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Sample records for contracting circumbinary molecular

  1. Habitability Properties of Circumbinary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that several habitability conditions (in fact, at least seven such conditions) appear to be fulfilled automatically by circumbinary planets of main-sequence stars (CBP-MS), whereas on Earth, these conditions are fulfilled only by chance. Therefore, it looks natural that most of the production of replicating biopolymers in the Galaxy is concentrated on particular classes of CBP-MS, and life on Earth is an outlier, in this sense. In this scenario, Lathe’s mechanism for the tidal “chain reaction” abiogenesis on Earth is favored as generic for CBP-MS, due to photo-tidal synchronization inherent to them. Problems with this scenario are discussed in detail.

  2. Angular momentum exchange by gravitational torques and infall in the circumbinary disk of the protostellar system L1551 NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Saito, Masao [Joint ALMA Observatory, Ave. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Saigo, Kazuya [ALMA Project Office, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Lim, Jeremy [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Hanawa, Tomoyuki, E-mail: takakuwa@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Center for Frontier Science, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2014-11-20

    We report an ALMA observation of the Class I binary protostellar system L1551 NE in the 0.9 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O (3-2), and {sup 13}CO (3-2) lines at a ∼1.6 times higher resolution and a ∼6 times higher sensitivity than those of our previous SubMillimeter Array (SMA) observations, which revealed a r ∼ 300 AU scale circumbinary disk in Keplerian rotation. The 0.9 mm continuum shows two opposing U-shaped brightenings in the circumbinary disk and exhibits a depression between the circumbinary disk and the circumstellar disk of the primary protostar. The molecular lines trace non-axisymmetric deviations from Keplerian rotation in the circumbinary disk at higher velocities relative to the systemic velocity, where our previous SMA observations could not detect the lines. In addition, we detect inward motion along the minor axis of the circumbinary disk. To explain the newly observed features, we performed a numerical simulation of gas orbits in a Roche potential tailored to the inferred properties of L1551 NE. The observed U-shaped dust features coincide with locations where gravitational torques from the central binary system are predicted to impart angular momentum to the circumbinary disk, producing shocks and hence density enhancements seen as a pair of spiral arms. The observed inward gas motion coincides with locations where angular momentum is predicted to be lowered by the gravitational torques. The good agreement between our observation and model indicates that gravitational torques from the binary stars constitute the primary driver for exchanging angular momentum so as to permit infall through the circumbinary disk of L1551 NE.

  3. Reflected eclipses on circumbinary planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg H.J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A photometric method to detect planets orbiting around shortperiodic binary stars is presented. It is based on the detection of eclipse-signatures in the reflected light of circumbinary planets. Amplitudes of such ’reflected eclipses’ will depend on the orbital configurations of binary and planet relative to the observer. Reflected eclipses will occur with a period that is distinct from the binary eclipses, and their timing will also be modified by variations in the light-travel time of the eclipse signal. For the sample of eclipsing binaries found by the Kepler mission, reflected eclipses from close circumbinary planets may be detectable around at least several dozen binaries. A thorough detection effort of such reflected eclipses may then detect the inner planets present, or give solid limits to their abundance.

  4. Molecular emission from GG Carinae's circumbinary disk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, Michaela; Oksala, Mary E.; Nickeler, Dieter Horst; Muratore, M.F.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Aret, Anna; Cidale, L.S.; de Wit, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 549, January (2013), A28/1-A28/7 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1198 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * emission-line * Be stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  5. EXAMINING TATOOINE: ATMOSPHERIC MODELS OF NEPTUNE-LIKE CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS

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    May, E. M.; Rauscher, E. [University of Michigan (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Circumbinary planets experience a time-varying irradiation pattern as they orbit their two host stars. In this work, we present the first detailed study of the atmospheric effects of this irradiation pattern on known and hypothetical gaseous circumbinary planets. Using both a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM) and a three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM), we look at the temperature differences between circumbinary planets and their equivalent single-star cases in order to determine the nature of the atmospheres of these planets. We find that for circumbinary planets on stable orbits around their host stars, temperature differences are on average no more than 1.0% in the most extreme cases. Based on detailed modeling with the GCM, we find that these temperature differences are not large enough to excite circulation differences between the two cases. We conclude that gaseous circumbinary planets can be treated as their equivalent single-star case in future atmospheric modeling efforts.

  6. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  7. The Fate of Unstable Circumbinary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    What happens to Tattooine-like planets that are instead in unstable orbits around their binary star system? A new study examines whether such planets will crash into a host star, get ejected from the system, or become captured into orbit around one of their hosts.Orbit Around a DuoAt this point we have unambiguously detected multiple circumbinary planets, raising questions about these planets formation and evolution. Current models suggest that it is unlikely that circumbinary planets would be able to form in the perturbed environment close their host stars. Instead, its thought that the planets formed at a distance and then migrated inwards.One danger such planets face when migrating is encountering ranges of radii where their orbits become unstable. Two scientists at the University of Chicago, Adam Sutherland and Daniel Fabrycky, have studied what happens when circumbinary planets migrate into such a region and develop unstable orbits.Producing Rogue PlanetsTime for planets to either be ejected or collide with one of the two stars, as a function of the planets starting distance (in AU) from the binary barycenter. Colors represent different planetary eccentricities. [Sutherland Fabrycky 2016]Sutherland and Fabrycky used N-body simulations to determine the fates of planets orbiting around a star system consisting of two stars a primary like our Sun and a secondary roughly a tenth of its size that are separated by 1 AU.The authors find that the most common fate for a circumbinary planet with an unstable orbit is ejection from the system; over 80% of unstable planets were ejected. This has interesting implications: if the formation of circumbinary planets is common, this mechanism could be filling the Milky Way with a population of free-floating, rogue planets that no longer are associated with their host star.The next most common outcome for unstable planets is collision with one of their host stars (most often the secondary), resulting inaccretion of the planet

  8. Orbital alignment of circumbinary planets that form in misaligned circumbinary discs: the case of Kepler-413b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierens, A.; Nelson, R. P.

    2018-06-01

    Although most of the circumbinary planets detected by the Kepler spacecraft are on orbits that are closely aligned with the binary orbital plane, the systems Kepler-413 and Kepler-453 exhibit small misalignments of ˜2.5°. One possibility is that these planets formed in a circumbinary disc whose midplane was inclined relative to the binary orbital plane. Such a configuration is expected to lead to a warped and twisted disc, and our aim is to examine the inclination evolution of planets embedded in these discs. We employed 3D hydrodynamical simulations that examine the disc response to the presence of a modestly inclined binary with parameters that match the Kepler-413 system, as a function of disc parameters and binary inclinations. The discs all develop slowly varying warps, and generally display very small amounts of twist. Very slow solid body precession occurs because a large outer disc radius is adopted. Simulations of planets embedded in these discs resulted in the planet aligning with the binary orbit plane for disc masses close to the minimum mass solar nebular, such that nodal precession of the planet was controlled by the binary. For higher disc masses, the planet maintains near coplanarity with the local disc midplane. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets born in tilted circumbinary discs should align with the binary orbit plane as the disc ages and loses mass, even if the circumbinary disc remains misaligned from the binary orbit. This result has important implications for understanding the origins of the known circumbinary planets.

  9. The Scattering Outcomes of Kepler Circumbinary Planets: Planet Mass Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yan-Xiang; Ji, Jianghui, E-mail: yxgong@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: jijh@pmo.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Planetary Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies reveal that the free eccentricities of Kepler-34b and Kepler-413b are much larger than their forced eccentricities, implying that scattering events may take place in their formation. The observed orbital configuration of Kepler-34b cannot be well reproduced in disk-driven migration models, whereas a two-planet scattering scenario can play a significant role of shaping the planetary configuration. These studies indicate that circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler may have experienced scattering process. In this work, we extensively investigate the scattering outcomes of circumbinary planets focusing on the effects of planet mass ratio . We find that the planetary mass ratio and the the initial relative locations of planets act as two important parameters that affect the eccentricity distribution of the surviving planets. As an application of our model, we discuss the observed orbital configurations of Kepler-34b and Kepler-413b. We first adopt the results from the disk-driven models as the initial conditions, then simulate the scattering process that occurs in the late evolution stage of circumbinary planets. We show that the present orbital configurations of Kepler-34b and Kepler-413b can be well reproduced when considering a two unequal-mass planet ejection model. Our work further suggests that some of the currently discovered circumbinary single-planet systems may be survivors of original multiple-planet systems. The disk-driven migration and scattering events occurring in the late stage both play an irreplaceable role in sculpting the final systems.

  10. Transiting circumbinary planets Kepler-34 b and Kepler-35 b

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    Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Prša, Andrej; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ragozzine, Darin; Short, Donald R.; Torres, Guillermo; Winn, Joshua N.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Barclay, Thomas; Batalha, Natalie; Bloemen, Steven; Brugamyer, Erik; Buchhave, Lars A.; Caldwell, Caroline; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ciardi, David R.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Gautier III, Thomas N.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Haas, Michael R.; Hall, Jennifer R.; Holman, Matthew J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Klaus, Todd C.; Latham, David W.; Li, Jie; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Mazeh, Tsevi; Quintana, Elisa V.; Robertson, Paul; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H.; Windmiller, Gur; Koch, David G.; Borucki, William J.

    2012-01-11

    Most Sun-like stars in the Galaxy reside in gravitationally-bound pairs of stars called 'binary stars'. While long anticipated, the existence of a 'circumbinary planet' orbiting such a pair of normal stars was not definitively established until the discovery of Kepler-16. Incontrovertible evidence was provided by the miniature eclipses ('transits') of the stars by the planet. However, questions remain about the prevalence of circumbinary planets and their range of orbital and physical properties. Here we present two additional transiting circumbinary planets, Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Each is a low-density gas giant planet on an orbit closely aligned with that of its parent stars. Kepler-34 orbits two Sun-like stars every 289 days, while Kepler-35 orbits a pair of smaller stars (89% and 81% of the Sun's mass) every 131 days. Due to the orbital motion of the stars, the planets experience large multi-periodic variations in incident stellar radiation. The observed rate of circumbinary planets implies > ~1% of close binary stars have giant planets in nearly coplanar orbits, yielding a Galactic population of at least several million.

  11. Transiting circumbinary planets Kepler-34 b and Kepler-35 b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, William F; Orosz, Jerome A; Carter, Joshua A; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B; Lissauer, Jack J; Prša, Andrej; Quinn, Samuel N; Ragozzine, Darin; Short, Donald R; Torres, Guillermo; Winn, Joshua N; Doyle, Laurance R; Barclay, Thomas; Batalha, Natalie; Bloemen, Steven; Brugamyer, Erik; Buchhave, Lars A; Caldwell, Caroline; Caldwell, Douglas A; Christiansen, Jessie L; Ciardi, David R; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gautier, Thomas N; Gilliland, Ronald L; Haas, Michael R; Hall, Jennifer R; Holman, Matthew J; Howard, Andrew W; Howell, Steve B; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M; Klaus, Todd C; Latham, David W; Li, Jie; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Mazeh, Tsevi; Quintana, Elisa V; Robertson, Paul; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H; Windmiller, Gur; Koch, David G; Borucki, William J

    2012-01-11

    Most Sun-like stars in the Galaxy reside in gravitationally bound pairs of stars (binaries). Although long anticipated, the existence of a 'circumbinary planet' orbiting such a pair of normal stars was not definitively established until the discovery of the planet transiting (that is, passing in front of) Kepler-16. Questions remained, however, about the prevalence of circumbinary planets and their range of orbital and physical properties. Here we report two additional transiting circumbinary planets: Kepler-34 (AB)b and Kepler-35 (AB)b, referred to here as Kepler-34 b and Kepler-35 b, respectively. Each is a low-density gas-giant planet on an orbit closely aligned with that of its parent stars. Kepler-34 b orbits two Sun-like stars every 289 days, whereas Kepler-35 b orbits a pair of smaller stars (89% and 81% of the Sun's mass) every 131 days. The planets experience large multi-periodic variations in incident stellar radiation arising from the orbital motion of the stars. The observed rate of circumbinary planets in our sample implies that more than ∼1% of close binary stars have giant planets in nearly coplanar orbits, yielding a Galactic population of at least several million.

  12. Transits of planets with small intervals in circumbinary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui-Gen; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Ji-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Transit times around single stars can be described well by a linear ephemeris. However, transit times in circumbinary systems are influenced both by the gravitational perturbations and the orbital phase variations of the central binary star. Adopting a coplanar analog of Kepler-16 as an example, we find that circumbinary planets can transit the same star more than once during a single planetary orbit, a phenomenon we call 'tight transits.' In certain geometric architecture, the projected orbital velocity of the planet and the secondary star can approach zero and change sign, resulting in very long transits and/or 2-3 transits during a single binary orbit. Whether tight transits are possible for a particular system depends primarily on the binary mass ratio and the orbital architecture of both the binary and the planet. We derive a time-dependent criterion to judge when tight transits are possible for any circumbinary system. These results are verified with full dynamical integrations that also reveal other tight transit characteristics, i.e., the transit durations and the intervals between tight transits. For the seven currently known circumbinary systems, we estimate these critical parameters both analytically and numerically. Due to the mutual inclination between the planet and the binary, tight transits can only occur across the less massive star B in Kepler-16, -34, -35, and -47 (for both planets). The long-term average frequency of tight transits (compared to typical transits) for Kepler-16, -34, and -35 are estimated to be several percent. Using full numerical integrations, the next tight transit for each system is predicted and the soonest example appears to be Kepler-47b and -47c, which are likely to have tight transits before 2025. These unique and valuable events often deserve special observational scrutiny.

  13. Excited hydrogen bonds in the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, S V; Tolpygo, K B

    1991-11-21

    The mechanism of muscle contraction is considered. The hydrolysis of an ATP molecule is assumed to produce the excitation of hydrogen bonds A--H...B between electronegative atoms A and B, which are contained in the myosin head and actin filament. This excitation energy epsilon f depends on the interatomic distance AB = R and generates the tractive force f = -delta epsilon f/delta R, that makes atoms AB approach each other. The swing of the myosin head results in macroscopic mutual displacement of actin and myosin polymers. The motion of the actin filament under the action of this force is studied. The conditions under which a considerable portion of the excitation energy converts into the potential tension energy of the actin filament are analysed, and the probability of higher muscle efficiency existence is discussed.

  14. On the Lack of Circumbinary Planets Orbiting Isolated Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Barnes, Rory; Graham, David E.; Luger, Rodrigo; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-05-01

    We outline a mechanism that explains the observed lack of circumbinary planets (CBPs) via coupled stellar–tidal evolution of isolated binary stars. Tidal forces between low-mass, short-period binary stars on the pre-main sequence slow the stellar rotations transferring rotational angular momentum to the orbit as the stars approach the tidally locked state. This transfer increases the binary orbital period, expanding the region of dynamical instability around the binary, and destabilizing CBPs that tend to preferentially orbit just beyond the initial dynamical stability limit. After the stars tidally lock, we find that angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking can significantly shrink the binary orbit, and hence the region of dynamical stability, over time, impacting where surviving CBPs are observed relative to the boundary. We perform simulations over a wide range of parameter space and find that the expansion of the instability region occurs for most plausible initial conditions and that, in some cases, the stability semimajor axis doubles from its initial value. We examine the dynamical and observable consequences of a CBP falling within the dynamical instability limit by running N-body simulations of circumbinary planetary systems and find that, typically, at least one planet is ejected from the system. We apply our theory to the shortest-period Kepler binary that possesses a CBP, Kepler-47, and find that its existence is consistent with our model. Under conservative assumptions, we find that coupled stellar–tidal evolution of pre-main sequence binary stars removes at least one close-in CBP in 87% of multi-planet circumbinary systems.

  15. Modeling circumbinary planets: The case of Kepler-38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Wilhelm; Haghighipour, Nader

    2014-04-01

    Context. Recently, a number of planets orbiting binary stars have been discovered by the Kepler space telescope. In a few systems the planets reside close to the dynamical stability limit. Owing to the difficulty of forming planets in such close orbits, it is believed that they have formed farther out in the disk and migrated to their present locations. Aims: Our goal is to construct more realistic models of planet migration in circumbinary disks and to determine the final position of these planets more accurately. In our work, we focus on the system Kepler-38 where the planet is close to the stability limit. Methods: The evolution of the circumbinary disk is studied using two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We study locally isothermal disks as well as more realistic models that include full viscous heating, radiative cooling from the disk surfaces, and radiative diffusion in the disk midplane. After the disk has been brought into a quasi-equilibrium state, a 115 Earth-mass planet is embedded and its evolution is followed. Results: In all cases the planets stop inward migration near the inner edge of the disk. In isothermal disks with a typical disk scale height of H/r = 0.05, the final outcome agrees very well with the observed location of planet Kepler-38b. For the radiative models, the disk thickness and location of the inner edge is determined by the mass in the system. For surface densities on the order of 3000 g/cm2 at 1 AU, the inner gap lies close to the binary and planets stop in the region between the 5:1 and 4:1 mean-motion resonances with the binary. A model with a disk with approximately a quarter of the mass yields a final position very close to the observed one. Conclusions: For planets migrating in circumbinary disks, the final position is dictated by the structure of the disk. Knowing the observed orbits of circumbinary planets, radiative disk simulations with embedded planets can provide important information on the physical state of the

  16. The gas-rich circumbinary disk of HR 4049. I. A detailed study of the mid-infrared spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, S. E.; Cami, J., E-mail: sarahemalek@gmail.com, E-mail: jcami@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the mid-infrared spectrum of the peculiar evolved object HR 4049. The full Spitzer-IRS high-resolution spectrum shows a wealth of emission with prominent features from CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and possible contributions from HCN and OH. We model the molecular emission and find that it originates from a massive (M ≳ 8 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉}), warm (T {sub ex} ≈ 500 K) and radially extended gas disk that is optically thick at infrared wavelengths. We also report less enrichment in {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O than previously found and a comparison of the Spitzer observations to earlier data obtained by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory reveals that the CO{sub 2} flux has more than doubled in 10 yr time, indicating active and ongoing chemical evolution in the circumbinary disk. If the gas originates from interaction between the stellar wind and the dust, this suggests that the dust could be oxygen-rich in nature. The molecular gas plays a crucial role in the thermal properties of the circumbinary disk by allowing visible light to heat the dust and then trapping the infrared photons emitted by the dust. This results in higher temperatures and a more homogeneous temperature structure in the disk.

  17. A machine learns to predict the stability of circumbinary planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christopher; Kipping, David

    2018-01-01

    Long-period circumbinary planets appear to be as common as those orbiting single stars and have been found to frequently have orbital radii just beyond the critical distance for dynamical stability. Assessing the stability is typically done either through N-body simulations or using the classic Holman-Wiegert stability criterion: a second-order polynomial calibrated to broadly match numerical simulations. However, the polynomial is unable to capture islands of instability introduced by mean motion resonances, causing the accuracy of the criterion to approach that of a random coin-toss when close to the boundary. We show how a deep neural network (DNN) trained on N-body simulations generated with REBOUND is able to significantly improve stability predictions for circumbinary planets on initially coplanar, circular orbits. Specifically, we find that the accuracy of our DNN never drops below 86%, even when tightly surrounding the boundary of instability, and is fast enough to be practical for on-the-fly calls during likelihood evaluations typical of modern Bayesian inference. Our binary classifier DNN is made publicly available at https://github.com/CoolWorlds/orbital-stability.

  18. THE NEPTUNE-SIZED CIRCUMBINARY PLANET KEPLER-38b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R.; Windmiller, Gur; Carter, Joshua A.; Torres, Guillermo; Geary, John C.; Brugamyer, Erik; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ford, Eric B.; Agol, Eric; Barclay, Thomas; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the discovery and characterization of the circumbinary planet Kepler-38b. The stellar binary is single-lined, with a period of 18.8 days, and consists of a moderately evolved main-sequence star (M A = 0.949 ± 0.059 M ☉ and R A = 1.757 ± 0.034 R ☉ ) paired with a low-mass star (M B = 0.249 ± 0.010 M ☉ and R B = 0.2724 ± 0.0053 R ☉ ) in a mildly eccentric (e = 0.103) orbit. A total of eight transits due to a circumbinary planet crossing the primary star were identified in the Kepler light curve (using Kepler Quarters 1-11), from which a planetary period of 105.595 ± 0.053 days can be established. A photometric dynamical model fit to the radial velocity curve and Kepler light curve yields a planetary radius of 4.35 ± 0.11 R ⊕ , or equivalently 1.12 ± 0.03 R Nep . Since the planet is not sufficiently massive to observably alter the orbit of the binary from Keplerian motion, we can only place an upper limit on the mass of the planet of 122 M ⊕ (7.11 M Nep or equivalently 0.384 M Jup ) at 95% confidence. This upper limit should decrease as more Kepler data become available.

  19. A machine learns to predict the stability of circumbinary planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christopher; Kipping, David

    2018-06-01

    Long-period circumbinary planets appear to be as common as those orbiting single stars and have been found to frequently have orbital radii just beyond the critical distance for dynamical stability. Assessing the stability is typically done either through N-body simulations or using the classic stability criterion first considered by Dvorak and later developed by Holman and Wiegert: a second-order polynomial calibrated to broadly match numerical simulations. However, the polynomial is unable to capture islands of instability introduced by mean motion resonances, causing the accuracy of the criterion to approach that of a random coin-toss when close to the boundary. We show how a deep neural network (DNN) trained on N-body simulations generated with REBOUND is able to significantly improve stability predictions for circumbinary planets on initially coplanar, circular orbits. Specifically, we find that the accuracy of our DNN never drops below 86 per cent, even when tightly surrounding the boundary of instability, and is fast enough to be practical for on-the-fly calls during likelihood evaluations typical of modern Bayesian inference. Our binary classifier DNN is made publicly available at https://github.com/CoolWorlds/orbital-stability.

