WorldWideScience

Sample records for contraceptive agents female

  1. Female contraception over 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of women 40-49 years of age need an effective method of contraception because the decline in fertility with age is an insufficient protection against unwanted pregnancy. Although pregnancy is less likely after the age of 40 years, the clinical and social consequences...... is insufficient for contraceptive purposes. Thus a family planning method is needed. Sterilization is by far the most common method in several countries. Copper intrauterine devices and hormone intrauterine systems have similar effectiveness, with fewer than 1% failures in the first year of typical use. Special...

  2. Noncontraceptive use of contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Monique Collier; Alderman, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    • On the basis of strong research evidence, there are many noncontraceptive advantages to use of hormonal contraceptive agents in adolescent girls. (3) (4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, most of these agents are safe with minor adverse effects. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, through application of evidence-based approaches and proper counseling, pediatricians can use various contraceptive agents to treat several medical conditions and to help alleviate many of the undesired symptoms and complications associated with menstrual periods. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13) (14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, these agents may be used in sexually active adolescents to simultaneously help prevent unintended adolescent pregnancies. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14).

  3. Sexual and Contraceptive Practices among Female Undergraduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONCLUSION: There is a high level of sexual activity and low contraceptive use among female undergraduate students in Southwest Nigeria. More reproductive health education and promotion is necessary to safeguard their sexual health. KEYWORDS: sexual behaviour, contraception, female undergraduates, Nigeria ...

  4. Ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alan M; Thomas, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Emergency contraceptive agents play a crucial role in preventing unplanned pregnancy. These agents and devices have been studied since the 1960s and have had varied results in terms of side effects and efficacy. A new oral tablet for emergency contraception (EC), ulipristal acetate (UPA) , is a selective progesterone receptor modulator and can be used up to 120 h following unprotected intercourse, without an increase in adverse effects or a decrease in efficacy. This article reviews studies that evaluate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of UPA as an emergency contraceptive agent. UPA, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, is administered as a single 30 mg dose for EC. This agent provides a comparable, if not better, efficacy and side effect profile than seen with levonorgestrel or mifepristone. Because it has both agonistic and antagonistic effects on the progesterone receptor, ongoing clinical trials are documenting UPA's use for patients with endometriosis and as an extended use contraceptive.

  5. Contraceptive use among female traders in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contraceptive use among female traders in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... residence and compatibility between work and family responsibilities especially child care. ... contraceptives and associated factors among female traders in a well-defined market.

  6. The effects of contraception on female poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Stephanie P; LaLumia, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates are particularly high among households headed by single women, and childbirth is often the event preceding these households' poverty spells. This paper examines the relationship between legal access to the birth control pill and female poverty. We rely on exogenous cross-state variation in the year in which oral contraception became legally available to young, single women. Using census data from 1960 to 1990, we find that having legal access to the birth control pill by age 20 significantly reduces the probability that a woman is subsequently in poverty. We estimate that early legal access to oral contraception reduces female poverty by 0.5 percentage points, even when controlling for completed education, employment status, and household composition.

  7. Predictors of Contraceptive use Among Female Adolescents in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictors of Contraceptive use Among Female Adolescents in Ghana. ... contraceptive use amongst adolescent girls in Ghana using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). ... (Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 18[1]: 102-109).

  8. Endogenous antispermatogenic agents: prospects for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Robaire, B

    1978-01-01

    A review of endogenous antispermatogenic agents as prospects for male contraception is reported. It is demonstrated that endogenous compounds exert regulatory influences at 4 major levels in the male: 1) between germ cells; 2) between Sertoli and germ cells; 3) between Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; and 4) between the central nervous system and the testis. Efforts to interrupt spermatogenesis have failed to find application as male contraceptives for various reasons: 1) some investigators ignored the vulnerable control points by utilizing nonspecific agents; 2) others attacked a vulnerable control point but used synthetic drugs that had deleterious side effects; and 3) still others attacked a vulnerable control point with a relatively innocuous drug but used an impractical mode of drug administration. The potential for devising innovative techniques for administering relatively innocuous drugs at dosages sufficient to produce sterility without causing deleterious side effects is demonstrated. The most promising solution for the development of an antispermatogenic male contraceptive is the interference with the adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis via the subcutaneous sustained release of steroid formulations containing either androgen-danazol, androgen-progestin, or androgen-estrogen formulations. Another promising agent would be luteinizing releasing hormone agonist-androgen formulation.

  9. Knowledge and practice of emergency contraception among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in University of Lagos and to determine the factors that influence knowledge and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: The ...

  10. Weight and body mass index among female contraceptive clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julia E; Lopez, Priscilla M; Simons, Hannah R

    2015-06-01

    As obesity may affect the efficacy of some contraceptives, we examined weight, body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity among female contraceptive clients at 231 U.S. health centers. A secondary aim was to analyze differences in contraceptive method use by obesity status. Cross-sectional study using de-identified electronic health record data from family planning centers. We analyzed contraceptive visits made by 147,336 females aged 15-44 years in 2013. A total of 46.1% of clients had BMI ≥25. Mean body weight was 154.4 lb (S.D.=41.9); mean BMI was 26.1 (S.D.=6.6). A total of 40% had BMI ≥26, when levonorgestrel emergency contraception may become less effective. Obese clients had higher odds of using a tier 1 or tier 3 contraceptive method and had lower odds of using a tier 2 or hormonal method than non-obese clients. About half of contraceptive clients would be categorized as overweight or obese. Contraceptive method choices differed by obesity status. About half of contraceptive clients in this study population were overweight or obese. Contraceptive method choices differed by obesity status. All women - regardless of body size - should receive unbiased, evidence-based counseling on the full range of contraceptive options so that they can make informed choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contraceptive use by female physicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, E

    1999-11-01

    Little is known about female physicians' personal contraceptive use, and such usage could influence their prescribing patterns. We used data from the Women Physicians' Health Study, a large (n = 4501) national study, administered in 1993-1994, on characteristics of female physicians in the United States. These female physicians (ages 30-44 years) were more likely to use contraception than women in the general population (ages 15-44 years); this was true even when the physicians were compared with only other women of high socioeconomic status and when stratified by ethnicity, age, and number of children. Physicians were also more likely to use intrauterine devices, diaphragms, or condoms, and less likely to use female or male sterilization than were other women. Younger female physicians were especially unlikely to use permanent methods, particularly when compared with their age-matched counterparts in the general population. One fifth of contracepting physicians used more than one type of contraceptive; the most frequently used combination was spermicide with a barrier method. Female physicians contracept differently than do women in the general population, in ways consistent with delaying and reducing total fertility. Physicians' personal characteristics have been shown to influence their patient counseling practices, including their contraception-related attitudes and practices. Although female physicians' clinical advice might differ from their personal practices, as women physicians become more prevalent, their contraceptive choices could influence those of their patients.

  12. Predictors of Adolescent Female Decision Making Regarding Contraceptive Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Vicki; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship of cognitive capacity, cognitive egocentrism, and experience factors to decision making in contraceptive use. Findings from 50 sexually active, unmarried female adolescents revealed that cognitive capacity and cognitive egocentrism variables, not experience with contraceptives, were significantly related to, and predictive…

  13. Female Adolescent Contraceptive Decision Making and Risk Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon A.; Green, Vicki

    1993-01-01

    Findings from 60 sexually active, unmarried females, ages 14 through 18, revealed that cognitive capacity and cognitive egocentrism variables as well as age, grade, and ethnic status significantly predicted 6 of 7 decision-making variables in contraceptive use model. One cognitive capacity variable and one sexual contraceptive behavior variable…

  14. Premarital Contraceptives Usage among Male and Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…

  15. Utilization of modern contraceptives among female traders in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    use of modern contraceptives has remained low despite the high level of awareness of the modern contraceptives among the female traders. Health education on the ... protecting women's health and rights, impacting upon fertility ..... India. The Internet Journal of World Health and. Societal Politics 2008;5. 16. Makumbi F ...

  16. Oral Contraceptives and Bone Health in Female Runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelsey, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    .... This study is a two-year randomized trial of the effects of oral contraceptives on bone mass and stress fracture incidence among 150 female competitive distance runners in the age range 18-25 years...

  17. Oral Contraceptives and Bone Health in Female Runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelsey, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    .... This study is a two-year randomized trial of the effects of oral contraceptives on bone mass and stress fracture incidence among 150 female competitive cross country runners in the age range 18-25 years...

  18. Contraception in HIV-positive female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananworanich Jintanat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual behavior of HIV-positive youths, whether infected perinatally, through risky behavior or other ways, is not substantially different from that of HIV-uninfected peers. Because of highly active antiretroviral therapy, increasing number of children, infected perinatally, are surviving into adolescence and are becoming sexually active and need reproductive health services. The objective of this article is to review the methods of contraception appropriate for HIV-positive adolescents with a special focus on hormonal contraceptives. Delaying the start of sexual life and the use of two methods thereafter, one of which is the male condom and the other a highly effective contraceptive method such as hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device, is currently the most effective option for those who desire simultaneous protection from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Health care providers should be aware of the possible pharmacokinetic interactions between hormonal contraception and antiretrovirals. There is an urgent need for more information regarding metabolic outcomes of hormonal contraceptives, especially the effect of injectable progestins on bone metabolism, in HIV-positive adolescent girls.

  19. Predicting effective contraceptive behavior in college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C B; Torre, C

    1987-09-01

    This article reports the results of a preliminary research project that explored the relationship between assertiveness, cognitive development and contraceptive behavior among single young women in their freshman and senior years at college. A total of 60 college women at a university health center volunteered to participate in this pilot study. They filled out three instruments: the Galassi College Self-Expression Scale (SES), the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID) tool and an author-developed sexuality questionnaire. Although there was a significant relationship between cognitive development and assertiveness, no significant relationships were found between cognitive development, assertiveness and use of effective contraception. Interesting descriptive characteristics were identified. Clinical implications are discussed.

  20. Contraceptive Provision to Adolescent Females Prescribed Teratogenic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Stephani L; Miller, Melissa; Briggs, Holley; Lynch, Daryl; Goggin, Kathy; Kearns, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Rates of adult women receiving contraceptive provision when simultaneously prescribed a known teratogen are alarmingly low. The prevalence of this behavior among pediatric providers and their adolescent patients is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe pediatric provider behaviors for prescribing teratogens concurrently with counseling, referral, and/or prescribing of contraception (collectively called contraceptive provision) in the adolescent population. A retrospective review was conducted examining visits in 2008-2012 by adolescents aged 14 to 25 years in which a known teratogen (US Food and Drug Administration pregnancy risk category D or X) was prescribed. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, evidence of contraceptive provision, and menstrual and sexual histories. The data were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Within 4172 clinic visits, 1694 females received 4506 prescriptions for teratogenic medications. The most commonly prescribed teratogens were topiramate, methotrexate, diazepam, isotretinoin, and enalapril. The subspecialties prescribing teratogens most frequently were neurology, hematology-oncology, and dermatology. Overall, contraceptive provision was documented in 28.6% of the visits. Whites versus nonwhites and older versus younger girls were more likely to receive contraceptive provision. The presence of a federal risk mitigation system for the teratogen also increased the likelihood of contraceptive provision. Our data demonstrate female adolescents prescribed teratogens receive inadequate contraception provision, which could increase their risk for negative pregnancy outcomes. Although the presence of a federal risk mitigation system appears to improve contraceptive provision, these systems are costly and, in some instances, difficult to implement. Efforts to improve provider practices are needed. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Essure: a revolution in female definitive contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella de Batista Depes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tubal sterilization is the most widely used procedure in the world for definitive contraception. It is safely performed by laparoscopy, but it is an invasive procedure with potential surgical and anesthetic risks. By hysteroscopy, the Essure micro-insert assures tubal obstruction with no need of hospitalization, incision or anesthesia.

  2. Sexual Self-Acceptance, Communication with Partner, and Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…

  3. Trends in contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rahman, Lutuf; Marrone, Gaetano; Johansson, Annika

    2011-06-01

    Within the past one and half decades many efforts have been made to improve the availability and access to adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Despite these efforts, adolescents still face a number of sexual and reproductive health problems. This paper uses data from the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys to examine changes in contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents (15-19 years old). The results show that between 2003 and 2008 there was a significant increase in the current use of any contraceptive method (from 23.7% to 35.1%, p = 0.03). It also indicates a shift from modern to traditional contraceptive methods. Traditional methods recorded about 60% (7.8 percentage points) increase as compared to 5.5% (2.6 percentage points) for modern methods. Also ever use of any traditional method recorded a higher increase as compared to any modem method. There was a slight decline 7% (4.4 parentage points) in the number of non-users who intended to use contraceptives in the future. On the whole the findings indicate increasing unmet need for modern contraception due to barriers such as limited access, cost and misconceptions about the effects of contraceptives.

  4. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog.

  5. Trends in contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reproductive health services. Despite these efforts, adolescents still face a number of sexual and reproductive health problems. This paper uses data from the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys to examine changes in contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents (15-19 years old).

  6. Impact of male partner's awareness and support for contraceptives on female intent to use contraceptives in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Asaolu, Ibitola; Obiefune, Michael C; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Osuji, Alice; Ogidi, Amaka G; Hunt, Aaron T; Patel, Dina; Yang, Wei; Ehiri, John E

    2015-09-10

    Despite the growing body of evidence on use of modern contraceptives among women in sub-Saharan African countries, little is known about the broader context in which female decision-making concerning contraceptive use occurs, particularly the role of their male partners' awareness and support of modern contraceptives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2468 pregnant women and their male partners enrolled in the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), an intervention to increase HIV testing among pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) male partners' awareness of, and support for, female contraceptive methods, and 2) influence of male partners' contraceptive awareness and support on pregnant women's expressed desire to use contraception. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between male partners' awareness and support of modern contraceptives on their spouses' desire to use contraceptives. Men's awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were significantly associated with their female partners' desire to use contraception. A majority of the men who were aware of modern contraceptives (66.5 %) and those who supported their spouses' use of contraception (72.5 %) had partners who expressed a desire to use contraception. Men who were aware of female contraception were 3 times more likely to have spouses who desired to use contraception (AOR = 3.17, 95 % C.I: 2.70-3.75). In addition, men who showed support for their spouses' use of contraception were over 5 times more likely to have spouses who indicated a desire to use contraception (AOR = 5.76, 95 % C.I: 4.82-6.88). Living in a household of 5 or more people (AOR = 1.45, 95 % C.I: 1.23-1.72) and residing in an urban area (AOR = 0.81, 95 % C.I: 0.67-0.97) were also significantly associated with women's expressed desire to use modern contraception. Men's awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were markedly

  7. sexuality, contraception and unintended pregnancy among female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    knowledge of family planning. Condom ... relationship between respondents with multiple ... cause of healthy life lost. ... power imbalance between women ... working on female reproductive health ..... consequences among student nurses.

  8. Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G L

    1967-01-01

    Contraception is discussed in this article. Abstinence is the only certain method of contraception. The normal pregnancy rate in the normal unprotected population would be somewhere between 60 to 80 pregnancies per 100 woman-years. Contraceptive methods vary in effectiveness. The failure rate of the safe period method is between 10-50 per 100 woman-years while the failure rate of spermicidal pessaries and creams is somewhere between 20 and 80 per 100 woman-years. Occlusive diaphragms fit over the anterior vaginal wall, such as the Dutch cap, or over the cervix itself, such as the cervical or Dumas cap. The failure rate of the Dumas cap is about 4 per 100 woman-years and the Dutch cap 6 per 100 woman-years. Perhaps the ideal female contraceptive is just around the corner in the alteration of cervical mucus by changing its pH or other constituents so that it becomes a spermicidal barrier or causes either sperm agglutination or a reduction of sperm motility. Between 8% and 15% of plastic IUDs are extruded spontaneously and a further 10% may be removed because of pain, intermenstrual bleeding, or menorrhagia. They are well tolerated in about 80% of patients, in whom the failure rate is about 2 per 100 woman years. The douche and sponge are unacceptable and unreliable methods of contraception. The main advance in contraceptive technique over the past 10 years has been the introduction of the oral contraceptives. The combined type of pill was developed first, followed by the sequential type. It has been estimated that between half a million and 1 million women in this country now take oral contraceptive pills and nothing detrimental has so far been proved about the method in spite of persistent and widely published doubts about its possible dangers. The failure rate of the oral contraceptives is less than 1 per 100 woman years.

  9. Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabane, Ntswaleng S; Peu, Mmapheko D

    2015-10-22

    Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District contribute to the nonuseand or discontinued use of contraceptives as evidenced by increased levels of unplanned pregnancies. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive approach was followed in this study. The population comprised of pregnant female teenagers who were purposively selected. Data were collected using unstructured individual interviews on a face-to-face encounter in a natural setting. Data were analysed using the discourse method of data analysis. The following perceptions on the use of contraceptives emerged: Perceptions on the use of contraceptives, emotions, contraceptive effects, social pressure and education on contraceptives. Teenagers' perceptions were predominantly negative with unfounded fears. Though the teenagers were aware of the importance of the use of contraceptives, motivation to pursue contraception was lacking. Teenagers verbalised to be uncommitted as well. Various perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives were explored and described. It was noted that all the teenagers interviewed had great remorse and feelings of guilt regarding their behaviour of not using contraceptives.Their need for re-education was cited and seen as motivational enough to encourage the use of contraceptives at primary health care settings. Therefore, the study recommended that health education programmes should be restructured to effectively influence the female teenagers'perceptions positively and to promote the use of contraceptives.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Samuel H

    2015-08-19

    Adolescence is a critical stage in the life course and evidence suggests that even though contraceptive use has been steadily increasing among women in Ghana over the past years, contraceptive prevalence and determinants among female adolescents is quite lacking. This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana. The paper used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey. Bivariate analysis was carried out to determine the contraceptive prevalence among female adolescents while logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the correlates of female adolescent contraceptive use. The study founded that female adolescent contraceptive use was significantly determined by age of adolescent, education, work status, knowledge of ovulatory cycle, visit of health facility and marital status. This has implications for adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in Ghana. It is therefore essential to intensify girl child education and strengthen the provision of family planning information and services for female adolescents in the country.

  11. An exploratory analysis of contraceptive method choice and symptoms of depression in adolescent females initiating prescription contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jenny; Presser, Liandra; Malbon, Katherine; Braun-Courville, Debra; Linares, Lourdes Oriana

    2015-04-01

    We examine the association between depressive symptoms and contraceptive method choice among adolescents initiating prescription contraception. This cross-sectional study analyzes baseline data of 220 urban, minority adolescent females (ages 15-19 years) presenting for prescription contraceptive initiation at a comprehensive, free-of-cost, adolescent health center in New York City. All participants met with a health care provider who provided standard contraception counseling before initiating contraception. Each participant then selected a short- or long-acting contraceptive: a 3-month supply of the pill, patch, ring or a medroxyprogesterone acetate depot injection (short-acting), or placement/referral for an intrauterine device (IUD; long-acting). We assess the independent association between contraceptive method selection and symptoms of depression [assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale]. Ten percent (n=21/220) of adolescent females selected an IUD. Bivariate analysis revealed that those with elevated levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to select an IUD as compared to those with minimal symptoms (mean CES-D score 20 vs. 13; t=3.052, p=.003). In multivariate logistic regressions, adolescent females had increased odds of selecting an IUD if they reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=4.93; confidence interval, 1.53-15.83; p=.007) after controlling for ethnicity/race, education, number of lifetime partners and gravidity. Inner-city, minority adolescents with elevated symptoms of depression who present for prescription contraceptive initiation may be more likely to select an IUD rather than shorter-acting methods. By recognizing adolescent females with depressive symptoms, providers can strategize their approach to effective contraception counseling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Do knowledge and cultural perceptions of modern female contraceptives predict male involvement in Ayete, Nigeria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, A; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Onoviran, Oghemetega O

    2014-12-01

    Male involvement is crucial to female contraceptive use. This study examined how male knowledge and cultural perceptions of modern female contraceptives influence involvement in contraceptive use. A cross-sectional survey of 389 men from Ayete, Nigeria was used to regress a continuous male involvement score on demographic variables, knowledge of at least one method of modern female contraception and a scored male perception variable using Ordinary Least Squares regression. Controlling for perception, the knowledge of at least one method of modern female contraception was not significantly associated with a change in male involvement (p=0.264). Increasing positive perception was associated with higher male involvement scores (p=0.001). Higher educated males, those with a current desire to have children and males whose partners were currently using a method had greater male involvement scores (pcultural perceptions, in addition to providing in-depth knowledge of contraceptive methods.

  13. Kenyan female sex workers' use of female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception: do they use condoms less consistently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Eileen A; Okal, Jerry; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicholas; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Geibel, Scott

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether nonbarrier modern contraceptive use is associated with less consistent condom use among Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). Researchers recruited 579 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between consistent condom use and female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use. A total of 98.8% reported using male condoms in the past month, and 64.6% reported using female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. In multivariate analysis, female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use was not associated with decreased condom use with clients or nonpaying partners. Consistency of condom use is not compromised when FSWs use available female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. FSWs should be encouraged to use condoms consistently, whether or not other methods are used simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlates for Consistency of Contraceptive Use Among Sexually Active Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Hsia Wang

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the correlates for consistency of contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Overall, 164 female adolescents who had engaged in sexual behavior within the last 6 months and were not pregnant at the time of the study were selected from two vocational high schools in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure demographic data, contraceptive attitudes, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive self-efficacy, perception of peers' use of contraceptives, sexual history, and contraceptive use. The results showed that 45.7% of subjects had sex once or more per week, and that 39.6% of subjects always used contraceptives while 15.2% never used contraceptives. Condoms were the most popular contraceptives (51.2% and the withdrawal method was the second most popular (23.8%. Stepwise logistic regression showed that higher contraceptive attitudes (odds ratio, OR, 1.148 and previous contraceptive education in school (OR, 3.394 increased the probability of consistently using contraceptives, correctly classifying 67.2% of the sample.

  15. Contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweya MN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mussa N Sweya,1 Sia E Msuya,2,3 Michael J Mahande,2 Rachel Manongi1,3 1Community Health Department, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University, 3Community Health Department, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania Background: Previous studies have shown that knowledge of contraceptives, especially among the youth in universities, remains limited, and the rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies, and illegal abortions remains higher among university students. This study aimed to assess contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from May to June 2015 among undergraduate female students in four universities in Kilimanjaro region. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. An odds ratio with 95% confidence interval for factors associated with modern contraceptive use was computed using multiple logistic regression models. A P-value of <5% (two-tailed was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 401 students were involved in the study. Two-thirds (260, 64.8% of the participants had had sexual intercourse. The majority (93.8% of the participants had knowledge of contraception. One hundred and seventy-five (43.6% sexually active women reported that they used contraceptives in the past, while 162 (40.4% were current contraceptive users. More than half (54.2% of the sexually active group started sexual activity between the ages of 20–24 years. The most popular methods of contraception used were condoms, withdrawal, and periodic abstinence. The main

  16. A mixed-methods exploration of the contraceptive experiences of female teens with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    We explored the contraceptive experiences of female teens with epilepsy, including their knowledge and perceptions of interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormonal contraception and contraceptive decision-making processes. From November 2012 to May 2013, we conducted one online survey (n=114) and 12 online focus group discussions (n=26) with female teens with epilepsy about their contraceptive experiences and unmet needs. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and focus group transcripts were analyzed thematically using modified grounded theory methods. Both survey and focus group participants reported believing that interactions between epilepsy medications and hormonal contraceptives could lead to reductions in contraceptive efficacy and seizure control. However, their knowledge about these types of medication interactions was often incomplete. Many study participants viewed contraceptive decision making as a difficult process, and some participants reported avoiding hormonal contraceptives because of potential interactions with antiepileptic drugs. Study participants reported relying on health care providers and parents for contraceptive decision-making support. Focus group participants also reported they wanted health care providers to provide more in-depth and comprehensive counseling about contraception, and that they desired peer support with contraceptive decisions. The ability to make informed contraceptive decisions is important for teens with epilepsy as interactions between anti-epileptic drugs and hormonal contraceptives can impact seizure occurrence and lead to an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy. Guidance for providers offering contraceptive care to this population is needed, as well as a contraceptive support tool that empowers teens with epilepsy to advocate for desired health care. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendador, Kathleen

    2007-11-01

    To examine the relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior in multiethnic, 14- to 17-year-olds, residing on the Big Island of Hawaii. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey design using a convenience sample of 98 female adolescents aged 14-17 who came to five different clinics on the Big Island of Hawaii for health care. Along with a brief demographic questionnaire, global self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, decision making was measured by the Flinders Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire, and sexual activity and contraception use was measured by a nonnormed Sexual History and Contraceptive Use Questionnaire developed for this study. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression, and correlations were used to analyze associations and correlations between age, global self-esteem, decision self-esteem, decision coping (vigilant and maladaptive), and contraceptive use for sexually active female adolescents. No significant associations or correlations were found between age, global self-esteem, decision self-esteem, decision coping (vigilance), and the decision to use contraception in sexually active adolescent females. There was, however, significant negative correlation (p skills and stimulating thinking around not only sexual issues but also on relationship and communication in adolescent issues may facilitate more competent decision making. Understanding the relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior has contributed to the knowledge base about female contraceptive behavior. Gaining further insight into these relationships will help healthcare professionals provide counseling and health care to female adolescents.

  18. Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ntswaleng S. Tabane; Mmapheko D. Peu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District contribute to the nonuseand or discontinued use of contraceptives as evidenced by increased levels of unplanned pregnancies. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives. Methods: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive approach was followed in this study. The population comprised of pregnant female teenagers...

  19. Contraceptive Practices Among Female Cancer Survivors of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sally A; McLean, Mamie R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Gorman, Jessica R; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Bouknight, Janet M; Su, H Irene

    2015-09-01

    To compare rates of contraception between reproductive-aged cancer survivors and women in the general U.S. Among survivors, the study examined factors associated with use of contraception and emergency contraception. This study analyzed enrollment data from an ongoing national prospective cohort study on reproductive health after cancer entitled the Fertility Information Research Study. We compared current contraceptive use in survivors with that of the general population ascertained by the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth. Log-binomial regression models estimated relative risks for characteristics associated with use of contraception, World Health Organization tiers I-II (sterilization and hormonal) contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception in survivors. Data from 295 survivors (mean age 31.6±5.7 years, range 20-44 years) enrolled in this prospective study (85% response rate) were examined. Age-adjusted rates of using tiers I-II contraceptive methods were lower in survivors than the general population (34% [28.8-40.0] compared with 53% [51.5-54.5], Pfamily planning services (counseling, prescription or procedure related to birth control) since cancer diagnosis. In adjusted analysis, receipt of family planning services was associated with both increased use of tiers I-II contraceptive methods (relative risk 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.5) and accessing emergency contraception (relative risk 5.0, 95% CI 1.6-16.3) in survivors. Lower rates of using tiers I-II contraceptive methods were found in reproductive-aged cancer survivors compared with the general population of U.S. women. Exposure to family planning services across the cancer-care continuum may improve contraception use among these women. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01843140. II.

