang-Sheng Liu; Xiao-Hua Zheng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the helical computed tomography (CT) characteristics of gastric cancer and evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced helical hydro-CT (HHCT) in staging gastric cancer.METHODS: A total of 50 patients with gastric cancer were included in this study. The CT findings in them were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic findings at surgery. All patients were preoperatively imaged by plain and contrast-enhanced helical CT after orally ingesting 1 000-1 500 mL water. Peristalsis was minimized by intra-venous administration of spasmolytics.RESULTS: The foci of gastric cancer became more prominent in all the 50 patients and showed strong enhancement in contrast-enhanced HHCT. The tumor was located at the gastric cardia in 14 cases, at the gastric fundus in 3 cases, at the gastric body in 8 cases, at the gastric antrum in 4 cases, at the gastric fundus and the body in 8 cases, at the gastric body and antrum in 11 cases, and at three segments of the stomach in 2 cases.The CT features of gastric cancer were focal or diffuse mural thickening, soft tissue mass, cancerous ulcer, stenosis of stomach, infiltration to adjacent tissues, lymph node and distant metastases. Strong contrast enhancement of the gastric wall was closely related to gastric cancer. The accuracy rate of contrast-enhanced HHCT in staging gastric cancer was 86% (43/50). The detection rate of lymph node metastases by CT was 60% (12/20).CONCLUSION: Contrast-enhanced HHCT is a reliable method to diagnose and stage gastric cancer.

  14. Late phase contrast enhanced-CT analysis of thrombosed type aortic dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Takagi, Ryo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Seven patients with thrombosed type aortic dissection who underwent both early- and late-phase contrast enhanced (CE)-CT scans were analyzed. The image acquisition of early-phase CE-CT began 30 seconds after the intravenous administration of contrast material at an injection rate of 1.5 ml per second. Late-phase CE-CT began 6 minutes after contrast material injection. The thrombosed false lumens were not enhanced on early-phase CE-CTs in any of the cases. In five of seven cases, on the other hand, false lumens of the descending aorta were enhanced on late-phase images. Late enhancement in the false lumen was roughly divided into two patterns; a crescentic enhancement of the sub-adventitial region (3 cases), and a vague enhancement around the ulcer-like projection (2 cases). The mechanism of late enhancement in the false lumen was not fully elucidated. Although the clinical significance of late enhancement has not yet been established, it will be useful to demonstrate an unstable status of the thrombosed false lumens before organization. (author).

  15. Contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging of postmolar gestational trophoblastic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y. [Depts. of Radiology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Torashima, M. [Depts. of Radiology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Takahashi, M. [Depts. of Radiology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Mizutani, H. [Depts. of Radiology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Miyazaki, K. [Depts. of Radiology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Matsuura, K. [Depts. of Radiology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Okamura, H. [Depts. of Radiology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Conventional spin-echo (SE) and contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging were performed on a 1.5 T superconductive unit for evaluation of myometrial lesions in postmolar gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in 10 women. MR imaging was done at the time of the initial examination (n=10), during (n=6), and after repeated courses of chemotherapy (n=10). The T2-weighted SE image revealed an enlarged uterus (n=7), disappearance of zonal anatomy (n=6), and heterogeneous signal intensities (n=8) with prominent flow voids (n=7). However, these abnormalities remained after repeated courses of chemotherapy, when the S-{beta}-HCG level returned to the normal range. Myometrial lesions characteristically had marked enhancement with areas of unenhancement on dynamic MR images in patients with highly elevated S-{beta}-HCG. Areas of contrast enhancement correlated with changes in S-{beta}-HCG level. The enhancement was reduced with decrease in S-{beta}-HCG level after repeated courses of chemotherapy. Six of 8 masses seen on T2-weighted images proved to be active trophoblastic lesions and 2 masses proved to be hematoma or necrosis. In 2 patients, abnormal myometrial lesions were detected only on contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging. These preliminary data indicate that contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging more clearly demonstrates myometrial involvement of postmolar GTD than conventional SE imaging. (orig.).

  16. Early and Delayed Myocardial Enhancement in Myocardial Infarction Using Two-Phase Contrast-Enhanced Multidetector-Row CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Whan; Han, Seong-Wook; Seo, Joon-Beom

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the myocardial enhancement patterns in patients with myocardial infarction using two-phase contrast-enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with clinically proven myocardial infarction (17 acute myocardial infarction [AMI] and 6 chronic myocardial infarction [CMI]) were examined with two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT. The presence, location, and patterns of myocardial enhancement on two-phase MDCT images were compared with infarcted myocardial territories determined by using electrocardiogram, echocardiography, thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography, catheter and MDCT coronary angiography. Results After clinical assessment, the presence of myocardial infarctions were found in 27 territories (19 AMI and 8 CMI) of 23 patients. Early perfusion defects were observed in 30 territories of all 23 patients. Three territories not corresponding to a myocardial infarction were detected in three patients with AMI and were associated with artifacts. Fourteen of perfusion defects were in the left anterior descending artery territory, four in the left circumflex artery territory, and nine in the right coronary artery territory. Delayed enhancement was observed in 25 territories (17 AMI and 8 CMI) of 21 patients. Delayed enhancement patterns were variable. Transmural early perfusion defects (n =12) were closely associated with transmural late enhancement (n = 5) and subendocardial residual defect with subepicardial late enhancement (n = 5). Conclusion Myocardial infarction showed early perfusion defects and variable delayed enhancement patterns on two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT. Delayed enhancement technique of MDCT could provide additional information of the location and extent of infarcted myocardium, and could be useful to plan appropriate therapeutic strategies in patients with AMI. PMID:17420626

  17. Early and Delayed Myocardial Enhancement in Myocardial Infarction Using Two-Phase Contrast-Enhanced Multidetector-Row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Sung-Min; Kim, Young-Whan; Han, Seong-Wook [University of Keimyung College of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon-Beom [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the myocardial enhancement patterns in patients with myocardial infarction using two-phase contrast enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Twenty-three patients with clinically proven myocardial infarction (17 acute myocardial infarction [AMI] and 6 chronic myocardial infarction [CMI]) were examined with two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT. The presence, location, and patterns of myocardial enhancement on two phase MDCT images were compared with infarcted myocardial territories determined by using electrocardiogram, echocardiography, thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography, catheter and MDCT coronary angiography. After clinical assessment, the presence of myocardial infarctions were found in 27 territories (19 AMI and 8 CMI) of 23 patients. Early perfusion defects were observed in 30 territories of all 23 patients. Three territories not corresponding to a myocardial infarction were detected in three patients with AMI and were associated with artifacts. Fourteen of perfusion defects were in the left anterior descending artery territory, four in the left circumflex artery territory, and nine in the right coronary artery territory. Delayed enhancement was observed in 25 territories (17 AMI and 8 CMI) of 21 patients. Delayed enhancement patterns were variable. Transmural early perfusion defects (n =12) were closely associated with transmural late enhancement (n = 5) and subendocardial residual defect with subepicardial late enhancement (n = 5). Myocardial infarction showed early perfusion defects and variable delayed enhancement patterns on two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT. Delayed enhancement technique of MDCT could provide additional information of the location and extent of infarcted myocardium, and could be useful to plan appropriate therapeutic strategies in patients with AMI.

  18. Contrast enhanced ultrasound for the diagnosis of liver hemangiomas - results of a Romanian multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirli, Roxana; Sporea, Ioan; Săndulescu, Daniela Larisa;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proven to be a reliable method for the characterization of focal liver lesions (FLL). The aim of this paper was to evaluate the performance of CEUS for the diagnosis of liver hemangiomas in a large cohort of patients. MATERIAL...... for hemangioma if a typical pattern was present following contrast (centripetal fill in during the arterial phase, hyperenhanced lesion during venous and late phases). In all cases a reference method was available (contrast CT or MRI or biopsy). The trial was registered in clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier NCT......01329458). RESULTS: During February 2011 - May 2015, 1153 CEUS examinations were performed for the evaluation of de novo FLL. Out of the 1153 de novo FLL, 238 cases were diagnosed as hemangiomas by CEUS (typical enhancing pattern). Contrast CT/MRI and biopsy diagnosed additional 24 hemangiomas. From...

  19. Contrast medium-enhanced MRI findings and changes over time in stage I tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oztoprak, I. [Department of Radiology Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)], E-mail: oztoprak@cumhuriyet.edu.tr; Guemues, C.; Oztoprak, B. [Department of Radiology Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Engin, A. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, Sivas (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    Aim: To demonstrate the detailed imaging characteristics of early tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and changes over time on standard gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Materials and methods: Contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted, spin-echo MRI images of 26 patients with early TBM were evaluated retrospectively. Meningeal enhancement characteristics were categorized according to distribution and pattern as diffuse, focal, linear, nodular, and mixed. Results: We found that 35% of patients had diffuse meningeal enhancement and 65% of cases had focal meningeal enhancement. There was a predilection for focal meningeal enhancement in basal pial areas, the interpeduncular fossa being the most common. In six patients with diffuse meningeal enhancement admitted to hospital relatively early after the onset of symptoms, the type of meningeal enhancement later changed to the focal form. Conclusion: Reactive diffuse meningeal enhancement occurs in the early period of TBM on contrast medium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images, but later becomes limited to basal areas.

  20. Contrast-enhanced MRI of the small bowel in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Jacob; Oto, Aytekin

    2011-04-01

    Recently, magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a valuable tool in evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease. MRI provides several advantages to other imaging modalities, including the lack of ionizing radiation, multiplanar capability, and functional information. Intravenous contrast administration is a routine portion of MR enterography protocol, and aids in detection of disease extent, extramural complications such as fistula and abscess, and assessment of activity. Additionally, promising techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI may provide quantitative measures to assess bowel perfusion, which may enhance evaluation of disease activity. This article will provide an overview of the technical aspects of contrast-enhanced MR enterography, describe common pathologic findings involving the small bowel in Crohn's disease, summarize its role in determination of activity with an emphasis on endoscopic and histologic correlation, and compare its efficacy with other imaging modalities.

  1. LHRH-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for breast cancer targeting and contrast enhancement in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.; Fan, J. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Galiana, G. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Branca, R.T. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0354 (United States); Clasen, P.L.; Ma, S. [Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Zhou, J. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Leuschner, C. [Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States); Kumar, C.S.S.R.; Hormes, J. [Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Otiti, T. [Department of Physics, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Beye, A.C. [Department of Physics, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar (Senegal); Harmer, M.P.; Kiely, C.J. [Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Warren, W. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0354 (United States); Haataja, M.P. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Soboyejo, W.O., E-mail: soboyejo@princeton.edu [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-05-05

    This paper shows that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) conjugated to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) (LHRH-SPIONs), can be used to target breast cancer cells. They also act as contrast enhancement agents during the magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer xenografts. A combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectrophotometric analysis was used in our experiments, to investigate the specific accumulation of the functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in cancer cells. The contrast enhancement of conventional T2 images obtained from the tumor tissue and of breast cancer xenograft bearing mice is shown to be much greater than that in saline controls, when the tissues were injected with LHRH-SPIONs. Magnetic anisotropy multi-CRAZED images of tissues extracted from mice injected with SPIONs were also found to have enhanced MRI contrast in breast cancer xenografts and metastases in the lungs.

  2. Protoneus-sequence: extended fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging without and with contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasel, Christian [Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: christian.nasel@perfusion.at

    2005-08-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging (=flair imaging) is widely used as primary screening sequence in various investigation protocols, due to its high lesion contrast and sensitivity in detection of parenchymatous and leptomeningeal disease. An additional increase of sensitivity for detection of lesions may be achieved by contrast-enhanced flair imaging. Based on flair imaging a dual-echo inversion recovery imaging sequence (=proton echo usage [=protoneus] - sequence) was developed, which could significantly extend the possibilities of conventional flair imaging.

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultra-high-field liver MRI: A feasibility trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umutlu, Lale, E-mail: Lale.Umutlu@uk-essen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Bitz, Andreas K.; Maderwald, Stefan; Orzada, Stephan; Kinner, Sonja; Kraff, Oliver; Brote, Irina; Ladd, Susanne C.; Schroeder, Tobias; Forsting, Michael; Antoch, Gerald; Ladd, Mark E. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Institute of Medical Physics, University Nuernberg-Erlangen (Germany); Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced 7 T MRI of the liver using an eight-channel radiofrequency (RF) transmit/receive body-coil. 16 healthy subjects were examined on a 7 T MR system utilizing a custom-built eight-channel RF body-coil suitable for RF-shimming. The following data were acquired: (1) steady state free precession imaging, (2) T2w turbo spin echo imaging, (3) T1w in and opposed-phase imaging, (4) T1w 3D FLASH images pre-contrast and in arterial, portal-venous and venous phase and (5) a fat-saturated pre- and post-contrast 2D FLASH sequence. Visual evaluation of (1) the delineation of liver vasculature, (2) the overall image quality, and (3) artifact presence and consequent image impairment was performed. SNR of the liver parenchyma was measured for the contrast-enhanced 2D and 3D FLASH sequences. For statistical analysis, a Wilcoxon-Rank Test was used. Best delineation of non-enhanced liver vasculature and overall image quality was found for 2D FLASH MRI, with only slight improvement in vessel conspicuity after the application of contrast media. T2-weighted TSE imaging remained strongly impaired, falling short of diagnostic relevance and precluding a clinical application. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and diagnostic potential of dedicated contrast-enhanced 7 T liver MRI as well as the potential for non-contrast-enhanced angiographic application.

