DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle
Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…
Fisher, Jill A; Kalbaugh, Corey A
There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Jill A Fisher
Full Text Available There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities.We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers.Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January
The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Contracting out health services is a strategy that many health systems in the developing world are following, despite the lack of decisive evidence that this is the best way to improve quality, increase efficiency and expand coverage. A large body of literature has appeared in recent years focusing on the results of several contracting strategies, but very few papers have addressed aspects of the managerial process and how this can affect results. Case description This paper describes and analyses the perceptions and opinions of managers and workers about the benefits and challenges of the contracting model that has been in place for almost 10 years in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Both qualitative and quantitative information was collected. An open-ended questionnaire was used to obtain information from a group of managers, while information provided by a self-selected group of workers was collected via a closed-ended questionnaire. The analysis contrasted the information obtained from each source. Discussion and Evaluation Findings show that perceptions of managers and workers vary for most of the items studied. For managers the model has been a success, as it has allowed for expansion of coverage based on a cost-effective strategy, while for workers the model also possesses positive elements but fails to provide fair labour relationships, which negatively affects their performance. Conclusion Perspectives of the two main groups of actors in Jalisco's contracting model are important in the design and adjustment of an adequate contracting model that includes managerial elements to give incentives to worker performance, a key element necessary to achieve the model's ultimate objectives. Lessons learnt from this study could be relevant for the experience of contracting models in other developing countries.
Nachtnebel, Matthias; O'Mahony, Ashleigh; Pillai, Nandini; Hort, Kris
Health systems of low and middle income countries in the Asia Pacific have been described as mixed, where public and private sector operate in parallel. Gaps in the provision of primary health care (PHC) services have been picked up by the private sector and led to its growth; as can an enabling regulatory environment. The question whether governments should purchase services from the private sector to address gaps in service provision has been fiercely debated. This purposive review draws evidence from systematic reviews, and additional published and grey literature, for input into a policy brief on purchasing PHC-services from the private sector for underserved areas in the Asia Pacific region. Additional published and grey literature on vouchers and contracting as mechanisms to engage the private sector was used to supplement the conclusions from systematic reviews. We analysed the literature through a policy lens, or alternatively, a 'bottom-up' approach which incorporates components of a realist review. Evidence indicates that both vouchers and contracting can improve health service outcomes in underserved areas. These outcomes however are strongly influenced by (1) contextual factors, such as roles and functions attributable to a shared set of key actors (2) the type of delivered services and community demand (3) design of the intervention, notably provider autonomy and trust (4) governance capacity and provision of stewardship. Examining the experience of vouchers and contracting to expand health services through engagement with private sector providers in the Asia Pacific found positive effects with regards to access and utilisation of health services, but more importantly, highlighted the significance of contextual factors, appropriate selection of mechanism for services provided, and governance arrangements and stewardship capacity. In fact, for governments seeking to engage the private sector, analysis of context and capacities are potentially a more
Robichaud, Robert J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This session is focused on lessons learned from private sector energy projects that could be applied to the federal sector. This presentation tees up the subsequent presentations by outlining the differences between private and federal sectors in objectives, metrics for determining success, funding resources/mechanisms, payback and ROI evaluation, risk tolerance/aversion, new technology adoption perspectives, and contracting mechanisms.
Beskid, N.J.; Devgun, J.S.; Erickson, M.D.; Zielke, M.M.
This report describes the fiscal year 1990 procurement of contracts with the private sector and the current status of applied research and development conducted for DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD). This report documents the procurement actions, discusses lessons learned from this activity, and disseminates the results of the procurement to interested parties in DOE and in the private sector
Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.
Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia
and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....
Hansen, Annette Skovsted
New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....
Some considerations on the legal regulation of the process for public licitation, contracts and agreements on the establishment of educational partnerships between the government and the private sector
Adriana A. Dragone Silveira
Full Text Available Currently the joint between the public administration and the private sector assumes new contours in function of the of the Brazilian State reform, configuring itself as a trend that if it has accented in the educational area, in the São Paulo’s cities, from the municipalization (municipal ownership of elementary school education, with the consolidation of partnerships and agreements involving the purchase of educational private system’s for municipal education net’s, the vacant subvention in private entities and the hiring of private institutions, aiming at the elaboration of educational politics for the management municipal. (ADRIÃO, BORGHI, 2008. Thus being, this article to look for introduce and to analyze, from the national legislation, the procedures for the establishment of these different partnership’s modalities between the municipal government and private institutions, physical or corporation body, discussing the rules for the licitation process for the services and works hiring, property and consumer goods acquisition, for the contracts celebration and the accords establishment with social organizations to transfer it of public resources, to look for understand the legal possibilities for the introduction of the privatizations mechanisms in the education.
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The objective of the Private Sector Development Project activities of the 2005-2010 Cabo Verde Compact was to support Cabo Verde's long-term economic transformation...
Small businesses can be an important vehicle for .... Small and medium enterprises make up most of private businesses in the. Middle East ... Small businesses can drive more equi- table growth. ... patterns affect job creation and the demand ...
Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training ..... and ..structures that offer services to private sector enterprises and represent .... investment climate reform and the adoption of good governance practices. ..... Over two-thirds of the labour force in Jordan, the West Bank & Gaza, Iraq and Syria is in the service sector.
Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias
The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...... discusses some consequences of the public entities’ obligations to contract, more specific consequences for the use of rules that usually regulate contracts and the fact that obligations to contract imposed on public entities establish a new market and at the same time the obligations deprive the entities...... of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...
... use of private sector temporaries. Contracting officers may enter into contracts with temporary help service firms for the brief or intermittent use of the skills of private sector temporaries. Services... part 300, subpart E, Use of Private Sector Temporaries, and agency procedures. [56 FR 55380, Oct. 25...
This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...
OAK A271 This annual report for calendar year 1992 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract
OAK A271 This annual report for calendar year 1990 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract
Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development Program (Namibia) ... (NEPRU's other clients include regional and private sector institutions.) ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.
The Indian Government is currently thinking of allowing private sector to participate in power sector inviting private sector to generate electricity mainly from coal. The main motivation is resource mobilization from private sector, since the Plan funds are diverted to rural development away from power sector; and yet the massive expansion has to be financed. The paper analyzes the inherent difficulties and contradictions in the Government's proposal, such as co-existence of high cost private power and low cost public power, the potential goal-conflicts of private and public utilities and the constraints in raising finance. It suggests a different model in order to make the privatization proposition feasible. 12 refs
The national diarrheal disease control program has made progress against diarrheal illness in Indonesia, but diarrhea still accounts for 130,000 deaths of under-5 year olds annually. The potential of the private sector had been virtually untapped until the PRITECH Project designed and implemented a private sector based program to complement government efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea. PRITECH wanted to motivate commercial firms to invest the capital necessary to commercialize oral rehydration salts (ORS) so that program self-sufficiency would be maximized over the long term without depending upon donor support. Sections describe the lack of commercial sector ORS promotion, supply and demand factors, raising interest in ORS, conditions for change, the potential market for ORS, demand, production capacity, previous collaborative efforts, areas for improvement, PRITECH's role as catalyst, coordination with commercial companies, marketing workshops, collaboration with the Indonesian Medical Association, the handwashing campaign, and program impact. Although the program has been in place for just 1 year, sales of ORS have increased along with the degree of sustainable collaboration among local institutions. The author stresses that for the model to be successfully replicated elsewhere, the government, medical and pediatric associations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, groups which can promote oral rehydration therapy, and opinion leaders in the medical community must be involved. Finally, note is made that the image of ORS must be improved and that the work of the public and commercial sectors can be complementary.
Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Bozeman, Barry
are related to sector switching and the pattern of sector switch, public to private versus private to public. We propose a life stage model arguing that people's needs change in different life stages of their lives. We further suggest that this can help explain why they switch sector. We use unique Danish...... labor market data that include information on all employees in Denmark (both private and public sector). The data are for the period 1980 to 2006, and this longitudinal database includes abundant information about job changes, including sector switching. Our findings indicate mixed support....... Finally, we find that people with more education are likely to switch from private to public sector....
private sector . After all, corruption does not just involve government. Business people and lawyers and citizens pay the bribes, even as they condemn bribery. They should be invited to become part of the solution. But how? The first point to note is that business people and citizens know where corruption exists and how corrupt systems work. Citizens understand how bribery shapes the services they receive or don’t receive. Accountants know the illicit games played with audits and taxes. Lawyers understand corrupt legal practices. Business people know all about corrupt
ndupress .ndu.edu issue 46, 3d quarter 2007 / JFQ 127 Leveraging the Private Sector b y m i e m i e W i n n b y R d Major Miemie...the Private Sector 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...nongovernmental organizations, private sector , academia, and the U.S. Government (including the military). To attract all the necessary
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of inflation volatility on private sector credit growth. The results indicate that private sector credit growth is positively linked to the one period lagged inflation volatility. Given that past monetary policy actions continue to affect the targeted variables due to the substantial lags in the transmission mechanism, the positive response of private sector credit growth to past inflation volatility suggests a credible monetary policy regime in Uganda, which has led to a reduction in the level of macroeconomic uncertainty and the restoration of favorable economic conditions and prospects, thus increasing the demand for credit. Further, the study finds that the lagged private sector credit growth, nominal exchange rate, and inflation have a statistically significant effect on private sector credit growth while financial innovation, interest rates, and GDP growth appear not to be important determinants of private sector credit growth. The robustness of our findings is confirmed by sensitivity checks.
This report examines and analyzes technical and institutional issues associated with the use of private sector travel time and speed data for public sector performance management. The primary data needs for congestion performance measures are outline...
Ghana has a relatively good international reputation with respect to political stability and macroeconomic reforms. However, its success with developing the private sector and attracting investment has at best been mixed. Therefore the new government that came into power in 2001 proclaimed a "Golden Age of Business". Competitiveness and private sector development are closely interlinked. On the one hand the factors that influence the competitiveness of a country are a precondition for private...
private sector investigative sources or methods would be useful to the DoD for conducting national security background investigations. The federal government by and large examines more sources and conducts more thorough investigations than industry. In general, private employers (1) have less access to information about applicants...outsource many elements of background checks. It is recommended that the DoD periodically evaluate private sector screening programs and data sources in order to monitor
This annual report for calendar year 1989 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract
This annual report for calendar year 1991 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract
Egerod, Benjamin Carl Krag
colleagues -- who now work as lobbyists -- are. I document that when private sector career prospects improve, so does the probability that the average US senator leaves office to take a lobbying job. There is no effect immediately before a senator's pension scheme improves, and senators, who retire from...... working life after Congress or are elected to a safe seat, are unaffected by private sector career prospects. This indicates that senators react to opportunity costs associated with being in office. Finally, while the results suggest that certain ideological types are more attracted by private sector...
Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse
Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...
Full Text Available The involvement of the private sector in providing education for Syrian refugees has much to commend it but greater consideration needs to be paid to the ethical and practical concerns that may arise.
Due to a strike among nurses in the spring of 2008, the existing waiting time guarantee of one month was suspended until June 1, 2009. Regions turned to private hospitals to assist reducing the hump of patients. It has been claimed that the private sector used to be favorably treated by the Liber...
Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from
Alford, John; Greve, Carsten
Strategic concepts and practices first evolved in the private sector, so they evoked much controversy when they migrated to the public sector from the late 1970s onwards. Partly this was about their (in)applicability to the distinctive features of government organizations, in particular their focus...... on public as well as private value, their situation in a political rather than a market environment, their almost exclusive capacity to use legal authority to achieve purposes, and the extent to which they often need to share power over personnel and resources with other public sector agencies....... These and other factors complicated efforts to apply New Public Management and similar frameworks in strategy concepts in a governmental context. Partly also the traditional private-sector focus on single organizations did not resonate with the growth of network governance from the 1990s. The authors argue...
Atteridge, A.; Pauw, W.P.; Terpstra, P.; Bedini, F.; Bosi, L; Costella, C.
An emphasis on private finance has emerged in climate finance discussions, particularly in the context of international climate change negotiations. This is partly because the overall volume of finance needed to support adaptation in developing countries is beyond what many expect public finance to
Berry, J.B.; Jones, D.W.; Seeker, W.R.; Alex, L.J.
The cost of bringing DOE into compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act may be dramatically reduced if the private sector treats DOE mixed low level waste. If the DOE clearly defines this market by using national procurement contracts, the private sector will be able to decide if investing in DOE waste treatment contracts is good business. DOE can structure the mixed waste treatment market to influence the profitability of the contracts and to influence the quality of private sector responses. National procurement contracts will incorporate advice from the private sector so that issues of concern to industry are adequately incorporated
Berry, J.B.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Seeker, W.R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Alex, L.J. [Committee for Environmental Management, Washington (United States)
The cost of bringing DOE into compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act may be dramatically reduced if the private sector treats DOE mixed low level waste. If the DOE clearly defines this market by using national procurement contracts, the private sector will be able to decide if investing in DOE waste treatment contracts is good business. DOE can structure the mixed waste treatment market to influence the profitability of the contracts and to influence the quality of private sector responses. National procurement contracts will incorporate advice from the private sector so that issues of concern to industry are adequately incorporated.
Barberis, M; Paxman, J M
Private support for the development of family planning programs continues to grow and now includes industries that provide family planning services, commercial outlets that distribute contraceptives, community groups that help to build demand, private medical practitioners who include contraception as a part of health care, organizations that provide technical and financial assistance to developing country programs, pharmaceutical firms, and foundations that underwrite contraceptive research. Although the mix of private and public programs differs from country to country, these 2 family planning programs complement each other and often work in close partnership. The private sector has the advantages of being able to pioneer innovative programs the public sector is unwilling or unable to pursue, to bring foreign financial and technical assistance to developing countries without political implications, and to achieve financially self-sustaining family planning efforts that are linked to other development efforts. In many countries, the private sector has been instrumental in developing a national family planning program and in eliminating barriers to family planning in countries with restrictive laws and policies. The private sector has been especially important in pioneering grassroots programs that improve the status of women through education, health care, training, and economic opportunity.
Van Den Heever, A M
This paper discusses some of the trends, debates and policy proposals in relation to the financing of the private health sector in South Africa. The public and private sectors in South Africa are of equivalent size in terms of overall expenditure, but cover substantially different population sizes. Within this context the government has reached the unavoidable conclusion that the private sector has to play some role in ensuring that equity, access and efficiency objectives are achieved for the health system as a whole. However, the private sector is some way off from taking on this responsibility. Substantial increases in per capita costs over the past 15 years, coupled with a degree of deregulation by the former government, have resulted in increasing instability and volatility. The development of a very competitive medical scheme (health insurance) market reinforced by intermediaries with commercial interests has accelerated trends toward excluding high health risks from cover. The approach taken by the government has been to define a new environment which leaves the market open for extensive competition, but removes from schemes the ability to compete by discriminating against high health risks. The only alternatives left to the private market, policy makers hope, will be to go out of business, or to survive through productivity improvements.
Fisher, W H; Dorwart, R A; Schlesinger, M; Davidson, H
Purchasing human services through contracts with private providers has become an increasingly common practice over the past 20 years. Using data from a national survey of psychiatric inpatient facilities, this paper examines the extent to which psychiatric units in privately controlled general hospitals and private psychiatric specialty hospitals (N = 611) participate in contractual arrangements to provide services to governmental bodies. It also examines how the likelihood of such a practice is affected by hospital characteristics (general or specialty, for profit or nonprofit) and features of hospitals' environments, including the competitiveness of the market for psychiatric inpatient care and the population's need for services in the hospital's county. The findings indicate that nonprofit psychiatric specialty hospitals were more likely than other types of hospitals to enter into such contracts, and that forces such as local competition and need for services were not predictors of such involvement. Contracting was shown to have a significant impact on the level of referrals a hospital accepted, but these levels were also affected by competition and need. Among hospitals with public contracts, referral acceptance from public agencies was unaffected by these factors, but they did have a significant effect on referral acceptance by hospitals without public contracts. These data suggest that public agencies contracting for services with private hospitals may represent a means by which "public sector" patients may gain access to private providers. Further, this mechanism may impose sufficient structure and regulation on the acceptance of such patients that many concerns of hospital administrators regarding patients who are costly and difficult to treat and discharge can be allayed.
I briefet opsummerer Tina Magaard de vigtigste konklusioner fra konferencen ”Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan – a neglected match?”, som blandt andet gav indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Ved at kombinere perspektiver fra strategiske...... studier med forretnings- og udviklingsstudier tilbød konferencen en dybere indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Samtidig blev der åbnet en række nye perspektiver for interaktionen mellem den private sektor og stabiliseringsoperationer i en post-krigskontekst som...... Afghanistan. Selvom udgangspunktet var Afghanistan, er konferencens konklusioner i høj grad relevante for andre konflikt/post-konfliktområder. Konferencen var organiseret i et samarbejde mellem Centre for Business and Development Studies (Copenhagen Business School), Public-Private Platform (Copenhagen...
The world scene is sketched in which nuclear power already contributes 600 Mtce/year to world energy but where public attitudes in the developed world have become largely hostile. This is despite the proven technology of nuclear power, its safety record (Chernobyl notwithstanding) and its environmentally benign aspects. The United Kingdom government's determination to ensure a continuing role for nuclear power in a privatized electricity supply industry is seen against this background. The structure of the British nuclear power industry undoubtedly presents difficulties for privatization but solutions are available and precedents for private sector nuclear power exist in other countries. Private sector operators will be required to meet the exacting standards set by the independent licensing authority but in view of the public concern redoubled efforts and new approaches will be necessary in public persuasion. Waste disposal is another issue which may have implications for the acceptability of nuclear power in the public sector. Finally, the prospects for investment in new nuclear plant by private generation companies are examined. (U.K.)
Dr. Dirk Hansohm. Institution. Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit. Pays d' institution. Namibia. Site internet. http://www.nepru.org.na. Extrants. Rapports. Regional integration, trade and private sector development : final report. Contenus connexes. L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique ...
The state-owned utility Nuclear Electric, which is responsible for nuclear power generation in England and Wales, was created in 1990 following withdrawal of nuclear from electricity privatisation. Having successfully made itself much more commercial, Nuclear Electric would like the freedom of operating in the private sector. (author)
First tested in Mexico in 2003, and most recently applied in 2009 in Argentina, the World Bank has developed a model to incorporate gender equity into private sector organizations while simultaneously enhancing their business. Under the model, participating organizations conduct a self-diagnosis to identify gender biases and gaps in the operations. This baseline is then used to create and ...
Hydro-Quebec's successful partnership with the private sector, in particular with the consulting engineering profession, was highlighted, as an indication of the unprecedented economic activity generated by the public utility throughout its fifty year existence, and most noticeably since the 1960s, when the 'Quiet Revolution' of the Lesage government set the tone for favoring Quebec consulting firms. The Corporation's rapid growth also stimulated the development of the province's private engineering sector, and served as the incentive for electrical equipment manufacturers, and the source of new skills and enterprises emerging from environmental concerns. Special mention was made of the economic advances made by native peoples through their involvement in land clearing, excavation, construction, and provision and transportation of supplies to remote construction sites
Utkarsh Shah, Ragini Mohanty
This research paper attempts to collate literature from various sources, in an attempt to answer three pertinent questions related to healthcare in India. Firstly, what is it meant by ‘private sector’ in healthcare delivery system of India, secondly how has the private sector evolved over the decades and what has been the role of the government in propelling the growth. Finally, the paper tries to highlight some of the factors that have promoted the growth of private sector in India with spec...
Climate change and the private sector Private sector investment in climate change adaptation has ... Encouraging investments in adaptation This research will create an evidence base ... New project to improve water management in the Sahel.
Utkarsh Shah, Ragini Mohanty
Full Text Available This research paper attempts to collate literature from various sources, in an attempt to answer three pertinent questions related to healthcare in India. Firstly, what is it meant by ‘private sector’ in healthcare delivery system of India, secondly how has the private sector evolved over the decades and what has been the role of the government in propelling the growth. Finally, the paper tries to highlight some of the factors that have promoted the growth of private sector in India with specific reference to quality of medical care. The paper explicitly indicates that the deficiencies in the public health delivery system of India, was the key to growth of private infrastructure in healthcare.The shift of hospital industry for ‘welfare orientation’ to ‘business orientation’ was marked by the advent of corporate hospitals, supported by various policy level initiatives made by the government. Today, there are over 20 international healthcare brands in India with several corporate hospitals.However, a large section of the ‘private healthcare delivery segment’ is scattered and quality of medical care continues to remain a matter of concern. This paper tracks the various government initiatives to promote private investment in healthcare and attempts to explore the reasons for preference of the private sector. Surprisingly, in contrast to contemporary belief, quality of medical care doesn’t seem to be the leading cause for preference of the private sector. Except for a few select corporate and trust hospitals, quality of medical care in private sector seems to be poor and at times compromised.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement under private sector procedures... § 201.23 Procurement under private sector procedures. (a) General requirements. Procurements under private sector procedures will normally be carried out by importers using negotiated procurement...
van den Hurk, M.
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are known as challenging contractual endeavors to public sector managers, and governments are developing standard contracts in order to ease the contracting process toward PPP deals. This study examines the learning process governments go through while managing the
Fraud and corruption are strongly connected in the private sector and the level of corruption in the last few years remains very high, despite the efforts of governments to reduce it. It is well known that local and multinational companies are paying bribes in order to win public contracts or benefits. The level of fraud became very high during the economic crunch, due to the globalization and expansion of computer systems. All the data is on-line on the computer systems and has became very vulnerable. Thus, the governments are becoming more interested in securing the computer information and financial data.
The paper deals with the problems related to the private participation in the infrastructure projects developed mainly in the transient economies. The comparatively larger risk volatility of this economies is counterbalanced by the expected high return rates of these projects. In these circumstances the paper presents the possibility to use the World Bank Group support for enhancing the private sector investments. After a description of the type of support able to be given, some examples are presented related to an energy project in Pakistan and to two others in China. There is also given a synthesis concerning the potential places in Romania were such projects may be achievable. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 2 refs
private sector , security is a line management responsibility, particularly where goals and objectives, information protection, and protection of key assets are concerned. Each company in the corporate world has a different personality. The goals are pretty much the same, but once you get below that initial goal, then you go to beliefs. Some companies are very macho. Some companies won’t let a security man interview a suspect, some companies will. Companies are very hesitant to go th extremes. Companies are both image conscious and fundamentally ethical. They truly do
Thirtle, Colin G.; Srinivasan, Chittur S.; Heisey, Paul W.
Intellectual property protection, globalization, and pressure on public budgets in many industrialized countries have shifted the balance of plant breeding activity from the public to the private sector. Several economic factors influence the relative shares of public versus private sector plant breeding activity, with varying results over time, over country, and over crop. The private sector, for example, dominates corn breeding throughout the industrialized world, but public and private act...
Full Text Available It’s known in the literature that public-private partnerships (PPPs are one the main instruments that permit private collaboration in projects that are public otherwise. It’s also clear that their implementation is different depending on the rules of the countries, their market level of acceptance etc. The first objective of this paper is to revise PPPs projects in the water sector in Albania, seen in the context of alternative financing ways for joint-stock companies of Albanian water sector, due to the nature of the market (a developing emerging market, in the context of bad financial times after 2008 (the start of the international financial crisis. The second objective is to describe the development of the Albanian legislation for management contracts introduced for the first time in the waters and sanitation sector in 2004 and privatization practices in public sector. The main conclusion is that in the developing markets creating possibilities for private sector participation in the infrastructure public services (especially in the drinking water and sanitation sector will be seen with skepticism because of failed previous privatization practices or the sensitivity degree of the water sector related to the penetration level of private factor in the sector. Public finance will be explored as a convenient alternative.
Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs. It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011.
From the very beginning, HEU has been a government-to-government deal. And right fully so. These weapons were produced by the US and Russia over the course of the Cold War. The two superpowers should play the main role in their dismantlement. After all, these aren't cars or microcomputers we're talking about. They are weapons of mass destruction. One day, private business will profit from their dismantlement. But it is truly the responsibility of the US and Russian governments to accomplish the larger objective of the HEU deal: To destroy these weapons, once and for all. But if government can fulfill the role of moral overseer, there's no reason why the private sector should not be involved in implementing the plan. And there is no shortage of companies lining up for a piece of the business. The Russians are all ears. While a deal with the US is their main priority, they've spoken to a number of private companies about blending down and marketing the HEU. In recent months, several US companies have signed preliminary agreements with the Russians. But what actual business these agreements will lead to is very unclear
A public-private partnership contract has the character of a relational contract. Relational contracts are incomplete agreements governing transactions where the contracting parties have mutually agreed that it is impossible or economically inefficient to contractually define ex ante possible difficulties and contingencies in the contract implementation, nor the difficulties and contingencies underlying the ex post control of contract performance by a third entity (court or arbitration). Cons...
John Campbell; Craig McDonald; Tsholofelo Sethibe
This paper highlights systemic contextual differences and the unique IT Governance issues that might arise in public and private sector organizations. Public sector organizations constitute a significant component of economic activity in most countries. Like their private sector counterparts, many public sector agencies are struggling to cope with reduced or inadequate IT budgets and are continuously looking for ways to extract maximum value from IT resources. While both sectors face similar ...
Daniela Juliano Silva
Full Text Available In a scenario of successive changes, we are faced today with a "new" State of design (First Sector subsidiary and developer, embracing new contracting models, involving private non-profit institutions (Third Sector ahead of social services relevance (health, education, technology, among others. To comply with the obligations entered into with the public entity (end-obligations, this Third Sector performs hires (to perform their half-bonds with the second sector (market, where they operate Micro and Small Businesses. This study aims a reflective look at these contracts, usually the result of simplified bidding process in order to verify their specificities and whether they take place in compliance with the prerogatives and differential treatment meted especially those business companies (art. 170, X, SC / 1988. In this endeavor, it was decided, besides a literature review by an investigative approach from the point of view of three different social organizations that have management contracts in health care with public entities and therefore have signed contracts with ME and EPP for the fulfillment of their obligations to the government.
Full Text Available This paper highlights systemic contextual differences and the unique IT Governance issues that might arise in public and private sector organizations. Public sector organizations constitute a significant component of economic activity in most countries. Like their private sector counterparts, many public sector agencies are struggling to cope with reduced or inadequate IT budgets and are continuously looking for ways to extract maximum value from IT resources. While both sectors face similar managerial-level IT issues and challenges, we argue that there are systemic differences between private and public sector organizations suggesting that a one size fits all approach to IT Governance may not apply.
Ahmad Zazili Ainol Sarin
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the factors influencing retirement planning among young professionals in private sector. There are three factors identified in this research which includes financial literacy, job satisfaction and savings behavior. Data used for this study are primary and secondary data such as from journal articles, periodicals and textbooks. A questionnaire is distributed and administered to extract data from the respondents consist of executives, non-executives and managers around Klang Valley, aged between 20 - 34 years old. The data is analyzed using frequency analysis, reliability test and Pearson correlation in order to obtain a clear findings and results. The findings show that financial literacy, job satisfaction and savings behavior has a positive association towards retirement planning. Furthermore, it is shown that financial literacy and saving behavior have a significant relationship with retirement planning. It is hope that this study will inform and encourage the young professionals to save and invest for the retirement.
private sector . There are several trends that PCAST considers to fall specifically within context of university- private sector research partnerships. The first is the growing imbalance between the academic research capacity and the Federal research budget. The second development is the reduction in basic research performed by the industrial sector. Private foundations are expanding their capacity to fund research, a trend expected to be important in the future. Lastly, the accelerating speed of technological development requires new methods of
Stojchev, D.; Pyrvanov, V.
The ways of solving problems of the transition period to market economy are discussed. The current conditions in Bulgarian energy sector are defined taking into account different processes, stages, elements, objects. The criteria of the transition -economical. technological, organizational, social, ecological -and the problems - unemployment, requalification, privatization, contamination - are postulated. The recent experience of Bulgaria and other ex-communist countries in restructuring and privatization of the economy are considered. The scope of suitable approaches, methods, means and rates are outlined. The mechanisms of the tackled processes are analyzed by comparative investigation and management ways for impact on different levels are looked for. The possible consequences of given situation, advantages and shortcomings of different alternatives are formulated. The ways for assessment and selection of compromise solutions are proposed. An overall technology for assessment and application of different ways of transition is discussed. Their tools for business estimation of economic units, the legislative, economic and social aspects of the process are scrutiny observed. Some problems of a real example of application of proposed assessment are discussed. Conclusions about methodology and efficiency of different alternatives are made. 2 refs
MSc. Arbenita Kosumi
Full Text Available Our research on the topic set forth, "Discrimination of women in the private sector" has resulted in a detailed picture of the role and place of women in the overall socio-economic and political life in post-war Kosovo, by emphasising the problem of the employment process and other current problems, which women face on daily basis. Women, who constitute half of humanity, since the beginning of the era of patriarchy have faced discrimination, in social as well as economic and political aspects, and since then appeared barriers to their career development. This problem is present even today, in almost all countries of the world and is not peculiar only for Kosovo, however the problem in Kosovo appears to be more acute. This kind of discrimination comes as a result of various “reasons“: religious, social and cultural. In subsequent periods, especially during the last decade, women‘s participation in everyday life has begun to improve in all sectors of life, however it is still far from the desirable one. Our findings, which helped the completion of this research, lead us to conclude that women have been, are and continue to be discriminated against in all walks of life and so it will be, until the woman does not realise that her fate is in her own hands, namely not to ask a man to free space for her, but to fight in order to conquer it herself.
In 2006, the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) undertook a project entitled Regulation of the Private Security Sector in Africa that was supported by IDRC under project 103396. The project focused on the private security sector in South Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda. The research reports were ...
adopts that definition in the conduct of its censuses and by that, recorded eight .... Since the 1990s, private sector participation in public utilities and service .... The government of Ghana through the Urban Environmental and Sanitation ..... Framework Document: A Survey of Theoretical Issues on Private Sector Participation.
There is a growing requirement for decommissioning of redundant nuclear facilities. This has led to a number of opportunities for private sector organisations to carry out the work. This paper, based on two actual projects in the United Kingdom, outlines the input required from private sector contractors in executing such work. (author)
16, 17, 18, or equivalent public law positions) and private sector managers and executives in terms of job content, job characteristics, and...2) both groups of managers indicate that they do not have time for reflective, systematic planning, and (3) public and private sector managers agree
Department is successfully attracting the most innovative ideas and offerings from the private sector outside of its traditional supplier base?; and second...are that the DoD is not attracting the most innovative offerings of the private sector , and that it is losing some of its traditional suppliers. This
Full Text Available A public-private partnership contract has the character of a relational contract. Relational contracts are incomplete agreements governing transactions where the contracting parties have mutually agreed that it is impossible or economically inefficient to contractually define ex ante possible difficulties and contingencies in the contract implementation, nor the difficulties and contingencies underlying the ex post control of contract performance by a third entity (court or arbitration. Considering the methodology of managing relational contracts, it is essential that the theory of relational contracts does not advocate for the establishment of relational contracts as a separate category of contracts, with specifically designated contractual instruments. This theory defines the relational contract as a category which legitimizes 'the relational mode' of a particular contract. The methodology of relational contracts is important for contracts on public-private partnership as it ensures that the contractual relationship is aligned with the changes in the immediate environment where the PPP contract operates. The aforementioned alignment has two aspects. The first one is the ex ante aspect of the alignment which is primarily aimed at preventing the detrimental effect of such alignment to the public partner's interests. Therefore, the intent to prevent such an effect shall be taken into account when defining the criteria for the selection of the most favorable private partner and the best offer. At the same time, it is essential to establish verifiable standards for measuring the private partner performance in the phase of contract implementation. For this goal to be achieved, it is crucial to specify the subject matter of the private partner's obligations, to establish the priority rank of PPP project objectives, to elaborate on the specific requirements governing the eligibility of private partners to participate in the bidding process, to specify
A survey of private sector developers, users, and interpreters of Earth resources data was conducted in an effort to encourage private investment and participation in remote sensing systems. Results indicate positive interest in participation beyond the current hardware contracting level, however, there is a substantial gap between current market levels and system costs. Issues identified include the selection process for an operating entity, the public/private interface, data collection and access policies, price and profit regulation in a subsidized system, international participation, and the responsibility for research and development. It was agreed that the cost, complexity, and security implications of integrated systems need not be an absolute bar to their private operation.
Allen, Luke; Bloomfield, Ashley
All around the world private enterprises influence health through the sale of both harmful and health-promoting commodities, as well as lobbying and marketing activities. As globalisation further strengthens the role of the private sector as a major driver of the non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, engaging with the private sector to prevent and control these conditions has become increasingly important. In recognition of this fact, the 2011 UN High-Level Political Declaration on NCDs2 c...
Ahmadi, Ayat; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Gholami, Jaleh; Majdzadeh, Reza
A small proportion of physicians adhere to tuberculosis (TB) notification regulations, particularly in the private sector. In most developing countries, the private sector has dominance over delivering services in big cities. In such circumstances deviation from the TB treatment protocol is frequently happening. This study sought to estimate TB notification in the private sector and settle on determinants of TB notification by private sector physicians. A population-based study has been conducted; private physicians at their clinics were interviewed. The total number of 443 private sectors' physicians has been chosen by the stratified random sampling method. Appropriate descriptive analysis was used to describe the study's participants. Logistic regression was used for bivariable and multivariable analysis. The response rate of the study was 90.06 (399%). Among responders, who had stated that they were suspicious of TB over the recent year, 62 (16.45%) stated that they reported cases of TB at least once during the same period. Having reporting requirements and the number of visited patients was significantly related to TB suspicious (odds ratio = 2.84, confidence interval: 1.62-5, P private sector by simple and quick interventions. It seems that a considerable fraction of private sector physicians, not all of them, will notify TB if they are provided with primary information and primary resources. To optimize the TB notification, however, intersectoral interventions are more likely to be successful.