  20. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  1. Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Low-Income Urban Black Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Judith B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…

  2. Hormonal contraceptive use lowers female intrasexual competition in pair-bonded women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Klipping, Christine; Buunk, Abraham P.

    The purpose of this study was to test the influence of hormonal contraceptive use on levels of female intrasexual competition. Twenty-eight women completed a scale for intrasexual competition on three occasions: when using hormonal contraceptives and when regularly cycling at a fertile and a

  3. Female Migration, Local Context and Contraception Use in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there are studies of the influence of rural-urban migration on contraceptive use in Africa, one question poorly explored is how the urban destination context shapes rural-urban migrants' use of contraceptives. Using data from the 2003 Mozambique Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the effect of ...

  4. International survey to assess women's attitudes regarding choice of daily versus nondaily female hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour D

    2014-04-01

    education on contraceptive choices may help women to find the method that best suits their needs, thus improving contraceptive compliance. Keywords: female contraception, contraceptive options, hormonal contraceptives, survey, women's attitudes

  5. Hormonal contraception and female pain, orgasm and sexual pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicole K; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2014-02-01

    Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintentional, unplanned, or mistimed. Most unplanned pregnancies result from inconsistent, incorrect, or nonuse of a contraceptive method. Diminished sexual function and pleasure may be a barrier to using hormonal contraception. This study explores sexual function and behaviors of women in relation to the use of hormonal vs. nonhormonal methods of contraception. Data were collected as part of an online health and sexuality study of women. Main outcomes variables assess frequencies in two domains: (i) sexual function (proportion of sexual events with experiences of pain or discomfort, arousal, contentment and satisfaction, pleasure and enjoyment, lubrication difficulty, and orgasm) and (ii) sexual behavior (number of times engaged in sexual activity, proportion of sexual events initiated by the woman, and proportion of sexual events for which a lubricant was used). Sociodemographic variables and contraceptive use were used as sample descriptors and correlates. The recall period was the past 4 weeks. The sample included 1,101 women with approximately half (n = 535) using a hormonal contraceptive method exclusively or a combination of a hormonal and nonhormonal method, and about half (n = 566) using a nonhormonal method of contraception exclusively. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of hormonal contraceptive use to each of the dependent variables. Women using a hormonal contraceptive method experienced less frequent sexual activity, arousal, pleasure, and orgasm and more difficulty with lubrication even when controlling for sociodemographic variables. This study adds to the literature on the potential negative sexual side effects experienced by many women using hormonal contraception. Prospective research with diverse women is needed to enhance the understanding of potential negative sexual side effects of hormonal contraceptives, their prevalence, and possible mechanisms

  6. Male contraception: history and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of Contraceptive use Among Female Adolescents in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2014; 18(1): 102. ORIGINAL ... Contraceptive use is the major method of ... This study makes use of data collected in Ghana in. 2008. ..... Perspectives of Sexual and Reproductive Health 2009;.

  8. Female Migration, Local Context and Contraception Use in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    While residing in a community with major transport problems has a negative effect. .... Despite slight decline of total fertility in urban areas from 5.1 ... travelling costs to reach better quality contraceptive ..... towards a reversal? Migration trends ...

  9. Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy among Unmarried Female University Students: A Cross-sectional Study from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjing; Long, Lu; Cai, Hui; Wu, Yue; Xu, Jing; Shu, Chang; Wang, Peng; Li, Bo; Wei, Qinyu; Shang, Xuejun; Wang, Xueyi; Zhang, Meimei; Xiong, Chengliang; Yin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9%) of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge. PMID:26091505

  10. Perceptions of contraceptive responsibility among female college students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Ersek, Jennifer L

    2011-03-01

    An important, although understudied, area related to contraceptive use is perceptions of contraceptive responsibility. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate these perceptions among female college students. Web-based or mailed questionnaires were completed by 326 students from 2006-2007. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to model the associations between select demographic and lifestyle characteristics and contraceptive responsibility (shared vs. individual responsibility). Although 89.1% of women felt that contraceptive responsibility should be shared, only 51.8% indicated that responsibility is actually shared in their relationships. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, marital status, and year of study, women using "other" methods of contraception (i.e. withdrawal, rhythm, sterilization, etc.) had 3.25 times the odds of stating that contraceptive responsibility is actually shared as compared to hormonal users (95% CI: 1.20, 8.80). For college women, there is a disconnect between who they feel should be responsible for contraception and who actually is responsible. Insight into perceptions of contraceptive responsibility in the university setting may help guide health educators and clinicians in designing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programming. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigational hormone receptor agonists as ongoing female contraception: a focus on selective progesterone receptor modulators in early clinical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anita L

    2015-01-01

    As efforts are made to continue to increase the safety of contraceptive methods, those without estrogen have attracted new attention. Progestin-only options are available in many delivery systems, but most cause disturbed bleeding patterns. For gynecologic patients, selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have been approved for medical abortion, for ovulation suppression in emergency contraception, and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding due to leiomyoma. This article discusses the role of SPRMs in controlling fertility on an ongoing basis with particular emphasis on mifepristone and ulipristal acetate (UPA), since none of the other compounds has progressed out of early Phase I - II testing. It also discusses important information about the mechanisms of action and safety of these two SPRMs. Of all the investigational hormone agonist/antagonists, SPRMs have demonstrated the greatest potential as ongoing female contraceptives. They have the ability to suppress ovulation after initiation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge without affecting ovarian production of estrogen or inducing any significant metabolic changes. SPRMs may well be able to provide longer term contraception as oral agents, vaginal rings, and perhaps even intrauterine devices. UPA has the greatest promise. Current research needs to be expanded.

  12. Predictors of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Gaetano; Abdul-Rahman, Lutuf; De Coninck, Zaake; Johansson, Annika

    2014-03-01

    Adolescent girls in Ghana still face a number of challenges accessing reproductive/sexual health services despite efforts to improve their accessibility. This paper explores the key socio-demographic factors associated with contraceptive use amongst adolescent girls in Ghana using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Data from the 2008 GDHS was analyzed. Socio-demographic variables were selected to assess their interaction with contraceptive use. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were computed. Place of residence and marital status were the most important predictors of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents. Rural residents were less likely to use contraceptives compared to urban residents (OR 0.32, CI 0.12-0.84, p = 0.021) as well as married respondents compared to their unmarried peers (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67, p = 0.005). The accessibility of reproductive/sexual health services needs to be improved and promoted in rural areas and among married adolescent women.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among adama university female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Dejene; Assefa, Tsion; Belachew, Tefera

    2010-11-01

    Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion is one of the major worldwide health problems, which has many negative consequences on the health and well-being of women. Information about women's knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives plays a major role in the reduction of unwanted pregnancy; however, there are no studies about this issue in the study area. This study assessed Adama University female students' knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives. A cross-sectional study design was employed from February 1 to 30/2009, on 660 regular undergraduate female students of Adama University. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between variables and emergency contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice. P-value less than 0.05 at 95% CI was taken for statistical significance. Of the total, 660 respondents, 194(29.4%) were sexually active, 63(9.4%) had history of pregnancy and 49(7.4%) had history of abortion. About 309 (46.8%) of the students had heard about emergency contraceptives and from those who heard emergency contraceptives, 27.2% had good knowledge. Majority, four hundred fifteen (62.9%) of the students had positive attitude towards it. However, only 31(4.7%) had used emergency contraceptive methods. This study demonstrated lack of awareness, knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptives among Adama University female students. Hence behavioral change strategies should be considered by responsible bodies to improve knowledge and bring attitudinal change on use of emergency contraception.

  14. Attitude toward, acceptance of and knowledge about female sterilization as a method of contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlenwein, J; Kundu, S; Schippert, C; Soergel, P; Hillemanns, P; Staboulidou, I

    2015-02-01

    Surgical sterilization via tubal ligation or the disconnection of the tubes is a method of permanent contraception. The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitude, acceptance and knowledge of women about female sterilization as a method of contraception in terms of the social and cultural backgrounds of those women. Prospective study based on an anonymous questionnaire that analyzed background knowledge, attitude, influence factors and motivation regarding sterilization, as well as the reasons for declining. The questionnaire also attempted to evaluate the effects on the self-esteem of the women, as well as the impact of religious dogma and the related beliefs. One thousand, eight hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 1247 women completed the questionnaire—a response rate of 69.3%. There were mainly positive attitudes toward sterilization as a contraceptive method. Cultural background, including religion and faith; the mother's experiences and point of view; knowledge; family planning and the actual life situation have an influence on the attitudes toward and acceptance of sterilization as a contraceptive method and on the final choice of a contraceptive method. Cultural background and present life situation have a great impact on the attitude toward and acceptance of sterilization as a method of contraception, thus influencing the final choice of a contraceptive method. Detailed counselling about this topic is essential and should be improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Female Clergy as Agents of Religious Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Niemelä

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.

  16. Emergency Contraception: Awareness, Perception and Practice among Female Undergraduates in Imo State University, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, Ec; Anolue, Fc; Ejekunle, Sd; Nzewuihe, Ac; Okeudo, C; Dike, Ei; Ejikem, Ce

    2014-11-01

    Limited knowledge and practice of contraception is a global public health problem. Unintended pregnancies are the primary cause of induced abortion. When safe abortions are not available, as in Nigeria with restricted abortion laws, abortion can contribute significantly to maternal mortality and morbidity. Adequate information on the awareness and the use of emergency contraception is necessary for planning interventions in groups vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy. The aim of the following study is to access the awareness, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in Imo State University, South Eastern Nigeria. A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey using female undergraduates selected randomly from Imo State University, Owerri. A total of 700 students participated in the study. Awareness of emergency contraception was very high (85.1%) (596/700). The awareness was significantly higher amongst students in health related faculties than in the non-health related faculties (P = 0.01). The main sources of information were through friends (43.1%) (317/700) and lectures (22.1%) (192/700). High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was the most commonly known type of emergency contraception (70.8%) (422/596). Only 58.1% (346/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception approved of their use. The major reasons given by the 41.9% (250/596) who disapproved of their use were religious reasons (50.4%) (126/250) and that they were harmful to health (49.2%) (123/250). Two-third (67%) (46 9/700) of the students were sexually active and only 39.9% (187/469) of them used emergency contraception. High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was again the most commonly used method (70.8%) (422/596). The most common situation in which emergency contraception was used was following unprotected sexual intercourse (45.5%) (85/144). Only 34.6% (206/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception identified correctly the appropriate time interval

  17. Effects of oral contraceptive agents and sex steroids on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, R K

    1972-01-01

    The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids.

  18. Condom and other contraceptive use among a random sample of female adolescents: a snapshot in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, D M; Lee, P A

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods for birth control and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. The investigation was based on the stages-of-change construct from the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983, 1984). Results demonstrated that despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods (e.g., Depo-Provera), most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms and were further along in the stages of change for condom use as compared with other contraceptive methods. Moreover, the females perceived the male condom as an acceptable method for prevention of both pregnancy and STDs. These findings suggest that interventions designed to target consistent and correct condom use may result in better compliance, reducing the number of unintended pregnancies and STD cases among this populations.

  19. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on serum serotonin in females of reproductive age group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faryal, U.; Hajra, B.; Saqib, J.; Rashid, S.; Hassan, M.; Ali, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non-contraceptive users. Methods: A total of 300 women were selected in the study. This cross sectional study included three groups; Group-1 (control), group-2 (combined oral contraceptive users) and group-3 (injectable contraceptive users). History and examination of subjects were recorded on proforma. Levels of serum serotonin were measured using standard ELISA kits. Results were analysed by one way anova and a p-value 0.05 percentage was taken as significant, using SPSS 16.0. Results: The mean age of the patients in group-1 was 30.4±6.1 years, group-2 was 28.9±4.9 and in group-3 was 2.5±6.8 years. For subjects in group-1, group-2 and group 3 the mean±SD concentration of serum serotonin was 160.68±53.27 ng/dl, 227.3±63.98 ng/dl and 118.19±31.32 ng/dl. A significant (p=0.00) difference was seen among three groups, i.e., group-1, group-2 and group-3. After applying Post HOC Tukey HSD, there was statistically no significant difference between group-1 and group-2 (p=0.956). Difference was seen between group-2 and group-3 (p=0.00), it was also significant between group-3 and group-1 (p=0.00). Conclusion: It was concluded that hormonal contraceptives affect the levels of serum serotonin.Background: Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non-contraceptive

  20. Increasing contraceptive acceptance through empowerment of female community health volunteers in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sarala

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to enhance contraceptive acceptance among currently-married women of reproductive age (CMWRA) through empowerment training of female community health volunteers (FCHVs). Seventeen FCHVs, who were working in Kakani Village Development Committee in the hills of central Nepal, attended an empowerment training that used participatory action research and reinforcement mechanisms. Following the training, the FCHVs were expected to empower the CMWRA to increase their contraceptive use. The impact of the intervention was assessed in a sample of 241 CMWRA, who were neither pregnant nor using contraceptives at the time of selection, by interviewing them before and six months after the intervention. The implementation of the intervention significantly increased the proportion of CMWRA knowing at least one contraceptive method (chi2(ldr)=71 .7, p=0.001). The use of modern contraceptives among the CMWRA from none before the intervention increased to 52.3% six months following the intervention. Satisfaction of the CMWRA with services provided by the FCHVs also significantly increased. The study concludes that empowerment training of FCHVs using participatory action research and peer reinforcement help increase the acceptance of contraceptives among CMWRA.

  1. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Erkander Mullen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  2. EFFECT OF HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON SERUM SEROTONIN IN FEMALES OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryal, Uzma; Rashid, Shazia; Hajra, Bibi; Hassan, Mukhtiar; Saqib, Javeria; Ali, Muhammad Afaq

    2016-01-01

    Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non-contraceptive users. A total of 300 women were selected in the study. This cross sectional study included three groups; Group-1 (control), group-2 (combined oral contraceptive users) and group-3 (injectable contraceptive users). History and examination of subjects were recorded on pro forma. Levels of serum serotonin were measured using standard ELISA kits. Results were analysed by one way ANOVA and a p-value 0.05% was taken as significant, using SPSS 16.0. The mean age of the patients in group-1 was 30.4 ± 6.1 years, group-2 was 28.9 ± 4.9 and in group-3 was 2.5 ± 6.8 years. For subjects in group-1, group-2 and group 3 the mean ± SD concentration of serum serotonin was 160.68 ± 53.27 ng/dl, 227.3 ± 63.98 ng/dl and 118.19 ± 31.32 ng/dl. A significant (p = 0.00) difference was seen among three groups, i.e., group-1, group-2 and group-3. After applying Post HOC Tukey's HSD, there was statistically no significant difference between group-1 and group-2 (p = 0.956). Difference was seen between group-2 and group-3 (p = 0.00), it was also significant between group-3 and group-1 (p = 0.00). It was concluded that hormonal contraceptives affect the levels of serum serotonin.

  3. Promoting contraceptive use among unmarried female migrants in one factory in Shanghai: a pilot workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xu; Smith, Helen; Huang, Wenyuan; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ying; Garner, Paul

    2007-05-31

    In urban China, more single women are becoming pregnant and resorting to induced abortion, despite the wide availability of temporary methods of contraception. We developed and piloted a workplace-based intervention to promote contraceptive use in unmarried female migrants working in privately owned factories. Quasi-experimental design. In consultation with clients, we developed a workplace based intervention to promote contraception use in unmarried female migrants in a privately owned factory. We then implemented this in one factory, using a controlled before-and-after design. The intervention included lectures, bespoke information leaflets, and support to the factory doctors in providing a contraceptive service. 598 women participated: most were under 25, migrants to the city, with high school education. Twenty percent were lost when staff were made redundant, and implementation was logistically complicated. All women attended the initial lecture, and just over half the second lecture. Most reported reading the educational material provided (73%), but very few women reported using the free family planning services offered at the factory clinic (5%) or the Family Planning Institute (3%). At baseline, 90% (N = 539) stated that contraceptives were required if having sex before marriage; of those reporting sex in the last three months, the majority reporting using contraceptives (78%, 62/79) but condom use was low (44%, 35/79). Qualitative data showed that the reading material seemed to be popular and young women expressed a need for more specific reproductive health information, particularly on HIV/AIDS. Women wanted services with some privacy and anonymity, and views on the factory service were mixed. Implementing a complex intervention with a hard to reach population through a factory in China, using a quasi-experimental design, is not easy. Further research should focus on the specific needs and service preferences of this population and these should be

  4. Promoting contraceptive use among unmarried female migrants in one factory in Shanghai: a pilot workplace intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In urban China, more single women are becoming pregnant and resorting to induced abortion, despite the wide availability of temporary methods of contraception. We developed and piloted a workplace-based intervention to promote contraceptive use in unmarried female migrants working in privately owned factories. Methods Quasi-experimental design. In consultation with clients, we developed a workplace based intervention to promote contraception use in unmarried female migrants in a privately owned factory. We then implemented this in one factory, using a controlled before-and-after design. The intervention included lectures, bespoke information leaflets, and support to the factory doctors in providing a contraceptive service. Results 598 women participated: most were under 25, migrants to the city, with high school education. Twenty percent were lost when staff were made redundant, and implementation was logistically complicated. All women attended the initial lecture, and just over half the second lecture. Most reported reading the educational material provided (73%, but very few women reported using the free family planning services offered at the factory clinic (5% or the Family Planning Institute (3%. At baseline, 90% (N = 539 stated that contraceptives were required if having sex before marriage; of those reporting sex in the last three months, the majority reporting using contraceptives (78%, 62/79 but condom use was low (44%, 35/79. Qualitative data showed that the reading material seemed to be popular and young women expressed a need for more specific reproductive health information, particularly on HIV/AIDS. Women wanted services with some privacy and anonymity, and views on the factory service were mixed. Conclusion Implementing a complex intervention with a hard to reach population through a factory in China, using a quasi-experimental design, is not easy. Further research should focus on the specific needs and

  5. Family planning 2011: better use of existing methods, new strategies and more informed choices for female contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosignani, Pier Giorgio; Glasier, Anna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper explores recent developments in female contraception, using them to illustrate how adaptation of existing methods, improved service delivery and understanding contraceptive behaviour might increase contraceptive uptake and correct and consistent use, and how the development of new methods holds some promise for capitalizing on the potential non-contraceptive benefits. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. Selection criteria included high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) Workshop Group. RESULTS The topics discussed include: adapted regimens for combined oral contraceptive pills, non-invasive methods of female sterilization, the need to improve the awareness of pregnancy risk to increase the use of emergency contraception, improvements in the evidence base for the safety and service delivery of intrauterine methods, emphasis on the potential benefits of combined oral contraceptives for women with hirsutism and acne, the potential of female sterilization to prevent ovarian cancer, and the promise of anti-progesterones and new approaches to dual protection. CONCLUSIONS Although great strides have been made in recent years in increasing contraceptive use among women in many countries where contraceptive prevalence is low or there is a high unmet need for contraception, much more can, and needs to, be done.

  6. Factors Associated With Interest in Same-Day Contraception Initiation Among Females in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa K; Randell, Kimberly A; Barral, Romina; Sherman, Ashley K; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    The purposes were to describe interest in hormonal contraception initiation among female adolescent in the emergency department (ED) and to assess for associations with factors known to increase pregnancy risk such as violence victimization. We used a computerized survey to assess sexual and dating practices, pregnancy history/likelihood, contraception use (including long-acting reversible contraception [LARC]) and concerns, contraception initiation interest, violence victimization, medical utilization, and demographics among sexually experienced females aged 14-19 years in our ED. The primary outcome was interest in contraception initiation. We compared responses between subgroups using the chi-square test. A total of 168 adolescents participated (82% of approached; mean age 16.6 years; 41% white; 48% black; 21% commercial insurance). Interest in contraception initiation was high: 60% overall and 70% among those not using hormonal contraception (n = 96). Among those using non-LARC contraception (n = 59), 29% were interested in LARC initiation. Contraception/LARC interest was positively associated with lack of recent well care (p contraception (p contraception at last intercourse. One third (36%) reported violence victimization. Most (70%) reported ≥1 concern about contraception (most commonly cost). Many reported behaviors and exposures, including violence victimization, that increase their risk for pregnancy and most expressed interest in same-day initiation of hormonal contraception, including LARC. These findings may inform novel strategies for increased adolescent access to contraception and pregnancy prevention through use of nontraditional sites such as EDs. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency contraception amongst female college students – knowledge, attitude and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendwosen T. Nibabe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted teenage pregnancies have a notable detrimental impact on the learners’ trajectory and have been associated with jeopardising the students’ educational progress and future career prospects. These pregnancies are mostly unplanned and unintended and many are terminated, either legally or illegally. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives. Setting: Three tertiary institutions in Dessie, Ethiopia. Methods: Quantitative self-administered questionnaires were used to collect descriptive data from 352 female college students. Results: The study revealed that there was a high percentage (78.3% of unwanted pregnancies amongst those engaging in sex. Significantly, nearly half (43.3% of these unwanted pregnancies resulted in abortion. Only 10% of the students sampled admitted to ever having used emergency contraception. Even though more than half (69.9% of the students knew about emergency contraception, only 27% of them felt confident that they understood when it was most effective. Conclusion: These and other observed findings confirm the need for improvement of female college students’ knowledge and timely utilisation of emergency contraception.

  8. Emergency contraception amongst female college students – knowledge, attitude and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibabe, Wendwosen T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Unwanted teenage pregnancies have a notable detrimental impact on the learners’ trajectory and have been associated with jeopardising the students’ educational progress and future career prospects. These pregnancies are mostly unplanned and unintended and many are terminated, either legally or illegally. Aim The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives. Setting Three tertiary institutions in Dessie, Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative self-administered questionnaires were used to collect descriptive data from 352 female college students. Results The study revealed that there was a high percentage (78.3%) of unwanted pregnancies amongst those engaging in sex. Significantly, nearly half (43.3%) of these unwanted pregnancies resulted in abortion. Only 10% of the students sampled admitted to ever having used emergency contraception. Even though more than half (69.9%) of the students knew about emergency contraception, only 27% of them felt confident that they understood when it was most effective. Conclusion These and other observed findings confirm the need for improvement of female college students’ knowledge and timely utilisation of emergency contraception. PMID:26245395

  9. Correlates of women's cancer screening and contraceptive knowledge among female emergency department patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bock Beth C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of knowledge regarding preventive health services for women might impede campaigns to expand these services in the emergency department setting. For 18–55-year-old English-speaking women visiting an urban emergency department, we aimed to: (1 Ascertain their knowledge regarding the applicability, purpose, and recommended intervals of three women's cancer screening and three contraceptive methods; and (2 Determine if patient age, race/ethnicity, medical insurance status, and current or recent usage of these methods are associated with greater or lesser knowledge about them. Methods Emergency department-based survey on recent or current usage and knowledge about Pap smears, breast self-examinations, mammograms, condoms, birth control, and emergency contraception. Analyses included calculation of summary statistics and creation of multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of 1,100 patients eligible for the study, 69.9% agreed to participate. Most of the participants were Conclusion Although these female ED patients demonstrated strong knowledge on some women's cancer screening and contraceptive methods, there were several areas of knowledge deficit. Women without private medical insurance and those who have not used a particular cancer screening or contraceptive method demonstrated less knowledge. Reduced knowledge about women's cancer screening and contraceptive methods should be considered during clinical encounters and when instituting or evaluating emergency department-based initiatives that assess the need for these methods.

  10. Forgettable contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A

    2009-12-01

    The term "forgettable contraception" has received less attention in family planning than has "long-acting reversible contraception." Defined here as a method requiring attention no more often than every 3 years, forgettable contraception includes sterilization (female or male), intrauterine devices, and implants. Five principal factors determine contraceptive effectiveness: efficacy, compliance, continuation, fecundity, and the timing of coitus. Of these, compliance and continuation dominate; the key determinants of contraceptive effectiveness are human, not pharmacological. Human nature undermines methods with high theoretical efficacy, such as oral contraceptives and injectable contraceptives. By obviating the need to think about contraception for long intervals, forgettable contraception can help overcome our human fallibility. As a result, all forgettable contraception methods provide first-tier effectiveness (contraceptives today with exclusively first-tier effectiveness is the one that can be started -- and then forgotten for years.

  11. Contraceptive use, knowledge, attitude, perceptions and sexual behavior among female University students in Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsubuga, Henry; Sekandi, Juliet N; Sempeera, Hassard; Makumbi, Fredrick E

    2016-01-27

    In Uganda, the risk of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions remains high due to relatively low contraceptive use. There is paucity of data on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices towards modern contraceptives and, sexual and reproductive health especially among the young female university students. A survey was conducted at Makerere University main campus in Kampala, Uganda during April 2014. A team of well-trained and experienced research assistants interviewed female undergraduate students who provided data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes and use of contraceptives, as well as other sexual and reproductive health practices. Users of any contraceptive method in the past 12 months were coded as '1' and none users as '0'. The prevalence of contraceptive use was determined as the number of users divided by all female participants. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals were used as measures of association between contraceptive use and associated factors. The PRs were obtained via a modified Poisson regression model using a generalized linear model with Poisson as family and a log link without an offset but including robust standard errors. All analyses were conducted with Stata version 13. A total of 1,008 females responded to the survey; median (IQR) age was 21(20, 21) years, 38.6% in year 2 of study, and nearly three quarters (72.3%) were of Christian faith. Knowledge of any contraceptives was almost universal (99.6%) but only 22.1% knew about female condoms. Perceived acceptability of contraceptive use at the university (93%) or being beneficial to male partners too (97.8%) were high. Nearly 70% had ever engaged in sexual intercourse and 62.1% reported sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Overall, 46.6% reported current contraceptive use, with male condoms (34.5%) being the commonest methods. Factors associated with higher contraceptive use were being in year 2

  12. Sexual initiation and contraceptive use among female adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    regression model to quantify the effects of a set of factors on female .... based on a weighing of benefits (such as school fees, .... urban areas are exposed to a more diverse life style .... received money or gift or favours in return for sex.

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Emergency Contraceptives Among Adama University Female Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun, Dejene; Assefa, Tsion; Belachew, Tefera

    2010-01-01

    Background Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion is one of the major worldwide health problems, which has many negative consequences on the health and well-being of women. Information about women's knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives plays a major role in the reduction of unwanted pregnancy; however, there are no studies about this issue in the study area. This study assessed Adama University female students' knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency cont...