  20. FORMING CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: N-BODY SIMULATIONS OF KEPLER-34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Paardekooper, S.; Baruteau, C.; Thebault, P.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of circumbinary planets orbiting very close to the central stars have shown that planet formation may occur in a very hostile environment, where the gravitational pull from the binary should be very strong on the primordial protoplanetary disk. Elevated impact velocities and orbit crossings from eccentricity oscillations are the primary contributors to high energy, potentially destructive collisions that inhibit the growth of aspiring planets. In this work, we conduct high-resolution, inter-particle gravity enabled N-body simulations to investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in the Kepler-34 system. We improve upon previous work by including planetesimal disk self-gravity and an extensive collision model to accurately handle inter-planetesimal interactions. We find that super-catastrophic erosion events are the dominant mechanism up to and including the orbital radius of Kepler-34(AB)b, making in situ growth unlikely. It is more plausible that Kepler-34(AB)b migrated from a region beyond 1.5 AU. Based on the conclusions that we have made for Kepler-34, it seems likely that all of the currently known circumbinary planets have also migrated significantly from their formation location with the possible exception of Kepler-47(AB)c

  1. FORMING CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: N-BODY SIMULATIONS OF KEPLER-34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M. [School of Physics, University of Bristol, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Paardekooper, S.; Baruteau, C. [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Thebault, P., E-mail: stefan.lines@bristol.ac.uk [LESIA-Observatoire de Paris, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2014-02-10

    Observations of circumbinary planets orbiting very close to the central stars have shown that planet formation may occur in a very hostile environment, where the gravitational pull from the binary should be very strong on the primordial protoplanetary disk. Elevated impact velocities and orbit crossings from eccentricity oscillations are the primary contributors to high energy, potentially destructive collisions that inhibit the growth of aspiring planets. In this work, we conduct high-resolution, inter-particle gravity enabled N-body simulations to investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in the Kepler-34 system. We improve upon previous work by including planetesimal disk self-gravity and an extensive collision model to accurately handle inter-planetesimal interactions. We find that super-catastrophic erosion events are the dominant mechanism up to and including the orbital radius of Kepler-34(AB)b, making in situ growth unlikely. It is more plausible that Kepler-34(AB)b migrated from a region beyond 1.5 AU. Based on the conclusions that we have made for Kepler-34, it seems likely that all of the currently known circumbinary planets have also migrated significantly from their formation location with the possible exception of Kepler-47(AB)c.

  2. Forming Circumbinary Planets: N-body Simulations of Kepler-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Paardekooper, S.; Baruteau, C.; Thebault, P.

    2014-02-01

    Observations of circumbinary planets orbiting very close to the central stars have shown that planet formation may occur in a very hostile environment, where the gravitational pull from the binary should be very strong on the primordial protoplanetary disk. Elevated impact velocities and orbit crossings from eccentricity oscillations are the primary contributors to high energy, potentially destructive collisions that inhibit the growth of aspiring planets. In this work, we conduct high-resolution, inter-particle gravity enabled N-body simulations to investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in the Kepler-34 system. We improve upon previous work by including planetesimal disk self-gravity and an extensive collision model to accurately handle inter-planetesimal interactions. We find that super-catastrophic erosion events are the dominant mechanism up to and including the orbital radius of Kepler-34(AB)b, making in situ growth unlikely. It is more plausible that Kepler-34(AB)b migrated from a region beyond 1.5 AU. Based on the conclusions that we have made for Kepler-34, it seems likely that all of the currently known circumbinary planets have also migrated significantly from their formation location with the possible exception of Kepler-47(AB)c.

  3. THE NEPTUNE-SIZED CIRCUMBINARY PLANET KEPLER-38b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R.; Windmiller, Gur [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Carter, Joshua A.; Torres, Guillermo; Geary, John C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brugamyer, Erik; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Buchhave, Lars A. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Ford, Eric B. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Barclay, Thomas; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Doyle, Laurance R. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii-Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-10-20

    We discuss the discovery and characterization of the circumbinary planet Kepler-38b. The stellar binary is single-lined, with a period of 18.8 days, and consists of a moderately evolved main-sequence star (M{sub A} = 0.949 {+-} 0.059 M {sub Sun} and R{sub A} = 1.757 {+-} 0.034 R {sub Sun }) paired with a low-mass star (M{sub B} = 0.249 {+-} 0.010 M {sub Sun} and R{sub B} = 0.2724 {+-} 0.0053 R {sub Sun }) in a mildly eccentric (e = 0.103) orbit. A total of eight transits due to a circumbinary planet crossing the primary star were identified in the Kepler light curve (using Kepler Quarters 1-11), from which a planetary period of 105.595 {+-} 0.053 days can be established. A photometric dynamical model fit to the radial velocity curve and Kepler light curve yields a planetary radius of 4.35 {+-} 0.11 R {sub Circled-Plus }, or equivalently 1.12 {+-} 0.03 R {sub Nep}. Since the planet is not sufficiently massive to observably alter the orbit of the binary from Keplerian motion, we can only place an upper limit on the mass of the planet of 122 M {sub Circled-Plus} (7.11 M {sub Nep} or equivalently 0.384 M {sub Jup}) at 95% confidence. This upper limit should decrease as more Kepler data become available.

  4. CIRCUMBINARY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION INTO INSPIRALING BINARY BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Scott C.; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela; Zlochower, Yosef [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Krolik, Julian H. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yunes, Nicolas, E-mail: scn@astro.rit.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We have simulated the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a circumbinary disk surrounding an equal-mass binary comprising two non-spinning black holes during the period in which the disk inflow time is comparable to the binary evolution time due to gravitational radiation. Both the changing spacetime and the binary orbital evolution are described by an innovative technique utilizing high-order post-Newtonian approximations. Prior to the beginning of the inspiral, the structure of the circumbinary disk is predicted well by extrapolation from Newtonian results: a gap of roughly two binary separation radii is cleared, and matter piles up at the outer edge of this gap as inflow is retarded by torques exerted by the binary; the accretion rate is roughly half its value at large radius. During inspiral, the inner edge of the disk initially moves inward in coordination with the shrinking binary, but-as the orbital evolution accelerates-the inward motion of the disk edge falls behind the rate of binary compression. In this stage, the binary torque falls substantially, but the accretion rate decreases by only 10%-20%. When the binary separation is tens of gravitational radii, the rest-mass efficiency of disk radiation is a few percent, suggesting that supermassive binary black holes could be very luminous at this stage of their evolution. Inner disk heating is modulated at a beat frequency comparable to the binary orbital frequency. However, a disk with sufficient surface density to be luminous may be optically thick, suppressing periodic modulation of the luminosity.

  5. EVIDENCE FOR INFALLING GAS OF LOW ANGULAR MOMENTUM TOWARD THE L1551 NE KEPLERIAN CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Saito, Masao [Joint ALMA Observatory, Ave. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lim, Jeremy [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Saigo, Kazuya, E-mail: takakuwa@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [ALMA Project Office, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-10-10

    We report follow-up C{sup 18}O(3-2) line observations of the Class I binary protostellar system L1551 NE with the Submillimeter Array in its compact and subcompact configurations. Our previous observations at a higher angular resolution in the extended configuration revealed a circumbinary disk exhibiting Keplerian motion. The combined data, with more extensive spatial coverage (∼140-2000 AU), verify the presence of a Keplerian circumbinary disk and reveal for the first time a distinct low-velocity (∼< ± 0.5 km s{sup –1} from the systemic velocity) component that displays a velocity gradient along the minor axis of the circumbinary disk. Our simple model that reproduces the main features seen in the position-velocity diagrams comprises a circumbinary disk exhibiting Keplerian motion out to a radius of ∼300 AU, beyond which the gas exhibits pure infall at a constant velocity of ∼0.6 km s{sup –1}. This velocity is significantly smaller than the expected free-fall velocity of ∼2.2 km s{sup –1} onto the L1551 NE protostellar mass of ∼0.8 M{sub ☉} at ∼300 AU, suggesting that the infalling gas is decelerated as it moves into regions of high gas pressure in the circumbinary disk. The discontinuity in angular momenta between the outer infalling gas and the inner Keplerian circumbinary disk implies an abrupt transition in the effectiveness at which magnetic braking is able to transfer angular momentum outward, a result perhaps of the different plasma β values and the ionization fractions between the outer and inner regions of the circumbinary disk.

  6. The First Circumbinary Planet Found by Microlensing: OGLE-2007-BLG-349L(AB)c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D. P.; Rhie, S. H.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Tsapras, Y.; Kubas, D.; Bond, I. A.; Greenhill, J.; Cassan, A.; Rattenbury, N. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of the first circumbinary planet microlensing event, OGLE-2007-BLG-349. This event has a strong planetary signal that is best fit with a mass ratio of q approx. = 3.4×10(exp -4), but there is an additional signal due to an additional lens mass, either another planet or another star. We find acceptable light-curve fits with two classes of models: two-planet models (with a single host star) and circumbinary planet models. The light curve also reveals a significant microlensing parallax effect, which constrains the mass of the lens system to be M(sub L) approx. = 0.7 Stellar Mass. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images resolve the lens and source stars from their neighbors and indicate excess flux due to the star(s) in the lens system. This is consistent with the predicted flux from the circumbinary models, where the lens mass is shared between two stars, but there is not enough flux to be consistent with the two-planet, one-star models. So, only the circumbinary models are consistent with the HST data. They indicate a planet of mass m(sub c) = 80 +/- 13 Stellar Mass, orbiting a pair of M dwarfs with masses of M(sub A) = 0.41+/- 0.07 and M(sub B) = 0.30 +/- 0.07, which makes this the lowest-mass circumbinary planet system known. The ratio of the separation between the planet and the center of mass to the separation of the two stars is approx.40, so unlike most of the circumbinary planets found by Kepler, the planet does not orbit near the stability limit.

  7. 3D Modeling of Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Envelopes in Close Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisikalo, D.

    2010-12-01

    A number of observations prove the complex flow structure in close binary stars. The gas dynamic structure of the flow is governed by the stream of matter from the inner Lagrange point, the accretion disk, the circum-disk halo, and the circumbinary envelope. Observations reflect the current state of a binary system and for their interpretation one should consider the gas dynamics of flow patterns. Three-dimensional numerical gasdynamical modeling is used to study the gaseous flow structure and dynamics in close binaries. It is shown that the periodic variations of the positions of the disk and the bow shock formed when the inner parts of the circumbinary envelope flow around the disk result in variations in both the rate of angular-momentum transfer to the disk and the flow structure near the Lagrange point L3. All these factors lead to periodic ejections of matter from the accretion disk and circum-disk halo into the outer layers of the circumbinary envelope. The results of simulations are used to estimate the physical parameters of the circumbinary envelope, including 3D matter distribution in it, and the matter-flow configuration and dynamics. The envelope becomes optically thick for systems with high mass-exchange rates, M⊙=10-8 Msun/year, and has a significant influence on the binary's observed features. The uneven phase distributions of the matter and density variations due to periodic injections of matter into the envelope are important for interpretations of observations of CBSs.

  8. THE ECLIPSING SYSTEM EP ANDROMEDAE AND ITS CIRCUMBINARY COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Park, Jang-Ho, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com, E-mail: pooh107162@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We present new long-term CCD photometry for EP And acquired during the period 2007-2012. The light curves display total eclipses at primary minima and season-to-season light variability. Our synthesis for all available light curves indicates that the eclipsing pair is a W-type overcontact binary with parameters of q = 2.578, i = 83. Degree-Sign 3, {Delta}T = 27 K, f = 28%, and l{sub 3} = 2%-3%. The asymmetric light curves in 2007 were satisfactorily modeled by a cool spot on either of the eclipsing components from a magnetic dynamo. Including our 95 timing measurements, a total of 414 times of minimum light spanning about 82 yr was used for a period study. A detailed analysis of the eclipse timing diagram revealed that the orbital period of EP And has varied as a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two periodic variations, with cycle lengths of P{sub 3} = 44.6 yr and P{sub 4} = 1.834 yr and semi-amplitudes of K{sub 3} = 0.0100 days and K{sub 4} = 0.0039 days, respectively. The observed period increase at a fractional rate of +1.39 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} is in excellent agreement with that calculated from the W-D code and can be plausibly explained by some combination of mass transfer from the primary to the secondary star and angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking. The most reasonable explanation for both cycles is a pair of light-travel-time effects driven by the possible existence of a third and fourth component with projected masses of M{sub 3} = 0.25 M{sub Sun} and M{sub 4} = 0.90 M{sub Sun }. The more massive companion could be revealed using high-resolution spectroscopic data extending over the course of a few years and could also be a binary itself. It is possible that the circumbinary objects may have played an important role in the formation and evolution of the eclipsing pair, which would cause it to have a short initial orbital period and thus evolve into an overcontact configuration by angular momentum loss.

  9. Dynamic Contraction of the Positive Column of a Self-Sustained Glow Discharge in Molecular Gas Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneider, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Contraction of the gas discharge, when current contracts from a significant volume of weakly ionized plasma into a thin arc channel, was attracted attention of scientists for more than a century. Studies of the contraction (also called constriction) mechanisms, besides carrying interesting science, are of practical importance, especially when contraction should be prevented. A set of time-dependent two-dimensional equations for the non-equilibrium weakly-ionized nitrogen/ air plasma is formulated. The process is described by a set of time-dependent continuity equations for the electrons, positive and negative ions; gas and vibrational temperature; by taking into account the convective heat and plasma losses by the transverse flux. Transition from the uniform to contracted state was analyzed. It was shown that such transition experiences a hysteresis, and that the critical current of the transition increases when the pressure (gas density) drops. Possible coexistence of the contracted and uniform state of the plasma in the discharge where the current flows along the density gradient of the background gas was discussed. In this talk the problems related to the dynamic contraction of the current channel inside a quasineutral positive column of a self-sustained glow discharge in molecular gas in a rectangular duct with convection cooling will be discussed. Study presented in this talk was stimulated by the fact that there are large number of experiments on the dynamic contraction of a glow discharge in nitrogen and air flows and a many of possible applications. Similar processes play a role in the powerful gas-discharge lasers. In addition, the problem of dynamic contraction in the large volume of non-equilibrium weakly ionized plasma is closely related to the problem of streamer to leader transitions in lightning and blue jets.

  10. On the Fate of Unstable Circumbinary Planets: Tatooine’s Close Encounters with a Death Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Adam P.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2016-02-01

    Circumbinary planets whose orbits become unstable may be ejected, accreted, or even captured by one of the stars. We quantify the relative rates of these channels, for a binary of secondary star’s mass fraction 0.1 with an orbit of 1 AU. The most common outcome is ejection, which happens ∼80% of the time. If binary systems form circumbinary planets readily and sloppily, this process may fill the Milky Way with free-floating planets. A significant fraction of the time, ∼20%, the unstable planet strikes the primary or secondary. We tracked whether a Jupiter-like planet would undergo tidal stripping events during close passages, and find that these events are rarely strong enough to capture the planet, although this may be observable via free-floating planets that are heated or spun-up by this process.

  11. Resonant Capture and Tidal Evolution in Circumbinary Systems: Testing the Case of Kepler-38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Beaugé, C.; Leiva, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Circumbinary planets are thought to form far from the central binary and migrate inwards by interactions with the circumbinary disk, ultimately stopping near their present location either by a planetary trap near the disk inner edge or by resonance capture. Here, we analyze the second possibility, presenting a detailed numerical study on the capture process, resonant dynamics and tidal evolution of circumbinary planets in high-order mean-motion resonances (MMRs). Planetary migration was modeled as an external acceleration in an N-body code, while tidal effects were incorporated with a weak-friction equilibrium tide model. As a working example we chose Kepler-38, a highly evolved system with a planet in the vicinity of the 5/1 MMR. Our simulations show that resonance capture is a high-probability event under a large range of system parameters, although several different resonant configuration are possible. We identified three possible outcomes: aligned librations, anti-aligned librations and chaotic solutions. All were found to be dynamically stable, even after the dissipation of the disk, for time-spans of the order of the system's age. We found that while tidal evolution decreases the binary's separation, the semimajor axis of the planet is driven outwards. Although the net effect is a secular increase in the mean-motion ratio, the system requires a planetary tidal parameter of the order of unity to reproduce the observed orbital configuration. The results presented here open an interesting outlook into the complex dynamics of high-order resonances in circumbinary systems.

  12. DETECTION OF SHARP SYMMETRIC FEATURES IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK AROUND AK Sco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janson, Markus; Asensio-Torres, Ruben; Thalmann, Christian; Meyer, Michael R.; Garufi, Antonio; Boccaletti, Anthony; Maire, Anne-Lise; Henning, Thomas; Pohl, Adriana; Zurlo, Alice; Marzari, Francesco; Carson, Joseph C.; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Desidera, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    The Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars survey aims to study the formation and distribution of planets in binary systems by detecting and characterizing circumbinary planets and their formation environments through direct imaging. With the SPHERE Extreme Adaptive Optics instrument, a good contrast can be achieved even at small (<300 mas) separations from bright stars, which enables studies of planets and disks in a separation range that was previously inaccessible. Here, we report the discovery of resolved scattered light emission from the circumbinary disk around the well-studied young double star AK Sco, at projected separations in the ∼13–40 AU range. The sharp morphology of the imaged feature is surprising, given the smooth appearance of the disk in its spectral energy distribution. We show that the observed morphology can be represented either as a highly eccentric ring around AK Sco, or as two separate spiral arms in the disk, wound in opposite directions. The relative merits of these interpretations are discussed, as well as whether these features may have been caused by one or several circumbinary planets interacting with the disk

  13. DETECTION OF SHARP SYMMETRIC FEATURES IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK AROUND AK Sco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Markus; Asensio-Torres, Ruben [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Thalmann, Christian; Meyer, Michael R.; Garufi, Antonio [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Boccaletti, Anthony [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris—Meudon, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris Didierot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Maire, Anne-Lise; Henning, Thomas; Pohl, Adriana [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Zurlo, Alice [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Marzari, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Carson, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Augereau, Jean-Charles [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Desidera, Silvano [INAF—Osservatorio Astromonico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    The Search for Planets Orbiting Two Stars survey aims to study the formation and distribution of planets in binary systems by detecting and characterizing circumbinary planets and their formation environments through direct imaging. With the SPHERE Extreme Adaptive Optics instrument, a good contrast can be achieved even at small (<300 mas) separations from bright stars, which enables studies of planets and disks in a separation range that was previously inaccessible. Here, we report the discovery of resolved scattered light emission from the circumbinary disk around the well-studied young double star AK Sco, at projected separations in the ∼13–40 AU range. The sharp morphology of the imaged feature is surprising, given the smooth appearance of the disk in its spectral energy distribution. We show that the observed morphology can be represented either as a highly eccentric ring around AK Sco, or as two separate spiral arms in the disk, wound in opposite directions. The relative merits of these interpretations are discussed, as well as whether these features may have been caused by one or several circumbinary planets interacting with the disk.

  14. Tatooines Future: The Eccentric Response of Keplers Circumbinary Planets to Common-Envelope Evolution of their Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Moore, Keavin; Tamayo, Daniel; Jayawardhana, Ray; Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the recent Kepler discoveries of circumbinary planets orbiting nine close binary stars, we explore the fate of the former as the latter evolve off the main sequence. We combine binary star evolution models with dynamical simulations to study the orbital evolution of these planets as their hosts undergo common-envelope stages, losing in the process a tremendous amount of mass on dynamical timescales. Five of the systems experience at least one Roche-lobe overflow and common-envelope stages (Kepler-1647 experiences three), and the binary stars either shrink to very short orbits or coalesce; two systems trigger a double-degenerate supernova explosion. Kepler's circumbinary planets predominantly remain gravitationally bound at the end of the common-envelope phase, migrate to larger orbits, and may gain significant eccentricity; their orbital expansion can be more than an order of magnitude and can occur over the course of a single planetary orbit. The orbits these planets can reach are qualitatively consistent with those of the currently known post-common-envelope, eclipse-time variations circumbinary candidates. Our results also show that circumbinary planets can experience both modes of orbital expansion (adiabatic and non-adiabatic) if their host binaries undergo more than one common-envelope stage; multiplanet circumbinary systems like Kepler-47 can experience both modes during the same common-envelope stage. Additionally, unlike Mercury orbiting the Sun, a circumbinary planet with the same semi-major axis can survive the common envelope evolution of a close binary star with a total mass of 1 Solar Mass.

  15. STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF CIRCUMBINARY DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2013-01-01

    We explore properties of circumbinary disks around supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries in centers of galaxies by reformulating standard viscous disk evolution in terms of the viscous angular momentum flux F J . If the binary stops gas inflow and opens a cavity in the disk, then the inner disk evolves toward a constant-F J (rather than a constant M-dot ) state. We compute disk properties in different physical regimes relevant for SMBH binaries, focusing on the gas-assisted evolution of systems starting at separations 10 –4 – 10 –2 pc, and find the following. (1) Mass pileup at the inner disk edge caused by the tidal barrier accelerates binary inspiral. (2) Binaries can be forced to merge even by a disk with a mass below that of the secondary. (3) Torque on the binary is set non-locally, at radii far larger than the binary semi-major axis; its magnitude does not reflect disk properties in the vicinity of the binary. (4) Binary inspiral exhibits hysteresis—it depends on the past evolution of the disk. (5) The Eddington limit can be important for circumbinary disks even if they accrete at sub-Eddington rates, but only at late stages of the inspiral. (6) Gas overflow across the orbit of the secondary can be important for low secondary mass, high- M-dot systems, but mainly during the inspiral phase dominated by the gravitational wave emission. (7) Circumbinary disks emit more power and have harder spectra than constant M-dot disks; their spectra are very sensitive to the amount of overflow across the secondary orbit

  16. Tetanic contraction induces enhancement of fatigability and sarcomeric damage in atrophic skeletal muscle and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Muscle unloading due to long-term exposure of weightlessness or simulated weightlessness causes atrophy, loss of functional capacity, impaired locomotor coordination, and decreased resistance to fatigue in the antigravity muscles of the lower limbs. Besides reducing astronauts' mobility in space and on returning to a gravity environment, the molecular mechanisms for the adaptation of skeletal muscle to unloading also play an important medical role in conditions such as disuse and paralysis. The tail-suspended rat model was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness on skeletal muscles and to induce muscle unloading in the rat hindlimb. Our series studies have shown that the maximum of twitch tension and the twitch duration decreased significantly in the atrophic soleus muscles, the maximal tension of high-frequency tetanic contraction was significantly reduced in 2-week unloaded soleus muscles, however, the fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction increased after one week of unloading. The maximal isometric tension of intermittent tetanic contraction at optimal stimulating frequency did not alter in 1- and 2-week unloaded soleus, but significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus. The 1-week unloaded soleus, but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL), was more susceptible to fatigue during intermittent tetanic contraction than the synchronous controls. The changes in K+ channel characteristics may increase the fatigability during high-frequency tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscles. High fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction may be involved in enhanced activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and switching from slow to fast isoform of myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, troponin I and T subunit in atrophic soleus muscles. Unloaded soleus muscle also showed a decreased protein level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the reduction in nNOS-derived NO increased frequency of calcium sparks and elevated

  17. ROTATIONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY ENHANCE HABITABILITY FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: KEPLER BINARY CASE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Paul A. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A. [FACom-Instituto de Fisica-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellin (Colombia); Clark, Joni M. [Department of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, New Mexico State University-DACC, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets.