  4. 甲状腺乳头状癌的灰阶超声造影特征与颈部淋巴结转移的关系%Correlation between gray scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 周伟; 周建桥; 詹维伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between gray scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and cervical lymph node metastasis. Methods Gray scale contrastenhanced ultrasonography was performed in 49 patients with 50 PTC lesions. The patients were categorized into 2 groups,with no lymph node metastases and with lymph node metastases. Gray scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was used for examining the perfusion of cancer nodules and the time-intensity curve (TIC) of contrast enhancement was analyzed,and then to study the correlation between the characteristics of gray scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and cervical lymph node metastasis. Results The correlation between characteristics of gray scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and cervical lymph node metastasis was mainly in the perfusion dynamics and the time begin to enhance, time to peak intensity and time delay for begin of enhancing in TIC. Conclusions Some characteristics of gray scale contrastenhanced ultrasonography could predict in certain degree the occurrence of cervical lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer and provide some references for the selection of appropriate surgical mode.%目的:探讨甲状腺乳头状癌(PTC)的灰阶超声造影特征及其与颈部淋巴结转移的关系.方法:用灰阶超声造影评估49例PTC患者的50个结节,并根据颈部淋巴结转移情况将其分为颈部淋巴结未转移组和颈部淋巴结转移组,主要观察癌结节的灌注情况,并分析造影时间-强度曲线(time-intensity curve,TIC),探讨各灰阶超声造影特征与颈部淋巴结转移间的关系.结果:灰阶超声造影显示,与颈部淋巴结转移有关的超声特征主要是灌注动力学和造影TIC的始增时间(T0)、峰值时间(TP)及始增时间差.结论:特定的灰阶超声造影特征可在一定程度上提示PTC患者发生颈部淋巴结转移的可能性,对外科手术的术式选择有一定指导作用.

  5. Preoperative detection and localization of accessory pudendal artery with contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Shin Young; Sung, Deuk Jae; Lee, Seun Ah; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Yun Hwan; Cheon, Jun

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography for preoperative detection and localization of accessory pudendal arteries (APAs) in patients with prostate cancer. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained. Between July 2007 and December 2010, 127 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography following prostate MR imaging at 3.0 T before robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). APAs were defined as any arteries located in the periprostatic region and anastomosed with the common penile artery or its branches; they were then subclassified into lateral and apical APAs. For detecting and localizing APAs, MR angiograms were evaluated prospectively by one reader and retrospectively by two independent blinded readers. Diagnostic performance was determined on a per-patient basis by using surgical findings as the reference standard. In addition, the origin of APAs identified at both surgery and contrast-enhanced MR angiography was determined by consensus of two retrospective readers. Interreader agreements were assessed by using k statistics. At surgery, 19 APAs (seven right apical, three left apical, four right lateral, and five left lateral) were detected in 16 patients, and 16 of these APAs were localized in 13 patients at preoperative contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Prospectively, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the localization of APAs were 81.3%, 93.7%, and 92.1%, while retrospectively they were 87.5%, 91.9%, and 91.3% for reader 2 and 75.0%, 90.1%, and 88.2% for reader 3, respectively. Overall interreader agreement was substantial (k = 0.795). Nine and seven APAs originated from the obturator artery and the inferior vesical artery, respectively. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography can be used for the preoperative detection of APAs in patients with prostate cancer. © RSNA, 2012.

  6. Segmentation methods for breast vasculature in dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kristen C.; Lee, Hyo Min; Singh, Tanushriya; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (DE CE-DBT) uses an iodinated contrast agent to image the three-dimensional breast vasculature. The University of Pennsylvania has an ongoing DE CE-DBT clinical study in patients with known breast cancers. The breast is compressed continuously and imaged at four time points (1 pre-contrast; 3 post-contrast). DE images are obtained by a weighted logarithmic subtraction of the high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) image pairs. Temporal subtraction of the post-contrast DE images from the pre-contrast DE image is performed to analyze iodine uptake. Our previous work investigated image registration methods to correct for patient motion, enhancing the evaluation of vascular kinetics. In this project we investigate a segmentation algorithm which identifies blood vessels in the breast from our temporal DE subtraction images. Anisotropic diffusion filtering, Gabor filtering, and morphological filtering are used for the enhancement of vessel features. Vessel labeling methods are then used to distinguish vessel and background features successfully. Statistical and clinical evaluations of segmentation accuracy in DE-CBT images are ongoing.

  7. Use of Second generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of focal liver lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is often the first imaging modality employed in patients with suspected focal liver lesions.The role of US in the characterisation of focal liver lesions has been transformed with the introduction of specific contrast media and the development of specialized imaging techniques. Ultrasound now can fully characterise the enhancement pattern of hepatic lesions, similar to that achieved with contrast enhanced multiphasic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). US contrast agents are safe,well-tolerated and have very few contraindications.Furthermore, real-time evaluation of the vascularity of focal liver lesions has become possible with the use of the newer microbubble contrast agents. This article reviews the enhancement pattern of the most frequent liver lesions seen, using the second generation US contrast media. The common pitfalls for each type of lesion are discussed. The recent developments in US contrast media and specific imaging techniques have been a major advance and this technique, in view of the intrinsic advantages of US, will undoubtedly gain popularity in the years to come.

  8. Practical method and device for enhancing pulse contrast ratio for lasers and electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shukui; Wilson, Guy

    2014-09-23

    An apparatus and method for enhancing pulse contrast ratios for drive lasers and electron accelerators. The invention comprises a mechanical dual-shutter system wherein the shutters are placed sequentially in series in a laser beam path. Each shutter of the dual shutter system has an individually operated trigger for opening and closing the shutter. As the triggers are operated individually, the delay between opening and closing first shutter and opening and closing the second shutter is variable providing for variable differential time windows and enhancement of pulse contrast ratio.

  9. Hepatic blood perfusion estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winterdahl, Michael; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Inger Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and the slope method can provide absolute measures of hepatic blood perfusion from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV) at experimentally varied blood flow rates.......The aim of this study was to determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and the slope method can provide absolute measures of hepatic blood perfusion from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV) at experimentally varied blood flow rates....

  10. Ultrasonography of the hand, wrist, and elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Marko; Fullerton, Brad

    2010-08-01

    High-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography of the hand, wrist and elbow has significant potential to improve the quality of diagnosis and care provided by neuromuscular and musculoskeletal specialists. In patients referred for weakness, pain and numbness of the hand, wrist or elbow, diagnostic ultrasonography can be an adjunct to electrodiagnosis and help in identifying ruptured tendons and treating conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger. Use of a small high-frequency (>10-15 MHz) transducer, an instrument with a blunt pointed tip to enhance sonopalpation and a model of the hand, wrist and elbow is advised to enhance visualization of small anatomical structures and complex bony contours. A range of conditions, including tendon and ligament ruptures, trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, intersection syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and osteoarthritis, is described along with detailed ultrasonography-guided injection techniques for carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger.

  11. An efficient method for accurate segmentation of LV in contrast-enhanced cardiac MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana K., Venkata; Mitra, Abhishek; Srikrishnan, V.; Jo, Hyun Hee; Bidesi, Anup

    2016-03-01

    Segmentation of left ventricle (LV) in contrast-enhanced cardiac MR images is a challenging task because of high variability in the image intensity. This is due to a) wash-in and wash-out of the contrast agent over time and b) poor contrast around the epicardium (outer wall) region. Current approaches for segmentation of the endocardium (inner wall) usually involve application of a threshold within the region of interest, followed by refinement techniques like active contours. A limitation of this method is under-segmentation of the inner wall because of gradual loss of contrast at the wall boundary. On the other hand, the challenge in outer wall segmentation is the lack of reliable boundaries because of poor contrast. There are four main contributions in this paper to address the aforementioned issues. First, a seed image is selected using variance based approach on 4D time-frame images over which initial endocardium and epicardium is segmented. Secondly, we propose a patch based feature which overcomes the problem of gradual contrast loss for LV endocardium segmentation. Third, we propose a novel Iterative-Edge-Refinement (IER) technique for epicardium segmentation. Fourth, we propose a greedy search algorithm for propagating the initial contour segmented on seed-image across other time frame images. We have experimented our technique on five contrast-enhanced cardiac MR Datasets (4D) having a total of 1097 images. The segmentation results for all 1097 images have been visually inspected by a clinical expert and have shown good accuracy.

  12. Non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MR angiography using velocity-selective excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongchan; Seo, Hyunseok; Cho, Jaejin; Kwon, Kinam; Han, Yeji; Park, HyunWook

    2017-06-05

    To develop a new non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MR angiography that provides a high contrast angiogram without using electrocardiography triggering and saturation radiofrequency pulses. A velocity-selective excitation technique is used in conjunction with the golden-angle radial sampling scheme. The signal amplitude varies according to the velocity of the flow by the velocity-selective excitation technique. Because the arterial blood velocity varies depending on the cardiac phase, the acquired data can be classified into systolic and diastolic phase based on the signal amplitude of the artery. Two images are then reconstructed from the systolic and diastolic phase data, respectively, and an image reflecting the differences between the two images is obtained to eliminate background and vein signals. The performance of the proposed method was compared with the quiescent-interval single shot (QISS) in eight healthy subjects and an elderly subject. The proposed method generated fewer residual venous and background signals than the QISS. Furthermore, the maximum intensity projection images, the relative contrast, and the apparent contrast-to-noise ratio results showed that the proposed method produced a better contrast than the QISS. The proposed non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MR angiography technique can provide a high contrast angiogram without the use of electrocardiography triggering and saturation radiofrequency pulses. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of acute haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piironen, A. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kivisaari, R. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Pitkaeranta, P. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Poutanen, V.P. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laippala, P. [School of Public Health/Biometry Unit, Tampere University, Tampere (Finland); Laurila, P. [Department of Pathology, Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Kivisaari, L. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-02-01

    Eleven piglets with haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis and nine piglets with oedematous pancreatitis were imaged using a multi-breath-hold TurboFLASH (TR 6.5 ms, TE 3 ms, TI 300 ms, flip angle 8 , three slices) pre-excited T1-weighted sequence with an IV bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA, 0.3 mmol/kg) as a contrast agent to show dynamic contrast enhancement of the pancreas by MRI. All piglets were imaged according to the same protocol before inducing the disease. Following the IV Gd-DTPA bolus, time-enhancement curve of the pancreas during haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis was significantly lower than during oedematous pancreatitis. The enhancement curves for the healthy piglets and piglets with oedematous pancreatitis did not differ significantly. Each piglet served as its own control. Because the results of this initial study are similar to those obtained with contrast-enhanced CT, we conclude that our results may encourage further clinical trials, and contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI may be an alternative to the established method of CT for diagnosing acute haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  14. New endoscopic ultrasonography techniques for pancreticobiliary diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Ken; Kitano, Masayuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Miyata, Takeshi; Minaga, Kosuke; Yamao, Kentaro; Imai, Hajime; Kudo, Masatoshii [Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is widely used to evaluate pancreaticobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for the differential diagnosis of various types of lesions. In order to address the limitations of EUS, new techniques have been developed to improve the characterization of the lesions detected by EUS. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors. In order to improve the histological diagnostic yield, a EUS-FNA needle with a core trap has recently been developed. Contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS is a new imaging modality that uses an ultrasonographic contrast agent to visualize blood flow in fine vessels. This technique is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions and in confirming the presence of vascularity in mural nodules for cystic lesions. EUS elastography analyzes several different variables to measure tissue elasticity, color patterns, and strain ratio, using analytical techniques such as hue-histogram analysis, and artificial neural networks, which are useful for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