  14. Knowledge and attitudes of female university students on menstrual cycle and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Márta; Bitó, Tamás; Csíkos, Csaba; Párducz Szöllősi, Andrea; Furau, Cristian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Kapamadzija, Aleksandra; Sedlecky, Katarina; Bártfai, György

    2017-02-01

    Socioeconomic changes, as well as the development of new contraceptive modalities may influence women's preferences in the selection of a method of contraception. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, opinions and attitudes of female university students regarding the menstrual cycle, sexual health and contraception. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 2572 female university students in Hungary, Romania and Serbia, between November 2009 and January 2011. A higher proportion of students of health sciences than students of other faculties had appropriate knowledge of the fertile period within a menstrual cycle: 86.0%, 71.5% (p = .02) and 61.1% vs. 71.9% (p students believed in the need for monthly menstruation in order to be healthy; however, merely 30 to 40% of them wished to have monthly bleeding. In general, the respondents were aware of the importance of menstruation in relation to sexual health; however, they wished to suppress the menstruation-related symptoms. Differences in the knowledge and attitudes of female university students of the three assessed countries may be explained in part by cultural differences, and in part by the nature of their studies.

  15. Negative opinions about cancer screening and contraceptive measures by female emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; Gee, Erin M; Bock, Beth C; Becker, Bruce M; Clark, Melissa A

    2008-11-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which adult female emergency department participants viewed two women's cancer screening and two contraceptive measures negatively. The study also explored the relationship between having a negative opinion about these measures and participant demography, lack of knowledge, and lack of usage of these measures. Few women expressed negative opinions about these measures. Lack of knowledge about and lack of use of these measures were associated with having negative opinions on these cancer screening and contraceptive measures. Having any negative opinion about one cancer screening or contraceptive measure was associated with a higher risk of having any negative opinion on another measure. The results suggest that influencing opinion and knowledge about these measures might impact the success of emergency department-based cancer screening and contraceptive health programs. Editors' Strategic Implications: Emergency departments (and primary care settings) provide key opportunities for prevention. Replication is needed, but the authors present important data on knowledge, attitudes, and characteristics that might influence women's receptivity to consent to and engage in behaviors consistent with prevention, screening, and health promotion.

  16. Prevention of unintended pregnancies in Nigeria; the effect of socio-demographic characteristic on the knowledge and use of emergency contraceptives among female university students

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide A. Abiodun; John Sotunsa; Olusoji Jagun; Bukola Faturoti; Franklin Ani; Imaralu John; Agboola Taiwo; Ogechukwu Taiwo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of unintended pregnancy remains high in developing regions due to unmet need for contraception and inconsistent use of modern contraceptives. Practice of emergency contraception is particularly important because of the high rates of unintended pregnancy. The aim was to assess the practice of emergency contraception among female students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,233 female university students in Nigeria. Results: About 25.4% of th...

  17. Use of emergency contraception in Nigeria: An exploration of related factors among sexually active female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Olumide

    2016-03-01

    Unsafe abortions account for nearly one-third of maternal deaths among young people. Women who have an induced abortion are usually literate and less than 30 years old; usually undergraduates with unintended pregnancies. Many of these pregnancies could have been prevented by contraception. The aim of this study was to determine the correlates of uptake of emergency contraception among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1328 sexually active, never married female university students. Self-administered questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, perception and practice of emergency contraception. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of emergency contraception. Majority of the participants were aware of emergency contraception (72.6%), had good knowledge (56.0%), and had the perception that it is effective (74.6%) and easy to use (72.4%). The main sources of information about emergency contraception were friends (32.9%) and the media (20.0%). About 52.0% of the participants had unprotected sex in the preceding six months, while 718 (54.1%) had ever used emergency contraception. The main sources of the commodities were sexual partners (46.2%) and medicine stores (35.4%). The uptake of emergency contraception was predicted by being ≤19 years (AOR = 3.193), rural dwelling (AOR = 4.247), perceptions that it is effective (AOR = 2.229E11) and easy to use (AOR = 6.680E8). Use of contraception among sexually active female Nigerian university students is predicted by the perception about its effectiveness and ease of use. Sexual and reproductive health programmes should focus on improving knowledge and addressing misconception in order to improve perception about emergency contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Peripheral arterial disease in a female using high-dose combined oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavee, P; Samal, Sunita; Samal, Rupal

    2013-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptive (OC) pills and vascular diseases is well-known, although, the present generation of pills is considered to be relatively safer in this regard. Hormonal treatment for severe abnormal uterine bleeding is usually considered after ruling out malignancy, when such bleeding is resistant to all other forms of treatment. We report a case of severe peripheral arterial disease in a female, who had been on high-dose OC pills for an extended period of time for severe uterine bleeding.

  19. Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Emergency Contraception among Female Adolescent Hawkers in Rigasa Suburban Community of Kaduna State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Attahir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Nigeria the rate of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents is about 30%, considerably lower than the rates reported for developed countries. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female adolescent hawkers in Rigasa community, a suburb of Kaduna town.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of 1200 adolescent female hawkers aged 15–29 years was carried out in 2008, using both self and interviewer administered questionnaires. Results: Vast majority of the respondents are divorcees, constituting 92%. About 46% of them have never attended formal school before marriage. Of the 18 participants who were aware of emergency contraception; none correctly identified 72 hours as the time limit for the method’s use. Antibiotics or home remedies such as dye Robin Blue mixed with Coca cola or mixed with lime or lime mixed with potash and salt water were mentioned as unlisted methods of emergency contraception by responders. Conclusion: It is glaring that there exist a yawning gap of information and knowledge on contraception in general and emergency contraception in particular among female adolescent hawkers. The need to inform this target group about reproductive health generally and unwanted pregnancy in particular would not be out of place.  

  20. Contraceptive practices, sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive and negative female sex workers in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayal, Sonali; Cowan, Frances; Warner, Pamela; Copas, Andrew; Mabey, David; Shahmanesh, Maryam

    2011-02-01

    In India, female sex workers (FSWs), suffer from high HIV prevalence and abortions. Contraceptive use among general population women is well understood. However, FSWs contraceptives practices and reproductive health needs are under-researched. We investigated contraceptive practices among HIV-positive and negative FSWs in Goa, India and explored its association with socio-demographic and sex work related factors. Cross-sectional study using respondent driven sampling recruited 326 FSWs. They completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and were screened for STI/HIV. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with sterilisation relative to no contraception. HIV prevalence was high (26%). Of the 59 FSWs planning pregnancy, 33% were HIV-positive and 5-7% had Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas. 25% and 65% of FSWs screened-positive for Syphilis and Herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies respectively. Among the 260 FSWs analysed for contraceptive use, 39% did not use contraceptives, and 26% had experienced abortion. Half the FSWs had undergone sterilisation, and only 5% used condoms for contraception. Among HIV-positive FSWs, 45% did not use contraceptives. Sterilisation was independently associated with older age, illiteracy, having an intimate non-paying male partner, having children and financial autonomy. Exposure to National AIDS Control Organisation's HIV-prevention interventions was reported by 34% FSWs and was not significantly associated with contraceptive use (adjusted odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.9). HIV-prevention interventions should promote contraception, especially among young and HIV-positive FSWs. Integrating HIV treatment and care services with HIV-prevention interventions is vital to avert HIV-positive births.

  1. Impact of oral contraceptive use and menstrual phases on patellar tendon morphology, biochemical composition and biomechanical properties in female athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Damborg; Couppe, Christian; Hansen, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Gender differences exist with regards to ligament and tendon injuries. Lower collagen synthesis has been observed in exercising females vs. males, and in users of oral contraceptives (OC) vs non-users, but it is unknown if OC will influence tendon biomechanics of females undergoing...

  2. Barriers to and Enablers of Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females and their Interest in an Emergency Department-based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernick, Lauren S; Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Stockwell, Melissa; Castaño, Paula; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over 15 million adolescents, many at high risk for pregnancy, use emergency departments (ED) in the United States annually, but little is known regarding reasons for failure to use contraceptives in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and enablers of contraceptive use among adolescent females using the ED and determine their interest in an ED-based pregnancy prevention intervention. Study Design We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with females in an urban ED. Eligible females were 14-19 years old, sexually active, presenting for reproductive health complaints, and at risk for pregnancy, defined as non-use of effective (per the World Health Organization) contraception. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded based on thematic analysis. Enrollment continued until no new themes emerged. A modified Health Belief Model guided the organization of the data. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (93%), insured (93%), and in a sexual relationship (86%). The primary barrier to contraceptive use was perceived health risk, including effects on menstruation, weight, and future fertility. Other barriers consisted of mistrust in contraceptives, ambivalent pregnancy intentions, uncertainty about the future, partner's desire for pregnancy, and limited access to contraceptives. Enablers of past contraceptive use included the presence of a school-based health clinic and clear plans for the future. All participants were receptive to ED-based pregnancy prevention interventions. Conclusions The identified barriers and enablers influencing hormonal contraceptive use can be used to inform the design of future ED-based adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions. PMID:25499588

  3. Effects of oral contraceptives on the thyroid function in Sudanese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Khier, L. A.

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted during the period from 15/01/04 to 24/04/04 at Sudan Fertility Care Association Center. Sixty nine Sudanese females using combined oral contraceptives were chosen for this study and twenty females not using contraceptives were used as controls. All individuals were within the same age group. Thyroid hormones; thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodothyronine (T 3 ), free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) were measured. In addition thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was also measured in both groups. The study groups were divided according to the period of using combined oral contraceptives into four groups group 1 (1-5) months, group 2 (7-16) months and group 3 (18-60) months and the control group of the non users. Determination of hormones concentrations were carried out using a highly sensitive specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The concentrations of serum T 4 in group 3 was significantly higher (P 4 in group 1 and 2 were found to be lower than in the control and the difference was not significant. Mean serum concentration of triiodothyronine in the study group 1, 2 and 3 were not significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum concentration of free triiodothyronine in the study groups 1, 2 and 3 were not significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum concentration of free thyroxine in the study group 1, 2 and 3 were not significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum concentration of TSH in groups 1, 2 and 3 were significantly (P<0.05) lower than in the control group.(Author)

  4. New technologies in contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Rowlands, Sam

    2009-01-01

    New technologies in both reversible contraception and sterilisation are described. The review includes recent advances in the development of oral contraception, emergency contraception, injectable contraception, vaginal rings, subdermal implants, transdermal contraception, intrauterine devices, spermicides and barrier methods. It also covers methods of transcervical female sterilisation and more easily reversible male sterilisation. The emphasis is on the technology and its safety and effecti...

  5. Preclinical evaluation of magainin-A as a contraceptive antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Aranha; Manjramkar, Dhananjay D; Reddy, Venkatarami K

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and contraceptive efficacy of magainin-A in monkeys. Controlled laboratory study. Department of Immunology, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Parel, Mumbai, India. Male and female bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata). Animals were treated intravaginally with 1 mg of magainin-A before attempted conception, as well as daily for 14 days to assess local and systemic toxicity. Suitability of magainin-A for the control of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Complete sperm immobilization was observed within 20 seconds after the exposure to magainin-A (800-1,000 microg) in vitro. Intravaginal administration of 1 mg of magainin-A blocked conception in monkeys. When magainin-A was administered intravaginally for 14 consecutive days, no treatment-related abnormalities were observed in menstrual cycle length, vaginal epithelial cell morphology, and hematologic/serum biochemical profiles. The peptide inhibited the growth of sexually transmitted infection-causing pathogens but not HIV-1 and HIV-2. Magainin-A can be used as an effective and safe intravaginal contraceptive compound with additional protection against sexually transmitted infection-causing pathogens.

  6. Evaluation of the phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor ORG 9935 as a contraceptive in female macaques: initial trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Stouffer, Richard L; Stanley, Jessica E; Zelinski, Mary B

    2010-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 inhibitor has potential as a novel contraceptive in primates. Regularly cycling adult female cynomolgus macaques of proven fertility (n=16) were treated for 7 months with placebo (controls) or the PDE3 inhibitor ORG 9935 as a daily food treat (150 mg/kg) or as a weekly depot injection (150 mg/kg, sc). After 1 month, a male of proven fertility was introduced into each group. Females underwent weekly monitoring of progesterone (P) and ultrasound evaluation for pregnancy if P remained elevated (1.0 ng/mL) >3 weeks. ORG 9935 values were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. Overall, the pregnancy rate in ORG 9935-treated monkeys (4/8, 50%) did not differ from controls (7/8, 88%; p=.5). However, no animal became pregnant in a cycle when the serum level of ORG 9935 exceeded 300 nmol/L. Moreover, two treated monkeys who mated throughout the treatment phase and did not conceive became pregnant within four cycles after stopping ORG 9935. The other two animals were discontinued prematurely from the protocol. These results demonstrate that ORG 9935 may prevent pregnancy in primates at serum concentrations above 300 nmol/L and that the effect is reversible.

  7. Male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Marital status and female and male contraceptive sterilization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke Carine Wim

    2015-06-01

    To examine female and male sterilization patterns in the United States based on marital status, and to determine if sociodemographic characteristics explain these patterns. Survival analysis of cross-sectional data from the female and male samples from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Not applicable. The survey is designed to be representative of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population, ages 15-44 years. None. Vasectomy and tubal sterilization. In the United States, vasectomy is the near-exclusive domain of married men. Never-married and ever-married single men, and never-married cohabiting men, had a low relative risk (RR) of vasectomy (RR = 0.1, 0.3, and 0.0, respectively), compared with men in first marriages. Tubal sterilization was not limited to currently married, or even to ever-married women, although it was less common among never-married single women (RR = 0.2) and more common among women in higher-order marriages (RR = 1.8), compared with women in first marriages. In contrast to vasectomy, differential use of tubal sterilization by marital status was driven in large part by differences in parity. This study shows that being unmarried at the time of sterilization--an important risk factor for poststerilization regret--was much more common among women than men. In addition to contributing to the predominance of female, vs. male, sterilization, this pattern highlights the importance of educating women on the permanency of sterilization, and the opportunity to increase reliance on long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Female religious agents in Morocco: Old practices and new perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouguir, A.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis deals with female religious agents in Morocco’s past and present. More specifically, it investigates historical women saints and their reception today by Moroccan women in general and by Moroccan feminist activists in particular. Despite the fact that women saints impacted their

  10. Clinical trial considerations on male contraception and collection of pregnancy information from female partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banholzer Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little guidance regarding the risk of exposure of pregnant women/ women of childbearing potential to genotoxic or teratogenic compounds via vaginal dose delivered through seminal fluid during sexual intercourse. Method We summarize current thinking and provide clinical trial considerations for a consistent approach to contraception for males exposed to genotoxic and/or teratogenic compounds or to compounds of unknown teratogenicity, and for collection of pregnancy data from their female partners. Results Where toxicity testing demonstrates genotoxic potential, condom use is required during exposure and for 5 terminal plasma half-lives plus 74 days (one human spermatogenesis cycle to avoid conception. For non-genotoxic small molecules and immunoglobulins with unknown teratogenic potential or without a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL from embryo-fetal development (EFD studies and no minimal anticipated biological effect level (MABEL, condom use is recommended for males with pregnant partner/female partner of childbearing potential. For teratogenic small molecules with estimated seminal fluid concentration and a margin between projected maternal area under the curve (AUC and NOAEL AUC from EFD studies of ≥300 (≥100 for immunoglobulins or in the absence of a NOAEL with a margin between MABEL plasma concentration and maternal Cmax of ≥300 (≥10 for immunoglobulins, condom use is not required. However, condom use is required for margins below the thresholds previously indicated. For small molecules with available seminal fluid concentrations, condom use is required if margins are Pregnancy data should be proactively collected if pregnancy occurs during the condom use period required for males exposed to first-in-class molecules or to molecules with a target/class shown to be teratogenic, embryotoxic or fetotoxic in human or preclinical experiments. Conclusion These recommendations, based on a precaution

  11. An Analysis of Contraceptive Discontinuation among Female, Reversible Method Users in Urban Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden-O’Fallon, Janine; Speizer, Ilene S.; Cálix, Javier; Rodriguez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A panel study examining the effects of individual characteristics, side effects experienced, and service quality on contraceptive discontinuation was undertaken in four urban areas of Honduras. Data were collected from October 2006 to December 2007. The baseline population included 800 women aged 15–44 who were new or continuing users of the injectable, IUD, or oral contraceptive pill. A total of 671 women (84%) were re-interviewed after one year. Life tables and Cox proportional hazards models are used to present discontinuation rates and factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation. Among new users, discontinuation of the baseline method at 12 months was high (45%); especially for users of the injectable (50%). In the hazards model, service quality had little effect on discontinuation, while individual characteristics and the experience of specific side effects showed significant effects. The results suggest that programs should emphasize continuous contraceptive coverage rather than continuous use of a particular method. PMID:21500697

  12. Targeting factors for change: contraceptive counselling and care of female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Johannes; Abalos, Virginia; Apter, Dan; Martin, Ricardo; Black, Amanda

    2016-12-01

    Sexual and reproductive health care should empower and enable all individuals to have a sex life that is as safe and pleasurable as possible. Achievement of this goal for adolescents is often impeded by regional and sociocultural barriers. To review global barriers to provision of effective counselling and care of adolescents seeking advice on contraception and sexual and reproductive health and identify elements of best practice that can be adapted to meet their needs at regional level. Experts with clinical experience and a scholarly background in the provision of contraceptive services to adolescents participated in a stepwise process of literature review and discussion according to the agreed objectives. The Global CARE (Contraception: Access, Resources, Education) group identified barriers to the access, availability and acceptance of contraception by adolescents, not only at the political and sociocultural level but also within health care practice. The group collected and summarized successful local strategies and tools suitable for adaptation in other regions. Elements of best practice for providing contraception regardless of setting or regional constraints, including required skills, knowledge, and attitudes, were also proposed. Sharing of evidence-based best practice in delivering contraceptive services, improvements in health care provider education, and sharing of experience between countries will hopefully help to overcome the barriers to appropriate and effective counselling and care of adolescents.

  13. Sexual and contraceptive behavior among female university students in Sweden - repeated surveys over a 25-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhammar, Christina; Ehrsson, Ylva Tiblom; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-03-01

    To study female students' sexual and contraceptive behavior and compare these results with earlier surveys. Comparative, repeated cross-sectional surveys, started in 1989 and repeated every fifth year. Contraceptive counseling delivered at a Student Health Center in Sweden. Female university students (n = 359). Multiple-choice waiting-room questionnaire. Sexual and contraceptive behavior. In 1989, age at first intercourse was 17.6 years vs. 16.7 years in 2014, number of lifetime sexual partners was 4.0 vs. 12.1 in 2014, and number of sexual partners during the previous 12 months was 1.0 vs. 2.8 in 2014. Condom use during first intercourse with the latest partner decreased from 49% to 41% (n = 172 in 2009 vs. n = 148 in 2014: p used a condom during anal sex. A total of 70% (n = 251) made use of pornography, and 48% (n = 121) considered their sexual behavior affected by pornography. Eighty-nine percent (n = 291) wanted two to three children and 9% (n = 33) had thought about freezing eggs for the future. The female students' knowledge about increasing age being correlated with decreased fertility varied. Sexual behavior among female university students has gradually changed during the last 25 years and behavior appears more risky today. As this may have consequences on future reproductive health, it is vital to inform women about consistent and correct condom use and about the limitations of the fertile window. © 2015 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  14. [Five hundred females from Guadeloupe and their attitudes to contraception (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadras, P

    1982-01-01

    Notwithstanding the fact that family planning counseling and services are absolutely free in Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, requests for induced abortion are increasing. A survey was conducted among 500 women to discover the areas of resistance to contraception. Most women were between 18-32; 38% had at least 1 abortion, and of these 28% had at least 2. 67% of women with parity 6 or over would have liked a smaller family; no woman wanted more than 5 children and ideal family size was considered to be 3. 1 out of 4 women did not disucss contraception with their partner; 3 out of 4 had tried the pill, but 1 out of 4 thought it to be dangerous; only 13% of women who had taken or were taking the pill were satisfied; only 1 out of 2 women took the pill duringly breast feeding. 1 out of 3 women interviewed had tried the IUD. 23% relied on coitus interruptus and 18% on the condom for protection. Sterilization was not very popular and it was requested mainly by women aged 30-44 with parity 3 and over. Only 1 out of 4 knew about vasectomy. All women stated to prefer contraception to induced abortion, and only 68% knew that abortion was legal. The results indicate poor information and comprehension of contraceptive methods. The role of physicians, nurses, and midwives remains paramount in informing couples about their responsibilities in contraception.

  15. Urinary steroid profile in females - the impact of menstrual cycle and emergency contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jenny E; Thörngren, John-Olof; Schulze, Jenny J; Ericsson, Magnus; Gårevik, Nina; Lehtihet, Mikael; Ekström, Lena

    2017-07-01

    Today's doping tests involving longitudinal monitoring of steroid profiles are difficult in women. Women have more complex hormonal fluctuations than men and commonly take drugs such as hormonal contraceptives that are shown to affect biomarkers used in these doping tests. In this study, we followed six women's urinary steroid profile during one menstrual cycle, including both glucuronides and sulfate conjugated fractions. Additionally, we studied what happens to the steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) after administration of an emergency contraceptive (levonorgestrel, NorLevo®). The study shows that there are large individual variations in all metabolites included in the ABP and that the administration of emergency contraceptives may lead to suspicious steroid profile findings in the ABP. Urinary epitestosterone concentration increased during the menstrual cycle, leading to a decrease in the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio. The ratios followed in the ABP varied widely throughout the menstrual cycle, the coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4 to 99%. There was a 3-fold decrease in epitestosterone 24 h post administration of the emergency contraceptive pill and androsterone, etiocholanolone, and 5β- androstan-3α,17β-diol concentrations decreased about 2-fold. When analyzed with the ABP software, one of the six women had an atypical profile after taking the emergency contraceptive. Furthermore, we could not find any alterations in excretion routes (i.e., if the metabolites are excreted as glucuronide or sulfate conjugates) during the menstrual cycle or after administration of emergency contraceptive, indicating no direct effect on phase II enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of low zinc intake and oral contraceptive agents on nitrogen utilization and clinical findings in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, F M; King, J C; Margen, S

    1977-12-01

    In a previous paper we reported that serum, urine and fecal zinc levels fell markedly in women taking a combination oral contraceptive agent (+OCA) and in women with normal menstrual cycles (-OCA) when they consumed a low-zinc diet (less than 0.2 mg/day) for 35 days. We evaluated other biochemical and clinical data in order to determine if depletion of accessible body zinc and/or physiologic adjustment to conserve body zinc stores had occurred. Neither low zinc intake nor oral contraceptive use appeared to influence nitrogen balance or body weight. Use of contraceptive drugs appeared to influence the response of blood parameters to zinc depletion. Serum transferrin and cholesterol declined significantly in the -OCA group, whereas alkaline phosphatase and gamma-globulin changed significantly in both groups. Clinical problems developed in all the subjects with serum zinc levels below 50 microgram/dl during the study; three of the six with serum zinc levels above 50 microgram/dl also complained of clinical symptoms. The results suggest that zinc deficiency through depletion of accessible body zinc stores developed during the 35-day study.

  17. Advances in Male Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  18. Association between injectable progestin-only contraceptives and HIV acquisition and HIV target cell frequency in the female genital tract in South African women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Elizabeth H; Anahtar, Melis N; Cohen, Kathleen E; Moodley, Amber; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Bowman, Brittany A; Olson, Gregory S; Mabhula, Amanda; Leslie, Alasdair; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Dong, Krista L; Kwon, Douglas S

    2016-04-01

    The use of injectable progestin-only contraceptives has been associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition in observational studies, but the biological mechanisms of this risk remain poorly understood. We aimed to assess the effects of progestins on HIV acquisition risk and the immune environment in the female genital tract. In this prospective cohort, we enrolled HIV-negative South African women aged 18-23 years who were not pregnant and were living in Umlazi, South Africa from the Females Rising through Education, Support, and Health (FRESH) study. We tested for HIV-1 twice per week to monitor incident infection. Every 3 months, we collected demographic and behavioural data in addition to blood and cervical samples. The study objective was to characterise host immune determinants of HIV acquisition risk, including those associated with injectable progestin-only contraceptive use. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards methods. Between Nov 19, 2012, and May 31, 2015, we characterised 432 HIV-uninfected South African women from the FRESH study. In this cohort, 152 women used injectable progestin-only contraceptives, 43 used other forms of contraception, and 222 women used no method of long-term contraception. Women using injectable progestin-only contraceptives were at substantially higher risk of acquiring HIV (12·06 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 6·41-20·63) than women using no long-term contraception (3·71 per 100 person-years, 1·36-8·07; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2·93, 95% CI 1·09-7·868, p=0·0326). HIV-negative injectable progestin-only contraceptive users had 3·92 times the frequency of cervical HIV target cells (CCR5+ CD4 T cells) compared with women using no long-term contraceptive (p=0·0241). Women using no long-term contraceptive in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle also had a 3·25 times higher frequency of cervical target cells compared with those in the follicular phase (p=0·0488), suggesting that a

  19. Decreased allopregnanolone induced by hormonal contraceptives is associated with a reduction in social behavior and sexual motivation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoru, Francesca; Berretti, Roberta; Locci, Andrea; Porcu, Patrizia; Concas, Alessandra

    2014-09-01

    Allopregnanolone is a neurosteroid involved in depression, memory, social, and sexual behavior. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with a combination of ethinylestradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG), two compounds frequently used in hormonal contraception, decreased brain allopregnanolone concentrations. These changes may contribute to some of the emotional and sexual disorders observed in hormonal contraceptive users. We thus examined whether the reduction in allopregnanolone concentrations induced by long-term EE/LNG administration was associated with altered emotional, learning, social, and sexual behaviors. Rats were orally treated with a combination of EE (0.030 mg) and LNG (0.125 mg) once a day for 4 weeks and were subjected to behavioral tests 24 h after the last administration. EE/LNG treatment reduced immobility behavior in the forced swim test, without affecting sucrose preference and spatial learning and memory. In the resident-intruder test, EE/LNG-treated rats displayed a decrease in dominant behaviors associated with a reduction in social investigation. In the paced mating test, EE/LNG treated rats showed a reduction in proceptive behaviors, while the lordosis quotient was not affected. Progesterone, but not estradiol, administration to EE/LNG-treated rats increased sexual activity and cerebrocortical allopregnanolone concentrations. Prior administration of finasteride decreased allopregnanolone concentrations and abolished the increase in proceptivity induced by progesterone administration. The decrease in brain allopregnanolone concentrations induced by EE/LNG treatment is associated with a reduction in social behavior and sexual motivation in female rats. These results might be relevant to the side effects sometimes exhibited by women taking hormonal contraceptives.