Paulo Aguiar do Monte
Full Text Available It has been widely assumed in the literature that public sector organization operates in a different way compared to private sector organization. This paper intends to contribute to develop further this issue by investigating whether the relationship between worker efforts differs significantly both in the public and in the private sector. By drawing on data from the Monthly Employment Survey (PME, Brazil 2003–2012, and proxies for worker effort (unpaid overtime work and absences, it was observed, initially, significant differences between worker’s profiles depending on the sector they are employed. In turn, the estimation results of the dynamic panel models confirm that the level of worker effort alters according to their switches from one sector to another in the labor market. Briefly, public sector workers do not tend to do unpaid overtime work comparable to those in private sector, and they are more likely to be absent at work.
Hartog, J.; Oosterbeek, H.
There is much debate in the Netherlands about underpayment of public-sector workers relative to private-sector workers. In this paper, the authors analyze the wage structures in both sectors using an endogenous switching regression model. Unlike previous Dutch studies, the authors find that the
Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), finds that the concept of franch...
Marutani, Miki; Okada, Yumiko; Hasegawa, Takashi
We clarified collaborations between public health nurses (PHNs) and the private sector, such as nonprofit organizations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 private sector organizations and 13 PHNs who collaborate with them between December 2012 to October 2013. Interview guides were: overall suicide preventive measurements, details of collaboration between private sector organizations and PHNs, and suicide prevention outcomes/issues. Data from private sector organizations and PHNs were separately analyzed and categories created using qualitative and inductive design. Private sector organizations' and PHNs' categories were compared and separated into core categories by similarities. Six categories were created: 1. establishing a base of mutual understanding; 2. raising public awareness of each aim/characteristic; 3. competently helping high suicidal risk persons detected during each activity; 4. guarding lives and rehabilitating livelihoods after intervention; 5. restoring suicide attempters/bereaved met in each activity; and 6. continuing/expanding activities with reciprocal cohesion/evaluation. PHNs are required to have the following suicide prevention tasks when collaborating with private sector organizations: understanding the private sector civilization, sharing PHN experiences, improving social determinants of health, meeting basic needs, supporting foundation/difficulties each other (Dear editor. Thank you for kind comments. I was going to explain that PHNs and NPOs support each other their foundation of activity and difficulties in their activities. The foundations include knowledge, information, budgets, manpower etc. The difficulties mean like suffering faced with suicide during activities.), and enhancing local governments' flexibilities/ promptness.
This article shows that variations in how two UK governments justified contracting-out (issue framing), combined with shifting sector-derived incentives for union activism (sector character), can help explain the extent of contracting-out. Janitorial service, an activity of the UK government......, and its reform faced unions that stood to lose a great deal from movement of janitorial jobs to private firms. In contrast, the New Labour government framed contracting-out broadly, as a means to efficient social justice, and faced unions with low stakes in government janitors. As a consequence, UK...
Duncan, Deirdre J.; Duncan, Robyn M.
Explores contract law governing relationships between the student and school authorities, the teacher and the school, and the school and third parties in Australian private schools. Shows that government schools do not meet the conditions for enforceable contracts under Australian law. Includes seven references. (MLH)
Peters, David H; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hansen, Peter M
The private health sector provides a significant portion of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in developing countries. Yet little is known about which strategies for intervening with private providers can improve quality or coverage of services. We conducted a systematic review of the literature through PubMed from 1980 to 2003 to assess the effectiveness of private sector strategies for SRH services in developing countries. The strategies examined were regulating, contracting, financing, franchising, social marketing, training and collaborating. Over 700 studies were examined, though most were descriptive papers, with only 71 meeting our inclusion criteria of having a private sector strategy for one or more SRH services and the measurement of an outcome in the provider or the beneficiary. Nearly all studies (96%) had at least one positive association between SRH and the private sector strategy. About three-quarters of the studies involved training private providers, though combinations of strategies tended to give better results. Maternity services were most commonly addressed (55% of studies), followed by prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (32%). Using study design to rate the strength of evidence, we found that the evidence about effectiveness of private sector strategies on SRH services is weak. Most studies did not use comparison groups, or they relied on cross-sectional designs. Nearly all studies examined short-term effects, largely measuring changes in providers rather than changes in health status or other effects on beneficiaries. Five studies with more robust designs (randomized controlled trials) demonstrated that contraceptive use could be increased through supporting private providers, and showed cases where the knowledge and practices of private providers could be improved through training, regulation and incentives. Although tools to work with the private sector offer considerable promise, without stronger research
Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg
Sector switching is interesting in relation to understanding how to get and keep people working in the public sector as well as to understand public and private differences. This paper focuses on why public employees leave public organizations to work in the private sector. We use a design studying...... higher educated Danish employees who recently worked in the state, comparing those who shift job to another public organization with those who switch to the private sector. We focus on different motives for job shifts which may influence sector switching such as salary, job security, organizational...... characteristics and public service motivation....
This manual deals fundamentally with the drafting of contracts for the electricity sector. It covers all types of contracts on both the customer and the network side with their various special clauses and variants, specifically: basic supply, substitute supply, supply contracts for private, commercial and industrial special customers as well as redistributors, EFET contracts, network access contracts, supplier framework contracts, feed-in contracts, grid connection contracts and connection use contracts. The manual also addresses questions concerning electricity customer insolvency, an issue of growing importance. The following topics are furthermore dealt with in a practically oriented manner and with care being taken to explain the underlying legal issues in readily understandable language. What basic framework conditions are specified by the new energy economy laws and general civil law? What possibilities are available in drafting contracts and what are the ramifications in each case? What subject matters in a contract are of particular economic significance? How can concession contracts be designed in a market-conforming way when there is strong competition for qualified rights of way? What opportunities and risks are associated with innovative products? What options for action does a supplier have in the event of (threatening) customer insolvency? Model contracts from day-to-day management practice and tips, checklists and cautioning notes round off this manual.
...] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency...) announces its adoption of three standards for the Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification... DHS to develop and implement a Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness Accreditation and Certification...
Wendling, Wayne R
This paper addresses the private practice model of dental care delivery in the US. The great majority of dental care services are delivered through this model and thus changes in the model represent a means to substantially change the supply and availability of dental services. The two main forces that change how private practices function are broad economic factors, which alter the demand for dental care and innovations in practice structure and function which alter the supply and cost of services. Economics has long recognized that although there are private market solutions for many issues, not all problems can be addressed through this model. The private practice of dentistry is a private market solution that works for a substantial share of the market. However, the private market may not work to resolve all issues associated with access and utilization. Solutions for some problems call for creative private - public arrangements - another form of innovation; and market-based solutions may not be feasible for each and every problem. This paper discusses these economic factors and innovation as they relate to the private practice of dentistry, with special emphasis on those elements that have increased the capacity of the dental practice to offer services to those with limited means to access fee-based care. Innovations are frequently described as new care delivery models or new workforce models. However, innovation can occur on an ongoing and regular basis as dental practices examine new ways to combine capital and human resources and to leverage the education and skill of the dentists to a greater number of patients. Innovation occurs within a market context as the current and projected economic returns reward the innovation. Innovation can also occur through private-public arrangements. There are indications of available capacity within the existing delivery system to expand service delivery. The Michigan Medicaid Healthy Kids Dental program is discussed as
Galletly, Cherrie A; Turnbull, Carol; Goldney, Robert
One in four psychiatric beds in Australia are located in the private sector, and more than half of Australian psychiatrists undertake private work. However, nearly all medical student teaching in psychiatry takes place in public hospitals. This paper explores the learning opportunities in the private sector. We report the South Australian experience; medical students have been taught in Ramsay Health Care (SA) Mental Health facilities for more than 23 years. Our experience demonstrates that clinical teaching in private hospitals is sustainable and well accepted by students, patients and clinicians. The private sector has the capacity to make a much greater contribution to medical student training in psychiatry. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Prevalence of chronic diseases in private healthcare sector of South Africa: A threat to public health. Lourens Johannes Rothmann, Martha Susanna Lubbe, Jan Hendrik Philippus Serfontein, Jan Jakobus Gerber, Madeeha Malik ...
Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential of the private sector to take medium- or longterm responsibility for the operation and/or maintenance of elements of infrastructure owned by municipalities....
Apr 26, 2009 ... At the same time, however, traditional sources of research funding – from ... Fuelling Economic Growth: The Role of Public–Private Sector ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.
Graversen, Brian Krogh; Jensen, Peter
This paper evaluates the employment effects of active labour market programmes for Danish welfare benefit recipients, focusing on private sector employment (PSE) programmes. Using a latent variable model that allows for heterogeneous treatment effects among observationally identical persons, we...
Economic and Extension, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria ... This paper critically attempts to assess the performance of the private sector ... economy would depend to a large extent on the quantity ..... New York, USA: McGraw.
Apr 10, 2014 ... In helping developing countries pursue private sector development strategies ... rates of entrepreneurship are generally much higher in developing ... Mini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women in Peru.
Van der Heijden, J.J.
Facing issues with regulatory enforcement through municipal agencies, governments in Australia have reformed the enforcement of public building regulations. As a result, the private sector has been introduced in building regulatory enforcement regimes with differences amongst jurisdictions. In this
A recent dramatic slowdown in the rate at which private-sector spending for health insurance increases each year has raised many questions about the meaning of the trend and its implications for the future...
Perceived Impact of Private Sector Involvement In Water Supply on the Urban Poor in Dar es Salaam. ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Dar es Salaam is not perceived to be a panacea to the water problems facing the urban poor.
Zweimuller, Jopsef; Winter- Ebmer, Rudolf
In this study gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs in Austria are calculated. Occupational attainment is considered as endogeneous by the use of an ordered response model. Results show that wage discrimination is also present in the public sector,though on a lower level. Both in private firms and for public servants a substantial part of this unwarranted differential is due to unequal professional advancement.
Brailovskiy Ilya A.
The article is devoted to analysis of interests that stimulate a private partner to joint activity with the state and advantages they obtain from realisation of projects of the state-private partnership (SPP). It marks out main features and fields of application of the state-private partnership. It underlines that an important prerequisite for motivation of the private sector to enter into partnership relations with the state is observance of clear law competent formal rules in the institutio...
Catt, Andrew D.
Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector is the second entry in the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "School Survey Series." This report synthesizes information on Ohio's private schools collected by the U.S. Department of Education and the Ohio Department of Education (ODE). Two appendices provide supplementary tables and…
This research note analyzes differences in the number of absent working days and doctor visits and in their cyclicality between private sector, public sector and self-employed workers. For this purpose, I used large-scale German survey data for the years 1995 to 2007 to estimate random effects negative binomial (count data) models. The main findings are as follows. (i) Public sector workers have on average more absent working days than private sector and self-employed workers. Self-employed workers have fewer absent working days and doctor visits than dependent employed workers. (ii) The regional unemployment rate is on average negatively correlated with the number of absent working days among private and public sector workers as well as among self-employed men. The correlations between regional unemployment rate and doctor visits are only significantly negative among private sector workers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Melik, R.G. van; Aalst, I. van; Weesep, J. van
Relatively rare in the Netherlands. The public sector has traditionally played a central role in spatial planning and development. Since the 1980s, however, local authorities have been sharing the responsibility for urban development with the private sector. This article explores the viability of
Thomas, J.A.; Ross, S.R.
The investigation was performed to delineate the legal and financial considerations for establishing private sector support for the planning and development of an independent spent-fuel storage facility (ISFSF). The preferred institutional structure was found to be one in which a not-for-profit corporation contracts with a limited partnership to handle the spent fuel. The limited partnership acquires the necessary land and constructs the ISFSF facility and then leases the facility to the not-for-profit corporation, which acquires spent-fuel rods from the utilities. The DOE must agree to purchase the spent-fuel rods at the expiration of term and warrant continued operation of the facility if policy changes at the federal level force the removal of the rods prior to completion of the contracted storage cycle. The DOE planning base estimate of spent-fuel storage requirements indicates a market potential adequate to support 10,000 MTU or more of spent-fuel storage prior to the time a government repository is available to accept spent fuel around the turn of the century. The estimated construction cost of a 5000-MTU water basin facility is $552 million. The total capital requirements to finance such a facility are estimated to be $695 million, based on an assumed capital structure of 70 percent debt and 30 percent equity. The estimated total levelized cost of storage, including operating costs, for the assumed 17-year life of the facility is $223 per kilogram of uranium. This is equivalent to a slightly less than one mill per kilowatt-hour increase in nuclear fuel costs at the nuclear power station that was the source of the spent fuel. In conclusion, within the context of the new Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the study points to both the need for and the advantages of private sector support for one or more ISFSFs and establishes a workable mechanism for the recovery of the costs of owning and operating such facilities. 3 figures, 4 tables
De Costa, Ayesha; Diwan, Vinod
This paper aims to empirically demonstrate the size and composition of the private health care sector in one of India's largest provinces, Madhya Pradesh. It is based on a field survey of all health care providers in Madhya Pradesh (60.4 million in 52,117 villages and 394 towns). Seventy-five percent of the population is rural and 37% live below poverty line. This survey was done as part of the development of a health management information system. The distribution of health care providers in the province with regard to sector of work (public/private), rural-urban location, qualification, commercial orientation and institutional set-up are described. Of the 24,807 qualified doctors mapped in the survey, 18,757 (75.6%) work in the private sector. Fifteen thousand one hundred forty-two (80%) of these private physicians work in urban areas. The 72.1% (67793) of all qualified paramedical staff work in the private sector, mostly in rural areas. The paper empirically demonstrates the dominant heterogeneous private health sector and the overall the disparity in healthcare provision in rural and urban areas. It argues for a new role for the public health sector, one of constructive oversight over the entire health sector (public and private) balanced with direct provision of services where necessary. It emphasizes the need to build strong public private partnerships to ensure equitable access to healthcare for all.
Tuominen, Risto; Eriksson, Anna-Leena; Vahlberg, Tero
The aim was to evaluate whether contracted private practitioners assess required treatment more extensive, demanding and economically more rewarding than mainly salaried public sector dentists and to estimate the cost consequences of using these alternative providers. All dental services included in comprehensive treatments funded by the city of Turku and provided to adult patients during the year 2009 were recorded. Patients were distributed randomly without any determination of treatment needs before appointing them to different dentists. Treatment courses for 7432 patients in public clinics included 63 906 procedures and for 2932 patients assigned to treatment by contracted private practitioners included 21 194 procedures. Public sector dentists were mainly salaried with production incentives, and private practitioners worked purely on a fee-for-service basis. The cost estimates were based on the distributions of competence classifications recorded by the providers, which also formed the basis for reimbursement. For each studied treatment category with more than one competence classification, private contractors were less likely than their public sector counterparts to give an assessment of simple or less demanding: 8% versus 29% of examinations, 46% versus 69% of periodontal treatments, 63% versus 85% of extractions, 31% versus 46% of fillings, 18% versus 35% of root canals. The excess cost to society varied from 7.0% for root canal treatments to 21.3% for extractions, causing on average 14.4% higher cost level from use of private practitioners compared with public sector dentists. Private practitioners systematically classified the treatment procedures they provided as more demanding, and therefore more economically rewarding, than their public sector counterparts. The findings indicate that the costs of publicly funded dental care may be increased by the use of private dental contractors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available Privatization of the security sector is considered a new phenomenon in the post communist society. The security system has been under a total monopol of the state institutions. Therefore, even the legal adjustment of this system is considered that only state institutions are entitled for provision of the security services, by excluding participation of civic organizations from this activity. Beside this, state enterprises have been obliged to establish its safet structures for property protection and involved employers in enterprises. Immediately after the conflictual period the privatization of the security sector was rapidly increased, including various parts of society. In Kosovo immediately after the conflictual period there was legal gaps, which means that the private security sector has not been adjusted and as a result of this has been uncontrolled and without supervision. Therefore in 2000 the UNMIK administration has undertaken measures and has carried out the first act which has regulated this sector in Kosova. The draft law has undergone significant changes starting from the title. Saying in more common manner, “Draft law for private security” is amended in the LAW no. 04/L-004.2001 for private security services, and this amendment of the private security sector is based in the above mentioned law.
Day, Jamison M; Strother, Shannon; Kolluru, Ramesh; Booth, Joseph; Rawls, Jason; Calderon, Andres
Public sector emergency management is more effective when it coordinates its efforts with private sector companies that can provide useful capabilities faster, cheaper and better than government agencies. A business emergency operations centre (EOC) provides a space for private sector and non-governmental organisations to gather together in support of government efforts. This paper reviews business-related EOC practices in multiple US states and details the development of a new business EOC by the State of Louisiana, including lessons learned in response to the May 2010 oil spill.
This article begins by examining the role of records management in private organizations. It identifies the major reason why organizations ought to manage their records effectively and efficiently. Its major emphasis is that a sound records management programme is a pre-requisite to quality management system programme ...
Poh, Din Kiat
This management project seeks to understand the sources of motivation and the types of psychological contracts prevalent amongst employees in Singapore's private banking industry. Singapore's private banking industry had seen tremendous growth in the last few years with the Government's push to make it the Switzerland of Asia. This growth has resulted in high demand for talent and high turnover rates. It is often said that money is not the key reason why people stayed motivated. Part of this ...
McGregor, Alecia J; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Blendon, Robert J
This study analyzed several political determinants of increased private-sector management in Brazilian health care. In Brazil, the poor depend almost exclusively on the public Unified Health System (the SUS), which remains severely underfunded. Given the overhead costs associated with privately contracted health services, increased private management is one driver of higher expenditures in the system. Although left parties campaign most vocally in support of greater public control of the SUS, the extent to which their stated positions translate into health care policy remains untested. Drawing on multiple publicly available data sources, we used linear regression to analyze how political party-in-power and existing private sector health care contracting affect the share of privately managed health care services and outsourcing in municipalities. Data from two election periods-2004 to 2008 and 2008 to 2012-were analyzed. Our findings showed that although private sector contracting varies greatly across municipalities, this variation is not systematically associated with political party in power. This suggests that electoral politics plays a relatively minor role in municipal-level health care administration. Existing levels of private sector management appear to have a greater effect on the public-private makeup of the Brazilian healthcare system, suggesting a strong role of path dependence in the evolution of Brazilian health care delivery. Despite campaign rhetoric asserting distinct positions on privatization in the SUS, factors other than political party in power have a greater effect on private-sector health system management at the municipal-level in Brazil. Given the limited effect of elections on this issue, strengthening participatory bodies such as municipal health councils may better enfranchise citizens in the fundamental debate over public and private roles in the health care sector.
We look at climate-smart agriculture, which as originally defined by the FAO, is an ... In other places, I may identify key gender issues in a region or in a sector, and ... and young people in these communities to actively participate in agricultural ...
Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim
This paper explores the apparent paradox that while public sector auditors have become more powerful by claiming performance auditing expertise and linking this to New Public Management reforms, the same reforms have provided an opening for competition between private and public sector auditors....... In Denmark, the competitive relation has led to a jurisdictional dispute between public and private sector auditors in which the former have developed a special qualification for public sector auditors. The paper analyses the development of this qualification using Abbott's (1988) theory of the system...... of professions, thus focusing on how the involved groups have attempted to build networks of support for their competing jurisdictional claims of expertise. The case contributes to knowledge about the potential for development of a distinct public sector auditor identity. The case suggests that to develop...
Bellanca, Raffaella; Wilson, Emma
The UN's Sustainable Energy for All initiative (SE4ALL) has a strong focus on the private sector to deliver universal energy access, improved efficiency and increased investment in renewable energy. Leading private sector associations have bought into SE4ALL, including the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the Global Compact. However, critics argue that SE4ALL is focusing too much on large-scale infrastructure investment and is missing opportunities to stimulate enterprise more locally and to benefit the poorest. The private sector – including large and smaller-scale businesses, both local and international – is keen to get involved in energy access in low-income markets and sees the value of an initiative such as SE4ALL. Yet some feel that SE4ALL is failing to engage all levels of the private sector effectively. To deliver universal energy access, SE4ALL needs to address the lack of finance for enterprises and end users, especially in untested markets; infrastructure and support services for new businesses; local skills, capacity and information about workable models; and favourable policy frameworks. With the right incentives, business can open up low-income markets by providing lifeimproving services to emerging middle class populations who are still excluded from energy access. To reach the poorest SE4ALL can promote private sector partnerships with government and NGOs, encourage corporate responsibility initiatives and support social entrepreneurs.
Bellanca, Raffaella; Wilson, Emma
The UN's Sustainable Energy for All initiative (SE4ALL) has a strong focus on the private sector to deliver universal energy access, improved efficiency and increased investment in renewable energy. Leading private sector associations have bought into SE4ALL, including the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the Global Compact. However, critics argue that SE4ALL is focusing too much on large-scale infrastructure investment and is missing opportunities to stimulate enterprise more locally and to benefit the poorest. The private sector – including large and smaller-scale businesses, both local and international – is keen to get involved in energy access in low-income markets and sees the value of an initiative such as SE4ALL. Yet some feel that SE4ALL is failing to engage all levels of the private sector effectively. To deliver universal energy access, SE4ALL needs to address the lack of finance for enterprises and end users, especially in untested markets; infrastructure and support services for new businesses; local skills, capacity and information about workable models; and favourable policy frameworks. With the right incentives, business can open up low-income markets by providing lifeimproving services to emerging middle class populations who are still excluded from energy access. To reach the poorest SE4ALL can promote private sector partnerships with government and NGOs, encourage corporate responsibility initiatives and support social entrepreneurs.
Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to determine the situation of the public-private partnership model in agriculture sector, which has been started to apply in Turkey since 1980’s and in which an extensive increase has been observed in the number of projects in some fields such as airport, hospital, electric, etc. in recent years. In this scope, the legislation and the practices related to public-private partnership in Turkish agricultural sector have been examined after referring the literature, development process, features, advantages/disadvantages and various models of public-private partnership model, and the situation in the World and Europe respectively. The findings collected indicate that the public-private partnership model has been applied especially in major-substructure projects such as construction of electric, airport, road and healthcare facilities in Turkey since 1990, and that the budget allocated into the projects of agricultural sector has been quite low in comparison with other fields, although the number of projects executed in agriculture sector has been quite much. However, it is predicted that the practices of public-private partnership in agriculture sector in Turkey will increase much more in line with the legislative arrangements implemented and increasing experience in the projects.
This presentation discussed the development of infrastructure in the electricity sector with particular reference to public-private partnerships and project finance. Emerging markets that encourage private-sector investment were presented along with recommendations to negotiate power purchase agreements involving small-scale hydroelectric power; a thermal power plant at Suroit, Quebec; and, wind energy in Quebec's Gaspe Peninsula. Interconnection to the provincial power grid was also reviewed with reference to the risk faced by the promoters of a project in terms of project design, construction, financing, production and maintenance. The risks faced by Hydro-Quebec were also discussed along with risk allocations between the private and public sectors. tabs., figs
Yap, Raymond; Cullinan, Mark
Training in medicine and surgery has been a public hospital responsibility in Australia. Increasing specialist training needs has led to pressure on speciality societies to find additional training posts, with one utilized solution being the establishment of private hospital training. This growing use has been despite no previously published evaluations of private hospital training in Australia. This article seeks to evaluate the feasibility of surgical training in private hospitals in appendicectomy. Data were prospectively collected on registrar involvement in appendicectomy cases at a single private tertiary institution over 1 year. These data were divided into groups according to registrar involvement and analysed, looking at training caseload, operating theatre time and complications. A total of 122 cases were analysed over the study period. Registrars were more likely to have increased primary operator responsibility if they were an accredited versus unaccredited registrar (P = 0.04) and if the case was open versus laparoscopic (P difference in complications whether the registrar was involved or not. Training in the private sector in Australia appears feasible, with a small loss of efficiency and no increase in complications. This article hopes to further encourage implementation and evaluation of private sector training programs to expand current training positions. Further studies, in different specialty and procedural domains, are needed to assess and evaluate the ongoing feasibility of private sector training. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification process for private-sector entities. 652... ASSISTANCE Certification § 652.23 Certification process for private-sector entities. (a) A private sector... individual basis as part of the private-sector entity's certification and ensures that the requirements set...
Lau, Cheng Man Diana; Yuen, Pong Kau
The development of private higher education in Macau has experienced rapid growth in the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to understand this trend by investigating the facts and figures supplied by official sources and to analyze the role between the Government and the private sector. This paper shows that the attitude of the Macau…
Young, G. A.
Operationally, full employment can be accomplished by applying modern computer capabilities, game and decision concepts, and communication feedback possibilities, rather than accepted economic tools, to the problem of assuring invariant full employment. The government must provide positive direction to individual firms concerning the net number of employees that each firm must hire or refrain from hiring to assure national full employment. To preserve free enterprise and the decision making power of the individual manager, this direction must be based on each private firm's own numerical employment projections.
...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), (90 as of June 1, 2010) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...
...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 87 (as of July 1, 2011) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...
...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 85 (as of June 2013) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...
...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 82 (as of April, 2012) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...
Aliyu Mamman, Ph.D
Full Text Available The real sector is a strategic component of an economy because it produces and distributes tangible goods and services required to satisfy aggregate demand in the economy. For this reason, there is the need for adequate credit flow from the banking industry to the real sector, which in the Nigerian case, the credit flow has been grossly inadequate. This study is carried out to examine the impact of credit to private sector (CPS on the real sector of Nigeria with a view to assess the significant contribution of CPS to real sector growth in Nigeria. The study used aggregate time series data from 1986 to 2010, which was drawn from central bank of Nigeria (CBN statistical bulletin and CBN annual report and statement of accounts. The data was analysed using multiple regression and based on the coefficient of determination (R square, the study reveals a 96.1% variation between the CPS and real sector growth in Nigeria. The study cocludes that there is a statistically significant impact of credit to private sector on the real sector of Nigeria. This, suggest that the performance of the real sector is greatly influence by credit to private sector. The study recommends that the federal government of Nigeria through the central bank of Nigeria (CBN should enhance the financing of the real sector as well as improve credit flow to the sector because of its strategic importance in creating and generating growth of the economy.
van der Laan, G.; Ruys, P.H.M.; Talman, A.J.J.
This paper deals with the optimal provision of infrastructure by means of public-private partnership contracts.In the economic literature infrastructure is characterized as a large, indivisible and non-rival capital good that produces services for its users.Users can be both consumers and producers.
This article describes compensation contracts in private equity. It shows that they may not align interest between the investors and fund managers as much as commonly thought. Certain clauses appear as potentially hazardous for investors and others exacerbate conflicts of interest.
National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC.
The results of a 2-year study on the interactions between government and private sector information activities are presented in terms of principles and guidelines for federal policy to support the development and use of information resources, products, and services, and to implement the principles. Discussions address sources of conflict between…
The world food crisis, exacerbated by accelerating climate change and the global financial crisis, requires that agricultural scientists solve ever more complex problems. Public–private partnerships will play a more critical role in developing agricultural technologies for developing nations to improve farm productivity and alleviate global hunger. In order to make public–private partnerships work, we must move from the ‘sector mentality’ and focus on combinatorial solutions resolving the mos...
One potential advantage of compact fusion devices is the reduced time span from concept to commercialization. This, in turn, may make it possible to support such efforts with funds from the private sector. Other factors that are important for attracting funds include a unique (or clever) approach and a strong technical staff. The history of the GA Technology's ohmically heated toroidal experiment is briefly reviewed as an example of a privately funded project
Nleya , Paul ,
International audience; The study investigated eLearning attitudes in Botswana’s private sector. Selected companies in Gaborone, (Botswana) served as the unit of analysis. The study used a multi-pronged approach for data collection. The results show positive attitudes towards eLearning. However, current organizational policy did not accommodate training via eLearning. The results also suggest that eLearning counters threat of national and international private seizure of employee markets. All...
Akhtar, Iram; Cheema, Khaliq Ur Rehman
The purpose of this study is to analyze the performance in context of student learning of principals in public sector and private sector schools. For this purpose five main domains were used as variables are: 1) teaching, learning and professional growth, 2) Inter-personal and inter-professional relationship and collaboration, 3) Parent and faculty involvement in decision making, 4) Vision and values, 5) Innovation and change. The population for this study was selected randomly. The target sa...
Codruța OSOIAN; Monica ZAHARIE
The capacity to attract highly skilled human resources is dependent on the employee recruitment process implemented by organizations, which plays an important role for their competitiveness on the market. As the concern for the success of the recruitment process in public sectors is becoming more salient, the present study compares the use of recruitment practices in public and private sectors through a survey applied to 97 organizations. It also explores the outcomes in terms of quantity and...
This document discusses about the current scenario of power sectors in the country. It deals with the present power policy to encourage the private sector investment. Recommendations of the long-term pricing policy are laid down to meet the financial resources and energy demands. In general the reforms should be guided by the objective of introducing competition wherever possible, so as to minimise the cost to the consumer and improve the quality and services
The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.
For those who have spent their careers inside the safe walls of academia, the word is a little scary. Can I compete? Will I fit in? What do I need to know? Am I prepared? Will I succeed? While many would say: Yes! You are ready to excel! This isn’t actually the case. The private sector comes with many unanticipated shocks to many of us, especially women. This isn’t a group project. This session will discuss entering a quickly growing and competitive technical field and what one can do to prepare for continued success. Preparing and Entering the Private Sector * Women with technical skills are a desired part of the private workforcein general women posses stronger people skills, are more reliable and often more well rounded than their male counterparts. Key factors we will discuss to landing that first job: · Expand your knowledge base with current applications of technology · Preparing a solid employment pitch to highlight strengths: Overcoming stereotypes · Don’t show them your bad side: Why some student projects may hurt you · The private sector attitude toward performance and entry level expectations Excelling in the Private Sector * Now that we have landed a job * for better or worse we are now all about making money and exerting control. What to keep in mind while working in the private sector: · The formative first years: focus on your weaknesses and practice, practice, practice · Men & Women in the workplace: what women subconsciously do to hurt their careers · Politics: Working in a team environment · Polish & Detail & Reliabilit
Lamassoure, Elisabeth S.; Blair, Brad R.; Diaz, Javier; Oderman, Mark; Duke, Michael B.; Vaucher, Marc; Manvi, Ramachandra; Easter, Robert W.
An integrated engineering and financial modeling approach has been developed and used to evaluate the potential for private sector investment in space resource development, and to assess possible roles of the public sector in fostering private interest. This paper presents the modeling approach and its results for a transportation service using propellant extracted from lunar regolith. The analysis starts with careful case study definition, including an analysis of the customer base and market requirements, which are the basis for design of a modular, scalable space architecture. The derived non-recurring, recurring and operations costs become inputs for a `standard' financial model, as used in any commercial business plan. This model generates pro forma financial statements, calculates the amount of capitalization required, and generates return on equity calculations using two valuation metrics of direct interest to private investors: market enterprise value and multiples of key financial measures. Use of this model on an architecture to sell transportation services in Earth orbit based on lunar propellants shows how to rapidly test various assumptions and identify interesting architectural options, key areas for investment in exploration and technology, or innovative business approaches that could produce an economically viable industry. The same approach can be used to evaluate any other possible private ventures in space, and conclude on the respective roles of NASA and the private sector in space resource development and solar system exploration.
Zhong, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Fu, T.
During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management
31 janv. 2011 ... This important and well-researched book examines the challenges to private sector growth in 12 Middle East and North African countries, assessing comparative performance against a number of indicators and focusing on the special role of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurial ...
Daniela Angelina JELINČIĆ
Full Text Available Over the past few decades public-private partnership or PPP has become a new way for delivering and fi nancing public sector projects. It may involve investment in fully economic infrastructure such as highways, railways, airports, seaports, etc. up to the investments in social infrastructure projects, such as schools, hospitals, museums and other signifi cant and historic buildings of public interest. The main objective of this article is to analyze the situation in Croatia, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia concerning the topic of public- private partnership (PPP in order to provide grounds for possible future investments in cultural heritage in these countries. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of legal and institutional frameworks was carried out as well as structured interviews with key stakeholders (public and private sector representatives. Special attention has been paid to the use of PPP projects in the revitalization of cultural heritage. The results of the analysis showed the lack of PPP investments in the cultural sector, and also identifi ed possible obstacles in public sector administrative procedures. The results of the analysis may be further used to stimulate both public authorities to set strategic directions for heritage revitalization plans based on PPP schemes as well as private investors who may seek feasible business models complemented with social responsibility benefits.
Ouweneel, William M.
Private sector training is a primary force in education in the United States for a number of reasons: (1) the sheer amount of such training makes it a major factor; (2) this training has a significant impact on the nation's productivity and competitiveness; (3) it plays a major role in creating innovative and cost-effective solutions to training…
Organic production targets the development of a sustainable cultivation system and a variety of high-quality products with an emphasis on environmental protection and high standards of animal protection. In South Africa the organic sector pioneered private practices and systems in small informal groups to guide the public ...
Hoa, Nguyen B.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Sy, Dinh N.; Nhung, Nguyen V.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Tiemersma, Edine W.
To the Editor: In many countries, the private sector (practitioners not employed by government and nongovernment institutions, e.g., hospitals, pharmacies) is a major source of care, even for poor persons, and the area where services for the public are widely available (1,2). However, little
Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…
For the past eight years, the Babson Survey Research Group has conducted surveys of higher education institutions on their attitudes, beliefs, and practices concerning online education. This current report is a new analysis of this collection of data, focusing on the role of online education among private-sector colleges and universities. For the…
Corporate governance has several objectives: growth, transparency, leadership, social responsibility and trust, as well as the protection of shareholders and company assets. It also plays a key role in determining a company's control environment. In this article, the author takes a closer look at corporate governance in the private sector,…
de Beer, I.H.
Engaging the private sector in healthcare is a central theme in the work of PharmAccess Foundation, a Dutch not-for-profit organization, based in Amsterdam, with offices in several African countries, including Namibia. This thesis describes interventions developed and applied in Namibia to engage
Oct 31, 2012 ... Cash-strapped public sector organizations are looking for innovative ways to ... IDRC co-hosted a conference on public-private partnerships in ... to do a scoping study on the various financial mechanisms that can be used to ...