  18. ROTATIONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY ENHANCE HABITABILITY FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: KEPLER BINARY CASE STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets

  19. The late inspiral of supermassive black hole binaries with circumbinary gas discs in the LISA band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yike; Haiman, Zoltán; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of 2D, moving-mesh, viscous hydrodynamical simulations of an accretion disc around a merging supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB). The simulation is pseudo-Newtonian, with the BHs modelled as point masses with a Paczynski-Wiita potential, and includes viscous heating, shock heating, and radiative cooling. We follow the gravitational inspiral of an equal-mass binary with a component mass Mbh = 106 M⊙ from an initial separation of 60rg (where rg ≡ GMbh/c2 is the gravitational radius) to the merger. We find that a central, low-density cavity forms around the binary, as in previous work, but that the BHs capture gas from the circumbinary disc and accrete efficiently via their own minidiscs, well after their inspiral outpaces the viscous evolution of the disc. The system remains luminous, displaying strong periodicity at twice the binary orbital frequency throughout the entire inspiral process, all the way to the merger. In the soft X-ray band, the thermal emission is dominated by the inner edge of the circumbinary disc with especially clear periodicity in the early inspiral. By comparison, harder X-ray emission is dominated by the minidiscs, and the light curve is initially more noisy but develops a clear periodicity in the late inspiral stage. This variability pattern should help identify the electromagnetic counterparts of SMBHBs detected by the space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA.

  20. Accretion of clumpy cold gas onto massive black hole binaries: the challenging formation of extended circumbinary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Goicovic, Felipe G.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Sesana, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) represent an unavoidable outcome of hierarchical galaxy formation, but their dynamical evolution at sub-parsec scales is poorly understood. In gas rich environments, an extended, steady circumbinary gaseous disc could play an important role in the MBHB evolution, facilitating its coalescence. However, how gas on galactic scales is transported to the nuclear region to form and maintain such a stable structure is unclear. In the aftermath of a galaxy merger, cold turbulent gas condenses into clumps and filaments that can be randomly scattered towards the nucleus. This provides a natural way of feeding the binary with intermittent pockets of gas. The aim of this work is to investigate the gaseous structures arising from this interaction. We employ a suite of smoothed-particle-hydrodynamic simulations to study the influence of the infall rate and angular momentum distribution of the incoming clouds on the formation and evolution of structures around the MBHB. We find that the continuous supply of discrete clouds is a double-edge sword, resulting in intermittent formation and disruption of circumbinary structures. Anisotropic cloud distributions featuring an excess of co-rotating events generate more prominent co-rotating circumbinary discs. Similar structures are seen when mostly counter-rotating clouds are fed to the binary, even though they are more compact and less stable. In general, our simulations do not show the formation of extended smooth and stable circumbinary discs, typically assumed in analytical and numerical investigations of the the long term evolution of MBHBs.

  1. Limits to the presence of transiting circumbinary planets in CoRoT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klagyivik, P.; Deeg, H. J.; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Almenara, J. M.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: During its flight phase, from 2007-2012, the CoRoT mission delivered light curves for over 2000 eclipsing binaries. Data from the Kepler mission have proven the existence of several transiting circumbinary planets. While light curves from CoRoT typically have lower precision and shorter coverage, the number of CoRoT targets is similar to that of Kepler and some of the known circumbinary planets could potentially be detected in CoRoT data as well. The aim of this work was to reanalyse the entire CoRoT Data set to search for the presence of circumbinary planets and to derive limits on the abundances of such planets. Methods: We developed a code that removes the signatures of eclipsing binaries from the light curves, and searches for quasi-periodic, transit-like features in the light curves after removal of binary eclipses and instrumental features. The code requires little information on sample systems and can also be used for other space missions, such as Kepler, K2, TESS, and PLATO. The code is broad in the requirements leading to detections, but was tuned to deliver an amount of detections that are manageable in a subsequent, mainly visual, assessment of their origin. Results: We identified three planet candidates in the CoRoT sample whose transits would have arisen from a single pass across the central binary; however, no candidates with transit events from multiple planetary orbits remained. We calculated the upper limits for the number of Jupiter, Saturn-, and Neptune-sized planets in co-planar orbits for different orbital period ranges. We found that there are much fewer giant planets in short periodic orbits around close binary systems than around single stars. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/602/A117

  2. Molecular Basis of Ion Channels and Receptors Involved in Nerve Excitation, Synaptic Transmission and Muscle Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-20

    R\\I) (CHARLES A SANDE[RS. Past Chairman {I IElNE 1. KAPLAN . General ,unsel (c-\\ itimol RODNEY W NI(HOI.S. Chief Fiveut,,, Officer [k.x fliui...MUSCARINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR 221 𔃼 -7 acca cr Y. x a ý . a; > -, -~ 2x 1 Ft. 4• ,1; S4" វ - ɜ:4+ 222 ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES with other...Physiol. 263: C267-C286. 22. KAPLAN , J, H. 1993. Molecular biology of carrier proteins. Cell 72: 13-18. 23. SOEJIMA, M. & A. NOMA. 1984. Mode of

  3. On the structure of circumbinary accretion disks and the tidal evolution of commensurable satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, D.N.C.; Papaloizou, J.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation is continued of tidal torques on accretion disk flows in the vicinity of close binary systems. It is shown that the tidal effect can truncate the inner edge of circumbinary accretion discs. If the viscous dissipation is weak in such disks, density enhancement can be produced at the outer Lindblad resonance. The results are applied to contact binaries and the formation of commensurable satellites in the solar system. In order to determine whether the present configurations are a result of formation, or subsequent tidal evolution, the forced eccentricity of resonant satellites is related to the Q values of the planet and satellites. It is found that while the Galilean satellites may owe their present configuration, in part, to tidal effects, this is unlikely for other commensurable pairs. (author)

  4. A High-mass Protobinary System with Spatially Resolved Circumstellar Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Kreplin, A.; Bate, M.; Harries, T. J.; Hone, E.; Anugu, A. [School of Physics, Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Monnier, J. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); De Wit, W. J. [ESO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wittkowski, M., E-mail: skraus@astro.ex.ac.uk [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    High-mass multiples might form via fragmentation of self-gravitational disks or alternative scenarios such as disk-assisted capture. However, only a few observational constraints exist on the architecture and disk structure of high-mass protobinaries and their accretion properties. Here, we report the discovery of a close (57.9 ± 0.2 mas = 170 au) high-mass protobinary, IRAS17216-3801, where our VLTI/GRAVITY+AMBER near-infrared interferometry allows us to image the circumstellar disks around the individual components with ∼3 mas resolution. We estimate the component masses to ∼20 and ∼18 M {sub ⊙} and find that the radial intensity profiles can be reproduced with an irradiated disk model, where the inner regions are excavated of dust, likely tracing the dust sublimation region in these disks. The circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the binary separation vector, which indicates that the tidal forces did not have time to realign the disks, pointing toward a young dynamical age of the system. We constrain the distribution of the Br γ and CO-emitting gas using VLTI/GRAVITY spectro-interferometry and VLT/CRIRES spectro-astrometry and find that the secondary is accreting at a higher rate than the primary. VLT/NACO imaging shows L ′-band emission on (3–4)× larger scales than the binary separation, matching the expected dynamical truncation radius for the circumbinary disk. The IRAS17216-3801 system is ∼3× more massive and ∼5× more compact than other high-mass multiplies imaged at infrared wavelength and the first high-mass protobinary system where circumstellar and circumbinary dust disks could be spatially resolved. This opens exciting new opportunities for studying star–disk interactions and the role of multiplicity in high-mass star formation.

  5. CIRCUMBINARY CHAOS: USING PLUTO'S NEWEST MOON TO CONSTRAIN THE MASSES OF NIX AND HYDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youdin, Andrew N.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    The Pluto system provides a unique local laboratory for the study of binaries with multiple low-mass companions. In this paper, we study the orbital stability of P4, the most recently discovered moon in the Pluto system. This newfound companion orbits near the plane of the Pluto-Charon (PC) binary, roughly halfway between the two minor moons Nix and Hydra. We use a suite of few body integrations to constrain the masses of Nix and Hydra, and the orbital parameters of P4. For the system to remain stable over the age of the solar system, the masses of Nix and Hydra likely do not exceed 5 × 10 16 kg and 9 × 10 16 kg, respectively. These upper limits assume a fixed mass ratio between Nix and Hydra at the value implied by their median optical brightness. Our study finds that stability is more sensitive to their total mass and that a downward revision of Charon's eccentricity (from our adopted value of 0.0035) is unlikely to significantly affect our conclusions. Our upper limits are an order of magnitude below existing astrometric limits on the masses of Nix and Hydra. For a density at least that of ice, the albedos of Nix and Hydra would exceed 0.3. This constraint implies they are icy, as predicted by giant impact models. Even with these low masses, P4 only remains stable if its eccentricity e ∼< 0.02. The 5:1 commensurability with Charon is particularly unstable, combining stability constraints with the observed mean motion places the preferred orbit for P4 just exterior to the 5:1 resonance. These predictions will be tested when the New Horizons satellite visits Pluto. Based on the results for the PC system, we expect that circumbinary, multi-planet systems will be more widely spaced than their singleton counterparts. Further, circumbinary exoplanets close to the three-body stability boundary, such as those found by Kepler, are less likely to have other companions nearby.

  6. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, Veselin B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Doyle, Laurance R. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Principia College, IMoP, One Maybeck Place, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Quarles, Billy [Department of Physics and Physical Science, The University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas as Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 428A Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gregorio, Joao [Atalaia Group and Crow-Observatory, Portalegre (Portugal); Hinse, Tobias C. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Advanced Astronomy and Space Science Division, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jenkins, Jon M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Jensen, Eric L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); Kane, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Kull, Ilya, E-mail: veselin.b.kostov@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); and others

    2016-08-10

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R {sub Jup}, it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M {sub Jup}. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e {sub bin} = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  7. Stability Limits of Circumbinary Planets: Is There a Pile-up in the Kepler CBPs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, B.; Satyal, S.; Kostov, V.; Kaib, N.; Haghighipour, N.

    2018-04-01

    The stability limit for circumbinary planets (CBPs) is not well defined and can depend on initial parameters defining either the planetary orbit and/or the inner binary orbit. We expand on the work of Holman & Wiegert (1999) to develop numerical tools for quick, easy, and accurate determination of the stability limit. The results of our simulations, as well as our numerical tools, are available to the community through Zenodo and GitHub, respectively. We employ a grid interpolation method based on ∼150 million full N-body simulations of initially circular, coplanar systems and compare to the nine known Kepler CBP systems. Using a formalism from planet packing studies, we find that 55% of the Kepler CBP systems allow for an additional equal-mass planet to potentially exist on an interior orbit relative to the observed planet. Therefore, we do not find strong evidence for a pile-up in the Kepler CBP systems and more detections are needed to adequately characterize the formation mechanisms for the CBP population. Observations from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite are expected to substantially increase the number of detections using the unique geometry of CBP systems, where multiple transits can occur during a single conjunction.

  8. SPIN-ORBIT ALIGNMENT FOR THE CIRCUMBINARY PLANET HOST KEPLER-16 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Johnson, John Asher; Torres, Guillermo; Carter, Joshua A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Quinn, Samuel N.; Latham, David W.; Cochran, William D.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra; Doyle, Laurance; Welsh, William; Orosz, Jerome; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Shporer, Avi; Howell, Steve B.; Prsa, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    Kepler-16 is an eccentric low-mass eclipsing binary with a circumbinary transiting planet. Here, we investigate the angular momentum of the primary star, based on Kepler photometry and Keck spectroscopy. The primary star's rotation period is 35.1 ± 1.0 days, and its projected obliquity with respect to the stellar binary orbit is 1. 0 6 ± 2. 0 4. Therefore, the three largest sources of angular momentum-the stellar orbit, the planetary orbit, and the primary's rotation-are all closely aligned. This finding supports a formation scenario involving accretion from a single disk. Alternatively, tides may have realigned the stars despite their relatively wide separation (0.2 AU), a hypothesis that is supported by the agreement between the measured rotation period and the 'pseudosynchronous' period of tidal evolution theory. The rotation period, chromospheric activity level, and fractional light variations suggest a main-sequence age of 2-4 Gyr. Evolutionary models of low-mass stars can match the observed masses and radii of the primary and secondary stars to within about 3%.

  9. KEPLER-1647B: THE LARGEST AND LONGEST-PERIOD KEPLER TRANSITING CIRCUMBINARY PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Gregorio, Joao; Hinse, Tobias C.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kane, Stephen; Kull, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R Jup , it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M Jup . The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric ( e bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  10. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. LOCATING THE TRAILING EDGE OF THE CIRCUMBINARY RING IN THE KH 15D SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelo, Holly L.; Herbst, William; Leggett, S. K.; Hamilton, Catrina M.; Johnson, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Following two years of complete occultation of both stars in the binary T Tauri star KH 15D by its opaque circumbinary ring, KH 15D has abruptly brightened again during apastron phases, reaching I = 15 mag. Here, we show that the brightening is accompanied by a change in spectral class from K6/K7 (the spectral class of star A) to ∼K1, and a bluing of the system in V – I by about 0.3 mag. A radial velocity measurement confirms that, at apastron, we are now seeing direct light from star B, which is more luminous and of earlier spectral class than star A. Evidently, the trailing edge of the occulting screen has just become tangent to one anse of star B's projected orbit. This confirms a prediction of the precession models, supports the view that the tilted ring is self-gravitating, and ushers in a new era of the system's evolution that should be accompanied by the same kind of dramatic phenomena observed from 1995 to 2009. It also promotes KH 15D from a single-lined to a double-lined eclipsing binary, greatly enhancing its value for testing pre-main-sequence models. The results of our study strengthen the case for truncation of the outer ring at around 4 AU by a sub-stellar object such as an extremely young giant planet. The system is currently at an optimal configuration for detecting the putative planet and we urge expedient follow-up observations.

  12. CONSTRAINING THE RADIATION AND PLASMA ENVIRONMENT OF THE KEPLER CIRCUMBINARY HABITABLE-ZONE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mason, Paul A. [New Mexico State University—DACC, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A. [FACom—Instituto de Física—FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2016-02-20

    The discovery of many planets using the Kepler telescope includes 10 planets orbiting eight binary stars. Three binaries, Kepler-16, Kepler-47, and Kepler-453, have at least one planet in the circumbinary habitable zone (BHZ). We constrain the level of high-energy radiation and the plasma environment in the BHZ of these systems. With this aim, BHZ limits in these Kepler binaries are calculated as a function of time, and the habitability lifetimes are estimated for hypothetical terrestrial planets and/or moons within the BHZ. With the time-dependent BHZ limits established, a self-consistent model is developed describing the evolution of stellar activity and radiation properties as proxies for stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres. Modeling binary stellar rotation evolution, including the effect of tidal interaction between stars in binaries, is key to establishing the environment around these systems. We find that Kepler-16 and its binary analogs provide a plasma environment favorable for the survival of atmospheres of putative Mars-sized planets and exomoons. Tides have modified the rotation of the stars in Kepler-47, making its radiation environment less harsh in comparison to the solar system. This is a good example of the mechanism first proposed by Mason et al. Kepler-453 has an environment similar to that of the solar system with slightly better than Earth radiation conditions at the inner edge of the BHZ. These results can be reproduced and even reparameterized as stellar evolution and binary tidal models progress, using our online tool http://bhmcalc.net.

  13. Formation of S-type planets in close binaries: scattering induced tidal capture of circumbinary planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yan-Xiang; Ji, Jianghui

    2018-05-01

    Although several S-type and P-type planets in binary systems were discovered in past years, S-type planets have not yet been found in close binaries with an orbital separation not more than 5 au. Recent studies suggest that S-type planets in close binaries may be detected through high-accuracy observations. However, nowadays planet formation theories imply that it is difficult for S-type planets in close binaries systems to form in situ. In this work, we extensively perform numerical simulations to explore scenarios of planet-planet scattering among circumbinary planets and subsequent tidal capture in various binary configurations, to examine whether the mechanism can play a part in producing such kind of planets. Our results show that this mechanism is robust. The maximum capture probability is ˜10%, which can be comparable to the tidal capture probability of hot Jupiters in single star systems. The capture probability is related to binary configurations, where a smaller eccentricity or a low mass ratio of the binary will lead to a larger probability of capture, and vice versa. Furthermore, we find that S-type planets with retrograde orbits can be naturally produced via capture process. These planets on retrograde orbits can help us distinguish in situ formation and post-capture origin for S-type planet in close binaries systems. The forthcoming missions (PLATO) will provide the opportunity and feasibility to detect such planets. Our work provides several suggestions for selecting target binaries in search for S-type planets in the near future.

  14. CONSTRAINING THE RADIATION AND PLASMA ENVIRONMENT OF THE KEPLER CIRCUMBINARY HABITABLE-ZONE PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Mason, Paul A.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of many planets using the Kepler telescope includes 10 planets orbiting eight binary stars. Three binaries, Kepler-16, Kepler-47, and Kepler-453, have at least one planet in the circumbinary habitable zone (BHZ). We constrain the level of high-energy radiation and the plasma environment in the BHZ of these systems. With this aim, BHZ limits in these Kepler binaries are calculated as a function of time, and the habitability lifetimes are estimated for hypothetical terrestrial planets and/or moons within the BHZ. With the time-dependent BHZ limits established, a self-consistent model is developed describing the evolution of stellar activity and radiation properties as proxies for stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres. Modeling binary stellar rotation evolution, including the effect of tidal interaction between stars in binaries, is key to establishing the environment around these systems. We find that Kepler-16 and its binary analogs provide a plasma environment favorable for the survival of atmospheres of putative Mars-sized planets and exomoons. Tides have modified the rotation of the stars in Kepler-47, making its radiation environment less harsh in comparison to the solar system. This is a good example of the mechanism first proposed by Mason et al. Kepler-453 has an environment similar to that of the solar system with slightly better than Earth radiation conditions at the inner edge of the BHZ. These results can be reproduced and even reparameterized as stellar evolution and binary tidal models progress, using our online tool http://bhmcalc.net

  15. A Close-up View of the Young Circumbinary Disk HD 142527

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, Y.; Weaver, E.; Isella, A.; Ricci, L. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Grady, C. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Carpenter, J. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107 Vitacura—Santiago de Chile (Chile); Perez, L. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    We present ALMA observations of the 0.88 millimeter dust continuum and the {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O J = 3-2 line emission of the circumbinary disk HD 142527 at a spatial resolution of ∼0.″25. This system is characterized by a large central cavity of roughly 120 au in radius, and asymmetric dust and gas emission. By comparing the observations with theoretical models, we find that the azimuthal variations in gas and dust density reach a contrast of 54 for dust grains and 3.75 for CO molecules, with an extreme gas-to-dust ratio of 1.7 on the dust crescent. We point out that caution is required in interpreting continuum-subtracted maps of the line emission, as this process might result in removing a large fraction of the line emission. Radially, we find that both the gas and dust surface densities can be described by Gaussians, centered at the same disk radius, and with gas profiles wider than those for dust. These results strongly support a scenario in which millimeter dust grains are radially and azimuthally trapped toward the center of a gas pressure bump. Finally, our observations reveal a compact source of continuum and CO emission inside the dust-depleted cavity ∼50 au from the primary star. The kinematics of the CO emission from this region is different from that expected from material in Keplerian rotation around the binary system, and might instead trace a compact disk around a third companion. Higher angular resolution observations are required to investigate the nature of this source.

  16. Spiral Arms, Infall, and Misalignment of the Circumbinary Disk from the Circumstellar Disks in the Protostellar Binary System L1551 NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Saigo, Kazuya [ALMA Project Office, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Saito, Masao [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1805 (Japan); Lim, Jeremy [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Hanawa, Tomoyuki [Center for Frontier Science, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Yen, Hsi-Wei; Ho, Paul T. P., E-mail: takakuwa@sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    We report the ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the Class I binary protostellar system L1551 NE in the 0.9 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O (3–2), {sup 13}CO (3–2), SO (7{sub 8}–6{sub 7}), and CS (7–6) emission. At 0.″18 (=25 au) resolution, ∼4 times higher than that of our Cycle 0 observations, the circumbinary disk (CBD) as seen in the 0.9 mm emission is shown to be composed of a northern and a southern spiral arm, with the southern arm connecting to the circumstellar disk (CSD) around Source B. The western parts of the spiral arms are brighter than the eastern parts, suggesting the presence of an m = 1 spiral mode. In the C{sup 18}O emission, the infall gas motions in the interarm regions and the outward gas motions in the arms are identified. These observed features are well reproduced with our numerical simulations, where gravitational torques from the binary system impart angular momenta to the spiral-arm regions and extract angular momenta from the interarm regions. Chemical differentiation of the CBD is seen in the four molecular species. Our Cycle 2 observations have also resolved the CSDs around the individual protostars, and the beam-deconvolved sizes are 0.″29 × 0.″19 (=40 × 26 au) (P.A. = 144°) and 0.″26 × 0.″20 (=36 × 27 au) (P.A. = 147°) for Sources A and B, respectively. The position and inclination angles of these CSDs are misaligned with those of the CBD. The C{sup 18}O emission traces the Keplerian rotation of the misaligned disk around Source A.