  20. Current Hormonal Contraceptive Use Predicts Female Extra-Pair and Dyadic Sexual Behavior: Evidence Based on Czech National Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Klapilová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from 1155 Czech women (493 using oral contraception, 662 non-users, obtained from the Czech National Survey of Sexual Behavior, were used to investigate evolutionary-based hypotheses concerning the predictive value of current oral contraceptive (OC use on extra-pair and dyadic (in-pair sexual behavior of coupled women. Specifically, the aim was to determine whether current OC use was associated with lower extra-pair and higher in-pair sexual interest and behavior, because OC use suppresses cyclical shifts in mating psychology that occur in normally cycling women. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP regression and negative binomial models were used to test associations between OC use and these sexual measures, controlling for other relevant predictors (e.g., age, parity, in-pair sexual satisfaction, relationship length. The overall incidence of having had an extra-pair partner or one-night stand in the previous year was not related to current OC use (the majority of the sample had not. However, among the women who had engaged in extra-pair sexual behavior, OC users had fewer one-night stands than non-users, and tended to have fewer partners, than non-users. OC users also had more frequent dyadic intercourse than non-users, potentially indicating higher commitment to their current relationship. These results suggest that suppression of fertility through OC use may alter important aspects of female sexual behavior, with potential implications for relationship functioning and stability.

  1. Knowledge, practices, and attitudes of emergency contraception among female university students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, practices, and attitudes among female university students in South Africa regarding emergency contraceptives (EC. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 582 female university students who were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find significant predictors for EC awareness. RESULTS: The average age of the female students was 20.9 years (SD=3.0 and 57.2% were presently sexually active. Overall, 49.8% of the participants reported having heard about EC prior to the study. Regarding sexual activities among the female students, 53.2% reported to have sex, and 21.2% of the sexually experienced students used EC prior to the study. Regarding the effectiveness of EC, 29.5% students said it could be used up to 72 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse, and 8% said it could be used just before sex. About two-thirds (61.8% would recommend the use of EC and 63.2% would use it if they needed. The multivariate analysis indicated that students who were older (>20 years, presently sexually active, and living with their parents were more likely to be aware of EC (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The students' knowledge and utilization of EC were low. Health education and promotion should be targeted towards these students, and the EC services should be offered on campus.

  2. The influence of combined oral contraceptives on female sexual desire: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Zlatko; Holla, Katerina; Chmel, Roman

    2013-02-01

    To determine the relationship between the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and sexual desire based on a systematic review of the literature. MEDLINE Complete, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1975 and 2011, reporting the effects of oral contraceptives on sexual desire. Reports fully meeting all the predefined criteria were analysed and included in a final reference list. In addition, a review of the reference list of selected articles was carried out. We evaluated 36 studies (1978-2011; 13,673 women). Of the COC users (n = 8,422), 85% reported an increase (n = 1,826) or no change (n = 5,358) in libido and 15% reported a decrease (n = 1,238). We found no significant difference in sexual desire in the case of COCs with 20-35 μg ethinylestradiol; libido decreased only with pills containing 15 μg ethinylestradiol. The majority of COC users report no significant change in libido although in most studies a decline in plasma levels of free testosterone and an increase in those of sex hormone binding globulin were observed.

  3. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2008-09-01

    Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers.

  4. Factors influencing the adrenocorticotropin test: role of contemporary cortisol assays, body composition, and oral contraceptive agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne; Lange, Martin; Rasmussen, Aase Krogh

    2007-01-01

    -hormone levels; corticosteroid-binding globulin levels; and test conditions (fasting/nonfasting, rest/intermittent exercise). METHODS: A 250-microg ACTH test (0800-1000 h) was performed in 100 unmedicated subjects, 13 women taking oral contraception (OC), and six men with nephrotic syndrome. Tests were performed...... fasting supine (n=119), nonfasting supine (n=38), and fasting with intermittent exercise (n=45). Serum cortisol was analyzed by three immunoassays. RESULTS: Even with a negligible between-assay mean bias, individual samples from unmedicated subjects differed by as much as 110 nmol/liter. The normative 2......-binding globulin, fasting/nonfasting, and exercise. Compared with unmedicated subjects, OC women had 2-fold elevated 30-min cortisol (P

  5. [Contraceptive practices among university students: the use of emergency contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Contin, Marcelo Vieira

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated contraceptive practices and especially the use of emergency contraception by 487 young students at a public university in São Paulo State. A structured questionnaire was sent by e-mail and completed online in December 2007. Contraceptive methods and use of emergency contraception were investigated. Female and male students reported a high proportion of contraceptive use, mainly condoms and the pill. Half of the students had already used emergency contraception, often when already using some other highly effective method. Among female students, multiple regression analysis showed that current age, age at sexual initiation, not having used condoms in sexual relations, condom failure, and knowing someone that has used emergency contraception were associated with use of the latter. The option for emergency contraception proved to be more closely related to inconsistencies in the use of regular methods than to lack of their use, and can thus be considered a marker for discontinuity in regular contraception.

  6. Contraceptive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M; Atkinson, L

    1984-06-01

    A question of the 1980s is how will contraceptive technology contribute to improving family planning services to meet the goal of making available a simple, safe, effective, and widely acceptable contraceptive method. Significant changes in existing technology in the 1970s resulted in safer and more effective contraceptive methods. Voluntary sterilization emerged as the primary method in developed and developing countries, as important modifications simplified the procedure for women. The tolerance and effectiveness of the IUD were improved by reducing its size, adding copper to its surface, or encapsulating progesterone within it. The steroid content of the birth control pill was reduced 10-fold, leading to fewer side effects, and the pill was found to be an effective postcoital contraceptive when taken at specific intervals. Vacuum aspiration for the termination of 1st trimester pregnancy proved to be 1 of the safest surgical techniques practiced. Belated attention is now being focused on adapting existing contraceptive methods for use during the postpartum period and breast feeding. The insertion of an IUD immediately following childbirth is a particularly useful option in the developing world as an increasing number of women have their babies in urban hospitals. A method of enhancing the contraceptive effect of breast feeding should neither change milk production nor transfer the drug to the nursing infant. Fortunately, progestin-only pills have been found to have no effect on breast milk and an attempt is being made to expand the use of this approved method. More simplification of female sterilization is needed. Current techniques require back-up facilities in case of complications and are unlikely to meet the developing world's enormous demand. 2 methods not widely used -- spermicides and periodic abstinence -- are coming under new scrutiny. In mid-1983 the US Food and Drug Administration approved a spermicide-impregnanated disposable sponge for over

  7. Emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... IUD placed inside the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. ...

  8. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    B. Akshaya Srikanth; V. Manisree

    2013-01-01

    Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we...

  9. Association between non-barrier modern contraceptive use and condomless sex among HIV-positive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A prospective cohort analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diya Surie

    Full Text Available As access to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa continues to expand, more women with HIV can expect to survive through their reproductive years. Modern contraceptives can help women choose the timing and spacing of childbearing. However, concerns remain that women with HIV who use non-barrier forms of modern contraception may engage in more condomless sex because of their decreased risk of unintended pregnancy. We examined whether non-barrier modern contraceptive use by HIV-positive female sex workers was associated with increased frequency of recent condomless sex, measured by detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA in vaginal secretions.Women who were HIV-positive and reported transactional sex were included in this analysis. Pregnant and post-menopausal follow-up time was excluded, as were visits at which women reported trying to get pregnant. At enrollment and quarterly follow-up visits, a pelvic speculum examination with collection of vaginal secretions was conducted for detection of PSA. In addition, women completed a structured face-to-face interview about their current contraceptive methods and sexual risk behavior at enrollment and monthly follow-up visits. Log-binomial generalized estimating equations regression was used to test for associations between non-barrier modern contraceptive use and detection of PSA in vaginal secretions and self-reported condomless sex. Data from October 2012 through September 2014 were included in this analysis.Overall, 314 women contributed 1,583 quarterly examination visits. There was minimal difference in PSA detection at contraceptive-exposed versus contraceptive-unexposed visits (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.93-1.76. There was a higher rate of self-reported condomless sex at visits where women reported using modern contraceptives, but this difference was not statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors (aRR 1.59, 95

  10. Characterization of Ovarian Steroid Patterns in Female African Lions (Panthera leo), and the Effects of Contraception on Reproductive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Sarah B; Brown, Janine L; Franklin, Ashley D; Schneider, Emily C; Boisseau, Nicole P; Asa, Cheryl S; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2015-01-01

    Because of poor reproduction after the lifting of an 8-year breeding moratorium, a biomedical survey of female lions in U.S. zoos was initiated in 2007. Fecal estrogen (FEM), progestagen (FPM) and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites were analyzed in samples collected 3-4 times per wk from 28 lions at 17 facilities (0.9-13.8 yr of age) for 4 mo-3.5 yr and body weights were obtained ~monthly from 17 animals at eight facilities (0.0-3.0 yr of age). Based on FEM, estrous cycle length averaged 17.5 ± 0.4 d in duration, with estrus lasting 4.4 ± 0.2 d. All but one female exhibited waves of estrogenic activity indicative of follicular activity; however, not all females expressed estrous behaviors (73%), suggesting silent estrus was common. Female lions experienced puberty earlier than expected; waves of estrogenic activity were observed as young as 1.1 yr of age, which may be related to a faster growth rate of captive vs. wild lions. Mean gestation length was 109.5 ± 1.0 d, whereas the non-pregnant luteal phase was less than half (46.0 ± 1.2 d). Non-mating induced increases in FPM were observed in 33% of females housed without a male, consistent with spontaneous ovulation. A number of study animals had been contracepted, and the return to cyclicity after treatment withdrawal, while variable, was ~4.0 yr and longer than the 1-yr expected efficacy, especially for those implanted with Suprelorin. For FGM, there were no differences in overall, baseline or peak mean concentrations among the age groups or across seasons, nor were there any relationships between reproductive parameters and FGM concentrations. Overall, results suggest that poor reproduction in lions after the breeding moratorium was not related to altered adrenal or ovarian steroid activity, but for some females may have been a consequence of individual institutions' management decisions.

  11. Characterization of Ovarian Steroid Patterns in Female African Lions (Panthera leo), and the Effects of Contraception on Reproductive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Sarah B.; Brown, Janine L.; Franklin, Ashley D.; Schneider, Emily C.; Boisseau, Nicole P.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of poor reproduction after the lifting of an 8-year breeding moratorium, a biomedical survey of female lions in U.S. zoos was initiated in 2007. Fecal estrogen (FEM), progestagen (FPM) and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites were analyzed in samples collected 3–4 times per wk from 28 lions at 17 facilities (0.9–13.8 yr of age) for 4 mo—3.5 yr and body weights were obtained ~monthly from 17 animals at eight facilities (0.0–3.0 yr of age). Based on FEM, estrous cycle length averaged 17.5 ± 0.4 d in duration, with estrus lasting 4.4 ± 0.2 d. All but one female exhibited waves of estrogenic activity indicative of follicular activity; however, not all females expressed estrous behaviors (73%), suggesting silent estrus was common. Female lions experienced puberty earlier than expected; waves of estrogenic activity were observed as young as 1.1 yr of age, which may be related to a faster growth rate of captive vs. wild lions. Mean gestation length was 109.5 ± 1.0 d, whereas the non-pregnant luteal phase was less than half (46.0 ± 1.2 d). Non-mating induced increases in FPM were observed in 33% of females housed without a male, consistent with spontaneous ovulation. A number of study animals had been contracepted, and the return to cyclicity after treatment withdrawal, while variable, was ~4.0 yr and longer than the 1-yr expected efficacy, especially for those implanted with Suprelorin. For FGM, there were no differences in overall, baseline or peak mean concentrations among the age groups or across seasons, nor were there any relationships between reproductive parameters and FGM concentrations. Overall, results suggest that poor reproduction in lions after the breeding moratorium was not related to altered adrenal or ovarian steroid activity, but for some females may have been a consequence of individual institutions’ management decisions. PMID:26460849

  12. Swedish teenager perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits--a focus group study among 17-year-old female high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Von Essen, Louise; Tydén, Tanja

    2005-10-01

    Sweden has the highest abortion numbers among the Nordic countries. Since 1995, the abortion rate among teenagers has increased by nearly 50%. We therefore undertook a study where the overall aim was to gain a deeper understanding on which factors female teenagers believe may explain the increasing numbers of teenage abortions. Teenagers' perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits were investigated. Six focus group interviews with 17-year-old Swedish girls were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by manifest content analysis. Negative attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and supportive attitudes toward abortion were expressed. Risk-taking behaviors such as negligence in contraceptive use and intercourse under the influence of alcohol were suggested as main reasons behind the increasing numbers of abortions among Swedish teenagers. The contemporary, sexualized, media picture was believed to influence adolescents' sexual behavior, and liberal attitudes toward casual sex were expressed. Girls were perceived as more obliged than boys in taking responsibility for contraceptive compliance and avoidance of pregnancy. The apprehension that hormonal contraceptives cause negative side-effects was widely spread, and the participants were found to have a somewhat limited knowledge of abortion. The majority were unsatisfied with the quality of sexual education provided by the schools. Possible reasons for increased abortion numbers among teenagers in Sweden could be liberal attitudes toward casual sex in combination with negligence in contraceptive use, use of alcohol followed by sexual risk-taking, fear of hormonal contraceptives, and a deterioration of sexual education in the schools.

  13. Promoting contraceptive use among female rural-to-urban migrants in Qingdao, China: a comparative impact study of worksite-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decat, Peter; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Delva, Wim; Moyer, Eileen; Cheng, Yimin; Wang, Zhi-Jin; Lu, Ci-Yong; Wu, Shi-Zhong; Nadisauskiene, Ruta Jolanta; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2012-10-01

    We conducted a comparative study in worksites to assess the impact of sexual health promoting interventions on contraceptive use among female rural-to-urban migrants. In Qingdao ten manufacturing worksites were randomly allocated to a standard package of interventions (SPI) and an intensive package of interventions (IPI). The interventions ran from July 2008 to January 2009. Cross-sectional surveys at baseline and end line assessed the sexual behaviour of young female migrants. To evaluate the impact of the interventions we assessed pre- and post-time trends. From the SPI group 721 (baseline) and 615 (end line) respondents were considered. Out of the IPI group we included 684 and 603 migrants. Among childless migrants, self-reported contraceptive use increased significantly after SPI and IPI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52-6.84; p interventions seem to have an added value if they are well targeted to specific groups.

  14. Contraceptive Embarrassment and Contraceptive Behavior among Young Single Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Edward S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper determined factors predictive of contraceptive embarrassment, and the relationship of contraceptive embarrassment to contraceptive use among young unmarried females. The most important predictors found were parental attitude to premarital intercourse and sexual guilt. The embarrassment scale had significant correlations with…

  15. Structural and histochemical studies on the effect of injectable contraceptive on some parenchymatous organs of female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, O.S.M.

    1998-01-01

    This work was planned to evaluate the histopathological and histochemical changes induced by gamma irradiation and or long acting injectable contraceptive ( depo-provera) MPa on some parenchymatous organs of female rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may be develop in such organs. The plan of this study was designed for the following: 1- Study of the morphological changes in the liver, kidney and gonadotrophs cell. 2- study of the effect of gamma radiation and/or MPa on the vascular distribution in the liver and kidney tissues, using indian ink injection technique. 3- evaluation of the activity of two enzymes ( acid phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase) in the liver and kidney tissues. This was accomplished using frozen sections . Moreover, evaluation of the Pas + ve materials using paraffin sections in the same organs. 4- quantitative study was performed for P As + ve materials, acid phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase in addition to the vascular distribution in the liver and kidney tissues. furthermore, quantitative measurement for FSH and LH cells using immunostaining method

  16. Contraception and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos-Hesselink, JolienW.; Cornette, Jerome; Sliwa, Karen; Pieper, Petronella G.; Veldtman, Gruschen R.; Johnson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptive counselling should begin early in females with heart disease, preferably directly after the start of menstruation. In coming to a decision about the method of contraception, the following issues should be considered: (i) the risk of pregnancy for the mother and the consequences of an

  17. Contraceptives with novel benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) agonists (progestins) and antagonists are developed for female contraceptives. However, non-contraceptive applications of newer progestins and PR modulators are being given more attention. The newer PR agonists including drospirenone, nomegestrol, trimegestone, dienogest and nestorone are being evaluated as contraceptives with health benefits because of their unique pharmacological properties. The selective PR modulators (SPRM; PR antagonists with PR agonistic properties) are under development not only for emergency contraception but also for other health benefits such as the treatment of endometritis and leiomyoma. After searching the literature from PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and patent database, this review focuses on the effects and mechanisms of these progestins, and SPRMs as contraceptives with other health benefits. PR agonists and antagonists that have novel properties may generate better contraceptive effects with other health benefits.

  18. Role of Socializing Agents in Female Sport Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greendorfer, Susan L.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the socializing of women into sports activities revealed that peers were most influential at all life-cycle stages, family was the most influential during childhood, and coaches and teachers during adolescence; in addition, males were the predominant role models during childhood, and females during adolescence and adult life. (MB)

  19. Pipeline for Contraceptive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blithe, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    The high rates of unplanned pregnancy reflect unmet need for effective contraceptive methods for women, especially for individuals with health risks such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions that may contraindicate use of an estrogen-containing product. Improvements in safety, user convenience, acceptability and availability of products remain important goals of the contraceptive development program. Another important goal is to minimize the impact of the products on the environment. Development of new methods for male contraception has the potential to address many of these issues with regard to safety for women who have contraindications to effective contraceptive methods but want to protect against pregnancy. It also will address a huge unmet need for men who want to control their fertility. Products under development for men would not introduce eco-toxic hormones in the waste water. Investment in contraceptive research to identify new products for women has been limited in the pharmaceutical industry relative to investment in drug development for other indications. Pharmaceutical R&D for male contraception was active in the 1990’s but was abandoned over a decade ago. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has supported a contraceptive development program since 1969. Through a variety of programs including research grants and contracts, NICHD has developed a pipeline of new targets/products for male and female contraception. A number of lead candidates are under evaluation in the NICHD Contraceptive Clinical Trials Network (CCTN) (1–3). PMID:27523300

  20. [Contraceptive self efficacy in male and female adolescents: validation of the French version of the Levinson scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, A; Forget, G; Tétreault, J

    1994-01-01

    The social learning theory of Bandura leads us to believe that contraceptive self-efficacy supports the adoption and the maintenance of effective contraceptive behaviours during the teenage years. Levinson has developed a validated measure of this concept which consists of an 18-item scale for sexually active girls. However there are no such scales in French or for sexually active boys. The health promotion program, entitled SEXPRIMER, which aims at reducing teenage pregnancy, has incorporated the French version of the Levinson scale, the adapted boy's version and the validity studies. A 15-item scale for girls and a 14-item scale for boys with respective reliability coefficients of .78 and .71 resulted from this program. A logistic regression analysis shows the predictive value of the measures in regard to contraceptive behaviours. According to Levinson's more recent studies, results indicate that new research on the factor matrix of the scale are relevant.

  1. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  2. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  3. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    contraceptives among female college students in Arba Minch ... those who mentioned pills as an emergency contraceptive method, 26.4% correctly ... The summary index for knowledge disclosed that 21.9% had good knowledge about EC.

  4. Contraceptive failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2002-01-01

    Most studies focusing on contraceptive failure in relation to pregnancy have focused on contraceptive failure among women having induced abortions, thereby neglecting those women who, despite contraceptive failure, accept the pregnancy and intend to carry the fetus to term. To get a more complete...... picture of the problem of contraceptive failure, this study focuses on contraceptive failure among women with diverse pregnancy outcomes. In all, 3520 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital were included: 373 had induced abortions, 435 had spontaneous abortions, 97 had ectopic pregnancies......, and 2614 received antenatal care. The variables studied comprise age, partner relationship, number of births, occupational and economical situation, and contraceptive use.Contraceptive failure, defined as contraceptive use (condom, diaphragm, IUD, oral contraception, or another modern method...

  5. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy, poor birth outcomes and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obare Francis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15–19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Results Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8–2.0 while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1–0.2. Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6–4.0. In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9. However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5–3.3. There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5–1.5. Conclusions The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents

  6. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy, poor birth outcomes and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obare, Francis; van der Kwaak, Anke; Birungi, Harriet

    2012-10-06

    Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15-19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-2.0) while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2). Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-4.0). In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9). However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5-3.3). There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5-1.5). The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents in the sample is partly due to inconsistent use of contraception to prevent

  7. Communication about Contraception and Knowledge of Oral Contraceptives amongst Norwegian High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…

  8. Mixed Messages: How Primary Agents of Socialization Influence Adolescent Females Who Identify as Multiracial-Bisexual

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alissa R.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to highlight the often stigmatized and invisible identities of six female participants who identify as multiracial/biracial-bisexual/pansexual, focusing on the pre-college context. Findings, using in-depth interviews, indicated that the primary socializing agents within the pre-college context strongly influenced…

  9. Contraceptive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  10. [Contraception in the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, R; Boukhris, M

    1994-02-01

    In the last decade, global use of contraceptive methods has increased. About 50% of couples of childbearing age use a modern contraceptive method. This evolution and a positive change in attitude towards male contraception has encouraged research in fertility regulation to enlarge and to improve acceptance of the contraceptive mix. Current injectable contraceptives interfere with the menstrual cycle. Research is exploring ways to minimize such secondary effects by reducing the total hormone dose and by changing the way the active product is delivered (e.g., microspheres). An injectable prototype is an analogue of levonorgestrel (HRP 002). A new IUD is made of leather suspended by a nylon suture which has been inserted into the uterine muscle. RU-486, often used to interrupt early pregnancy, is being tested as an oral contraceptive (OC). It inhibits secretion of gonadotropins and ovulation. It holds promise as an OC with no estrogen component. Since it also inhibits endometrial development and thus prevents implantation, it may someday be used for emergency contraception (i.e., postcoital contraception). New contraceptive implants under study include Norplant RII (2 rods of levonorgestrel lasting for 3 years), Implanon (desogestrel), and Capranor (biodegradable implant lasting 2 years). The female condom consists of a flexible polyurethane sheath with a flexible ring at each end. It has the potential to protect against sexually transmitted diseases since it covers the labial lips and is impermeable to HIV. France and Switzerland have both approved its use. It will enter the UK market at the end of the year. Approval for marketing has been sought in the US.

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Tofacitinib on the Pharmacokinetics of Oral Contraceptive Steroids in Healthy Female Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sujatha; Riese, Richard; Wang, Ronnie; Alvey, Christine W; Shi, Haihong; Petit, Wendy; Krishnaswami, Sriram

    2016-09-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. Tofacitinib metabolism is primarily mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4. This phase 1 randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study (NCT01137708) evaluated the effect of tofacitinib 30 mg twice daily on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of combination oral contraceptives ethinylestradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LN). EE and LN were administered as a single Microgynon 30® tablet (30 μg EE and 150 μg LN) to 19 healthy women. In the presence of tofacitinib, the area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC∞ ) increased by 6.6% and 0.9% for EE and LN, respectively. Maximal plasma concentrations decreased by 10.4% for EE and increased by 12.2% for LN when coadministered with tofacitinib. The 90% confidence intervals for the adjusted geometric mean ratios for AUC∞ fell within the 80%-125% region for both EE and LN. Mean half-life was similar in the presence and absence of tofacitinib: 13.8 and 13.3 hours, respectively, for EE; 25.9 and 25.4 hours, respectively, for LN. Tofacitinib had no clinically relevant net inhibitory or inductive effect on the pharmacokinetics of EE and LN. Therefore, there is no evidence to suggest dose adjustments of oral contraceptive drugs containing EE or LN when coadministered with tofacitinib. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  13. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  14. Acceptability of an existing, female-controlled contraceptive method that could potentially protect against HIV: a comparison of diaphragm users and other method users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sheryl Thorburn; Harvey, S Marie; Maher, Julie E; Beckman, Linda J

    2004-01-01

    The diaphragm, an internal barrier contraceptive device, is a candidate for a female-controlled method for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study's objective was to examine how women who use the diaphragm differ from women using the pill and/or condoms with respect to factors hypothesized to influence the acceptability of contraceptive methods. Our goal was to increase understanding of who finds the diaphragm acceptable and why. We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey with selected female members of a managed care organization. For this analysis, we limited the sample to 585 women currently using the diaphragm (n = 196), pill (n = 200), condoms (n = 132), or pill and condoms (n = 57). We conducted bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression analyses to assess the associations between selected characteristics and diaphragm use. Diaphragm use was significantly associated with several variables. Of particular interest, placing less importance on hormonal method characteristics was significantly associated with diaphragm use (versus use of the pill, condoms, or both). Placing more importance on barrier method attributes was significantly associated with diaphragm use (versus pill use, alone or with condoms). In addition, lower condom use self-efficacy was significantly associated with diaphragm use (versus condom use, alone or with pill). Lack of motivation to avoid HIV/STIs was significantly associated with using the diaphragm versus condoms (only). These results have important implications for future research, interventions, counseling strategies for providers, and product development. Our findings suggest that if the diaphragm protects against HIV, it could be a desirable option for some women.

  15. Health education alone and health education plus advance provision of emergency contraceptive pills on knowledge and attitudes among university female students in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinze-Onyia, S U; Aguwa, E N; Nwobodo, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This was an intervention study to compare the effects of health education alone and health education plus advance provision of emergency contraception (EC) pills on the knowledge and attitudes to EC by female students of University of Nigeria in South-East Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data in February, 2009 from 290 female students of a tertiary educational institution (140 in the study group and 150 from the control group) who were selected by multistage sampling. Subsequently, health education was conducted among all the students. In addition, a pack containing 2 tablets of EC pills (Postinor) was given only to the students in the study group. Three months after this intervention, its effects were assessed through a survey using the same structured questionnaire employed in the baseline survey. knowledge of EC was significantly higher among the study group than the controls at post-intervention, P education plus advance provision of EC pills effectively improved knowledge and attitudes to EC among female students of tertiary institutions more than health education alone and this should be promoted.

  16. The influence of lifestyle, menstrual function and oral contraceptive use on bone mass and size in female military cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendy Susan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To determine the influence of menstrual irregularity, oral contraceptive use and other factors on bone mineral density (BMD and bone size at different skeletal sites in 135 college-aged fit women. Methods Menstrual history, oral contraceptive use, exercise history, and nutritional factors including calcium, caffeine, and alcohol intake as well as tobacco use were determined by written survey. Height, weight and fitness levels were measured. Spine and hip BMD were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, calcaneus BMD by peripheral DXA, and tibial bone mineral content (BMC and size by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT. Results The mean age was 18.4 ± 0.8 years. Weight and prior exercise were positively related to BMD at most skeletal sites and to tibial bone size. Milk intake was positively related to calcaneal BMD, tibial BMC and cortical thickness. Fracture history was an important predictor of spine, hip and heel BMD. Women who had ≥ 10 menstrual cycles in the year prior to BMD measurement had higher BMD at all sites as well as a greater tibial mineral content and cortical thickness than women who had oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (≤ 9 cycles in the prior year; all p p p = 0.04, smaller tibial periosteal circumference and lower tibial mineral content (p Conclusion In a population of fit, college-aged women, OC use and oligomenorrhea were associated with reduced BMD and bone size. Weight, as well as prior exercise and milk intake was positively related to bone density and size at some skeletal sites. Understanding these relationships would help improve skeletal health in young women.