The issue of who is to undertake and sustain an efficient agricultural extension service delivery between the public and private sectors in sub-saharan Africa has continued to feature prominently among the extension stakeholders and professionals. This has become pertinent, especially in recent times where government's ...
Antonowicz, Dominik; Kwiek, Marek; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Boer, Harry; File, Jon; Huisman, Jeroen; Seeber, Marco; Vukasovic, Martina; Westerheijden, Don F.
One of the trademarks of transformation of Polish higher education is its tumultuous and inconsistent path of development driven by the rapid growth of private sector higher education. Such an expansion has been often described as a ‘sudden, shocking and unplanned’ phenomenon which revolutionized
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for using private sector... REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.503 Conditions for using private... help service firm for the brief or intermittent use of the skills of private sector temporaries, when...
Montagu, Dominic; Goodman, Catherine
The private for-profit sector's prominence in health-care delivery, and concern about its failures to deliver social benefit, has driven a search for interventions to improve the sector's functioning. We review evidence for the effectiveness and limitations of such private sector interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. Few robust assessments are available, but some conclusions are possible. Prohibiting the private sector is very unlikely to succeed, and regulatory approaches face persistent challenges in many low-income and middle-income countries. Attention is therefore turning to interventions that encourage private providers to improve quality and coverage (while advancing their financial interests) such as social marketing, social franchising, vouchers, and contracting. However, evidence about the effect on clinical quality, coverage, equity, and cost-effectiveness is inadequate. Other challenges concern scalability and scope, indicating the limitations of such interventions as a basis for universal health coverage, though interventions can address focused problems on a restricted scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scheck McAlearney, Ann; Hilligoss, Brian; Song, Paula H
To explore accountable care organizations (ACOs) as they develop in the private sector, including their motivation for development, perspectives from consumers regarding these emerging ACOs, and the critical success factors associated with ACO development. Comprehensive organizational case studies of 4 full-risk private sector ACOs that included in-person interviews with providers and administrators and focus groups with local consumers. Sixty-eight key informant interviews conducted during site visits, supplemented by document collection and telephone interviews, and 5 focus groups were held with 52 consumers associated with the study ACOs. We found 3 main motivators for private sector ACO development: 1) opportunity to improve quality and efficiency, 2) potential to improve population health, and 3) belief that payment reform is inevitable. With respect to consumer perspectives, consumers were unaware they received care from an ACO. From the perspectives of ACO stakeholders, these ACOs noted that they prefer to focus on patients' relationships with providers and typically do not emphasize the ACO name or entity. Critical success factors for private sector ACO development included provider engagement, strategic buy-in, prior experience managing risk, IT infrastructure, and leadership, all meant to shift the culture to a focus on value instead of volume. These organizations perceived that pursuing an accountable care strategy allowed them to respond to policy changes anticipated to impact the way healthcare is delivered and reimbursed. Increased understanding of factors that have been important for more mature private sector ACOs may help other healthcare organizations as they strive to enhance value and advance in their ACO journeys.
Tilaye, Mesfin; van Dijk, Meine Pieter
Privatization of urban services focuses often on the involvement of foreign enterprises. This contribution deals with micro-privatization, the partial transfer of government responsibility for solid waste collection to micro-enterprises. It tries to shed light on whether the current private sector participation (PSP) of micro-enterprises in solid waste collection service is the best way to capture the expected advantages of private sector involvement. The article examines the relations of the micro-enterprises with beneficiaries and the public sector by focusing on the contract procedure, the tariff-setting process, the cost recovery mechanism and institutionalizing of market principles for micro-enterprises. The research was carried out using secondary and primary data sources. Primary data were collected through the interviewing of public sector officials at different levels, focus group discussions with community groups and micro-enterprises, and observation. A survey was conducted among 160 micro-enterprises in the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using a standard questionnaire. What are some of the factors contributing to the results of PSP in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia? Policies at higher levels of government definitely produced an overall climate conducive to micro-privatization and recognized the need to develop micro-enterprises, but it is not clear what role the micro-enterprises are to play in solid waste management. New opportunities were created by formalization and taken up by communities and micro-enterprises. Coverage and waste collected both increased. The initiation and institutionalization of the formalization process was not without problems. The public sector over-stressed the autonomy of micro-enterprises. The fate of the micro-enterprises is largely determined by the reforms undertaken at local government level. The rapid changes in policies at the local level made waste-collecting micro-enterprises lose confidence and more dependent
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What private sector training activities are... Sector Training Projects Under Section 502(e) of the OAA § 641.630 What private sector training...: (a) Providing participants with services leading to transition to private sector employment...
The private sector is playing an increasingly important role in financing and providing educational services in many countries. (Often the term "private sector" encompasses households' out-of-pocket expenses rather than describing for-profit or not-for-profit sectors.) Private sector development has not arisen primarily through public…
Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson; van Dijk, Meine Pieter
Private sector involvement in solid waste management in developing countries has increased, but the effect is not always clear. This study assesses how it has been organized in five cities in Ghana, what has been its effect and what lessons for private sector development in developing countries can be drawn. Data were collected from 25 private companies and a sample of 1200 households. More than 60% of solid waste in Ghanaian cities is now collected by private enterprises. Sometimes, and increasingly, competitive bidding takes place, although sometimes no bidding is organized leading to rendering of this service and no contract being signed. Local governments and local solid waste companies have not changed to more customer-oriented delivery because of the slow pace of charging users and the resulting low rate of cost recovery. The participation of the population has been limited, which contributes to low cost recovery. However, a gradual better functioning of the system put in place is shown. We observed an increasing use of competitive bidding, signing of contracts and city-wide user charging.
Full Text Available Consolidated financial statements represent one of the main benefits that the public sector reforms brought. The novelty of the subject sparked out interest for a detailed research, research that can bring an added value to the development of this issue in the public sector. The paper aims to analyze the degree of similarity and dissimilarity between the initial regulations regarding the issue of consolidated reporting in the public and private sector. In order to obtain information about the similarity or dissimilarity between IPSAS and IAS regarding to consolidation we used correlation and/or association coefficients. We conclude that there is a high similarity between the two sets of standards, thing that is not surprising, because it is known that IPSAS are based on IAS. Even if IPSAS are based on IAS, there still are differences which arouse from the specificity of each sector.
private - sector spending for health insurance increases each year has raised many questions about the meaning of the trend and its implications for the future. According to the federal government’s national health accounts (NHA), the annual growth rate of private health insurance expenditures tumbled from around 14 percent in 1990 to less than 3 percent in 1994 and 1995. Understanding the factors that contribute to that reduction is of particular concern to policymakers who are seeking ways to slow the growth of Medicare spending. At the same time that fundamental
Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma
In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance.
Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma
In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance. PMID:15868018
Simon, Caitlin; Kocot, S Lawrence; Dietz, William H
This review provides background on the formation of the Partnership for a Healthier America (PHA), that was created in conjunction with the Let's Move! initiative, and an overview of its work to date. To encourage industry to offer and promote healthier options, PHA partners with the private sector. Principles that guide PHA partnerships include ensuring that partnerships represent meaningful change, partners sign a legally binding contract and progress is monitored and publicly reported. Since 2010, PHA has established private sector partnerships in an effort to transform the marketplace to ensure that every child has the chance to grow up at a healthy weight. Many agreements between PHA and its industry partners align with the White House Task Force Report on Childhood Obesity. The reach and impact of over 200 partnerships attest to the success of this initiative.
An overview is presented of the Mexican petroleum sector. The sector is largely controlled by the state company PEMEX and is not completely open to foreign participation and supply, however the trend towards privatization and open competition, combined with the drive for competitiveness of PEMEX operations in particular, is creating market opportunities for foreign suppliers of petroleum equipment and services. Detailed profiles are provided of 50 Mexican companies and their primary products and services, specific areas of expertise, client base, international experience, interest in Canada, other relevant information, and a contact person. A less detailed list is also provided of additional Mexican contacts, petroleum industry associations and chambers of commerce
. This time disguised in terms like empowerment and unequal opportunities but just as politicised as in the 1970s. In light of the current anti-Chinese sentiments in Zambia, this paper seeks to further our understanding of private sector policy making in Zambia. It argues that populist politics, referring...... been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again...
Mauricio Olivera; Felipe Barrera
This paper studies the effects of water sector privatization on consumers’ welfare in 46 municipalities in Colombia. First, the privatization process is described. Second, the paper evaluates the impact of privatization on access, price, and quality of water as well as health outcomes using differences-in-differences methodology with variation across time (before and after privatization) and between treatment and control groups (privatized and non-privatized municipalities) and controlling fo...
The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently consolidated its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. Within that new organization, DOE has committed to conduct Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities within the Office of Technology Development (OTD) to reduce cost, reduce risk, and otherwise improve the technologies to meet its cleanup goals. Currently available technology is not adequate to assess environmental contamination, take permanent remedial action, and to eliminate or minimize the environmental impact of future operations. To focus private sector capabilities on the high-priority needs of DOE, a series of competitive solicitations will be issued starting in FY 1990. This paper describes the range and scope of the DOE initiatives for private sector involvement in Applied R ampersand D. 2 tabs
This paper reports that the push to privatize Brazil's petroleum sector remains on track despite the taint of scandal that hit state oil company Petroleos Brasileiro SA and the ensuing political crisis for the administration of President Fernando Collor de Mello. Collor's efforts to reform Brazil's beleaguered economy have focused heavily on privatizing state-owned companies by selling assets or ending monopolies. Nowhere is that task more daunting than with Petrobras, one of the world's biggest petroleum companies, which has an entrenched monopoly over most upstream and downstream operations in the country. Collor and the energy ministers and chiefs of Petrobras during his administration have pressed measured to inject free market principles in Brazil's petroleum sector. The Collor administration earlier this year sent a bill to Brazil's Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to end Petrobras monopoly over exploration, production, transportation, refining, and exports and imports of oil and gas. The amendment is expected to be voted upon in 1993
Gominho, Nuno Manuel Afonso
Presenteeism is a relatively new concept meaning working while sick. It is though to account for a large amount of productivity loss due to illness. Presenteeism’s body of literature is reviewed. This paper focuses on differences between public and private organizations, and between men and women. Survey data (n=235) was collected from the region of Ferrol, Spain. Evidence is found to suggest that private sector workers, but not public workers, come to work ill because they fea...
Wang, Yan; Eggleston, Karen; Yu, Zhenjie; Zhang, Qiong
Controversy surrounds the role of the private sector in health service delivery, including primary care and population health services. China's recent health reforms call for non-discrimination against private providers and emphasize strengthening primary care, but formal contracting-out initiatives remain few, and the associated empirical evidence is very limited. This paper presents a case study of contracting with private providers for urban primary and preventive health services in Shandong Province, China. The case study draws on three primary sources of data: administrative records; a household survey of over 1600 community residents in Weifang and City Y; and a provider survey of over 1000 staff at community health stations (CHS) in both Weifang and City Y. We supplement the quantitative data with one-on-one, in-depth interviews with key informants, including local officials in charge of public health and government finance.We find significant differences in patient mix: Residents in the communities served by private community health stations are of lower socioeconomic status (more likely to be uninsured and to report poor health), compared to residents in communities served by a government-owned CHS. Analysis of a household survey of 1013 residents shows that they are more willing to do a routine health exam at their neighborhood CHS if they are of low socioeconomic status (as measured either by education or income). Government and private community health stations in Weifang did not statistically differ in their performance on contracted dimensions, after controlling for size and other CHS characteristics. In contrast, the comparison City Y had lower performance and a large gap between public and private providers. We discuss why these patterns arose and what policymakers and residents considered to be the main issues and concerns regarding primary care services.
Controversy surrounds the role of the private sector in health service delivery, including primary care and population health services. China’s recent health reforms call for non-discrimination against private providers and emphasize strengthening primary care, but formal contracting-out initiatives remain few, and the associated empirical evidence is very limited. This paper presents a case study of contracting with private providers for urban primary and preventive health services in Shandong Province, China. The case study draws on three primary sources of data: administrative records; a household survey of over 1600 community residents in Weifang and City Y; and a provider survey of over 1000 staff at community health stations (CHS) in both Weifang and City Y. We supplement the quantitative data with one-on-one, in-depth interviews with key informants, including local officials in charge of public health and government finance. We find significant differences in patient mix: Residents in the communities served by private community health stations are of lower socioeconomic status (more likely to be uninsured and to report poor health), compared to residents in communities served by a government-owned CHS. Analysis of a household survey of 1013 residents shows that they are more willing to do a routine health exam at their neighborhood CHS if they are of low socioeconomic status (as measured either by education or income). Government and private community health stations in Weifang did not statistically differ in their performance on contracted dimensions, after controlling for size and other CHS characteristics. In contrast, the comparison City Y had lower performance and a large gap between public and private providers. We discuss why these patterns arose and what policymakers and residents considered to be the main issues and concerns regarding primary care services. PMID:23327666
Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007 indicates that vulnerable industries should adapt to the increasing likelihood of extreme weather events along with slowly shifting mean annual temperatures and precipitation patterns, to prevent major damages or periods of inoperability in the future. Most articles in the literature on business management frame organizational adaptation to climate change as a private action. This makes adaptation the sole responsibility of a company, for its sole benefit, and overlooks the fact that some companies provide critical goods and services such a food, water, electricity, and medical care, that are so vital to society that even a short-term setback in operations could put public security at risk. This raises the following questions: (1 Who is responsible for climate change adaptation by private-sector suppliers of critical infrastructure? (2 How can those who are identified to be responsible, actually be held to assume their responsibility for adapting to climate change? These questions will be addressed through a comprehensive review of the literature on business management, complemented by a review of specialized literature on public management. This review leads to several conclusions. Even though tasks that formerly belonged to the state have been taken over by private companies, the state still holds ultimate responsibility in the event of failure of private-sector owned utilities, insofar as they are "critical infrastructure." Therefore, it remains the state's responsibility to foster adaptation to climate change with appropriate action. In theory, effective ways of assuming this responsibility, while enabling critical infrastructure providers the flexibility adapt to climate change, would be to delegate adaptation to an agency, or to conduct negotiations with stakeholders. In view of this theory, Germany will be used as a case study to demonstrate how private-sector critical infrastructure
Jensen, Peter; Graversen, Brian Krogh
In this paper, we evaluate the employment effects of Danish active labour market programmes aimed at welfare benefit recipients. We estimate an econometric model with treatment effects and discrete outcomes and we allow the responses to treatment to vary among observationally identical persons. T...... significant mean effects of participation in private sector employment programmes compared to participation in other programmes, but we find evidence of heterogeneity in the treatment effects....
Sandro Brusco; Ornella Tarola; Sandro Trento
In equipment-intensive sectors - such as water utilities, power generation, gas - billions of dollars are spent in capital equipment. We discuss and characterize the optimal policy of a profit-maximizing firm and compare it with the optimal policy of a welfare-maximizing planner. When there is no technical progress, the duration of the plant is longer for a private firm. With technical progress, we show that duration tends to increase when the installed capacity increases over time, while it ...
Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Doan, Quang Hung; Tran-Nam, Binh
This article aims to examine the impact of tax corruption on private sector development in Vietnam. It is motivated by two separate but related considerations. First, despite the seriousness of the phenomenon of corruption, there is a paucity of rigorous empirical research of corruption, particularly tax corruption, in Vietnam. Secondly, ineffective control of corruption is viewed as a cause of Vietnam’s recent total factor productivity (TFP) slowdown or its poor industrial policy, both of wh...
Pesqueira Fernandez, L. de L.
NGOs increasingly engage with the private sector with the objective of addressing complex sustainability issues. Problems like poverty, deforestation, food security, and climate change cannot be managed by governments alone. In this scenario, collaboration between NGOs and the private sector
... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Establishment of... that the establishment of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee is...
Sep 8, 2014 ... Highlight: Private sector could play a major role in feeding Africa ... scale, we will need to involve the private sector," said IDRC President Jean Lebel. ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and ...
Gresenz, Carole Roan; Hoch, Emily; Eibner, Christine; Rudin, Robert S; Mattke, Soeren
Overhauling the individual health insurance market-including through the creation of health insurance exchanges-was a key component of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's multidimensional approach to addressing the long-standing problem of the uninsured in the United States. Despite succeeding in enrolling millions of Americans, the exchanges still face several challenges, including poor consumer experience, high operational and development costs, and incomplete market penetration. In light of these challenges, analysts considered a different model for the exchanges-privately facilitated exchanges-which could address these challenges and deepen the Affordable Care Act's impact. In this model, the government retains control over sovereign exchange functions but allows the private sector to assume responsibility for more-peripheral exchange functions, such as developing and sustaining exchange websites. Although private-sector entities have already undertaken exchange-related functions on a limited basis, privately facilitated exchanges could conceivably relieve the government of its responsibility for front-end website operations and consumer decision-support functions entirely. A shift to privately facilitated exchanges could improve the consumer experience, increase enrollment, and lower costs for state and federal governments. A move to such a model requires, nonetheless, managing its risks, such as reduced consumer protection, increased consumer confusion, and the possible lack of a viable revenue base for privately facilitated exchanges, especially in less populous states. On net, the benefits are large enough and the risks sufficiently manageable to seriously consider such a shift. This paper provides background information and more detail on the analysts' assessment.
ICES was able to work with private sector organizations without compromising the three principles. Based on the evaluation of the private sector pilot, and the findings from the focus groups, ICES will begin offering limited analytic services to private sector researchers beginning June 2016 under ICES’ existing corporate structure, and bring recommendations regarding ongoing operations to the ICES Board in June 2017.
This project will study private sector efforts to promote better compliance with anticorruption laws in Latin America. Corruption, bribery, and the private sector In the last decade, global efforts to curb economic crimes in developing countries have focused increasingly on the private sector's role in helping to prevent bribery ...
..., Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... made for the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory..., Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on January 18, 2012, 10 a.m...
..., Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight..., announcement is made for the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory..., Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on July 25, 2012, 10:00 a.m...
..., Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... made for the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory..., Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on January 30, 2013, 10:00 a...
... Simplification and Private Sector Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... comment on several issues related to the methodology used for the Private Sector Adjustment Factor that is... Analyst (202) 452- 3674, Division of Monetary Affairs, or, for questions regarding the Private Sector...
... losses with private sector insurers. 50.35 Section 50.35 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the...' Compensation Funds § 50.35 Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers. (a) Treatment... and losses with a private sector insurer is not deemed to be a separate insurer under the Program. (b...
...] State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTP-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives... (NARA) announces a meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee... Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. The meeting will be open to the...
Madhuwanthi, L. A. P.
The purpose of this paper is to explore why private sector schools in Sri Lanka employ elderly teachers (ETs). This paper used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 9 employers/principals in the private sector schools in Sri Lanka. The study found that the reasons for employing ETs in the private sector schools were shortfall of English medium…
... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In-Sourcing Actions... Supplement (DFARS) to implement a section of the National Defense Authorization Act regarding private sector... section 938 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012 regarding private sector...
Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard
Policy makers expect that increasing shares of PhDs will find employment within the private sector. However, the incentive structure for undertaking PhD education and subsequently seeking private sector employment has not been adequately assessed in the literature. This paper investigates...... to choose private sector employment immediately after award of the PhD degree....
...] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency... concerns in the Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program (PS-Prep...-53 (the 9/11 Act) mandated DHS to establish a voluntary private sector preparedness accreditation and...
..., Tribal, And Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight... State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC). The SLTPS-PAC will..., Tribal, and Private Sector Entities, as specified in Executive Order 13549 and its implementing directive...
Peschka, Mary Porter; Emery, James J.
This paper explores how the private sector can positively contribute to peace-building and conflict prevention, and how that positive private sector role can be supported and enhanced. The starting premise recognizes that the private sector exists in all conflict situations and has the potential to both exacerbate and ameliorate conflict, the outcome of which can be greatly affected by app...
This paper uses 2006 Canadian census data to examine patterns of wage differentials between immigrants and Canadian natives across the public and private sectors. Results reveal that the wage gap is much more a private sector issue than a public sector issue: the average wage gap is in favour of Canadian natives in the private sector but in favour of immigrants in the public sector; compared to natives, immigrants earn significantly less per year of domestic schooling and per year of domestic...
Sood, Sanjay P; Negash, Solomon; Mbarika, Victor W A; Kifle, Mengistu; Prakash, Nupur
Telemedicine is the use of communication networks to exchange medical information for providing healthcare services and medical education from one site to another. The application of telemedicine is more promising in economically developing countries with agrarian societies. The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) identifies three healthcare services: clinical medical services, health and medical education, and consumer health information. However, it is not clear how these services can be adopted by different sectors: public and private. This paper looks at four Indian case studies, two each in public and private sectors to understand two research questions: Are there differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private hospitals. If there are differences: What are the differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private sectors? Authors have used the extant literature in telemedicine and healthcare to frame theoretical background, describe the research setting, present the case studies, and provide discussion and conclusions about their findings. Authors believe that as India continues to develop its telemedicine infrastructures, especially with continued government support through subsidies to private telemedicine initiatives, its upward trend in healthcare will continue. This is expected to put India on the path to increase its life expectancy rates, especially for it rural community which constitute over 70% of its populace.
Drewry, Gavin; Greve, Carsten; Tanquerel, Thierry
This book addresses issues to do with public accountability, audit and performance measurement that are both highly topical and of crucial importance to the theory and practice of public administration in an era of contractualized public management. The literature on public sector contracting...... of audit and accountability in a variety of countries and contexts; the third part offers some wider, cross-cutting perspectives. Based on the work of the EGPA permanent study group on the history of contractualization, Contracts, Performance Measurement and Accountability in the Public Sector draws upon...... - covering both 'hard' agreements (ones that are legally enforceable) and 'soft' agreements (enforced by negotiation and mutual trust) - has been growing for some time and the present book adds a primarily European perspective on contracting, performance-based management and accountability. One important...
Costa, Nilson do Rosário
This paper presents the arguments in favor of government intervention in financing and regulation of health in Brazil. It describes the organizational arrangement of the Brazilian health system, for the purpose of reflection on the austerity agenda proposed for the country. Based on the literature in health economics, it discusses the hypothesis that the health sector in Brazil functions under the dominance of the private sector. The categories employed for analysis are those of the national health spending figures. An international comparison of indicators of health expenses shows that Brazilian public spending is a low proportion of total spending on Brazilian health. Expenditure on individuals' health by out-of-pocket payments is high, and this works against equitability. The private health services sector plays a crucial role in provision, and financing. Contrary to the belief put forward by the austerity agenda, public expenditure cannot be constrained because the government has failed in adequate provision of services to the poor. This paper argues that, since the Constitution did not veto activity by the private sector segment of the market, those interests that have the greatest capacity to vocalize have been successful in imposing their preferences in the configuration of the sector.
Full Text Available The capacity to attract highly skilled human resources is dependent on the employee recruitment process implemented by organizations, which plays an important role for their competitiveness on the market. As the concern for the success of the recruitment process in public sectors is becoming more salient, the present study compares the use of recruitment practices in public and private sectors through a survey applied to 97 organizations. It also explores the outcomes in terms of quantity and quality of applications received when using various recruitment methods. Common points and differences were identified. Internal recruitment methods and e-recruitment based on job posting on the website of the organization are favored regardless of the type of organization (private or public. The differences weight mostly against public sector as public institutions use less often the recommendations received from acquaintances and networks, post fewer job adds on specialized online job boards, get fewer direct applications from candidates, and participate less often in job fairs. The largest number of applications is received through the use of online job boards, job posting on the website of the hiring organization and job advertising in written press. On the other hand, internal recruitment is perceived to result in attracting the highest quality applications.
Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Zodpey, Sanjay P
India's Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) provides basic vaccines free-of-cost in the public sector, yet national vaccination coverage is poor. The Government of India has urged an expanded role for the private sector to help achieve universal immunization coverage. We conducted a state-by-state analysis of the role of the private sector in vaccinating Indian children against each of the six primary childhood diseases covered under India's UIP. We analyzed IMS Health data on Indian private-sector vaccine sales, 2011 Indian Census data and national household surveys (DHS/NFHS 2005-06 and UNICEF CES 2009) to estimate the percentage of vaccinated children among the 2009-12 birth cohort who received a given vaccine in the private sector in 16 Indian states. We also analyzed the estimated private-sector vaccine shares as function of state-specific socio-economic status. Overall in 16 states, the private sector contributed 4.7% towards tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)), 3.5% towards measles, 2.3% towards diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT3) and 7.6% towards polio (OPV3) overall (both public and private sectors) vaccination coverage. Certain low income states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Assam and Bihar) have low private as well as public sector vaccination coverage. The private sector's role has been limited primarily to the high income states as opposed to these low income states where the majority of Indian children live. Urban areas with good access to the private sector and the ability to pay increases the Indian population's willingness to access private-sector vaccination services. In India, the public sector offers vaccination services to the majority of the population but the private sector should not be neglected as it could potentially improve overall vaccination coverage. The government could train and incentivize a wider range of private-sector health professionals to help deliver the vaccines, especially in the low
Meulen, van der B.M.J.
Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private
Manual of contracts for the electricity sector. Contracts that work: Drafting and proper legal application. 2. rev. ed.; Vertragshandbuch Stromwirtschaft. Praxisgerechte Gestaltung und rechtssichere Anwendung
Schoene, Thomas (ed.)
This manual deals fundamentally with the drafting of contracts for the electricity sector. It covers all types of contracts on both the customer and the network side with their various special clauses and variants, specifically: basic supply, substitute supply, supply contracts for private, commercial and industrial special customers as well as redistributors, EFET contracts, network access contracts, supplier framework contracts, feed-in contracts, grid connection contracts and connection use contracts. The manual also addresses questions concerning electricity customer insolvency, an issue of growing importance. The following topics are furthermore dealt with in a practically oriented manner and with care being taken to explain the underlying legal issues in readily understandable language. What basic framework conditions are specified by the new energy economy laws and general civil law? What possibilities are available in drafting contracts and what are the ramifications in each case? What subject matters in a contract are of particular economic significance? How can concession contracts be designed in a market-conforming way when there is strong competition for qualified rights of way? What opportunities and risks are associated with innovative products? What options for action does a supplier have in the event of (threatening) customer insolvency? Model contracts from day-to-day management practice and tips, checklists and cautioning notes round off this manual.
Morgan, R; Ensor, T; Waters, H
Although the private sector is an important health-care provider in many low-income and middle-income countries, its role in progress towards universal health coverage varies. Studies of the performance of the private sector have focused on three main dimensions: quality, equity of access, and efficiency. The characteristics of patients, the structures of both the public and private sectors, and the regulation of the sector influence the types of health services delivered, and outcomes. Combi...
private sector will be expected to play the major role in providing capital to the agricultural sector, with the government’s remaining involvement being largely one of furnishing basic infrastructure. The critical question of course is how willing is the private sector to commit capital to agricultural activities in this new policy environment? Has the private sector responded in the past to the increases in profitability provided by an expansion in infrastructure? If so, what types of infrastructure are most conducive in
Simões, Jorge; Barros, Pedro Pita; Temido, Marta
In Portugal, the PPP in the healthcare sector appeared only at the dawn of the new century, with the central feature of including clinical activities within its scope. Currently--except for one hospital--the Portuguese PPP experience can only be assessed in terms of conceptual model and tender processes. The analysis showed that, based on arguments associated with non-contractible investment and ex-post renegotiation opportunities, hospitals with higher technological complexity should exclude clinical activities from the PPP contract, and also that, despite the time-consuming process, the PPP can be considered a success in price competition dimension. The analysis also showed that, assessing the performance of the single PPP hospital in Portugal with two comparable units, there is no evidence that the best or worst results are correlated with the legal status and with the established management model.
Over the last 20 years, governments all around the world have attempted to boost the role of market and competition in health care industries in order to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The increased competition and the significant implications on costs and prices of health care services resulted in health care industries being transformed. Large firms are merging and acquiring other firms. If this trend continues, few firms will dominate the health care markets. In this study, I use the simple concentration ratio (CR) for the largest 4, 8 and 20 companies to measure the concentration of Greek private hospitals during the period 1997-2004. Also, the Gini coefficient for inequality is used. For the two different categories of hospitals used (a) general and neuropsychiatric and (b) obstetric/gynaecological it is evident that the top four firms of the first category accounted for 43% of sales in 1997, and 52% in 2004, while the four largest firms of the second category accounted for almost 83% in 1997, and 81% in 2004. Also, the Gini coefficient increases over the 8-year period examined from 0.69 in 1997 to 0.82 in 2004. It explains that the market of the private health care services becomes less equal in the sense that fewer private hospitals and clinics hold more and more of the share of the total sales. From a cross-industry analysis it is clear that the private hospital sector has the highest concentration rate. Finally, it appears that the market structure of the private hospitals in Greece resembles more closely to an oligopoly rather than a monopolistic competition, since very few firms dominate the market.
This new bestseller from leading economist Mariana Mazzucato – named by the ‘New Republic’ as one of the ‘most important innovation thinkers’ today – is stirring up much-needed debates worldwide about the role of the State in innovation. Debunking the myth of a laggard State at odds with a dynamic private sector, Mazzucato reveals in case study after case study that in fact the opposite situation is true, with the private sector only finding the courage to invest after the entrepreneurial State has made the high-risk investments. Case studies include examples of the State’s role in the ‘green revolution’, in biotech and pharmaceuticals, as well as several detailed examples from Silicon Valley. In an intensely researched chapter, she reveals that every technology that makes the iPhone so ‘smart’ was government funded: the Internet, GPS, its touch-screen display and the voice-activated Siri. Mazzucato also controversially argues that in the history of modern capitalism the State has not on...
Perreault, Kadija; Dionne, Clermont E; Rossignol, Michel; Poitras, Stéphane; Morin, Diane
Even if a large proportion of physiotherapists work in the private sector worldwide, very little is known of the organizations within which they practice. Such knowledge is important to help understand contexts of practice and how they influence the quality of services and patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to: 1) describe characteristics of organizations where physiotherapists practice in the private sector, and 2) explore the existence of a taxonomy of organizational models. This was a cross-sectional quantitative survey of 236 randomly-selected physiotherapists. Participants completed a purpose-designed questionnaire online or by telephone, covering organizational vision, resources, structures and practices. Organizational characteristics were analyzed descriptively, while organizational models were identified by multiple correspondence analyses. Most organizations were for-profit (93.2%), located in urban areas (91.5%), and within buildings containing multiple businesses/organizations (76.7%). The majority included multiple providers (89.8%) from diverse professions, mainly physiotherapy assistants (68.7%), massage therapists (67.3%) and osteopaths (50.2%). Four organizational models were identified: 1) solo practice, 2) middle-scale multiprovider, 3) large-scale multiprovider and 4) mixed. The results of this study provide a detailed description of the organizations where physiotherapists practice, and highlight the importance of human resources in differentiating organizational models. Further research examining the influences of these organizational characteristics and models on outcomes such as physiotherapists' professional practices and patient outcomes are needed.
The focus of this ongoing work is the utilisation of general non hazardous industrial and commercial waste as an energy or fuel source. Whereas much of the existing experience in energy from waste (EFW) is related to municipal solid wastes (MSW), there is very little direct experience with these other waste streams and the shortage of reliable information in this field is notoriously lacking. It is important to have a good understanding of the private waste contracting industry (pwci) in order to establish the conditions under which energy from waste technologies may play an economically and technically feasible role within that industry's development. The Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) has encouraged entrepreneurial interest through premium payments for electricity generated from renewable sources. (author)
Full Text Available The authors compare the factors determining the scale of international world currencies transactions as saving means and means of payment. The change in the role of the US dollar, euro, pound sterling, Japanese Yen and Chinese Yuan in the private sector over the past few decades are also juxtaposed with the previous factors. The conclusion is made about an incomplete correlation of modern conditions determining the international demand for a common European and Chinese national currency, and the demand for the volumes of their use in the world. On the basis of the comparative analysis of the volumes of world currencies transactions in different spheres, the authors demonstrate the top priority of the means of payment function in the process of calling forth the demand for these means on the part of non-residents using them as payment and saving means. It is proved that the main reasons of maintaining the dominant role of the US dollar as a world currency in the private sector are the leading position of the American economy concerning its contribution into the creation of the world product, support of a relatively high level of the development of the national financial market of the USA, long-term period of the American currency being world unit of account, low operation costs concerning the operations with them and also the inertia character of private actors of the world economy. It is shown that in a short-term period in case of a further growth of the economic power of the euro zone and China, provision of a complete convertibility of the Yuan and removal of the restrictions for non-residents in the Chinese financial market and also in case of maintaining a stable economic situation in the USA, the function of the world money will be carried out mainly by the American dollar.
The role of the private sector in climate finance is increasingly emphasized in international political debates. Knowledge of private engagement in mitigating climate change and in more advanced economies is growing, but the evidence base for private-sector engagement in climate change adaptation in
Introduction Sudan has a large and growing private health sector. No survey was done in Sudan to show the extent of the use of private health care services by the population. Also precise data on tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment in the private sector are not available. Material and methods. A facility-based ...
Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao
During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780
Full Text Available Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, finds that the concept of franchising, so successfully used by the private sector to deliver many goods and services, if applied to water services operation and maintenance, could alleviate and address many challenges in the management of water services. At the same time, franchising could provide an ideal stimulus to support the development of local enterprises, all within the municipal service delivery environment. Franchisee water service providers, dependent for their livelihood on the success of their business, would have a strong incentive to perform, and would also enjoy the benefit of the franchisor’s expert guidance and quality assurance. Some areas for potential franchising include meter management, billing, plumbing, pressure management, sewer maintenance, and wastewater treatment processes. The help from the franchisor would be of particular value to water services authorities at a distance from the major urban centres. Few of these authorities can afford to employ competent qualified staff, and often non-compliance with the laid down performance standards is a direct consequence of this lack. Significant improvements would soon be seen if the generally under-qualified and under-resourced water services staff could have this ongoing support, mentoring and quality control — or if the authority could enter into partnerships with small local enterprises or NGOs which would, through franchising, enjoy the necessary ongoing support, mentoring and quality control, and would have
Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon L.