  15. New endoscopic ultrasonography techniques for pancreaticobiliary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kamata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS is widely used to evaluate pancreaticobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for the differential diagnosis of various types of lesions. In order to address the limitations of EUS, new techniques have been developed to improve the characterization of the lesions detected by EUS. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA has been used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors. In order to improve the histological diagnostic yield, a EUS-FNA needle with a core trap has recently been developed. Contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS is a new imaging modality that uses an ultrasonographic contrast agent to visualize blood flow in fine vessels. This technique is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions and in confirming the presence of vascularity in mural nodules for cystic lesions. EUS elastography analyzes several different variables to measure tissue elasticity, color patterns, and strain ratio, using analytical techniques such as hue-histogram analysis, and artificial neural networks, which are useful for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

  16. CT attenuation of colorectal polypoid lesions: evaluation of contrast enhancement in CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Radiology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Boulevard, 77555-0709, Galveston, TX (United States); Gelebek, Veli; Oguz, Berna Sayan; Deger, Ahmet; Akhan, Okan; Besim, Aytekin [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Sivri, Buelent [Department of Gastroenterology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate pre- and postcontrast CT attenuation values of benign colorectal polyp and carcinoma lesions detected by virtual colonoscopy, and to investigate whether contrast enhancement of these lesions can be potentially used for differentiation from residual fluid in the colon. Fifteen benign polyps and 21 colorectal carcinoma lesions detected by virtual colonoscopy in 18 patients were included in our study. All of the polyps and carcinoma lesions were confirmed by colonoscopic biopsy. Measurement of CT attenuation values was performed in precontrast (supine) and postcontrast (prone) scans for each polyp and carcinoma. The CT attenuation values of residual fluid in the colon was also measured from the same location before and after intravenous contrast administration. On unenhanced CT scan mean attenuation values of benign polyps and colorectal carcinomas were 32.4 and 42.6 HU, respectively. Following contrast enhancement, mean attenuation value increased to 78.9 HU for polyps and 90.7 HU for carcinomas. Increase in the CT attenuation values of these lesions was significant (p <0.0001). Mean CT attenuation value of residual fluid before and after administration of IV contrast were 14.6 and 13.8 HU, respectively. The difference between CT attenuation value of residual fluid in the colon before and after contrast material was not significant (p =0.29). Colorectal benign polyps and carcinomas demonstrate significant enhancement following contrast administration and use of intravenous contrast material during virtual colonoscopy may help in some cases in differentiating these solid lesions from residual colonic fluid that does not enhance. (orig.)

  17. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound imaging: basic principles, present situation and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María-Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2014-11-14

    Over the last decade, the development of stabilised microbubble contrast agents and improvements in available ultrasonic equipment, such as harmonic imaging, have enabled us to display microbubble enhancements on a greyscale with optimal contrast and spatial resolution. Recent technological advances made contrast harmonic technology available for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the first time in 2008. Thus, the evaluation of microcirculation is now feasible with EUS, prompting the evolution of contrast-enhanced EUS from vascular imaging to images of the perfused tissue. Although the relevant experience is still preliminary, several reports have highlighted contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) as a promising noninvasive method to visualise and characterise lesions and to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions. Even if histology remains the gold standard, the combination of CH-EUS and EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can not only render EUS more accurate but may also assist physicians in making decisions when EUS-FNA is inconclusive, increasing the yield of EUS-FNA by guiding the puncture with simultaneous imaging of the vascularity. The development of CH-EUS has also opened up exciting possibilities in other research areas, including monitoring responses to anticancer chemotherapy or to ethanol-induced pancreatic tissue ablation, anticancer therapies based on ultrasound-triggered drug and gene delivery, and therapeutic adjuvants by contrast ultrasound-induced apoptosis. Contrast harmonic imaging is gaining popularity because of its efficacy, simplicity and non-invasive nature, and many expectations are currently resting on this technique. If its potential is confirmed in the near future, contrast harmonic imaging will become a standard practice in EUS.

  18. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver: Perinodular enhancement on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Anami, Shinpei; Takeuchi, Taizo; Nakai, Motoki; Sahara, Shinya; Tanihata, Hirohiko; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sato, Morio

    2015-06-07

    We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) of the liver. She underwent partial hepatectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma; however, histopathological analysis revealed RLH. The liver nodule showed the imaging feature of perinodular enhancement in the arterial dominant phase on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which could be a useful clue for identifying RLH in the liver. Histologically, the perinodular enhancement was compatible with prominent sinusoidal dilatation surrounding the liver nodule.

  19. Clinical significance of nerve root enhancement in contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the postoperative lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Lee, Eun Ja; Kang, Si Won; Choi, Eun Seok [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang June; Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    To determine the significance of nerve root contrast enhancement in patients with residual or recurrent symptomatic postoperative lumbar spine. Eighty-eight patients with 116 postoperative lumbar disc lesions causing radiating back pain underwent enhanced MR imaging. Intradural nerve root enhancement was quantified by pixel measurement, and affected nerve roots were compared before and after contrast administration. Extradural nerve root enhancement was assessed visually, and nerve root enhancement and clinical symptoms were correlated. Associated lesions such as recurrent disc herniation, scar tissue, nerve root thickening and nerve root displacement were also evaluated. Of 26 cases (22.4%) involving intradural nerve root enhancement, 22 (84.6%) showed significant clinical symptoms (p=0.002). and of 59 (50.9%) demonstrating extradural enhancement, clinical symptoms showed significant correlation in 47 (79.7%) (p=0.001). Nerve root enhancement, including eleven cases where this was both intra-and extradural, showed highly significant association with clinical symptoms in 74 of the 116 cases (63.8%) (p=0.000). Among 33 cases (28.4%) of recurrent disc herniation, nerve root enhancement was observed in 28 (84.8%) and in 24 of these 28 (85.7%), significant correlation with clinical symptoms was observed (p=0.000). Where epidural fibrosis was present, correlation between nerve root enhancement and clinical symptoms was not significant (p>0.05). Nerve root thickening and displaced nerve root were, however, significantly associated with symptoms (87.2% and 88.6%, respectively). In patients with postoperative lumbar spine, the association between nerve root enhancement revealed by MRI and clinical symptoms was highly significant.

  20. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of pulmonary lesions: Description of a technique aiming clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, Campus Universitario Monte Alegre, 14048 900 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Optazaite, Elzbieta, E-mail: optazaite@andrulis.eu [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstraße 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Sommer, Gregor, E-mail: gregor.sommer@usb.ch [Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH-4031 Basel (Switzerland); Safi, Seyer, E-mail: seyer.safi@gmail.com [Surgery Department, Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstraße 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, Claus Peter, E-mail: heussel@uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstraße 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich, E-mail: hans-ulrich.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2015-01-15

    To propose a technique for evaluation of pulmonary lesions using contrast-enhanced MRI; to assess morphological patterns of enhancement and correlate quantitative analysis with histopathology. Material and methods: Thirty-six patients were prospectively studied. Volumetric-interpolated T1W images were obtained during consecutive breath holds after bolus triggered contrast injection. Volume coverage of first three acquisitions was limited (higher temporal resolution) and last acquisition obtained at 4th min. Two radiologists individually evaluated the patterns of enhancement. Region-of-interest-based signal intensity (SI)-time curves were created to assess quantitative parameters. Results: Readers agreed moderately to substantially concerning lesions’ enhancement pattern. SI-time curves could be created for all lesions. In comparison to benign, malignant lesions showed higher values of maximum enhancement, early peak, slope and 4th min enhancement. Early peak >15% showed 100% sensitivity to detect malignancy, maximum enhancement >40% showed 100% specificity. Conclusions: The proposed technique is robust, simple to perform and can be applied in clinical scenario. It allows visual evaluation of enhancement pattern/progression together with creation of SI-time curves and assessment of derived quantitative parameters. Perfusion analysis was highly sensitive to detect malignancy, in accordance to what is recommended by most recent guidelines on imaging evaluation of pulmonary lesions.

  1. Ultrasonography in ocular trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastevska-Djosevska, Emilija

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, simple and effective diagnostic method which enables visualization and evaluation of intraocular injury degree in cloudy eye media. The basic aim of this investigation was to find out the frequency of various types of ocular injuries using ultrasonography and to make an analysis of their frequency in relation to gender and age. This retrospective study included 182 patients hospitalized at the Clinic of Ophthalmology in Skopje due to mechanical eye trauma. The patients underwent ultrasonography on the Alcon Ultrascan Imagining System apparatus and Sonomed EZ Scan AB 5500+. B scan technique was used primarily, while the A scan had a positive and correlative role. Ocular trauma was more present in males (85.2%) compared to females (14.8%). 49.5% of the patients had open, and 50.5% had closed globe injuries. The most represented age group in ocular injuries was the age ranged from 51 to 60 years. There was no significant difference between the type of mechanical injury and the age (Chi-Squares=5.52 p=0.47895025). Ultrasonography showed that the most frequent pathologic result, both in open and closed globe injuries, was vitreous hemorrhage. Ultrasonography has an irreplaceable role in the clinical evaluation and management of ocular trauma. It showed that the most frequent finding in ocular trauma was vitreous haemorrhage, and the male gender was more frequently exposed to ocular trauma.

  2. Electronically induced contrast enhancement in whisker S1 cortical response fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kraus, Lee M; Francis, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    The ability of an organism to specifically attend to relevant sensory information during learning and subsequent performance of a task is highly dependent on the release of the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACh). Electrophysiological studies have shown that pairing endogenous ACh with specific visual or auditory stimuli induces long lasting enhancements of subsequent cortical responses to the previously paired stimulus. In this study we present data suggesting that similar effects can be elicited in the rat whisker sensory system. Specifically, we show that pairing whisker deflection with electrical stimulation of the magnocellular basal nucleus (BN: a natural source of cortical ACh) causes an increase in the center-surround contrast of the treated whisker's cortical response field (CRF). Meanwhile, deflections of whiskers distant from the treated whisker show overall increased response magnitudes, but non-significant changes in contrast between principle vs. surround barrel responses. Control trials, in which BN stimulation was not paired with whisker deflection, showed similar lack of contrast enhancement. These results indicate that BN stimulation, paired with incoming whisker information, selectively increases the paired whisker's CRF center-surround contrast, while unpaired BN stimulation causes a more general increases in S1 responsiveness, without contrast modulation. Enhanced control over whisker sensory pathway attentional mechanisms has the potential to facilitate a more effective transfer of desired information to the animal's neural processing circuitry, thereby allowing experimental evaluation of more complex behavior and cognition than was previously possible.

  3. Clinical Value of Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Differentiating Benign and Malignant Focal Liver Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jinfeng; WU Ying; DONG Fajin; XIONG Yi; PENG Qihui; XIE Mingxing

    2007-01-01

    To explore the clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating benign and malignant focal liver lesions (FLLs) with SonoVue, CEUS was used to examine 113 pa- tients with focal liver lesions (FLLs) in our hospital during July 2005 to December 2006. All the pa- tients underwent contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) or contrast-enhanced MRI(CEMRI). Except for pa- tients with focal fatty sparings (n=18) and with hemangiomas (n=8), all the patients were confirmed by operation or ultrasonic-guided liver puncture biopsy. A sulfur hexafluoride gas-based contrast agent was used with a MI of 0.15 to 0.17. Forty-eight cases of malignant FLLs, including 30 hepato- cellular carcinomas (HCCs), 2 cholangiocarcinomas and 16 metastatic tumors, were detected. Sev- enty-eight cases of benign FLLs, including 33 hemangiomas, 9 focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs), 19 focal fatty sparings, 5 abscesses, 7 regenerative nodules and 2 inflammatory pseudo-tumor, were in- volved. The contrast pattern of benign and malignant FLLs was quite different. CEUS has higher specificity and sensitivity than conventional ultrasound in differentiating benign and malignant FLLs.

  4. Meta-analysis: Serum creatinine changes following contrast enhanced CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooiman, Judith, E-mail: j.kooiman@lumc.nl [Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Pasha, Sharif M., E-mail: s.m.pasha@lumc.nl [Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Zondag, Wendy, E-mail: w.zondag@lumc.nl [Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Sijpkens, Yvo W.J., E-mail: ysijpens@bronovo.nl [Department of Nephrology, Bronovo Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands); Molen, Aart J. van der, E-mail: molen@lumc.nl [Department of Radiology, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Huisman, Menno V., E-mail: m.v.huisman@lumc.nl [Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Dekkers, Olaf M., E-mail: o.m.dekkers@lumc.nl [Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Department of Endocrinology, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as a decrease in renal function following administration of contrast media. The aim of this meta-analysis was to asses the overall risk of CIN, chronic loss of kidney function and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) after intravenous contrast enhanced CT-scan. Secondly, we aimed to identify subgroups at increased risk for CIN. Materials and methods: A literature search in Pubmed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases was performed. Data extraction was carried out independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed using an exact likelihood approach. Results: Forty studies evaluating the incidence of CIN after CT were included. The pooled incidence of CIN was 6.4% (95% CI 5.0–8.1). The risk of RRT after CIN was low, 0.06% (95% CI 0.01–0.4). The decline in renal function persisted in 1.1% of patients (95% CI 0.6–2.1%). Patients with chronic kidney disease (odds ratio 2.26, p < 0.001) or diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 3.10, p < 0.001) were at increased risk for the development of CIN. Conclusion: CIN occurred in 6% of patients after contrast enhanced CT. In 1% of all patients undergoing contrast enhanced CT the decline in renal function persisted.