  17. Effect of male partner's support on spousal modern contraception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Male partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance. Keywords: Female contraception; Male partner support; Spousal contraception ...

  18. A role for selective contraception of individuals in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Holly R; Hogg, Carolyn J; White, Peter J; Herbert, Catherine A

    2017-10-28

    agent being used are important to ensure the potential for individuals to reproduce following cessation of contraception, as exemplified by the wallabies when their population crashed and needed females to resume breeding. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  20. ACCEPTABILITY OF ULTRA LOW-DOSE ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES CONTAINING 20 µg ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND 75 µg GESTODENE IN YOUNG FEMALES IN A MULTICENTER CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Pinter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The acceptability of ultra low-dose oral contraception (OC among young females after three and six cycles of treatment was assessed.Methods. In the clinical prospective study, carried out in 10 outpatient clinics in Slovenia, 240 healthy women aged 16– 30 years choosing ultra low-dose OC (20 µg ethinyl estradiol and 75 µg gestodene were included.Results. The average age was 20.6 (± 3.5 years. After three cycles (N = 228 there were no changes in body weight or blood pressure; one tenth (9.6% of women reported irregular bleeding and 3.9% weight gain while other side effects occurred rarely. After three cycles 88.3% of the women initially included continued OC use (5% discontinued the use due to side effects. After six cycles (N = 195 there were no changes in blood pressure; body weight statistically significantly increased for 0.5 kg providing the weight changes during the time were not considered. Fewer women reported side effects (3.6% irregular bleeding, 2.6% weight gain and rarely other side effects. After six cycles 75.0% of the women initially included continued the OC use (7.5% discontinued the use due to the side effects.Conclusions. The study has shown good clinical acceptability of ultra low-dose OC by young females.

  1. Contraceptive Sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause: Vaginal irritation or dryness Urinary tract or vaginal infection An increased risk of contracting STIs Toxic shock ... 24 hours to reduce the risk of an infection. Remove the contraceptive ... If your vaginal muscles are still holding the contraceptive sponge tightly, ...

  2. Contraceptive Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, Barbara S.; And Others

    The objective of research in contraceptive evaluation is to improve the ability of individuals to choose contraceptive methods best suited to their needs and circumstances and to provide information that will lead to the development of safer and more effective methods. There are usually three considerations in judging the importance of a method of…

  3. High pregnancy incidence and low contraceptive use among a prospective cohort of female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen S; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2018-05-03

    While HIV and unintended pregnancies are both occupational risks faced by female sex workers, the epidemiology of pregnancy and its drivers in this population remains understudied. This includes Cambodia, where the drivers of pregnancy among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) remain unknown. The current study aimed to examine factors associated with incident pregnancy, as well as describe contraceptive use among FESW in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. This analysis drew from the Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)-2, a 12-month observational cohort of 220 FESW aged 15-29 years, conducted between August 2009 and August 2010. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted at baseline and quarterly thereafter, alongside HIV and pregnancy testing. Bivariate and multivariable extended Cox regression analysis was used to examine correlates of incident pregnancy. At baseline, 6.8% of participants were pregnant, and only 10.8% reported using hormonal contraceptives, with 11.3% reporting an abortion in the past 3 months. Pregnancy incidence was high, at 22/100 person-years (95% CI: 16.3-30.1). In multivariable analysis, younger age (19-24 years versus 25-29 years) (Adjusted Hazards Ratio (AHR): 2.28; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.22-4.27), lower income (400,000-600,000 Riel (≤150$USD) versus > 600,000 Riel (> 150$USD)) (AHR 2.63; 95% CI 1.02-6.77) positively predicted pregnancy, while higher self-reported condom self-efficacy were associated with reduced pregnancy incidence (AHR 0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.98). Results document high incidence of pregnancy and unmet reproductive health needs among FESWs in Cambodia. Findings point to an urgent need for multi-level interventions, including venue-based HIV/STI and violence prevention interventions, in the context of legal and policy reform. High pregnancy incidence in this population may also undermine recruitment and retention into HIV prevention intervention trials. The exploration of innovative and comprehensive sex

  4. Recasting image of contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimon Jg; Kiragu, K

    1993-03-01

    Even though contraceptives are linked to sex which, along with sensuality and peer acceptance, is used to market consumer goods, contraceptives are promoted in a hygienic, clinical way. Glamorous images which divert from adverse health effects are used to sell unhealthy goods, e.g., alcohol and cigarettes, but technical and intimidating promotion techniques centering on risks are used to promote family planning (FP) products and services which actually save the lives of mothers and children and improve their health. Until recently, only the medical system provided FP products and services so consumers identified them with illness and a help-seeking behavior. The image of contraceptives must be remolded to gain people's attention. To avoid instilling mistrust of a method in consumers, even those who believe in birth spacing, it is important for images to be positive and to reflect accurate information. In Indonesia, the Dualima condom has been linked to responsible fatherhood thereby creating a positive image and removing the negative image of a condom being linked to illicit sex. In the US, condom adds show the user in control, especially in reference to AIDS. Prior to promotion of any contraceptive, complete, clear communication and marketing plans are needed to identify and to focus on consumers' perceived needs. A survey in Egypt shows that the most important attributes of a contraceptive are ease of use, healthiness, and effectiveness and that Egyptians considered IUDs to best fit these attributes. Images of contraceptive users often determine whether potential users do choose to use contraceptives. For example, in Cameroon and the Philippines, female users are considered to be smart, rich, educated, confident and in control of their lives. In the Philippines, male users are perceived to be loving, caring, and considerate husbands. The mass medias can improve providers' public image as was the case in Turkey and Egypt.

  5. Effect of an iPad-Based Intervention to Improve Sexual Health Knowledge and Intentions for Contraceptive Use Among Adolescent Females at School-Based Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesheriakova, Veronika V; Tebb, Kathleen P

    2017-11-01

    The use of effective contraception can decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an iPad-based application (app) on improving adolescent girls' sexual health knowledge and on its ability to influence their intentions to use effective contraception. This was a prospective study of girls aged 12 to 18 years recruited from 3 school-based health centers in California. A total of 120 racially/ethnically diverse participants used the iPad app; 54% were sexually active, with only 26% using effective contraception at baseline. The average score on baseline sexual health knowledge assessment was 58%. After using the app, 68% of the sexually active participants reported intention to use effective contraception in the future, and sexual health knowledge improved significantly to 79% ( P iPad-based app is a promising intervention to educate adolescents about sexual health and support them in selecting an effective contraception method.

  6. Contraceptives: choice for the millions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, A

    1994-06-01

    India adds each year the population of Sub-Saharan Africa to the earth. User based factors determining the type of contraceptive that is used most often in a country are sociocultural practices including religion, literacy, women's status and their role in decision making, men's status, misconceptions, and convenience of use. Service related factors include knowledge and skill of the provider, attitude of the provider, accessibility of family planning services, cost of the contraceptives, and quality of services. The government, nongovernmental organizations, and the pharmaceutical firms tend to be the contraceptive researchers and suppliers. The mass media are used to disseminate information on contraceptives. They often relay sensational reports about a contraceptive method that results in its reduced use. Temporary or spacing family planning methods include natural family planning methods, condoms, IUDs, oral contraceptives, implants, and injectables, spermicides and vaginal barriers. The natural family planning methods are sexual abstinence, especially in the postpartum period; rhythm or calendar method; and coitus interruptus. The most cost-effective method is also the most popular method--sexual sterilization. Even though female sterilization is more difficult to perform than vasectomy, it is more common than vasectomy. Contraception should become a people's movement rather than be forced upon the people. People should insist on good quality, affordable contraceptive services as their basic right.

  7. Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contraception include: your primary care doctor’s office college/university and women’s health centers public health departments hospital ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids ...

  8. Improvement in Quality of Life Questionnaire Measures (PCOSQ) in Obese Adolescent Females with PCOS treated with Lifestyle Changes and Oral Contraceptives, with or without Metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; Davidson, Kristin; Kochman, Lynda; Guzick, David; Hoeger, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of metformin or placebo in a lifestyle modification program (LSM) combined with oral contraceptives (OC) on quality of life parameters measured by the PCOS questionnaire (PCOSQ) in obese adolescent women with validated PCOS.

  9. EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pantić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception refers to any device or drug that is used as an emergency procedure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse.The first method of emergency contraception was high dose of estrogen. Concern about side effects led to subsequent development of the so-called Yuzpe regimen which combined ethinil estradiol with levonorgestrel and levonorgestrel alone. Less convenient to use is the copper intauterine contraceptive device.It is known that in some women sexual steroids may inhibit or delay ovulation and may interfere with ovum and sperm transport and implantation. Copper intrauterine device causes a foreign-body effect on the endometrium and a direct toxic effect to sperm and blastocyst.The Yuzpe regimen reduces the risk of pregnancy after a single act of sexual intercourse by about 75% and the levonorgestrel alone by about 85%. The copper intrauterine device is an extremely effective method for selected patients.Nausea and vomiting are common among women using the Yuzpe regimen and considerably less common among women using levonorgestrel alone regimen.Emergency contraception is relatively safe with no contraindications except pregnancy. It is ineffective if a woman is pregnant. There is no need for a medical hystory or a phisical examination before providing emergency contraceptive pills. They are taken long before organogenesis starts, so they should not have a teratogenic effect.Counseling should include information about correct use of the method, possible side effects and her preferences for regular contraception.Unintended pregnancy is a great problem. Several safe, effective and inexpensive methods of emergency contraception are available including Yuzpe regimen, levonorges-trel-only regimen and copper intrauterine device.

  10. Contraception in women with medical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, Mandish K

    2008-01-01

    Women with medical disease have a higher incidence of maternal mortality compared with healthy women, with cardiac disease now being the most common cause of maternal death in the UK. A handful of medical conditions exist where pregnancy is not recommended due to mortality rates approaching 50%. It is imperative that such women have the most reliable methods of contraception available. Contraceptive agents may themselves affect medical disease, or may interact with medications used by such women. There may be a range of contraceptive agents suitable for each medical condition. The contraceptive selected should be tailored to suit the individual. The following points should be considered when deciding on the most appropriate contraceptive agent: efficacy, thrombotic risk (oestrogen containing contraceptives), arterial risks (oestrogen containing contraceptives), infective risk (e.g. insertion of intrauterine device [IUD]), vagal stimulation (e.g. insertion of IUD, ESSURE®), bleeding risks with patients on anticoagulants, interaction with concomitant drugs, effects of anaesthesia and ease of use. This review aims to cover the different contraceptive agents available and the best ones to use for certain medical illnesses. PMID:27582790

  11. Students' perceptions of contraceptives in university of ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Nimo Appiah-Agyekum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore University of Ghana Business School diploma student's knowledge of contraceptives, types of contraceptives, attitudes towards contraceptive users, preference for contraceptives, benefits, and side-effects of contraceptives.Data was conducted with three sets of focus group discussions. Participants were systematically sampled from accounting and public administration departments.Findings showed that students had little knowledge of contraceptives. The male and female condoms were the main contraceptive types reported out of the many modern and traditional methods of contraceptives. The main benefits of contraceptives were; ability to protect against STIs, abortions, unwanted pregnancy and psychological trauma. Whilst most respondents preferred future use of pills, side-effects of contraceptives were mostly reported for condoms than other contraceptive methods. Results showed that participants had bad attitudes towards unmarried contraceptive users.Generally, our findings show that detailed knowledge about contraceptives is low. There is a little gap of information on contraception knowledge, timing, and contraceptive types among university diploma students. Reproductive and maternal services should be available and accessible for tertiary students.

  12. [Current status of and prospects for contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, E; Parisi, C

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that at the current rate of growth the world's population will reach 8.5 billion by the year 2025 and 10-11 billion by the end of the 21st century. 90% of this population increase would occur in developing countries, where only 38% of couples used contraceptives during 1980-81 compared to 68% in developed countries. About 300 million couples in the Third World do not use contraceptives, although they do not want more children. Some of these contraceptives include natural steroids, such as progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol that is used for treatment of menopause (1-2 mg daily po). Medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone enanthate depot injections have long-acting properties with low failure rates (3.6% + 0.7 pregnancies/100 women years) if given every 3 months, amenorrhea may occur. RU-486, substance with antiprogesterone activity, inhibits hormonal metabolism during ovulation in a dose of 100 mg/day, just like norgestimate. HRP 102 consists of 50 mg norethisterone enanthate and 5 mg estradiol valerate and cycloprovera contains 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate with 5 mg of estradiol cypionate. Both of these agents are effective contraceptives for 2 months. Norplant is implanted subcutaneously in capsule forms. It releases levonorgestrel/LNG for 6-7 years, and in a study of 992 women 2.6 pregnancies occurred for 100 women in the course of 5 years. Vaginal suppositories can release 20 mg/day LNG, or 5-10 mg progesterone/day, and they are considered ideal for nursing mothers. The IUD has been used by 60 million women, however, pelvic inflammatory disease may be associated with its use. Sulprostone and RU-486 (mifepristone) are post ovulatory agents with effectiveness of up to 90 day. Female sterilization has problems of reversibility, male sterilization is less accepted, and other male endocrine approaches producing azoospermia are in the testing phase. The ideal contraceptive with properties of wide acceptability, reversibility, and

  13. Contraceptive knowledge and practice among senior secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy (67.5%) of them had correct knowledge of the use of condoms while 48 (31.1%) of the sexually active respondents have ever used any form of contraceptive with no statistically significant difference between the male and female respondents (P = 0.338). The most common barrier to contraceptive ...

  14. Contraceptive prevalence and factors associated with usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 72% of the female respondents and 36.6% of the male respondents knew more than one method of family planning. The overall modern contraceptive prevalence rate was 28.6%(35.5% urban and 11% rural). Modern Contraceptive prevalence among married women was 32.1%. Injectable contraceptives were used ...

  15. Male Hormonal Contraception: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Mara Y.; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous contraceptive options available to women, approximately half of all pregnancies in the United States and worldwide are unplanned. Women and men support the development of reversible male contraception strategies, but none have been brought to market. Herein we review the physiologic basis for male hormonal contraception, the history of male hormonal contraception development, currents agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contrace...

  16. title: fertility intentions, contraceptive awareness and contraceptive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. SOLOMON AVIDIME

    2010 (Special Issue); 14(3): 65. ORIGINAL ... Abstract. This study measured contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive use and fertility intentions among 1408 women of .... the topic of contraception must be approached in a .... Frequencies were run based on respon- ..... clinical characteristics of modern contraceptive users.

  17. Supplying emergency contraception to adolescents: the nurse's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Craig

    2014-12-02

    This article explores issues surrounding the supply of emergency contraception to adolescents to reduce the risk of unintended pregnancy. It explains the female reproductive cycle, and describes the types of emergency contraception that may be supplied following unprotected sexual intercourse or contraception failure. The aftercare that should be offered to adolescents following the supply of emergency contraception is discussed, alongside issues surrounding the safeguarding of children and vulnerable adults.

  18. Improvement in Quality of Life Questionnaire Measures (PCOSQ) in Obese Adolescent Females with PCOS treated with Lifestyle Changes and Oral Contraceptives, with or without Metformin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; Davidson, Kristin; Kochman, Lynda; Guzick, David; Hoeger, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of metformin or placebo in a lifestyle modification program (LSM) combined with oral contraceptives (OC) on quality of life parameters measured by the PCOS questionnaire (PCOSQ) in obese adolescent women with validated PCOS. The quality of life indicators were measured at baseline and conclusion for 5 domains on the PCOSQ, with equal improvement in scores in both placebo and Metformin groups, suggesting metformin addition does not add improvement to quality of life measures above those observed with lifestyle modification and oral contraceptive treatment. PMID:19781696

  19. Contraceptive practices in the era of HIV/AIDS among university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Hoque * muhammad.ehsanul@gmail.com & Shanaz Ghuman

    2012-08-20

    Aug 20, 2012 ... cross-sectional study was to find the patterns of contraceptive use among university students at Mangosuthu University of ... of contraceptive use, 38.7% (n ¼ 155) reported that they use contraceptives sometimes or rarely. ..... emergency contraceptives among female university students in Addis Ababa,.

  20. Contraception: Everyone's responsibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of modern methods of contraception in married women or women in union ... Contraception and Fertility Planning Policy and Service Delivery. Guidelines and .... methods. Injectable contraceptives have for a long time been offered.

  1. Emergency Contraception Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website ...

  2. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Contraception technology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita; Mishell, Daniel R

    2013-03-01

    Steady progress in contraception research has been achieved over the past 50 years. Hormonal and nonhormonal modern contraceptives have improved women's lives by reducing different health conditions that contributed to considerable morbidity. However, the contraceptives available today are not suitable to all users, and the need to expand contraceptive choices still exists. Novel products such as new implants, contraceptive vaginal rings, transdermal patches and newer combinations of oral contraceptives have recently been introduced in family planning programs, and hormonal contraception is widely used for spacing and limiting births. Concerns over the adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives have led to research and development of new combinations with improved metabolic profile. Recent developments include use of natural compounds such as estradiol and estradiol valerate with the hope to decrease thrombotic risk, in combination with newer progestins derived from the progesterone structure or from spirolactone, in order to avoid the androgenic effects. Progesterone antagonists and progesterone receptor modulators are highly effective in blocking ovulation and preventing follicular rupture and are undergoing investigations in the form of oral pills and in semi-long-acting delivery systems. Future developments also include the combination of a contraceptive with an antiretroviral agent for dual contraception and protection against sexually transmitted diseases, to be used before intercourse or on demand, as well as for continuous use in dual-protection rings. Although clinical trials of male contraception have reflected promising results, limited involvement of industry in that area of research has decreased the likelihood of having a male method available in the current decade. Development of nonhormonal methods is still at an early stage of research, with the identification of specific targets within the reproductive system in ovaries and testes, as well as

  4. POSTPARTUM CONTRACEPTIVE USE IN RURAL BAREILLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Esam Mahmood

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contraception is an important intervention to reduce burden of unwanted pregnancy and promote healthy living among women. Objectives: To find out the postpartum contraceptive usage and identify the different variables which affect the postpartum contraception among the rural females of Bareilly district. Methods: The cross sectional study was carried out in randomly selected villages of Bhojipura Block of Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh. All women who had delivered within last one year were interviewed by house to house survey to collect data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use by structured questionnaire. A total of 123 women participated in the study. Chi- square test was used to analyze data. Results: Only 13.8% mothers adopted postpartum contraception. Lack of knowledge (32.5% and young infant being breastfed (28.5% were the common reasons of not using any contraceptive method. Contraceptive use was higher amongst females aged less than 30 years and those belonging to middle socioeconomic class and nuclear families. The significant influence of the women’ educational status on utilization of family planning methods was observed (p<0.05. Conclusions: Low percent of postpartum contraceptive use indicates the need for improving awareness among the study population.

  5. Male hormonal contraception: looking back and moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M Y; Page, S T; Bremner, W J

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous contraceptive options available to women, approximately half of all pregnancies in the United States and worldwide are unplanned. Women and men support the development of reversible male contraception strategies, but none have been brought to market. Herein we review the physiologic basis for male hormonal contraception, the history of male hormonal contraception development, currents agents in development as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception for men. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Conocimiento y uso de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods in female sex workers in Asturias [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Ojer Tsakiridu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento de los métodos contraceptivos y el uso que hacen de ellos las mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias. Métodos: Estudio transversal mediante cuestionario autoadministrado a 212 mujeres. Resultados: El 61,2% refería tener información suficiente sobre métodos contraceptivos, aunque el conocimiento real es menor. En su última relación comercial en un 2,4% no tuvo una actitud eficaz para prevenir el embarazo y en la última privada, el 20,4%. El método más usado fue el preservativo y el 52,2% de quienes lo usaron en la última relación comercial añadieron otro método eficaz. En caso de rotura, el 40% de las encuestadas no tuvo una actitud eficaz para evitar el embarazo. Conclusiones: El conocimiento contraceptivo en estas mujeres es menor del que cabría esperar por la actividad que realizan. El uso de otro método eficaz asociado al preservativo es escaso para evitar embarazos no deseados. Muchas mujeres no tienen una actitud eficaz para evitarlos en caso de rotura del preservativo.Objective: To describe the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among female sex workers in Asturias (Spain. Methods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study of 212 female sex workers by means of a self-completed questionnaire. Results: 61.2% of the women claimed to have sufficient information about contraceptive methods, although the real knowledge measured was much lower. Effective contraception was not used by 2.4% of the women in their last commercial relationship and by 20.4% in their private relationships. The most commonly employed method was the condom, but only 52.2% of the women who had used one in their previous commercial relationships did so together with another effective method. In the event of breakage, 40% of women did not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy. Conclusions: Knowledge about contraceptive methods among these women is lower than might be

  7. [Intrauterine contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, P F

    1984-09-01

    Approximately 60 million women worldwide use IUDs. Despite worldwide distribution, the total number of IUD carriers has barely increased since 1970. Due to its risks and side effects there is a retrograding tendency both in West Germany and the US. To generate positive development, 3 basic trends have emerged: 1) Restrictive usage of the pharmacologically inactive, 1st generation IUDs such as the Lippes Loop or the Saf-T-Coil, 2) the increasing usage of small plastic IUDs with bioactive alloys to decrease failure rates such as the copper (2nd generation) or hormone-releasing IUDs, and 3) improvements made by changing its design to reduce side effects without loss of contraceptive effectiveness. Almost all IUDs increase monthly blood loss by 50-100%. The risk of illness for women with IUDs is 2-3 times higher than for a woman without or with other contraceptive methods. About 20% of all expulsions occur unnoticed. There are 2 kinds of perforations: primary (iatrogenic), at time of insertion, and secondary, some time after insertion. The IUD failure rate is about 1-3 pregnancies/100 woman years. In case of pregnancy, the IUD must be removed immediately. IUD insertion requires consent of the woman and can be made to women from 16 years on, presupposing moral maturity. IUD insertion after a miscarriage or abortion does not lead to risks or complications. Due to its corrosive quality, the copper IUD can only remain inside the uterus for a limited time. IUDs could become an excellent contraceptive method if it were possible to decrease bleeding, design easily-removeable IUDs, and prolong their potential for duration in the body.

  8. Postcoital contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, H C

    1977-02-05

    My colleague Dr. C.L. Brewer (January 15, p. 169) is within his rights to ask for a precise definition of abortion and contraception. I define abortion as the deliberate destruction of the embryo once it is embedded in the uterus. The absolutist on the abortion issue, until he is sure that an IUD never works by destroying an embedded embryo, must logically eschew this technique, advising his patient as to his ethical objections. She may then seek other advice once she has the facts. However, to insist that those who advise an IUD with the motive of contraception cannot herefore object to, say, intrauterine saline aimed at the destruction of a moving 27-week fetus is, in my view, stretching his argument. With further stretching it could be carried to absurdity in the rubella-early pregnancy dilemma: why not deliver the child, examine it carefully, and then if imperfect kill it with a silver hammer? Unthinkable, even if logical. Still, Dr. Brewer has a point and (with me) no doubt he will sympathize with Pope John and his advisers in their support for family spacing only by the avoidance of the fertile days - esthetically admirable but, alas, not always effective. How absurd the Catholic Church would now look if 10 years ago it had blessed the IUD only to find that it may operate not only by preventing the embedding of the zygot but by destroying it in situ - by definition an abortion. The future may settle the debate with hormones which convert the endometrium to a nonreceptive state so that a fetus is never embedded in the womb. Even better, we may develop a male hormone which prevents sperm from penetrating the ovum. Meantime, motive is important: contraception is not abortion and our abortionists should not dress up as delayed contraceptors. (Editor's note: This correspondence is now closed.)

  9. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  10. Preferential Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors as a Nonhormonal Method of Emergency Contraception: A Look at the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Erich A; Gandhi, Mona

    2016-04-01

    To review the literature surrounding the use of preferential cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors as an alternative form of emergency contraception. MEDLINE (1950 to February 2014) was searched using the key words cyclooxygenase or COX-2 combined with contraception, emergency contraception, or ovulation. Results were limited to randomized control trials, controlled clinical trials, and clinical trials. Human trials that measured the effects of COX inhibition on female reproductive potential were included for review. The effects of the COX-2 inhibitors rofecoxib, celecoxib, and meloxicam were evaluated in 6 trials. Each of which was small in scope, enrolled women of variable fertility status, used different dosing regimens, included multiple end points, and had variable results. Insufficient evidence exists to fully support the use of preferential COX-2 inhibitors as a form of emergency contraception. Although all trials resulted in a decrease in ovulatory cycles, outcomes varied between dosing strategies and agents used. A lack of homogeneity in these studies makes comparisons difficult. However, success of meloxicam in multiple trials warrants further study. Larger human trials are necessary before the clinical utility of this method of emergency contraception can be fully appreciated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Sexism in Language: Do Fiction Writers Assign Agentive and Patient Roles Equally to Male and Female Characters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop Ochieng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Studies have shown that language is used discriminatorily to women and men. Hence, there have been movements against gender biased language−the movements which are reported so successful especially in the West.Purpose of Study: This paper however argues that discrimination stems from speakers’ minds; and hence performing gender neutral language alone does not confirm gender neutrality of the performer. The reliable way of judging gender neutrality would then be studying the speakers’ minds.Method: The study applied psychoanalytic literary criticism as a gateway to the unconscious minds of American authors–to find out how gender neutral they were at cognitive level. Through psychoanalytic literary criticism, authors’ suppressed desires would find their way out onto their works in a distorted form. Along these lines, the study assessed the equality in assigning agentive and patient semantic roles between males and females in American fictions–to find out who between males and females were frequently assigned agentive and patient roles of the reciprocal verbs: kiss, hug, marry, and divorce.Findings: The study found out that males were assigned more agentive roles in kiss and hug, and females in divorce. Moreover, both were assigned almost equal roles in marry.Conclusion: The implication of the findings is that speakers’ unconscious mind is basically gender biased along gender stereotypes.

  12. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S

    2015-11-01

    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.

  13. Post-ovulatory contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, A; Baird, D T

    1990-06-01

    It is possible to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse by suppressing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization or interfering with tubal transport and/or implantation of the early embryo. IUCDs probably prevent implantation by stimulating the release of prostaglandins from the endometrium but are not acceptable to many women. Post-coital contraceptive steroids, e.g. high-dose oestrogens, are associated with a relatively high incidence of side-effects and must be taken within 72 hours of coitus. As these agents are effective by creating a uterine environment unfavourable for implantation, it may be possible to use antigestagens or antioestrogens in this way. It is already known that an antigestagen in combination with a prostaglandin is a highly effective method of inducing abortion in very early pregnancy. The corpus luteum is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and its destruction by a luteolytic agent should dislodge the implanting embryo. If an effective method of preventing implantation could be developed which was relatively free from side-effects, it should be possible to use it as a regular form of contraception to be taken only when the risk of pregnancy had occurred.