  17. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  18. The quest for stable circumbinary companions to post-common envelope sdB eclipsing binaries. Does the observational evidence support their existence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, D.; Faillace, G.; Smith, D.; Watkins, A.; von Harrach, S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Period variations have been detected in a number of eclipsing close compact binary subdwarf B stars (sdBs) and these have often been interpreted as being caused by circumbinary massive planets or brown dwarfs. According to canonical binary models, the majority of sdB systems are produced from low mass stars with degenerate cores where helium is ignited in flashes. Various evolutionary scenarios have been proposed for these stars, but a definite mechanism remains to be established. Equally puzzling is the formation of these putative circumbinary objects which must have formed from the remaining post-common envelope circumbinary disk or survived its evolution. Aim. In this paper we review the eclipse time variations (ETVs) exhibited by seven such systems (EC 10246-2707, HS 0705+6700, HS 2231+2441, J08205+0008, NSVS 07826147, NSVS 14256825, and NY Vir) and explore whether there is conclusive evidence that the ETVs observed over the last two decades can reliably predict the presence of one or more circumbinary bodies. Methods: We report 246 new observations of the seven sdB systems made between 2013 September and 2017 July using a worldwide network of telescopes. We combined our new data with previously published measurements to analyse the ETVs of these systems. Results: Our data show that period variations cannot be modelled simply on the basis of circumbinary objects. This implies that more complex processes may be taking place in these systems. These difficulties are compounded by the secondary star not being spectroscopically visible. From ETVs, it has historically been suggested that five of the seven binary systems reported here had circumbinary objects. Based on our recent observations and analysis, only three systems remain serious contenders. We find agreement with other observers that at least a decade of observations is required to establish reliable ephemerides. With longer observational baselines it is quite conceivable that the data will support

  19. CIRCUMBINARY CHAOS: USING PLUTO'S NEWEST MOON TO CONSTRAIN THE MASSES OF NIX AND HYDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youdin, Andrew N.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    The Pluto system provides a unique local laboratory for the study of binaries with multiple low-mass companions. In this paper, we study the orbital stability of P4, the most recently discovered moon in the Pluto system. This newfound companion orbits near the plane of the Pluto-Charon (PC) binary, roughly halfway between the two minor moons Nix and Hydra. We use a suite of few body integrations to constrain the masses of Nix and Hydra, and the orbital parameters of P4. For the system to remain stable over the age of the solar system, the masses of Nix and Hydra likely do not exceed 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} kg and 9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} kg, respectively. These upper limits assume a fixed mass ratio between Nix and Hydra at the value implied by their median optical brightness. Our study finds that stability is more sensitive to their total mass and that a downward revision of Charon's eccentricity (from our adopted value of 0.0035) is unlikely to significantly affect our conclusions. Our upper limits are an order of magnitude below existing astrometric limits on the masses of Nix and Hydra. For a density at least that of ice, the albedos of Nix and Hydra would exceed 0.3. This constraint implies they are icy, as predicted by giant impact models. Even with these low masses, P4 only remains stable if its eccentricity e {approx}< 0.02. The 5:1 commensurability with Charon is particularly unstable, combining stability constraints with the observed mean motion places the preferred orbit for P4 just exterior to the 5:1 resonance. These predictions will be tested when the New Horizons satellite visits Pluto. Based on the results for the PC system, we expect that circumbinary, multi-planet systems will be more widely spaced than their singleton counterparts. Further, circumbinary exoplanets close to the three-body stability boundary, such as those found by Kepler, are less likely to have other companions nearby.

  20. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  1. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  2. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  3. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  4. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  5. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  6. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  7. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  9. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  10. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  11. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  12. FINAL REPORT: DOE CONTRACT NUMBER FG0205ER64026 Biological Neutron Scattering: A Collaboration with the Oak Ridge Center for Structural Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, Jill [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-01-12

    The overarching goal of this project was to promote applications of small-angle scattering in structural molecular biology by providing model examples of cutting edge applications that demonstrate the unique capabilities and potential of the DOE national user facilities at Oak Ridge, especially the newly commissioned BioSANS. The approach taken was three-fold: (1) to engage in high impact collaborative research projects that would benefit from small-angle neutron scattering to both demonstrate the power of the technique while expanding the potential user community; (2) to provide access to scattering facilities established at the University of Utah to as broad a set of researchers as possible to increase the expertise in small-angle scattering generally; and (3) to develop new methods and tools for small-angle scattering. To these ends, three major research collaborations were pursued that resulted in a significant body of published work where neutron scattering and contrast variation played a major role. These major collaborations involved studies of protein complexes involved in (1) bacterial transcription regulation and adaptive response (a DOE/BER priority area); (2) regulation of cardiac muscle; and (3) neuronal disorders. In addition, to broaden the impact of the project, smaller collaborative efforts were supported that used either small-angle X-ray or neutron scattering. Finally, the DOE supported facilities at the University of Utah were made available to researchers on a service basis and a number of independent groups took advantage of this opportunity. In all of this work, there was an emphasis on the training of students and post docs in scattering techniques, and a set of publications (a book chapter, a review, and an encyclopedia article) were produced to guide the non-specialist potential user of scattering techniques in successful applications of the techniques. We also developed a suite of user friendly web-based computational tools currently

  13. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  14. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  15. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  16. Concept of contracting authority

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiliauskaitė, Vitalija

    2016-01-01

    Concept of Contracting Authority Law on Public Procurement the procurement concept implies the conclusion that public procurement be declared only such purchases are carried out by the contracting authority. The contracting authorities can be a subject of state and municipal management institutes, whose assignment authority is determined by a functional approach. Also, contracting authorities may be public and legal entities, but that the public interest and operates non-commercial activities...

  17. Inflation Forecast Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new type of incentive contract for central bankers: inflation forecast contracts, which make central bankers’ remunerations contingent on the precision of their inflation forecasts. We show that such contracts enable central bankers to influence inflation expectations more effectively, thus facilitating more successful stabilization of current inflation. Inflation forecast contracts improve the accuracy of inflation forecasts, but have adverse consequences for output. On balanc...

  18. Teaching about Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  19. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  20. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  1. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  2. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  3. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  4. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  5. XMM-NEWTON MONITORING OF THE CLOSE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY AK SCO. EVIDENCE OF TIDE-DRIVEN FILLING OF THE INNER GAP IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana Ines [S. D. Astronomia y Geodesia and Instituto de Matematica Interdisciplinar, Fac. de CC Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Santiago, Javier [Departamento de Astrofisica, Fac de CC Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Talavera, Antonio [European Space Astronomy Center, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691, Madrid (Spain); Sytov, A. Yu.; Bisikalo, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya St. 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-20

    AK Sco stands out among pre-main-sequence binaries because of its prominent ultraviolet excess, the high eccentricity of its orbit, and the strong tides driven by it. AK Sco consists of two F5-type stars that get as close as 11 R{sub *} at periastron passage. The presence of a dense (n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) extended envelope has been unveiled recently. In this article, we report the results from an XMM-Newton-based monitoring of the system. We show that at periastron, X-ray and UV fluxes are enhanced by a factor of {approx}3 with respect to the apastron values. The X-ray radiation is produced in an optically thin plasma with T {approx} 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K and it is found that the N{sub H} column density rises from 0.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at periastron to 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at apastron, in good agreement with previous polarimetric observations. The UV emission detected in the Optical Monitor band seems to be caused by the reprocessing of the high-energy magnetospheric radiation on the circumstellar material. Further evidence of the strong magnetospheric disturbances is provided by the detection of line broadening of 278.7 km s{sup -1} in the N V line with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Numerical simulations of the mass flow from the circumbinary disk to the components have been carried out. They provide a consistent scenario with which to interpret AK Sco observations. We show that the eccentric orbit acts like a gravitational piston. At apastron, matter is dragged efficiently from the inner disk border, filling the inner gap and producing accretion streams that end as ring-like structures around each component of the system. At periastron, the ring-like structures come into contact, leading to angular momentum loss, and thus producing an accretion outburst.

  6. New staff contract policy

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  7. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  8. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  9. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  10. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  11. Contract Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  12. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  13. Comparing contracting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    . Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  14. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p...

  15. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  16. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  17. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  18. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  19. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  20. JURIDICAL WILL IN CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian CIONGARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the business law, almost all judicial relationships of private law are obligational juridical relationships which are made up of legal acts and facts. The most important legal act is the contract since it is the basis of the social life in any community meaning that it represents the most important economic and juridical instrument for the participants to a contract. The persons are free and equal in society and, consequently, no power is valid and fundamental unless it relies on their consent, namely on a contract. So, the existence of a civil contract relies on the principles of consensualism, a perception based on moral rules to observe one’s promises, to have good faith and to observe the interests of your fellow creature. The exterior manifestation, the expression or declaration of the juridical will constitutes the consent of such person in making the structure of contract. The declared will must correspond to the person’s real will and the adoption and declaration of the juridical will must take place consciously. Any contract that does not derive from juridical will is null and the civilizing character is inexistent. The principles giving sense to consensualism is the one of agreement between parties so as to produce legal effects by itself and it is enough for the conclusion of a contract, regardless of the form in which it is exteriorized, a principle expressed by the Latin adagio pacta sunt servanda.

  1. Bottlenecks and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The report surveys the central points in the literature about contracts on geographical price differences and transmission rights in the power market. It is commonly believed that such contracts may reduce market power and contribute to better network investments. The theoretical debate is in part unfinished and largely based on very stylised assumptions. There is some indication that such contracts may not be very useful in practice. But they may be useful in some cases, perhaps in particular when power is transported outside limited surplus areas and for certain investment decisions where there is no systems operator with a natural responsibility

  2. Contract management survey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-10-01

    Spending on clinical contracts continues to outpace spending on business services, but may be leveling off. The 12th annual Contract Management Survey shows that the performance of clinical vendors is now comparable to business service vendors in meeting savings targets. Both business and clinical vendors are receiving higher marks from hospital leaders, but execs quickly respond to low marks by bringing the service back in-house of changing vendors. This report examines trends in outsourcing, satisfaction levels, the decision-making process, contract features and performance, and spending.

  3. 2001 contract management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    For the second year running, hospitals are spending more on clinical outsourcing than on business services. The Eleventh Annual Contract Services Survey shows that, in clinical areas, executives use outsourcing to acquire specialized expertise with cost savings secondary. Reducing costs and FTEs are the primary reasons for outsourcing business operations. Business service contracts are more likely to meet expectations for cost savings. Overall, satisfaction levels are up, but in some areas there's still a lot of room for improvement. This report examines current trends in outsourcing, strategies for the future, satisfaction levels, the decisionmaking process, contract features, and costs.

  4. The contract - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The contract is the last and final step of project planning and the first step of project implementation. The contract has to specify in detail and to the point, as concisely as possible, the complete scope of supplies and work, define all technical particulars and requirements, put forward the conditions of legal, regulatory, administrative and financial procedure, prepare for operating and maintenance instructions to be issued after commissioning. In short, the contract is expected to be a reliable instrument during the manufacturing and construction period as well as a guide-book to assist the owner afterwards in the operation and maintenance of the plant. (orig./FW) [de

  5. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  6. Industrial Services Contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  7. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  8. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  9. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  10. Contracting as a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer (PCO)–program manager (PM) relationship in...marketing terms, finding that disconfirmed expectations lead to consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The former approach presents the idea that if an...individual exerts effort, the expectation is that successful performance will occur leading to a desired result. In contracting, the theory might be

  11. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  12. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  13. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  14. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  15. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  16. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  17. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  18. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  19. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  20. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  1. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  2. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  3. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  4. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  5. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  6. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal......This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...

  7. Consensus, contracts, and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J D

    1991-08-01

    Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.

  8. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  9. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  10. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  11. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  12. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  13. Copyright or Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  14. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  15. Reconciling Contracts and Relational Governance through Strategic Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Østergaard, Kim

    2018-01-01

    on contract types, such as strategic versus conventional, may reconcile the enduring research controversy between the substitution and complements perspectives. Practical implications: Today, formal contracts with foreign distributors tend to resemble “prenuptial agreements”. The opportunity for relational...

  16. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    contracting command xv KO contracting officer KTR contractor LSC lead service component MGAA Mesopotamia Group Atlas Apache NAT National Afghanistan...and Contract Authority Understanding the roles of contracting versus command authority and command relationships is a fundamental that must be...Audit 12-7 (2012) described the CENTCOM-JTSCC (C- JTSCC) formation and command relationship : In April 2010, CENTCOM issued a fragmentary order to

  17. Contracting in a Foreign Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodeschin, Darrin

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis investigates and compares the different contracting structures of the U.S. Army, the UN, and Apple as well as the duties and responsibilities of the contracting individuals within these organizations...

  18. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  19. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  20. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  1. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  2. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  3. Contracting for Complex Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    asymmetries, and barriers to market entry and exit (e.g., Mankiw , et al., 2002). Goods may be non-rivalrous or non-excludable so that transferable property...investments. Expenditures are asset specific to the extent they have no economic value outside the product being produced (Williamson, 2005). For...example, some research in the US space program produced economic value outside the contract (e.g., Tang), while other research produced little value

  4. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  5. Between Status and Contract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Keiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with unfree labour in Germany from the early modern age until the beginning of the 20th century. It presents the main conclusions of a book published in 2013 on this subject in German. Unfree labour is not identified in the first place with slavery or any other labour relationship based on status. Instead, this study aims at an analysis of freedom and coercion in contractual labour relationships. It will be argued that in Germany contractual labour relationships before 1800 were embedded in a legal system that strongly restricted contractual autonomy and aimed at the suppression of free labour markets. The scope of this legislation was to guarantee efficient labour performance, which was not only perceived as being in the personal interest of an employer, but as a fundamental element of the common good. After 1800 the system changed to more incentive-based legislation that established freedom of contract for labour relations. Nevertheless, coercion in order to perform the contractual duties of a work contract remained important for many groups of workers, especially farmhands and industrial workers. The last criminal sanctions for breaches of labour contracts were only abolished in the revolution of 1919. This development shows the difficulties German law had in extending the principles of private law to workers. When a system of free labour was fully established, the issue of unemployment and economic problems, especially in the Weimar Republic, required a new system of protective rules. The history of free market based labour contracts in Germany was therefore very short, with state intervention shi ing from control and coercion to social assistance.

  6. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  7. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  8. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  9. Non-turnkey contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face with troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf. (orig./FW) [de

  10. Non-turnkey contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, S

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have a chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf.

  11. Practical guide on contract of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  12. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  13. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  14. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  15. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  16. Service quality in contracted facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Zaidi, Shehla; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Yousuf, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework. Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher's Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities. Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients' inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006). The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care. This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

  17. Contraction mode itself does not determine the level of mTORC1 activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ato, Satoru; Makanae, Yuhei; Kido, Kohei; Fujita, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Resistance training with eccentric contraction has been shown to augment muscle hypertrophy more than other contraction modes do (i.e., concentric and isometric contraction). However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle contraction mode on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling using a standardized force-time integral (load (weight) × contraction time). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: eccentric contraction, concentric contraction, and isometric contraction. The right gastrocnemius muscle was exercised via percutaneous electrical stimulation-induced maximal contraction. In experiment 1, different modes of muscle contraction were exerted using the same number of reps in all groups, while in experiment 2, muscle contractions were exerted using a standardized force-time integral. Muscle samples were obtained immediately and 3 h after exercise. Phosphorylation of molecules associated with mTORC1 activity was assessed using western blot analysis. In experiment 1, the force-time integral was significantly different among contraction modes with a higher force-time integral for eccentric contraction compared to that for other contraction modes (P contraction compared to that for isometric contraction (P contraction than for other modes of contraction (P contraction was higher than isometric contraction (P contraction modes 3 h after exercise. Our results suggest that mTORC1 activity is not determined by differences in muscle contraction mode itself. Instead, mTORC1 activity is determined by differences in the force-time integral during muscle contraction. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  18. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  19. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  20. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  1. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  2. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  3. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  4. The Danish Contracting System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...... system". After a short introduction to the structure and activities of the industry the post-war development is reviewed, in particular emphasising the importance of the early industrialisation process which in an international perspective represents quite unique features. Furthermore the most recent...

  5. IPP fuel contracts - creating certain contracts for uncertain times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, I. [Coddington International Pty. Ltd., Milsons Point, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Coal contracts for the new Asian Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are examined. Since most IPPs will be selling to state electricity utilities, often in competition with power plant using other fuels, coal based IPPs must negotiate advantageous coal supply contracts several years before the commissioning of a plant, and must ensure security of supply for at least the life of the construction loan. A more recent trend in the developed world is the Merchant IPP, where there is no guaranteed electricity sale. Lenders are wary of IPPs relying an imported coal, and insist on binding fuel contracts, while coal companies are wary of the quantity of information demanded by these lenders. A full understanding of the risks involved is needed; and a method of price indexation for the contracts. Contracts must also specify security of supply, coal quality, freight contracts and other details. 2 figs.

  6. Characteristics of nuclear contracts. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.

    1976-01-01

    While the object of nuclear contracts is specific, these contracts are concluded according to proven techniques based on general regulations on contracts. Following a review of contract classification, they are differentiated according to the nature of the co-contracting parties, the purpose of the contract itself, the procedure for drawing up the contracts, and payment. The operations prior to the contract vary in that they may include a call for tenders, an option for delays or a letter of intent. (NEA) [fr

  7. 48 CFR 315.371 - Contract preparation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.371 Contract... the contract until the finance office certifies that the funds are available for obligation. ...

  8. TraceContract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  9. Contracts in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka GRZESIOK-HOROSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present makes a contribution to the discussion on contracts in administration under Polish law. It concentrates on theoretical issues, but ones of considerable practical significance. Prior Work though relatively poorly explored, field. This paper is a result of academic considerations on the classical institution of civil law, namely a bilateral juridical act significance of this area may be demonstrated by the fact that one scientific conference and a collection of papers have been devoted to contracts in administration. as research method, the analysis of jurisprudence and doctrinal writings referring to law currently in force. The paper discusses as well the draft of the administrative law, and includes comparative remarks. put forward certain comments pertainin legislation. The authors formulate as well outline theses interesting but complicated matters. As a voice in the doctrinal dispute it can als useful for law students. Value composition. Starting from gener the binding law and proposed amendments. The functioning in foreign countries and proposals of regulatory solutions.

  10. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  11. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  12. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  13. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  14. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  15. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  16. COMPLEX VARIABILITY OF THE Hα EMISSION LINE PROFILE OF THE T TAURI BINARY SYSTEM KH 15D: THE INFLUENCE OF ORBITAL PHASE, OCCULTATION BY THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK, AND ACCRETION PHENOMENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Catrina M.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Mundt, Reinhard; Herbst, William; Winn, Joshua N.

    2012-01-01

    We have obtained 48 high-resolution echelle spectra of the pre-main-sequence eclipsing binary system KH 15D (V582 Mon, P = 48.37 days, e ∼ 0.6, M A = 0.6 M ☉ , M B = 0.7 M ☉ ). The eclipses are caused by a circumbinary disk (CBD) seen nearly edge on, which at the epoch of these observations completely obscured the orbit of star B and a large portion of the orbit of star A. The spectra were obtained over five contiguous observing seasons from 2001/2002 to 2005/2006 while star A was fully visible, fully occulted, and during several ingress and egress events. The Hα line profile shows dramatic changes in these time series data over timescales ranging from days to years. A fraction of the variations are due to 'edge effects' and depend only on the height of star A above or below the razor sharp edge of the occulting disk. Other observed variations depend on the orbital phase: the Hα emission line profile changes from an inverse P-Cygni-type profile during ingress to an enhanced double-peaked profile, with both a blue and a red emission component, during egress. Each of these interpreted variations are complicated by the fact that there is also a chaotic, irregular component present in these profiles. We find that the complex data set can be largely understood in the context of accretion onto the stars from a CBD with gas flows as predicted by the models of eccentric T Tauri binaries put forward by Artymowicz and Lubow, Günther and Kley, and de Val-Borro et al. In particular, our data provide strong support for the pulsed accretion phenomenon, in which enhanced accretion occurs during and after perihelion passage.

  17. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  18. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  19. Incentive contracts and time use

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Viking Eriksson; Jaime Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies on incentive contracts have primarily been concerned with the effects on employees’ productivity and earnings. The productivity increases associated with such contracts may, however, come at the expense of quality of life at or outside work. In this paper we study the effect on the employees’ non-work activities, testing whether incentive contracts lead to a change in the allocation of time across work and non-work activities. In doing so, we distinguish between two effects,...

  20. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some c...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  1. Judges, commerce and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Gava, John

    2010-01-01

    John Gava, Reader at Adelaide Law School, considers the question how should judges decide commercial cases, in particular, contract cases? He looks at the circumstances and impact of the use of contract law, with attention on common law contract and market needs. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by SALS at the IALS (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, School of Advanced Study, Un...

  2. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  3. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  4. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  5. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  6. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  7. Unfair contract terms in B2C contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its textual similarity to the Unfair Terms Directive 1993, Chapter 8 of the proposed CESL, on ‘Unfair contract terms’, can benefit from two decades of interpretative experience which is likely to provide a comparably high degree of instant legal certainty to contracting parties.

  8. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  9. Contraction-induced skeletal muscle FAT/CD36 trafficking and FA uptake is AMPK independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Albers, Peter Hjorth; Rose, Adam John

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating FAT/CD36 translocation and fatty acid uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. In one model, WT and AMPK KD mice were exercised or EDL and SOL muscles were contracted, ex vivo. In separate studies, FAT/CD36 translo...

  10. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...

  11. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses while using specialists for ... 2 Definition of Contract and Owner. Mining ... equipment maintenance, scheduling and budgeting ..... No. Region. Amount Spent on. Contract Mining. ($ billion). Percent of. Total. 1 ... cost and productivity data based on a large range.

  12. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status 6 Schedule 7 Performance...Program Information Program Name Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS

  13. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  14. On CNC Commuting Contractive Tuples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space H . We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic ...

  15. Alternative staffing services. Contract transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, C

    1992-03-01

    Contract medical transcription services can be of great assistance in meeting the demands for transcription, without jeopardizing patient, physician, or institutional confidentiality. You simply must require the contract service to provide at least the same degree of protection and preservation of confidentiality that you should require inhouse. To achieve this you must make these requirements explicit, comprehensive, comprehensible, believable, and enforceable. Discuss the requirements with prospective contractors. Review them at least annually with existing contractors and when contracts are due for renewal. Be sure to specify the consequence of breaching confidentiality, and if there are breaches, enforce the terms of the contract. Consult your institution's legal counsel both in developing the contract and in enforcing its provisions. Take into consideration your department's and institution's policies, AHIMA's statement on confidentiality, as well as local, state, and federal laws. Above all, never lose sight of the patient. Ultimately, it is not patient information that you are obligated to protect. It is the patient.

  16. Choreography Synthesis as Contract Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a formal model for distributed systems, where each participant advertises its requirements and obligations as behavioural contracts, and where multiparty sessions are started when a set of contracts allows to synthesise a choreography. Our framework is based on the CO2 calculus for contract-oriented computing, and borrows concepts and results from the session type literature. It supports sessions where the number of participants is not determined beforehand, and keeps CO2's ability to rule out participants that are culpable if contracts are not fulfilled at runtime. We show that we have progress and session fidelity in CO2, as a result of the honesty of participants — i.e., their ability to always adhere to their contracts.

  17. Standard form contracts and a smart contract future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin B. Cornelius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a budding market of widespread smart contract implementation on the horizon, there is much conversation about how to regulate this new technology. Discourse on standard form contracts (SFCs and how they have been adopted in a digital environment is useful toward predicting how smart contracts might be interpreted. This essay provides a critical review of the discourse surrounding digitised SFCs and applies it to issues in smart contract regulation. An exploration of the literature surrounding specific instances SFCs finds that it lacks a close examination of the textual and documentary aspects of SFCs, which are particularly important in a digital environment as a shift in medium prompts a different procedural process. Instead, common perspectives are either based on outdated notions of paper versions of these contracts or on ideologies of industry and business that do not sufficiently address the needs of consumers/users in the digital age. Most importantly, noting the failure of contract law to address the inequities of SFCs in this environment can help prevent them from being codified further with smart contracts.