  5. High-resolution contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography in mice retinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Debasish; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Liba, Orly; Dalal, Roopa; Paulus, Yannis M.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Moshfeghi, Darius M.; de la Zerda, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive interferometric imaging modality providing anatomical information at depths of millimeters and a resolution of micrometers. Conventional OCT images limit our knowledge to anatomical structures alone, without any contrast enhancement. Therefore, here we have, for the first time, optimized an OCT-based contrast-enhanced imaging system for imaging single cells and blood vessels in vivo inside the living mouse retina at subnanomolar sensitivity. We used bioconjugated gold nanorods (GNRs) as exogenous OCT contrast agents. Specifically, we used anti-mouse CD45 coated GNRs to label mouse leukocytes and mPEG-coated GNRs to determine sensitivity of GNR detection in vivo inside mice retinae. We corroborated OCT observations with hyperspectral dark-field microscopy of formalin-fixed histological sections. Our results show that mouse leukocytes that otherwise do not produce OCT contrast can be labeled with GNRs leading to significant OCT intensity equivalent to a 0.5 nM GNR solution. Furthermore, GNRs injected intravenously can be detected inside retinal blood vessels at a sensitivity of ˜0.5 nM, and GNR-labeled cells injected intravenously can be detected inside retinal capillaries by enhanced OCT contrast. We envision the unprecedented resolution and sensitivity of functionalized GNRs coupled with OCT to be adopted for longitudinal studies of retinal disorders.

  6. Tunable Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced Photodetector with Double High-Index-Contrast Grating Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Yvind, Kresten; Chung, Il-Sug

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a broadband-tunable resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) structure with double high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirrors and numerically investigate its characteristics. The detector is designed to operate at 1550-nm wavelength. The detector structure consists...

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis is to investigate the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in monitoring response of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The role of MRI with respect to achieving personalized breast cancer treatment by improving response monitoring is examined. Our finding

  8. Contrast enhanced digital mammography: Is it useful in detecting lesions in edematous breast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abd ElShafy ElSaid

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography is a useful technique in identification of lesions in mammographically dense edematous breasts and proved to be a useful tool in the follow-up of cases presenting by edema after conservative breast surgery and chemotherapy.

  9. Application of image processing techniques for contrast enhancement in dense breast digital mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fatima d. L. d. S.; Schiabel, Homero; Benatti, Rodrigo H.

    1999-05-01

    Dense breasts, that usually are characteristic of women less than 40 years old, difficult many times early detection of breast cancer. In this work we present the application of some image processing techniques intended to enhance the contrast in dense breast images, regarding the detection of clustered microcalcifications. The procedure was, firstly, determining in the literature the main techniques used for mammographic images contrast enhancement. The results indicate that, in general: (1) as expected, the overall performance of the CAD scheme for clusters detection decreased when applied exclusively to dense breast images, compared to the application to a set of images without this characteristic; (2) most of the techniques for contrast enhancement used successfully in generic mammography images databases are not able to enhance structures of athirst in databases formed only by dense breasts images, due to the very poor contrast between microcalcifications, for example, and other tissues. These features should stress, therefore, the need of developing a methodology specifically for this type of images in order to provide better conditions to the detection of breast suspicious structures in these group of women.

  10. Diagnostic performance of Contrast-enhanced CT in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids-induced Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstructive Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xuefeng; Ye, Jin; Rong, Xinxin; Lu, Zhiwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Yong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Keshu; Song, Yuhu; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) can be caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids(PAs)-containing herbals. Since PAs exposure is obscure and clinical presentation of HSOS is unspecific, it is challenge to establish the diagnosis of PAs-induced HSOS. Gynura segetum is one of the most wide-use herbals containing PAs. The aim of our study is to describe the features of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in gynura segetum-induced HSOS, and then determine diagnostic performance of radiological signs. We retrospectively analyzed medical records and CT images of HSOS patients (71 cases) and the controls (222 cases) enrolled from January 1, 2008, to Oct 31, 2015. The common findings of contrast CT in PAs-induced HSOS included: ascites (100%), hepatomegaly (78.87%), gallbladder wall thickening (86.96%), pleural effusion (70.42%), hepatic vein narrowing (87.32%), patchy liver enhancement (92.96%), and heterogeneous hypoattenuation (100%); of these signs, patchy enhancement and heterogeneous hypoattenuation were valuable features. Then, the result of diagnostic performance demonstrated that contrast CT possessed better performance in diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS compared with various parameters of Seattle criteria. In conclusion, the patients with PAs-induced HSOS display distinct radiologic features at CT-scan, which reveals that contrast-enhanced CT provides an effective noninvasive method for diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS. PMID:27897243

  11. Detection of anomalous splenic artery aneurysms with three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Lu, Jian Ping; Wang, Fei; Wang, Li; Jin, Ai Guo; Wang, Jian; Tian, Jian Min

    2009-11-01

    Aneurysms of the splenic artery which arise anomalously from the superior mesenteric artery are extremely rare but clinically important because of their life-threatening hemorrhage. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and conducting treatment strategy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection of anomalous splenic artery aneurysms with 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography. 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography was performed in six patients with anomalous splenic artery aneurysms. The mean diameter of six aneurysms was 3.9 cm. All of them were saccular and located at the origin of the splenic artery that arose anomalously from the root of the superior mesenteric artery. 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography clearly demonstrated the aneurysm's location, size, morphology, visceral arterial variations, and was superior to DSA in three-dimensional display of the aneurysm and its relationship with surrounding vessels and organs. Two patients underwent open vascular surgery and three endovascular procedure. 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography is a noninvasive and accurate technique for diagnosis of anomalous splenic artery aneurysms. Its 3D anatomic information is very helpful for treatment planning. It can be used as one of the first choice examinations for anomalous splenic artery aneurysms.

  12. Evaluation of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography in detection of local recurrent colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau-Tong You; Chung-Rong Chang Chien; Jeng-Yi Wang; Koon-Kwan Ng; Jinn-Shiun Chen; Reiping Tang; Jy-Ming Chiang; Chien-Yuh Yeh; Pao-Shiu Hsieh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity,specificity of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography in detecting local recurrence of colorectal cancer.METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2004,434 patients after potentially curative resection for invasive colorectal cancer were followed up for a period ranging from 20 to 55 mo. Eighty of the four hundred and thirty-four patients showing strong clinical evidence for recurring colorectal cancer during the last followup were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography and colonoscopy on the same day. Any lesions, biopsies,identified during the colonoscopic examination, immediate complications and the duration of the procedure were recorded. The results of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography were evaluated by comparing to those of colonoscopy, surgical finding, and clinical follow-up.RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 83% and an overall accuracy of 94% in detecting local recurrent colorectal cancer.CONCLUSION: Conventional colonoscopy and contrastenhanced tomographic colonography can complement each other in detecting local recurrence of colorectal cancer.

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Characterizing Lung Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Nagihan; Arslan, Arzu; Donmez, Muhammed; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Imaging plays a critical role not only in the detection, but also in the characterization of lung masses as benign or malignant. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. Patients and Methods Ninety-four masses were included in this prospective study. Five dynamic series of T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FFE) images were obtained, followed by a T1-weighted FFE sequence in the late phase (5th minutes). Contrast enhancement patterns in the early (25th second) and late (5th minute) phase images were evaluated. For the quantitative evaluation, signal intensity (SI)-time curves were obtained and the maximum relative enhancement, wash-in rate, and time-to-peak enhancement of masses in both groups were calculated. Results The early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 78.2% of the benign masses, while heterogeneous in 74.4% of the malignant tumors. On the late phase images, 70.8% of the benign masses showed homogeneous enhancement, while most of the malignant masses showed heterogeneous enhancement (82.4%). During the first pass, the maximum relative enhancement and wash-in rate values of malignant masses were significantly higher than those of the benign masses (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The cutoff value at 15% yielded a sensitivity of 85.4%, specificity of 61.2%, and positive predictive value of 68.7% for the maximum relative enhancement. Conclusion Contrast enhancement patterns and SI-time curve analysis of MRI are helpful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. PMID:27703654

  14. Nonlinear contrast enhancement in photoacoustic molecular imaging with gold nanosphere encapsulated nanoemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Chen-wei; Lombardo, Michael; Larson-Smith, Kjersta; Perez, Camilo; Xia, Jinjun; Matula, Thomas; Pozzo, Danilo; O' Donnell, Matthew [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, and Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Pelivanov, Ivan [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, and Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); International Laser Center, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-20

    A composite contrast agent, a nanoemulsion bead with assembled gold nanospheres at the interface, is proposed to improve the specific contrast of photoacoustic molecular imaging. A phase transition in the bead's core is induced by absorption of a nanosecond laser pulse with a fairly low laser fluence (∼3.5 mJ/cm{sup 2}), creating a transient microbubble through dramatically enhanced thermal expansion. This generates nonlinear photoacoustic signals with more than 10 times larger amplitude compared to that of a linear agent with the same optical absorption. By applying a differential scheme similar to ultrasound pulse inversion, more than 40 dB contrast enhancement is demonstrated with suppression of background signals.

  15. Automatic hyperspectral camera for latent fingerprint detection and contrast enhancement. Final report, September 2, 1998 - March 17, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Shnitser

    1999-06-01

    Physical Optics Corporation demonstrated the feasibility of the contrast enhancement of the latent fingerprint by portable hyperspectral imaging camera. The demonstrated non-contact technology is applicable for observation of the low contrast laser excited fluorescence from latent fingerprints as well as for the contrast enhancement of chemically processed fingerprints. Experiments were conducted with fingerprints on various types of substrates.

  16. The Antiangiogenic Effects of a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Decoy Receptor Can Be Monitored in Vivo Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemming Forsberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antiangiogenic therapies has stimulated interest in noninvasive imaging methods to monitor response. We investigated whether the effects of a vascular endothelial growth factor decoy receptor (VEGF Trap, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY could be monitored in vivo using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS. Twenty nude mice (in two groups were implanted with a human melanoma cell line (DB-1. The active group received VEGF Trap (4 × 25 mg/kg over 2 weeks, whereas the control group received an inactive protein. An ultrasound contrast agent was injected followed by power Doppler imaging (PDI and pulse inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI; regular and intermittent. Specimens were sectioned in the same planes as the images and stained for endothelial cells (CD31, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, VEGF, and hypoxia (Glut1. Measures of tumor vascularity obtained with the different imaging modes were compared to immunohistochemical markers of angiogenesis. Mean tumor volume was smaller in the active group than in the control group (656 ± 225 vs 1,160 ± 605 mm3. Overall, PDI and VEGF correlated (r = .34; p = .037. Vascularity decreased from control to treated mice with intermittent PIHI, as did the expression of CD31 and COX-2 (p # .02, whereas VEGF increased (p = .05. CEUS appears to allow in vivo monitoring of the antiangiogenic effects of VEGF Trap in the DB-1 human melanoma xenograft model.

  17. Efficiency of Contrast-Enhanced Fat-Suppressed Proton Density Images for Shoulder MRI: Comparison with Contrast-enhanced Fat-suppressed T1 Weighted Image and Arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwan Sub; Ha, Doo Hoe; Lee, Sang Min; Yoo, Ko Eun; Kim, Jae Wha [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed proton-density images (CE-FS-PDI) for shoulder MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 54 shoulder MR precontrast fat-suppressed proton-density images (FS-PDI), CE-FS-PDI and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1 weighted images (CE-FS-T1WI). Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the posterior labrum, infraspinatus muscle, synovium, biceps brachii long head tendon and subcutaneous fat were analyzed on each sequence. Subsequently, 53 cases were reviewed where patients had undergone both shoulder arthroscopy and shoulder MRI. We analyzed the diagnostic agreement rates between the CE-FS-PDI and CE-FS-T1WI and the diagnostic accuracy of arthroscopically proven tears of the supraspinatus tendon. On CE-FS-PDI, the SNRs and CNRs of all structures were statistically higher than on precontrast FSPDI and CE-FS-T1WI. Diagnostic agreement rates between CE-FS-PDI and CE-FS-T1WI were 70-96% in labrums and 75-96% in rotator cuffs. The diagnostic accuracy rates for a tear of the supraspinatus tendon were 83% on CE-FS-PDI and 75% on CE-FS-T1WI, respectively. The SNR and CNR on CE-FS-PDI were increased in the shoulder structures, and the diagnostic rate for a tear of the supraspinatus tendon on CE-FS-PDI was superior as compared to CE-FS-T1WI. Therefore, CE-FS-PDI will be useful for shoulder MRI.