  14. [Male contraception and its perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaisch, J

    1982-11-01

    Doctors specializing in male contraception are aware of the very real difficulties hindering the development of an effective method in this field. Others believe that the reason this type of contraception is lagging behind is male chauvinism or a certain fear that men have of losing their virility along with their fertilizing capacity. Since available methods of contraception (condom, vasectomy) have low levels of acceptability and reversibility, research has proceeded along other avenues. 1) Gossypol reduces the number and motility of spermatozoa but its general side effects are not exceptional. 2) Restraining hormonal action (progrestogens, LH-RH agonists) also reduce testicular function and for this reason, require simultaneous administration of androgens. Thus far this has not been resolved; azoospermia is not obtained in every case and when it is, it does not necessarily last. 3) A method involving the epididymis, with a view to preventing spermatozoa from acquiring their normal motility and fertilizing capacity by affecting protein and enzyme synthesis, is also being studied. Perhaps, as has been suggested by the Bicetre Hospital research team, we should be content with methods applicable to certain categories of men. Male contraception would then develop step by step rather than by huge bounds as female contraception. full text

  15. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2010-11-01

    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Male hormonal contraception: concept proven, product in sight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesson, Kati L; McLachlan, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    Current male hormonal contraceptive (MHC) regimens act at various levels within the hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis, principally to induce the withdrawal of the pituitary gonadotrophins and in turn intratesticular androgen production and spermatogenesis. Azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia result from the inhibition of spermatogonial maturation and sperm release (spermiation). All regimens include an androgen to maintain virilization, while in many the suppression of gonadotrophins/spermatogenesis is augmented by the addition of another anti-gonadotrophic agent (progestin, GnRH antagonist). The suppression of sperm concentration to 1 x 10(6)/ml appears to provide comparable contraceptive efficacy to female hormonal methods, but the confidence intervals around these estimates remain relatively large, reflecting the limited number of exposure years reported. Also, inconsistencies in the rapidity and depth of spermatogenic suppression, potential for secondary escape of sperm into the ejaculate and onset of fertility return not readily explainable by analysis of subject serum hormone levels, germ cell number or intratesticular steroidogenesis, are apparent. As such, a better understanding of the endocrine and genetic regulation of spermatogenesis is necessary and may allow for new treatment paradigms. The development of an effective, consumer-friendly male contraceptive remains challenging, as it requires strong translational cooperation not only between basic scientists and clinicians but also between public and private sectors. At present, a prototype MHC product using a long-acting injectable testosterone and depot progestin is well advanced.

  17. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 1 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    -releasing devices/systems), are the most effective reversible contraceptive methods and have the highest continuation rates. (II-1) 4. Canada currently does not collect reliable data to determine the use of contraceptive methods, abortion rates, and the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among reproductive-age women. (II-2) 5. A universal subsidy for contraceptive methods as provided by many of Canada's peer nations and a few Canadian provinces may produce health system cost-savings. (II-2) 6. Health Canada approval processes for contraceptives have been less efficient than those of other drug approval agencies and Health Canada processes for other classes of pharmaceuticals. (II-2) 7. It is feasible and safe for contraceptives and family planning services to be provided by appropriately trained allied health professionals such as midwives, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists. (II-2) Recommendations 1. Contraceptive counselling should include a discussion of typical use failure rates and the importance of using the contraceptive method consistently and correctly in order to avoid pregnancy. (II-2A) 2. Women seeking contraception should be counselled on the wide range of effective methods of contraception available, including long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARCs). LARCs are the most effective methods of reversible contraception, have high continuation rates, and should be considered when presenting contraceptive options to any woman of reproductive age. (II-2A) 3. Family planning counselling should include counselling on the decline of fertility associated with increasing female age. (III-A) 4. Health policy supporting a universal contraception subsidy and strategies to promote the uptake of highly effective methods as cost-saving measures that improve health and health equity should be considered by Canadian health decision makers. (III-B) 5. Canadian health jurisdictions should consider expanding the scope of practice of other trained

  18. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    -releasing devices/systems), are the most effective reversible contraceptive methods and have the highest continuation rates. (II-1)  4. Canada currently does not collect reliable data to determine the use of contraceptive methods, abortion rates, and the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among reproductive-age women. (II-2)  5. A universal subsidy for contraceptive methods as provided by many of Canada's peer nations and a few Canadian provinces may produce health system cost-savings. (II-2)  6. Health Canada approval processes for contraceptives have been less efficient than those of other drug approval agencies and Health Canada processes for other classes of pharmaceuticals. (II-2)  7. It is feasible and safe for contraceptives and family planning services to be provided by appropriately trained allied health professionals such as midwives, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists. (II-2) Recommendations 1. Contraceptive counselling should include a discussion of typical use failure rates and the importance of using the contraceptive method consistently and correctly in order to avoid pregnancy. (II-2A) 2. Women seeking contraception should be counselled on the wide range of effective methods of contraception available, including long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARCs). LARCs are the most effective methods of reversible contraception, have high continuation rates, and should be considered when presenting contraceptive options to any woman of reproductive age. (II-2A) 3. Family planning counselling should include counselling on the decline of fertility associated with increasing female age. (III-A) 4. Health policy supporting a universal contraception subsidy and strategies to promote the uptake of highly effective methods as cost-saving measures that improve health and health equity should be considered by Canadian health decision makers. (III-B) 5. Canadian health jurisdictions should consider expanding the scope of practice of other trained

  19. Pregnancy, contraception and emergency contraception: the language of urban adolescent young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, C J; Fernando, M; Hayes, K L; Barg, F K

    2012-08-01

    We sought to characterize how a group of urban adolescent females understands the domains of pregnancy, contraception, and emergency contraception (EC). We used the research strategy of freelisting as part of an in-depth interview study. Urban adolescent females presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department. Participants were enrolled using a purposive sampling strategy if they were black, English-speaking females, 15-19 years old, who resided in 1 of 11 zip codes surrounding the hospital. Smith's saliency score. Freelists were analyzed for the entire sample, as well as for subgroups. Thirty adolescents completed the interview. We found that this group of adolescents uses different words to characterize the domains of pregnancy, contraception, and EC. The only overlapping salient term was "abortion," which appeared in the overall lists for pregnancy and EC and in the younger group's list for contraception. In addition, lack of knowledge was cited as an important factor related to contraception. Adolescent patients may not fully understand the concepts of contraception and EC. Providers should consider the potential need to provide an explanation for terms used, and they should consider explicitly differentiating between routine forms of contraception and EC, as well as between EC and abortion. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-hormonal male contraception: A review and development of an Eppin based contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rand, Michael G; Silva, Erick J R; Hamil, Katherine G

    2016-01-01

    Developing a non-hormonal male contraceptive requires identifying and characterizing an appropriate target and demonstrating its essential role in reproduction. Here we review the development of male contraceptive targets and the current therapeutic agents under consideration. In addition, the development of EPPIN as a target for contraception is reviewed. EPPIN is a well characterized surface protein on human spermatozoa that has an essential function in primate reproduction. EPPIN is discussed as an example of target development, testing in non-human primates, and the search for small organic compounds that mimic contraceptive antibodies; binding EPPIN and blocking sperm motility. Although many hurdles remain before the success of a non-hormonal male contraceptive, continued persistence should yield a marketable product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Contraception and sexology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J S

    1991-01-01

    cycles and those who are reluctant to touch their genitalia. Diaphragms and cervical caps can be inserted by the male partner is desired. Menstrual extraction, insertion of an IUD within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, or use of sufficiently high dose of oral hormones prevent pregnancy in most cases, but should not be relied upon for routine contraception. Much misinformation persists about the side effects of female sterilization, which is said to cause weight gain or sexual problems or to be followed inevitably by total hysterectomy. Most women are satisfied with the operation and express no regrets. Although reversal rates are improving, sterilization should be considered definitive. Condom use remains limited despite some increases related to fear of HIV infection. Condoms may increase performance anxiety in some men. Couples should be taught to use condoms in a more sensual manner. Withdrawal is still widely used throughout the world despite lack of esthetics appeal and high failure rate.

  2. Medically induced amenorrhea in female astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Varsha; Wotring, Virginia E

    2016-01-01

    Medically induced amenorrhea can be achieved through alterations in the normal regulatory hormones via the adoption of a therapeutic agent, which prevents menstrual flow. Spaceflight-related advantages for medically induced amenorrhea differ according to the time point in the astronaut's training schedule. Pregnancy is contraindicated for many pre-flight training activities as well as spaceflight, therefore effective contraception is essential. In addition, the practicalities of menstruating during pre-flight training or spaceflight can be challenging. During long-duration missions, female astronauts have often continuously taken the combined oral contraceptive pill to induce amenorrhea. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are safe and reliable methods used to medically induce amenorrhea terrestrially but as of yet, not extensively used by female astronauts. If LARCs were used, daily compliance with an oral pill is not required and no upmass or trash would need disposal. Military studies have shown that high proportions of female personnel desire amenorrhea during deployment; better education has been recommended at recruitment to improve uptake and autonomous decision-making. Astronauts are exposed to similar austere conditions as military personnel and parallels can be drawn with these results. Offering female astronauts up-to-date, evidence-based, comprehensive education, in view of the environment in which they work, would empower them to make informed decisions regarding menstrual suppression while respecting their autonomy.

  3. Female cancer survivors exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy have unique reproductive hormone profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren; Sammel, Mary D; Schanne, Allison; Lechtenberg, Lara; Prewitt, Maureen; Gracia, Clarisa

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate reproductive hormone patterns in women exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy. Prospective cohort. University hospital. Normally menstruating mid-reproductive-age women (20-35 years old) who had previously been exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy for cancer treatment were compared with two healthy control populations: similarly-aged women and late-reproductive-age women (43-50 years old). Subjects collected daily urine samples for one cycle. Integrated urinary pregnanediol glucuronide (PDG) and estrone conjugate (E1c) and urinary excretion of gonadotropins (FSH and LH). Thirty-eight women (13 survivors, 11 same-age control subjects, 14 late-reproductive-age control subjects) provided 1,082 urine samples. Cycle length, luteal phase length, and evidence of luteal activity were similar among the groups. As expected, ovarian reserve was impaired in cancer survivors compared with same-age control subjects but similar between survivors and late-reproductive-age control subjects. In contrast, survivors had total and peak PDG levels that were similar to same-age control subjects and higher than those observed in late-reproductive-age control subjects. Survivors had higher E1c levels than both same-age and late-reproductive-age control subjects. There was no difference in urinary gonadotropins among the groups. Women exposed to alkylating agents have a unique reproductive hormone milieu that is not solely explained by age or ovarian reserve. The urinary hormone profile observed in survivors appears more similar to same-age control subjects than to late-reproductive-age women with similar ovarian reserve, which may suggest that age plays a more important role than ovarian reserve in the follicular dynamics of survivors. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Partner approval and intention to use contraception among Zanzibari women presenting for post-abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esber, Allahna; Foraker, Randi E; Hemed, Maryam; Norris, Alison

    2014-07-01

    We examined the effect of partner approval of contraception on intention to use contraception among women obtaining post-abortion care in Zanzibar. Our data source was a 2010 survey of 193 women obtaining post-abortion care at a large public hospital in Zanzibar. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess associations between partner approval and intention to use contraception. Overall, 23% of participants had used a contraceptive method in the past, and 66% reported intending to use contraception in the future. We found that partner approval of contraception and ever having used contraception in the past were each associated with intending to use contraception in the future. In the multivariable model, adjusting for past contraception use, partner approval of contraception was associated with 20 times the odds of intending to use contraception (odds ratio, 20.25; 95% confidence interval, 8.45-48.56). We found a strong association between partner approval and intention to use contraception. Efforts to support contraceptive use must include both male and female partners. Public health and educational efforts to increase contraceptive use must include men and be targeted to both male and female partners. Given that male partners are often not present when women obtain health care, creative efforts will be required to meet men in community settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Update on emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Wing Kay; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    Emergency contraception provides a critical and time-sensitive opportunity for women to prevent undesired pregnancy after intercourse. Both access and available options for emergency contraception have changed over the last several years. Emergency contraceptive pills can be less effective in obese women. The maximum achieved serum concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) is lower in obese women than women of normal BMI, and doubling the dose of LNG (3 mg) increases its concentration maximum, approximating the level in normal BMI women receiving one dose of LNG. Repeated use of both LNG and ulipristal acetate (UPA) is well tolerated. Hormonal contraception can be immediately started following LNG use, but should be delayed for 5 days after UPA use to avoid dampening the efficacy of UPA. The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the only IUD approved for emergency contraception (and the most effective method of emergency contraception), but use of LNG IUD as emergency contraception is currently being investigated. Accurate knowledge about emergency contraception remains low both for patients and healthcare providers. Emergency contraception is an important yet underutilized tool available to women to prevent pregnancy. Current options including copper IUD and emergency contraceptive pills are safe and well tolerated. Significant gaps in knowledge of emergency contraception on both the provider and user level exist, as do barriers to expedient access of emergency contraception.

  6. Influence of hormonal contraceptives and the occurrence of stroke: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adman Câmara Soares Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify scientific evidence regarding the influence of hormonal contraceptive use and the occurrence of stroke. Method: Integrative review of the literature, through database search using the descriptors "contraceptive agents", "contraceptive devices", "contraceptives, Oral" and "Stroke". Original studies in Portuguese, Spanish and English, published in full and available online were included. Studies that did not answer our guiding questions and duplicated studies were excluded. Results: Women using combined oral contraceptives have higher risk of stroke, even with a lower hormonal dosage and different types of progestogen, regardless of the duration of use. The use of contraceptives associated with smoking, hypertension, migraine, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and sedentary lifestyle increases the chance of stroke. Contraceptive patch and vaginal ring are associated to increased risk. Conclusion: Use of combined hormonal contraceptives, except for the injectable and the transdermal ones, increases the chance of occurrence of the event. Progestogen-only contraceptives were considered safe.

  7. Contraceptive revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, S J

    1994-06-01

    Global population will increase by almost 1 billion people in the 1990s, the largest 10-year increase ever recorded. In 1994 alone, population will surpass 5.7 billion. The prospect of double-digit billions of people is worrisome, especially since these numbers may affect global warming, supplies of fresh water, destruction of rain forests, industrial pollution, and sustainable development. Yet, many indicators of quality of life show that people enjoy a better quality of life today than they did 100 years ago. Between India's independence and now, life expectancy increased by 20 years, infant mortality decreased 2-fold, literacy increased, and the food supply stabilized. Even though India's population has almost tripled since 1947, its economy increased rapidly and is 1 of the world's top 10 economies. University enrollment stands at 4.5 million. Agricultural production has exceeded demand. India represents the potential for human achievement through technological advancement and social organization. If the world's first national family planning program had been more successful when it began in 1952 in an India of 350 million people, India's population would be around 500 million instead of the expected 1 billion in 2000. All countries need to achieve a sustainable balance between human numbers and needs and natural resources. Family planning is an essential, cost-effective part of any development strategy. Family planning use has reduced fertility from 6 to 3.6 in developing countries. In 1965, only 8% used contraception, while more than 50% use it now. The most remarkable family planning/fertility reduction successes are Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand. Sufficient investment in family planning is needed if significant declines in fertility are to occur. More than 90% of the developing world's people are in countries with official family planning programs. Cost-effective assistance by donors and developing countries implementing

  8. Contraceptive usage patterns in North American medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Tami S.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Drey, Eleanor A.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that the sexual beliefs and mores of students in medical professions may influence their capacity to care for patients’ sexuality and contraception issues. Students also represent a large sample of reproductive-age individuals. In this study, we examined contraceptive usage patterns in North American medical students. Study Design Students using online medical student social and information networks enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February and July of 2008 were invited to participate via email and published announcements in an Internet-based survey consisting of a questionnaire that assessed ethnodemographic factors, year in school and sexual history. We also collected information about current use of contraceptive and barrier methods. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. Results Among our 2269 complete responses, at least one form of contraception was being utilized by 71% of men and 76% of women. Condoms were the most popular form of contraceptive, utilized by 1011 respondents (50% of men and 40% of women). Oral contraceptive pills were the contraceptive of choice for 34% of men and 41% of women. Decreased rates of contraception use were associated with being black or Asian, not being in a relationship and having more sexual dysfunction in female respondents. Students who reported comfort discussing sexual issues with patients were more likely to use effective contraceptive methods themselves. Ten percent of this of sexually active medical students was not currently using contraception. Conclusions There are significant differences in contraceptive use based on demographics, even at the highest education levels. The personal contraception choices of medical students may influence their ability to accurately convey information about contraception to their patients. In addition, medical students may personally benefit from improved

  9. 'Men don't need to know everything': a field trial of a discreet, female-initiated, contraceptive barrier method (FemCap™) among Haitian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L; Cyrus, Elena; Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Neptune, Sandra; Pelletier, Valerie; Michel, Hulda; Sévère, Marie; Pierre, Laurinus

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, women report the need for safe, non-hormonal, woman-initiated methods of family planning. Cervical barriers provide such technology but are under-researched and under-promoted. In the USA, there are few studies of cervical barriers among women at high unmet need for contraception. A feasibility study of the FemCap™ was conducted among US women of Haitian origin. Participants were heterosexual and seeking to avoid pregnancy. At first visit, participants completed baseline assessments, underwent group counselling and were fitted with FemCap™. Women were asked to insert or use the cap at home. The second visit (2-3 weeks) included an interviewer-administered questionnaire and a focus-group discussion. Participants (n  =  20) were Haitian-born (70%), married (55%) and parous (85%). Their mean age was 32.6 years. Seventy percent reported recent unprotected sex. All women inserted the device at home and 9 women used it during intercourse, including 5 without prior partner negotiation. Of 20 women, 11 liked FemCap™ very much or somewhat; 7 considered it 'OK'; 2 disliked it. Best-liked attributes were comfort, discreet wear and reusability. Difficulties with removal abated over time. Qualitative data revealed a high value placed on lack of systemic side effects. Use of FemCap™ was feasible and acceptable, supporting expansion of research, particularly among relevant populations with unmet need.

  10. Contraceptive Patterns of College Students Who Experienced Early Coitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Murray L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study investigated the coital behavior, contraceptive use, and attitudes of 20-year-old male and female college students who experienced sexual intercourse early in adolescence (at 16 or younger) as contrasted to those who experienced coitus in late adolescence. Results indicate that older adolescents were more likely to use contraceptives and,…

  11. Awareness and Use of Modern Contraceptives Among Physically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Abstract. This study assessed awareness and use of modern contraceptives among physically challenged in-school adolescents in Osun ... visually impaired respondents had significantly heard about modern contraceptives compared with females, younger ones and ..... Parker C, WP05 N. Adolescents and Emergency.

  12. HIV/ AIDS and Contraception | Steyn | Obstetrics and Gynaecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of unintended pregnancies in HIV infected women is a high priority. With the exception of male and female condoms contraceptive options provide no protection for STI and HIV transmission. Consistent and correct condom use needs to be encouraged in addition to the use of an effective contraceptive method.

  13. Factors Influencing the Choice of Contraceptives among the Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Until the 1960s, the intrauterine device (IUD), spermicides, diaphragm and the condom were the only artificial methods of contraception available. Currently, the mix of available methods has greatly expanded and the IUD is the second most prevalent form of contraception used worldwide after female sterilization with ...

  14. Factors Influencing Contraceptive Behavior of Single College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigates the premarital contraceptive behavior of 222 male and female college students. Contraceptive practice was examined in relation to dating patterns, level of emotional involvement with sex partners, types of birth control used, number of different sex partners, and reasons for failure to use birth control. (Author)

  15. Current Developments In Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Yaşar Sanhal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contraception (birth control prevents pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, and implantation. There are different kinds of birth control that act at different points in the process. The rapid increase in the world population makes it mandatory to develop new contraceptive methods. According to WHO data, every year 200 billion new pregnancies occur and more than 50 billion of them are classified as unintended. To avoid complications of these unintended pregnancies and abortions, the contraception and kinds of contraceptive methods should be well known and understood. Recently, new hormonal contraceptive choices and regimen were adminestered and studies about male contraception and immunocontraception were performed. In this review, we discussed about the new development and progress on contraception.

  16. Male Contraception: Research, New Methods, and Implications for Marginalized Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Olivia

    2017-07-01

    The majority of research on contraception has focused on manipulating the female reproductive system. Recent studies have identified novel contraceptives for males, including hormonal- and nonhormonal-based therapeutics. Although these new contraceptives are still undergoing clinical trials, their development and potential future use in society necessitate serious consideration of their implications for reproductive health. Through my analysis of the research conducted on male contraception over time and the current therapeutics available, it is clear that male contraception has the potential to shift societal gender dynamics and provide males with greater control over their own reproduction. This article also identifies the implications of these novel contraceptives for marginalized populations, especially men of color and men of lower socioeconomic positions. To overcome barriers to contraception among these populations, public policy efforts are needed in order to motivate the development of programs that facilitate coverage of these new male contraceptives by health plans and to increase their availability to underserved communities. Health care providers will be responsible for educating patients about these novel male contraception options and the need to continue using existing methods (e.g., condoms) in order to prevent sexually transmitted infections. This article analyzes the research conducted on male contraception and identifies the implications of these novel therapeutics for marginalized groups of men in the United States to identify the interventions that will be necessary to help ensure that all men have access to these promising scientific innovations.

  17. Ambivalence and pregnancy: adolescents' attitudes, contraceptive use and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Hannah; Martin, Anne; Bearman, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    It is often argued that adolescents who become pregnant do not sufficiently appreciate the negative consequences, and that prevention programs should target participants' attitudes toward pregnancy. Data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine whether 15-19-year-old females' attitudes toward pregnancy influence their contraceptive consistency and their risk of pregnancy. Characteristics and attitudes associated with pregnancy and contraceptive use were assessed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Twenty percent of female adolescents were defined as having antipregnancy attitudes, 8% as having propregnancy attitudes and 14% as being ambivalent toward pregnancy; the remainder were considered to have mainstream attitudes. Among sexually experienced adolescents, having an attitude toward pregnancy was not associated with risk of pregnancy. However, those who were ambivalent about pregnancy had reduced odds of using contraceptives consistently and inconsistently rather than not practicing contraception at all (odds ratios, 0.5 and 0.4, respectively). Antipregnancy respondents did not differ from proprepregancy respondents in terms of their contraceptive consistency. However, having a positive attitude toward contraception was associated with increased likelihood of inconsistent and consistent contraceptive use compared with nonuse (1.6 and 2.1, respectively). Programs designed to prevent pregnancy need to give young women information about pregnancy and opportunities to discuss the topic so that they form opinions. Furthermore, programs should emphasize positive attitudes toward contraception, because effective contraceptive use is shaped by such attitudes and is strongly associated with reduction of pregnancy risk.

  18. Antimicrobial agents of plant origin for the treatment of phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract are one of the most widespread obstetricgynecologic issues, due to treatment failures that cause frequent relapses and to the adverse effects of some commonly used drugs.The most common vaginal syndromes are due to uncontrolled growth of bacteria or fungi which replace the normal vaginal flora, causing phlogistic and infectious based diseases. These infections are treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy; however, the emergence of resistant strains and the ability of many microorganisms to grow inside biofilms severely reduce the repertoire of useful agents.Thus, in the last years increasing interest has been focused toward compounds of plant origin with anti-microbial properties. In the present work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of fractions obtained from endemic plants of Sardinia towards microorganisms that frequently are involved in vaginal infectious diseases: Streptococcus agalactiae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans.

  19. Multiple Method Contraception Use among African American Adolescents in Four US Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on African American adolescents' (N=850; M age = 15.4 contraceptive practices and type of contraception utilized during their last sexual encounter. Respondents completed measures of demographics, contraceptive use, sexual partner type, and ability to select “safe” sexual partners. 40% endorsed use of dual or multiple contraceptive methods; a total of 35 different contraceptive combinations were reported. Perceived ability to select “safe” partners was associated with not using contraception (OR = 1.25, using less effective contraceptive methods (OR = 1.23, or hormonal birth control (OR = 1.50. Female gender predicted hormonal birth control use (OR = 2.33, use of less effective contraceptive methods (e.g., withdrawal; OR = 2.47, and using no contraception (OR = 2.37. Respondents' age and partner type did not predict contraception use. Adolescents used contraceptive methods with limited ability to prevent both unintended pregnancies and STD/HIV. Adolescents who believed their partners posed low risk were more likely to use contraceptive practices other than condoms or no contraception. Reproductive health practitioners are encouraged to help youth negotiate contraceptive use with partners, regardless of the partner's perceived riskiness.

  20. Influence of women health care adoption on contraceptive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.U.R.S.; Zafar, M.I.; Batool, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of woman heath seeking behaviour during pregnancy and post delivery period on contraceptive use and family size are important dimensions of female fertility. These determinants of female fertility have rarely been explored, particularly in developing countries confronting problems of rising population growth. A study was conducted in district Faisalabad, Pakistan to explore the influence of pre and postnatal care on contraceptive use. A random sample of 1051 married women was studied from the urban and rural areas of the district through formal survey. It was found that contraceptive use is associated with pre. and postnatal care. Minimum of 5-7 prenatal and at least 2 postnatal visits have been identified as effective to promote contraceptive use. Involvement of health professionals, motivation through mass media and improved access to health care services during the period of pregnancy and after childbirth are the measures suggested to enhance contraceptive use in the society to curtail family size. (author)

  1. Racial Differences in the Perception of Contraception Option Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Robert J.; Gold, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    More than 600 never-married college students completed a questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward 10 contraceptive options. Results were analyzed separately for Blacks and Whites, and then for males and females. Findings are discussed. (MT)

  2. [Male hormonal contraception: past, present, future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Norbert; Hegyi, Borbála Eszter; Badó, Attila; Németh, Gábor

    2017-11-01

    In certain regions of the world the enormous rate of population growth raises economic and public health concerns and widely accessible contraceptive methods would be desired. In contrast, in other countries the use of effective contraception is a question of individual preferences. Today, most of the reliable contraceptive methods are applied by women, while the options for male methods are quite limited. It is well known that significant portion of pregnancies are still unplanned and several data revealed men's willingness to take part in family planning. Based on these needs, remarkable efforts have been made to develop a suitable hormonal contraceptive agent for men. With the exogenous suppression of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion, the inhibition of the testicular testosterone production and the spermatogenesis can be achieved. In the beginning, testosterone-derivatives, or testosterone-progestin combinations were administered, later synthetic androgen agents were developed. Despite of these efforts, unfortunately, there is no safe, widely feasible male hormonal contraception to date, but in the future this goal can be achieved by solving the key hurdles. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(46): 1819-1830.

  3. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print How effective is male contraception? Not all contraceptive methods are appropriate for all ... is best for them. For men, methods of contraception include male condoms and sterilization (vasectomy). Male condoms. ...