  18. [Ulysses contract in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Saya, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Over the last twenty years we have witnessed a growing focus on the rights of the ill people. The debate on informed consent and a new redefinition of the therapeutic relationship is constantly evolving. With this article, we propose a critical literature review of the so-called "Ulysses contract" or "psychiatric advance directives". It refers to the will that a subject expresses in writing, or orally, about the treatments he or she wishes or does not wish to be subject to if the time comes when it may be impossible to express his/her consent. This can especially occur in those with psychiatric disorders with serious clinical involvement and remitting-relapse (typically bipolar disorder, but also chronic delusional disorders and schizophrenia). In this context, the question is whether during intercritical periods the patient may or may not leave instructions to their care-givers. This aspect opens up to a series of interdisciplinary problems. In this article, we want to show the complexity of this debate from a clinical, ethical, legal and psychodynamic point of view, emphasizing the strengths and the major criticisms of the psychiatric advance directives for each area.

  19. Landsat 6 contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  20. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  1. 7 CFR 631.14 - Contract violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.14 Contract violations. Contract violations, determinations and appeals will be handled in accordance with the terms of the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations. 631.14 Section 631.14 Agriculture...

  2. 48 CFR 46.314 - Transportation contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation contracts... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.314 Transportation contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-14, Inspection of Transportation, in solicitations and contracts for freight...

  3. 24 CFR 891.560 - HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract. 891.560 Section 891... Assistance § 891.560 HAP contract. (a) HAP contract. The housing assistance payments contract sets forth.... (b) HAP contract execution. (1) Upon satisfactory completion of the project, the Borrower and HUD...

  4. 77 FR 3288 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GREP Contracts 1 product... Classification Schedule language for GREP Contracts 1. The Postal Service identifies general contract terms that... methodology, the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant...

  5. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Contracts 1. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract (Contracts 1).\\1\\ It seeks to have the instant Contract included...

  6. 48 CFR 926.7104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 926.7104... 1993. 926.7104 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR (DEAR) 952.226-74, Displaced Employee Hiring Preference, in contracts (except for contracts for commercial items...

  7. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance, in...

  8. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  9. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract. ...

  10. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  11. Analysis of the 314th Contracting Squadrons Contract Management Capability Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Jr, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project is to analyze the 314th Contracting Squadron contracting processes and requirement target areas for improvement efforts by the application of the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM...

  12. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  13. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  14. Physics of muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  15. Physics of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M; Truskinovsky, L

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called 'descending limb' of the isometric tetanus.

  16. Contraction ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskij, Yu.B.; Kulikov, V.V.; Nekutchaev, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge and a definition of their arising propagation mechanism accounting for the specificity of elementary pocesses characteristic of argon are presented. (author)

  17. Defense Threat Reduction Agency > Contracts > Contract Award Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Command Senior Enlisted Leader Media News News Archive Strategic Plan Videos Mission Research Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current Justifications & Approvals Careers Who We Are Our Values Strategic Recruiting Programs Professional

  18. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-01-01

    The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is...

  19. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  20. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 Negotiated Service Agreement, December 14, 2012... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product...

  1. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated service agreement... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February 11, 2013.... 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service...

  2. 48 CFR 542.1107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 542.1107 Contract... clause may be used in indefinite-delivery definite-quantity contracts for Stock or Special Order Program...

  3. 42 CFR 422.504 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage... determinations of amounts payable under the contract. (iv) Properly reflect all direct and indirect costs claimed..., contracts, and subcontracts. (vi) Franchise, marketing, and management agreements. (vii) Schedules of...

  4. Bottomland Hardwood Planting: Example Contract Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humprey, Monica

    2002-01-01

    This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...

  5. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  6. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to substitute contract units. At the discretion of the PHA and subject to all PBV requirements, the HAP contract...

  7. 23 CFR 635.121 - Contract time and contract time extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.121 Contract time and contract time extensions. (a) The STD should have adequate written procedures for the determination of contract... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract time and contract time extensions. 635.121...

  8. Price management mechanisms and the gas contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pricing objectives and risk management strategies that can be achieved through the proper use of the standard gas contract, were discussed. Main topics of discussion were: (1) gas sales contract and convertible pricing, (2) gas contract and imbedded hedging, gas contracts and exchange traded instruments, (4) gas contracts fixed for floating swaps, and OTC options and exotics, (5) options and exotic price structures, and (6) advantages and disadvantages of using the gas contract versus the swap agreement

  9. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  10. Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Borg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1 what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2 who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3 how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  11. Contracting and Performance in Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi; Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    As part of New Public Management (NPM), contracting represents a supplement to the traditional hierarchical and rule-based managing of relations between actors in order to improve performance (Fortin and van Hassel 2000; Greve and Ejersbo 2002; Drewry et al. 2005; Verhoest 2005). To various degrees...... higher goal attainment when agency head experience that the department balance dialogue and autonomy with some element of control in the process of internal contracting (Bjørnholt and Salomonsen 2011). This implies, that effective steering include a combination of decentralized management...... and how a balanced use of internal contracting leads to a better performance. These findings are then theoretically interpreted based upon a combination of literature on agencification as well as public management. We compare contracting across all Danish agencies based on a combination of survey...

  12. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  13. Contraction of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it. (Auth.)

  14. Construction contracts law and management

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Will; Murdoch, John

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of this bestselling textbook has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the legislation, administration and management of construction contracts. It now includes comparisons of working with JCT, NEC3, and FIDIC contracts throughout. Introducing this topic at the core of construction law and management, this book provides students with a one-stop reference on construction contracts. Significant new material covers: procurement tendering developments in dispute settlement commentary on all key legislation, case law and contract amendments In line with new thinking in construction management research, this authoritative guide is essential reading for every construction undergraduate and an extremely useful source of reference for practitioners.

  15. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  16. Non-renewal of contracts

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    A new illegal practice is appearing in certain sectors of the Organization: the non-renewal of renewable three-year limited-duration (LD) contracts, despite a more than satisfactory performance and an obvious commitment to the Organization.

  17. Contractions of quantum algebraic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, A.; Sfetsos, K.

    2010-01-01

    A general framework for obtaining certain types of contracted and centrally extended algebras is reviewed. The whole process relies on the existence of quadratic algebras, which appear in the context of boundary integrable models. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2013 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts to indefinite contracts) was officially launched last week.  The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 9 August 2013 for a period of four weeks (until 8 September 2013). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: Information on the location of these sessions will be provided in due course on the CERN announcements page. HR Department

  19. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  20. Analysis of Developed Country's Export Contract and Contract Risk and Development of Sample Contract and Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-10-01

    This paper aimed at developing legal support for the non nuclear power plant industry's export. This study aids establishing government policy and promoting export of non nuclear power plant industry. This paper treated analysis of contractual risk and caution before entering into contract. To promote continuing export result, governmental and legal aids and guide will be required continuously. This study showed risks related with export contract and explained export control acts and procedures

  1. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Månsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs.

  2. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  3. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the awa...

  4. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the award of a...

  5. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether or not t...

  6. 24 CFR 242.52 - Construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; a construction management contract with a guaranteed maximum price, the final costs of which are... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction contracts. 242.52... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.52 Construction contracts. (a) Awarding of contract. A...

  7. 48 CFR 39.107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., in solicitations and contracts for information technology which require security of information technology, and/or are for the design, development, or operation of a system of records using commercial... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer...

  8. 48 CFR 904.7201 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 904.7201... MATTERS Public Affairs 904.7201 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.204-75, Public Affairs, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to release...

  9. 48 CFR 803.7001 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.7001... Practices 803.7001 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-71, Display of Department of Veterans Affairs Hotline poster, in solicitations and contracts expected to equal or...

  10. 48 CFR 819.7009 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 819.7009... Acquisition Program 819.7009 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-10... Veteran-Owned Small Business Set-Aside in solicitations and contracts for acquisitions under this subpart. ...

  11. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 745.106 Section 745.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 745.106 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the...

  12. 48 CFR 846.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 846.710 Section 846.710 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 846.710 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  13. 48 CFR 903.971 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 903.971... Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.203-70, Whistleblower Protection for Contractor Employees, in contracts that involve work to be done on behalf of DOE directly related...

  14. 48 CFR 747.507 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 747.507 Section 747.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Ocean Transportation by U.S.-Flag Vessels 747.507 Contract clauses. Contracting...

  15. 48 CFR 871.212 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 871.212... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.212 Contract clauses. Contracting officers must use the following clauses, as appropriate, in solicitations and contracts for vocational rehabilitation and employment...

  16. 48 CFR 53.111 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 53.111... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.111 Contract clause. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 52.253-1, Computer Generated Forms, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to submit...

  17. 48 CFR 833.215 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 833.215 Section 833.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 833.215 Contract clause. The contracting...

  18. 48 CFR 947.7002 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 947.7002 Section 947.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 947.7002 Contract clause. When foreign travel may be required under the contract...

  19. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.404... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting officer...

  20. 48 CFR 925.7004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 925.7004... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7004 Contract clause. The contracting... solicitations and contracts involving nuclear hot cell services. This clause does not flow down to second-tier...

  1. 77 FR 71642 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Services 3 contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... Expedited Package Services (GEPS) 3 contract (Contract).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR...

  2. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... recently-filed Postal Service filing addressing a new International Business Reply Service Contract 3. It... contract within the International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 grouping.\\1\\ The... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  3. 48 CFR 22.610 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 22.610... Contracts Act, in solicitations and contracts covered by the Act (see 22.603, 22.604, and 22.605). [61 FR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 22.610...

  4. 48 CFR 970.1504 - Contract pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract pricing. 970.1504 Section 970.1504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504 Contract pricing. ...

  5. 48 CFR 432.412 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 432.412 Section 432.412 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.412 Contract clause. The decision...

  6. Skeletal muscle contraction-induced vasodilation in the microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Kijeong

    2017-10-01

    Maximal whole body exercise leads skeletal muscle blood flow to markedly increase to match metabolic demands, a phenomenon termed exercise hyperaemia that is accomplished by increasing vasodilation. However, local vasodilatory mechanisms in response to skeletal muscle contraction remain uncertain. This review highlights metabolic vasodilators released from contracting skeletal muscle, endothelium, or blood cells. As a considerable skeletal muscle vasodilation potentially results in hypotension, sympathetic nerve activity needs to be augmented to elevate cardiac output and blood pressure during dynamic exercise. However, since the enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction restrains skeletal muscle blood flow, intramuscular arteries have an indispensable ability to blunt sympathetic activity for exercise hyperaemia. In addition, we discuss that mechanical compression of the intramuscular vasculature contributes to causing the initial phase of increasing vasodilation following a single muscle contraction. We have also chosen to focus on conducted (or ascending) electrical signals that evoke vasodilation of proximal feed arteries to elevate blood flow in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle. Endothelial hyperpolarization originating within distal arterioles ascends into the proximal feed arteries, thereby increasing total blood flow in contracting skeletal muscle. This brief review summarizes molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow to a single or sustained muscle contraction.

  7. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  8. Claims in civil engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Speirs, N A

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers claims arising during civil engineering construction contracts. The meaning of the word 'claim' is considered and its possible implications for additional cost and time to completion. The conditions of the construction contract selected will influence the risk apportionment between contractor and client and the price offered by the contractor for the work. Competitive bidding constraints and profit margins in the construction industry, however, may also influence the price offered. This in turn can influence the likelihood of claims arising. The client from his point of view is concerned to complete the work within an agreed time and budget. The circumstances under which claims may arise are reviewed in relation to typical conditions of contract. These circumstances are then related to the CERN LHC civil works. Ways of avoiding claims, where this is possible, are considered. Finally, the means of evaluation of claims and their settlement are considered.

  9. Terms of payment in the sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Harmáčková, Iva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.

  10. Outsourcing Contract Success: A Quality Management Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vanita Yadav; B.A. Metri

    2010-01-01

    Despite the phenomenal growth in outsourcing of various business functions like Enterprise Systems outsourcing, IT outsourcing, and Business Process outsourcing, there has been relatively less attention given to the high-risk area of outsourcing contracts. In this regard, contract has been the conventional medium for governing outsourcing relationships. This study aims to bring forward the importance of quality in the entire contracting process, involving contract planning, pre-contract negot...

  11. A survey of formal languages for contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper we present the current status on formal languages and models for contracts. By a formal model is meant an unambiguous and rigorous representation of contracts, in order to enable their automatic validation, execution, and analysis — activates that are collectively referred...... to as contract lifecycle management (CLM). We present a set of formalism requirements, which represent features that any ideal contract model should support, based on which we present a comparative survey of existing contract formalisms....

  12. The Contracting Parties' Ability To Conclude The Employment Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina NENU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study's main objective is to analyze certain effects produced by the changes of the Labor Code and by the entry into force of the current Romanian Civil Code. These effects refer to one of the fundamental conditions for the valid conclusion of the individual employment contract, that is, to the legal capacity of employers and employees. Thus, a complete analysis of legal regulations and of the correlations between different provisions on the legal capacity of parties to the individual employment contract is required to identify the existing noncompliance and to propose solutions. The research demonstrated that the current regulatory framework governing the legal capacity of the parties to an individual employment contract does not entirely correspond to the social reality. Therefore, only the employer benefits from a relatively comprehensive statutory regulation on the legal capacity to conclude an individual employment contract. The employee, however, does not benefit from the same attention from legislature. Considering the above, the study represents a significant scientific contribution, whose value lies in the proposed changes to modify legislature, so that the legal capacity of job holders would benefit from fair regulation, in accordance with the principle of legal protection of employee rights.

  13. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published as from the last week of September.  In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened is available at the following address: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/Autumn_2011_listofslots.pdf Information sessions for candidates are being organised for 26 and 27 September 2011. For more information please consult:  https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp

  14. Some ancestors of contraction analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    Contraction analysis is a recent tool for analyzing the convergence behavior of nonlinear systems in state-space form (see Lohmiller and Slotine [16] for the main reference). However, it seems that earlier results derived by mathematicians in the 1950s closely match some of the results of contrac......Contraction analysis is a recent tool for analyzing the convergence behavior of nonlinear systems in state-space form (see Lohmiller and Slotine [16] for the main reference). However, it seems that earlier results derived by mathematicians in the 1950s closely match some of the results...

  15. Team incentives in relational contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaloey, Ola

    2003-01-01

    Incentive schemes for teams are compared. I ask: under which conditions are relational incentive contracts based on joint performance evaluation, relative performance evaluation and independent performance evaluation self-enforceable. The framework of Che and Yoo (2001) on team incentives is combined with the framework of Baker, Gibbons and Murphy (2002) on relational contracts. In a repeated game between one principal and two agents, I find that incentives based on relative or independent performance are expected to dominate when the productivity of effort is high, while joint performance evaluation dominates when productivity is low. Incentives based on independent performance are more probable if the agents own critical assets. (author)

  16. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  17. Point of Injury Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    Injury" Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics November 14, 2011 Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD...Date of Contract: April 25, 2011 Short Title of Work: "Point of Injury" Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics " Contract...PHASE I FINAL REPORT: Point of Injury, Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics . W31P4Q-11-C-0222 (UNCLASSIFIED) P.I: Bernardo

  18. 29 CFR 4.122 - Contracts for operation of postal contract stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.122 Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. The Act, in paragraph (7) of section 7, exempts from its provisions “any... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. 4.122...

  19. SSC Test Operations Contract Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Kerry D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Test Operations Contract at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). There are views of the test stands layouts, and closer views of the test stands. There are descriptions of the test stand capabilities, some of the other test complexes, the Cryogenic propellant storage facility, the High Pressure Industrial Water (HPIW) facility, and Fluid Component Processing Facility (FCPF).

  20. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  1. The Strange Notion of Contract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lock, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    The notion of contract is not as unproblematic as might at first sight appear. Its theoretical basis in particular is very difficult to decipher. It is arguable that whereas the Middle Ages and 16th century produced an exceptionally subtle foundational account, the rise of modernity largely

  2. Informal Institutions and Intergenerational Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Lilleør, Helene Bie

    This paper carries out a theoretical and empirical investigation of the role of informal institutions in facilitating intergenerational contracts governing investments in schooling and payments of pensions in the form of remittances. We show, using detailed household level data from rural Tanzania...

  3. Forestry contracting in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khosa, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available of their workers directly to a contractor system. For example, forest contractors are now hired to carry out planting, tending and silvicultural operations. Sappi Forests, Mondi Forests and Safcol are all contracting certain work out and are currently assisting...

  4. Supply contract and portfolio insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runsheng Yin; Bob Izlar

    2001-01-01

    The long-term growth of institutional timberland investments depends on the ability of timberland investment management organizations (TIMO) to deal effectively with securitization, leveraging, arbitraging, supply contracting, portfolio insurance, tax efficiency enhancement, and other issues. Financial engineering holds great promise for many of these issues. This...

  5. AGILE DRAFTING OF OUTSOURCING CONTRACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Storgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and in several parallel tracks using different competencies. By the use of an illustrative case-study, this paper explores how scrum can be applied to enhance the process of drafting outsourcing contracts. The analysis indicates that the use of an agile method, such as Scrum, can be beneficial in this context...

  6. Incomplete contract and divisional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which

  7. Construction contract revenue recording comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly traded companies prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with the international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS in accordance with the Regulation No. 1606/2002. This is obliged for all publicly traded joint-stock companies in the Czech Republic. Other companies prepare financial statements in accordance with national accounting standards. There are Accounting Act No. 563/1991 of Coll. and Regulation No. 500/2002 of Coll., Czech Accounting Standards in the Czech Republic. Both systems are based on different principles so there are many differences. The Czech Accounting System (CAS is based on the rules while IAS/IFRS are based on principles (Kovanicová, 2005. These differences are mainly caused by the different philosophy. CAS prefers the fiscal policy to the economic substance while IAS/IFRS prefere the economic substance. One of the most significant dif­fe­ren­ces is in the field of revenue recording. There are two standards concerning the revenues recording (IAS 18 − Revenue, IAS 11 – Construction Contracts in IAS/IFRS. CAS 019 – Expenses and Revenue are dealing with the revenue recording in the Czech Republic. The paper is aimed at the comparison of the methodical approaches for revenue recording used by IAS/IFRS and by CAS. The most important differences are caused by the different approach to the long term contracts (construction contracts, software development contracts revenues recording.

  8. Methanol in the L1551 Circumbinary Torus

    OpenAIRE

    White, Glenn J.; Fridlund, C. W. M.; Bergman, P.; Beardsmore, A.; Liseau, Rene; Phillips, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    We report observations of gaseous methanol in an edge-on torus surrounding the young stellar object L1551 IRS5. The peaks in the torus are separated by ~ 10,000 AU from L1551 IRS5, and contain ~ 0.03 earth masses of cold methanol. We infer that the methanol abundance increases in the outer part of the torus, probably as a result of methanol evaporation from dust grain surfaces heated by the shock luminosity associated with the shocks associated with the jets of an externally located x-ray sou...

  9. Towards Certified Management of Financial Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Berthold, Jost; Elsman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    . The seminal work by Peyton-Jones and Eber on financial contracts shows how an algebraic approach to contract specification can be used for valuation of contracts (when combined with a model of the underlying observables) and for managing how contracts evolve under so-called fixings and decision......-taking, with the contracts eventually evaporating into the empty contract, for which no party have further obligations. The ideas have emerged into Eber's company LexiFi, which has become a leading software provider for a range of financial institutions, with all contract management operations centralised around a domain......Banks and financial institutions nowadays often use domain-specific languages (DSLs) for describing complex financial contracts, in particular, for specifying how asset transfers for a specific contract depend on underlying observables, such as interest rates, currency rates, and stock prices...

  10. Financial Management: Reopening of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2003-01-01

    .... In anticipation of transitioning to the new contract payment system, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service and the Defense Contract Management Agency were attempting to close out as many contracts as possible...

  11. Iterative Contracts as Proactive Law Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, René Franz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the use of proactive law in contracts illustrated by the use of a particular type of contract within the IT industry, the so-called iterative contract. This type of contract has its root in a special software development process called iterative and incre...... the potential to create more business success. However, empirical research still needs to be done in order to confirm that these types of contracts are better at securing business success than traditional contract forms....

  12. Contract Design, Supply Chain Complexity, and Accountability in Federal Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    both the extent to which there is a risk of disruption within the supply chain and external to the supply chain as well. We suggest that the formal...governance mechanisms that are favored under different conditions of endogenous and exogenous supply chain risk reflect the risk management...share risk by agreeing to incentive contracts. Introduction Supply chains are complex in at least two fundamental aspects—the complexity or

  13. Defense Contract Management: DOD's Lack of Adherence to Key Contracting Principles on Iraq Oil Contract Put Government Interests at Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutton, John P; Ahearn, Marie; Augustine, Penny B; Campbell, Greg; James, Jr., Arthur; Lesonsky, Eric; Lord, Stephen; McDonough-Hughes, Anne; McKelvey, Janet; Patton, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... The contract was also used to ensure adequate fuel supplies inside Iraq. RIO I was a cost-plus-award-fee type contract that provided for payment of the contractor's costs, a fixed fee determined at inception of the contract, and a potential award fee...

  14. Dynamic contracting mechanism for pavement maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, H.C.; De Ridder, H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances, financial possibilities and changes of demands have increasingly affected the pavement maintenance environment for outsourcing in recent years. This induces complexity in the contracting methods of pavement maintenance activities. Despite the fact that current contracting

  15. 48 CFR 23.804 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... refrigerant, such as air conditioners, including motor vehicles, refrigerators, chillers, or freezers. [61 FR... Equipment and Air Conditioners, in solicitations and contracts for services when the contract includes the...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.75 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding, Contracting... including the manner by which it will be effected and the basis for settlement. In addition, such contracts...

  17. Defense Contract Audit Agency Compensation Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) assists the administrative contracting officer in accomplishing that responsibility by determining whether the contractor's compensation system is sound, reliable, consistently applied, and results...

  18. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation. ...

  19. Linkage between Psychological Contract and Employee Retention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    strengthened by clearly stating expectations during recruitment and ... Impact of psychological contract in a work environment vis-à-vis employee retention, ..... psychological contract that will incite a faithful, fruitful and fulfilled work team.

  20. The Public Sector and Obligation to Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...... discusses some consequences of the public entities’ obligations to contract, more specific consequences for the use of rules that usually regulate contracts and the fact that obligations to contract imposed on public entities establish a new market and at the same time the obligations deprive the entities...... of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...

  1. Renewable Energy Contract Development Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information on how available resources can help organizations effectively navigate the solar contract development process with the goal of RFP and contract transparency, completeness, and accountability of all involved parties.

  2. Contract Training: Progress and Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; Drisko, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    Provides results of a national survey of community college contract training programs, including data on the extent of the colleges' involvement, centralization/decentralization of contract training, problems and benefits, and future trends. Discusses future policy trends. (HB)

  3. Contract & agency labour: beyond self-regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A paper about the regulation of contract labour. Academic and legal aspects as well as case studies of global union federation work to organise and regulate contract labour in Thailand, Pakistan, Colombia, South Korea and at international level.