  18. High-resolution 3D non-contrast-enhanced, ECG-gated, multi-step MR angiography of the lower extremities: Comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohrs, Oliver K. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Darmstadt Radiology, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging at Alice-Hospital, Darmstadt (Germany); Petersen, Steffen E. [The London Chest Hospital, Centre for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, London (United Kingdom); Heidt, Martin C. [Cardiovascular Center Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Schulze, Thomas; Schmitt, Peter [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR Application and Workflow Development, Erlangen (Germany); Bergemann, Sabine [Darmstadt Radiology, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging at Alice-Hospital, Darmstadt (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    To determine the diagnostic value of non-contrast-enhanced, 3D-high-resolution, ECG-gated, multi-step MR angiography (non-ceMRA) of the lower extremities using a modified turbo-spin-echo technique in comparison to 1.0-molar contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ceMRA) in patients with suspected peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Fifty consecutive patients underwent non-ceMRA before ceMRA within the same session. We assessed examination time, image quality, localisation and severity of stenosis. Examination time was shorter for ceMRA (12 {+-} 4 min) compared with non-ceMRA (28 {+-} 6 min, p < 0.001). The image quality of the aorta-iliac, femoral and combined popliteal and lower leg arteries was inferior for non-ceMRA (2.8 {+-} 0.8/3.3 {+-} 0.8/3.3 {+-} 0.9) versus ceMRA (4.7 {+-} 0.8/4.8 {+-} 0.6/4.8 {+-} 0.7) on a 5-point scale with 5 for maximum quality (p < 0.01). CeMRA offered more assessable data sets than non-ceMRA (98% vs. 90%). For detecting stenosis >50% or occlusions of pelvic and femoral arteries using non-ceMRA the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 94%, 86%, 67% and 98% and for popliteal and lower leg arteries 93%, 87%, 69% and 98%, respectively. We demonstrated that 3D non-ceMRA represents a very promising technique in patients with lower extremities PVD and could be used as an alternative if gadolinium-based contrast agents cannot be administered. (orig.)

  19. What do we know about brain contrast enhancement patterns in neuromyelitis optica?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekcevik, Yeliz; Orman, Gunes; Lee, In Ho; Mealy, Maureen A.; Levy, Michael; Izbudak, Izlem

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system that usually presents with acute myelitis and/or optic neuritis. Recently, some brain magnetic resonance imaging findings have been described in NMO that are important in the differential diagnosis. Pencil-thin, leptomeningeal, and cloud-like enhancement may be specific to NMO. These patterns are usually seen during relapses. Recognizing these lesions and enhancement patterns may expedite the diagnosis and allows early effective treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the latest knowledge and to share our experience with the contrast enhancement patterns of NMO brain lesions. PMID:26615899

  20. Differentiation of breast cancer from fibroadenoma with dual-echo dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Wang

    Full Text Available Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI of the breast is a routinely used imaging method which is highly sensitive for detecting breast malignancy. Specificity, though, remains suboptimal. Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC MRI, an alternative dynamic contrast imaging technique, evaluates perfusion-related parameters unique from DCE MRI. Previous work has shown that the combination of DSC MRI with DCE MRI can improve diagnostic specificity, though an additional administration of intravenous contrast is required. Dual-echo MRI can measure both T1W DCE MRI and T2*W DSC MRI parameters with a single contrast bolus, but has not been previously implemented in breast imaging. We have developed a dual-echo gradient-echo sequence to perform such simultaneous measurements in the breast, and use it to calculate the semi-quantitative T1W and T2*W related parameters such as peak enhancement ratio, time of maximal enhancement, regional blood flow, and regional blood volume in 20 malignant lesions and 10 benign fibroadenomas in 38 patients. Imaging parameters were compared to surgical or biopsy obtained tissue samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and area under the ROC curves were calculated for each parameter and combination of parameters. The time of maximal enhancement derived from DCE MRI had a 90% sensitivity and 69% specificity for predicting malignancy. When combined with DSC MRI derived regional blood flow and volume parameters, sensitivity remained unchanged at 90% but specificity increased to 80%. In conclusion, we show that dual-echo MRI with a single administration of contrast agent can simultaneously measure both T1W and T2*W related perfusion and kinetic parameters in the breast and the combination of DCE MRI and DSC MRI parameters improves the diagnostic performance of breast MRI to differentiate breast cancer from benign fibroadenomas.

  1. Blunt splenic trauma: Can contrast enhanced sonography be used for the screening of delayed pseudoaneurysms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre, E-mail: Pierre-Alexandre.Poletti@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D.; Arditi, Daniel; Terraz, Sylvain [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Buchs, Nicolas [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, 22 S. Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Platon, Alexandra [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of contrast-enhanced sonography (CES) for the detection of delayed post-traumatic splenic pseudo-aneurysms, usually considered an indication for angiographic embolization. Methods: Sixty-three consecutive hemodynamically stable trauma patients in whom admission CT displayed a splenic injury of grade II or higher (AAST classification), without evidence of vascular involvement, were included in the study. CES of the spleen using a second generation contrast agent was systematically performed within 48–72 h after admission, for the detection of a pooling of contrast media suggestive of pseudoaneurysm. Within 6 h after contrast-enhanced sonography, all patients underwent an abdominal CT for control purposes. CES results were compared to CT findings, which were considered the reference standard. This study received approval from the institutional ethical board. Results: CES showed a blush of contrast consistent with a pseudoaneurysm in 6 of the 63 patients. All were confirmed at subsequent control CT. Pooling of contrast was found at CT in 2 patients in whom contrast-enhanced sonography was negative. There was no false positive CES examination for the suspicion of pseudoaneurysms. When compared to CT, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of CES to suggest a pseudoaneurysms, were 75% (6/8), 100% (55/55), 100% (6/6), and 96% (55/57), respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that CES may be useful for the screening of delayed traumatic splenic pseudoaneurysms: if a negative CES does not absolutely rule out a pseudoaneurysm, a positive CES warrants an angiography, without need of control CT.

  2. Blunt splenic trauma: can contrast enhanced sonography be used for the screening of delayed pseudoaneurysms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Christoph D; Arditi, Daniel; Terraz, Sylvain; Buchs, Nicolas; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Platon, Alexandra

    2013-11-01

    To assess the value of contrast-enhanced sonography (CES) for the detection of delayed post-traumatic splenic pseudo-aneurysms, usually considered an indication for angiographic embolization. Sixty-three consecutive hemodynamically stable trauma patients in whom admission CT displayed a splenic injury of grade II or higher (AAST classification), without evidence of vascular involvement, were included in the study. CES of the spleen using a second generation contrast agent was systematically performed within 48-72 h after admission, for the detection of a pooling of contrast media suggestive of pseudoaneurysm. Within 6h after contrast-enhanced sonography, all patients underwent an abdominal CT for control purposes. CES results were compared to CT findings, which were considered the reference standard. This study received approval from the institutional ethical board. CES showed a blush of contrast consistent with a pseudoaneurysm in 6 of the 63 patients. All were confirmed at subsequent control CT. Pooling of contrast was found at CT in 2 patients in whom contrast-enhanced sonography was negative. There was no false positive CES examination for the suspicion of pseudoaneurysms. When compared to CT, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of CES to suggest a pseudoaneurysms, were 75% (6/8), 100% (55/55), 100% (6/6), and 96% (55/57), respectively. Our data suggest that CES may be useful for the screening of delayed traumatic splenic pseudoaneurysms: if a negative CES does not absolutely rule out a pseudoaneurysm, a positive CES warrants an angiography, without need of control CT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasonography in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Jesper; Nielsen, Klaus; Primdahl, Stine C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) protocol is considered beneficial in emergent evaluation of trauma patients with blunt or penetrating injury and has become integrated into the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol. No guidelines exist as to the use...... of ultrasonography in trauma in Denmark. We aimed to determine the current use of ultrasonography for assessing trauma patients in Denmark. METHODS: We conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional investigation of ultrasonography usage in trauma care. The first phase consisted of an Internet-based investigation....... Twenty-one (95.5%) of the guidelines included and recommended FAST as part of trauma assessment. The recommended person to perform the examination was the radiologist in n = 11 (50.0%), the surgeon in n = 6 (27.3%), the anesthesiologist in n = 1 (4.5%), and unspecified in n = 3 (13.6%) facilities. FAST...

  4. Blood flow contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography using microbubbles: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Homa; Demidov, Valentin; Karshafian, Raffi; Douplik, Alexandre; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2016-03-01

    In this study gas microbubbles are investigated as intravascular OCT contrast agents. Agar+Intralipid scattering tissue-like phantoms with two embedded microtubes were fabricated to model vascular blood flow. One was filled with human blood, and the other with a mixture of human blood and microbubbles. Swept-source structural and speckle variance OCT images, as well as speckle decorrelation times, were evaluated under both stationary and flow conditions. Faster decorrelation times and higher image contrast were detected in the presence of microbubbles in all experiments, and the effect was largest for speckle variance OCT ~2.3x greater contrast under flow conditions. The feasibility of utilizing microbubbles for tissue hemodynamic investigations and for microvasculature contrast enhancement in OCT angiography thus appears promising.

  5. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in discrimination between benign and malignant mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocke, Michael; Menges, Markus; Topalidis, Theodor; Dietrich, Christoph F; Stallmach, Andreas

    2008-04-01

    Enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum reflect neoplastic, infectious or other diseases. The classification of these nodes is crucial in the management of the patient. Currently, only invasive measures obtaining tissue samples reach satisfying specificity. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) may offer a non-invasive alternative. A total of 122 patients (age: 63 +/- 15 years, 92 males, 30 females) with enlarged mediastinal and/or paraaortic lymph nodes diagnosed by CT scan were included in the study. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration was performed and cytologic specimens were diagnosed as representing a malignant or benign process in case of Papanicolau IV and V, or Papanicolau I and II, respectively. Based on cytology results, the investigated lymph nodes were classified as neoplastic (n = 48) or non-neoplastic lymph nodes. Using the B-mode criteria the preliminary diagnosis was confirmed in 64 out of 74 benign lymph nodes (specificity 86%). Regarding malignant lymph nodes 33 of 48 were confirmed (sensitivity 68%). Using the advanced contrast-enhanced EUS criteria the diagnosis was confirmed in 68 of 74 benign lymph nodes (specificity 91%). However, in case of malignant lymph nodes the number of correct diagnoses dropped to 29 of 48 lymph nodes (sensitivity 60%). The contrast-enhanced EUS criteria to identify benign lymph nodes and node enlargement in malignant lymphoma do not differ. If those ten patients with malignant lymphoma are excluded, the sensitivity of the contrast enhanced EUS for malignant lymph nodes rises to 73%. Contrast-enhanced EUS improves the specificity in diagnosing benign lymph nodes as compared to B-mode EUS. It does not improve the correct identification of malignant lymph nodes and cannot replace EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration.

  6. Arterial enhancement at abdominal CT angiography: Low- versus high-osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouviere, O.; Berger, P.; Pangaud, C.; Lyonnet, D. [Hopital E. Herriot, Lyon (France). Dept. of Vascular and Genitourinary Radiology; Ecochard, R. [Hospices Civils de Lyon (France). Dept of Biostatistics; Fontaine, B. [Laboratoire Guerbet, Roissy (France)

    2000-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of contrast media pharmokinetic differences on aortic enhancement at abdominal CT angiography and to determine whether these effects are of clinical relevance. Material and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients referred for abdominal CT angiography were included in the study. All abdominal CT angiograms were performed with the same parameters (collimation 3 mm, pitch ratio 1.7, scan delay 30 s) after i.v. injection of 120 ml of contrast medium at 3 ml/s. After randomization, patients received either iobitridol 300 (low-osmolar, 300 mg I/ml), iobitridol 350 (low-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml) or ioxithalamate 350 (high-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml). The time attenuation curves obtained with the three contrast media were compared. Results: The time attenuation curve obtained with ioxithalamate 350 was not parallel to those obtained with iobitridol 300 and iobitridol 350. Mean peak enhancements obtained with iobitridol 350 and ioxithalamate 350 were not significantly different but iobitridol 350 provided higher mean peak enhancement than iobitridol 300. Mean delays of the peak enhancements were the same with the three contrast media. After peak enhancement, the decrease of aortic opacification under a selected threshold of 200 HU was significantly slower with iobitridol 350 than with iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350, whereas iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350 showed no significant differences. Conclusion: For a given iodine concentration, low-osmolality contrast media provide longer aortic opacification and may be recommended for CT angiography when long acquisition times are needed.