  4. Contraceptive use and the role of contraceptive counseling in reproductive-aged women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Morse, Christopher B; Schanne, Allison; Loren, Alison; Domchek, Susan M; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-07-01

    Few data on contraceptive choices in women with cancer exist. Contraception is challenging for women with cancer, particularly those with breast cancer, who are limited to nonhormonal methods. This study characterized contraceptive use during cancer treatment in a group of reproductive-aged women with a recent cancer diagnosis and assessed the impact of contraceptive counseling on the methods they selected. Cross-sectional, survey study of reproductive-aged women at a large tertiary care health system with a recent cancer diagnosis. A total of 107 women completed the survey. Eighty-two women reported 101 contraceptive choices. Twenty-seven percent (27/101) of all methods selected were Tier I/II, and 35% (35/101) were Tier III/IV. Only 4 used an intrauterine device (IUD). Among women reporting sexual activity after diagnosis, 19 (27%) of 71 reported using Tier I/II methods, 21 (30%) of 71 reported using Tier III/IV methods, 16 (23%) of 71 reported abstinence and 10 (14%) of 71 reported using no method. Factors significantly associated with Tier I/II use in the multivariable model included not having a college degree [odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.92, p=.038], intercourse during treatment (OR 5.92, 95% CI 1.48-23.66, p=.012) and non-breast cancer (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.03-12.64, p=.046). Report of contraceptive counseling was positively associated with Tier I/II contraceptive use during cancer treatment (OR 6.92, 95% CI 1.14-42.11, p=.036). Reproductive-aged women diagnosed with cancer underutilized Tier I/II contraceptive agents, especially IUDs. Contraceptive counseling by physicians increases contraceptive use, particularly methods most effective at preventing pregnancy. The study uniquely described the contraceptive practices of over 100 women with cancer. The study sample commonly reported abstinence and use of contraceptive methods with high failure rates. Our data suggest that contraceptive counseling from a health care provider may

  5. [Contraception and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amate, P; Luton, D; Davitian, C

    2013-06-01

    The mean age of first sexual intercourse is still around 17 in France, but a lot of teenagers are concerned by contraception before, with approximately 25% of sexually active 15-year-old girls. The contraceptive method must take into consideration some typical features of this population, as sporadic and non-planned sexual activity, with several sexual partners in a short period of time. In 2004, the "Haute Autorité de santé" has recommended, as first-line method, combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills, in association with male condoms. Copper-containing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) and etonogestrel-containing subcutaneous implant have been suggested but not recommended. However, oral contraceptive pill, as a user-based method, carries an important typical-use failure rate, because remembering taking a daily pill, and dealing with stop periods, may be challenging. Some easier-to-use method should be kept in mind, as 28-day COC packs, transdermal contraceptive patches, and vaginal contraceptive rings. Moreover, American studies have shown that long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), i.e. IUCD and implant, have many advantages for teenagers: very effective, safe, invisible. They seem well-fitted for this population, with high satisfaction and continuation rates, as long as side effects are well explained. Thus, LARC methods should be proposed more widely to teenagers. Anyway, before prescribing a contraceptive method, it is important to determine the specific situation of every teenager, to let them choose the method that they consider as appropriate in their own case, and to think about the availability of the chosen method. It is necessary to explain how to handle mistakes or misses with user-based contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception can be anticipated and prescribed in advanced provision. The use of male condoms should be encouraged for adolescents, with another effective contraceptive method, in order to reduce the high risk

  6. The Contraceptive Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Picavet, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are relatively few unwanted pregnancies in the Netherlands, as evidenced by low abortion and teenage pregnancy rates. However, even in the Netherlands, one in eight pregnancies end in an induced abortion. Many unwanted pregnancies could have been prevented by better use of reliable contraceptive methods. In this thesis, contraceptive behaviour is studied with an emphasis on where the use of contraception goes wrong and the demographic profile of the women who have difficulty...

  7. Contraceptive development: why the snail's pace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, L

    1990-01-01

    Current contraceptive methods are not well-suited to many Americans. More safe and effective methods would be desirable. A report, "Developing New Contraceptives: Obstacles and Opportunities" was released in January 1990. It summarized 2 years of data collection by the Committee on Contraceptive Development which includes pharmaceutical company executives, physicians, reproductive biologists, public health, legal, and public policy experts, demographers, and economists. Barrier facing the development of new methods in the US were analyzed and ways to speed up research suggested. Particularly ill served are teenagers, young mothers, and comparatively older couples. The health risks of pregnancy, delivery, and labor "may be underrated." The pill is now the most common form of contraception in the US, followed by female sterilization, condoms, and vasectomy. 95% of women, aged 15-44, who have ever had intercourse, have used 1 or more contraceptive methods. Contraceptive discontinuation and failure rates are high, too. No fundamentally new contraceptives have been approved for use since the IUD and the pill in the 60s. Modifications of existing methods are in clinical trials. Obstacles cited were attitudes of the public, federal regulations and product liability, and the organization of and resources available for research. Public attitudes are very conservative. There is no great demand for more products. Since the 1960s, only 1 large pharmaceutical company (Ortho Pharmaceutical Corp.) is still involved in contraceptive research. Activity by small firms, nonprofit organizations, and universities has increased. Federal research funding in reproductive biology has only increased modestly since the mid 1970s. Private foundation support has dramatically declined. The time involved in the great costs of data required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval have reduced research incentives. The average time it takes to get FDA approval has increased in the past 20

  8. Contraception among bankers in an urban community in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Ijeoma Angela; Okwara, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Meka, Anthony Obiamaka

    2013-01-01

    Contraception means procedures employed to interfere at one stage or the other with the normal sequence of events in the process of reproduction leading to a failure in conception. It means voluntary techniques adopted to achieve birth control. Its use remains sensitive worldwide. Within the same society, contraception varies amongst people of different socio-cultural, educational, religious, or occupational affiliations. It also varies between urban and rural settlements. Some contraceptive techniques also prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of STIs also varies with these same factors. There is very limited literature on contraception exclusively amongst bankers. We sought to investigate the level of awareness and practice of contraception amongst bankers in an urban society in Lagos State, Nigeria. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 200 self-administered structured questionnaires were retrieved from bankers from 5 banks selected by simple random sampling in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Data was subsequently statistically analyzed using SPSS. The age range was 21-45 years, mean 28.8±1.4 years, 51.7% were males (72% single, 27% married, 1% separated) and 48.3% were females (52.4% single, 47.6% married). All (100%) respondents were aware of contraception, 93.3% males and 91.7% females were sexually active, 88.9% males and 84.5% females believe contraception is useful. Most (71.4%) respondents practice contraception, males (81%) being more than females (61.1%), p males believe that contraception prevents pregnancy but not STIs, 28.6% of females and 46.6% of males believe it prevents both pregnancy and STIs, whereas 14% of males and no female believe contraception prevents STIs but not pregnancy. The awareness of and practice of contraception was very high among the bankers but more male bankers practice contraception whereas more female bankers perceive contraceptives to be for the married only.

  9. Contraceptive use and pregnancies in adolescents' romantic relationships: role of relationship activities and parental attitudes and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Gerhardinger, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In a unified framework, the authors estimate whether romantic relationship activities and parental attitudes predict contraception use and consistency, and whether contraception use and consistency predict pregnancy risk among male and females adolescents in the United States. Data on 3717 participants of the first 2 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who were sexually experienced in their recent romantic relationship were analyzed to examine how presex activities in the romantic relationship and parental attitudes and communication are associated with contraception choices and how contraception choices are associated with pregnancies. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only some relationship activities and parental communication about contraception were significant predictors of contraception, and their influence differed by gender. Going out with the partner increased contraception consistency among males (odds ratio, 2.04). Discussing contraception with the partner before having first sex increased the odds of ever using contraception for both genders (2.61 for females and 1.59 for males) and increased the odds of consistent contraception for females (1.505). Discussing contraception with parent increased the odds of consistent contraception among females (1.383). Merely, using contraception was not a significant predictor of the risk of pregnancy, whereas using contraception consistently significantly reduced the odds of getting partner pregnant for males (0.413) and the odds of pregnancy of females (0.343). Contraception and pregnancy education programs should take into account qualities of romantic relationship and emphasize consistent use of contraception and communication about contraception between partners and with parents.

  10. Knowledge and Practice of Emergency Contraception Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: In this cross sectional observational study, 675 female non medical undergraduates were interviewed using pretested semi structured questionnaire to assess their knowledge and experience with emergency contraception. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA).

  11. the effect of oral contraceptive pills

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uwaifoh

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... The relationship between oral contraceptives pills (OCP) and body weight gain has long been established and remains one of the major setback of OCP. This study therefore, was designed to establish the effect of OCP in rabbits. It was a six weeks study involving 15 female rabbits that were divided into ...

  12. Knowledge and Practice of Emergency Contraception Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Oct-Dec 2013 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 |. 541 ... Among Female Undergraduates in South Eastern Nigeria. Ezebialu IU, Eke ... Available reports show ... may be due to poor contraceptive knowledge and cultural or .... Percentage. Age. <20. 120. 17.8. 20‑29. 543. 80.4. 30‑39. 12. 1.8.

  13. Effects of chemical and physical agents on recombination events in cells of the germ line of male and female Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würgler, F E

    1991-01-01

    Genotoxic agents can induce mutations as well as recombination in the genetic material. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was one of the first assay systems to test physical and chemical agents for recombinogenic effects. Such effects can be observed in cells of the germ line as well as in somatic cells. At present information is available on 54 agents, among them 48 chemicals that have been tested in cells of the germ line of males and/or females. Effects on meiotic recombination in female germ cells cannot simply be classified as positive or negative since for a number of agents, depending on the chromosome region studied, recombination frequencies may be increased, unaffected or decreased. The male germ line of D. melanogaster represents a unique situation because meiotic recombination does not occur. Among 25 agents tested in male germ cells 24 did induce male recombination, among them alkylating, intercalating and cross-linking agents, direct-acting ones as well as compounds needing metabolic activation. With several compounds the frequency of induced recombination is highest in the heterochromatic regions near the centromeres. In brood pattern analyses, e.g., after exposure of adult males to ionizing radiation, the first appearance of crossover progeny is indicative of the sampling of exposed spermatocytes. In premeiotic cells of the male and the female germ line mitotic recombination can occur. Upon clonal expansion of the recombinant cells, clusters of identical crossovers can be observed.

  14. Emergency Contraception in Women of Slums in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Puri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the utilization of the emergency contraception and to evaluate the impact of intervention on acceptability and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills. Materials and Methods: This community based cross sectional study was carried out by the department of community medicine in the slums of Chandigarh. The study sample was chosen by two stage systematic sampling. Participants were assessed regarding emergency contraception utilization and its various aspects and was also imparted correct knowledge regarding this mode of contraception. The women were reassessed again after six months to see the impact of the knowledge imparted to them on utilization of emergency contraception. Results: The study comprised of 1448, females and maximum were in the age group 26-35 years i.e. 717 (49.5% followed by those in age group 19-25 yr i.e. 485 (33.5%. Considering their education, 674 (46.5% women were illiterate. Only, 1.4% respondents had ever used emergency contraception. Sources of information so enumerated of emergency contraception were, health workers (0.8%, friends (0.6%, doctors/ health physicians (0.4% media (0.3% and books (0.1%. None of the respondent knew about the correct time span during which they should be used. The increase in utilization of emergency contraception from 1.4% to 4.2% was noticed in reassessment after 6months. Conclusion: Correct knowledge and awareness regarding emergency contraception can increase the utilization of it.

  15. Adolescents: Contraceptive Knowledge and Use, a Brazilian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Divanise S.; Pontes, Ana C. P.; Cavalcante, Jairo C.; Egito, E. Sócrates T.; Maia, Eulália M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods by female adolescent students. The study was cross-sectional and quantitative, using a semi-structured questionnaire that was administered to 12- to 19-year-old female students in Maceió, Brazil. A representative and randomized sample was calculated, taking into account the number of hospital admissions for curettage. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee, and Epi InfoTM software was used for data and result evaluation using the mean and chi-square statistical test. Our results show that the majority of students know of some contraceptive methods (95.5%), with the barrier/hormonal methods being the most mentioned (72.4%). Abortion and aborting drugs were inaccurately described as contraceptives, and 37.9% of the sexually active girls did not make use of any method. The barrier methods were the most used (35.85%). A significant association was found in the total sample (2,592) between pregnancy and the use of any contraceptive method. This association was not found, however, in the group having an active sexual life (559). The study points to a knowledge of contraceptive methods, especially by teenagers who have already been pregnant, but contraceptives were not adequately used. The low use of chemical methods of contraception brings the risk of pregnancy. Since abortion and aborting drugs were incorrectly cited as contraceptive methods, this implies a nonpreventive attitude towards pregnancy. PMID:19151897

  16. [Factors associated with maintenance of contraception among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Electra; Molina B, Temístocles; Montero, Adela; Martínez, Vania; Molina, Ramiro

    2009-09-01

    Factors such as personal issues, family, sexuality and sexual partner characteristics are strongly associated with contraceptive continuation among single, nulliparous female adolescents. To determine factors associated to contraceptive maintenance among female nulliparous adolescents. A cohort of 2,811 adolescents, who confidentially requested contraception in a sexual and reproductive health university center from 1990 to 2006 was analyzed. Two years after the request, their clinical records were reviewed to determine the time and length of contraception. Using life table analysis, the variables related to continuation or discontinuation of contraception were identified. Factors associated with a longer contraceptive use were a lower age at the moment of initiating the method, a better academic achievement and aspirations, higher schooling of the partner, higher age of the mother, having an adolescent mother, supervision of permissions by people different than parents and not attending to religious services. Variables associated with a higher risk for abandonment were a higher age of the adolescent, greater number of sexual partners, lack of communication with parents, non-catholic religious affiliation, use of oral hormonal contraceptive, greater number of siblings, commenting sexual issues with relatives or friends, having a partner without academic activity or working and to live without parents. Several personal, familial and environmental factors influence contraceptive use continuity among adolescents.

  17. Italian Adolescents and Emergency Contraception: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Cuccì, Gaia; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2017-02-01

    Using a qualitative method, the purpose of this study was to: (1) obtain information directly from the adolescents on their attitudes and knowledge regarding emergency contraception; and (2) investigate the presence of differences between male and female participants' attitudes and knowledge. This study consisted of 24 single-sex focus groups with 160 adolescents (male = 46.3% (74 of 160); female = 53.7% (86 of 160)) aged 15-19 years conducted among high schools in 3 regions of Italy. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis taking into account gender differences and 2 main themes emerged. The first was labeled "Adolescents' attitudes toward emergency contraception" and it was divided into 3 subthemes: You should be aware; It's a life line; and Everything but a child. The second theme was labeled "Adolescents' knowledge toward emergency contraception" and it was divided into 3 subthemes: False myths; Baseline information; and Just take it. Italian adolescents believed it is important to prevent the risk of unprotected sex by using contraceptive methods and their motivation to use emergency contraception is related to critical attitudes toward the consequences of irresponsible/ineffective contraception. Although adolescents have an awareness of emergency contraception, more comprehensive knowledge is needed. These findings can inform specific interventions aimed at educating adolescents in need of emergency contraception. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Current contraceptive management in Australian general practice: an analysis of BEACH data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Danielle; Harrison, Christopher; Taft, Angela; Brijnath, Bianca; Britt, Helena; Hobbs, Melissa; Stewart, Kay; Hussainy, Safeera

    2012-07-16

    To determine current contraceptive management by general practitioners in Australia. Analysis of data from a random sample of 3910 Australian GPs who participated in the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) survey, a continuous cross-sectional survey of GP activity, between April 2007 and March 2011. Consultations with female patients aged 12-54 years that involved all forms of contraception were analysed. GP and patient characteristics associated with the management of contraception; types of contraception used; rates of encounters involving emergency contraception. Increased age, ethnicity, Indigenous status and holding a Commonwealth Health Care Card were significantly associated with low rates of encounters involving management of contraception. The combined oral contraceptive pill was the most frequently prescribed method of contraception, with moderate prescription of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), especially among women aged 34-54 years. Rates of consultations concerned with emergency contraception were low, but involved high rates of counselling, advice or education (48%) compared with encounters for general contraception (> 20%). A shift towards prescribing LARC, as recommended in clinical guidelines, has yet to occur in Australian general practice. Better understanding of patient and GP perspectives on contraceptive choices could lead to more effective contraceptive use.

  19. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  20. Containing contraceptive costs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    April 2015, Vol. 105, No. 4. Containing contraceptive costs. There are about 7 billion people living on our planet. In many countries resources are strained and we seek to slow down the rate of population growth. There are obviously many factors that lead to rapid population growth. Contraceptive methods are an important.

  1. Progesterone Only Contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work by Gomes de Leon and Potter has dem- onstrated clearly that the timing of initiation of contraception .... they are not dangerous to their health. Amenorrhoea is beneficial to women's health, if caused by a contraceptive method, and not by its failure. Dr. V. Sangala. Obstetrician. Kamuzu Central Hospital. P.O. Box 149.

  2. Developments in contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Edith

    2014-02-01

    Although the contraceptive options for women have expanded considerably in the last decade, these methods are often not being offered to women as choices because clinicians are not well informed, limiting the ability of women to control their fertility. Areas covered include the use of oestradiol instead of ethinyl oestradiol and improved progestogens utilised in hormonal contraceptives, and new delivery systems have enabled the development of long-acting methods, which require less action on the part of the user, and thereby, reduce failure rates. Effective emergency contraceptive methods have become more readily available over the counter. However, male contraception, despite much research, still remains elusive. This manuscript will provide an assessment of recent advances and controversies in contraception and make suggestions about improved availability.

  3. Intrauterine devices and other forms of contraception: thinking outside the pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Caitlin; Kolehmainen, Christine

    2015-05-01

    A variety of contraception options are available in addition to traditional combined oral contraceptive pills. Newer long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods such as intrauterine devices and subcutaneous implants are preferred because they do not depend on patient compliance. They are highly effective and appropriate for most women. Female and male sterilization are other effective but they are irreversible and require counseling to minimize regret. The contraceptive injection, patch, and ring do not require daily administration, but their typical efficacy rates are lower than LARC methods and similar to those for combined oral contraceptive pills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  5. Gender Differences in Perception of Contraception Alternatives by Never-Married College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Robert J.; Gold, Robert S.

    A study examined the perceptions of college students regarding 10 contraceptive methods, including the condom, douche, oral contraceptive, withdrawal, diaphragm, female sterilization, spermicidal foam, rhythm, male sterilization, and intrauterine device. A total of 285 females and 316 males responded to a questionnaire which had students rank each…

  6. Television and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L

    1986-01-01

    This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained

  7. Male contraception: a clinically-oriented review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, George A; Goulis, Dimitrios G

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variety of available female contraceptive methods, many pregnancies (~50%) are still undesired. Many men (>60%) want to participate equally with their partner in family planning; however, male contraceptive methods (MCMs) account for only 14% of those used worldwide and no pharmaceutical MCM is available so far. The only two MCMs currently available are condoms, which despite protecting against sexually transmitted diseases have high failure rates (~19%), and vasectomy, which though very efficient (99%) is poorly reversible (<50%). Among MCMs under investigation, male hormonal contraceptives (MHCs) are those that have come closest to commercialization. The action of MHCs relies on the disruption of spermatogenesis that exogenous androgen administration evokes by suppressing the hypophyseal-gonadal axis. Various regimens of androgens as monotherapy or in combination with progestins have been tested in clinical trials achieving a Pearl Index <1.0 (equal to that of the female oral contraceptive pill); however, concerns regarding the variable response rates observed (non-responders: 5-20%), the impracticality of parenteral administration and long-term prostate-associated or cardiovascular morbidity have deflected the interest of the pharmaceutical industry from further research. Non-hormonal contraception methods may be, at least theoretically, more specific by selectively disrupting spermatogenesis and sperm transport or fertilizing ability. Nevertheless, only a few have been tested in clinical trials (Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance, RISUG, and Intra Vas Plugs); most of them are still in pre-clinical development or have been abandoned due to toxicity (gossypol). Consequently, until a reliable, safe and practical MCM is developed, women will continue to bear most of the contraception burden.

  8. Contraceptive behavior in Ghana: a two-sex model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, F N

    1995-01-01

    This report uses data of the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS), a nationally representative self-weighting sample of 4488 female respondents 15-49 years old. 943 co-resident husbands of the surveyed women were also interviewed, thus the data provided 1010 dyads, which facilitated a couple-level analysis of contraceptive behavior. The determinants of modern contraceptive adoption were examined among dependent variables, including both modern and traditional methods, and the predictors of future usage among the nonusers were also assessed. For each of dependent variables, two logistic regressions were estimated, one for females, and the second one for couple measures of intentions and male preferences. Males were older and more educated than their female counterparts, and women were more likely than men to want to cease and space childbearing. 68.8% of women were in monogamous marriages, and the average age of women was 31.8 years, compared to 41 years for men among 1008 people in the sample. 43.5% of women had lost more than 1 child, and 22.9% had urban residence. 11.7% of couples agreed that contraceptives were needed for stopping childbearing. However, 14.9% said that there was no need for contraception, while 27.7% wanted contraception for spacing of births. 46% of the sample disagreed about contraceptive need and use. 6% of the women used modern contraceptives, while 8.7% used traditional methods. In addition, 29.7% of the women intended to use contraception in the future, while 55.6% did not intend to do this. Examination of contraceptive use and selected background variables indicates urban-rural differences. Also, the advancing age of wives and all levels of female schooling means increasing contraceptive use, but secondary schooling was associated with lower use for men than primary schooling. Use of contraception was also positively associated with the desire to cease childbearing for both sexes whether users or non-users. The findings

  9. Post-coital contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, J R; Chambers, J; Hall, D J

    1984-03-01

    137,000 British women chose to have an abortion in 1981 and about 25% were teenagers. A recent estimate noted that 10% of unintended pregnancies could have been avoided if postcoital contraception had been obtainable. The availability of postcoital contraception is limited and few doctors have much knowledge of or interest in this contraceptive method. 2 questions that arise are why have doctors been so slow to adopt this effective method of birth control and what are the chances of its availability in the National Health Service (NHS) improving. Postcoital contraception is a comparatively new and until recently unpublicized fertility control method, and there was little knowledge of it among the general population or the medical profession. Doctors' ignorance and reluctance to provide the method may have been due in part to the fact that the pharmaceutical firms have been hesitant to recommend oral contraceptive (OC) pills for this use. There is no specially packaged product, and it is necessary for a patient to be given 4 pills from a 21-pill pack. This has meant that the method has not been advertized, as most new methods would be, in the medical magazines. Hopefully, this lack of knowledge has been rectified by the Family Planning Association. As part of its campaign to launch the method, it has sent details to all general practitioners. Attitudes to postcoital contraception are important, and clearly there are strong parallels with the abortion issues and legal and moral undercurrents as well. Many doctors might have been put off providing postcoital contraception by the experience of the 2 clinics (BPAS in Sheffield and the Caithorpe Nursing Home in Birmingham) which had been reported by Life, an antiabortion pressure group, to the Director of Public Prosecutions under the Offences Against the Persons Act 1863. But on May 10, 1983 the Attorney General announced that the provisionof postcoital contraception is not a criminal offense. This statement may not be

  10. Use of non-emergency contraceptive pills and concoctions as emergency contraception among Nigerian University students: results of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert; Akpan, Wilson; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent

    2016-10-04

    Emergency contraception (EC) can significantly reduce the rate of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the increasing awareness of EC among educated young women in Nigeria, the rate of utilisation remains low. This study therefore explores the main barriers to the use of EC among female university students by analysing their knowledge of emergency contraception, methods ever used, perceived efficacy, and its acceptability. This paper brings together the findings from several focus groups (N = 5) and in-depth interviews (N = 20) conducted amongst unmarried female undergraduate students in two Nigerian universities. Participants considered the use of condom and abstinence as the most effective methods of preventing unplanned pregnancy. However, many participants were misinformed about emergency contraception. Generally, participants relied on unconventional and unproven ECs; Ampiclox, "Alabukun", salt water solution, and lime and potash and perceived them to be effective in preventing unplanned pregnancies. Furthermore, respondents' narratives about methods of preventing unwanted pregnancies revealed that inadequate information on emergency contraception, reliance on unproven crude contraceptive methods, and misconception about modern contraception constitute barriers to the use of emergency contraception. The findings suggested that female university students are misinformed about emergency contraception and their reliance on unproven ECs constitutes a barrier to the use of approved EC methods. These barriers have serious implications for prevention of unplanned pregnancies in the cohort. Behavioural interventions targeting the use of unproven emergency contraceptive methods and misperceptions about ECs would be crucial for this cohort in Nigeria.

  11. New and emerging contraceptives: a state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahamondes L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes, M Valeria Bahamondes Human Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas and National Institute of Hormones and Women's Health, Campinas, SP, Brazil Background: The first hormonal contraceptive was introduced onto the market in several countries 50 years ago; however, the portfolio of contraceptive methods remains restricted with regards to their steroid composition, their cost, and their ability to satisfy the requirements of millions of women/couples in accordance with their different reproductive intentions, behaviors, cultures, and settings. Methods: A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase, and Current Contents databases, up to September 1, 2013 to identify publications reporting new contraceptives in development using combinations of the search terms: contraception, contraceptives, oral contraceptives, patch, vaginal ring, implants, intrauterine contraceptives, and emergency contraception (EC. Also, several experts in the field were also consulted to document ongoing projects on contraception development. Additionally, the Clinicaltrial.gov website was searched for ongoing studies on existing contraceptive methods and new and emerging female contraceptives developed over the past 5 years. Information was also obtained from the pharmaceutical industry. Results: Early sexual debut and late menopause means that women may require contraception for up to 30 years. Although oral, injectable, vaginal, transdermal, subdermal, and intrauterine contraceptives are already available, new contraceptives have been developed in an attempt to reduce side effects and avoid early discontinuation, and to fulfill women's different requirements. Research efforts are focused on replacing ethinyl-estradiol with natural estradiol to reduce thrombotic events. In addition, new, less androgenic progestins are being introduced and selective progesterone receptor

  12. The advance of the contraceptive revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, I H

    1994-01-01

    Prior to 1965, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) had been estimated at below 10% for the less developed regions. In contrast, over 50% of couples were using a contraceptive method in 1990. The data from the Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys and the World Fertility Survey during the 1970s provided a global overview of current patterns of contraceptive practice during 1980-81 for 76 countries, with further updates covering 97 countries around 1983, 105 countries around 1987, and 117 countries around 1990. The 105 countries covered by the 1987 update included 85% of the world's population. In China CPR was reported at 70.6% in 1982 and 72.1% in 1988. There was great variation within the subregions: while on average 17% of couples in Africa used any contraceptive method around 1987, such use was reported as 31% in northern Africa and 13% in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, in Sub-Saharan Africa CPR is expected to rise to 26% by the year 2000, corresponding to a projected total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.33 births per woman. In Asia and Oceania 53% of couples were using contraceptives around 1987. However, the CPR was 72% in eastern Asia and 40% in other countries. In Latin America, CPR was estimated at 57% in 1987. Female sterilization (tubectomy) accounted for 38% of all use in the less developed regions in 1990. Nearly 1/2 of all couples using a contraceptive method in the less developed regions undergoes female or male sterilization, as compared to about 1/6 in the more developed regions. The most commonly used methods in the more developed regions in 1990 were the pill (16%), condom (14%), and withdrawal (13%). In the less developed regions, the main methods used in 1990 were tubectomy (20%), IUD (13%), pill (6%), and vasectomy (5%). The trends in family planning will be characterized by rapid growth in the number of contraceptive users in the developing world, from 381 million in 1990 to 567 million in the year 2000. However, to meet the potential requirements of

  13. 7. Emergency contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    individually on each day after satisfying the selection criteria. ... thought the pills can work up to a maximum of 24 hours. The main source of information was from friends (80%). ... 6 – 10 years .... emergency contraceptive pills among Swedish.