  4. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  5. corporate social responsibility and psychological contract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... KEYWORDS: Corporate social responsibilities, Psychological contract, Nigeria, Niger delta, ... The concept of Corporate Social ... CSR initiatives rather than mere financial ..... fundamental idea in such a contract (PC) is the.

  6. Energy service contracting in DOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahle, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) annually consumes about $3 Billion in energy to operate facilities at military installations worldwide, representing about 80% of utility operating expense for all Federal facilities. Recent legislation and a Presidential Executive Order have directed DOD by Fiscal Year 2000 to reduce facility energy consumption by 20%, from the level of energy used in Fiscal Year 1985. To achieve this goal it is estimated that energy efficiency improvement investments between $2-3 billion would be required. Considering the competition for resources within DOD as it experiences downsizing and restructuring, DOD will need to seek opportunities to tap alternative investment strategies through energy service contracting to leverage Federal resources. Shared Energy Savings and Operations and Maintenance Energy Services contracting activities in the Department of the Navy will be used to address how such acquisition methods can contribute to achieving DOD energy efficiency goals

  7. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  8. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  9. The NYMEX electricity futures contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer-Huggins, D.

    1998-01-01

    Members of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) include bankers, industry (such as refiners, producers, and electricity marketers) brokerage houses, and individuals. NYMEX is the largest physical commodity futures exchange in the world. The primary economic role of the commodity exchange industry was discussed, with special emphasis on open interest, volume, and liquidity. Hedge dynamics were also reviewed. A hedge was described as a financial instrument used to lock in prices, costs, and profit margins. Futures contracts in general, and electricity futures contracts in particular were defined ('a firm commitment to deliver or to receive a specified quantity or grade of commodity at a specific location within a designated month'). Results expected from hedging, - cost control, predictable margins, securing a certain market share, price stabilization - , the nature of options trading, and its benefits were also reviewed. 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  11. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  12. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  13. Determinants of Service Contract Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    5–24. Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research , 14(3), 396–402. Ausink...for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research , 16(1), 64–73. Coalition of Service Industries (CSI). (2007...with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research , 18, 39–50. GAO. (2001a, May). Contract management: Trends and

  14. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  15. Government Contract Law (9th Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    This Ninth Edition, like its predecessors, will serve as the textbook for the Government Contract Law taught at the School of Systems and Logistics...drawn from Government Contract Law -Cases, 1987 edition, for a rounded approach to the subject. This edition of the text includes coverage of the...Government Contract Law complements the Federal Acquisition Regulation and provides a preventive law treatment for contracting personnel. While it may

  16. Analysis of international oil and gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.

    1992-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to describe the main types of international petroleum contracts, to give the reader methods for comparing contract qualities and analyzing the profitability of petroleum field models under basic contract terms, to describe methods for assessing tradeoffs between various terms of a contract, to describe briefly U.S. Taxation of international petroleum extraction income, and to discuss certain special considerations that apply to the international arena

  17. Legal Considerations for International Collaborative Research Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section

  18. Manipulation of Cash-Settled Futures Contracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrong, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of delivery settlement of futures contracts with cash settlement is frequently proposed to reduce the frequency of market manipulation. This article shows that it is always possible to design a delivery-settled futures contract that is less susceptible to cornering by a large long than any given cash-settled contract. Such a contract is more susceptible to manipulation by large shorts, however. Therefore, cash settlement does not uniformly dominate delivery settlement as a means o...

  19. Optimal Long-term Contracting with Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfeng Yu; Bin Wei; Zhiguo He

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces profitability uncertainty into an infinite-horizon variation of the classic Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) model, and studies optimal dynamic contracting with endogenous learning. The agent's potential belief manipulation leads to the hidden information problem, which makes incentive provisions intertemporally linked in the optimal contract. We reduce the contracting problem into a dynamic programming problem with one state variable, and characterize the optimal contract w...

  20. Optional forward contracts for electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedra, T.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper extends the idea of callable forward contracts, which are potentially useful as demand-side (interruptible-load) contracts, to their supply-side analogues. Together, these contracts allow market participants to take advantage of flexibility in generation or consumption to obtain a monetary benefit, while simultaneously removing the risk of market price fluctuations. This paper also considers the effects of strategic behavior on the part of market participants in their contract sales/purchase decisions

  1. Contract Dynamics : Lessons from Empirical Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Chaudey

    2010-01-01

    Working paper GATE 2010-35; The recognition that contracts have a time dimension has given rise to a very abundant literature since the end of the 1980s. In such a dynamic context, the contract may take place over several periods and develop repeated interactions. Then, the principal topics of the analysis are commitment, reputation, memory and the renegotiation of the contract. Few papers have tried to apply the predictions of dynamic contract theory to data. The examples of applications int...

  2. A Contract That Manages Itself: The Time Has Arrived

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    technology inspires contracting. The Smart Contract The paradigm of a contract as a static document is about to change. The days of a contract being read...efficiency is of paramount importance in order for an organization to perform its mission. The Smart Contract as an Object In discussions about...the contract object ( smart contract ) exists, the contract will be able to interact with other objects. That will enable the contract to know how

  3. Periodic review in natural resource contracts | Mandelbaum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Periodic contract review mechanisms, which are provisions in contracts that formally require parties to meet at particular intervals to review the terms of the contract, are mechanisms that may facilitate the process of negotiating contractual changes to accommodate changing circumstances over the term of extractive ...

  4. 48 CFR 2432.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 2432.908 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 2432.908 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The... other than the submission of an invoice or voucher, e.g., directly from proceeds of property sales. [71...

  5. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.808 Contract negotiation...

  6. 77 FR 5280 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0023] Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear...) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY 2011. ADDRESSES...

  7. 75 FR 82095 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0394] Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear...) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY 2010. ADDRESSES...

  8. 78 FR 10642 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0029] Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear...) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY 2012. ADDRESSES...

  9. 48 CFR 2439.107 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Departmental automated information systems or applications as they are defined in the clause. (b) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 2452.239-71, Information Technology Virus Security, in... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 2439.107 Contract clauses. (a) The...

  10. 24 CFR 232.605 - Contract requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... Fire Safety Equipment Form of Contract § 232.605 Contract requirements. (a) The contract between the...

  11. 14 CFR 145.217 - Contract maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract maintenance. 145.217 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.217 Contract maintenance. (a) A certificated repair station may contract a maintenance function pertaining to an article to an...

  12. 48 CFR 923.103 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.103... Contract clauses. Insert the clause at 952.223-78, Sustainable Acquisition Program, or its Alternate I, in all contracts under which the contractor operates Government-owned facilities or Government-owned...

  13. 77 FR 75200 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional international mail contract. This... contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR 3015.5. Notice at 1. The Postal...

  14. 78 FR 11237 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-49; Order No. 1654] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning an additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contract 1 Negotiated Service... additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 1 negotiated service agreement (Agreement).\\1\\ It...

  15. 78 FR 55124 - Domestic Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking to add Parcel Select Contract 7 to the competitive product list. This... Postal Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add Parcel Select Contract...

  16. 77 FR 70849 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-2; Order No.1550] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning a Type 2 rate adjustment in conjunction with a mail contract with China Post... Equivalent Agreement, November 15, 2012 (Notice). Contract history and scope. The Agreement is a successor to...

  17. 48 CFR 704.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 704.404... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 704.404 Contract clause. If the contract involves access to classified (“Confidential”, “Secret”, or “Top Secret”), or administratively...

  18. 42 CFR 93.204 - Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract. 93.204 Section 93.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.204 Contract. Contract means an acquisition instrument awarded under the HHS...

  19. 48 CFR 819.709 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 819.709... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 819.709 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan Minimum...

  20. 77 FR 75452 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional international mail contract. This... contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks to have the Agreement included within the GEPS 3 product...

  1. Contraction theorems in fuzzy metric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoosh, R.; Aghajani, A.; Azhdari, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the results on fuzzy contractive mapping proposed by Dorel Mihet will be proved for B-contraction and C-contraction in the case of George and Veeramani fuzzy metric space. The existence of fixed point with weaker conditions will be proved; that is, instead of the convergence of subsequence, p-convergence of subsequence is used.

  2. 48 CFR 923.7003 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.7003... Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7003 Contract clauses. (a) A decision to include or not include environmental, safety and health clauses in DOE contracts shall be made...

  3. 32 CFR 21.625 - Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract. 21.625 Section 21.625 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-GENERAL MATTERS Definitions § 21.625 Contract. See the definition for procurement contract in this...

  4. Contraction of graded su(2) algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, M.K.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Inoenu-Wigner contraction scheme is extended to Lie superalgebras. The structure and representations of extended BRS algebra are obtained from contraction of the graded su(2) algebra. From cohomological consideration, we demonstrate that the graded su(2) algebra is the only superalgebra which, on contraction, yields the full BRS algebra. (orig.)

  5. Psychological Contracts: Are They Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence from a banking organization illustrated how change has an impact on psychological contracts. Concluded that maintenance of contracts makes an important contribution to relationships but organizations need to adjust psychological contracts to meet the needs of the work force. (Contains 58 references.) (JOW)

  6. 28 CFR 810.2 - Accountability contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accountability contract. 810.2 Section... COLUMBIA COMMUNITY SUPERVISION: ADMINISTRATIVE SANCTIONS § 810.2 Accountability contract. (a) Your CSO will... accountability contract with CSOSA. (b) The CSO is responsible for monitoring your compliance with the conditions...

  7. 48 CFR 32.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Prompt Payment for Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts, in solicitations and contracts that contain the clause at 52.232-10, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts. (1) As authorized in... specify a period longer than 7 days for constructive acceptance or constructive approval, if required to...

  8. 48 CFR 11.701 - Supply contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Variation in Quantity 11.701 Supply contracts. (a) A fixed-price supply contract may authorize Government acceptance of a variation in the quantity of items called for if the variation is... items in a fixed-price contract, within allowable variations, if any. If a contractor delivers a...

  9. 77 FR 16568 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  10. 77 FR 12888 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  11. 10 CFR 603.1300 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Used in this Part § 603.1300 Procurement contract. A Federal Government procurement contract. It is a... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement contract. 603.1300 Section 603.1300 Energy... Government and a State, a local government, or other non-government entity when the principal purpose of the...

  12. 32 CFR 37.1330 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1330 Procurement contract. A Federal Government procurement contract. It is a legal instrument which, consistent with 31 U.S... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement contract. 37.1330 Section 37.1330...

  13. 48 CFR 12.210 - Contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract financing. 12.210... financing. Customary market practice for some commercial items may include buyer contract financing. The contracting officer may offer Government financing in accordance with the policies and procedures in part 32. ...

  14. 77 FR 26583 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... neither the fundamental service that it is offering nor the fundamental structure of the contract. Id. at..., the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant characteristics of the contract filed in Docket No. CP2010-36. Id. at 4. The Postal Service concludes that its...

  15. Incentive contracts with unobservable competence levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Keiding, Hans

    2008-01-01

    about the competence of the agent to fulfill the obligations of the contract. The agent offers a choice of contracts to the principal, thereby signalling agent competence to the principal, and there is no alternative reputation mechanism to the contract for the principal's bargaining strategy. It turns...

  16. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  17. 48 CFR 17.204 - Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (f) Contracts may express options for increased quantities of supplies or services in terms of (1... identified as the option. (g) Contracts may express extensions of the term of the contract as an amended... on the purchase of additional supplies or services, or the overall duration of the term of the...

  18. 48 CFR 244.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 244.403... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Subcontracts for Commercial Items and Commercial Components 244.403 Contract clause. (1) 252.225-7009, Restriction on Acquisition of...

  19. Army Contract Specialists’ Lack of Desire to Become Contracting Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    response to question 2 was 1 or 2, choose all the responses that support the reasoning for your answer. B ). N o t en o u g h w el l tr ai n ed...contracting specialist set the goal of becoming a contracting officer? ACC 20 Contracting officer burnout Consider contracting officer rotations every 2 to

  20. 48 CFR 227.7009-3 - Additional clauses-contracts except running royalty contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts except running royalty contracts. 227.7009-3 Section 227.7009-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—contracts except running royalty contracts. The following clauses are examples for use in patent release and settlement agreements, and license agreements not providing for payment by the Government of a running...

  1. Quality management and quality assurance contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichler, M.

    1991-01-01

    Quality assurance contracts belong to the most important instruments of quality management systems. As a result of such contracts, quality control is to be done not only by the buyer, but is made a task to be fulfilled by the manufacturer. The author of the article shows that quality assurance contracts do change the contractual relationship between supplier and buyer, but have no effect on economic and practical conditions. This is so because quality assurance contracts apply only to warranty claims, which play a subordinate role in the legal relationship between producer and buyer, or producer and consumer, as compared to the claims for damages arising out of the contracts. (orig.) [de

  2. Contract law for physicians. The basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelkema, R

    1989-02-01

    As part of the Minnesota Medical Association's ongoing contract review process, this article provides information to help educate physicians about the major managed care contracts being offered to them. The information provided is not intended to, nor should it be a substitute for legal advice pertaining to an individual's practice and specific contracts with third parties. The MMA will not be making recommendations regarding the merits of any particular contract. A decision to enter into a contract rests with the physician and his or her clinic in consultation with private legal counsel.

  3. Covenant Violations and Dynamic Loan Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudenberg, Felix; Imbierowicz, Björn; Saunders, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic allocation of control rights in private debt contracts of firms. We show that a covenant violation in the prior loan contract implies a stigma for borrowers which results in stricter loan contract terms in subsequent new loan contracts. Our analyses reject...... potentially other explanations such as firm characteristics or agency problems between the lender and firm management, shareholders or public debtholders. After covenant violations in the prior contract, new loans have on average 18 bps higher spreads and include more of those covenant types which also have...

  4. Designation of Contracting Officers Representatives and Oversight Framework Could Be Improved for Contracts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Sea Systems issue guidance to contracting officers to obtain a quality assurance surveillance plan for all service contracts, and ensure that the...prepare a quality assurance surveillance plan (QASP) for service contracts in order to facilitate assessment of contractor performance.12 Furthermore...that the contracting activities received and paid for goods or services that did not meet contract performance standards. At the time of the audit

  5. On the Dogmatics of Contract Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of contract has attracted much attention in the practice of contract law and the basic problems to be solved are what the parties agree on and how to set up the rules of adjudication. The present domestic studies are not conducive to contract prac-tices because they either unnecessarily elevate scientific problems to the speculative realm of fantasy, or make the problems become more unreal and abstract. The two traditional theories of contract interpretation do not conflict in values in terms of the autonomy of the will and trust protection. However, in today' s society where cultural pluralism and legal value plural-ism exist, because of different contract practices, differentiation and individualization of con-tract interpretation will become the basic patterns. Therefore, it is impossible and unnecessary to construct a unitary model, but it is of great significance to introduce the dogmatics-orien-ted contract interpretation.

  6. Management of transport and handling contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Rühl, I

    2004-01-01

    This paper shall outline the content, application and management strategies for the various contracts related to transport and handling activities. In total, the two sections Logistics and Handling Maintenance are in charge of 27 (!) contracts ranging from small supply contracts to big industrial support contracts. The activities as well as the contracts can generally be divided into four main topics "Vehicle Fleet Management"; "Supply, Installation and Commissioning of Lifting and Hoisting Equipment"; "Equipment Maintenance" and "Industrial Support for Transport and Handling". Each activity and contract requires different approaches and permanent adaptation to the often changing CERN's requirements. In particular, the management and the difficulties experienced with the contracts E072 "Maintenance of lifting and hoisting equipment", F420 "Supply of seven overhead traveling cranes for LHC" and S090/S103 "Industrial support for transport and handling" will be explained in detail.

  7. Housing and bed and board contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work not only legal nature of catering services is analyzed, but also legal position of parties in it. Catering contract (Housing and Bed and Board Contract is unnamed in our country and the main source of law for this contract are business practices and usage. A lot of attention is paid to this question. Lack of legal norms for this area is general characteristic for most of the tourism contracts. In this contract its title is also debatable because term 'catering services' is not usually used in practice. Although this contract is unnamed in Comparative Law ,in tourist more developed countries there are more codified business practices from this area and there is more Case Law. Having in mind development of tourist economy adequate legal conditions in tourism contract are expected.

  8. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Richter, Erik

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1.5 h......-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting muscle may only increase if glycogen...

  9. Contract policy for CERN staff members

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Public information meeting on Monday 28 September 2009 at 10.00 a.m. With effect from 1 August 2009, new provisions regarding staff employment contract policy have entered into force. These provisions are set out in: The Staff Rules and Regulations and Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 4). Further details are available in: Frequently Asked Questions. The new provisions are outlined below: Limited-duration contracts From 1 August 2009, limited-duration contracts will be awarded for a maximum period of five years (instead of four years previously) and no extensions beyond five years will be granted. Contracts for periods shorter than five years can be exceptionally awarded, e.g. for a project whose mission or financial resources are time-limited. Indefinite contracts : award procedure A number of changes have been introduced regarding the procedure for the award of indefinite contracts. From now on, posts leading to the award of an indefinite contract will be opened at le...

  10. Incomplete Contract and Divisional Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, T.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differentiate it from other works in the literature is that we add add an ex post bargaining phase in which the managers can agree on the project which maximize their joint private benefit. Our model shows...

  11. Contracted and expanded integrable structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia; Sfetsos, Konstadinos

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generic framework to obtain certain types of contracted and centrally extended algebras. This is based on the existence of quadratic algebras (reflection algebras and twisted Yangians), naturally arising in the context of boundary integrable models. A quite old misconception regarding the 'expansion' of the E 2 algebra into sl 2 is resolved using the representation theory of the aforementioned quadratic algebras. We also obtain centrally extended algebras associated with rational and trigonometric (q-deformed) R-matrices that are solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation.

  12. 78 FR 17205 - Notice of Availability of Service Contract Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Service Contract Inventories AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability of service contract inventories. FOR FURTHER... Service Contract Inventory Analysis, the FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory, and the FY 2012 Service...

  13. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Kirk, Roy J.; Welker, Robert A.; Sparling, William J.; Butler, Sharon E.; Irwin, Susan W.

    1989-04-01

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  14. Method Determining the Contents of the Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Yudha Hernoko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The contents of the contract are primarily determined by what the real mutually agreed upon by the parties. By interpreting some certain statements, in this case to determine its meaning, to be clear based on what the parties committed themselves. Why is the interpretation required? In facts, on the many cases provided a valuable lesson, how many commercial disputes arise when the performance of the contract. The dispute begins when the parties have a different understanding of the statement that they use in the contract. Indeed, businesses are very familiar with the business processes that they do, but at the time of the business process are set forth in the contract language and designed by those who do not understand the legal aspects of the contract, the contract can be ascertained open possibility for disputes. The power of contract binding (the contents of the agreement toward to the characteristic and the wide spectrum of the rights and obligations contractually, basically a contract represents the power of performance among others in order implementing the rights and obligations of the parties. As an instrument to understand the contract, the method of determining the content of the contract (e.g., through interpretation, autonomous and heteronomous factors, further can be used to assess the reciprocation of rights and obligations in a meaningful and proportional contractual relationship.

  15. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  16. Contract Design: The problem of information asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Amelung, Volker E; Juhnke, Christin

    2018-01-12

    Integrated care systems are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. Little is known about the contractual design and the main challenges of delegating "accountability" to these new kinds of organisations and/or contracts. The research question in this article focuses on how healthcare contracts can look like and which possible problems arise in designing such contracts. In this a special interest is placed on information asymmetries. A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. This article is the first in a row of three that all contribute to a specific issue in designing healthcare contracts. Starting with the organisation of contracts and information asymmetries, part 2 focusses on financial options and risks and part 3 finally concludes with the question of risk management and evaluation. Healthcare contracting between providers and payers will have a major impact on the overall design of future healthcare systems. If Integrated care systems or any other similar concept of care delivery are to be contracted directly by payers to manage the continuum of care the costs of market utilisation play an essential role. Transaction costs also arise in the course of the negotiation and implementation of contracts. These costs are the reason why it is generally not possible to conclude perfect (complete) contracts. Problems with asymmetric distribution of information can relate to the situation before a contract is concluded (adverse selection) and after conclusion of a contract (moral hazard). Information asymmetries are seen as a major obstacle to the efficient operation of integrated care programmes. Coordination and motivation problems cannot be solved at no-costs. The presented problems in the design of selective individual contracts

  17. The distribution contracts: an Iberian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia de Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contracts of commercial distribution are indispensable legal instruments to the development of the economic activity. The distribution, since the industrial revolution, acquired autonomy, given the necessity of specialized intermediation to distribute good and products. In this process, the structural organization of the distribution process suffered mutations, starting to assume a set of activities aiming at adjusting demand to supply, including, among others, clients canvassing, after-sales services, financing and assumption of risks, advisory services, promotion and advertising. The insufficiency of traditional contracts of purchase and sales and commission to satisfy the distributive needs caused by the industrial revolution will justify the development of new contractual schemes, such us agency contract, commercial concession and franchising. The obligation of the distributer to ensure the interests of the producer and to promote the distribution of the goods and services of the producer, in the context of a lasting relation of cooperation between the parts, through which the distributer is incorporated, with greater or minor intensity, in the producer distribution network, allowed us to sustain, as affirmed in the Portuguese and European literature, that distribution contracts could be framed in the same legal category. These contracts, as contracts that were shaped by praxis, do not have, with exception of agency contract, a legal framework in Portugal and Spain. It has been discussed in literature if agency contract legal framework can be applied, by analogy, to the contracts that fit in the legal category of distribution contracts. This paper aims at analyzing the legal framework of contracts of distribution in these legal systems, with the purpose to discuss the analogical application of the agency contract to these contracts.

  18. Invalidity of contract: legislative regulation and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Іванович Крат

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Invalidity contracts always attracted attention researchers. Without regard to it, in modern conditions there is an enormous layer of the problems related to invalidity contract, that to require a doctrine and utilitarian comprehension. The article is sanctified to research invalidity contract. In the article analyses problems of the legislative regulation and types of invalidity contract through the prism of judicial practice. In the Civil code of Ukraine, a voidable contract sets as a common rule. A voidable of the contract is incarnated in the so-called «virtual» invalidity when only the most typical grounds are enumerated. However, even such approach does not allow to overcome all possible cases that arise up in practice. Such situation touches possibility of voidable contracts concluded with the purpose of to shut out the appeal of claim to the property of the debtor. Therefore it follows to set general rules in relation to voidable contracts of the debtor. A nullity of the contract takes place only in the case when there is the direct pointing of law on the qualification of that or another contract as the nullity. The nullity of contract in the Civil code of Ukraine is constructed by means of «textual» invalidity. There are no single attempts to use the construction of «virtual» invalidity in judicial practice when there is the direct pointing of law on the qualification of that or another contract as the nullity, that is impermissible. Methodologically incorrectly to carry out identifying of invalidity contract and obligation with the aim of providing of application of different after the rich in content filling norms.