  7. Glioblastoma Presenting with Steroid-Induced Pseudoregression of Contrast Enhancement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus D. Mazur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroid-induced reduction in contrast enhancement on radiographic imaging is most commonly associated with lymphoma but has been reported in other entities, including glioma. This finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma. Concern that steroid-induced cytotoxicity obscures histological diagnosis of suspected lymphoma may lead to postponement of a biopsy. If glioma is not considered in the differential diagnosis, reduction in tumor contrast enhancement may be misinterpreted as disease regression rather than a transient radiographic change. We report a case of a patient with an enhancing right temporoparietal mass adjacent to the atrium of the lateral ventricle. After treatment with dexamethasone was started, the mass exhibited marked reduction in contrast enhancement, with symptom improvement. The clinical course suggested lymphoma, and surgery was not performed. Subsequent screening for extra-axial lymphoma was negative. Two weeks later, the patient developed worsening symptoms, and repeat T1-weighted imaging showed interval increase in size and enhancement. The findings suggested a possible diagnosis of malignant glioma. The patient underwent a stereotactic-guided craniotomy for excision of the right temporoparietal mass lesion. Final histological diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme, World Health Organization grade IV.

  8. Acetabular labral tears: contrast-enhanced MR imaging under continuous leg traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishii, T. [Div. of Functional Diagnostic Imaging, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan); Nakanishi, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan); Sugano, N. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan); Naito, H. [Div. of Functional Diagnostic Imaging, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan); Tamura, S. [Div. of Functional Diagnostic Imaging, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan); Ochi, T. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous leg traction on contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the hip joint and to determine whether MR imaging under these conditions is useful for demonstrating acetabular labral tears. Nineteen hips underwent MR imaging with a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence, followed by MR imaging under continuous leg traction after intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA. Joint fluid enhancement and labral contour detection were evaluated. Eleven hips had labral tears shown by conventional arthrography, arthroscopy and macroscopic surgical findings. Assessment of labral tears by MR imaging was correlated with the diagnosis based on these standard techniques. Joint fluid enhancement was obtained in all hips at 30 min after injection. Superior and inferior labral surfaces were completely delineated in 1 hip on the unenhanced MR images, and in 7 and 13 hips, respectively, on the enhanced images under traction. The enhanced images under traction depicted 9 of the 11 labral tears. Comparison between the unenhanced image and the enhanced image under traction avoided mistaking undercutting of the labrum for a tear in 4 hips. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging under traction was valuable for detecting labral tears non-invasively and without radiation. Follow-up examinations using this method in patients with acetabular dysplasia can help to clarify the natural course of labral disorders and enable better treatment planning. (orig./MG)

  9. Segmentation and classification of breast tumor using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Baloch, Sajjad; Englander, Sarah; Schnall, Mitchell D; Shen, Dinggang

    2007-01-01

    Accuracy of automatic cancer diagnosis is largely determined by two factors, namely, the precision of tumor segmentation, and the suitability of extracted features for discrimination between malignancy and benignancy. In this paper, we propose a new framework for accurate characterization of tumors in contrast enhanced MR images. First, a new graph cut based segmentation algorithm is developed for refining coarse manual segmentation, which allows precise identification of tumor regions. Second, by considering serial contrast-enhanced images as a single spatio-temporal image, a spatio-temporal model of segmented tumor is constructed to extract Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Patterns (STEPs). STEPs are designed to capture not only dynamic enhancement and architectural features, but also spatial variations of pixel-wise temporal enhancement of the tumor. While temporal enhancement features are extracted through Fourier transform, the resulting STEP framework captures spatial patterns of temporal enhancement features via moment invariants and rotation invariant Gabor textures. High accuracy of the proposed framework is a direct consequence of this two pronged approach, which is validated through experiments yielding, for instance, an area of 0.97 under the ROC curve.

  10. Contrast Agent-Enhanced Computed Tomography of Articular Cartilage: Association with Tissue Composition and Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvast, T.S.; Jurvelin, J.S.; Aula, A.S.; Lammi, M.J.; Toeyraes, J. (Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Kuopio (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    Background: Contrast agent-enhanced computed tomography may enable the noninvasive quantification of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of articular cartilage. It has been reported that penetration of the negatively charged contrast agent ioxaglate (Hexabrix) increases significantly after enzymatic degradation of GAGs. However, it is not known whether spontaneous degradation of articular cartilage can be quantitatively detected with this technique. Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic potential of contrast agent-enhanced cartilage tomography (CECT) in quantification of GAG concentration in normal and spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage by means of clinical peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Material and Methods: In this in vitro study, normal and spontaneously degenerated adult bovine cartilage (n=32) was used. Bovine patellar cartilage samples were immersed in 21 mM contrast agent (Hexabrix) solution for 24 hours at room temperature. After immersion, the samples were scanned with a clinical pQCT instrument. From pQCT images, the contrast agent concentration in superficial as well as in full-thickness cartilage was calculated. Histological and functional integrity of the samples was quantified with histochemical and mechanical reference measurements extracted from our earlier study. Results: Full diffusion of contrast agent into the deep cartilage was found to take over 8 hours. As compared to normal cartilage, a significant increase (11%, P<0.05) in contrast agent concentration was seen in the superficial layer of spontaneously degenerated samples. Significant negative correlations were revealed between the contrast agent concentration and the superficial or full-thickness GAG content of tissue (|R|>0.5, P<0.01). Further, pQCT could be used to measure the thickness of patellar cartilage. Conclusion: The present results suggest that CECT can be used to diagnose proteoglycan depletion in spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage with a

  11. Assessment of normal liver contrast ultrasonography with harmonic power imaging%谐波能量显像评价正常犬肝脏声学造影的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘政; 谢峰; 李澎; 高云华; 左松

    2000-01-01

    目的 评价谐波能量显像(HPI)在正常肝脏声学造影中的造影增强效果,并与彩色多普勒血流显像(CI)FI)进行对比.方法 4只健康杂种犬经外周静脉注射氟碳声学造影剂,分别用HPI和CDFI观察肝脏.视觉判断彩色增强效果和伪像分级.结果 造影后,肝脏HPI与CDFI均有3级强烈彩色信号增强,但CDFI有严重的3级"彩色怒放"(color blooming)伪像,而HPI的彩色伪像均为1级.结论 HPI在声学造影中能较真实地反映肝脏血流灌注,彩色怒放伪像少,明显优于CDFI.%Objective To asseSS normal liver contrast color enhancement using harmonic power imaging(HPI), comparative studies between HPI and color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI)were performed.Methods Four normal dogs were imaged with HPI and CDFI after intravenously injection of contrast agent at 0.02 ml/kg.The subjective scores of color enhancement and artifacts were estimated.Results There were significant color enhancement(Grade 3)both in HPI and CDFI imaging of liver after contrast.,but severe(Grade 3)color blooming artifacts always appeared in CDFI comparing tO mild(Grade 1)artifacts in HPI.Conclusions Harmonic power imaging is better than CDFI in achieving actual liver perfusion imaging and eliminating color blooming artifacts in mictDbubbles contrast.

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of focal nodular hyperplasia: a matter of size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Caroline [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Egels, Sophie; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Wagner, Mathilde [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Vilgrain, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Lucidarme, Olivier [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7371, INSERM UMRS 1146, Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Paris (France); Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere - Charles Foix, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris (France)

    2014-10-15

    To assess the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) frequencies of centrifugal enhancement, spoke-wheel sign and central scar in focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a function of lesion size. Ninety-four FNHs were retrospectively reviewed to assess their largest diameter and enhancement pattern, including centrifugal enhancement from one central artery, spoke-wheel sign, diffuse or centripetal enhancement, central scar and late-phase washout. Mean FNH-lesion size was 3.7 ± 2.1 cm. Only 43.6 % of FNHs had centrifugal enhancement, with a spoke-wheel pattern (23.4 %) or without (20.2 %), while 56.4 % showed diffuse or centripetal enhancement. Centrifugal enhancement was observed in 73.9 % of FNHs ≤3.1 cm and 14.6 % of FNHs >3.1 cm (P < 10{sup -4}). Size and frequency of centrifugal enhancement were negatively correlated (r = -0.57, P < 10{sup -4}). The spoke-wheel pattern was also seen more frequently in smaller (37 %) than in larger FNHs (10.4 %) (P < 10{sup -3}). Late-phase washout was described in 5.3 % of FNHs and was not size-dependent. Lesions with a central scar were larger than those without, respectively, 5.7 ± 1.7 and 3.6 ± 2.0 cm (P = 0.012). Typical centrifugal enhancement yielding a confident FNH diagnosis is seen significantly more frequently when the lesion is ≤3.1 cm. (orig.)

  13. Assessment and Monitoring Tumor Vascularity With Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Maximum Intensity Persistence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysz, Marybeth A.; Foygel, Kira; Panje, Cedric M.; Needles, Andrew; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used in the clinic for assessment of tissue vascularity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of different contrast administration parameters on the in vivo ultrasound imaging signal in tumor-bearing mice using a maximum intensity persistence (MIP) algorithm and to evaluate the reliability of in vivo MIP imaging in assessing tumor vascularity. The potential of in vivo MIP imaging for monitoring tumor vascularity during antiangiogenic cancer treatment was further evaluated. Materials and Methods In intraindividual experiments, varying contrast microbubble concentrations (5 × 105, 5 × 106, 5 × 107, 5 × 108 microbubbles in 100 µL saline) and contrast injection rates (0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL/min) in subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice were applied and their effects on in vivo contrast-enhanced ultrasound MIP imaging plateau values were obtained using a dedicated small animal ultrasound imaging system (40 MHz). Reliability of MIP ultrasound imaging was tested following 2 injections of the same micro-bubble concentration (5 × 107 microbubbles at 1.2 mL/min) in the same tumors. In mice with subcutaneous human colon cancer xenografts, longitudinal contrast-enhanced ultrasound MIP imaging plateau values (baseline and at 48 hours) were compared between mice with and without antiangiogenic treatment (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody). Ex vivo CD31 immunostaining of tumor tissue was used to correlate in vivo MIP imaging plateau values with microvessel density analysis. Results In vivo MIP imaging plateau values correlated significantly (P = 0.001) with contrast microbubble doses. At 3 different injection rates of 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL/min, MIP imaging plateau values did not change significantly (P = 0.61). Following 2 injections with the same microbubble dose and injection rate, MIP imaging plateau values were obtained with high reliability with an intraclass correlation

  14. Contrast-enhanced multiple-phase imaging features in hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Chen; Ri-Sheng Yu; Ling-Ling Qiu; Ding-Yao Jiang; Yan-Bin Tan; Yan-Biao Fu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and review the contrast-enhanced multiple-phase computed tomography (CEMP CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with pathologically confirmed hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE). METHODS: Findings from imaging examinations in 8 patients (5 women and 3 men) with pathologically confirmed HEHE were retrospectively reviewed (CT images obtained from 7 patients and MR images obtained from 6 patients). The age of presentation varied from 27 years to 60 years (average age 39.8 years). RESULTS: There were two types of HEHE: multifocal type (n = 7) and diffuse type (n = 1). In the multifocal- type cases, there were 74 lesions on CT and 28 lesions on MRI with 7 lesions found with diffusion weighted imaging; 18 (24.3%) of 74 lesions on plain CT and 26 (92.9%) of 28 lesions on pre-contrast MRI showed the target sign. On CEMP CT, 28 (37.8%) of 74 lesions appeared with the target sign and a progressive-enhancement rim and 9 (12.2%) of 74 lesions displayed progressive enhancement, maintaining a state of persistent enhancement. On CEMP MRI, 27 (96.4%) of 28 lesions appeared with the target sign with a progressive-enhancement rim and 28 (100%) of 28 lesions displayed progressive-enhancement, maintaining a state of persistent enhancement. In the diffuse-type cases, an enlarged liver was observed with a large nodule appearing with persistent enhancement on CEMP CT and MRI. CONCLUSION: The most important imaging features of HEHE are the target sign and/or progressive enhancement with persistent enhancement on CEMP CT and MRI. MRI is advantageous over CT in displaying these imaging features.