As the economic burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) increases in sub-Saharan Africa, allocation of the burden among levels and sectors of society is changing. The private sector has more scope to avoid the economic burden of AIDS than governments, households, or nongovernmental organizations, and the burden is being systematically shifted away from the private sector. Common practices that transfer the burden to households and government include pre-employment screening, reductions in employee benefits, restructured employment contracts, outsourcing of low skilled jobs, selective retrenchments, and changes in production technologies. Between 1997 and 1999 more than two-thirds of large South African employers reduced the level of health care benefits or increased employee contributions. Most firms also have replaced defined-benefit retirement funds, which expose the firm to large annual costs but provide long-term support for families, with defined-contribution funds, which eliminate risks to the firm but provide little for families of younger workers who die of AIDS. Contracting out previously permanent jobs is also shielding firms from benefit and turnover costs, effectively shifting the responsibility to care for affected workers and their families to households, nongovernmental organizations, and the government. Many of these changes are responses to globalization that would have occurred in the absence of AIDS, but they are devastating for the households of employees with HIV/AIDS. We argue that the shift in the economic burden of AIDS is a predictable response by business to which a deliberate public policy response is needed. Countries should make explicit decisions about each sector's responsibilities if a socially desirable allocation is to be achieved. PMID:12751421
Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon L
As the economic burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) increases in sub-Saharan Africa, allocation of the burden among levels and sectors of society is changing. The private sector has more scope to avoid the economic burden of AIDS than governments, households, or nongovernmental organizations, and the burden is being systematically shifted away from the private sector. Common practices that transfer the burden to households and government include pre-employment screening, reductions in employee benefits, restructured employment contracts, outsourcing of low skilled jobs, selective retrenchments, and changes in production technologies. Between 1997 and 1999 more than two-thirds of large South African employers reduced the level of health care benefits or increased employee contributions. Most firms also have replaced defined-benefit retirement funds, which expose the firm to large annual costs but provide long-term support for families, with defined-contribution funds, which eliminate risks to the firm but provide little for families of younger workers who die of AIDS. Contracting out previously permanent jobs is also shielding firms from benefit and turnover costs, effectively shifting the responsibility to care for affected workers and their families to households, nongovernmental organizations, and the government. Many of these changes are responses to globalization that would have occurred in the absence of AIDS, but they are devastating for the households of employees with HIV/AIDS. We argue that the shift in the economic burden of AIDS is a predictable response by business to which a deliberate public policy response is needed. Countries should make explicit decisions about each sector's responsibilities if a socially desirable allocation is to be achieved.
Karl, Katherine A.; Sutton, Cynthia L.
A comparison of 47 public- and 170 private-sector workers revealed private-sector workers value good wages most and public-sector workers value interesting work. Results suggest that employers must keep in touch with employee values to design jobs, reward systems, and human-resource policies that will result in maximum job satisfaction. (JOW)
S. Oduro-Kwarteng (Sampson)
textabstractThis thesis focuses on the private sector involvement in solid waste collection, and the influence of private sector capacity and local governments‘ regulations on private sector performance. Private sector involvement in public service pro-vision evolved to deal with market and
Black, I; Seaton, R; Chackiath, S; Wagland, S T; Pollard, S J T; Longhurst, P J
The identification of risk and its appropriate allocation to partners in project consortia is essential for minimizing overall project risks, ensuring timely delivery and maximizing benefit for money invested. Risk management guidance available from government bodies, especially in the UK, does not specify methodologies for quantitative risk assessment, nor does it offer a procedure for allocating risk among project partners. Here, a methodology to quantify project risk and potential approaches to allocating risk and their implications are discussed. Construction and operation of a waste management facility through a public-private finance contract are discussed. Public-private partnership contracts are special purpose vehicle (SPV) financing methods promoted by the UK government to boost private sector investment in facilities for public service enhancement. Our findings question the appropriateness of using standard deviation as a measure for project risk and confirm the concept of portfolio theory, suggesting the pooling of risk can reduce total risk and its impact.
Bhide, Shashanka; Malik, Payal; Nair, S.K.N.; Blanc, Aymeric; Jaitley, Monica; Acharya, Nandini
In September 2005, AFD's Research Department launched a Research Program on Public Private Partnerships with an approach combining economic analysis (contractual incentives, financing of investment, etc.) with a sociological and political approach to regulatory issues. Various case studies have been conducted in different sectors (water and sanitation, power, transport) and countries. This study falls within the above research framework since India - like most major developing countries - has attempted to introduce market forces in its electric power systems. At the same time, growing concern over global climate change has put the spotlight on the need for India to control its emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). India is currently the world's sixth biggest producer of GHG emissions, but is the second biggest if one considers the rate of augmentation of its emissions. Half of India's total GHG emissions are produced by its power sector, and 70 per cent of electricity is generated by thermal power plants, mainly from coal. Climate change mitigation in the power sector is thus a strategic issue for AFD in India. This study is structured so as to examine the intersection of these two crucial challenges in India by exploring the links between private participation in the power sector in India and the reduction of GHG emissions
Bennett, Adam; Avanceña, Anton L V; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Cotter, Chris; Roberts, Kathryn; Gosling, Roly
In malaria elimination settings, all malaria cases must be identified, documented and investigated. To facilitate complete and timely reporting of all malaria cases and effective case management and follow-up, engagement with private providers is essential, particularly in settings where the private sector is a major source of healthcare. However, research on the role and performance of the private sector in malaria diagnosis, case management and reporting in malaria elimination settings is limited. Moreover, the most effective strategies for private sector engagement in malaria elimination settings remain unclear. Twenty-five experts in malaria elimination, disease surveillance and private sector engagement were purposively sampled and interviewed. An extensive review of grey and peer-reviewed literature on private sector testing, treatment, and reporting for malaria was performed. Additional in-depth literature review was conducted for six case studies on eliminating and neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa. The private health sector can be categorized based on their commercial orientation or business model (for-profit versus nonprofit) and their regulation status within a country (formal vs informal). A number of potentially effective strategies exist for engaging the private sector. Conducting a baseline assessment of the private sector is critical to understanding its composition, size, geographical distribution and quality of services provided. Facilitating reporting, referral and training linkages between the public and private sectors and making malaria a notifiable disease are important strategies to improve private sector involvement in malaria surveillance. Financial incentives for uptake of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy should be combined with training and community awareness campaigns for improving uptake. Private sector providers can also be organized and better engaged through social
There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist 'dual practice', that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel 'needed' and 'relevant'. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision-making, inter alia. These interventions may be more cost
The debate on Public-Private mix has been around in South Africa (SA) for the past ten years. The debate arose out of a realisation of the weaknesses in the public health parallel with the ever-increasing private sector worldwide. The concept has been referred to in different terminologies, public-private mix, public private ...
Bishop, Felicity L; Amos, Nicola; Yu, He; Lewith, George T
The aim was to identify similarities and differences between private practice and the National Health Service (NHS) in practitioners' experiences of delivering acupuncture to treat pain. We wished to identify differences that could affect patients' experiences and inform our understanding of how trials conducted in private clinics relate to NHS clinical practice. Acupuncture is commonly used in primary care for lower back pain and is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's guidelines. Previous studies have identified differences in patients' accounts of receiving acupuncture in the NHS and in the private sector. The major recent UK trial of acupuncture for back pain was conducted in the private sector. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 acupuncturists who had experience of working in the private sector (n = 7), in the NHS (n =3), and in both the sectors (n = 6). The interviews lasted between 24 and 77 min (median=49 min) and explored acupuncturists' experiences of treating patients in pain. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences across private practice and the NHS. The perceived effectiveness of acupuncture was described consistently and participants felt they did (or would) deliver acupuncture similarly in NHS and in private practice. In both the sectors, patients sought acupuncture as a last resort and acupuncturist-patient relationships were deemed important. Acupuncture availability differed across sectors: in the NHS it was constrained by Trust policies and in the private sector by patients' financial resources. There were greater opportunities for autonomous practice in the private sector and regulation was important for different reasons in each sector. In general, NHS practitioners had Western-focussed training and also used conventional medical techniques, whereas private practitioners were more likely to have Traditional Chinese training and to practise
Trifkovic, Neda; Bjerge, Benedikte Alkjærsig; Torm, Nina
such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...
International Finance Corporation
This report is the result of an open-source study to assess the direct and indirect effects of private sector activity on job creation. The report examines how and under what conditions the private sector can best contribute to job creation and poverty reduction. The private sector, which provides some 90 percent of jobs in developing countries, must be at the core of any response to this ...
Nguyen Danh, Hoang Long
This study examines public administration-private wage differentials and SOEs-private wage differentials for males and females. Based on data from Vietnam Living Standards Survey in 2002 (VLSS 2002), wage equations with and without selectivity correction are estimated by sector of employment for males and females. From these results, the study compares the wage structure by sector of work for males and females. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of the public administration-private sector wage diff...
Mora, Ricardo; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
In many countries, recruiting and promotion procedures in the public sector would appear to leave less room for gender discrimination than in the private sector. Using data for Spain in 1977 and 1992, this paper explores the consequences of these practices for gender segregation in those occupations where there is a private and a public sector of a minimum size. In particular, an additive index based on the entropy concept is used to compare occupational gender segregation in the private vers...
I COPY AIU WAR COLLEGE ,.SEARCH REPORT ,YSIS OF SURVIVOR BENEFIT PLAN-__CCEPTANCE ’-U AND COMPARISON WITH PRIVATE SECTOR LIEUENNT COLONEL JOHN R...AAA AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF SURVIVOR BENEFIT PLAN--ACCEPTANCE AND COMPARISON WITH PRIVATE SECTOR by John R. Adams Lieutenant...Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP)--Acceptance and Comparison With Private Sector . AUTHORS: John R. Adams, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF; Daniel 3. Kohn
The Brazilian health system is based upon the constitutional right formulated in 1988, according to which health is the peoples' right and duty of the State. So being, it is essentially the government's responsibility, expressed in the so-called Sistema Unico de Saúde--SUS (single health system) Since its creation, however, it admits the existence of a supplementary health system, left to the private sector. In general terms, the public system is considered unsatisfactory in the services it renders. Its resources are distributed heterogeneously, favoring centers of advanced medical practice, to the detriment of basic health care. The supplementary system is considered of better quality, however with great variations and frequent accusations of being essentially profit driven, instead of being driven to the needs of the assisted population. The growing search for health plans is a direct consequence of the image perceived by the population regarding the quality and accessibility of the public services, as well as of the peoples' growing consciousness of their needs, rights and duties as citizens. The need for continuous quality improvement and cost reduction offers numberless opportunities for actions and investments. Initiatives to identify and implement the best medical practices, medical guidelines and actions are essential regarding those illnesses which are most frequent, of higher cost and of greater risk. Health plans and healthcare providers will necessarily have to focus on their common client. Therefore, organizations must be created in order to develop initiatives aimed to the quality of patient care, as well as to the collection and dissemination of data regarding the production and results of the main service providers. Consequently, immense opportunities are being opened for investments in the area of Information Technology, collection, analysis, and data dissemination. This paper analyses the main trends in the Brazilian health sector and from the
.... But most of this research in peer reviewed journals has focused on the private sector. Researchers have also identified software acquisitions as one of the major differences between the private sector and public sector MIS...
Albæk, Karsten; Larsen, Mona; Stage Thomsen, Lars
This paper examines the relation between segregation and the gender wage gap in the public and the private sectors in Denmark from 2002 to 2012. The analysis shows that male–female differences in the share of females in occupations, industries,establishments and job cells (occupations within...... establishments) constitute 46% of the raw gender wage gap in the private sector, while segregation in t he public sector accounts for as much as 63 %. Segregation thus plays a substantially more important role in accounting for the gender wage gap in the public sector than in the private sector. While...... the importance of segregation for wage formation decreased substantially in the public sector over time, it only decreased slightly in the private sector. Although the remaining gender wage gap, after controlling for segregation, is close to zero in the public sector, a substantial within-job cell differential...
Morgan, Rosemary; Ensor, Tim; Waters, Hugh
Although the private sector is an important health-care provider in many low-income and middle-income countries, its role in progress towards universal health coverage varies. Studies of the performance of the private sector have focused on three main dimensions: quality, equity of access, and efficiency. The characteristics of patients, the structures of both the public and private sectors, and the regulation of the sector influence the types of health services delivered, and outcomes. Combined with characteristics of private providers-including their size, objectives, and technical competence-the interaction of these factors affects how the sector performs in different contexts. Changing the performance of the private sector will require interventions that target the sector as a whole, rather than individual providers alone. In particular, the performance of the private sector seems to be intrinsically linked to the structure and performance of the public sector, which suggests that deriving population benefit from the private health-care sector requires a regulatory response focused on the health-care sector as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to explore the effectiveness of contract negotiations between buyers and suppliers in small government organizations, which collectively outsource their IS/IT activities to a single outsourcing vendor, usually referred to as ‘co-sourcing’. A major finding of this study was that organizations could have a successful co-sourcing arrangement by determining and putting into practice certain critical success factors. This research was the first study of government co-sourcing arrangements in Australia that aimed to identify the success of a contract and the critical factors that affected it. In this regard, it can contribute to the existing body of knowledge in co-sourcing activities that have been growing rapidly in government departments as well as in the private sector.
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
Although research on private-sector expatriates is abundant, not much is known about their public-sector counterparts, especially self-initiated expatriates, who themselves initiate the move to live and work abroad. Comparing work outcomes and creativity of self-initiated expatriates in the private...... vs. the public sector, the results of a survey including 329 respondents indicated that performance and effectiveness were higher in the private sector. However, only in the public sector was there a positive association between creativity and the two work outcomes. These findings are discussed...
Bunger, Alicia C; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline; Perez-Jolles, Monica; Wells, Rebecca
Human service agencies are encouraged to collaborate with other public and private agencies in providing services to children and families. However, they also often compete with these same partners for funding, qualified staff, and clientele. Although little is known about complex interagency dynamics of competition and collaboration in the child-serving sector, evidence suggests that competition can undermine collaboration unless managed strategically. This study explores the interrelationship between competition and collaboration, sometimes referred to as "co-opetition." Using a national dataset of private child and family serving agencies, we examine their relationships with other child serving sectors (N=4460 pair-wise relationships), and explore how variations in patterns of collaboration and competition are associated with several organizational, environmental and relational factors. Results suggest that most relationships between private child welfare agencies and other child serving agencies are characterized by both competition and collaboration (i.e. "co-opetition"), and is most frequently reported with other local private child welfare agencies. Logistic regression analyses indicate that co-opetition is likely to occur when private child welfare agencies have a good perceived relationship or a sub-contract with their partner. Findings have implications for how agency leaders manage partner relationships, and how public child welfare administrators structure contracts.
Klijn, A.; Gupta, J.; Nijboer, A.
This article argues that a current trend in global sustainable development governance is actively to engage the private sector in participating in the process of implementing global and national policy goals. This trend is based on the notion that the private sector has the ideas, technologies and
The private sector in health care in Vietnam has been increasingly competing with the government in primary health care services. However, little is known about the use of skilled birth attendance or about choice of public and private sectors among those who opt for skilled attendants. Using data from the Vietnam 2002 Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines factors related to women's decision-making of whether to have a skilled birth attendant at a recent childbirth, and if they did, whether it was a public or private sector provider. The study indicates that the use of the private sector for delivery services was significant. Women's household wealth, education, antenatal care and community's wealth were positively related to skilled birth attendance, while ethnicity and order of childbirth were negatively related. Order of childbirth was positively associated with skilled birth attendance in the private sector. Among service environment factors, increased access to public sector health centres was associated with an increased likelihood of skilled birth attendance in general, but a lowered chance of that in the private sector. Further studies are needed to assess the current situation in the private sector, the demand for delivery services in the private sector, and its readiness to provide quality services.
Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Olivera, Mauricio; Ospino, Carlos
This paper evaluates the impact of water sector privatization in Colombia on access, price and water quality, as well as health outcomes using differences-in-differences methodology. The main findings of the impact of water privatization are: (i) an improvement in the quality of water and an increase in the frequency of the service in privatized urban municipalities for the lower quintiles; (ii) a positive effect on health outcomes in both urban and rural areas; (iii) a negative effect on pay...
Pakhomova, E. O.; Goosen, E. V.; Nikitenko, S. M.
Public-private partnership (PPP) as a form of interaction between the public and private sectors contributes to the improvement of social and economic situation in the country. PPP is viewed in a broad context and is presented as a system of financial and non-financial relations between government and business. A number of legislative initiatives contributed to the emergence of a new form of PPP that is a special investment contract (SPIC). In the Russian regions there are legislative initiatives that provide differences in terms of contracting. In a number of regions a federal-specific volume of mandatory investment has been reduced to attract investors, while there are regions where this volume is higher than at the federal level. Monitoring of regional legislation showed that the authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation are striving to obtain guarantee obligations to create jobs and receive salaries above the average in the region. Measures to encourage investors have been determined, and the benefits to the government and business from the implementation of a SPIC have been shown.
Boulet, Gertjan; de Hert, Paul; Aden, H.
Our main finding is that the area of cooperation between the private sector and LEAs strongly resembles an “area in between” regulations. The cooperation between private sector and LEAs in the fight against cybercrime is “likely to be occurring independently of the actual existence of any applicable
Full Text Available research project referred to as ‘Instruments for Sustainable Private Sector Forestry in South Africa.’ This national investigation is co-ordinated by the CSIR, in collaboration with DFID and IIED. Its aim is to understand how the private sector is involved...
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2008-0017] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency... on an initial small business plan to address small business concerns in the Voluntary Private Sector...
Balci Demirci, Birim
It is widely known that there are many schools in the private sector offering courses in Computer Technology, Computer Engineering, Information Systems and similar disciplines in addition to Universities presenting such courses. The private sector programs are extremely popular with students already studying at university as well as being of great…
Din, Siraj ud; Khan, Bakhtiar; Rehman, Rashid; Bibi, Zainab
The purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into the conflict management in public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To achieve the earlier mentioned purpose, survey method was used with the help of questionnaire. In this research, impact of university type (public and private sector) was examined on the conflict…
Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard
Policy makers expect increasing numbers of PhDs to find employment in the private sector. However, the incentive structure for completing a PhD and subsequently seeking private sector employment has not been adequately assessed in the literature. This paper investigates the financial incentives for this career choice of recent Danish PhD…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public and private sector comment procedures. 302.1 Section 302.1 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMENTS ON UNICOR BUSINESS OPERATIONS § 302.1 Public and private sector comment procedures. (a...
... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments C Appendix C to Part 4022 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Appendix C to Part 4022—Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments [In using this table: (1) For...
... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. DATES: The meeting will be held on...
Anglin, R. L.
Stereosat, a free flying Sun synchronous satellite whose purpose is to obtain worldwide cloud-free stereoscopic images of the Earth's land masses, is proposed as a joint private sector/government venture. A number of potential organization models are identified. The legal, economic, and institutional issues which could impact the continuum of potential joint private sector/government institutional structures are examined.
E Silva, Karine
Could industry improve our response to botnet attacks? If so, how should this private sector participation be regulated? This paper examines how regulation could be used to facilitate private sector intervention against robot networks, also known as botnets. The first part of this paper is dedicated
Russell, Helen; Smyth, Emer; O'Connell, Philip J.
In this paper we seek to investigate the role of different factors in accounting for the differences in earnings among recent graduates working in the private sector in Ireland. Three years after graduation there is a pay gap of 8 per cent in hourly wages between male and female graduates in the private sector and a 4 per cent non-significant gap…
Used historical evidence to analyze how private sector benefits worked in the past in light of the debate surrounding the Social Security benefits and the federal deficit. Among conclusions reached are that the private sector failed to provide adequate protection for older citizens, and that benefits were inequitably distributed on basis of gender…
Based on the results of a study on policies in a number of sectors (e.g. railways and electric utilities) the privatization of those sectors in the Netherlands is evaluated. Recommendations are formulated, among which a plead for 'public enterprise' as an alternative for privatization of large infrastructural businesses, e.g. railways, networks, and Schiphol (airport) [nl
The influence of the private sector on education has been and continues to be significant. The use of scientific management in education, which led to standardized testing, accountability, and educational administration, came from the private sector. In recent times, many businesses have formed charitable and professional support partnerships with…
Greenberg, J. S.
Federal funding of technological research and development is discussed with regard to the procedures for an economic analysis with the goals of (1) determining when the public sector should invest in a research and development program, (2) evaluating the likelihood of private sector participation in terms of public sector participation, and (3) considering the major factors in the formulation of a research and development program in terms of defining initiatives. Public sector investments are evaluated, noting procedures for determining whether benefits exceed costs. The role of the public sector research and development planning is described, considering the procedure for private sector implementation decisions and a methodology for evaluating the possibility of private sector commercialization. The economic value of the public sector research and development program is presented with attention given to a specific case of NASA-sponsored research and development aimed toward the commercialization of new public communications services.
Leovic, K.W.; Sanchez, D.C.; Craig, A.B.
The paper compares private and public sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the US. In response to elevated levels of radon in many houses throughout the U.S., the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public information efforts resulting in a range of radon reduction installations in the U.S. Government sponsored research and development of radon mitigation techniques in single-family detached houses is compared with radon mitigation approaches undertaken by the private sector. An attempt is also made to compare premitigation diagnostics, the performance of mitigation installations, and the cost of the installations. The information collected indicates that sub-slab ventilation is the most common technique in both public and private sector radon mitigation; however, air-to-air heat exchangers and sealing are employed more frequently in the private sector than in government sponsored mitigation. (author)
Witter, K.A.; Sanchez, D.C.; Craig, A.B.
This paper compares private- and public-sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the U.S. In response to elevated radon levels in many U.S. houses, the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public-information efforts resulting in a range of radon reduction installations in the U.S. Government-sponsored research and development of radon-mitigation techniques in single-family detached houses is compared with radon mitigation approaches undertaken by the private sector. An attempt is also made to compare premitigation diagnostics, the application of mitigation techniques to various substructure types, the performance of mitigation installations, and the cost of the installations. The information collected indicates that subslab ventilation is the most common technique in both public- and private-sector radon mitigation; however, air-to-air heat exchangers and sealing are employed more frequently in the private sector than in government-sponsored mitigation
Anca Monica Ardeleanu
Full Text Available Equal opportunities are a goal to achieve in Romania at the legislative and institutional/ organizational level.In terms of legislation Romania has made progress, but the institutional mechanisms of the government dealing with gender equality issues are not functioning properly, are not generating a concreate impact on the equal opportunities for women and men.For this reason there is no specific and significant political commitmentto these issue of gender equality in Romania. Gender discrimination is addressed both by anti-discrimination and equal opportunities laws.Equality,fairness and non-discrimination in the workplace environment are present as objective requirements of economic, social and ethical behavior that goes beyond the labor market. Theoretically, on the labor market , both public and private sectors do not accept direct or indirect discrimination at the workplace, espeially during the process of recruitment , training , development, promotion, establishment, payment of the salary and benefits. In practice , the legislation regarding the equal opportunities and equal treatment it is not respected by the employers all the time.Promotion of the policies at the national and organizational level, focused on ensuring equal opportunities , will enhance the social cohesion of the population that will generate economic growrh overall.
Kennedy, Virginia C
The purpose of this study was to describe the number and distribution of 26 administrative, professional, and technical public health occupations across the array of US governmental and nongovernmental industries. This study used data from the Occupational Employment Statistics program of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. For each occupation of interest, the investigator determined the number of persons employed in 2006 in five industries and industry groups: government, nonprofit agencies, education, healthcare, and all other industries. Industry-specific employment profiles varied from one occupation to another. However, about three-fourths of all those engaged in these occupations worked in the private healthcare industry. Relatively few worked in nonprofit or educational settings, and less than 10 percent were employed in government agencies. The industry-specific distribution of public health personnel, particularly the proportion employed in the public sector, merits close monitoring. This study also highlights the need for a better understanding of the work performed by public health occupations in nongovernmental work settings. Finally, the Occupational Employment Statistics program has the potential to serve as an ongoing, national data collection system for public health workforce information. If this potential was realized, future workforce enumerations would not require primary data collection but rather could be accomplished using secondary data.
Hope, Kempe Ronald, Sr.
The purpose of this article is to provide an assessment and analysis of public sector performance contracting as a performance management tool in Kenya. It aims to demonstrate that performance contracting remains a viable and important tool for improving public sector performance as a key element of the on-going public sector transformation…
The overall thrust of this paper is that policy learning is enhanced by the participation of private business. It is assumed that business involvement would suggest abundant opportunities for policy learning and transfer. The empirical part of this paper investigates private sector involvement in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy-making in a transition economy (Hungary). Private sector involvement in Hungarian STI policy-making is investigated in terms of the stages and types of...
Chatterji, Monojit; Mumford, Karen; Smith, Peter N.
Using new linked employee-workplace data for Britain in 2004, we find that the nature of the public private pay gap differs between genders and that of the gender pay gap differs between sectors. The analysis shows that little none of the gender earnings gap in both the public and private sector can be explained by differences in observable characteristics. Decomposition analysis further reveals that the contribution of differences in workplace characteristics to the public private earnings g...
CORINA ALEXANDRA VITELAR
The term "public-private partnership" carries a specific meaning. First, it relates to the provision of public services or public infrastructure. Second, it necessitates the transfer of risk between partners. Arrangements that do not include these two concepts are not technically "public-private partnerships". The definition embraced by The Canadian Council for Public-Private Partnerships, for example is as follows: “A cooperative venture between the public and private sectors, built on the e...
Heponiemi, Tarja; Kouvonen, Anne; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko
The present study examined the differences between physicians working in public and private health care in strenuous working environments (presence of occupational hazards, physical violence, and presenteeism) and health behaviours (alcohol consumption, body mass index, and physical activity). In addition, we examined whether gender or age moderated these potential differences. Cross-sectional survey data were compiled on 1422 female and 948 male randomly selected physicians aged 25-65 years from The Finnish Health Care Professionals Study. Logistic regression and linear regression analyses were used with adjustment for gender, age, specialisation status, working time, managerial position, and on-call duty. Occupational hazards, physical violence, and presenteeism were more commonly reported by physicians working in the public sector than by their counterparts in the private sector. Among physicians aged 50 years or younger, those who worked in the public sector consumed more alcohol than those who worked in the private sector, whereas in those aged 50 or more the reverse was true. In addition, working in the private sector was most strongly associated with lower levels of physical violence in those who were older than 50 years, and with lower levels of presenteeism among those aged 40-50 years. The present study found evidence for the public sector being a more strenuous work environment for physicians than the private sector. Our results suggest that public healthcare organisations should pay more attention to the working conditions of their employees.
Yoong, Joanne; Burger, Nicholas; Spreng, Connor; Sood, Neeraj
The role of the private health sector in developing countries remains a much-debated and contentious issue. Critics argue that the high prices charged in the private sector limits the use of health care among the poorest, consequently reducing access and equity in the use of health care. Supporters argue that increased private sector participation might improve access and equity by bringing in much needed resources for health care and by allowing governments to increase focus on underserved populations. However, little empirical exists for or against either side of this debate. We examine the association between private sector participation and self-reported measures of utilization and equity in deliveries and treatment of childhood respiratory disease using regression analysis, across a sample of nationally-representative Demographic and Health Surveys from 34 SSA economies. We also examine the correlation between private sector participation and key background factors (socioeconomic development, business environment and governance) and use multivariate regression to control for potential confounders. Private sector participation is positively associated with greater overall access and reduced disparities between rich and poor as well as urban and rural populations. The positive association between private sector participation and improved health system performance is robust to controlling for confounders including per capita income and maternal education. Private sector participation is positively correlated with measures of socio-economic development and favorable business environment. Greater participation is associated with favorable intermediate outcomes in terms of access and equity. While these results do not establish a causal link between private sector participation and health system performance, they suggest that there is no deleterious link between private sector participation and health system performance in SSA.
An overview is presented of the electric power industry of Ukraine. The major elements of the privatization process are discussed. The procedures and timeline of privatization are shown. Key investment considerations include market potential, the country's strategic position, fuel source diversification, balanced group of Oblenergos offered for sale, government's commitment to privatization, controlling stakes offered for sale, and favorable business environment. (R.P.)
Only 7 (28.0%) and 1 (16.7%) of the private and public ICUs, respectively, had sufficient space around the beds. Twenty-two private ICUs (88.0%) and 4 public ICUs (66.7%) had isolation rooms, but only some of these isolation rooms (15 private and 2 public) had appropriate mechanical ventilation. None of the ICUs had ...
Stallworthy, Guy; Boahene, Kwasi; Ohiri, Kelechi; Pamba, Allan; Knezovich, Jeffrey
The role for the private sector in health remains subject to much debate, especially within the context of achieving universal health coverage.This roundtable discussion offers diverse perspectives from a range of stakeholders--a health funder, a representative from an implementing organization, a national-level policy-maker, and an expert working in a large multi-national company--on what the future may hold for the private sector in health. The first perspective comes from a health funder, who argues that the discussion about the future role of the private sector has been bogged down in language. He argues for a 'both/and' approach rather than an 'either/or' when it comes to talking about health service provision in low- and middle-income countries.The second perspective is offered by an implementer of health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa. The piece examines the comparative roles of public sector actors, private sector actors and funding agencies, suggesting that they must work together to mobilize domestic resources to fund and deliver health services in the longer term.Thirdly, a special advisor working in the federal government of Nigeria considers the situation in that country. He notes that the private sector plays a significant role in funding and delivering health services there, and that the government must engage the private sector or forever be left behind.Finally, a representative from a multi-national pharmaceutical corporation gives an overview of global shifts that are creating opportunities for the private sector in health markets. Overall, the roundtable discussants agree that the private sector will play an important role in future health systems. But we must agree a common language, work together, and identify key issues and gaps that might be more effectively filled by the private sector.
Full Text Available This study compares the internal audit functions between private and the public sector. Features examined include hierarchical rank of internal audit function, internal audit transfer, outsourcing of internal audit services and working relationship of internal audit with external auditor. The study is based on a survey of internal audit managers and chief internal auditors in private and public sector entities in Nigeria. The results revealed that there is no much difference in hierarchical rank of internal audit function in both sectors. While the results showed that differences exist in the reporting status between internal audit in the two sectors with private sector internal audit reporting to audit committee and chief executive officer and public sector internal audit reporting to chief executive officer and chief financial officer. Almost a similar amount of work is outsourced, and private sector entities are more likely to outsource than those in public sector. There is slight difference between internal audit activities and interaction with external auditor in the two sectors with private sector more likely to coordinate in the area of access to audit working papers.
Chiguzo, A N; Mugo, R W; Wacira, D G; Mwenda, J M; Njuguna, E W
To demonstrate that micro-franchising system is an effective way of improving access to effective health care such as the introduction of first line antimalarias in populations living in underserved rural areas in Kenya. A descriptive study. Child and family wellness (CFW) micro-franchised nurse run clinics in Kenya. In 2007, 39.3% of RDTs carried out were positive for malaria. All malaria positive (RDTs and microscopy) patients received artemether lumefantrine (AL) according to their weight in accordance with the Government approved treatment guidelines. During the same period a total of 3,248 community members were reached with malaria information, however, community expectations took longer to change as patients demanded AL even when the malaria diagnosis was negative. Initially, this led to the dispensing of other antimalarials to patients with malaria like symptoms even with a negative test. This demand decreased with more community education on the importance of the tests. Engaging the private sector though with challenges proved feasible and appropriate in accessing malaria treatment based on clinical diagnosis supported by RDTs to confirm the diagnosis instead of presumptive treatment based on fever. This led to a reduction of antimalarial prescriptions by more than 50%, implying better patient care, rational drug use as well as cost savings on malaria treatment. A micro-franchising system is an effective and sustainable way of improving access to effective health care by populations living in underserved rural areas of Africa. With appropriate supportive training and supervision, the system can adapt to changes in treatment guidelines and to new regimens.
Hanning, Brian W T
The many types of payment models used in the Australian private sector are reviewed. Their features are compared and contrasted to those desirable in an optimal private sector payment model. The EPM(TM) (Equitable Payment Model) is discussed and its consistency with the desirable features of an optimal private sector payment model outlined. These include being based on a robust classification system, nationally benchmarked length of stay (LOS) results, nationally benchmarked relative cost and encouraging continual improvement in efficiency to the benefit of both health funds and private hospitals. The advantages in the context of the private sector of EPM(TM) being a per diem model, albeit very different to current per diem models, are discussed. The advantages of EPM(TM) for hospitals and health funds are outlined.
Fantone, Denise M; Pickup, Sharon
... Private Sector Care BAG. To do this, we reviewed (1) DOD's justification for the request for the Private Sector Care BAG, including the underlying estimates and the extent to which DOD considered historical information; and (2...
Bloom, R.R.; Rodriguez, R.R.
Rust Federal Services, under contract to the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Operations Office, performed a study to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a suggested private sector solution for the treatment of alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste (ALLMW) stored or produced at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The feasibility study is an initial step in the potential procurement of privatized treatment services for these wastes. Rust's derived objective of the feasibility study was to define an optimal treatment system and analyze the feasibility of that system for accomplishing the processing objectives specified by DOE. All aspects of the selected treatment system were addressed in the feasibility study, including technical, regulatory, public involvement, and financial considerations. Two central elements of the study were a technology screening task to select the optimal treatment system and an analysis of the institutional, business, financial, and contractual issues that are likely to accompany the privatization of treatment services for DOE
This paper provides a description of several types of international contracts and their clauses, in particular in relation to their limitations which are partly due to compliance with the law of the countries concerned. The actions of private business concerns are increasingly conditioned by the position taken at government level, while States in turn are governed by commitments under Treaties they have concluded, e.g. the International Monetary Fund Treaty and the 1980 Rome Convention relating to contractual obligations. The author also deals with private autonomy and international contracts in the context of the development of international economic relationships. (NEA) [fr
Dincer, I. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I
In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning.
Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I.