  19. Characterization of muscle contraction with second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prent, Nicole

    Muscle cells have the ability to change length and generate force due to orchestrated action of myosin nanomotors that cause sliding of actin filaments along myosin filaments in the sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units, of myocytes. The correlated action of hundreds of sarcomeres is needed to produce the myocyte contractions. This study probes the molecular structure of the myofilaments and investigates the movement correlations between sarcomeres during contraction. In this study, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed for imaging striated myocytes. Myosin filaments in striated myocytes inherently have a nonzero second-order susceptibility, [special characters omitted] and therefore generate efficient SHG. Employing polarization-in polarization-out (PIPO) SHG microscopy allows for the accurate determination of the characteristic ratio, [special characters omitted] in birefringent myocytes, which describes the structure of the myosin filament. Analysis shows that the b value at the centre of the myosin filament, where the nonlinear dipoles are better aligned, is slightly lower than the value at the edges of the filament, where there is more disorder in orientation of the nonlinear dipoles from the myosin heads. Forced stretching of myocytes resulted in an SHG intensity increase with the elongation of the sarcomere. SHG microscopy captured individual sarcomeres during contraction, allowing for the measurement of sarcomere length (SL) and SHG intensity (SI) fluctuations. The fluctuations also revealed higher SHG intensity in elongated sarcomeres. The sarcomere synchronization model (SSM) for contracting and quiescent myocytes was developed, and experimentally verified for three cases (isolated cardiomyocyte, embryonic chicken cardiomyocyte, and larva myocyte). During contraction, the action of SLs and SIs between neighbouring sarcomeres partially correlated, whereas in quiescent myocytes the SLs show an anti-correlation and the SIs have no

  20. 48 CFR 916.203-4 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.203-4 Section 916.203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 916.203-4 Contract clauses. (d)(2) The...

  1. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indefinite-quantity, multiple award contracts to ensure that adequate consideration exists to contractually... contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504 Indefinite-quantity...

  2. 7 CFR 1469.25 - Contract violations and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... termination without delay. (c) If NRCS terminates a contract due to breach of contract, the participant will... terminates a contract due to breach of contract, or the participant voluntarily terminates the contract... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations and termination. 1469.25 Section...

  3. 48 CFR 16.103 - Negotiating contract type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Selecting Contract Types 16.103 Negotiating contract... basic profit motive of business enterprise, shall be used when the risk involved is minimal or can be...) Contracts on a firm fixed-price basis other than those for major systems or research and development, and (3...

  4. 48 CFR 232.501-3 - Contract price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract price. 232.501-3... 232.501-3 Contract price. (b) The contracting officer may approve progress payments when the contract price exceeds the funds obligated under the contract, provided the contract limits the Government's...

  5. 29 CFR 4.110 - What contracts are covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...'Hara Service Contract Act Covered Contracts Generally § 4.110 What contracts are covered. The Act... mean that the contract is not within the coverage of the Act. The amount of the contract is not determinative of the Act's coverage, although the requirements are different for contracts in excess of $2,500...

  6. 29 CFR 4.145 - Extended term contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...'Hara Service Contract Act Changes in Contract Coverage § 4.145 Extended term contracts. (a) Sometimes... purposes of this Act, a contract shall be deemed entered into upon the contract anniversary date which... period is a wholly new contract with respect to application of the Act's provisions and the regulations...

  7. 29 CFR 4.142 - Contracts in an indefinite amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.142 Contracts in an indefinite amount. (a) Every contract subject to this Act which is indefinite in amount is required to contain the....), a case arising under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. Such a contract, which may be in the...

  8. 48 CFR 32.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.114 Unusual contract financing. Any contract financing arrangement that deviates from this part is unusual contract financing...

  9. Contract engineers cut costs, and flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Today's rapid expansion of technology is an important reason for considering hiring contract engineering labor for your power plant because technical specialization is an important aspect of the contract engineering industry. This paper reports that another reason is addressing peak work loads. Any amount of technical assistance is available to assist in meeting schedules. Although a typical human resources department of a utility or architect/engineer may contain a few hundred active resumes, a contract engineering firm may have upwards of 40,000 resumes on file from all parts of the country. Because contract workers know that contract agencies keep abreast of client needs, they are more apt to forward updated resumes to such agencies. Used properly, a contract engineering company's services will augment the efforts of a human resources group and, in the case of some smaller companies, actually take the place of all internal recruiting efforts

  10. Integrin and GPCR Crosstalk in the Regulation of ASM Contraction Signaling in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Chun Ming; Tam, John Kit Chung; Tran, Thai

    2012-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is one of the cardinal features of asthma. Contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells that line the airway wall is thought to influence aspects of AHR, resulting in excessive narrowing or occlusion of the airway. ASM contraction is primarily controlled by agonists that bind G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which are expressed on ASM. Integrins also play a role in regulating ASM contraction signaling. As therapies for asthma are based on symptom relief, better understanding of the crosstalk between GPCRs and integrins holds good promise for the design of more effective therapies that target the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism that governs AHR. In this paper, we will review current knowledge about integrins and GPCRs in their regulation of ASM contraction signaling and discuss the emerging concept of crosstalk between the two and the implication of this crosstalk on the development of agents that target AHR.

  11. Rac1- a novel regulator of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke; Møller, Lisbeth L V; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    -stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, since muscle-specific Rac1 knockout mice display reduced ex vivo contraction- and in vivo exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The molecular mechanisms by which Rac1 regulate glucose uptake is presently unknown. However, recent studies link Rac1......Muscle contraction stimulates muscle glucose uptake by facilitating translocation of the glucose transporter 4 from intracellular locations to the cell surface, which allows for diffusion of glucose into the myofibers. However, the intracellular mechanisms regulating this process are not well...... understood. The GTPase, Rac1 has, until recently, only been investigated with regards to its involvement in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. However, we recently found that Rac1 is activated during muscle contraction and exercise in mice and humans. Remarkably, Rac1 seems to be necessary for exercise/contraction...

  12. 48 CFR 52.222-52 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services-Certification. 52.222-52 Section 52.222... from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services—Certification. As... Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services—Certification (NOV 2007) (a) The offeror shall check the...

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-51 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment....222-51 Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance... clause: Exemption From Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

  14. 48 CFR 52.222-48 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment....222-48 Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance... following provision: Exemption From Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance...

  15. 48 CFR 52.222-53 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services-Requirements. 52.222-53 Section 52.222... from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Certain Services—Requirements. As... Act to Contracts for Certain Services—Requirements (FEB 2009) (a) The services under this contract are...

  16. Bound to treatment: the Ulysses contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, R

    1984-06-01

    Several commentators have proposed a novel legal mechanism, the "Ulysses contract" or "voluntary commitment contract," to permit mental patients with recurrent treatable disorders to consent in advance to treatment which they might reject at a time when their cognitive abilities are impaired. Dresser discusses the legal ramifications of precommitment, the implications of basing consent on a patient's past rather than current wishes, problems of enforcing Ulysses contracts given the uncertainties of psychiatric diagnosis, and the inherent paternalism of these precommitment agreements.

  17. Corruption in PPPs, Incentives and Contract Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Iossa; David Martimort

    2014-01-01

    In a public procurement setting, we discuss the desirability of completing contracts with state-contingent clauses providing for monetary compensations to the contractor when revenue shocks occur. Realized shocks are private information of the contractor and this creates agency costs of delegated service provision. Verifying the contractor’s messages on the shocks entails contracting costs that make incomplete contracts attractive, despite their higher agency costs. A public official (supervi...

  18. Optimal long-term contracting with learning

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhiguo; Wei, Bin; Yu, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We introduce uncertainty into Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) to study optimal long-term contracting with learning. In a dynamic relationship, the agent's shirking not only reduces current performance but also increases the agent's information rent due to the persistent belief manipulation effect. We characterize the optimal contract using the dynamic programming technique in which information rent is the unique state variable. In the optimal contract, the optimal effort is front-loaded and decr...

  19. Contract Attorneys Course Deskbook. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-21

    included in a contract in violation of statutory or regulatory criteria will be read out of a contract. Empresa de Viacao Terceirense, ASBCA No. 49827...for upward and downward revision of the stated contract price upon the occurrence of specified contingencies. See Transportes Especiales de ...4th Infantry Division, Fort Hood Texas, 2002-2005; Assistant Operations Officer/Test Control Officer, Military Entrance Processing Station, Des

  20. Using Comics to Communicate Legal Contract Cancellation

    OpenAIRE

    Marietjie Botes

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how comics can be used to adequately communicate the correct process of contract cancellation and whether comics can enhance understanding of the legal process. A survey of pre-owned vehicle buyers of various levels of education in Pretoria, South Africa found that when comics are used to communicate contract cancellation, a significant increase in the comprehension of the legal cancellation process occurs. The results may influence how contracting parties may choose...

  1. Types of international petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on history and development of International Petroleum Contracts. The emphasis in petroleum exploration has steadily shifted away from the domestic oil patch and toward the international arena. Today an estimated 577.3 billion bbl, or approximately 83% of the world's proven oil reserves, lie outside the western hemisphere. The distribution of these proven oil reserves can be broken down into three major socioeconomic categories - developed market economies, centrally planned economies, and developing countries - indicating that fully 76.7% of the world's proven oil reserves occur in developing countries. As multinational oil companies come into contact with the various host countries around the world, their course of action, and the course of the host country's reaction to them, are unfortunately colored by events that proceeded the initial contact

  2. Safety Case for Service Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Israel L.

    2014-07-01

    Safety cases developed for the Facilities Management and Operations Center (FMOC) are based on the requirements in MN471021, Work Planning and Control Criteria for Safe Design and Operations. The FMOC performs maintenance activities in various locations at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). SNL/NM consists of more than 6,000,000 square feet of buildings, structures, and site infrastructure on approximately 13,000 acres of land. The FMOC performs approximately 7500 service contract work orders a year to assist with operations and maintenance at the SNL/NM site and facilities. As part of the continual improvement process, this Safety Case will be reviewed and updated, as needed, or at a minimum every three years.

  3. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  4. Contract Design: Financial Options and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Amelung, Volker E; Juhnke, Christin

    2018-01-12

    Integrated care systems as well as accountable care organisations (ACOs) in the US and similar concepts in other countries are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. By this the total costs of care shall be reduced. When designing healthcare options contractors are faced with a variety of financial options. The costs of market utilisation are highly relevant for the conception of healthcare contracts; furthermore contract-specific investments are an obstacle to the efficient operation of ACOs. A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. This article is the second in a row of three that are all published in this issue and contribute to a specific issue in designing healthcare contracts. The first dealt with the organisation of contracts and information asymmetries, while part 3 concludes with the question of risk management and evaluation. The specific research question of this second article focusses on the financial options and reimbursement schemes that are available to define healthcare contracts. A healthcare contract is a relational contract, which determines the level of reimbursement, the scope of services and the quality between service providers and payers, taking account of the risks relating to population and performance. A relational contract is an agreement based upon assumption of a longer timeframe. A major obstacle to the practical implementation of healthcare contracts is the prognosis of the inflows and outflows due to the actuarial risks of the insured population. Financing conditions and reimbursement arrangements that are based on a prospectively determined fixed price, have a significant drawback: it is very difficult to take the differences in health status and the utilisation of distinct insured clientele

  5. Future Contract Selection by Term Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Grossmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In futures markets, a single asset is generally represented by several contracts with different maturities. The selection of specific contracts is an inevitable task that also creates new opportunities, especially in terms of speculative trading. Evaluating immediate and upcoming trading costs for all considered contracts might lead to a significantly improved performance. Among that, even possible market inefficiencies might be taken into consideration. This research introduces and evaluates a new algorithm for the contract selection. The results are benchmarked and compared with established methods using a Monte Carlo simulation on different commodity and index futures.

  6. Contracting Out Government Procurement Functions: An Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamm, David; Yoder, Cory

    2008-01-01

    ...)), asked the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to analyze the contracting out of procurement functions currently being accomplished by Navy, Marine Corps, and other Department of Defense (DOD) Activities...

  7. Forward contract - minimize the exchange risk

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Maršík; František Vebr

    1998-01-01

    How can a Czech export (import) company hedge exchange risk? Some of the possibilities are these: 1/ use only CZK for foreign contracts; 2/ matching payments in the same or a parallel currency; 3/ use the products of the money markets; 4/ use the products of the forward market - FORWARD CONTRACT The forward market offers a forward contract to buy or sell a fixed amount of currency at a fixed price on a specific date in the future. The settlement of the contract is in more than two days. The e...

  8. Standard forms of construction contracts in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bănică

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry in Romania is under pressure to modernize in order to cope with the new demands of development and convergence with EU. Contractual procedures in construction have to become an integral part in this process of modernization. The article makes an introduction to the advantages of standard forms of contract and professional contract administration in construction and presents the current state-of-the art in the use of standard construction contracts in Romania. Some practical conclusions and recommendations are presented considering the need for further contract studies.

  9. IAEA research contracts. Third annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    During the period in which the Agency's research programme has been operative, nearly 150 research contracts have been placed with institutions in 35 Member States. While considerable emphasis was placed initially on research of a more fundamental nature - as reflected by the summaries presented herein of work under contracts awarded in the early stages of the programme - recent policy has shifted the major emphasis toward research of a practical nature, as the results of this type of research are likely to be of more immediate interest to Member States, and particularly to the developing nations. In every case, the summary of the contractor's final report has been prepared by that member of the Agency's scientific staff who has been closely connected with that particular subject of research. Thus, the scientific data reported in the summary remain the responsibility of the contractor, the Agency being responsible for any additional observations. The reports in the field of Radioactive waste management and environmental research included are: Research Contract No.20. Studies in the uptake of radioisotopes by edible marine products; Research Contract No. 33, Behaviour of fission products in soil; Research Contract No.100, Ionic interaction near clay surfaces. Reports dealing with Health physics and radiation protection presented are: Research Contract No.14, The effect of radiation on plant cells and its modification with protective substances; Research Contract No.32, Determination of the enrichment factors of calcium isotopes on ion exchange resins and the investigation of the various systems of electrolytic separation; Research Contract No. 53, Selection of sulphydryl compounds for radiation protection, using a new microbiological method; Research Contract No. 79, A study of the uptake of radioactive calcium in the skeleton. Reports related to Radiobiology are: Research Contract No.11, Genetical investigations on the effect of ionizing radiation on human cells

  10. IAEA research contracts. Third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-04-01

    During the period in which the Agency's research programme has been operative, nearly 150 research contracts have been placed with institutions in 35 Member States. While considerable emphasis was placed initially on research of a more fundamental nature - as reflected by the summaries presented herein of work under contracts awarded in the early stages of the programme - recent policy has shifted the major emphasis toward research of a practical nature, as the results of this type of research are likely to be of more immediate interest to Member States, and particularly to the developing nations. In every case, the summary of the contractor's final report has been prepared by that member of the Agency's scientific staff who has been closely connected with that particular subject of research. Thus, the scientific data reported in the summary remain the responsibility of the contractor, the Agency being responsible for any additional observations. The reports in the field of Radioactive waste management and environmental research included are: Research Contract No.20. Studies in the uptake of radioisotopes by edible marine products; Research Contract No. 33, Behaviour of fission products in soil; Research Contract No.100, Ionic interaction near clay surfaces. Reports dealing with Health physics and radiation protection presented are: Research Contract No.14, The effect of radiation on plant cells and its modification with protective substances; Research Contract No.32, Determination of the enrichment factors of calcium isotopes on ion exchange resins and the investigation of the various systems of electrolytic separation; Research Contract No. 53, Selection of sulphydryl compounds for radiation protection, using a new microbiological method; Research Contract No. 79, A study of the uptake of radioactive calcium in the skeleton. Reports related to Radiobiology are: Research Contract No.11, Genetical investigations on the effect of ionizing radiation on human cells

  11. Duplicate Recording of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1996-01-01

    ... in more than one of the system's data bases. We also evaluated whether the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services system had adequate controls to detect and prevent duplicate contract payments, and whether database errors...

  12. Evaluation of the Defense Contract Audit Agency Audit Coverage of Tricare Contracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannin, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the adequacy of the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) audit coverage of contracts for health care provided under TRICARE and the former Civilian Health Care and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services...

  13. The Contract Management Body of Knowledge: A Comparison of Contracting Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and supply chain management policies in an effort to deliver higher returns for their companies ( KPMG , 2012). As purchasing becomes increasingly more...conservation, hazardous materials , and ozone-depleting substances (NCMA, 2011). Contract Structures (1.5) has to do with identifying specific contract types...discusses time and material contracts as well as cost, performance, and delivery incentives. Incentive and award-fee contracts pertaining to fixed-price

  14. Endogenous Market Structures and Contract Theory. Delegation, principal-agent contracts, screening, franchising and tying

    OpenAIRE

    Etro Federico

    2010-01-01

    I study the role of unilateral strategic contracts for firms active in markets with price competition and endogenous entry. Traditional results change substantially when the market structure is endogenous rather than exogenous. They concern 1) contracts of managerial delegation to non-profit maximizers, 2) incentive principal-agent contracts in the presence of moral hazard on cost reducing activities, 3) screening contracts in case of asymmetric information on the productivity of the managers...

  15. Experiments on supply chain contracting: effects of contract type and fairness concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Arabacı, Özge; Arabaci, Ozge

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we conduct experiments with human decision makers on supply chain contracting. We consider a simple manufacturer-retailer supply chain scenario where the retailer faces the newsvendor problem. Building on Sahin and Kaya (2011), we compare the experimental performance of three contract types (wholesale price, buyback and revenue sharing contracts) between the firms with theoretical predictions, and among each other. We are interested in the manufacturer’s contract parameter dec...

  16. An Analysis of Army Contract Administration With Regard to Contracting Officers Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    TO CONTRACTING OFFICER’S REPRESENTATIVES September 2016 By: Tanya V. Peel Angel R. Acevedo Advisors : Karen Landale Matthew Kremer...among contracting personnel and CORs requires improvement, staff levels need to be increased to support contract administration, managers nominate CORs...Landale, Lead Advisor Matthew Kremer, Support Advisor Brad Naegle Academic Associate Graduate School of Business and Public

  17. Contract Farming: Conceptual Framework and Indian Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Chakrabarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with conceptual framework of contract farming and portrays Indian scenario especially after announcement of National Agricultural Policy (2000 which encouraged private participation through contract farming. The conception of contract farming is not new in India, but it gets momentum in the era of agricultural globalization, as an alternative method of farming. The study reveals that while contract farming can be effective in introducing new technologies and providing external inputs to farmers, danger lies in firms extending technologies that bring financial benefits in the short-term but result in negative long-term health and environmental impacts. Contract farming is not appropriate for all types of crops. To have a significant poverty impact, crops produced under contract farming should be labour-intensive rather than input-intensive and should be appropriate for production on small plots of land. Since the contracting company is financially stronger than individual farmers, the terms of the contract may go against the farmers. Herein the government will have to come forward.

  18. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  19. 48 CFR 46.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.710 Contract clauses. The clauses and alternates prescribed in this... research and development contract is contemplated and the use of a warranty clause has been approved under... performance specifications or design are of major importance; a fixed-price supply, service, or research and...

  20. Educational contracts in family medicine residency training.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahood, S.; Rojas, R.; Andres, D.; Zagozeski, C.; White, G.; Bradel, T.

    1994-01-01

    An educational contract for family medicine residency training and evaluation addresses many of the difficulties and challenges of current postgraduate medical education. This article identifies important principles for developing a contractual approach; describes the contract used in one program and its implementation; and discusses its theory, advantages, and limitations.

  1. Contract on using computer resources of another

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Mihajlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractual relations involving the use of another's property are quite common. Yet, the use of computer resources of others over the Internet and legal transactions arising thereof certainly diverge from the traditional framework embodied in the special part of contract law dealing with this issue. Modern performance concepts (such as: infrastructure, software or platform as high-tech services are highly unlikely to be described by the terminology derived from Roman law. The overwhelming novelty of high-tech services obscures the disadvantageous position of contracting parties. In most cases, service providers are global multinational companies which tend to secure their own unjustified privileges and gain by providing lengthy and intricate contracts, often comprising a number of legal documents. General terms and conditions in these service provision contracts are further complicated by the '.service level agreement', rules of conduct and (nonconfidentiality guarantees. Without giving the issue a second thought, users easily accept the pre-fabricated offer without reservations, unaware that such a pseudo-gratuitous contract actually conceals a highly lucrative and mutually binding agreement. The author examines the extent to which the legal provisions governing sale of goods and services, lease, loan and commodatum may apply to 'cloud computing' contracts, and analyses the scope and advantages of contractual consumer protection, as a relatively new area in contract law. The termination of a service contract between the provider and the user features specific post-contractual obligations which are inherent to an online environment.

  2. 48 CFR 251.205 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles 251.205 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.251-7001, Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS)Vehicles and Related Services, in solicitations and contracts which include the clause at FAR 52.251-2, Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related...

  3. 48 CFR 1851.205 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1851.205 Section 1851.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT USE OF GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management...

  4. Negotiating Your Syllabus: Building a Collaborative Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David M.; Renard, Monika K.

    2015-01-01

    We provide instruction for engaging students in negotiating their course syllabus. In contrast to the common conceptualization of the syllabus as an instructor-determined contract, we involve our students in developing the collaborative contract under which they will be evaluated. We discuss our successful facilitation of this activity and how to…

  5. 48 CFR 908.1104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 908.1104 Section 908.1104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Leasing of Motor Vehicles 908.1104 Contract clauses. (f...

  6. 77 FR 73699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-24; Order No. 1566] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as the addition of several articles...

  7. 77 FR 72412 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-22; Order No. 1557] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as the deletion of an article, the...

  8. 46 CFR 252.13 - Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract. 252.13 Section 252.13 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS OPERATING... Contract. Upon approval by the Board of an application for ODS, the applicant and the United States may...

  9. 48 CFR 53.242 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration. 53.242 Section 53.242 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.242 Contract administration. ...

  10. 77 FR 73062 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-23; Order No. 1562] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal.... The Postal Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as revisions to...

  11. 48 CFR 811.204 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.204 Section 811.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 811.204 Contract...