  15. Concepts and trade-offs in velocity estimation with plane-wave contrast-enhanced Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Williams, Ross; Sheeran, Paul; Milot, Laurent; Bruce, Matthew; Burns, Peter

    2016-07-29

    While long Doppler ensembles are, in principle, beneficial for velocity estimates, short acoustic pulses must be used in microbubble contrast-enhanced Doppler to mitigate microbubble destruction. This introduces inherent trade-offs in velocity estimates with autocorrelators, which are studied here. A model of the autocorrelation function adapted to the microbubble Doppler signal, accounting for transit time, the echo frequency uncertainty and contrast-agent destruction is derived and validated in vitro. It is further demonstrated that a local measurement of the center frequency of the microbubble echo is essential in order to avoid significant bias in velocity estimates arising from the linear and nonlinear frequency-dependent scattering of microbubbles, and compensate the inherent speckle nature of the received echo frequency. For these reasons, broadband Doppler estimators (2D autocorrelator, Radon projection) are better suited than simpler narrowband estimators (1D autocorrelator, 1D Fourier transform) for contrast-enhanced flow assessment. A case study of perfusion in a VX-2 carcinoma using contrast-enhanced planewave Doppler is also shown. We demonstrate that even when considering all uncertainties associated with microbubble-related decorrelation (destruction, pulse bandwidth, transit time, flow gradient) and the need for real-time imaging, a coefficient of variation of 4% on the an axial velocity is achievable with planewave imaging.

  16. Microarray Gene Expression Analysis of Murine Tumor Heterogeneity Defined by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick G. Costouros

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Current methods of studying angiogenesis are limited in their ability to serially evaluate in vivo function throughout a target tissue. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI and pharmacokinetic modeling provide a useful method for evaluating tissue vasculature based on contrast accumulation and washout. While it is often assumed that areas of high contrast enhancement and washout comprise areas of increased angiogenesis and tumor activity, the actual molecular pathways that are active in such areas are poorly understood. Using DCE-MRI in a murine subcutaneous tumor model, we were able to perform pharmacokinetic functional analysis of a tumor, coregistration of MRI images with histological cross-sections, immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection, and genetic profiling of tumor heterogeneity based on pharmacokinetic parameters. Using imaging as a template for biologic investigation, we have not found evidence of increased expression of proangiogenic modulators at the transcriptional level in either distinct pharmacokinetic region. Furthermore, these regions show no difference on histology and CD31 immunohistochemistry. However, the expression of ribosomal proteins was greatly increased in high enhancement and washout regions, implying increased protein translation and consequent increased cellular activity. Together, these findings point to the potential importance of posttranscriptional regulation in angiogenesis and the need for the development of angiogenesis-specific contrast agents to evaluate in vivo angiogenesis at a molecular level.

  17. Magnetic resonance angiography of the carotid arteries: comparison of unenhanced and contrast enhanced techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Harald; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals Munich, Grosshadern Campus, Munich (Germany); Runge, Val M. [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Radiology, Galveston, TX (United States); Morelli, John N.; Williams, Kenneth D.; Naul, L.G. [Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Temple, TX (United States); Wintersperger, Bernd J. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals Munich, Grosshadern Campus, Munich (Germany); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, UHN, MSH and WCH, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    To compare different techniques for carotid imaging including contrast-enhanced, unenhanced and dynamic techniques to find an alternative to contrast-enhanced MRA. 43 patients referred for imaging of the carotids were enrolled in this IRB-approved study. Imaging included dark-blood, time-of-flight, ECG-gated SSFP and dynamic and static contrast-enhanced MRA. Two radiologists evaluated all datasets in terms of image quality (vessel lumen, signal homogeneity, diagnostic confidence, preferred technique) on a four-point Likert-scale and in measuring the vessel area. Of the 43 included patients the first 8 subjects served for protocol optimisation and 4 individuals discontinued the examination. Thus 31 datasets served for evaluation. CE-MRA revealed best results for delineation of vessel lumen, signal homogeneity and diagnostic confidence with values of 3.61, 3.42 and 3.77. It was also rated as the most preferred technique. SSFP-MRA was rated second in all categories with values of 3.1, 2.9 and 3.11. This unenhanced technique was the only one showing non-significantly different results in quantitative analysis. SSFP-MRA, an unenhanced form of MRA, represents an alternative to CE-MRA, particularly in patients where administration of gadolinium for CE-MRA may be contraindicated. In contrast to other techniques, SSFP-MRA serves with not significant different results compared to standard CE-MRA. (orig.)

  18. Multiple renal aspergillus abscesses in an AIDS patient: contrast-enhanced helical CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussel, C.P.; Kauczor, H.U.; Thelen, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany); Heussel, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany); Jahn, B. [Inst. of Microbiology, Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    Renal insufficiency or allergic reactions for X-ray contrast agents are frequent limitations in immunocompromised hosts such as neutropenic or AIDS patients. Due to a better tolerance of contrast agents in MRI, this technique is well suited for investigation of parenchymal organs. We demonstrate an allergic AIDS patient who presented with fever and flank pain. At sonography, anechoic renal lesions were supposed to be non-complicated cysts; however, on T2-weighted MRI, the center was of high signal. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the kidneys demonstrated an enhancing rim with ill-defined margins. The lesions were supposed to be multiple bilateral abscesses. Due to the multiple dynamic contrast series, a delayed enhancement of renal parenchyma was detectable adjacent to the lesion. This was suggested as accompanying local pyelonephritis and an infectious etiology became more reliable. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified by CT-guided biopsy as the underlying microorganism. The MR appearance of this manifestation has not been described previously. (orig.) With 5 figs., 15 refs.

  19. Near-infrared dye-loaded magnetic nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for enhanced tumor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang Gao; Zhi-Fei Dai; Chang-Hui Li; Xiao-Long Liang; Zi-Jian Deng; Dong Peng; Yu-Shen Jin; Yan Ma; Yan-Yan Li; Yu-Kun Zhu; Jian-Zhong Xi; Jie Tian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) has attracted extensive interest because of its optical absorption contrast and ultrasonic detection. This study aims to develop a biocompatible and biodegradable PA contrast agent particularly promising for clinical applications in human body. Methods: In this study, we presented a PA contrast agent: 1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)] (DSPE-PEG)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with indocyanine green (ICG). We used ICG and SPIO NPs because both drugs are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Given the strong absorption of near-infrared laser pulses, SPIO@DSPE-PEG/ICG NPs with a uniform diameter of ~28 nm could significantly enhance PA signals. Results: We demonstrated the contrast enhancement of these NPs in phantom and animal experiments, in which thein vivo circulation time of SPIO@DSPE-PEG/ICG NPs was considerably longer than that of free ICG. These novel NPs also displayed a high efficiency of tumor targeting. Conclusions: SPIO@DSPE-PEG/ICG NPs are promising PAT contrast agents for clinical applications.

  20. Preliminary studies of enhanced contrast radiography in anatomy and embryology of insects with Elettra synchrotron light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcelo@fisica.ufpr.br; Foerster, L.A. [Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19020, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Navarro-Silva, M.A. [Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19020, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Menk, R.-H. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Strada Statale S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Rigon, L. [Dipartamento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34100, Trieste Italy (Italy); Cusatis, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil)

    2005-08-11

    Enhanced contrast X-ray imaging is achieved by exploiting the real part of the refraction index, which is responsible for the phase shifts, in addition to the imaginary part, which is responsible for the absorption. Such techniques are called X-ray phase contrast imaging. An analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging set-up with Diffraction Enhanced Imaging processing (DEI) were used for preliminary studies in anatomy and embryology of insects. Parasitized stinkbug and moth eggs used as control agents of pests in vegetables and adult stinkbugs and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were used as samples. The experimental setup was mounted in the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. Images were obtained using a high spatial resolution CCD detector (pixel size 14x14{mu}m{sup 2}) coupled with magnifying optics. Analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast images (PCI) and edge detection images show contrast and details not observed with conventional synchrotron radiography and open the possibility for future study in the embryonic development of insects.

  1. Preliminary studies of enhanced contrast radiography in anatomy and embryology of insects with Elettra synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Foerster, L. A.; Navarro-Silva, M. A.; Menk, R.-H.; Rigon, L.; Cusatis, C.

    2005-08-01

    Enhanced contrast X-ray imaging is achieved by exploiting the real part of the refraction index, which is responsible for the phase shifts, in addition to the imaginary part, which is responsible for the absorption. Such techniques are called X-ray phase contrast imaging. An analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging set-up with Diffraction Enhanced Imaging processing (DEI) were used for preliminary studies in anatomy and embryology of insects. Parasitized stinkbug and moth eggs used as control agents of pests in vegetables and adult stinkbugs and mosquitoes ( Aedes aegypti) were used as samples. The experimental setup was mounted in the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. Images were obtained using a high spatial resolution CCD detector (pixel size 14×14 μm 2) coupled with magnifying optics. Analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast images (PCI) and edge detection images show contrast and details not observed with conventional synchrotron radiography and open the possibility for future study in the embryonic development of insects.

  2. A new combined technique for automatic contrast enhancement of digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A. Humied

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Some low contrast images have certain characteristics makes it difficult to use traditional methods to improve it. An example of these characteristics, that the amplitudes of images histogram components are very high at one location on the gray scale and very small in the rest of the gray scale. In the present paper, a new method is described. It can deal with such cases. The proposed method is a combination of Histogram Equalization (HE and Fast Gray-Level Grouping (FGLG. The basic procedure of this method is segments the original histogram of a low contrast image into two sub-histograms according to the location of the highest amplitude of the histogram components, and achieving contrast enhancement by equalizing the left segment of the histogram components using (HE technique and using (FGLG technique to equalize the right segment of this histogram components. The results have shown that the proposed method does not only produce better results than each individual contrast enhancement technique, but it is also fully automated. Moreover, it is applicable to a broad variety of images that satisfy the properties mentioned above and suffer from low contrast.

  3. MR mammography: influence of menstrual cycle on the dynamic contrast enhancement of fibrocystic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, A.; Nuessle, K.; Merkle, E.; Tomczak, R.; Brambs, H.J. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Radiologie 1 (Roentgendiagnostik); Kreienberg, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Gynecology

    1999-08-01

    Magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) provides data regarding the nature of tumours based on contrast medium dynamics; fibrocystic changes in the breast, however, may lead to false-positive results. This study investigated whether the contrast medium dynamics of fibrocystic changes are dependent on the menstrual cycle. Twenty-four patients with palpable lumps but normal mammographies and ultrasound studies were examined. The MRM technique was performed during the first and second part of the menstrual cycle using a FLASH 3D sequence, both native and at 1, 2, 3 and 8 min after intravenous application of 0.15 mmol/kg body weight of gadodiamide. The calculated time-intensity curves were evaluated based on the following criteria: early percentage of contrast medium uptake in relation to the native value; formation of a plateau phenomenon after the second minute; the point of maximal contrast medium uptake; and calculation of the contrast enhancing index. During the second half of the menstrual cycle, a generally greater contrast medium uptake was observed. Nevertheless, when further diagnostic criteria, such as continuous contrast medium increase as a function of time, were considered, there was no increased rate of false-positive findings. The phase of the menstrual cycle may affect the specificity of the examination, if only the quantitative contrast medium uptake and the percentage of contrast medium uptake in the first 2 min are considered. A control MRM during the other half of the cycle may then be indicated and additional diagnostic criteria may improve specificity. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 24 refs.

  4. Effect of injection rate on contrast-enhanced MR angiography image quality: Modulation transfer function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toshimasa J; Wilson, Gregory J; Maki, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRA optimization involves interactions of sequence duration, bolus timing, contrast recirculation, and both R1 relaxivity and R2*-related reduction of signal. Prior data suggest superior image quality with slower gadolinium injection rates than typically used. A computer-based model of CE-MRA was developed, with contrast injection, physiologic, and image acquisition parameters varied over a wide gamut. Gadolinium concentration was derived using Verhoeven's model with recirculation, R1 and R2* calculated at each time point, and modulation transfer curves used to determine injection rates, resulting in optimal resolution and image contrast for renal and carotid artery CE-MRA. Validation was via a vessel stenosis phantom and example patients who underwent carotid CE-MRA with low effective injection rates. Optimal resolution for renal and carotid CE-MRA is achieved with injection rates between 0.5 to 0.9 mL/s and 0.2 to 0.3 mL/s, respectively, dependent on contrast volume. Optimal image contrast requires slightly faster injection rates. Expected signal-to-noise ratio varies with both contrast volume and cardiac output. Simulated vessel phantom and clinical carotid CE-MRA exams at an effective contrast injection rate of 0.4 to 0.5 mL/s demonstrate increased resolution. Optimal image resolution is achieved at intuitively low, effective injection rates (0.2-0.9 mL/s, dependent on imaging parameters and contrast injection volume). Magn Reson Med 78:357-369, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography of abdominal vessels: Is there still a role for angiography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosshenrich, R.; Fischer, U. [Department of Radiology, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe recent advantages in contrast-enhanced (CE) three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in comparison with other vascular imaging techniques, and to discuss their current clinical applications for the imaging of abdominal vessels. Principles and technical considerations are presented and clinical applications are reviewed for different vascular diseases. In ruptured aortic aneurysms and acute dissections CT is the method of first choice. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA can be well used for therapeutic planning and follow-up in patients with stable disease. A comprehensive MR examination including CE 3D MRA, MR urography and MR nephrogram has the potential to replace the conventional studies for the evaluation of renal vascular disease. It is an accurate method for imaging the origins of coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries, although the image resolution is too low for reliable assessment of the inferior mesenteric artery. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA has emerged as the method of choice for studying the portal venous system in liver transplant recipients, in patients with portal hypertension and in cases with abdominal tumours for preoperative evaluation. Additional non-invasive flow measurements are useful in monitoring portal hypertension. The abdominal veins can be well imaged using unenhanced MR techniques. Imaging may be facilitated with intravascular contrast media. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA can replace intra-arterial DSA for diagnosis, therapy planning and follow-up in patients with abdominal vascular disease. Catheter-based arteriography will still be used for interventional procedures such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, stent placement and embolisation. (orig.)