In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning
Types of parts manufactured by domestic firms in the automotive sector. 237. 8.8. The first ... Tanzania Engineering and Manufacturing Design Organization. TIRDO. Tanzania ...... Table 2.3 Distribution of firms according to sector of production ...
Are public sector jobs better than private sector jobs? To answer this question, this paper investigates observed differences in job satisfaction between public- and private-sector workers and disentangles the effect of worker sorting from the one caused by sector-specific job characteristics. A natural experiment – the massive privatization process in post-Soviet countries – allows correcting potential self-selection bias. Industry-specific privatization probabilities are assigned to workers...
This thesis discusses the building of a sustainable business process wherein the private sector is integrated into the homeland security apparatus...As the threat our nation and her allies face continues to evolve, so must our responses. Integrating the private sector into the homeland security...attack. The private sector brings with it a plethora of talents and resources. Because it has not traditionally been seen as a partner the private sector has
Business has reacted in an impressive manner to increasing globalisation, short-term stock market pressure for performance, emerging industries and new technologies. While the private sector has become increasingly competitive, the public sector has not adopted this commercial rigour. Funding pressures on health services will continue, as will increasing consumer and staff demands and the blurring of public and private health care provision. As a result, there are lessons and techniques the public and private health sectors should learn from each other. I have drawn the issues that follow from my experience in the steel and food industries.
Berger, Ariel; Hartrick, Craig; Edelsberg, John; Sadosky, Alesia; Oster, Gerry
To estimate direct and indirect economic costs among private-sector employees with osteoarthritis (OA). Using a large US employer benefits database, we identified all employees with evidence of OA during calendar year 2007, and compared their costs of health care and work loss to age-and-sex-matched employees without evidence of OA in that year. Private-sector employees with OA (n = 2399) averaged 62.9 days of absenteeism versus 36.7 days among matched comparators (n = 2399) (P Private-sector employees with OA have higher direct and indirect costs than those without this condition.
Chandani, Arti; Mehta, Mita; Neeraja, B.
A woman in the workplace is not a new phenomenon, a woman who is a member of the board could be called a moderate phenomenon but a woman who is the CEO is undoubtedly a recent phenomenon, at least in India. At present, the top private sector bank, i.e. ICICI bank, is headed by a woman, Ms. Chanda Kochhar. In addition, the Axis bank, the 3rd largest private sector bank in India is also headed by a woman CEO, Mrs. Shikha Sharma. This paper focuses on women CEOs in the private banking sector and...
Santonen, Teemu; Paasonen, Jyri
The role and signifi cance of private security services have grown in many countries, since traditional tasks of security authorities are being outsourced. The goal of this study is to empirically evaluate the perceptions of the private security market in Finland. As a result, we identifi ed three different future scenarios for the Finnish private security market, including(1) international success via innovations, (2) success via domestic markets, and (3) pessimistic success vision. It appea...
... simultaneously in section 502(e) private sector training activities operated by one grantee and a community... EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Private Sector Training Projects Under Section 502(e) of the OAA § 641.670 May an eligible individual be enrolled simultaneously in section 502(e) private sector training activities operated by one...
...(e) private sector training activities? 641.660 Section 641.660 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... PROGRAM Private Sector Training Projects Under Section 502(e) of the OAA § 641.660 Who is eligible to participate in section 502(e) private sector training activities? The same eligibility criteria used in the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do the private sector training activities... COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Private Sector Training Projects Under Section 502(e) of the OAA § 641.640 How do the private sector training activities authorized under section 502(e) differ from other...
... and losses with private sector insurers. 50.33 Section 50.33 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the...' Compensation Funds § 50.33 Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers. (a... share profits and losses with a private sector insurer is deemed to be a separate insurer under the...
... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... CONFLICT OF INTEREST RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions § 2641.207 One-year restriction on any former private sector... one year after the termination of his assignment from a private sector organization to an agency under...
Butler, I R T; Ceronio, D; Swart, T; Joubert, G
The age of diagnosis of congenital hearing loss is one of the most important determinants of communication outcome. A previous study by the lead author had evaluated the performance of the public health services in Bloemfontein, South Africa (SA), in this regard. This study aimed to examine whether the private health services in the same city were any better. To determine whether the age of diagnosis of congenital hearing loss (CHL) in children seen in the private healthcare sector in Bloemfontein, Free State Province, SA, was lower than that in the public healthcare system in the same city. A comparative study design was utilised and a retrospective database review conducted. Data obtained from this study in the private healthcare sector were compared with data from a previous study in the public healthcare sector using the same study design. Forty-eight children aged private healthcare sector during the study period; 33/47 (70.2%) did not undergo hearing screening at birth. The median age of diagnosis of DHI in the private healthcare sector was 2.24 years, and this was statistically significantly lower than the median age of diagnosis of 3.71 years in the public healthcare sector (pprivate healthcare sector was 3.01 years in children who were not screened at birth, and 1.25 years in those who were screened at birth. This difference was statistically significant (pprivate healthcare sector who were not screened at birth (median 3.01 years) with that in children in the public healthcare sector (median 3.71 years). This difference was statistically significant (pprivate healthcare sector than in the public healthcare sector. With the social and economic benefits of early intervention in cases of DHI well established internationally, SA healthcare providers in both the public and private sectors need to develop screening, diagnostic and (re)habilitation services for children with hearing impairment.
van den Hurk, M.; Verhoest, K.
A call for an increased use of standard contracts in public-private partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure development is noticeable in practice. These contracts are expected to simplify and improve procurement by creating opportunities for learning, lower transaction costs, and better competition.
Pepper, S.E.; Epel, L.; Maise, G.; Reisman, A.; Skalyo, J.
The US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) relies on technical expertise found in the U. S private and public sectors. Since 1993, the international Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) has sought to increase the role of the private sector in POTAS. ISPO maintains and continues to develop a database of US companies interested in providing technical expertise to the IAEA. This database is used by ISPO to find appropriate contractors to respond to IAEA requests for technical assistance when the assistance can be provided by the private sector. The private sector is currently providing support in the development of equipment, training, and procedure preparation. POTAS also supports the work of private consultants. This paper discusses ISPO's efforts to identify suitable vendors and discusses conditions that hinder more substantial involvement by the private sector. In addition, the paper will discuss selected projects that are currently in progress and identify common problems that impede the progress and success of tasks performed by the private sector
van Liere, Marti J; Tarlton, Dessie; Menon, Ravi; Yellamanda, M; Reerink, Ietje
Global recognition that the complex and multicausal problems of malnutrition require all players to collaborate and to invest towards the same objective has led to increased private sector engagement as exemplified through the Scaling Up Nutrition Business Network and mechanisms for blended financing and matched funding, such as the Global Nutrition for Growth Compact. The careful steps made over the past 5 to 10 years have however not taken away or reduced the hesitation and scepticism of the public sector actors towards commercial or even social businesses. Evidence of impact or even a positive contribution of a private sector approach to intermediate nutrition outcomes is still lacking. This commentary aims to discuss the multiple ways in which private sector can leverage its expertise to improve nutrition in general, and complementary feeding in particular. It draws on specific lessons learned in Bangladesh, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Indonesia, and Madagascar on how private sector expertise has contributed, within the boundaries of a regulatory framework, to improve availability, accessibility, affordability, and adequate use of nutritious foods. It concludes that a solid evidence base regarding the contribution of private sector to complementary feeding is still lacking and that the development of a systematic learning agenda is essential to make progress in the area of private sector engagement in nutrition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
To test the hypothesis that the health reform enacted in Peru in 1997 increased the rate of cesarean sections in the private sector due to non-clinical factors. Different rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey are used to estimate determinants of c-section rates in private and public facilities before and after the healthcare reform. Estimations are based on a pooled linear regression controlling by obstetric and socioeconomic characteristics. C-section rates in the private sector grew from 28 to 53% after the health reform. Compared to the Ministry of Health (MOH), giving birth in a private hospital in the post-reform period adds 19% to the probability of c-section. The health reform implemented in the private sector increased physician incentives to over-utilize c-sections. The reform consolidated and raised the market power of private health insurers, but at the same time did not provide mechanisms to enlarge, regulate and disclose information of private providers. All these factors created the conditions for fee-for-service paid providers to perform more c-sections. Comparable trends in c-section rates have been observed in Latin American countries who implemented similar reforms in their private sector, suggesting a need to rethink the role of private health providers in developing countries. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.
This paper provides a sub-sectoral analysis of changes in the public-private sector pay gap in Ireland between 2003 and 2006. We find that between March 2003 and October 2006 the public sector pay premium increased from 14 to 26 per cent and that there was substantial variation between subsectors of the public service. Within the public service the premium in 2006 was highest in Education and Security Services and lowest in the Civil Service and Local Authorities. In the private sector the pa...
Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rossi, Martín
We use province-level data for Argentina to test for the causal relation between electricity distribution and health. We are interested in the impact of privatization on two output measures, incidence of low birth weight and child mortality rates caused by food poisoning. Privatization improves...... service coverage which, through the use of refrigerators, may improve nutritional intake. Privatization also results in a reduction in the frequency of interruptions, and thus may reduce the likelihood of food poisoning. We find some evidence that privatization reduced the frequency of low birth weight...... and child mortality rates caused by food poisoning. Results are not strong enough to inform the policy debate with respect to the benefits that privatizations have on the welfare of the poor....
R. Twijnstra (Rens); D.J.M. Hilhorst (Thea)
textabstractPolicy discourse on private sector development in fragile states has started attributing great importance to domestic entrepreneurship. This chapter follows Dutch initiatives to support entrepreneurs in South Sudan between 2009 and 2015. Despite the rhetoric, support for entrepreneurs
The paper shows a vision of the private sector of distributors wholesalers about the market of fuels in the country, the regulated market, like they have seen the regulation process and that perspectives have toward the future
This report presents a methodological framework to evaluate public sector financial risk exposure when : delivering transportation infrastructure through public-private partnership (PPP) agreements in the United : States (U.S.). The framework is base...
Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard
In Denmark, policy makers have increased admissions to PhD programs to ensure the flow of researchers into the private sector, thereby increasing knowledge transfer. However, we know little about the factors influencing the sector mobility of PhD graduates. While opting for employment...... in the private sector might be driven by personal preferences, there might also be external factors pushing PhDs to choose the private sector. This article examines the push and pull effects on mobility choices using duration models to estimate the transition rates to private sector employment. The analyses show...... that the preference for and ability to do academic science reduces transition rates to the private sector, whereas being in a research position and earnings potential are attractors to the private sector. Hence, both push and pull effects determine sector mobility. Once the initial sector choice has been made...
Naylor, Justine M; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne
Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41-3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1-2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28-4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p private sector are not more satisfied with their acute-care experience nor are they more likely to recommend their hospital provider. Rather, avoidance of complications in either sector appears to result in
Naylor, Justine M.; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A.; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne
Background Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. Methods A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or definitely recommend’ or ‘other’), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. Results 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01–1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41–3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1–2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28–4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p private sector are not more satisfied with their acute
George, Dr Elizabeth
Purpose The study aims at finding out the overall Quality of work life of Generation Y and Generation Z employees in Private Sector Organizations in India. The study further investigates the relationship between Job Satisfaction and Quality of work life. The study also checks whether there is any relationship between demographic variables viz. experience, gender and Quality of work life. Design/methodology/approach Sixty Generation Y and Generation Z employees from various private sector org...
Monojit Chatterji; Karen Mumford; Peter N Smith
This study examines the role of individual characteristics, occupation, and workplace features accounting for differences in hourly earnings between male and female fulltime employees in the public and private sectors. Using new linked employeeemployer data for Britain in 2004, we find that the nature of the public private pay gap differs between genders and that of the gender pay gap differs between sectors. The analysis shows that essentially none of the gender earnings gap in both the publ...
World Bank Group
Shifting Kenya’s private sector into higher gear: a trade and competitiveness agenda’ was born out of the World Bank’s Trade and Competitiveness (T&C) Global Practice recent stock taking of its work in Kenya. This was part of a Programmatic Approach that aimed to organize T&C’s knowledge, advisory, and convening services to address Kenya’s development challenges in the private sector space...
Madawaki Abdulkadir; Ahmi Aidi; Nasibah Ahmad Halimah
This study compares the internal audit functions between private and the public sector. Features examined include hierarchical rank of internal audit function, internal audit transfer, outsourcing of internal audit services and working relationship of internal audit with external auditor. The study is based on a survey of internal audit managers and chief internal auditors in private and public sector entities in Nigeria. The results revealed that there is no much difference in hierarchical r...
WEI, Chien-Hung; CHUNG, Ming-Chih
Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnai...
Hassan, Faiza; Qayyum, Abdul
The importance of studying demand for bank loan by private business sector stems from the fact the money supply is ‘credit-driven’ and demand-determined and at the rate of interest determined by the central bank the money supply function is horizontal as illustrated by Moore and Threadgold (1985), Coghlan, (1981), Moore (1979, 1983). The analysis of the demand for bank loan by private business sector is important for understating the monetary transmission mechanism and formulation of the eff...
Ashton, Toni; Brown, Paul M.; Sopina, Elizaveta (Liza)
and professional development, key sources of dissatisfaction are workload pressures, mentally demanding work and managerial interference. In the private sector specialists value the opportunity to work independently and apply their own ideas in the workplace. Conclusion Sources of job satisfaction...... and dissatisfaction amongst specialists are different for the public and private sectors. Allowing specialists more freedom to work independently and to apply their own ideas in the workplace may enhance recruitment and retention of specialists in the public health system....
One of the main questions in modern market ambient is development of new private sector in transitional economies. Private sector represents initial starter for development of every economy in one hand, and in other hand with its development are created real conditions for significant increase in economy of the whole region. Subject of this paper is analyzing conditions and opportunities of market ambient in transitional economies with special focus on Republic of Serbia, through focus of rec...
Bíró, Anikó; Hellowell, Mark
We examine the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in the United Kingdom and relate this to changes in the supply of public and private healthcare. Using a novel collection of administrative, private sector and survey data, we re-assess the relationships between the quality and availability of public and private sector inpatient care, and the demand for PHI. We find that PHI coverage in the United Kingdom is positively related to the median of the region- and year-specific public sector waiting times. We find that PHI prevalence ceteris paribus increases with being self-employed and employed, while it decreases with having financial difficulties. In addition, we highlight the complexities of inter-sectoral relations and their impact on PHI demand. Within a region, we find that an increase in private healthcare supply is associated with a decrease in public sector waiting times, implying lower PHI demand. This may be explained by the usage of private facilities by NHS commissioners. These results have important implications for policymakers interested in the role of private healthcare supply in enhancing the availability of and equitable access to acute inpatient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oct 26, 2016 ... Find out about the knowledge, innovation, and solutions we are bringing ... The Private Finance Gap: Challenges and Opportunities in Funding Adaptation ... IDRC supports results-based research that has real impacts on the ...
This report explores the role of private consultants in the school facility planning process. : It focuses on such issues as school siting and local government and school district collaboration. : As such, it seeks to demonstrate the importance of th...
Yang, Estin; Cook, Colin; Kahn, Delawir
South Africa has a low incidence of acute appendicitis, but poor outcomes. However, South African studies on appendicitis focus solely on public hospitals, neglecting those who utilize private facilities. This study aims to compare appendicitis characteristics and outcomes in public and private hospitals in South Africa. A prospective cohort study was conducted among two public and three private hospitals in the Cape Town metropole, from September 2013 to March 2014. Hospital records, operative notes, and histology results were reviewed for patients undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Patients were interviewed during their hospitalization and followed up at monthly intervals until normal function was attained. A total of 134 patients were enrolled, with 73 in the public and 61 in the private sector. Education and employment were higher among private sector patients. Public sector patients had a higher rupture rate (30.6 vs 13.2 %, p = 0.023). Times to presentation were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Public sector patients had longer hospital stays (5.3 vs 2.9 days, p = 0.036) and longer return to work times (23.0 vs 12.1 days, p public hospitals were more severe. Public sector patients in South Africa with appendicitis have higher rupture rates, worse complications, longer hospital stays, and longer recoveries than private sector patients. Patients with perforation had longer delays in presentation than patients without perforation.
Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…
Rio, G.A.P. do; Pinto Junior, H.Q.
This paper examines the complexities of the privatisation of the brazilian power sector. We try to explain the differences between privatisation.It is shown, based on a formulation proposes by Aylen, that the solutions of the sector problems has to do with the management reform of the public utilities and also the holding ELETROBRAS. (author)
Lambooy, T.E.; Levashova, Y.
Private companies and investors can profit from the enhancement of nature in general and from specific investments allocated to improve biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES). The question is: What is the incentive, from a private sector point of view, to invest in nature, and what are the
Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen
Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…
Reta, Alemayehu; Simachew, Addis
Tuberculosis has been declared to be a global epidemic. Despite all the effort, only less than half the annual estimated cases are reported by health authorities to the WHO. This could be due to poor reporting from the private sector. In Ethiopia, tuberculosis has also been a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the private health sector in tuberculosis control in Debre Markos. An institution based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in private health facilities. A total of 260 tuberculosis suspects attending the private clinics were interviewed. Focus group discussion, checklist, and structured questionnaire were used. Majority of the private clinics were less equipped, poorly regulated, and owned by health workers who were self-employed on a part-time basis. Provider delay of 4 and more months was significantly associated higher likelihood of turning to a private provider (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = (1.20, 6.08)). There is significant delay among tuberculosis patients. Moreover, there is poor regulation of the private health sector by public health authorities. The involvement of the private sector in tuberculosis control should be limited to identification and refer to tuberculosis cases and suspects.
Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem
With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…
Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…
Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.; Lishman, R.
The paper considers the role of the private rented sector in supplying housing that can be defined as social housing. It will do this by considering policy initiatives in Germany, France, the USA and England that use privately owned housing to meet social needs. The operation of these initiatives
Ejughemre, Ufuoma John
The health sector, a foremost service sector in Nigeria, faces a number of challenges; primarily, the persistent under-funding of the health sector by the Nigerian government as evidence reveals low allocations to the health sector and poor health system performance which are reflected in key health indices of the country.Notwithstanding, there is evidence that the private sector could be a key player in delivering health services and impacting health outcomes, including those related to healthcare financing. This underscores the need to optimize the role of private sector in complementing the government's commitment to financing healthcare delivery and strengthening the health system in Nigeria. There are also concerns about uneven quality and affordability of private-driven health systems, which necessitates reforms aimed at regulation. Accordingly, the argument is that the benefits of leveraging the private sector in complementing the national government in healthcare financing outweigh the challenges, particularly in light of lean public resources and finite donor supports. This article, therefore, highlights the potential for the Nigerian government to scale up healthcare financing by leveraging private resources, innovations and expertise, while working to achieve the universal health coverage.
Kundu, Debashish; Chopra, Kamal; Khanna, Ashwani; Babbar, Neeti; Padmini, T J
In India, almost half of all patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek care in the private sector as the first point of care. The national programme is unable to support such TB patients and facilitate effective treatment, as there is no information on TB and Multi or Extensively Drug Resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment in private sector. To improve this situation, Government of India declared TB a notifiable disease for establishing TB surveillance system, to extend supportive mechanism for TB treatment adherence and standardised practices in the private sector. But TB notification from the private sector is a challenge and still a lot needs to be done to accelerate TB notification. Delhi State TB Control Programme had taken initiatives for improving notification of TB cases from the private sector in 2014. Key steps taken were to constitute a state level TB notification committee to oversee the progress of TB notification efforts in the state and direct 'one to one' sensitisation of private practitioners (PPs) (in single PP's clinic, corporate hospitals and laboratories) by the state notification teams with the help of available tools for sensitising the PP on TB notification - TB Notification Government Order, Guidance Tool for TB Notification and Standards of TB Care in India. As a result of focussed state level interventions, without much external support, there was an accelerated notification of TB cases from the private sector. TB notification cases from the private sector rose from 341 (in 2013) to 4049 (by the end of March 2015). Active state level initiatives have led to increase in TB case notification. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bysted, Rune; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg
Innovation is argued to be of key importance in the public sector. Little is known about possible sector differences in innovative behaviour. The stereotype in literature is that public employees are less innovative. We analyse whether sector is associated with innovative behaviour...... and the influence of job/organizational characteristics. We test this by using a three-country representative survey in Scandinavia with 8,310 respondents. We control for subsectors/industries and job functions. We do not find that public employees are less innovative. Furthermore, the study emphasizes...... the importance of understanding the major differences in innovative behaviour between different subsectors/industries and job types....
Bied, J.Ch.; Philippon, B.
The global body dose due to the technetium is 1.2 and 1.9 mSv for the two nurses of the private sector. In the public sector, the level reached by the personnel is 0.75 mSv for the global body dose, and the only technetium (global body dose 1.4 and 2.1 mSv for the private sector, 0.95 for the public sector and for the whole of radiations measured by the O.P.R.I. film dosemeter. The doses received at the fingers level present higher levels in the private sector. But these values, 15.2 and 10.7 mSv by month, that is to say 180 mSv by year are the 2/5 of the maximum permissible value. The two persons of the private sector received whole body doses, higher that the doses of the public sector. These doses are about 1.2 to 1.9 these ones received in the public sector. (N.C.)
Baarspul, Hayo Christiaan; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
Governmental, public-sector organizations are known to operate differently than private, for-profit organizations. But do sector differences exist at the individual level as well? In this article we review twenty-eight hypothesis-driven empirical studies on this question. Most of the single studies
Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.
The size of the private rented housing sector (PRS) varies markedly between coun-tries. The paper explores the role of policy in supporting the PRS with emphasis on the evidence from France, Germany, the UK and the USA. The definition and meas-urement of the size of the sector in each country is
Kragelund, Jens Peter
Since the beginning of the 1990s an increasing number of donors have initiated pro-grammes to support the private sector in developing countries in order to enhance eco-nomic growth and thereby alleviate poverty. This paper uses case studies of a wide spec-trum of private enterprises in Ghana...... and related business entities to illustrate how the private sector programme of Danida has worked in Ghana. It looks into the direct effects of the programme, i.e. capability building and simultaneously shows how conventional evaluation procedures miss many of the derived effects of the programme....
This report analyses how effective incentive structures can be put in place for private sector involvement in pilot projects (AIJ, Activities Implemented Jointly) and, in due time, joint implementation (JI). Due to the short time record of AIJ/JI experience, lessons are drawn from other related policy areas: studies of public/private interface in environmental- and climate policy in the Netherlands, USA, Norway and Costa Rica. The report concludes with status and prospects for private sector incentives in the pilot phase and then provides lessons and proposals for such incentives in a more mature and ambitious JI regime with crediting. 22 refs.
.... DHS Sector Specialists or Protective Security Advisors email the form to the individual who then... clearance request form is signed by both the Federal official who nominated the applicant and the Assistant...
... sector financing could be mobilized for climate change adaptation projects in the same ... the research in collaboration with the Frankfurt Business School and existing CTI PFAN ... International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer.
Bank.1. The World Bank articulated its position in two reports,2,3 basically recommending ... lution in public sector management thinking, termed “new public management” The new public man- ..... Buso DL, Hausler H, Jinabhai N. Knowledge,.
The aim of this thesis is to analyse how economic transition affected earnings differentials in Eastern European economies. In particular, as the public sector was the sole employer in the pre-transition period, the analysis of public sector pay setting is crucial to understanding how privatisation affected the labour market during the transition.\\ud \\ud The central idea of the first essay is to develop a theoretical model that explains the pay setting behaviour of the employer in the public ...
Full Text Available Today, private forest owners (PFOs in Serbia cooperate in form of private forest owners associations (PFOAs. Currently, there are 20 PFOAs, of which 15 are in Timok region. Initiatives of PFOs from Timok forest area, animated the owners from other parts of the country and led to foundation of Serbian Federation of Forest Owners' Associations. Twelve of PFOAs from Timok forest area are the founders of Serbian private forest owners' umbrella organization. Restructuring of Public Enterprise (PE "Srbijasume", which started in 2001, led to development of private small and medium forest enterprises, engaged as contractors of PE for harvesting, timber transport and construction of forest roads. The objectives of this paper are to elaborate if there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region and to analyze organization of private forest owners in Timok forest area. In order to reach these objectives, results of PRIFORT project were used. This project focused on four countries of Western Balkans region: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia. The aim of this project was to explore precondition for formation of PFOs in this region. Quantitative survey (n = 350 of randomly selected PFOs was conducted in nine municipalities in Serbia, of which two were in Timok region (n = 100. The results show that there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region in number of PFOs, size of private property and in additional incentives. These results also indicate that economic interest is a motive for establishment of PFOAs and that state support is very important for their development. Since a number of PFOs are entrepreneurs, it can be assumed that, further development of theirs organizations could lead to development of SMEs clusters.
Full Text Available Service quality plays an important role in service industries such as banks, insurance firms, etc. The purpose of this paper is to investigate level of service quality in private banking industry in Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses SERVQUAL tool for measuring service quality and population of this study includes customers of three private banks in Tehran. Results show that except efficiency, other variables of SERVQUAL obtained suitable level mean in this study. As a result, with the development of electronic commerce, internet banking has become an alternative for developing, operating and offering bank services.
Garrison, T.W.; Apel, M.L.; Owens, C.M.
This paper presents a conceptual approach for private sector treatment of mixed low-level radioactive waste generated by the US Department of Energy and commercial industries. This approach focuses on MLLW treatment technologies and capacities available through the private sector in the near term. Wastestream characterization data for 108 MLLW streams at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were collected and combined with similar data for MLLWs generated through commercial practices. These data were then provided to private treatment facilities and vendors to determine if, and to what extent, they could successfully treat these wastes. Data obtained from this project have provided an initial assessment of private sector capability and capacity to treat a variety of MLLW streams. This information will help formulate plans for future treatment of these and similar wastestreams at DOE facilities. This paper presents details of the MLLW data-gathering efforts used in this research, private sector assessment methods employed, and results of this assessment. Advantages of private sector treatment, as well as barriers to its present use, are also addressed.
A. O. AYENI
Full Text Available This study provides relevant economic ideas that can assist Nigeria and other Africancountries in making innovative policies at privatizing university education. A review of the education market scene on the continent provides an imperfect market with adverse consequences occasioned by inadequate information and unbridled competition.Advocating a joint role for sharing the costs and benefits of university education between government and private sectors, the study suggests a four-policy option for adoption by Nigeria and other African countries. These are, in ascending order of importance: regulated private, subsidized private, competitive private, and complementary private systems of iversity educationUsing the Backcock University in Nigeria as an example, this paper demonstrates thepositive managerial influence of a competitive and complementary system of private university. Nevertheless, to forestall market failure, this study rounds off by pointing out the reformatory, regulatory and redemptive roles of government in the management ofprivate universities in Nigeria and other African countries.
Full Text Available Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnaire to find out the most important factors affecting BOT financing. The findings of this study are four major factors affecting public and private financing scenarios. In this paper, we also propose some suggestions as possible complements to public and private sector financing strategies.
Catt, Andrew D.
Indiana is at the national forefront on private school choice. With the broadest eligibility guidelines among the country's 22 other school voucher programs, Indiana's Choice Scholarship Program has seen enrollment more than double each year since being enacted in 2011. Today, when compared with voucher programs in 12 other states, Indiana has the…
This paper, written by strategic partner of the Center on School Turnaround (CST), Julie Corbett, provides research and examples on England's approach to turning around its lowest performing schools. The English education system utilizes private vendors to support chronically low-performing schools and districts. The introduction is followed by…
Objectives. To establish the accessibility and quality of sexually transmitted disease (SID) care provided by private general practitioners (GPs) and workplace health services in South Africa. Design. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random national sample of 120 GPs and 244 occupational health ...
Galusha, Repps J.
The Internet has provided more organizations the opportunity to adopt telecommuting as a means to recruit and retain employees, boost productivity, and trim facility costs. This study expands on the work of a previous study by Hoang, Nickerson, Beckman, and Eng, in 2008 which found that private organizations, due to perceptions of organizational…
Hirose, Atsumi; Yisa, Ibrahim O; Aminu, Amina; Afolabi, Nathanael; Olasunmbo, Makinde; Oluka, George; Muhammad, Khalilu; Hussein, Julia
Private-sector providers are increasingly being recognized as important contributors to the delivery of healthcare. Countries with high disease burdens and limited public-sector resources are considering using the private sector to achieve universal health coverage. However, evidence for the technical quality of private-sector care is lacking. This study assesses the technical quality of maternal healthcare during delivery in public- and private-sector facilities in resource-limited settings, from a systems and programmatic perspective. A summary index (the skilled attendance index, SAI), was used. Two-staged cluster sampling with stratification was used to select representative samples of case records in public- and private-sector facilities in Enugu and Lagos States, Nigeria. Information to assess criteria was extracted, and the SAI calculated. Linear regression models examined the relationship between SAI and the private and public sectors, controlling for confounders. The median SAI was 54.8% in Enugu and 85.7% in Lagos. The private for-profit sector's SAI was lower than and the private not-for-profit sector's SAI was higher than the public sector in Enugu [coefficient = -3.6 (P = 0.018) and 12.6 (P private for-profit sector's SAI was higher and the private not-for-profit sector's SAI was lower than the public sector [3.71 (P = 0.005) and -3.92 (P private for-profit providers' care was poorer than public providers where the public provision of care was weak, while private for-profit facilities provided better technical quality care than public facilities where the public sector was strong and there was a relatively strong regulatory body. Our findings raise important considerations relating to the quality of maternity care, the public-private mix and needs for regulation in global efforts to achieve universal healthcare.
Full Text Available The Competition Commission (CC commenced with an enquiry into South Africa’s private healthcare sector at the beginning of 2014, the outcome of which could have far-reaching consequences for the medical industry in South Africa. The panel appointed to consider competition in the private healthcare sector has indicated that they are interested in understanding increased consolidation in the private hospital market and the effect this may have on competitive dynamics. This article considers historical concentration trends in the private hospital market from 2000 to 2012. In addition it also deals with changes in market structure in the medical scheme and administrator markets. These trends provide a complete picture of market structure changes and the implications for relative bargaining power of the various parties. It finds that whereas the market concentration of private hospitals has remained relatively stable since 2004, the market concentration of medical schemes and administrators has increased over this period.
Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf; Andrecka, Marta
there is no contract between the individual and the private service provider there may be several obstacles to a claim against the private service provider based on contract. At the same time it is a general tort law principle that there is no vicarious liability for independent contractors, making it difficult also......The article discusses liability issues related to the contracting out of welfare services. It focuses on the possible liability of the private actor and of the public entity towards the individual (the citizen) for non- performance or malperformance of the welfare service. It is argued that since...... to succeed with a claim against the public entity based on tort law. Thus, a liability gap seems to exist. However, the article demonstrates that there are signs in different jurisdictions that solutions are being found in case law to this problem allowing to some extent for the imposition of some kind...
Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jakubowski, M. [WRE AG, Frankfurt (Germany)
Private investment in the renewable energy sector should best be encouraged by creating favourable market conditions, not by political regulation. Investment incentives that stem from political decisions offer the investor insufficient security because, as experience shows, political decisions can all too quickly be overturned by shifts in political power. [Deutsch] Um private Investitionen in dem Sektor der Erneuerbaren Energiequellen zu intensivieren, muss man mit Marktbedingungen und nicht mit politischen Regulierungen arbeiten. Durch politische Entscheidungen sanktionierte Investitionen sind fuer einen Investor keine ausreichende Absicherung seiner Investition, da die Erfahrung gelehrt hat, dass solche politischen Entscheidungen durch neue politische Konstellationen schnell umgeworfen werden koennen. (orig.)
Bingley, Paul; Lanot, Gauthier
Theories of efficient labour contracts highlight the role of the employer in designing tenure-remuneration profiles which can address the problem of asymmetric information regarding worker effort. This is in contrast to most empirical studi es of retirement behaviour which have focussed on indivi...
Felipe Barrera-Osorio; Mauricio Olivera
This paper studies the effects of water sector privatization on consumers' welfare in 46 municipalities in Colombia. The paper evaluates the impact of privatization on access, price, and quality of water as well as health outcomes using differences-in-differences methodology with variation across time (before and after privatization) and between treatment and control groups (privatized and non-privatized municipalities) and controlling for household and municipality characteristics. The resul...
...] State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC); Notice of Meeting AGENCY... Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities. FOR..., announcement is made for the following committee meeting. Name of Committee: State, Local, Tribal, and Private...
Full Text Available Economic development in any country depends on a multitude of factors, among which infrastructure construction projects constitute a major part. Included in this category are large-scale water supply and sanitation schemes that are commonly state-owned and require large allocations from the public funds. Article 214 of the 5th National Development Plan of the Islamic Republic of Iran mandates the Government to employ such public-private partnership tools as BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer and BOO (Build-Own-Operate as the means towards attracting private sector participation to ensure enhanced the efficiency and effectiveness of infrastructure projects. It is the objective of the present study to survey and identify the challenges facing such schemes based on the assessment of the contractual criteria and conditions commonly practiced in water and sanitation projects. The results are expected to lead to the development of a decision-making model that will encourage the private sector’s decision-makers to invest in these projects. Information was collected in two stages. The first stage involved a review of model contracts and interviews with water and sanitation experts. The data thus obtained was subjected to analysis using the SPSS software, which yielded 14 indices as the major components of the public-private partnership contracts used in the industry. In a second stage, the indices were tabulated and prepared in the form of a questionnaire which was presented to experts who were asked to assign weight scores of 1 to 10 to each of the indices. Ranking and scoring was accomplished using the TOPSIS method. Finally, the Pareto diagram was used to select the 10 more important indices which were further divided into two major and minor categories of indices. A model was then developed for scoring by the private sector investment advisors to help them in their decision-making process regarding BOD and BOO water and sanitation projects. The model
Bel i Queralt, Germà, 1963-; González Gómez, Francisco; Picazo Tadeo, Andrés José
Political corruption is a type of market failure. One area of public policy where corruption is relatively common is the contracting out of public services. Private firms can improve their chances of obtaining contracts by bribing politicians or public servants and funding political parties. In the same vein, firms can gain access to policy makers by hiring influential former politicians –a practice commonly referred to as revolving-doors. In Spain, a number of corruption cases, involving all...