  12. Behavioral Contracts in the Martial Arts Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Gregory W.

    This paper discusses the use of behavior contracts for students with behavior problems in martial arts classrooms. Highlighted is the experience of one marital arts teacher with a preteen student who constantly disrupts the class. The behavior contract let the student continue participating while outlining specific expectations for him, his…

  13. Contract Research, the University, and the Academic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    Implications of the growth of university-based contract research are examined, including moral and ethical issues, legal aspects, ownership of research results, staff rights, researcher status, publication, authority, responsibility, social justice, and conflicts between teaching and research. Eleven suggestions for successful contract research…

  14. The Interpersonal Contract: A Vehicle for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Ben; Arnn, John

    All interpersonal relationships are a function of the basic beliefs, expectations, and reactions of the people involved. These conditions may not be written or even verbalized formally, but they exist nontheless and are as binding as any legal contract. Giving specific and intentional consideration to interpersonal contracts and utilizing them as…

  15. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. Hank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  16. Career Management and the Changing Psychological Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carol

    2002-01-01

    A 1993 survey in a British bank revealed a lack of strategic approaches to career management and a negative psychological contract. A 2000 follow-up showed that employees viewed the new contract as a regression from a relational to a transactional approach. They had increased responsibility for career development, but management failed to provide…

  17. 30 CFR 881.6 - Project contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contractors or suppliers for the construction, installation, services or work to be performed. (b) Project... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project contract. 881.6 Section 881.6 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.6 Project contract. (a...

  18. 22 CFR 226.47 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract administration. 226.47 Section 226.47 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.47 Contract administration. A...

  19. 22 CFR 226.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract provisions. 226.48 Section 226.48 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.48 Contract provisions. The...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.148 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... equivalent to five percent of the bid price. The “bid guarantee” shall consist of a firm commitment such as a... bidder shall, upon acceptance of his bid, execute such contractual documents as may be required within... contract price. A “performance bond” is one executed in connection with a contract to secure fulfillment of...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.509 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bidder equivalent to five percent of the bid price. The “bid guarantee” shall consist of a firm... assurance that the bidder shall, upon acceptance of his bid, execute such contractual documents as may be... the contract price. A “performance bond” is one executed in connection with a contract to secure...

  2. 28 CFR 70.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bidder equivalent to five percent of the bid price. The “bid guarantee” must consist of a firm commitment... that the bidder must, upon acceptance of his bid, execute such contractual documents as may be required... contract price. A “performance bond” is one executed in connection with a contract to secure fulfillment of...

  3. 78 FR 72572 - Operational Contract Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... contract support (OCS), including OCS program management, contract support integration, and integration of... integration, and the integration of DoD contractor personnel into contingency operations outside the United... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Public Law 96-511, ``Paperwork...

  4. 7 CFR 1466.21 - Contract requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of § 1466.26; (iii) Refund all program payments received on the transfer of the right and interest of the producer in land subject to the contract, unless the transferee of the right and interest... plan when the EQIP contract includes an animal waste management facility; (v) Implement a forest...

  5. An Overview of Nordic Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Bryde; Runesson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This essay is published as the opening chapter in a book that celebrates the 100 year anniversary of the uniform Nordic Contracts Acts. It introduces some of the main concepts, main rules and lines of argumentation that you will find in Nordic contract law. Thereby it introduces the reader...

  6. Firm Reorganization : Social Control or Social Contract?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Hendrik Leendert; Dolfsma, Wilfred; Blinde-Leerentveld, Rowan

    Firm reorganizations deeply affect employees. Management can reorganize in different ways, focusing on costs or acknowledging the involvement of employees. The latter implies following a social contract that complements incomplete (formal) labor contracts. Little is known about how the way in which

  7. 50 CFR 81.12 - Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIES OF FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PLANTS-COOPERATION WITH THE STATES § 81.12 Contracts. The State may use its... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts. 81.12 Section 81.12 Wildlife... provided by Office of Management and Budget Circular A-102. The State is the responsible authority without...

  8. 77 FR 10577 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... United States Postal Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service...

  9. CONTRACT LABOUR SYSTEM AND LESSONS FOR POST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shiweda

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... men to report for contract labour, but this was futile as Kavango ... ecological responses into a comprehensive system of labour control ... provided in 1935 did not only prevent the men from Kavango and Ovambo from moving .... The underlying dehumanizing actions of contract labour can be traced to the.

  10. Award-term contracts: Good for business?

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Brett; Yoder, E. Cory

    2005-01-01

    The use of award-term contracts doesn’t seem to represent the best interests of the U.S. taxpayer—rather, it smacks terribly of the government acquisition environment of two decades ago that pre- ceded the passage of the Competition in Contracting Act.

  11. The ineffectiveness of contracts for public services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Pudelka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the legal nature and application of contracts for public services. On the one hand the data to be treated as constitutionally guaranteed freedom, and on the other as the subordination of public authorities, acting unilaterally using the imperative management. Complimentary benefits unilateral public contracts for comparative analysis and their types.

  12. 48 CFR 11.304 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 11.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.304 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.211-5, Material Requirements, in solicitations and contracts for supplies that are not commercial items. ...

  13. 48 CFR 1553.232 - Contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract financing. 1553.232 Section 1553.232 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1553.232 Contract financing. ...

  14. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA... Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the library lapsed on September 30, 2005. On October 5, 2006... maintenance of a library of marketing contracts offered by certain packers to producers for the purchase of...

  15. MIT Experiments with Joint Venture Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    A new dormitory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology was constructed using a joint venture contract with safeguards and incentives that brought university, architect, and building contractor into a closer and more productive relationship than under conventional contract arrangements. (Author/MLF)

  16. 78 FR 3477 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... they share similar cost and market characteristics. Id. at 5. It notes that the pricing formula and...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This document invites... announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service...

  17. 78 FR 3478 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... similar cost and market characteristics. Id. at 5. It notes that the pricing formula and classification...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This document invites... that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks...

  18. Ferox is awarded another contract by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Ferox, manufacturer of equipment for the chemical industry, has been awarded a second contract by the physical research centre CERN (Switzerland). The contract regards the delivery of 10 pcs of stainless containers for liquid nitrogen and argon with a capacity of 50 cu mt (1 paragraph).

  19. 12 CFR 404.22 - Government contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contracts. 404.22 Section 404.22 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.22 Government contracts. (a) Approval by Assistant General Counsel for...

  20. Contract-based Internet Service Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giambiagi, Pablo; Owe, Olaf; Schneider, Gerardo

    The fast evolution of the Internet has popularized service-oriented architectures dynamic IT-supported inter-business collaborations. Yet, interoperability between different organizations, requires contracts to reduce risks. Thus, high-level models of contracts are making their way into service...

  1. Contract farming for improving smallholder incomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, Giel; Vellema, Wytse; Desiere, Sam; Weituschat, Sophia; Haese, D' Marijke

    2018-01-01

    Contract farming is a sales arrangement between a farmer and a firm, agreed before production begins, which provides the farmer with resources or services. Many governments and donors promote contract farming as part of agricultural development policies. However, there is serious concern whether

  2. 48 CFR 12.207 - Contract type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fixed-price with economic price adjustment contracts (e.g., by limiting the value or length of the time... when— (i) The prices are established based on a firm-fixed-price or fixed-price with economic price... pricing structure is not practicable. The D&F for this contract shall be approved one level above the...

  3. 48 CFR 927.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is a domestic small business or nonprofit organization as defined at (FAR) 48 CFR 27.301, except... contracts for the management and operation of DOE laboratories and production facilities. (b) DOE shall not... its rights in an identified invention pursuant to 10 CFR part 784, contracting officers shall consult...

  4. 48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.203-7003 in solicitations and contracts that include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  5. 48 CFR 622.1408 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 622.1408 Section 622.1408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with Disabilities 622.1408 Contract...

  6. 48 CFR 239.7103 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7103 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.239-7000, Protection... requires protection against compromising emanations. (b) Use the clause at 252.239-7001, Information...

  7. 29 CFR 4.107 - Federal contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contracts to which any agency or instrumentality of the U.S. Government becomes a party pursuant to... distinction in this respect between such agencies and instrumentalities on the basis of their inclusion in or... corporate in form, or the fact that payment for the contract services is not made from appropriated funds...

  8. Understanding Contract Audits: An Experimental Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, R.M.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Vaassen, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A contract audit is a buyer-initiated audit of prices and other conditions, which aims to decrease the information asymmetry between a buyer and a seller. Contract audits are frequently used in monopolistic or oligopolistic markets, as in government procurement. We draw upon three distinct

  9. Understanding contract audits : An experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, R.M.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Vaassen, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A contract audit is a buyer-initiated audit of prices and other conditions, which aims to decrease the information asymmetry between a buyer and a seller. Contract audits are frequently used in monopolistic or oligopolistic markets as in government procurement. We draw upon three distinct

  10. Assessment of Navy Contract Management Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    capability? • 85% of quality problems are related to processes, while only 15% of problems are controlled by individual workers ( Deming , 1986...eligible participants: 369 • Total surveys completed: 185 • Response rate: 50% CONTRACT MANAGEMENT MATURITY MODEL© MATURITY LEVEL 5...Measurement – Organizations systematically use performance metrics to measure the quality and evaluate the effectiveness of the contract management

  11. 48 CFR 9.308 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 9.308 Section 9.308 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 9.308 Contract clauses. ...

  12. New Perils for the Contract Ethnographer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1981-01-01

    Conditions of contract research may lead some workers to ignore publication rights of colleagues whose reports are of limited circulation. The author presents a case example of how this process occurred with the use of his own work and argues for rigorous ethical standards in the publication of contract research results. (Author/GC)

  13. Contract Design: Risk Management and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Amelung, Volker E; Juhnke, Christin

    2018-01-12

    Effective risk adjustment is an aspect that is more and more given weight on the background of competitive health insurance systems and vital healthcare systems. The risk structure of the providers plays a vital role in Pay for Performance. A prerequisite for optimal incentive-based service models is a (partial) dependence of the agent's returns on the provider's gain level. Integrated care systems as well as accountable care organisations (ACOs) in the US and similar concepts in other countries are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. By this the total costs of care shall be reduced. Little is known about the contractual design and the main challenges of delegating "accountability" to these new kinds of organisations and/or contracts. The costs of market utilisation are highly relevant for the conception of healthcare contracts; furthermore information asymmetries and contract-specific investments are an obstacle to the efficient operation of ACOs. A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. The research question in this article focuses on how reimbursement strategies, evaluation of measures and methods of risk adjustment can best be integrated in healthcare contracting. Each integrated care contract includes challenges for both payers and providers without having sufficient empirical data on both sides. These challenges are clinical, administrative or financial nature. Risk adjusted contracts ensure that the reimbursement roughly matches the true costs resulting from the morbidity of a population. If reimbursement of care provider corresponds to the actual expenses for an individual/population the problem of risk selection is greatly reduced. The currently used methods of risk adjustment have widely differing model and forecast

  14. Contract Design: Risk Management and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel C. Mühlbacher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective risk adjustment is an aspect that is more and more given weight on the background of competitive health insurance systems and vital healthcare systems. The risk structure of the providers plays a vital role in Pay for Performance. A prerequisite for optimal incentive-based service models is a (partial dependence of the agent’s returns on the provider’s gain level. Integrated care systems as well as accountable care organisations (ACOs in the US and similar concepts in other countries are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. By this the total costs of care shall be reduced.  Methods: Little is known about the contractual design and the main challenges of delegating “accountability” to these new kinds of organisations and/or contracts. The costs of market utilisation are highly relevant for the conception of healthcare contracts; furthermore information asymmetries and contract-specific investments are an obstacle to the efficient operation of ACOs. A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. The research question in this article focuses on how reimbursement strategies, evaluation of measures and methods of risk adjustment can best be integrated in healthcare contracting.  Results: Each integrated care contract includes challenges for both payers and providers without having sufficient empirical data on both sides. These challenges are clinical, administrative or financial nature. Risk adjusted contracts ensure that the reimbursement roughly matches the true costs resulting from the morbidity of a population. If reimbursement of care provider corresponds to the actual expenses for an individual/population the problem of risk selection is greatly reduced. The currently used methods

  15. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  16. Characteristics of nuclear contracts. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.

    1976-01-01

    When nuclear contracts are concluded account should be taken of their conditions of validity: the capacity of parties to undertake such commitment, freedom of consent, accuracy and observance of formalities. Once concluded, the contract is binding for the parties, subject to certain restrictions such as the theory of the unforeseeable. The party which fails to execute the contract is subject to sanctions. In an agreement covering the supply of a nuclear installation or equipment, various documents are attached to the contract proper, i.e. the technical instructions, the invoice and the estimate. The special clauses in nuclear contracts, include inter alia the special obligations imposed on the staff of the undertakings, the requirements to take out third party liability insurance, the very stringent conditions regarding taking over the installations and the guarantee (NEA) [fr

  17. Operator and contractor benefit from incentive contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports that with incentive contracts, drilling and service contractors assume greater responsibility for operations. That helps them to align their goals more closely with those of the operator. This achieves a more equitable division of the risks. Many operators and contractors believe this is a more appropriate approach to contracting drilling services. As they assume manageable responsibility, each party also has opportunities for greater reward. Innovations in cooperation can create a win-win situation. In a win-win contract all parties benefit from the new relationships between operator, contractor, and service company. The win-win situation can only be achieved by allowing the contracting parties to become much more closely involved in drilling operations. This is the primary motivation behind development of more productive contracting strategies

  18. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2015-01-01

    ) are observed across central government agencies, when the content of the performance contracts is compared. This makes it interesting to examine how variation in the content of the performance contracts across agencies can be explained? Based on a broad theoretical framework in which variation......This paper looks into performance contracting in Danish central government. Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) was adopted in central government in Denmark during the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, performance contracts between parent ministries and their agencies were introduced...... in Danish central government. Since their introduction, performance contracts have become central elements in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, and today they are nearly universally adopted in central government. In Denmark, the Ministry of Finance is responsible...

  19. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3, Appendix M, Contract Copies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This report, is part of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration, consists of an appendix of contract copies related to the following: Detailed Index to Generic Utility Power Sales Contracts, Text of Generic Utility Contract, Detailed Index to Generic DSI Power Sales Contracts, Text of Generic DSI Contract, Text of Residential Purchase and Sale Agreement (Residential Exchange), and Detailed Index to General Contract Provisions -- GCP Form PSC-2 (Incorporated into all three types of contracts as an Exhibit).

  20. Contract 98 Self-Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of LBL`s Self-Assessment required by Appendix F to Contract DE ACOO3765F00098. This self assessment covers the performance measures set forth in Appendix F except those requiring an external audit. The performance measures for LBL are in the areas of ES&H Finance, Human Services and Procurement and Property. LBL is a multi-program laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for DOE. The mission of LBL includes performing research in energy, general, and life sciences. LBL facilities include the main site on 130 acres located in the cities of Berkeley and Oakland; laboratories and offices located in buildings on the UC Berkeley Campus; and three leased buildings in the cities of Berkeley and Emeryville. 1. Involvement of Line Management in the assessment process to provide awareness and ownership. 2. Using existing assessments, audits and appraisals in lieu of a new assessment wherever possible. 3. Conduct of the assessments by individuals with functional responsibility and knowledge of the areas being assessed. 4. Interaction with individuals performing assessments at other Laboratories to enhance our learning process. As anticipated, a number of findings will require corrective action. General corrective actions are identified for key findings in this report. In early May 1993, this Laboratory will begin the development of detailed formal corrective action plans which will be entered into a laboratory automated corrective action tracking system.

  1. Study of impacts of physical contracts and financial contracts on bidding strategies of GENCOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoling Chen; He, Y.; Song, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the impacts of physical contracts and financial contracts on the bidding strategies of GENCOs, including Physical Bilateral Contracts, Contracts for Difference (CfDs), Call Options and Put Options under discriminatory pricing mechanism. The integrated bidding decision model is applied, which has three main modules - probabilistic local marginal price simulator, market-oriented unit commitment model and multi-criteria decision system. The numerical results show that the GENCO will choose different bidding strategies if it holds different types of contract. The results also suggest that CfDs have the best performance for risk alleviation. (author)

  2. ’Point of Injury’ Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-17

    Injury" Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics March 17,2012 Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD) Defense...Contract: April 25, 2011 Short Title of Work: "Point of Injury" Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics " Contract Expiration Date...SBIR PHASE I OPTION REPORT: Point of Injury, Sampling Technology for Battlefield Molecular Diagnostics . W31P4Q-1 l-C-0222 (UNCLASSIFIED) P.I

  3. IAEA research contracts. Second annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    During the period in which the Agency's research programme has been operative, nearly 150 research contracts have been placed with institutions in 35 Member States. While considerable emphasis was placed initially on research of a more fundamental nature - as reflected by the summaries presented herein of work under contracts awarded in the early stages of the programme - recent policy has shifted the major emphasis toward research of a practical nature, as the results of this type of research are likely to be of more immediate interest to Member States, and particularly to the developing nations. In every case, the summary of the contractor's final report has been prepared by that member of the Agency's scientific staff who has been closely connected with that particular subject of research. Thus, the scientific data reported in the summary remain the responsibility of the contractor, the Agency being responsible for any additional observations. The reports of the following contracts are included: Research Contract No. 1, Factors controlling the distribution of fission products in the biosphere; Research Contract No. 4, The development of a method of non-destructive analysis to determine the U-235 and Pu content of irradiated fuel elements that are in storage under water and that have been out of the reactor for periods of more than one month; Research Contract No. 5, Non-destructive method for evaluating the U-235 and Pu content of irradiated fuel elements; Research Contract No. 19, Studies of contamination in local marine resources, and more specifically the determination of horizontal and vertical diffusion rates in Suruga Bay; Research Contract No. 22, A study of the uptake, accumulation and loss of radioactive material by marine bacteria; Research Contract No. 26, (a) Red cell life span in patients with congenital or acquired haemolytic anaemia using Cr-51 and pie-operative spleen scanning; (b) The aeriology of tropical iron deficiency anaemia using Fe-59 in

  4. IAEA research contracts. Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-07-01

    During the period in which the Agency's research programme has been operative, nearly 150 research contracts have been placed with institutions in 35 Member States. While considerable emphasis was placed initially on research of a more fundamental nature - as reflected by the summaries presented herein of work under contracts awarded in the early stages of the programme - recent policy has shifted the major emphasis toward research of a practical nature, as the results of this type of research are likely to be of more immediate interest to Member States, and particularly to the developing nations. In every case, the summary of the contractor's final report has been prepared by that member of the Agency's scientific staff who has been closely connected with that particular subject of research. Thus, the scientific data reported in the summary remain the responsibility of the contractor, the Agency being responsible for any additional observations. The reports of the following contracts are included: Research Contract No. 1, Factors controlling the distribution of fission products in the biosphere; Research Contract No. 4, The development of a method of non-destructive analysis to determine the U-235 and Pu content of irradiated fuel elements that are in storage under water and that have been out of the reactor for periods of more than one month; Research Contract No. 5, Non-destructive method for evaluating the U-235 and Pu content of irradiated fuel elements; Research Contract No. 19, Studies of contamination in local marine resources, and more specifically the determination of horizontal and vertical diffusion rates in Suruga Bay; Research Contract No. 22, A study of the uptake, accumulation and loss of radioactive material by marine bacteria; Research Contract No. 26, (a) Red cell life span in patients with congenital or acquired haemolytic anaemia using Cr-51 and pie-operative spleen scanning; (b) The aeriology of tropical iron deficiency anaemia using Fe-59 in

  5. 48 CFR 1816.307-70 - NASA contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... officer may insert a clause substantially as stated at 1852.216-87, Submission of Vouchers for Payment, in... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1816.307-70... clause at 1852.216-75, Payment of Fixed Fee, in cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts. Modifications to the...

  6. 24 CFR 983.202 - Purpose of HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of HAP contract. 983.202... DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Housing Assistance Payments Contract § 983.202 Purpose of HAP contract. (a) Requirement. The PHA must enter into a HAP contract with the owner. The HAP contract must be...

  7. 24 CFR 983.203 - HAP contract information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract information. 983.203... DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Housing Assistance Payments Contract § 983.203 HAP contract information. The HAP contract must specify: (a) The total number of contract units by number of bedrooms; (b...

  8. 24 CFR 983.204 - When HAP contract is executed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When HAP contract is executed. 983... When HAP contract is executed. (a) PHA inspection of housing. (1) Before execution of the HAP contract... into a HAP contract for any contract unit until the PHA has determined that the unit complies with the...

  9. 23 CFR 635.125 - Termination of contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.125 Termination of contract. (a) All contracts exceeding... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of contract. 635.125 Section 635.125... the termination will be effected and the basis for settlement. In addition, such contracts shall...

  10. 48 CFR 970.1706-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.1706... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Special Contracting Methods 970.1706-2 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 52.217-9, Option to Extend the Term of...

  11. 48 CFR 970.1707-4 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.1707... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Special Contracting Methods 970.1707-4 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 970.5217-1, Work for Others Program (Non-DOE Funded Work), in any contract...

  12. 48 CFR 942.270-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 942.270-2 Section 942.270-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Services 942.270-2 Contract clause. The clause at 952...

  13. 42 CFR 414.422 - Terms of contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...)(i) of the Act, if applicable to such subcontractor. (g) Breach of contract. (1) Any deviation from... requirements, constitutes a breach of contract. (2) In the event a contract supplier breaches its contract, CMS... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terms of contracts. 414.422 Section 414.422 Public...

  14. 7 CFR 1465.25 - Contract violations and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) If NRCS terminates a contract due to breach of contract, or the participant voluntarily... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations and termination. 1465.25 Section... ASSISTANCE Contracts § 1465.25 Contract violations and termination. (a) If NRCS determines that a participant...

  15. 41 CFR 109-27.102-50 - Systems contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102-50 Systems contracting. Systems contracting may... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems contracting. 109-27.102-50 Section 109-27.102-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  16. 48 CFR 16.202 - Firm-fixed-price contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firm-fixed-price contracts. 16.202 Section 16.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.202 Firm-fixed-price...

  17. 48 CFR 1816.202 - Firm-fixed-price contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Firm-fixed-price contracts. 1816.202 Section 1816.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1816.202 Firm...

  18. 48 CFR 970.2210 - Service Contract Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service Contract Act. 970... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2210 Service Contract Act. The Service Contract Act of 1965 is not applicable to contracts for the management and operation of...

  19. 29 CFR 6.4 - Subpoenas (Service Contract Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Subpoenas (Service Contract Act). 6.4 Section 6.4 Labor... STANDARDS IN FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS AND FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 6.4 Subpoenas (Service Contract Act). All applications under the Service Contract Act for subpoenas ad...

  20. 48 CFR 432.113 - Customary contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financing. 432.113 Section 432.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 432.113 Customary contract financing. The contracting officer may determine the necessity for customary contract financing. The...