  6. A free-breathing non-contrast-enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography at 3 Tesla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WANG Wei; WANG Ya-rong; NIU Gang; JIN Chen-wang; WU Ed Xuekui

    2009-01-01

    Background The breathhold contrast-enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging sequence is the standard technique for MRA of the thorax. However, this technique is not desirable for certain patients with respiratory insufficiency, serious renal impairment, or allergy to contrast agents. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a non-contrast-enhanced free-breathing pulmonary MRA protocol at 3 Tesla.Methods The time-of-flight protocol was based on a two-dimensional T1-weighted turbo field echo sequence with slice-selective inversion recovery and magnetization transfer preparation together with respiratory navigator gating, cardiac gating, and parallel imaging. Optimal values for time of inversion delay, flip angle and slice thickness were experimentally determined and used for all subjects.Results Excellent pulmonary MRA images, in which the 7th order branches of pulmonary arteries could be reliably identified, were obtained in the 12 free-breathing healthy volunteers. TI of ~300 ms provides the best suppression of background thoracic and cardiac muscles and effective inflow enhancement. With increasing flip angle, the pulmonary vessels gradually brightened and exhibited optimal contrast at 20°-30°. The 2 mm slice thickness and 0.5 mm slice overlap is suitable for visualization of the peripheral pulmonary vessel.Conclusions The MRA protocol at 3 Tesla may have clinical significance for pulmonary vascular imaging in patients who are not available for contrast-enhanced 3D MRA and CT angiography examination or are unable to sustain a long breath-hold.

  7. Fusion of contrast-enhanced breast MR and mammographic imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrenbruch, Christian P; Marias, Kostas; Armitage, Paul A; Yam, Margaret; Moore, Niall; English, Ruth E; Clarke, Jane; Brady, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Increasing use is being made of Gd-DTPA contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer assessment since it provides 3D functional information via pharmacokinetic interaction between contrast agent and tumour vascularity, and because it is applicable to women of all ages as well as patients with post-operative scarring. Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) is complementary to conventional X-ray mammography, since it is a relatively low-resolution functional counterpart of a comparatively high-resolution 2D structural representation. However, despite the additional information provided by MRI, mammography is still an extremely important diagnostic imaging modality, particularly for several common conditions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) where it has been shown that there is a strong correlation between microcalcification clusters and malignancy. Pathological indicators such as calcifications and fine spiculations are not visible in CE-MRI and therefore there is clinical and diagnostic value in fusing the high-resolution structural information available from mammography with the functional data acquired from MRI imaging. This paper presents a novel data fusion technique whereby medial-lateral oblique (MLO) and cranial-caudal (CC) mammograms (2D data) are registered to 3D contrast-enhanced MRI volumes. We utilise a combination of pharmacokinetic modelling, projection geometry, wavelet-based landmark detection and thin-plate spline non-rigid 'warping' to transform the coordinates of regions of interest (ROIs) from the 2D mammograms to the spatial reference frame of the contrast-enhanced MRI volume. Of key importance is the use of a flexible wavelet-based feature extraction technique that enables feature correspondences to be robustly determined between the very different image characteristics of X-ray mammography and MRI. An evaluation of the fusion framework is demonstrated with a series of clinical cases and a total of 14 patient examples.

  8. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging features of the normal central zone of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Barry G; Karademir, Ibrahim; Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Karczmar, Gregory; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen; Antic, Tatjana; Eggener, Scott; Oto, Aytekin

    2014-05-01

    Evaluate qualitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of normal central zone based on recently described central zone MRI features. Institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant study, 59 patients with prostate cancer, histopathology proven to not involve central zone or prostate base, underwent endorectal MRI before prostatectomy. Two readers independently reviewed T2-weighted images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps identifying normal central zone based on low signal intensity and location. Next, two readers drew bilateral central zone regions of interest on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images in consensus and independently recorded enhancement curve types as type 1 (progressive), type 2 (plateau), and type 3 (wash-out). Identification rates of normal central zone and enhancement curve type were recorded and compared for each reviewer. The institutional review board waiver was approved and granted 05/2010. Central zone identified in 92%-93% of patients on T2-weighted images and 78%-88% on ADC maps without significant difference between identification rates (P = .63 and P = .15 and inter-reader agreement (κ) is 0.64 and 0.29, for T2-weighted images and ADC maps, respectively). All central zones were rated either curve type 1 or curve type 2 by both radiologists. No statistically significant difference between the two radiologists (P = .19) and inter-reader agreement was κ = 0.37. Normal central zone demonstrates either type 1 (progressive) or type 2 (plateau) enhancement curves on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI that can be potentially useful to differentiate central zone from prostate cancer that classically demonstrates a type 3 (wash-out) enhancement curve. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron spin contrast of Purcell-enhanced nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, S.; Shalaginov, M. Y.; Akimov, A.; Lagutchev, A. S.; Kapitanova, P.; Liu, J.; Woods, D.; Ferrera, M.; Belov, P.; Irudayaraj, J.; Boltasseva, A.; Shalaev, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond allow for coherent spin-state manipulation at room temperature, which could bring dramatic advances to nanoscale sensing and quantum information technology. We introduce a method for the optical measurement of the spin contrast in dense nitrogen-vacancy (NV) ensembles. This method brings insight into the interplay between the spin contrast and fluorescence lifetime. We show that for improving the spin readout sensitivity in NV ensembles, one should aim at modifying the far-field radiation pattern rather than enhancing the emission rate.

  10. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Micro and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Philips Technologie GmbH, Roentgenstrasse 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Interdisciplinary Breast Center Baden, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  11. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Zhou; Song; Yan-Ming; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque is a novel marker of accurately evaluating the vulnerability of carotid artery plaque, which was associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The presence of ultrasound contrast agents in carotid artery plaque represents the presence of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque because the ultrasoundcontrast agents are strict intravascular tracers. Therefore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS) is a novel and safe imaging modality for evaluating the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque. However, there are some issues that needs to be assessed to embody fully the clinical utility of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque with CEUS.

  12. Synergistic enhancement of iron oxide nanoparticle and gadolinium for dual-contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Huang, Xinglu [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Qian, Chunqi [Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhu, Lei [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hida, Naoki [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Niu, Gang, E-mail: niug@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Chen, Xiaoyuan, E-mail: shawn.chen@nih.gov [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MR contrast agents exert influence on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2} relaxation time of the surrounding tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined use of iron oxide and Gd-DTPA can improve the sensitivity/specificity of lesion detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dual contrast MRI enhances the delineation of tumor borders and small lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of DC-MRI can come from the high paramagnetic susceptibility of Gd{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of DC-MRI can also come from the distinct pharmacokinetic distribution of SPIO and Gd-DTPA. -- Abstract: Purpose: The use of MR contrast agents allows accurate diagnosis by exerting an influence on the longitudinal (T{sub 1}) or transverse (T{sub 2}) relaxation time of the surrounding tissue. In this study, we combined the use of iron oxide (IO) particles and nonspecific extracellular gadolinium chelate (Gd) in order to further improve the sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection. Procedures: With a 7-Tesla scanner, pre-contrasted, IO-enhanced and dual contrast agent enhanced MRIs were performed in phantom, normal animals, and animal models of lymph node tumor metastases and orthotopic brain tumor. For the dual-contrast (DC) MRI, we focused on the evaluation of T{sub 2} weighted DC MRI with IO administered first, then followed by the injection of a bolus of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Results: Based on the C/N ratios and MRI relaxometry, the synergistic effect of coordinated administration of Gd-DTPA and IO was observed and confirmed in phantom, normal liver and tumor models. At 30 min after administration of Feridex, Gd-DTPA further decreased T{sub 2} relaxation in liver immediately after the injection. Additional administration of Gd-DTPA also immediately increased the signal contrast between tumor and brain parenchyma and maximized the C/N ratio to -4.12 {+-} 0.71. Dual contrast MRI also enhanced the

  13. The contrast-enhanced Doppler ultrasound with perfluorocarbon exposed sonicated albumin does not improve the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis compared with angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolotto Luiz A

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no studies investigating the effect of the contrast infusion on the sensitivity and specificity of the main Doppler criteria of renal artery stenosis (RAS. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of these Doppler criteria prior to and following the intravenous administration of perfluorocarbon exposed sonicated albumin (PESDA in patients suspected of having RAS. Thirty consecutive hypertensive patients (13 males, mean age of 57 ± 10 years suspected of having RAS by clinical clues, were submitted to ultrasonography (US of renal arteries before and after enhancement using continuous infusion of PESDA. All patients underwent angiography, and haemodynamically significant RAS was considered when ≥50%. At angiography, it was detected RAS ≥50% in 18 patients, 5 with bilateral stenosis. After contrast, the examination time was slightly reduced by approximately 20%. In non-enhanced US the sensitivity was better when based on resistance index (82.9% while the specificity was better when based on renal aortic ratio (89.2%. The predictive positive value was stable for all indexes (74.0%–88.0% while negative predictive value was low (44%–51%. The specificity and positive predictive value based on renal aortic ratio increased after PESDA injection respectively, from 89 to 97.3% and from 88 to 95%. In hypertensives suspected to have RAS the sensitivity and specificity of Duplex US is dependent of the criterion evaluated. Enhancement with continuous infusion of PESDA improves only the specificity based on renal aortic ratio but do not modify the sensitivity of any index.

  14. Prognostic significance of contrast-enhanced CT attenuation value in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asayama, Yoshiki [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yukihisa; Okamoto, Daisuke; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Departments of Clinical Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohtsuka, Takao [Kyushu University, Departments of Surgery and Oncology, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshizumi, Tomoharu [Kyushu University, Departments of Surgery and Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Aishima, Shinichi [Saga University, Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Kyushu University, Departments of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Oda, Yoshinao [Kyushu University, Departments of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether washout characteristics of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) could predict survival in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHC). This study collected 46 resected cases. All cases were examined by dynamic contrast study on multidetector-row CT. Region-of-interest measurements were obtained at the non-enhanced, portal venous phase and delayed phase in the tumour and were used to calculate the washout ratio as follows: [(attenuation value at portal venous phase CT - attenuation value at delayed enhanced CT)/(attenuation value at portal venous phase CT - attenuation value at unenhanced CT)] x 100. On the basis of the median washout ratio, we classified the cases into two groups, a high-washout group and low-washout group. Associations between overall survival and various factors including washout rates were analysed. The median washout ratio was 29.4 %. Univariate analysis revealed that a lower washout ratio, venous invasion, lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastasis were associated with shorter survival. Multivariate analysis identified the lower washout ratio as an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 3.768; p value, 0.027). The washout ratio obtained from the contrast-enhanced CT may be a useful imaging biomarker for the prediction of survival of patients with EHC. (orig.)

  15. Ultrasonography of the Kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound are hig...

  16. Visualization and enhancement patterns of radiofrequency ablation lesions with iodine contrast-enhanced cardiac C-arm CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard-Hughes, Erin; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Moore, Teri; Lauritsch, Günter; Boese, Jan; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether contrast-enhanced C-arm CT (3D rotational angiography) can distinguish radiofrequency (RF) ablation lesions created in the left ventricle. Ablation lesions were created on the endocardial surface of the left ventricle of 6 swine using a 7 F RF ablation catheter with a 4 mm electrode. An ECGgated C-arm CT imaging protocol was used to acquire projection images during iodine contrast injection and every 5 min for up to 30 min, with no additional contrast. Reconstructed images were analyzed offline and the mean and standard deviation of the signal intensity of the ablation lesion, normal myocardium, and blood were measured. Eleven ablation lesions were visualized and the time-attenuation curve of the signal intensity was plotted. A mean signal intensity increase of 64.8 +/-33.6 HU was measured