Reichert, Janice M; Milne, Christopher-Paul
Recently, well-publicized reports by Public Citizen and the Joint Economic Committee (JEC) of the US Congress questioned the role of the drug industry in the discovery and development of therapeutically important drugs. To gain a better understanding of the relative roles of the public and private sectors in pharmaceutic innovation, the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development evaluated the underlying National Institutes of Health (NIH) and academic research cited in the Public Citizen and JEC reports and performed its own assessment of the relationship between the private and public sectors in drug discovery and development of 21 "impact" drugs. We found that, ultimately, any attempt to measure the relative contribution of the public and private sectors to the research and development (R&D) of therapeutically important drugs by output alone, such as counting publications or even product approvals, is flawed. Several key factors (eg, degree of uncertainty, expected market value, potential social benefit) affect investment decisions and determine whether public or private sector funds, or both, are most appropriate. Because of the competitiveness and complexity of today's R&D environment, both sectors are increasingly challenged to show returns on their investment and the traditional boundaries separating the roles of the private and public research spheres have become increasingly blurred. What remains clear, however, is that the process still starts with good science and ends with good medicine.
Shaikh, Babar Tasneem
Under performance of the public sector health care system in Pakistan has created a room for private sector to grow and become popular in health service delivery, despite its questionable quality, high cost and dubious ethics of medical practice. Private sector is no doubt a reality; and is functioning to plug many weaknesses and gaps in health care delivery to the poor people of Pakistan. Yet, it is largely unregulated and unchecked due to the absence of writ of the state. In spite of its inherent trait of profit making, the private sector has played a significant and innovative role both in preventive and curative service provision. Private sector has demonstrated great deal of responsiveness, hence creating a relation of trust with the consumers of health in Pakistan, majority of who spend out of their pocket to buy 'health'. There is definitely a potential to engage and involve private and non-state entities in the health care system building their capacities and instituting regulatory frameworks, to protect the poor's access to health care system.
Bachman, Charles A.
While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…
van der Wal, Z.; Huberts, L.W.J.C.
This article reports on a survey study of 382 managers from a variety of public and private sector organizations, on the values that guide sectoral decision making. Just as some important classical differences emerge, a number of similarities between the public and private sector appear to result in
Full Text Available Application of project management methodologies in different countries is varied. The preference of a particular methodology largely depends on the specific features of a project management system in use. The aim of the paper is to draw the attention of project-involved readers to the need to develop, not a guide, but a specific project management methodology for projects in the public-private sector. The objective pursued by the paper is to provide useful recommendations for improving the existing methodologies on project management in the public-private sector. Kazakhstan’s experience in implementing project management methodologies in its public sector is sporadic while its private sector uses of modern methodologies build on external investor proven practices. At the background of the low exposure of the public sector to the best of project management methodologies, the paper reviews existing international project management methodologies and develops useful recommendations on the methodology, most suitable for a developing country’s public-private sector, on Kazakhstan’s example.
Hynes, Denise M; Stroupe, Kevin T; Fischer, Michael J; Reda, Domenic J; Manning, Willard; Browning, Margaret M; Huo, Zhiping; Saban, Karen; Kaufman, James S
Healthcare for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is intensive, expensive, and provided in both the public and private sector. Using a societal perspective, we examined healthcare costs and health outcomes for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ESRD patients comparing those who received hemodialysis care at VA versus private sector facilities. Dialysis patients were recruited from 8 VA medical centers from 2001 through 2003 and followed for 12 months in a prospective cohort study. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, quality of life, healthcare use, and cost data were collected. Healthcare data included utilization (VA), claims (Medicare), and patient self-report. Costs included VA calculated costs, Medicare dialysis facility reports and reimbursement rates, and patient self-report. Multivariable regression was used to compare costs between patients receiving dialysis at VA versus private sector facilities. The cohort comprised 334 patients: 170 patients in the VA dialysis group and 164 patients in the private sector group. The VA dialysis group had more comorbidities at baseline, outpatient and emergency visits, prescriptions, and longer hospital stays; they also had more conservative anemia management and lower baseline urea reduction ratio (67% vs. 72%; Pprivate sector dialysis group (Pprivate sector settings is critical in informing health policy options for patients with complex chronic illnesses such as ESRD.
Mackintosh, Maureen; Channon, Amos; Karan, Anup; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Cavagnero, Eleonora; Zhao, Hongwen
Private health care in low-income and middle-income countries is very extensive and very heterogeneous, ranging from itinerant medicine sellers, through millions of independent practitioners-both unlicensed and licensed-to corporate hospital chains and large private insurers. Policies for universal health coverage (UHC) must address this complex private sector. However, no agreed measures exist to assess the scale and scope of the private health sector in these countries, and policy makers tasked with managing and regulating mixed health systems struggle to identify the key features of their private sectors. In this report, we propose a set of metrics, drawn from existing data that can form a starting point for policy makers to identify the structure and dynamics of private provision in their particular mixed health systems; that is, to identify the consequences of specific structures, the drivers of change, and levers available to improve efficiency and outcomes. The central message is that private sectors cannot be understood except within their context of mixed health systems since private and public sectors interact. We develop an illustrative and partial country typology, using the metrics and other country information, to illustrate how the scale and operation of the public sector can shape the private sector's structure and behaviour, and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dell, A J; Kahn, D; Klopper, J
The full extent of the global burden of surgical disease is largely unknown; however, the scope of the problem is thought to be large. Despite the substantial burden of surgical disease, surgical services are inaccessible to many of those who need them most. There are disparities between public and private sectors in South Africa, which compounds inequitable access to surgical care. This study involved a descriptive analysis of surgical resources and included the total number of hospitals, hospital beds, surgical beds, general surgeons (specialist and nonspecialist), and the number of functional operating theatres in South Africa. A comparison was performed between the public sector resources per uninsured population and private sector resources per insured population. Hospitals were contacted during the period 01 October 2014 to 31 December 2014. Surgical resources were concentrated in metropolitan areas of urban provinces. There were striking differences between sectors when a comparison was made between patients with and without health insurance. Private resources were comparable to those available in high income countries (HICs) and were accessible to only 16% of South Africans. Improving access to surgical services in lower middle income countries (LMICs) requires addressing gaps between the public and private sector regarding infrastructure, personnel, as well as equipment. South Africa is unique in that although it is classified as an upper middle income country (UMIC), it comprises of two sectors; a public sector which has resources similar to other LMICs, and a private sector which has resources similar to HICs. These data identified disparities between geographic regions which may be contributing to ongoing inequity in South Africa, and by doing so allows for evidence-based planning towards improving surgical infrastructure and workforce.
Tarola, Ornella; Trento, Sandro
Firms in equipment-intensive sectors, where investment in production is performed at diminishing marginal cost, spend billions of dollars in equipment and production capacity. Typically, this expenditure is induced by either the replacement of existing equipment, which deteriorates with age and can result in higher operating costs and lower production capacity, or further investment, to benefit from any technological improvement embedded in new equipment. We identify the optimal price policy,...
Choices of Both Government and Union Status," Journal of Labor Economics , Vol. 6 (1988), pp. 229-53; Alan B. Krueger, "Are Public Sector Workers Paid...Differential in the United States," Journal of Labor Economics , Vol. 38, No. 2 (1990), pp. 270-293. 5A discussion of these explanations can be found in...federal earnings, one can obtain an estimate of the pay gap that is attributable to federal employment In labor economics research, both methods are
Thomas, J; Lungo, A; Bobrow, M
As access to capital tightens, more hospitals are exploring the benefits of partnerships with private companies. A California hospital, burdened by the long-term debt it incurred for a medical office building, worked together with its medical staff and an outside real estate developer. By selling the building to the developer, not only was the hospital able to finance a much-needed expansion and reconstruction project, but the hospital's medical staff had an opportunity to become limited partners in the ownership of the building.
Brunie, Aurélie; Lenzi, Rachel; Lahiri, Anamika; Izadnegahdar, Rasa
The private health sector is a primary source of curative care for childhood illnesses in many low- and middle-income countries. Therefore ensuring appropriate private sector care is an important step towards improving outcomes from illnesses like pneumonia, which is the leading infectious cause of childhood mortality worldwide. This study aimed to provide evidence on private sector care for childhood pneumonia in Uttar Pradesh, India, by simultaneously exploring providers' knowledge and practices and caregivers' experiences. We conducted in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 36 practitioners and 34 caregivers in two districts. Practitioners included allopathic doctors, AYUSH providers, and drug sellers. Caregivers were mothers of children under the age of five with symptoms consistent with pneumonia who had seen one of those practitioners. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. Caregivers were generally prompt in seeking care outside the home, but many initially favored local informal providers based on access and cost. Drug sellers were not commonly consulted for treatment. Formal providers had imperfect, but reasonable, knowledge of pneumonia and followed appropriate steps for diagnosis, though some gaps were noticed that were primarily related to lack of (or failure to use) diagnostic tools. Most practitioners prescribed antibiotics and supportive symptomatic treatment. Relational and structural factors encouraged overuse of antibiotics and treatment interruption. Caregivers often had a limited understanding of treatment but wanted rapid symptomatic improvements, frequently leading to sequentially consulting multiple providers and interrupting treatment when symptoms improved. Providers were confronted with these expectations and care-seeking patterns. This study contributes in-depth evidence on private sector care for childhood pneumonia in UP. Achieving appropriate care requires an enriched perspective that simultaneously considers the
Uyi Kizito Ehigiamusoe
Full Text Available The study examines private sector participation in secondary education in Nigeria and its implications for national development. The population consisted all the providers and recipients of private secondary education in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT. Simple random sampling was used to select 200 providers and recipients of private secondary education across the six Area Councils in the FCT. An instrument designated Private Sector Participation in Secondary Education (PSPSE was used to collect data. The data were analysed using Chi-Square method to test for the acceptance or rejection of the study hypotheses. The findings revealed that the academic performance of students in private secondary schools is better than the academic performance of students in public secondary schools. The study further revealed that private secondary schools have better infrastructure than public secondary schools in Nigeria, but private secondary schools contribute less to the development of human resources than public schools in Nigeria. Recommendations are proffered to make private secondary education more viable and responsive to the needs of the society.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Uganda; and it is the leading cause of anaemia among pregnant women and low birth weight in infants. Previous studies have noted poor quality of care in the private sector. Thus there is need to explore ways of improving quality...... of care in the private sector that provides almost a half of health services in Uganda. METHODS: A survey was conducted from August to October 2014 within 57 parishes in Mukono district, central Uganda. The selected parishes had a minimum of 200 households and at least one registered drug shop, pharmacy...... the factors that most influenced correct treatment of fever in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Treatment of fever during pregnancy was poor in this study setting. These data highlight the need to develop interventions to improve patient safety and quality of care for pregnant women in the private health sector...
Gabriela de la Torre Campos
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to see whether different wage levels in the private purchasing sector relate to the level of corruptibility. An experiment was conducted that put participants in the role of employees of a purchasing department of a multinational enterprise. The employees were allotted to different wage levels and had to choose between options with different levels of corruption. The research is of a deductive nature and complemented by a descriptive quantitative approach containing the Chi-Square analysis. The results show that there is no association between the wage level and the level of corruptibility of employees in the private purchasing sector. This outcome contributes to the underresearched field of corruption in the private sector and gives further insight into the influence of wages on corruptibility, as well as the usability of the principal-agent theory in the field of corruption.
Full Text Available Through several conduits, sound institutional quality is pivotal for economic development, as there is evidence that stable democratic institutions, rule of law and sound governance structures in the administration are highly conducive to promote growth. Therefore, a high institutional quality is not only the end point, but also the starting point of a more sustainable development. In this paper we provide some theoretical considerations as well as empirical evidence, based on several regression analyses, that the quality of institutions in a wider sense, and governance, which includes not only the level of “politics” itself, but also the administrative level, is relevant not only for the macro-level of development (i.e. the increase of the national welfare and foreign investment, but also on a micro-level: A stronger participation of private enterprises in public service provision and the introduction of public-private part¬nerships depends to a high degree on the institutional quality. This is even more relevant as the improvement of public services and of core infrastructures can be seen as crucial multipliers for future growth.
The limitations of size, domestic capital markets and the relative youth of the country, has seen shifts in the importance attributed to the private sector in energy over the past three (3) decades. The need for foreign capital and expertise has never been considered unimportant, but the corresponding need for deepening and widening the involvement of nationals in all aspects of energy sector developments has tended to make Trinidad and Tobago seek, where practicable, the joint venture as a preferred mode of operation. The need for efficient competition, not always easy to achieve in a mini-state, has led to a plural and diverse mix of arrangements, with state sector energy entities not always co-ordinated in the most efficient manner and with the local private sector in energy operating as small and mostly silent participants. The size of the country, particularly against that of international energy, thus dictates that wide domestic ownership in the energy sector in still some way off. However, the immediate benefits of new foreign capital and technology, new management expertise, more competition and greater efficiency of operations, have provided enough impetus to ensure that the role of the private sector in the energy sector in Trinidad and Tobago will continue to be enhanced to the benefit of the country, as it seeks to prepare itself for the 21st century
Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H M M T; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W
To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China's national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities.
Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H.M.M.T.; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W.
Aim To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. Methods We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Results Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. Conclusion The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China’s national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities. PMID:23630142
Waring, Justin; Bishop, Simon
With increased possibility that public healthcare services in the UK will be outsourced to the private sector, this study investigates how clinicians working in Independent Sector Treatment Centres perceive the differences between public and private sectors. Qualitative interviews with 35 clinicians recruited from two ISTCs. All participants were transferred to the independent sector from the public National Health Service. Interview data were analysed to identify shared experience about the variable organisation and delivery of services. Clinicians perceived differences between public and independent sectors in the areas of 'environment and facilities', 'management', 'work organisation and care delivery', and 'patient experience'. The independent sector was described as offering a positive alternative to public services in regard to service environment and patient experience, but there were concerns about management priorities and the reconfiguration of work. Clinicians' experience of moving between sectors reveals mixed experiences. Although some improvements might legitimise the growing role of the independent sector, there remain doubts about the commercialisation of services, the motives of managers and the impact of clinical roles and capabilities. With policies looking to expand the mixed economy of public healthcare services, the study suggests clinicians will not automatically embrace a move between sectors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doherty, Jane E
International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased
Gray, John; Ciofalo, Andrew
Absent the constitutional rights enjoyed by the student press at state institutions of higher education, the administration at a private institution is legally free to control the content of its student press. Explores a theory that shifts the focus to academic freedom protected by contracts between faculty and institutions. (MLF)
Contracts between health insurers and providers are private; i.e. not public. By modelling this explicitly, we find the following. Insurers with bigger provider networks,pay higher fee-for-service rates to providers. This makes it more likely that a patient is treated and hence health care costs
Hafiz Ali Javed; Asad Abbas Jaffari; Muzahir Rahim
This research study shows the relationship of leadership styles with the job satisfaction of employees working in the private banking sector of Pakistan and also depicts which leadership style leaders have adopted most. A questionnaire with five points likert scale was used to collect data on different dimensions of leadership styles and employees? job satisfaction from 230 participants working in five selected private banks of four districts of the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The results s...
peer-reviewed This paper was obtained through PEER (Publishing and the Ecology of European Research) http://www.peerproject.eu Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) transfer significant responsibility for infrastructure and public service delivery to the private sector. This raises questions in relation to accountability in the context of PPP. An important accountability mechanism is the Value for Money (VFM) assessment which procuring authorities in Ireland must conduct prior to adopti...
Awor, Phyllis; Miller, Jane; Peterson, Stefan
Despite substantial investments made over the past 40 years in low income countries, governments cannot be viewed as the principal health care provider in many countries. Evidence on the role of the private sector in the delivery of health services is becoming increasingly available. In this study, we set out to determine the extent to which the private sector has been utilized in providing integrated care for sick children under 5 years of age with community-acquired malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea. We reviewed the published literature for integrated community case management (iCCM) related experiences within both the public and private sector. We searched PubMed and Google/Google Scholar for all relevant literature until July 2014. The search terms used were "malaria", "pneumonia", "diarrhoea", "private sector" and "community case management". A total of 383 articles referred to malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea in the private sector. The large majority of these studies (290) were only malaria related. Most of the iCCM-related studies evaluated introduction of only malaria drugs and/or diagnostics into the private sector. Only one study evaluated the introduction of drugs and diagnostics for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in the private sector. In contrast, most iCCM-related studies in the public sector directly reported on community case management of 2 or more of the illnesses. While the private sector is an important source of care for children in low income countries, little has been done to harness the potential of this sector in improving access to care for non-malaria-associated fever in children within the community. It would be logical for iCCM programs to expand their activities to include the private sector to achieve higher population coverage. An implementation research agenda for private sector integrated care of febrile childhood illness needs to be developed and implemented in conjunction with private sector intervention programs.
Levin, Ann; Kaddar, Miloud
The authors conducted a literature review on the role of the private sector in low- and middle-income countries. The review indicated that relatively few studies have researched the role of the private sector in immunization service delivery in these countries. The studies suggest that the private sector is playing different roles and functions according to economic development levels, the governance structure and the general presence of the private sector in the health sector. In some countries, generally low-income countries, the private for-profit sector is contributing to immunization service delivery and helping to improve access to traditional EPI vaccines. In other countries, particularly middle-income countries, the private for-profit sector often acts to facilitate early adoption of new vaccines and technologies before introduction and generalization by the public sector. The not-for-profit sector plays an important role in extending access to traditional EPI vaccines, particularly in low-income countries. Not-for-profit facilities are situated in rural as well as urban areas and are more likely to be coordinated with public services than the private for-profit sector. Although numerous studies on non-governmental organizations (NGOs) suggest that the extent of NGO provision of immunization services in low- and middle-income countries is substantial, the contribution of this sector is poorly documented, leading to a lack of recognition of its role at national and global levels. Studies on quality of immunization service provision at private health facilities suggest that it is sometimes inadequate and needs to be monitored. Although some articles on public-private collaboration exist, little was found on the extent to which governments are effectively interacting with and regulating the private sector. The review revealed many geographical and thematic gaps in the literature on the role and regulation of the private sector in the delivery of immunization
Faggio, G.; Schluter, T.; vom Berge, P.
We use the move of the seat of the German government from Bonn to Berlin in 1999 to test competing views about the impact of public employment on private sector activity in a local labor market. Using employment data from a 50% sample of establishments across 190 Berlin postcodes, we apply a treatment intensity approach which takes the possibility of spillovers into account. Results indicate that the arrival of 100 public sector jobs into an area generates 55 additional jobs in the private se...
This study supplies DOE with information pertinent to the formulation of realistic national energy research policies and facilitates cooperation between government and business in the development and commercialization of new and improved energy technologies. The study gathered information on the amount of energy-related research and development that private companies are doing, types of energy-related programs they report, and their perceptions about appropriate areas for government support. Mail questionnaires obtained data on the amount of corporate research funding in specific energy-related technology areas and the interviews gathered information on corporate energy strategies, major commercial activities, and specific research plans in four major areas - conservation, supply, energy production and transmission, and new products. (MCW)
Full Text Available Background: Hospitals are among the most interactive organizations in which the rate of knowledge transfer and learning is considerably high. The investigation of the level of organizational learning between public and private sector hospitals can be useful for managers to select proper organizational learning strategies aiming at improving service delivery and organizational behaviour (1. This study was carried out to compare the organizational learning capabilities of the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah. Methods: This descriptive survey was performed on the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah. According to Krejcie and Morgan’s table, 175 employees were selected via stratified random sampling from 6 public and 2 private hospitals. The instrument for gathering data was Organizational Learning Capability Questionnaire (OLCQ by Gomez et al. (2005 (2. Data were analysed by inferential statistics (K-S test, Levene’s test, t-test, one-way ANOVA using SPSS software (version 20.00. Results: The level of organizational learning capabilities of personnel was higher in the private hospitals than in public hospitals, indicating a statistically significant difference between them (T (26= 11.779, P0.01، F (3, 68 = 1.859. Conclusion: With regard to the higher average of knowledge transfer and integration than the other capabilities in public and private hospitals, it seems that the managers of hospitals should make use of this component to promote the organizational knowledge of the personnel and improve other organizational learning capabilities too.
Mahmood, S.; Din, N.U.; Mohsin, J.
Health care (Biomedical) waste is a term used for all waste arising from health care establishments. In most of health care centers of Pakistan, including Lahore, hospital wastes are simply mixed with the municipal waste in collecting bins at road-sides and disposed off similarly. Proper Management of biomedical waste, especially the hazardous one, being produced in hospital settings is important in terms of their ability to cause harm to the related per-sons and the environment as well. To Observe and compare the practices regarding Hospital Waste management of the public sector hospital with private sector hospital. Descriptive, Cross sectional. Methodology: Standardized checklist was used to assess the practices of nursing and sanitary staff. Practices regarding waste segregation were same at both hospitals. While practices regarding waste collection and transportation were better at The Children's Hospital. Public sector hospital has, paradoxically, better practices regarding hospital waste management in comparison to private sector hospital. (author)
Pedersen, Mogens Jin
of economics, political science, and law, this article tests (1) the relationship between PSM and attraction to public versus private sector employment, and (2) the moderating effect on this relationship of students’ academic field of study (i.e., their profession once graduated). Overall, results underscore...... the multidimensionality of the PSM construct, as the PSM dimension of “public interest” is positively associated with attraction to public sector employment and negatively associated with attraction to private sector employment, while the PSM dimension of “compassion” is unrelated to both. Importantly, however......Despite extensive public service motivation (PSM) research, our knowledge of PSM’s influence on individuals’ sector employment preferences is limited. Few studies examine this relationship by suitable research designs and the empirical findings are mixed. Using a sample of 718 Danish students...
Grépin, Karen A
There is debate about the role of the private sector in providing services in the health systems of low- and middle-income countries and about how the private sector could help achieve the goal of universal health coverage. Yet the role that the private sector plays in the delivery of health services is poorly understood. Using data for the period 1990-2013 from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys in seventy low- and middle-income countries, I analyzed the use of the private sector for the treatment of diarrhea and of fever or cough in children, for antenatal care, for institutional deliveries, and as a source of modern contraception for women. I found that private providers were the dominant source of treatment for childhood illnesses but not for the other services. I also found no evidence of increased use of the private sector over time. There is tremendous variation in use of the private sector across countries and health services. Urban and wealthier women disproportionately use the private sector, compared to rural and poorer women. The private sector plays an important role in providing coverage, but strategies to further engage the sector, if they are to be effective, will need to take into consideration the variation in its use. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Nolden, Colin; Sorrell, Steve; Polzin, Friedemann
Procurement Frameworks for Energy Performance Contracting (PFEPCs) simplify the process of negotiating, developing and implementing Energy Performance Contracts (EPCs) with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs). This paper analyses their role in promoting the implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures in the UK public sector. Compared to conventional approaches to procuring goods and services involving detailed specifications, PFEPCs translate the challenge of upgrading, retrofitt...
Decision-makers increasingly mention public-private partnerships (PPPs) as potential tools for innovation in the public sector. In contrast, literature on PPPs has mostly evaluated their economic efficiency, whereas their ability to enhance innovation has been subordinated and sometimes assumed....... Empirical investigations of innovations in PPPs have been rather scarce and scattered between different PPP types and sectors. This article strives for a more comprehensive and reflexive approach and contribute to an increasing body of literature on public sector innovation by constructing a conceptual...... framework, which can be used to investigate the potential for innovation in different PPP types across sectors. The last decades have seen sequential waves of public sector reforms, which have resulted in an increased hybridity in the public sector, where ideas, goals and tools from hierarchy, market...
Ashton, Toni; Brown, Paul; Sopina, Elizaveta; Cameron, Linda; Tenbensel, Timothy; Windsor, John
As in many countries, medical and surgical specialists in New Zealand have the opportunity of working in the public sector, the private sector or both. This study aimed to explore the level and sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of specialists in New Zealand with working in the two sectors. Such information can assist workforce planning, management and policy and may inform the wider debate about the relationship between the two sectors. A postal survey was conducted of 1983 registered specialists throughout New Zealand. Respondents were asked to assess 14 sources of satisfaction and 9 sources of dissatisfaction according to a 5-point Likert scale. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the total sample, and for procedural and non-procedural specialties. Differences between the means of each source of satisfaction and dissatisfaction were also calculated. Completed surveys were received from 943 specialists (47% response rate). Overall mean levels of satisfaction were higher in the private sector than the public sector while levels of dissatisfaction were lower. While the public system is valued for its opportunities for further education and professional development, key sources of dissatisfaction are workload pressures, mentally demanding work and managerial interference. In the private sector specialists value the opportunity to work independently and apply their own ideas in the workplace. Sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction amongst specialists are different for the public and private sectors. Allowing specialists more freedom to work independently and to apply their own ideas in the workplace may enhance recruitment and retention of specialists in the public health system.
Kiss, Peter; Sagodi, Attila
The level of investment required by the Russian power sector by 2020 are expected to be in the range of USD 500-550 billion. It is of vital importance that Russia outlines an appropriate regulatory regime for its energy market that attracts foreign investors and combats corruption. The most important challenges determining the long term development of the country's power sector are skills development, regulatory effectiveness, corporate governance, and assurance regarding private investments.
Gjorgji Gockov; Elena Naumovska; Kiril Jovanovski; Ljupco Eftimov
This paper aims to analyze and evaluate the size of the macroeconomic imbalances, in terms of saving-investment gap, amongst the countries, with special reference to the case of Republic of Macedonia. Particularly, the sectors (private and government) saving – investment gap is investigated in order to determine which sector is the major contributor to the overall macroeconomic imbalances in the countries with different level of development. To do this the methodological framework from nation...
Christofides, Louis N.; Michael, Maria
We estimate the public-private sector pay gap for 27 European countries, using the 2008 EU SILC. The coefficients of conditional (on personal and job characteristics) public sector controls give a first impression on wage differences, while decompositions into explained and unexplained components (also accounting for selectivity) allow for a more complete analysis, which helps to identify possible causes of the gap. Regional patterns exist. Separate subsample decompositions based on age, educ...
standards affect labour productivity of small and medium firms from the food sector in Viet Nam. The results based on a 3-year panel show that the application of private standards improves labour productivity. These gains primarily occur to firms operating above a threshold labour-intensity level. Firms......A rising number of firms from developing countries have adopted voluntary private standards in the last decade. This has become an area of active research, especially in terms of the impact of private standards on trade, organizational performance, and employee outcomes. This paper analyses how...
Leguet, Benoit; Morel, Romain
Internationally set objectives in the fight against climate change cannot be reached without funding from the private sector. Public money, a scarce resource, must be used as best possible, in particular when it has a leverage effect on private funding. In this respect, feedback from the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism is of interest. On the eve of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference, we must ramp up the mobilization of private resources. Smart unconventional monetary (SUMO) policies could help us toward this goal. Several countries have adopted such policies to cope with macro-economic circumstances or systemic risks. Is the destabilization of the climate not a risk of this sort?
Schaap, H.A.; Jitta, J.
An overview is given of the development of the market of and regulations for electric and water utilities in the Netherlands with regard to the present changes as a result of the deregulation and privatization of the market for utilities [nl
Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment on p...
Barbiere, J M; Greenberg, D C; Wright, K A; Brown, C H; Palmer, C; Neal, D E; Lyratzopoulos, G
To examine associations of private healthcare with stage and management of prostate cancer. Regional population-based cancer registry information on 15 916 prostate cancer patients. Compared with patients diagnosed in the National Health Service (NHS) (94%), those diagnosed in private hospitals (5%) were significantly more affluent (69 versus 52% in deprivation quintiles 1-2), younger (mean 69 versus 73 years) and diagnosed at earlier stage (72 versus 79% in Stages Private hospital of diagnosis was independently associated with lower probability of advanced disease stage [odds ratio (OR) 0.75, P = 0.002], higher probability of surgery use (OR 1.28, P = 0.037) and lower probability of radiotherapy use (OR 0.75, P = 0.001). Private hospital of diagnosis independently predicted higher surgery and lower radiotherapy use, particularly in more deprived patients aged ≤ 70. In prostate cancer patients, private hospital diagnosis predicts earlier disease stage, higher use of surgery and lower use of radiotherapy, independently of case-mix differences between the two sectors. Substantial socioeconomic differences in stage and treatment patterns remain across centres in the NHS, even after adjusting for private sector diagnosis. Cancer registration data could be used to identify private care use on a population basis and the potential associated treatment disparities.
Kar, Saibal; Roy, Poulomi; Saha, Sarani
This paper tries to document the presence of unreported income among public sector employees in India. We investigate empirically the wage gap as well as consumption expenditure parity between public and private sector workers. It tests the hypothesis that despite a lower level of public sector income in some of the quantiles, if the level of durable goods consumption between the private and the public sector employees are similar, then it might be indicative of the presence of unreported inc...
Aitken, R James
To meet Australia's future demands, surgical training in the private sector will be required. The aim of this study was to estimate the time and lost opportunity cost of training in the private sector. A literature search identified studies that compared the operation time required by a supervised trainee with a consultant. This time was costed using a business model. In 22 studies (34 operations), the median operation duration of a supervised trainee was 34% longer than the consultant. To complete a private training list in the same time as a consultant list, one major case would have to be dropped. A consultant's average lost opportunity cost was $1186 per list ($106,698 per year). Training in rooms and administration requirements increased this to $155,618 per year. To train 400 trainees in the private sector to college standards would require 54,000 training lists per year. The consultants' national lost opportunity cost would be $137 million per year. The average lost hospital case payment was $5894 per list, or $330 million per year nationally. The total lost opportunity cost of surgical training in the private sector would be about $467 million per year. When trainee salaries, other specialties and indirect expenses are included, the total cost will be substantially greater. It is unlikely that surgeons or hospitals will be prepared to absorb these costs. There needs to be a public debate about the funding implications of surgical training in the private sector. © 2012 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Hope, Alexander John; Booth, Alexander
The UK's housing stock generates approximately 27% of the country's total annual carbon emissions. In light of the legally binding targets to reduce carbon emissions, new housing is subject to a tightening of regulations governing energy demand and efficiency resulting in a gradual improvement in carbon emissions. The question is how to achieve the deep carbon emission reductions from existing domestic properties, of which 75% will still be in use in 2050. Government has sought to provide incentives to homeowners to improve the energy efficiency of their households, and mandate improvements in socially rented housing using a range of fiscal measures, most recently the ‘Green Deal’. There has however been little consideration of the 18% of UK households who privately rent their home, a tenure that is growing fast. The aim of this research is to investigate the factors that influence private sector landlords when considering energy efficiency improvements to their tenanted homes. The results indicate that government policy has consistently failed to engage private sector landlords in the issue of energy efficiency and thus measures must be taken to understand the motivations of landlords in order to design effective incentives and interventions. - Highlights: • Attitudes of private sector landlords to energy efficiency in their tenanted homes are analysed. • Reports on the actions taken by private landlords to improve energy efficiency. • Privately rented homes poorly performing in terms of energy performance. • The private rented sector is disengaged with the issue of housing energy performance. • Current government initiatives such as Green Deal offer little incentive for improvements
Loh, Lawrence C; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Darko, Kwame
The contribution made by the private sector to health care in a low- or middle-income country may affect levels of physician emigration from that country. The increasing importance of the private sector in health care in the developing world has resulted in newfound academic interest in that sector's influences on many aspects of national health systems. The growth in physician emigration from the developing world has led to several attempts to identify both the factors that cause physicians to emigrate and the effects of physician emigration on primary care and population health in the countries that the physicians leave. When the relevant data on the emerging economies of Ghana, India and Peru were investigated, it appeared that the proportion of physicians participating in private health-care delivery, the percentage of health-care costs financed publicly and the amount of private health-care financing per capita were each inversely related to the level of physician expatriation. It therefore appears that private health-care delivery and financing may decrease physician emigration. There is clearly a need for similar research in other low- and middle-income countries, and for studies to see if, at the country level, temporal trends in the contribution made to health care by the private sector can be related to the corresponding trends in physician emigration. The ways in which private health care may be associated with access problems for the poor and therefore reduced equity also merit further investigation. The results should be of interest to policy-makers who aim to improve health systems worldwide.
Robeson, F E
Robeson offers a number of options to employers to help reduce the impact of increasing health care costs. He points out that large organizations which employ hundreds of people have considerable market power which can be exerted to contain costs. It is suggested that the risk management departments assume the responsibility for managing the effort to reduce the costs of medical care and of the health insurance programs of these organizations since that staff is experienced at evaluating premiums and negotiating with third-party payors. The article examines a number of short-run strategies for firms to pursue to contain health care costs: (1) use alternative delivery systems such as health maintenance organizations (HMOs) which have cost-cutting potential but require marketing efforts to persuade employees of their desirability; (2) contracts with third-party payors which require a second opinion (peer review), a practice which saved one labor union over $2 million from 1972 to 1976; (3) implementation of insurance coverage for less expensive outpatient care; and (4) the use of claims review. These strategies are compared in terms of four criteria: supply of demand for health services; management effort; cost; and time necessary for realized savings. Robeson concludes that development of a management plan for containing health care costs requires an extensive analysis of alternatives, organizational objectives, existing policies, and resources, and offers a table summarizing the cost-containment strategies that a firm should consider.
Montagu, Dominic; Goodman, Catherine; Berman, Peter; Penn, Amy; Visconti, Adam
The private sector provides the majority of health care in Africa and Asia. A number of interventions have, for many years, applied different models of subsidy, support and engagement to address social and efficiency failures in private health care markets. We have conducted a review of these models, and the evidence in support of them, to better understand what interventions are currently common, and to what extent practice is based on evidence. Using established typologies, we examined five models of intervention with private markets for care: commodity social marketing, social franchising, contracting, accreditation and vouchers. We conducted a systematic review of both published and grey literature, identifying programmes large enough to be cited in publications, and studies of the listed intervention types. 343 studies were included in the review, including both published and grey literature. Three hundred and eighty programmes were identified, the earliest having begun operation in 1955. Commodity social marketing programmes were the most common intervention type, with 110 documented programmes operating for condoms alone at the highest period. Existing evidence shows that these models can improve access and utilization, and possibly quality, but for all programme types, the overall evidence base remains weak, with practice in private sector engagement consistently moving in advance of evidence. Future research should address key questions concerning the impact of interventions on the market as a whole, the distribution of benefits by socio-economic status, the potential for scale up and sustainability, cost-effectiveness compared to relevant alternatives and the risk of unintended consequences. Alongside better data, a stronger conceptual basis linking programme design and outcomes to context is also required. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Agha, Sohail; Do, Mai
To compare the quality of family planning services delivered at public and private facilities in Kenya. Data from the 2004 Kenya Service Provision Assessment were analysed. The Kenya Service Provision Assessment is a representative sample of health facilities in the public and private sectors, and comprises data obtained from a facility inventory, service provider interviews, observations of client-provider interactions and exit interviews. Quality-of-care indicators are compared between the public and private sectors along three dimensions: structure, process and outcome. Private facilities were superior to public sector facilities in terms of physical infrastructure and the availability of services. Public sector facilities were more likely to have management systems in place. There was no difference between public and private providers in the technical quality of care provided. Private providers were better at managing interpersonal aspects of care. The higher level of client satisfaction at private facilities could not be explained by differences between public and private facilities in structural and process aspects of care. Formal private sector facilities providing family planning services exhibit greater readiness to provide services and greater attention to client needs than public sector facilities in Kenya. Consistent with this, client satisfaction is much higher at private facilities. Technical quality of care provided is similar in public and private facilities.
Full Text Available Corruption is becoming an increasingly acute problem lately for Romania and the authorities are trying to find solutions in this regard. Until now the anti-corruption strategy has undergone four stages, by approving as many sets of anti-corruption strategic documents (National Anti-corruption Strategies in 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2012. In this research, we started from the assumption that there is a correlation between corruption in the public sector and the corruption in the private sector, involving the corrupting power represented by the private sector and corruptible power represented by the public sector. The hypothesis was confirmed by detailed analyzes conducted in this regard using a number of variables such as the percentage of convictions in the public or private sector, the position that the culprit holds, the county he/she comes from, the institution in which they operate, type of sentence (suspended or performed and the penalty in months. Then using the statistical functions Data Analysis, PivotTable of Excel software, the 3110 observations were processed. The centralizing tables were made by filtration and then the ventilation data by numerical and geographical coordinates. The quantitative information provided by these summary tables combined with qualitative information derived from extensive analyzes conducted during this investigation, led to the confirmation of the basic assumption that there is a correlation between corruption manifested in the public and private sector. This correlation becomes more powerful as the bureaucratic system, namely the workload in the public sector is growing. In this regard, we have concrete examples in the counties of Cluj, Timiș, Constanța, Prahova, Bucharest, respectively.
Subject of study is Private Sector-led Urban Development Projects. Such projects involve property developers taking a leading role and local authorities adopting a facilitating role in the management of the development of an urban area, based on a framework of public requirements and a formal
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the students' attitudes towards private sector work during study. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a comprehensive social survey (including questionnaire and interviewing) distributed to experts in departments and colleges in King Saud University and Princess Nora University. Findings:…
Sonck, M.M.; Asveld, L.; Landeweerd, L.; Osseweijer, P.
The concept of mutual responsiveness is currently based on little empirical data in the literature of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). This paper explores RRI’s idea of mutual responsiveness in the light of recent RRI case studies on private sector research and development (R&D). In
Mauch I, James W.
Presents the alliance between Reading High School (Pennsylvania) and a local corporation as a case study of the potential for incentives and private-sector involvement to improve student attendance. The partnership, Reading's Excellence and Attendance Programs, used positive reinforcements, including lottery drawings and ice-cream socials, to…
McRae, J A
This article outlines three methods of mental health marketing--formal, intermediary, and interactive. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of each method. These approaches are particularly good for public, non-profit agencies and individuals in contacting the private sector. The need for flexibility and marketing mix is emphasized.
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Technical Advisory Committees; Notice of Recruitment of Private- Sector Members SUMMARY: Seven Technical Advisory Committees (TACs) advise the Department of Commerce on the technical parameters for export controls applicable to dual-use commodities and...
The U.S. Space Policy concerning the investment and direct participation in the establishment and operations of remote sensing systems is addressed. Private sector views and state and local government views are presented. Results of a market analysis are pregiven and the economic feasibility of such a program is considered.
Superfund allows the government either to clean up a site and recover its cost from the potentially responsible parties (PRPs) or to require the PRPs to undertake the cleanup themselves. This study examines private-sector expenditures and transaction-costs
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Technical Advisory Committees; Notice of Recruitment of Private- Sector Members SUMMARY: Seven Technical Advisory Committees (TACs) advise the Department of Commerce on the technical parameters for export controls applicable to dual-use commodities and...
Opoko, Akunnaya P; Oluwatayo, Adedapo A
Lagos is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa, which is grappling with the challenges of poorly managed urbanisation. With an estimated population of about 17.5 million, solid waste management is one of the most pressing environmental challenges currently faced in the city. It is estimated that more than 9071847.4kg of urban waste is generated every day in the city. The city lacks the capacity to deal with such magnitude of waste. Consequently, the city has involved the private sector (private sector participation) in its waste management drive. This article examines the effectiveness of this public-private sector collaboration model in waste management in informal settlements in Lagos using empirical data. Major findings of the article include the irregularity of waste collection owing to a poor road network, an inadequate transport infrastructure and the desire to maximise profit, as well as poor waste handling and disposal methods by the private sector participation operators who are not chosen based on competence and capacity to perform. Another major finding is the lack of cooperation from residents evidenced in non-payment of bills and poor packaging of wastes, resulting in wastes being littered. The article concludes on the need to restructure the scheme through proper sensitisation of residents, selection of operators with demonstrable delivery capacity and provision of a well-maintained road network to facilitate access of operators to settlements. © The Author(s) 2016.
Knudsen, Jette Steen
. Governments have also labored to take greater advantage of female talents and skills, both through awareness-raising programs and through new legislation. While there has been much progress when it comes to women reaching high level positions in the private sector, women are still in the minority in top level...
Miller, Jane K.; Repinski, Shelby L.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Bliss, Frederick A.; Trexler, Cary J.
A broad-based survey using the Delphi method was conducted to garner current information from private sector stakeholders and build consensus opinions supporting key ideas for enhancing plant breeder education and training. This study asked respondents to suggest and rate topics and content they deemed most important to plant breeding graduate…
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Technical Advisory Committees; Notice of Recruitment of Private- Sector Members SUMMARY: Seven Technical Advisory Committees (TACs) advise the Department of Commerce on the technical parameters for export controls applicable to dual-use commodities and...
Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Nisar, Hiren
School districts required under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) to provide supplemental educational services (SES) to students in schools that are not making adequate yearly progress rely heavily on the private sector to offer choice in services. If the market does not drive out ineffective providers, students may not gain through SES participation.…
Pesqueira, L.D.L.; Verburg, J.
For over a decade, Oxfam has increasingly interacted with the private sector as a means to address the wicked problem of poverty. For Oxfam, poverty is caused by injustice and is a consequence of people’s inability to materialize their human rights. Such rights-based approach to development shapes
Today, healthcare facilities are highly dependent on the private sector to keep their medical equipment functioning. Moreover, private sector involvement becomes particularly important for the supply of spare parts and consumables. However, in times of armed conflict, the capacity of the corporate world appears to be seriously hindered. Subsequently, this study researches the influence of armed conflict on the private medical equipment sector. This study follows a qualitative approach by conducting 19 interviews with representatives of the corporate world in an active conflict zone. A semistructured interview guide, consisting of 10 questions, was used to examine the constraints of this sector. The results reveal that the lack of skilled personnel, complicated importation procedures, and a decrease in financial capacity are the major constraints faced by private companies dealing in medical equipment in conflict zones. Even when no official sanctions and embargoes for medical items exist, constraints for trading medical equipment are clearly recognizable. Countries at war would benefit from a centralized structure that deals with the importation procedures for medical items, to assist local companies in their purchasing procedures. A high degree of adaption is needed to continue operating, despite the emerging constraints of armed conflict. Future studies might research the constraints for manufacturers outside the conflict to export medical items to the country of war.
The private health sector is experiencing a crisis of spiralling costs, with average annual cost increases of between 13% and 32% over the decade 1978 - 1988. This trend is partly explained by the high utilisation rates that result from the combination of the 'fee-for-service' system and the 'third-party' payment structure of the ...
Conclusions: Independent interventions will have little chance of success and sustainability. Different intervention programs should consider legal issues, attitude and knowledge of physicians in the private sector, and building a simple reporting process for physicians. Intervention programs in which the reporting process offers incentives for all stakeholders can help improving and sustaining the disease reporting system.
This article reviews different approaches to quality management in the private sector from an evolutionary perspective. Two dimensions of this evolution are crucial: the scope of evaluation (“product” versus “system”) and the objective versus intersubjective orientation. Experiences within the
Dustmann, C.; van Soest, A.H.O.
This paper analyzes wage structures in the public and the private sector for Germany. The data contains a rich set of variables on parents' characteristics that we use as instruments. We extend the empirical literature in this field by endogenizing education level and hours worked, and by using life
Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt
Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…
Background: Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is essential in the treatment of HIV/AIDS; however, a holistic approach to HIV/AIDS management is important. This study was done to confirm the findings of two studies done previously in the eThekwini Metro of KwaZulu-Natal on private sector doctors' ...
Even, William E.; Macpherson, David A.
Between 1973 and 1988, private sector union membership fell by 9.5 percentage points more for men than women; the gender wage gap decreased by 0.09. Unionism fell more slowly for women. Greater decline in male unionism is responsible for one-seventh of the decline in the wage gap. (SK)
This project will study private sector efforts to promote better compliance with anticorruption ... Researchers will use experiences in Chile, Brazil, Argentina, and Peru to help spur ... se concentreront sur les nouvelles frontières de la recherche sur le cancer. ... Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube · Linked In · RSS Feed.
Glassner, V.; Keune, M.; Marginson, P.
This article discusses crisis-related developments in collective bargaining in the private sector across the EU since the onset of the crisis during 2008. It analyses developments in the incidence, procedures and content of collective bargaining during the crisis and is cross-nationally and
Across the globe sustainable private sector-led urban development projects (SPUDPs) in the built environment rarely commence as real estate developers face several institutional barriers which limit their capacity to develop economic-viable, social-responsible, environmental-friendly urban places.
Pluta, David J.; Accordino, Michael P.
This investigation was a baseline study to determine if the speed of return to work could be predicted for people with psychiatric disabilities in a private sector setting. Participants with psychiatric disability claims who returned to work (N = 300) were obtained from a nationwide "Fortune 500" insurance company. The authors compared the speed…
Lindholst, Christian; Hansen, Morten Balle; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger
- and road maintenance) in local governments in Denmark, England, Norway and Sweden. We find that contracting out tends to enhance organizational learning in public organizations. Our findings also suggest variation in the impact depending on different ways of organizing and managing contractual relations...
private actors inter-organize urban projects, consist of economics & politics, governance cultures, and planning systems and policies. Hence, institutional values are deeply rooted in social welfare models (Nadin & Stead, 2008. For instance, the differences between Anglo-Saxon and Rhineland model principles also determine public-private relationships. However, the process of neoliberalization (Hackworth, 2007 and subsequent adaptation of neoliberal political ideologies (Harvey, 2005 has created quite similar governance arrangements in Western countries. Nevertheless, institutional rules incorporated in planning systems, laws and policies often remain country-specific. But, market-oriented planning, involving ‘planners as market actors’ (Adams & Tiesdell, 2010 intervening and operating within market systems, have become the most commonly shared feature of contemporary Western urban development practices (Carmona et al., 2009. In this research, the project organization focuses on institutional aspects and interorganizational arrangements that structure Public-Private Partnerships (Bult-Spiering & Dewulf, 2002. It involves studying organizational tasks and responsibilities, financial risks and revenues, and legal rules and requirements. Inter-organizational arrangements condition the way public and private actors manage projects. Hence, such arrangements can be placed on a public-private spectrum (Börzel & Risse, 2002 which indicates different power relations in terms of public and private autonomy and dominance (Savitch, 1997 in making planning decisions. These public-private power relations are reflected in different Public-Private Partnership arrangements (Bennet et al., 2000 in urban development projects. As a result, in some contexts these partnerships arrangements are formalized into organizational vehicles or legal contracts, in others there is an emphasis on informal partnerships and interaction. The lack of management knowledge on private sector-led urban
Sambo Luis G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Out of 1.484 billion disability-adjusted life years lost globally in 2008, 369.1 million (25% were lost in the WHO African Region. Despite the heavy disease burden, the majority of countries in the Region are not on track to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDG 4 (reducing child mortality, 5 (improving maternal health, and 6 (combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. This article provides an overview of the state of public health, summarizes 2010-2015 WHO priorities, and explores the role that private sector could play to accelerate efforts towards health MDGs in the African Region. Discussion Of the 752 total resolutions adopted by the WHO Regional Committee for Africa (RC between years 1951 and 2010, 45 mention the role of the private sector. We argue that despite the rather limited role implied in RC resolutions, the private sector has a pivotal role in supporting the achievement of health MDGs, and articulating efforts with 2010-2015 priorities for WHO in the African Region: provision of normative and policy guidance as well as strengthening partnerships and harmonization; supporting the strengthening of health systems based on the Primary Health Care approach; putting the health of mothers and children first; accelerating actions on HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis; intensifying the prevention and control of communicable and noncommunicable diseases; and accelerating response to the determinants of health. Conclusion The very high maternal and children mortality, very high burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, health systems challenges, and inter-sectoral issues related to key determinants of health are too heavy for the public sector to address alone. Therefore, there is clear need for the private sector, given its breadth, scope and size, to play a more significant role in supporting governments, communities and partners to develop and implement national health policies and strategic plans
Sambo, Luis G; Kirigia, Joses M
Out of 1.484 billion disability-adjusted life years lost globally in 2008, 369.1 million (25%) were lost in the WHO African Region. Despite the heavy disease burden, the majority of countries in the Region are not on track to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 (reducing child mortality), 5 (improving maternal health), and 6 (combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases). This article provides an overview of the state of public health, summarizes 2010-2015 WHO priorities, and explores the role that private sector could play to accelerate efforts towards health MDGs in the African Region. Of the 752 total resolutions adopted by the WHO Regional Committee for Africa (RC) between years 1951 and 2010, 45 mention the role of the private sector. We argue that despite the rather limited role implied in RC resolutions, the private sector has a pivotal role in supporting the achievement of health MDGs, and articulating efforts with 2010-2015 priorities for WHO in the African Region: provision of normative and policy guidance as well as strengthening partnerships and harmonization; supporting the strengthening of health systems based on the Primary Health Care approach; putting the health of mothers and children first; accelerating actions on HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis; intensifying the prevention and control of communicable and noncommunicable diseases; and accelerating response to the determinants of health. The very high maternal and children mortality, very high burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, health systems challenges, and inter-sectoral issues related to key determinants of health are too heavy for the public sector to address alone. Therefore, there is clear need for the private sector, given its breadth, scope and size, to play a more significant role in supporting governments, communities and partners to develop and implement national health policies and strategic plans; strengthen health systems capacities; and implement
Full Text Available The continuous need to adapt to the dynamics of the environment requires employers from both public and private sectors to select qualified human resources. It is people who lead the organization towards performance, and selecting competent employees is critical for competitive success. The paper is focused on the job selection practices implemented by hiring organizations in a developing country. Due to the differences that exist regarding the employee selection policy between public and private organizations, the paper aims to understand the characteristics of the job selection process according to the ownership of the employer agent. Based on a quantitative survey applied on 64 companies, the results analyze the main selection stages implemented in private vs. public sector employers in a developing country. While in private companies the most frequently used selection stages are the job selection interview, CVs screening and trial period, in public institutions the hiring process is based on the job selection interview, written knowledge tests, and practical tests. Compared to private companies, in public institutions the written knowledge tests rank a higher position in the selection stages hierarchy, but the private employers rely more on CVs screening stage than public institutions. Emphasis is laid on understanding the reasons leading to variations in job selection practices according to the ownership of the employing agent. The predictive validity of the job selection stages implemented by the companies is also discussed.
Naseer, Maliha; Khawaja, Ali; Pethani, Amin S; Aleem, Salik
Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Pakistan which ranks fifth amongst the twenty two countries designated to be highly burdened by TB according to the World Health Organization. However, there is paucity of data regarding the knowledge of diagnosis of TB and its management amongst public and private practitioners. In this study, we endeavor to identify this gap in knowledge regarding the diagnosis and management of TB between public and private doctors and the factors affecting these knowledge scores in urban Pakistan. This cross sectional survey was conducted between June and December 2011. Doctors from public hospitals, private hospitals and private clinics scattered in all eighteen towns of Karachi were included in the study. Qualified MBBS doctors working in any specialty were eligible to participate whereas doctors working in both the public and private sectors were excluded from the study. Vignette based clinical scenarios were given to assess the knowledge score regarding the diagnosis and management of TB. A total of 196 doctors participated in the study. There was a significant difference between private and public physicians in terms of age and years of practice (p-value differences in the proportion of knowledge scores were observed between the public and private doctors and National TB Control Program trained and untrained doctors in Karachi. Factors associated with inadequate knowledge scores were being female gender [OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.418-5.384)], private employment status [OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.258-2.439)], and not trained by NTP [OR: 2.98 (95% CI: 1.286-3.225)] on multivariate logistic regression analysis. It is concluded that a knowledge gap exists between the public and private doctors in Karachi. Strengthening of currently implemented public private mix model along with improvement in the trainings of public and private practitioners is highly recommended to control TB in Pakistan.
Full Text Available The banks in India have over 67,000 branches located across the country. All these are classified into two major categories, non-scheduled banks and scheduled banks. Scheduled banks includes commercial banks and the co-operative banks. The public sector banks are accountable for more than 78 percent of total banking industry in India. Even though private sector banks came later into the market, due to their customer servicing and easy banking features they are also competing equally with already existing public sector banks. so it is very essential to analyze how their financial performance is influenced by number of factors which will further suggest them where they need to concentrate more. in this article we have analyzed the correlation between return on total assets and other financial variables of selected private and public banks in India.
Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro Veloso; Morais, Heloísa Maria Mendonça de; Lima, Luci Praciano
This research analyzed the public-private composition in the municipal health network and aspects of the contracting/outsourcing process for services over the period from 2001 to 2008. The research method used was a case study with documentary research and interviews. The interviewees were former secretaries of health, directors of regulation and district managers. The categories of analysis used were public funds, care networks and public control. The results showed that the contracting was restricted to philanthropic units. With respect to the other private establishments linked to the public care network, non-compliance with programmatic aspects was detected, such as the lack of regulation of bidding processes required for contracting. Management authorities did not actively pursue building up state public services, or the formation of care networks. The contracted establishments conducted their activities without effective external and internal control mechanisms, which are paramount for the proper use of public resources. The authors conclude that the contracting process does not significantly alter the standard of buying and selling of services and indeed does not enhance the empowering process of the role of the public domain.
The structural changes in the electrical sector and the forecast for favoring the private participation in the investments of the sector are discussed, describing the main stages of the institutional evolution. Some economic markers as competitiveness, electric power prices, private capital and the regulations of electric power services are presented. (C.G.C)
Talisuna, Ambrose O; Daumerie, Penny Grewal; Balyeku, Andrew; Egan, Timothy; Piot, Bram; Coghlan, Renia; Lugand, Maud; Bwire, Godfrey; Rwakimari, John Bosco; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Kato, Fred; Byangire, Maria; Kagwa, Paul; Sebisubi, Fred; Nahamya, David; Bonabana, Angela; Mpanga-Mukasa, Susan; Buyungo, Peter; Lukwago, Julius; Batte, Allan; Nakanwagi, Grace; Tibenderana, James; Nayer, Kinny; Reddy, Kishore; Dokwal, Nilesh; Rugumambaju, Sylvester; Kidde, Saul; Banerji, Jaya; Jagoe, George
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), the treatment of choice for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, is unaffordable and generally inaccessible in the private sector, the first port of call for most malaria treatment across rural Africa. Between August 2007 and May 2010, the Uganda Ministry of Health and the Medicines for Malaria Venture conducted the Consortium for ACT Private Sector Subsidy (CAPSS) pilot study to test whether access to ACT in the private sector could be improved through the provision of a high level supply chain subsidy. Four intervention districts were purposefully selected to receive branded subsidized medicines - "ACT with a leaf", while the fifth district acted as the control. Baseline and evaluation outlet exit surveys and retail audits were conducted at licensed and unlicensed drug outlets in the intervention and control districts. A survey-adjusted, multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse the intervention's impact on: ACT uptake and price; purchase of ACT within 24 hours of symptom onset; ACT availability and displacement of sub-optimal anti-malarial. At baseline, ACT accounted for less than 1% of anti-malarials purchased from licensed drug shops for children less than five years old. However, at evaluation, "ACT with a leaf" accounted for 69% of anti-malarial purchased in the interventions districts. Purchase of ACT within 24 hours of symptom onset for children under five years rose from 0.8% at baseline to 26.2% (95% CI: 23.2-29.2%) at evaluation in the intervention districts. In the control district, it rose modestly from 1.8% to 5.6% (95% CI: 4.0-7.3%). The odds of purchasing ACT within 24 hours in the intervention districts compared to the control was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.08-2.68, p=0.4) at baseline and significant increased to 6.11 (95% CI: 4.32-8.62, psupply-side subsidy and an intensive communications campaign significantly increased the uptake and use of ACT in the private sector in Uganda.
Talisuna Ambrose O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, the treatment of choice for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, is unaffordable and generally inaccessible in the private sector, the first port of call for most malaria treatment across rural Africa. Between August 2007 and May 2010, the Uganda Ministry of Health and the Medicines for Malaria Venture conducted the Consortium for ACT Private Sector Subsidy (CAPSS pilot study to test whether access to ACT in the private sector could be improved through the provision of a high level supply chain subsidy. Methods Four intervention districts were purposefully selected to receive branded subsidized medicines - “ACT with a leaf”, while the fifth district acted as the control. Baseline and evaluation outlet exit surveys and retail audits were conducted at licensed and unlicensed drug outlets in the intervention and control districts. A survey-adjusted, multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse the intervention’s impact on: ACT uptake and price; purchase of ACT within 24 hours of symptom onset; ACT availability and displacement of sub-optimal anti-malarial. Results At baseline, ACT accounted for less than 1% of anti-malarials purchased from licensed drug shops for children less than five years old. However, at evaluation, “ACT with a leaf” accounted for 69% of anti-malarial purchased in the interventions districts. Purchase of ACT within 24 hours of symptom onset for children under five years rose from 0.8% at baseline to 26.2% (95% CI: 23.2-29.2% at evaluation in the intervention districts. In the control district, it rose modestly from 1.8% to 5.6% (95% CI: 4.0-7.3%. The odds of purchasing ACT within 24 hours in the intervention districts compared to the control was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.08-2.68, p=0.4 at baseline and significant increased to 6.11 (95% CI: 4.32-8.62, p Conclusions These data demonstrate that a supply-side subsidy and an intensive communications campaign
Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T
Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these.
Maxwell, James; Temin, Peter; Petigara, Tanaz
State governments are influential purchasers of health benefits but have not been studied extensively. In a recent survey of senior benefit managers, we examine the extent to which states have followed the private-sector approach to purchasing health care. We found that states have adopted "industrial purchasing" practices similar to those of large private employers but offer greater choice of carriers and pay a higher percentage of premiums. Unions continue to influence health care purchasing in both the public and private sectors. Double-digit increases in health costs and the current budget crisis may force states to align their purchasing practices with the private sector to cut costs.
Abstract This paper examines private businesses' access to land and capital in Vietnam. It finds that the allocation of these resources to private firms is still excessively state-driven and personalised, and examines the links that business people of different ethnical and regional backgrounds...... have with the state and how this facilitates or hinders their access to land and capital. Lacking relationships with the state may have profound consequences for unconnected private enterprises, which are accordingly subject to uneven competition from connected ones. The paper suggests that private...... businesses' uneven opportunities are basically a consequence of the general history of the country and the role that individual business people have played in it, in such respects as having had former state-sector employment, party membership, the 'side' they were on before and during the Vietnam War etc...
Mahomed, S; Sturm, A W; Moodley, P
Intensive care units (ICUs) are designed to care for patients who are often at increased risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections. The structure of ICUs should be optimally designed to facilitate the care of these critically ill patients, and minimise their risk of infection. National regulations (R158) were developed to govern the building and registration of private hospitals, and until recently equivalent regulations were not available for public hospitals. To assess and compare the compliance of ICUs in the private and public sectors with the R158 regulations. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the infrastructure of 25 private sector and 6 public sector ICUs in eThekwini Health District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. We used the R158 checklist, which was developed by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health Private Licensing Unit and Infection Prevention and Control Unit. The aspects covered in the R158 checklist were categorised into the design, general safety and patient services of the ICUs. Most of the ICUs in both sectors met the general safety requirements. There were varying levels of compliance with the design criteria. Only 7 (28.0%) and 1 (16.7%) of the private and public ICUs, respectively, had sufficient space around the beds. Twenty-two private ICUs (88.0%) and 4 public ICUs (66.7%) had isolation rooms, but only some of these isolation rooms (15 private and 2 public) had appropriate mechanical ventilation. None of the ICUs had clinical hand-wash basins in the nurse stations and dirty utility rooms. The majority of the ICUs had the required number of oxygen and electric outlets at the bedside. None of the public ICUs met the light intensity requirement over the bed area. Adequate spacing in ICUs is an issue in many cases. Interventions need to be put in place to ensure that ICUs meet the relevant design standards. There is an urgent need to revise the R158 regulations to reflect current best practices, particularly
Witter, K.A.; Sanchez, D.C.; Craig, A.B.
This paper compares private- and public-sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the U.S. In response to elevated radon levels in many U.S. houses, the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public-information efforts resulting in a range of radon-reduction installations in the U.S. Government-sponsored research and development of radon-mitigation techniques in single-family detached houses is compared with radon mitigation approaches undertaken by the private sector. An attempt is also made to compare premitigation diagnostics, the application of mitigation techniques to various substructure types, the performance of mitigation installations, and the cost of the installations. The information collected indicates that subslab ventilation is the most common technique in both public and private sector radon mitigation; however, air-to-air heat exchangers and sealing are employed more frequently in the private sector than in government-sponsored mitigation
Onifade, Temitope Tunbi
The article employs qualitative methods in contextualizing and conceptualizing the hybrid renewable energy support policy. It claims that hybrid policies may combine distinct mechanisms to drive desirable objectives better than traditional policies. A policy cycle helps to frame the United Kingdom's Contracts for Difference and Capacity Market (CFD & CM) scheme as a case study. The CFD & CM policy emerged to address environmental and energy challenges through the deployment of renewable energy (RE) in a low-carbon economy, employing liberalization: Environmental protection is foremost in this scheme. The policy combines and improves on the elements of feed-in tariff (FIT) and quota obligation (QO), and strives to solve the problems of these traditional policies. It addresses regulatory uncertainty under FIT by employing private law mechanics to guarantee above-loss reward for low carbon generation, and addresses market uncertainty under QO by incentivizing the capacity to supply future low carbon energy based on projected demand, hence creating a predictable and stable market. It also accommodates other important commitments. Overall, the CFD & CM scheme is a hybrid policy that engages the energy market mainly for advancing the end goal of environmental protection. To thrive however, it needs to meet private sector interests substantially. - Highlights: •The hybrid support policy combines traditional support systems. •Hybrid policies may drive objectives better than traditional policies. •The UK's contract for difference and capacity market system is a hybrid policy. •Environmental protection is foremost in the UK's hybrid policy. •To thrive, the UK's hybrid policy should address private sector interests.
Kaula, Henry; Buyungo, Peter; Opigo, Jimmy
Several interventions have been put in place to promote access to quality malaria case management services in Uganda's private sector, where most people seek treatment. This paper describes evidence using a mixed-method approach to examine the role, readiness and performance of private providers at a national level in Uganda. These data will be useful to inform strategies and policies for improving malaria case management in the private sector. The ACTwatch national anti-malarial outlet survey was conducted concurrently with a fever case management study. The ACTwatch nationally representative anti-malarial outlet survey was conducted in Uganda between May 18th 2015 and July 2nd 2015. A representative sample of sub-counties was selected in 14 urban and 13 rural clusters with probability proportional to size and a census approach was used to identify outlets. Outlets eligible for the survey met at least one of three criteria: (1) one or more anti-malarials were in stock on the day of the survey; (2) one or more anti-malarials were in stock in the 3 months preceding the survey; and/or (3) malaria blood testing (microscopy or RDT) was available. The fever case management study included observations of provider-patient interactions and patient exit interviews. Data were collected between May 20th and August 3rd, 2015. The fever case management study was implemented in the private sector. Potential outlets were identified during the main outlet survey and included in this sub-sample if they had both artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) [artemether-lumefantrine (AL)], in stock on the day of survey as well as diagnostic testing available. A total of 9438 outlets were screened for eligibility in the ACTwatch outlet survey and 4328 outlets were found to be stocking anti-malarials and were interviewed. A total of 9330 patients were screened for the fever case management study and 1273 had a complete patient observation and exit interview. Results from the outlet
N. G. Gojda
Full Text Available Summary: Article is devoted to the legislation review of the public-private partnership projects of the healthcare sector inUkraine. Authors focused attention on the basic problems of public-private partnership projects inUkraine. Objective: Analysis of the legal framework provides the possibility of public-private partnerships in health care ofUkraine and confirms the relevance of the scientific concept of development of public-private partnerships in health care ofUkraine. Methods: There were used periodic data of legal, economic and medical research publications inUkraine and CIS countries on regulatory support public-private partnerships. Results: The researches in many countries have proven the established of state regulatory bodies that carefully study various aspects of the business partnership in the services of provision of health care. Developed numerical models as simple infrastructure projects implement business participation in providing non-medical services (construction, hotels and utilities, technical re-equipment etc. to complex integrated models that involve the transfer of important state functions to private partner (strategic planning, highly specialized medical care, research, medical education, etc.. Conclusion: The development of public-private partnerships in health care of Ukraine is possible only in condition of further improvement of legislation to the line with the norms and principles of international law, providing a clear and coordinated cooperation of all branches and friendly to business partnership administrative environment.
Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon
Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.
Tuominen, Risto; Eriksson, Anna-Leena
The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs of subsidized care for an adult population provided by private and public sector dentists. A sample of 210 patients was drawn systematically from the waiting list for nonemergency dental treatment in the city of Turku. Questionnaire data covering sociodemographic background, dental care utilization and marginal time cost estimates were combined with data from patient registers on treatment given. Information was available on 104 patients (52 from each of the public and the private sectors). The overall time taken to provide treatment was 181 days in the public sector and 80 days in the private sector (Ppublic sector patients had significantly (P private sector patients (3.47), which caused higher visiting fees. In addition, patients in the public sector also had higher other out-of-pocket costs than in the private sector. Those who needed emergency dental treatment during the waiting time for comprehensive care had significantly more costly treatment and higher total costs than the other patients. Overall time required for dental visits significantly increased total costs. The total cost of dental care in the public sector was slightly higher (Pprivate sector. There is no direct evidence of moral hazard on the provider side from this study. The observed cost differences between the two sectors may indicate that private practitioners could manage their publicly funded patients more quickly than their private paying patients. On the other hand, private dentists providing more treatment per visit could be explained by private dentists providing more than is needed by increasing the content per visit. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Render, Marta L; Nowak, John; Hammond, Emmett K; Roselle, Gary
To estimate and compare Veterans Health Administration (VA) expenditures for outpatient pharmaceuticals for veterans at six VA facilities with hypothetical private sector costs. Using the VA Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Health Care Group (PBM) database, we extracted data for all dispensed outpatient prescriptions from the six study sites over federal fiscal year 1999. After extensive data validation, we converted prescriptions to the same units and merged relevant VA pricing information by National Drug Code to Redbook listed average wholesale price and the Medicaid maximal allowable charge, where available. We added total VA drug expenditures to personnel cost from the pharmacy portion of that medical center's cost distribution report. Hypothetical private sector payments were $200.8 million compared with an aggregate VA budget of $118.8 million. Using National Drug Code numbers, 97% of all items dispensed from the six facilities were matched to private sector price data. Nonmatched pharmaceuticals were largely generic over-the-counter pain relievers and commodities like alcohol swabs. The most commonly prescribed medications reflect the diseases and complaints of an older male population: pain, cardiovascular problems, diabetes, and depression or other psychiatric disorders. Use of the VA PBM database permits researchers to merge expenditure and prescription data to patient diagnoses and sentinel events. A critical element in its use is creating similar units among the systems. Such data sets permit a deeper view of the variability in drug expenditures, an important sector of health care whose inflation has been disproportionate to that of the economy and even health care.
Full Text Available Strategic concepts and practices first evolved in the private sector, so they evoked much controversy when they migrated to the public sector from the late 1970s onwards. Partly this was about their (inapplicability to the distinctive features of government organizations, in particular their focus on public as well as private value, their situation in a political rather than a market environment, their almost exclusive capacity to use legal authority to achieve purposes, and the extent to which they often need to share power over personnel and resources with other public sector agencies. These and other factors complicated efforts to apply New Public Management and similar frameworks in strategy concepts in a governmental context. Partly also the traditional private-sector focus on single organizations did not resonate with the growth of network governance from the 1990s. The authors argue for an alternative model based primarily on the public value framework as a means of incorporating and going beyond traditional strategy thinking.
Bunn, Terry L; Slavova, Svetla; Tang, Minao
Solid waste collection is among the occupations with the highest risk for injuries and illnesses. Solid waste collector injuries were characterized in terms of injury risk and employment industry sector (public versus private) using Kentucky workers' compensation first reports of injury and claims data. When compared to 35-44-year-old workers, solid waste collectors who were under 35 years of age were less likely to have a workers' compensation first report of injury or claim that resulted in awarded benefits. The probability that a workers' compensation first report of injury or claim would result in an awarded benefit was higher if the worker was employed as a solid waste collector in the private sector compared to the public sector, or was injured due to a motor vehicle-related injury or a push-or-pull type of injury. A better understanding of the differences in the contributing factors for an injury that results in a first report of injury or claim with awarded benefits (e.g., job activities, new and refresher worker safety training, type of equipment used, differences in collection vehicle automation, and differential reporting of injuries on the job) between the public and private sectors is necessary to target injury prevention strategies in this high-risk occupation.
Full Text Available Objective. To identify the challenges encountered by private health care providers (PHCP to notify tuberculosis cases through a programme developed web-based portal mechanism called “NIKSHAY.” Study Design. It is a descriptive qualitative study conducted at two revised national tuberculosis control programme (RNTCP districts of New Delhi. The study included in-depth interviews of PHCP registered with “NIKSHAY” and RNTCP programme personnel. Grounded theory was used to conceptualise the latent social patterns in implementation of tuberculosis case notification process and promptly identifying their challenges. Results. The analysis resulted in identification of three broad themes: (a system implementation by RNTCP: it emphasizes the TB notification process by the RNTCP programme personnel; (b challenges faced by PHCP for TB notification with five different subthemes; and (c perceived gaps and suggestions: to improvise the TB notification process for the private health sector. The challenges encountered by PHCP were mainly related to unsystematic planning and suboptimal implementation by programme personnel at the state and district level. The PHCP lacked clarity on the need for TB notification. Conclusion. Implementation of TB notification among private health care providers requires systematic planning by the programme personnel. The process should be user-friendly with additional benefits to the patients.
Adams, Margaret; Gardner, Glenn; Yates, Patsy
To report a study protocol and the theoretical framework normalisation process theory that informs this protocol for a case study investigation of private sector nurse practitioners. Most research evaluating nurse practitioner service is focused on public, mainly acute care environments where nurse practitioner service is well established with strong structures for governance and sustainability. Conversely, there is lack of clarity in governance for emerging models in the private sector. In a climate of healthcare reform, nurse practitioner service is extending beyond the familiar public health sector. Further research is required to inform knowledge of the practice, operational framework and governance of new nurse practitioner models. The proposed research will use a multiple exploratory case study design to examine private sector nurse practitioner service. Data collection includes interviews, surveys and audits. A sequential mixed method approach to analysis of each case will be conducted. Findings from within-case analysis will lead to a meta-synthesis across all four cases to gain a holistic understanding of the cases under study, private sector nurse practitioner service. Normalisation process theory will be used to guide the research process, specifically coding and analysis of data using theory constructs and the relevant components associated with those constructs. This article provides a blueprint for the research and describes a theoretical framework, normalisation process theory in terms of its flexibility as an analytical framework. Consistent with the goals of best research practice, this study protocol will inform the research community in the field of primary health care about emerging research in this field. Publishing a study protocol ensures researcher fidelity to the analysis plan and supports research collaboration across teams. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cross, Harry E; Sayedi, Omarzaman; Irani, Laili; Archer, Lauren C; Sears, Kathleen; Sharma, Suneeta
Since 2003, Afghanistan's largely unregulated for-profit private health sector has grown at a rapid pace. In 2008, the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) launched a long-term stewardship initiative to oversee and regulate private providers and align the sector with national health goals. We examine the progress the MoPH has made towards more effective stewardship, consider the challenges and assess the early impacts on for-profit performance. We reviewed publicly available documents, publications and the grey literature to analyse the development, adoption and implementation of strategies, policies and regulations. We carried out a series of key informant/participant interviews, organizational capacity assessments and analyses of hospital standards checklists. Using a literature review of health systems strengthening, we proposed an Afghan-specific definition of six key stewardship functions to assess progress towards MoPH stewardship objectives. The MoPH and its partners have achieved positive results in strengthening its private sector stewardship functions especially in generating actionable intelligence and establishing strategic policy directions, administrative structures and a legal and regulatory framework. Progress has also been made on improving accountability and transparency, building partnerships and applying minimum required standards to private hospitals. Procedural and operational issues still need resolution and the MoPH is establishing mechanisms for resolving them. The MoPH stewardship initiative is notable for its achievements to date under challenging circumstances. Its success is due to the focus on developing a solid policy framework and building institutions and systems aimed at ensuring higher quality private services, and a rational long-term and sustainable role for the private sector. Although the MoPH stewardship initiative is still at an early stage, the evidence suggests that enhanced stewardship functions in the MoPH are leading to a
This article attempts to demonstrate and illustrate important relationships between the concept of the independent economic regulator and the evolution of emerging nation electric power sectors from patterns of government dominance that have undermined both their efficiency and their receptivity to substantial private sector involvement. It re-emphasizes the important relationships between industry structure, competition, market mechanisms and regulation; and the important distinctions between the different roles government can and should play in the power sector in different stages of evolution -as owner, manager, regulator and political policy maker. It seeks to put content and meaning into the concept of the independent regulator in the broader context of power sector reform. It distills from the experience of those countries with developed regulatory systems a series of practical guidelines or principles that may be helpful in the design and implementation of regulatory regimes for electricity and other infrastructural industries in emerging nations in the process of transformation from government dominated monopolies. (author)
Michael Baker; Nicole Fortin
We investigate the effect of pro-active comparable worth legislation, covering both the public and private sectors, on wages, employment and the gender gap. Our focus is the pay equity initiative adopted by the Canadian province of Ontario in the early 1990s. Our preliminary finding is that the law fell short of its goal of reducing gender based wage differentials.Firm surveys indicate that the effect of the legislation was blunted by lack of compliance in small private firms, the low inciden...
Burger, Nicholas E; Kopf, Daniel; Spreng, Connor P; Yoong, Joanne; Sood, Neeraj
Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have the business processes in place for operating a successful business
Nicholas E Burger
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa, but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent. Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent, accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent, and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent. A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to
Sedlmayr, Richard; Fink, Günther; Miller, John M; Earle, Duncan; Steketee, Richard W
Relatively few programmes have attempted to actively engage the private sector in national malaria control efforts. This paper evaluates the health impact of a large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) conducted in partnership with a Zambian agribusiness, and its cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP). The study was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial. A list of 81,597 cotton farmers was obtained from Dunavant, a contract farming company in Zambia's cotton sector, in December 2010. 39,963 (49%) were randomly selected to obtain one ITN each. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 438 farmers in the treatment and 458 farmers in the control group in June and July 2011. Treatment and control households were compared with respect to bed net ownership, bed net usage, self-reported fever, and self-reported confirmed malaria. Cost data was collected throughout the programme. The distribution effectively reached target beneficiaries, with approximately 95% of households in the treatment group reporting that they had received an ITN through the programme. The average increase in the fraction of household members sleeping under an ITN the night prior to the interview was 14.6 percentage points (p-value US$ per ITN to Zambia's NMCP. The results illustrate that existing private sector networks can efficiently control malaria in remote rural regions. The intra-household allocation of ITNs distributed through this channel was comparable to that of ITNs received from other sources, and the health impact remained substantial.
Full Text Available Some forms of Public Private Partnership (PPP have been long since used in the procurement and operation of water infrastructure, as shown in the first part of the paper. The main object of the paper is to highlight the mechanisms of PPP in the water sector and to suggest that in times of economic and financial distress, when both the public sector and the private sector face additional risks and challenges, various models of PPP may be used to manage and mitigate the risks and to improve performance in providing the public services of Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS. The economic and financial risks of the WSS sector are commonly classified in two broad categories but within these broad categories there are many more specific risks. Therefore, we shall analyse some of these main risks and their potential interrelations, by employing several methodologies: literature review, case studies, performance indicators, risk matrix, analysis and synthesis. The mechanisms, features and experiences of PPP in this branch of the water sector are summarized and comparatively analysed, from the viewpoint of risk sharing, leading to some conclusions and recommendations on the opportunity and effectiveness of implementing such arrangements especially in Romania.
M.Sakthi Vadivel; S.Ayyappan,M.Com,MPhil
The banks in India have over 67,000 branches located across the country. All these are classified into two major categories, non-scheduled banks and scheduled banks. Scheduled banks includes commercial banks and the co-operative banks. The public sector banks are accountable for more than 78 percent of total banking industry in India. Even though private sector banks came later into the market, due to their customer servicing and easy banking features they are also competing equally wit...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in Guyana and Suriname, this disease remains a major problem in the interior of both countries, especially in areas with gold mining and logging operations, where malaria is endemic. National malaria control programmes in these countries provide treatment to patients with medicines that are procured and distributed through regulated processes in the public sector. However, availability to medicines in licensed facilities (private sector and unlicensed facilities (informal sector is common, posing the risk of access to and use of non-recommended treatments and/or poor quality products. Methods To assess the quality of circulating anti-malarial medicines, samples were purchased in the private and informal sectors of Guyana and Suriname in 2009. The sampling sites were selected based on epidemiological data and/or distance from health facilities. Samples were analysed for identity, content, dissolution or disintegration, impurities, and uniformity of dosage units or weight variation according to manufacturer, pharmacopeial, or other validated method. Results Quality issues were observed in 45 of 77 (58% anti-malarial medicines sampled in Guyana of which 30 failed visual & physical inspection and 18 failed quality control tests. The proportion of monotherapy and ACT medicines failing quality control tests was 43% (13/30 and 11% (5/47 respectively. A higher proportion of medicines sampled from the private sector 34% (11/32 failed quality control tests versus 16% (7/45 in the informal sector. In Suriname, 58 medicines were sampled, of which 50 (86% were Artecom®, the fixed-dose combination of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin-trimethoprim co-blistered with a primaquine phosphate tablet. All Artecom samples were found to lack a label claim for primaquine, thus failing visual and physical inspection. Conclusions The findings of the studies in both countries point to
Evans, Lawrence; Coignez, Veerle; Barojas, Adrian; Bempong, Daniel; Bradby, Sanford; Dijiba, Yanga; James, Makeida; Bretas, Gustavo; Adhin, Malti; Ceron, Nicolas; Hinds-Semple, Alison; Chibwe, Kennedy; Lukulay, Patrick; Pribluda, Victor
Despite a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in Guyana and Suriname, this disease remains a major problem in the interior of both countries, especially in areas with gold mining and logging operations, where malaria is endemic. National malaria control programmes in these countries provide treatment to patients with medicines that are procured and distributed through regulated processes in the public sector. However, availability to medicines in licensed facilities (private sector) and unlicensed facilities (informal sector) is common, posing the risk of access to and use of non-recommended treatments and/or poor quality products. To assess the quality of circulating anti-malarial medicines, samples were purchased in the private and informal sectors of Guyana and Suriname in 2009. The sampling sites were selected based on epidemiological data and/or distance from health facilities. Samples were analysed for identity, content, dissolution or disintegration, impurities, and uniformity of dosage units or weight variation according to manufacturer, pharmacopeial, or other validated method. Quality issues were observed in 45 of 77 (58%) anti-malarial medicines sampled in Guyana of which 30 failed visual & physical inspection and 18 failed quality control tests. The proportion of monotherapy and ACT medicines failing quality control tests was 43% (13/30) and 11% (5/47) respectively. A higher proportion of medicines sampled from the private sector 34% (11/32) failed quality control tests versus 16% (7/45) in the informal sector. In Suriname, 58 medicines were sampled, of which 50 (86%) were Artecom®, the fixed-dose combination of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin-trimethoprim co-blistered with a primaquine phosphate tablet. All Artecom samples were found to lack a label claim for primaquine, thus failing visual and physical inspection. The findings of the studies in both countries point to significant problems with the quality of anti-malarial medicines
Full Text Available The paper presents empirical research on innovative climate in theprivate and public sectors in Slovenia based on West’s model and theshortened questionnaire developed by Kivimaki and Elovanio. The resultsreveal that in our case the model is more three-factor than theoriginal four-factor model, very likely because of the non-random sample.Results also show that there are no statistically significant differencesin innovative climate between the private and public sector, norbetween companies with less and companies with more than 250 employees.Significant differences in innovative climate are indicatorsjust regarding the satisfaction with work and partially regarding employees’type of work.
.... Forest Service officers collect the information from contractors who may be individuals, private sector... products including: (1) Planning and scheduling contract administration workloads, (2) planning and...
Yadav, A; Garg, S K; Chopra, H; Bajpai, S K; Bano, T; Jain, S; Kumar, A
Majority of the qualified medical practitioners in the country are in the private sector and more than half of patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek treatment from them. The present study was conducted with the objective of assessing the treatment modalities in pulmonary tuberculosis by the private physicians in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional study was carried out covering all the private physicians (graduates and postgraduates in Medicine and Chest Diseases) registered under the Indian Medical Association, Meerut Branch (n = 154). The physicians were interviewed by a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire about the treatment modalities practiced by them. Only 43.5% private physicians had attended any Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) training in the past five years. Only 33.1% of them were aware of the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Fifty-three different regimens were used to treat the patients. Majority of physicians (76%) prescribed daily regimens while 24% administered both daily and intermittent treatment. None of the private physicians prescribed exclusive intermittent regimen. Eighty-seven different treatment regimens were used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) with none of them prescribing standard treatment under RNTCP. As majority of private practitioners do not follow RNTCP guidelines for treating TB, there is an urgent need for their continued education in this area.
Dr.Sc. Ymer Havolli
Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing activities, and some of the causes of deindustrialization of Kosovo’s economy, and the stage of initial establishment of the private sector in Kosovo. The purpose of the paper is to present the current situation and development orientations, namely to review some of the obstacles from the perspective of entrepreneurs, with a view of eliminating such obstacles and fostering development. The paper shall provide a comparison of exports and imports, with a special focus on obstacles to Kosovo’s SMEs. This paper shall prove an overview on the situation of SME development and its sectors, and it is an effort to mirror the main obstacles preventing competitiveness and development of the sector. The analysis in this paper represent an effort to inform stakeholders with the sector, and help interested parties to take necessary action in improving the situation in the sector, and to assist sectors in benefitting from business opportunities, by creating a business development conducive environment, so that the changes occurring in the sector feed economic development, foster employment and help in attracting foreign investments The main goal of the paper is to provide a basis for informing various actors involved in industrial development policy making in Kosovo. On the other hand, it is also an effort to contribute in consolidating information and statistical records, with a view of providing an accurate overview on Kosovo’s industry.
Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.
This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ''Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste'', (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators
Full Text Available Solid waste management (SWM practices in Lahore, provincial capital of Punjab, were privatised in 2012. This study draws a comparison of solid waste management practices by public and private sector in Lahore. The comparison is done by taking following factors in consideration; administrative structure, waste collection, street sweeping, waste storage capacity and logistics, disposal, mechanical sweeping and washing, monitoring system. Privatisation of solid waste management in Lahore is celebrated as complete success story. In contrast to this, we found the results of privatisation are mixed. Privatisation has improved some components of the system. Monitoring system has been the key innovation under private sector. It has enabled better allocation, management and channelization of available resources. Yet little to no improvement has been done in street sweeping, disposal of waste and administrative structure of waste management in the city.
Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.
This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of the research on important parameters of the loyalty of employees in the public and the private sector. The research was conducted in the Republic of Croatia as a part of the research focused on the essential parameters of the loyalty of employees that contribute to building and retaining loyal behaviour. Loyalty and employee satisfaction are the key parameters that influence the success of a company. In addition, loyal and satisfied employees are important in building good relationships with customers, suppliers and all stakeholders involved in business processes of an organization or a company. The purpose of this article is to define whether there is a difference in parameters of the loyalty of employees in the public and the private sector in Croatia, as well as whether there are certain differences based on gender.
Birim BALCI DEMIRCI
Full Text Available It is widely known that there are many schools in the private sector offering courses in Computer Technology, Computer Engineering, Information Systems and similar disciplines in addition to Universities presenting such courses. The private sector programs are extremely popular with students already studying at university as well as being of great interest to previously graduated university students. The first purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of university students who attend theses education programs. Both previously graduated and presently studying students have been included. Secondly it aims to understand the reasons behind the attendance of such courses by students who are already studying a similar curriculum or have previously studied and graduated in similar and related fields. In the light of this information, some suggestions have been made about giving these courses as online.
Bishop, Felicity L; Barlow, Fiona; Coghlan, Beverly; Lee, Philippa; Lewith, George T
The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is available in both the private sector and the public sector (NHS). Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore patients' experiences. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2007-8 with a purposive sample of 27 patients who had recently used acupuncture for painful conditions in the private sector and/or in the NHS. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop themes that summarised the bulk of the data and provided insights into consumerism in NHS- and private practice-based acupuncture. Five main themes were identified: value for money and willingness to pay; free and fair access; individualised holistic care: feeling cared for; consequences of choice: empowerment and vulnerability; and "just added extras": physical environment. Patients who had received acupuncture in the private sector constructed detailed accounts of the benefits of private care. Patients who had not received acupuncture in the private sector expected minimal differences from NHS care, and those differences were seen as not integral to treatment. The private sector facilitated consumerist behaviour to a greater extent than did the NHS, but private consumers appeared to base their decisions on unreliable and incomplete information. Patients used and experienced acupuncture differently in the NHS compared to the private sector. Eight different faces of consumerist behaviour were identified, but six were dominant: consumer as chooser, consumer as pragmatist, consumer as patient, consumer as earnest explorer, consumer as victim, and consumer as citizen. The decision to use acupuncture in either the private sector or the NHS was rarely well-informed: NHS and private patients both had misconceptions about acupuncture in the
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is available in both the private sector and the public sector (NHS. Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore patients' experiences. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2007-8 with a purposive sample of 27 patients who had recently used acupuncture for painful conditions in the private sector and/or in the NHS. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop themes that summarised the bulk of the data and provided insights into consumerism in NHS- and private practice-based acupuncture. Results Five main themes were identified: value for money and willingness to pay; free and fair access; individualised holistic care: feeling cared for; consequences of choice: empowerment and vulnerability; and "just added extras": physical environment. Patients who had received acupuncture in the private sector constructed detailed accounts of the benefits of private care. Patients who had not received acupuncture in the private sector expected minimal differences from NHS care, and those differences were seen as not integral to treatment. The private sector facilitated consumerist behaviour to a greater extent than did the NHS, but private consumers appeared to base their decisions on unreliable and incomplete information. Conclusions Patients used and experienced acupuncture differently in the NHS compared to the private sector. Eight different faces of consumerist behaviour were identified, but six were dominant: consumer as chooser, consumer as pragmatist, consumer as patient, consumer as earnest explorer, consumer as victim, and consumer as citizen. The decision to use acupuncture in either the private sector or the NHS was rarely well-informed: NHS
The paper is about the new concession contract implanted by the National Agency of Hydrocarbons, whose objective is the increasing the competitiveness of the country in the international level to attract national and foreign, private or public investment
Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika; Dharmawardana, Priyani; Epasinghe, Geethanee; Senanayake, Niroshana; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Premaratne, Risintha; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha
Sri Lanka is currently in the prevention of re-introduction phase of malaria. The engagement of the private sector health care institutions in malaria surveillance is important. The purpose of the study was to determine the number of diagnostic tests carried out, the number of positive cases identified and the referral system for diagnosis in the private sector and to estimate the costs involved. This prospective study of private sector laboratories within the Colombo District of Sri Lanka was carried out over a 6-month period in 2015. The management of registered private sector laboratories was contacted individually and the purpose of the study was explained. A reporting format was developed and introduced for monthly reporting. Forty-one laboratories were eligible to be included in the study and 28 participated by reporting data on a monthly basis. Excluding blood bank samples and routine testing for foreign employment, malaria diagnostic tests were carried out on 973 individuals during the 6-month period and nine malaria cases were identified. In 2015, a total of 36 malaria cases were reported from Sri Lanka. Of these, 24 (67 %) were diagnosed in the Colombo District and 50 % of them were diagnosed in private hospitals. An equal number of cases were diagnosed from the private sector and government sector in the Colombo District in 2015. The private sector being a major contributor in the detection of imported malaria cases in the country should be actively engaged in the national malaria surveillance system.
Gabriela de la Torre Campos; Katharina Radler; Bramantio Utomo Saptoadi
The purpose of this research is to see whether different wage levels in the private purchasing sector relate to the level of corruptibility. An experiment was conducted that put participants in the role of employees of a purchasing department of a multinational enterprise. The employees were allotted to different wage levels and had to choose between options with different levels of corruption. The research is of a deductive nature and complemented by a descriptive quanti...
Chzhen, Yekaterina; Mumford, Karen A.; Nicodemo, Catia
We use quantile regression and counterfactual decomposition methods to explore gender gaps across the earning distribution for full-time employees in the Australian private sector. Significant evidence of a self selection effect for women into full-time employment (or of components of self selection related to observable or unobservable characteristics) is, interestingly, not found to be relevant in the Australian context. Substantial gender earnings gaps (and glass ceilings) are established,...
Kunze, Astrid; Miller, Amalia
This paper studies gender spillovers in career advancement using 11 years of employer-employee matched data on the population of white-collar workers at over 4,000 private-sector establishments in Norway. Our data include unusually detailed job information for each worker, which enables us to define seven hierarchical ranks that are consistent across establishments and over time in order to measure promotions (defined as year-to-year rank increases) even for individuals who change employers. ...
In the actual context of economic globalization, the competitiveness has a crucial importance for all the countries. But due to which factors and to what extent takes place the creation and improvement of it? This paper traces the role of the private sector in creating and sustaining international competitiveness, it summarizes three determinants of international competitiveness (productivity, innovation and clusters) and traces their impact on it. The main argument of this paper is that thes...
Duțulescu, Silviu; Nișulescu-Ashrafzadeh, Ileana
Corruption is becoming an increasingly acute problem lately for Romania and the authorities are trying to find solutions in this regard. Until now the anti-corruption strategy has undergone four stages, by approving as many sets of anti-corruption strategic documents (National Anti-corruption Strategies in 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2012). In this research, we started from the assumption that there is a correlation between corruption in the public sector and the corruption in the private s...
India suffers from widespread shortages of electricity supply. These shortages, among others, are detrimental to the economic growth. The prospects for the next decade do not seem to be much brighter. Efforts in expanding generation capacity by the state-owned electric utilities are hampered by severe resource constraints. Against this backdrop, to mobilize additional resources to help bridge the gap in demand and supply, the Government of India formulated a policy in 1991 with the objective to encourage greater investment by private enterprises in the electricity sector. To study the implications of such an initiative on various stakeholders, viz., public utilities, consumers and private sector, the present paper tries to analyse issues like planned rationing, guarantees to private sector, backing down of existing capacity. Using the state of Karnataka (in Southern India) as a case study, the paper develops multiple scenarios using an integrated mixed integer-programming model. The results show the advantage of marginal non-supply (rationing) of electricity in terms of achieving overall effective supply demand matching as well as providing economic benefits to the state that could be generated through cost savings. The results also show the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and the new public capacity. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees are found to be significantly high. For 2011-12, depending on the type of scenarios, the estimated generation and economic losses are likely to be in the range of 3200-10,000 GWh and Rs. 4200-13,600 million respectively. The impact of these losses on the consumers could be in terms of significant increase in energy bills (in the range of 19-40% for different scenarios) due to rise in tariffs
India suffers from widespread shortages of electricity supply. These shortages, among others, are detrimental to the economic growth. The prospects for the next decade do not seem to be much brighter. Efforts in expanding generation capacity by the state-owned electric utilities are hampered by severe resource constraints. Against this backdrop, to mobilize additional resources to help bridge the gap in demand and supply, the Government of India formulated a policy in 1991 with the objective to encourage greater investment by private enterprises in the electricity sector. To study the implications of such an initiative on various stakeholders, viz., public utilities, consumers and private sector, the present paper tries to analyse issues like planned rationing, guarantees to private sector, backing down of existing capacity. Using the state of Karnataka (in Southern India) as a case study, the paper develops multiple scenarios using an integrated mixed integer-programming model. The results show the advantage of marginal non-supply (rationing) of electricity in terms of achieving overall effective supply demand matching as well as providing economic benefits to the state that could be generated through cost savings. The results also show the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and the new public capacity. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees are found to be significantly high. For 2011-12, depending on the type of scenarios, the estimated generation and economic losses are likely to be in the range of 3200-10,000 GWh and Rs. 4200-13,600 million respectively. The impact of these losses on the consumers could be in terms of significant increase in energy bills (in the range of 19-40% for different scenarios) due to rise in tariffs. (author)
Drolet, Marie; Mumford, Karen
This paper uses British and Canadian linked employer-employee data to investigate the importance of the workplace for the gender wage gap. Implementing a novel decomposition approach, we find high levels of unexplained wage inequality in the private sector of both countries, which is related to women receiving relatively lower wages within workplaces than do men. Whilst this inequality is partially offset by women, on average, receiving a workplace specific return which is relatively higher t...
Ebben S. van Zyl; Rose B. Mathafena; Joyce Ras
Orientation: Talent management is a strategic priority especially for profit-generating organisations in the private sector. Limited research has been conducted on the theoretical development of talent management. The need for talent management is also triggered by a need to align and integrate people management practices with those of the organisation in order to achieve strategic execution and operational excellence. Research purpose: The primary aim of the study was to develop a talent...
Liu, Hsi-Chen; Cheng, Yawen
To compare psychosocial work conditions and health status between public and private sector employees and to examine if psychosocial work conditions explained the health differences. Two thousand four hundred fourty one public and 15,589 private sector employees participated in a cross-sectional survey. Psychosocial work hazards, self-rated health (SRH), and burnout status were assessed by questionnaire. As compared with private sector employees, public sector employees reported better psychosocial work conditions and better SRH, but higher risk of workplace violence (WPV) and higher levels of client-related burnout. Regression analyses indicated that higher psychosocial job demands, lower workplace justice, and WPV experience were associated with poor SRH and higher burnout. The public-private difference in client-related burnout remained even with adjustment of psychosocial work factors. Greater risks of WPV and client-related burnout observed in public sector employees warrant further investigation.
Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Zodpey, Sanjay P
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available in India's private sector market since 1997. It was not until 14 December 2011 that the Government of India initiated the phased public sector introduction of a Hib (and DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)-containing pentavalent vaccine. Our objective was to investigate the state-specific coverage and behaviour of Hib vaccine in India when it was available only in the private sector market but not in the public sector. This baseline information can act as a guide to determine how much coverage the public sector rollout of pentavalent vaccine (scheduled April 2015) will need to bear in order to achieve complete coverage. 16 of 29 states in India, 2009-2012. Retrospective descriptive secondary data analysis. (1) Annual sales of Hib vaccines, by volume, from private sector hospitals and retail pharmacies collected by IMS Health and (2) national household surveys. State-specific Hib vaccine coverage (%) and its associations with state-specific socioeconomic status. The overall private sector Hib vaccine coverage among the 2009-2012 birth cohort was low (4%) and varied widely among the studied Indian states (minimum 0.3%; maximum 4.6%). We found that private sector Hib vaccine coverage depends on urban areas with good access to the private sector, parent's purchasing capacity and private paediatricians' prescribing practices. Per capita gross domestic product is a key explanatory variable. The annual Hib vaccine uptake and the 2009-2012 coverage levels were several times higher in the capital/metropolitan cities than the rest of the state, suggesting inequity in access to Hib vaccine delivered by the private sector. If India has to achieve high and equitable Hib vaccine coverage levels, nationwide public sector introduction of the pentavalent vaccine is needed. However, the role of private sector in universal Hib vaccine coverage is undefined as yet but it should not be neglected as a useful complement to
Riley, Christina; Garfinkel, Danielle; Thanel, Katherine; Esch, Keith; Workalemahu, Endale; Anyanti, Jennifer; Mpanya, Godéfroid; Binanga, Arsène; Pope, Jen; Longfield, Kim; Bertrand, Jane; Shaw, Bryan
An estimated 214 million women have unmet need for family planning in developing regions. Improved utilization of the private sector is key to achieving universal access to a range of safe and effective modern contraceptive methods stipulated by FP2020 and SDG commitments. Until now, a lack of market data has limited understanding of the private sector's role in increasing contraceptive coverage and choice. In 2015, the FPwatch Project conducted representative outlet surveys in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC using a full census approach in selected administrative areas. Every public and private sector outlet with the potential to sell or distribute modern contraceptives was approached. In outlets with modern contraceptives, product audits and provider interviews assessed contraceptive market composition, availability, and price. Excluding general retailers, 96% of potential outlets in Ethiopia, 55% in Nigeria, and 41% in DRC had modern contraceptive methods available. In Ethiopia, 41% of modern contraceptive stocking outlets were in the private sector compared with approximately 80% in Nigeria and DRC where drug shops were dominant. Ninety-five percent of private sector outlets in Ethiopia had modern contraceptive methods available; 37% had three or more methods. In Nigeria and DRC, only 54% and 42% of private sector outlets stocked modern contraceptives with 5% and 4% stocking three or more methods, respectively. High prices in Nigeria and DRC create barriers to consumer access and choice. There is a missed opportunity to provide modern contraception through the private sector, particularly drug shops. Subsidies and interventions, like social marketing and social franchising, could leverage the private sector's role in increasing access to a range of contraceptives. Achieving global FP2020 commitments depends on the expansion of national contraceptive policies that promote greater partnership and cooperation with the private sector and improvement of decisions around
Full Text Available An estimated 214 million women have unmet need for family planning in developing regions. Improved utilization of the private sector is key to achieving universal access to a range of safe and effective modern contraceptive methods stipulated by FP2020 and SDG commitments. Until now, a lack of market data has limited understanding of the private sector's role in increasing contraceptive coverage and choice.In 2015, the FPwatch Project conducted representative outlet surveys in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC using a full census approach in selected administrative areas. Every public and private sector outlet with the potential to sell or distribute modern contraceptives was approached. In outlets with modern contraceptives, product audits and provider interviews assessed contraceptive market composition, availability, and price.Excluding general retailers, 96% of potential outlets in Ethiopia, 55% in Nigeria, and 41% in DRC had modern contraceptive methods available. In Ethiopia, 41% of modern contraceptive stocking outlets were in the private sector compared with approximately 80% in Nigeria and DRC where drug shops were dominant. Ninety-five percent of private sector outlets in Ethiopia had modern contraceptive methods available; 37% had three or more methods. In Nigeria and DRC, only 54% and 42% of private sector outlets stocked modern contraceptives with 5% and 4% stocking three or more methods, respectively. High prices in Nigeria and DRC create barriers to consumer access and choice.There is a missed opportunity to provide modern contraception through the private sector, particularly drug shops. Subsidies and interventions, like social marketing and social franchising, could leverage the private sector's role in increasing access to a range of contraceptives. Achieving global FP2020 commitments depends on the expansion of national contraceptive policies that promote greater partnership and cooperation with the private sector and improvement of
Full Text Available Watershed management is creating the ecological balance between human beings and habitats and natural resources especially water resources. In this study the nature and human beings and all of the components involving on human activities in nature were tried to be tackled and the strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities (SWOT analysis of the area were evaluated by prioritizing R’WOT (Ranking + SWOT analysis for ensuring the participation and evaluating the ideas and attitudes of public institutions and private sector which are interest groups of Devrekani Watershed. According to the analysis result, both of the participant groups stated that the planned Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP in the basin will negatively affect the natural resource value. The economical deficiency- for the local administration- and the lack of qualified labour force –for private sector- issues are determined as the most important issues. Having an environmental plan (EP, supporting the traditional animal husbandry were determined as the highest priority factors by the local administration group and the presence of forests and grasslands and the eco-tourism potential were determined as the highest priority factors for the private sector. Creating awareness to local administration group, who are one of the most important decision making mechanisms in the area and did not prefer threats in a high priority way, is foreseen according to the context of the study.
Perreault, Kadija; Dionne, Clermont E; Rossignol, Michel; Poitras, Stéphane; Morin, Diane
In the last decades, interactions between health professionals have mostly been discussed in the context of interprofessional teamwork where professionals work closely together and share a team identity. Comparatively, little work has been done to explore interactions that occur between professionals in contexts where traditionally formal structures have been less supporting the implementation of interprofessional teamwork, such as in the private healthcare sector. The objective of this study was to identify private sector physiotherapists' perceptions of interprofessional and intraprofessional work regarding interventions for adults with low back pain. This was a cross-sectional survey of 327 randomly-selected physiotherapists. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. A majority of physiotherapists reported positive effects of interprofessional work for their clients, themselves and their workplaces. Proximity of physiotherapists with other professionals, clinical workloads, and client's financial situation were perceived as important factors influencing the implementation of interprofessional work. Low back pain is a highly prevalent and disabling condition. The results of this study indicate that integrating interprofessional work in the management of low back pain in the private sector is warranted. Furthermore, the implementation of interprofessional work is viewed by practicing physiotherapists as dependent upon certain client-, professional- and organizational-level factors.
McDonald, Julie; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Fort Harris, Mark
Ongoing care for chronic conditions is best provided by interprofessional teams. There are challenges in achieving this where teams cross organisational boundaries. This article explores the influence of organisational factors on collaboration between private and public sector primary and community health services involved in diabetes care. It involved a case study using qualitative methods. Forty-five participants from 20 organisations were purposively recruited. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and from content analysis of documents. Thematic analysis was used employing a two-level coding system and cross case comparisons. The patterns of collaborative patient care were influenced by a combination of factors relating to the benefits and costs of collaboration and the influence of support mechanisms. Benefits lay in achieving common or complementary health or organisational goals. Costs were incurred in bridging differences in organisational size, structure, complexity and culture. Collaboration was easier between private sector organisations than between private and public sectors. Financial incentives were not sufficient to overcome organisational barriers. To achieve more coordinated primary and community health care structural changes are also needed to better align funding mechanisms, priorities and accountabilities of the different organisations.