  14. Modern Methods of Contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rubber products are used extensively in the production of condoms, caps ... in oral contraceptives since 1960 have been in the direction of loweling the dose. ... no mid cycle increase in oestrogen, follicular stimulating hor- mone (FSH), and ...

  15. Sexual Behavior and Contraceptive Use at Brown University: 1975-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, Benjamin J; Scott, Dana Marie; Matteson, Kristen A; Clark, Melissa A; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2016-01-01

    To assess sexual behaviors and contraceptive use in a sample of Brown University students. A total of 255 undergraduate students responded to an anonymous online survey in May 2011. The survey addressed level of sexual activity, behaviors, and contraceptive use. Female responders were compared to results from surveys conducted in 1975, 1986, 1989, and 1995. Of the surveyed undergraduates 62% were sexually active. Sexual activity among women was similar to that of previous survey years. Contraceptive pills were the most common primary contraceptive method, reported by 59% of students, and 32% used dual method contraceptive use for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention. We observed a plateau in condom use among women in 2011 after an increase from 1975-1995. Use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) was uncommon (3%). Educational efforts should emphasize the effectiveness of LARC and dual method contraceptive use to reduce the risk of STDs and unintended pregnancies.

  16. The state of the contraceptive art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, L B; Duarte, J

    1983-01-01

    The high failure rates of available contraceptive methods attest to the fact that the present technology is inadequate to meet the needs of many women, and new, safer, and highly effective contraceptive methods must be developed for both the female and the male. Previously, industry was largely responsible for the research and development of many of the currently available contraceptives, but at this time it is less than enthusiastic about carrying out further research because of the time and cost associated with the approval of new drugs. Additionally, because of the medico legal climate that exists today, particularly concerning present contraceptive drugs and devices, pharmaceutical companies are concentrating on developing drugs for the treatent of disease conditions, a less risky area. The US federal government, which currently is the single largest funder in the world of contraceptive and related research, is directing little attention to this particular area. The most obvious obstacles to enhanced federal support is the debate over the federal budget priorities. Other deterring factors include the controversy over abortion which has discouraged efforts to call attention to contraceptive research because of concern that it might result in funding cuts instead of increases. Another factor is the traditional allocation of 40% of National Institute of Health funds to population research and 60% to maternal and child health. An overview of currently available contraceptive methods covers oral contraception (OC), long lasting injectable contraception, IUDs, the condom, vaginal contraceptive sponge, the diagphragm, and fertility awareness techniques. Determining the actual benefits versus the risks of OC has proved difficult. OC has changed considerably since it came into use. The most serious side effects attributed to the OCs involve the cardiovascular system, specifically thromboembolism, stroke, and heart attack. The risk of developing these diseases has

  17. Counseling by epileptologists affects contraceptive choices of women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinera, Alyssa R; Gavvala, Jay; Bellinski, Irena; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Macken, Micheal P; Narechania, Aditi; Templer, Jessica; VanHaerents, Stephen; Schuele, Stephan U; Gerard, Elizabeth E

    2016-12-01

    There are several important interactions between antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and hormonal contraception that need to be carefully considered by women with epilepsy (WWE) and their practitioners. Many AEDs induce hepatic enzymes and decrease the efficacy of hormonal contraception. In addition, estrogen-containing hormonal contraception can increase the metabolism of lamotrigine, the most commonly prescribed AED in women of childbearing age. The intrauterine device (IUD) is a highly effective form of reversible contraception without AED drug interactions that is considered by many to be the contraceptive of choice for WWE. Women with epilepsy not planning pregnancy require effective contraceptive counseling that should include discussion of an IUD. There are no guidelines, however, on who should deliver these recommendations. The objective of this study was to explore the hypothesis that contraceptive counseling by a neurologist can influence the contraceptive choices of WWE. In particular, we explored the relationship between contraceptive counseling in the epilepsy clinic and the likelihood that patients would obtain an IUD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of female patients age 18-45 seen at our institution for an initial visit between 2010 and 2014 to ascertain the type of contraceptive counseling each patient received as well as AED use and contraceptive methods. Patients who were pregnant or planning pregnancy at the first visit were excluded from further analyses as were patients with surgical sterilization. We also examined a subgroup of 95 patients with at least 4 follow-up visits to evaluate the efficacy of epileptologists' counseling. Specifically, we looked at the likelihood a patient obtained an IUD based on the type of counseling she had received. Fisher exact tests assessed associations between counseling type and whether patients had obtained an IUD. Three hundred and ninety-seven women met criteria for inclusion. Only 35% of female patients

  18. Contraceptive implants: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam Rowlands,1,2 Stephen Searle3 1Centre of Postgraduate Medical Research and Education, School of Health and Social Care, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 2Dorset HealthCare, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 3Sexual Health Services, Chesterfield, United KingdomAbstract: Progestin-only contraceptive implants are a highly cost-effective form of long-acting reversible contraception. They are the most effective reversible contraceptives and are of a similar effectiveness to sterilization. Pregnancies are rare in women using this method of contraception, and those that do occur must be fully investigated, with an ultrasound scan of the arm and serum etonogestrel level if the implant cannot be located. There are very few contraindications to use of implants, and they have an excellent safety profile. Both acceptability and continuation with the method are high. Noncontraceptive benefits include improvements in dysmenorrhea, ovulatory pain, and endometriosis. Problematic bleeding is a relatively common adverse effect that must be covered in preinsertion information-giving and supported adequately if it occurs. Recognized training for both insertion and removal should be undertaken. Care needs to be taken at both insertion and removal to avoid neurovascular injury. Implants should always be palpable; if they are not, noninsertion should be assumed until disproven. Etonogestrel implants are now radiopaque, which aids localization. Anticipated difficult removals should be performed by specially trained experts. Keywords: contraceptive, subdermal implant, etonogestrel, levonorgestrel, progestin-only, long-acting reversible contraception

  19. History of oral contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  20. Accord of 14 April 1989 by which four special female agents of the Public Ministry are designated to deal with sexual crimes of rape and indecent assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Accord designates 4 special female agents of the Mexican Public Ministry to deal with the sexual crimes of rape and indecent assault, with the objective, among others, of destroying the impunity with which these crimes are committed and strengthening the trust that necessarily must exist between the authorities constitutionally appointed to bring about justice and the women who require it. It also specifies that medical, psychological, gynecological, and other attention required by a victim will be provided by a woman with skill in the various areas. An Accord of 6 September 1989 (Diario Oficial, Vol. 432, No. 5, 7 September 1989, pp. 20-23), enlarges the responsibilities and competence of these female agents to cover all sexual offenses contained in the Criminal Code. It provides that the agents have the power to initiate, pursue, and bring to a conclusion inquiries relating to such crimes. Appended to the Accord are operative rules relating to the agents and a Technical Council that supervises them. The rules contain procedures to be followed in dealing with and attending to the victims of sexual crimes. Bases of collaboration between the Attorney General of the Federal District and the Secretary of Health with respect to the examination of women who have been the victims of sex crimes appear in the Diario Oficial, Vol. 433, No. 19, 27 October 1989, pp. 9-10).

  1. Vasectomy as a reversible form of contraception for select patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplaski, Mary K; Daniel, Ariande; Jarvi, Keith

    2014-04-01

    To provide an effective form of birth control, men may choose a reversible or permanent form of contraception. Vasectomy is presently offered as a permanent option for male contraception. We have had patients who were interested in vasectomy and reversal as a temporary birth control option. The purpose of this paper is to determine if vasectomy should be offered for selected couples as a temporary form of contraception and under which circumstances. A literature review was conducted to determine the available reversible contraceptive options, risks, failure rates and contraindications to each, and the risks and success rates of vasectomy and vasectomy reversal. Reversible contraceptives include hormonally based methods for women, non-hormonal anatomic barrier devices and spermatocidal agents. Hormone based therapies may be contraindicated in women with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. Non-hormonal contraceptives are generally less effective and may be unacceptable for some couples due to higher failure rates, difficulty of use and lack of acceptance. Both vasectomy and vasectomy reversal are low risk procedures. Reversal may be performed with a high degree of success, particularly with a short obstructive interval (97% patency if performed form of sterilization for most couples, there are select couples, unable or unwilling to use other forms of birth control, who would benefit from an informed discussion about using a vasectomy as a reversible form of contraception.

  2. Improving access to emergency contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    This article focuses on the accessibility of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). The ECPs are safe, simple, and effective contraceptive agent that can reduce a woman's chance of becoming pregnant by 75%. It works by preventing or delaying ovulation, interfering with fertilization, or blocking implantation of a fertilized egg, depending on when in the menstrual cycle the pills are taken. The Population Council takes a multifaceted approach to expanding access to and knowledge on emergency contraception. Studies on innovations in service delivery are being conducted. In Mexico, one-tenth of women aged 13-55 who reported being raped during the 9-month study were counseled about ECPs. Results showed that pregnancies from reported rapes declined from 9.8% to 7.4% during the study. In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, practitioners approved of the use of emergency contraception and desired more accurate knowledge so that they could provide it effectively. Moreover, in Zambia, researchers found out that giving women packages of ECPs in advance greatly reduced the length of time between having unprotected intercourse and beginning ECP treatment. Council researchers have also addressed the safety of offering ECPs without prescription. They have collaborated with leaders in the health care industry to increase method availability.

  3. Urethral bulking agents versus other surgical procedures for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Bogani, Giorgio; Meschia, Michele; Sorice, Paola; Braga, Andrea; Salvatore, Stefano; Ghezzi, Fabio; Serati, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Bulking agents provide an alternative option in the management of women with stress urinary incontinence and they seem to have an important role in the management flow chart of SUI. However, evidence on this issue is scanty. The most important aspect is to understand whether bulking agents are comparable with the other first-line anti-incontinence surgical procedure (MUS, Burch colposuspension and pubovaginal slings). Hence, the primary aim of the current review was to assess the objective and subjective outcomes of bulking agents in comparison with the other surgical procedures for the treatment of SUI. PubMed and Medline were systematically searched and we included studies evaluating the use of bulking agents in comparison with other surgical approaches for either primary or recurrent treatment of female SUI. Three studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Two of these studies were RCTs evaluating the use of bulking agents versus other surgical procedures for the treatment of primary female SUI; the remnant article was a retrospective cohort study that compared the effectiveness and safety of repeat midurethral sling with urethral bulking after failed midurethral sling. The combined results of all analyses showed that the objective recurrence rate of peri- or trans-urethral injections is significantly higher in comparison with the other surgical procedures. Similar findings were observed when considering separately the treatment for primary or recurrent SUI. Furthermore, lower subjective recurrence rate was observed among patients undergoing other surgical treatment in comparison with those undergoing bulking agents; however, this trend was not statistically significant. Moreover, patients undergoing injection of bulking agents experienced a lower rate of voiding dysfunctions in comparison to the control group. According to current evidence, bulking agents should not be proposed as first-line treatment in those women seeking permanent cure for both

  4. An update on emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Michele C; Olusola, Patti L; Low, Sarah B

    2014-04-01

    Emergency contraception decreases the risk of unintended pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or after suspected failure of routine contraception (e.g., a condom breaking). Oral methods include combined contraceptive pills (i.e., Yuzpe method), single- or split-dose levonorgestrel, and ulipristal. The Yuzpe method and levonorgestrel are U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved for use 72 hours postcoitus, whereas the newest method, ulipristal, is approved for up to 120 hours postcoitus. The copper intrauterine device may be used as emergency contraception up to seven days after unprotected intercourse. It is nonhormonal and has the added benefit of long-term contraception. Advanced provision of emergency contraception may be useful for all patients, and for persons using ulipristal because it is available only by prescription. Physicians should counsel patients on the use and effectiveness of emergency contraception, the methods available, and the benefits of routine and consistent contraception use.

  5. Contraceptive use among hairdressers in South-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, F O; Onadeko, M O; Balogun, O O

    2007-08-01

    Hairdressers and their apprentices are mostly women in their reproductive years. The social environment in hairdressing salons provides the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits among peers and may influence decisions on sexual behavior. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and use of contraceptives among hairdressers. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics and knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among hairdressers in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria. A total of 355 hairdressers were interviewed: 60 apprentices (17%) and 295 qualified hairdressers (83%); 110 (31%) single and 240 (67%) married. They were females aged 15 - 49 years (mean 29 +/- 6.9 years). Some 70% of single women had regular sexual partners. A total of 24 single women (21%) had been pregnant and 20 (18%) had abortions. Some 121 (34%) of the study population were currently using contraceptives: 27 single and 94 married respondents. The prevalence of contraceptive use among sexually active single women was 34%. The condom was the most known and used contraceptive method. The major reasons for non-use of contraceptives were fear of side-effects (23%); need for more children (16%); or respondents were not engaged in sexual activity (12%). Contraceptive use among sexually active single hairdressers is lower than the national average. Workplace educational intervention is needed to prevent unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among these young women.

  6. Men's contraceptive practices in France: evidence of male involvement in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Mireille; Ventola, Cécile; Bohet, Aline; Moreau, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    To describe contraceptive practices of men in a relationship in France, where use of female-controlled methods is predominant, and to explore their involvement in managing contraception within the couple. Data are drawn from a national probability cross-sectional survey on sexual and reproductive health conducted in France in 2010. The study sample comprised 3373 men aged 15-49, 1776 of whom were asked about their current contraceptive practices after they reported that they were fecund and sexually active and did not currently want a child. Analyses were performed with logistic regression models. Few men aged 15-49 with a partner did not use contraception (3.4%). Most reported using only a female method (71.7%), 20.4% only cooperative methods, such as condoms, withdrawal and the rhythm method and 4.5% both. Among contraceptive users, withdrawal (7.7%) was more likely to be used by men with low incomes or low educational levels. Condom use was reported as a contraceptive method by 18.9% of men. Its prevalence was higher for those in new and noncohabiting relationships (36.1%) and lower for those in cohabiting relationships (12.4%), in which STIs/HIV prevention is less of a concern. Men's high awareness of contraceptive practices and their use of some cooperative methods reveal their involvement in contraceptive practices within the context of relationships. Condom use is associated with the prevention of STIs/HIV for noncohabiting men, but men who live with their female partner seem to use condoms mainly as a contraceptive method. Withdrawal appears to be associated with low level of education and financial difficulties. Finally, having engendered a pregnancy that was terminated appears to influence men's contraceptive practices. Studying men's contraceptive practices helps to understand their involvement in contraceptive management within relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescents' Values, Sexuality, and Contraception in a Rural New York County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Naomi; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined personal values and sexual and contraceptive experiences of 75 male and 88 female high school students from a rural county of New York. Results suggested that religiosity was unrelated to students' sexual behavior and use of contraceptives. The different groups of high school students exhibited remarkably homogeneous sexual and…

  8. Contraceptive usage and awareness among postpartum mothers in urban field practice area of a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Kaur Sidhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study contraceptive usage and awareness among postpartum mothers. Objective: To assess prevalence of postpartum contraception and factors affecting the usage of contraceptives in Urban area. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the Urban Field practice area of Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Bathinda. All females who delivered within last one year were included in the study. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and other details. A total of 92 females were included. The appropriate statistical analysis was done to present the results. Results: 30.4% females had adopted one or the other postpartum contraceptive measure. Condom was the most common method used. Usage of postpartum contraception was significantly associated with women’s and husband’s education, type of delivery and availing of antenatal and postnatal visits. The main reason for not using postpartum contraception was lack of knowledge and access. 16.3% females had unmet need of postpartum contraception. Conclusions: Overall usage of postpartum contraception was low and mainly related to lack of awareness and knowledge.

  9. University of Venda's male students' attitudes towards contraception and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raselekoane, Nanga R; Morwe, Keamogetse G; Tshitangano, Takalani

    2016-07-08

    Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being. This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students' sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda. Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students. This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students' negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda. The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students' sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda.

  10. Protective Factors, Risk Indicators, and Contraceptive Consistency Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Leslie F; Sieving, Renee E; Pettingell, Sandra L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bearinger, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    To explore risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use among emerging adult female college students and whether effects of risk indicators were moderated by protective factors. Secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave III data. Data collected through in-home interviews in 2001 and 2002. National sample of 18- to 25-year-old women (N = 842) attending 4-year colleges. We examined relationships between protective factors, risk indicators, and consistent contraceptive use. Consistent contraceptive use was defined as use all of the time during intercourse in the past 12 months. Protective factors included external supports of parental closeness and relationship with caring nonparental adult and internal assets of self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction. Risk indicators included heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and depression symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between protective factors and consistent contraceptive use and between risk indicators and contraceptive use. Self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction were significantly associated with more consistent contraceptive use. In a final model including all internal assets, life satisfaction was significantly related to consistent contraceptive use. Marijuana use and depression symptoms were significantly associated with less consistent use. With one exception, protective factors did not moderate relationships between risk indicators and consistent use. Based on our findings, we suggest that risk and protective factors may have largely independent influences on consistent contraceptive use among college women. A focus on risk and protective factors may improve contraceptive use rates and thereby reduce unintended pregnancy among college students. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published

  11. Are modern contraceptives acceptable to people and where do they source them from across Nigeria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Enemuoh, Jane C; Ogbonna, Chinwe; Mbachu, Chinyere; Uzochukwu, Benjamin Sc; Lawson, Agathe; Ndyanabangi, Bannet

    2013-01-23

    Understanding the extent that different modern contraceptives are acceptable to different populations groups and where they get the commodities from will help in developing specific interventions that will help to scale-up the availability of the contraceptives. The study took place in urban and rural sites in six states across Nigeria. Data on acceptability and sources of the contraceptives was collected from at least 770 randomly selected mostly female householders from each state respectively using a questionnaire. Acceptability of the different contraceptives was scored by the respondents on a scale of 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest). The relationships between acceptability and sources of the contraceptives with socio-economic status and geographic location of the respondents were examined. The use of modern contraceptives in general was acceptable to 87% of the respondents. Male condom was the most acceptable means of contraceptive with an average score of 5.0. It was followed by implants with and oral contraceptive pill with average scores of 4.0, whilst IUD was the least acceptable with an average score of 2.9. The private sector was the major source of contraceptives to different population groups. Both male and female condoms were mostly procured from patent medicine dealers (PMD) and pharmacy shops. Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs) and implants were mostly sourced from public and private hospitals in the urban areas, whilst injectibles were mostly sourced from private hospitals. Oral contraceptives were mostly sourced from pharmacy shops and patent medicine dealers. There were SES and geographic differences for both acceptability and sources of the contraceptives. Also, the sources of different contraceptives depended on the type of the contraceptive. The different contraceptives were acceptable to the respondents and the major source of the contraceptives was the private sector. Hence, public-private partnership arrangements should be explored so that universal

  12. Are modern contraceptives acceptable to people and where do they source them from across Nigeria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the extent that different modern contraceptives are acceptable to different populations groups and where they get the commodities from will help in developing specific interventions that will help to scale-up the availability of the contraceptives. Methods The study took place in urban and rural sites in six states across Nigeria. Data on acceptability and sources of the contraceptives was collected from at least 770 randomly selected mostly female householders from each state respectively using a questionnaire. Acceptability of the different contraceptives was scored by the respondents on a scale of 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest). The relationships between acceptability and sources of the contraceptives with socio-economic status and geographic location of the respondents were examined. Results The use of modern contraceptives in general was acceptable to 87% of the respondents. Male condom was the most acceptable means of contraceptive with an average score of 5.0. It was followed by implants with and oral contraceptive pill with average scores of 4.0, whilst IUD was the least acceptable with an average score of 2.9. The private sector was the major source of contraceptives to different population groups. Both male and female condoms were mostly procured from patent medicine dealers (PMD) and pharmacy shops. Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs) and implants were mostly sourced from public and private hospitals in the urban areas, whilst injectibles were mostly sourced from private hospitals. Oral contraceptives were mostly sourced from pharmacy shops and patent medicine dealers. There were SES and geographic differences for both acceptability and sources of the contraceptives. Also, the sources of different contraceptives depended on the type of the contraceptive. Conclusion The different contraceptives were acceptable to the respondents and the major source of the contraceptives was the private sector. Hence, public-private partnership arrangements

  13. Use of contraceptives among adolescents in Kintampo, Ghana: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boamah EA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ellen Abrafi Boamah, Kwaku Poku Asante, Emmanuel Mahama, Grace Manu, Emmanuel Kwesi Ayipah, Elisha Adeniji, Seth Owusu-Agyei Kintampo Health Research Center, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana Introduction: The use of contraceptives is essential in preventing unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, and abortion-related complications that expose adolescents to health-related risks such as infertility and sometimes death. Objective: To assess contraceptive use among adolescents as evidence to develop appropriate interventions for adolescent sexual health programs. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted among 793 male and female adolescents (aged 15–19 years in the Kintampo area of Ghana from October 2010–May 2011. Results: Knowledge of at least one contraceptive method was high (88.9% among adolescents of both sexes (males 92.1% and females 86.6%. Knowledge of male condoms was highest (84.0%, and it was the most common contraceptive method used (82.0%. The use of other methods such as pills (7.9%, injection (0.9%, and foam (0.3%, amongst others, was low. About 22.9% of adolescents used contraceptives consistently. Among adolescents, consistent contraceptive use was significantly associated with discussions of contraceptive use between partners (P<0.01. Adolescents who discussed contraceptive use before their first sexual encounter were more likely to use contraceptives consistently when compared to those who had never discussed contraceptive use (odds ratio =0.06; 95% confidence interval: 0.02–0.17; P<0.01. Among sexually active adolescents, 30.0% had experienced pregnancy, with 34.0% of pregnancies resulting in abortions. Pregnancy was high among adolescents who did not use contraceptives consistently, as compared to those who did (6.4% versus 93.6%; P<0.01. The most common source of contraceptives was the chemical seller's/pharmacy shop (62.1%. Conclusion: Though a high number of

  14. Are modern contraceptives acceptable to people and where do they source them from across Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwujekwe Obinna E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the extent that different modern contraceptives are acceptable to different populations groups and where they get the commodities from will help in developing specific interventions that will help to scale-up the availability of the contraceptives. Methods The study took place in urban and rural sites in six states across Nigeria. Data on acceptability and sources of the contraceptives was collected from at least 770 randomly selected mostly female householders from each state respectively using a questionnaire. Acceptability of the different contraceptives was scored by the respondents on a scale of 1 (lowest to 10 (highest. The relationships between acceptability and sources of the contraceptives with socio-economic status and geographic location of the respondents were examined. Results The use of modern contraceptives in general was acceptable to 87% of the respondents. Male condom was the most acceptable means of contraceptive with an average score of 5.0. It was followed by implants with and oral contraceptive pill with average scores of 4.0, whilst IUD was the least acceptable with an average score of 2.9. The private sector was the major source of contraceptives to different population groups. Both male and female condoms were mostly procured from patent medicine dealers (PMD and pharmacy shops. Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs and implants were mostly sourced from public and private hospitals in the urban areas, whilst injectibles were mostly sourced from private hospitals. Oral contraceptives were mostly sourced from pharmacy shops and patent medicine dealers. There were SES and geographic differences for both acceptability and sources of the contraceptives. Also, the sources of different contraceptives depended on the type of the contraceptive. Conclusion The different contraceptives were acceptable to the respondents and the major source of the contraceptives was the private sector. Hence, public

  15. [A new contraceptive method: breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1993-08-01

    Even though women have known for centuries that breast feeding has a contraceptive effect, family planning agents have only recently promoted it. Family planning specialists at a meeting in Bellagio, Italy, on breast feeding developed directives referred to as the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM). Adherence to these directives assure effective protection against pregnancy until resumption of menstruation, expansion of infant feeding to foods other than breast milk, or until 6 months postpartum. Nipple stimulation during suckling is sufficient to suppress ovulation. Frequent suckling or more intense suckling maintains the contraceptive effect, so the directives insist that mothers exclusively or almost exclusively breast feed their infants. LAM provides 98% effective protection against pregnancy for 6 months if women observe it as directed. After 6 months, they should use another family planning method. Scientists are trying to see whether they can make the directives more simple. They will discuss this possibility at their next international meeting in 1993 or 1994. Research indicates that the most crucial rule is amenorrhea and use of this rule will make LAM more easy to learn and use, thereby increasing its use. It is difficult to motivate hospital and family planning clinic staff to promote LAM. Information and education are needed to support LAM. for example, a project in Honduras is using peer counseling to promote LAM. Family Health International is following 1000 women for 1 year postpartum in Pakistan and the Philippines. This study's 6-month LAM efficacy rate was around 95%. Little research has looked at the cost effectiveness of LAM. Optimally, LAM is a temporary contraceptive method which must be followed immediately by another contraceptive method. Indeed, LAM counseling should often pregnancy. LAM supporters do not intend for LAM to be a substitute for family planning, but want LAM to be another method in the contraceptive method mix.

  16. Contraception for the older woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, A; Gebbie, A

    1996-04-01

    Contraception presents particular problems for women over the age of 40. Although fertility is declining and the risk of pregnancy may be small, the consequences of an unplanned pregnancy may be socially devastating and medically ill-advised. Menstrual dysfunction and psychosexual difficulties increase with age and may exacerbate the side-effects of some methods of contraception. The long-term risks of combined hormonal contraception, particularly cardiovascular disease, become more pertinent to women whose natural risk of disease increases with age. Patterns of sexual activity and contraceptive use change with age. The advantages and disadvantages of currently available methods of contraception are difficult to quantify, and the choice of method is very much a matter for individual concern. The increasing prevalence of HRT may complicate matters for some women who are unsure for how long to continue using contraception. Contraceptives of the future may be designed to improve the reproductive health of all women, particularly those approaching the menopause.

  17. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  18. Pregnancy attitudes, contraceptive service utilization, and other factors associated with Los Angeles homeless youths' use of effective contraception and withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winetrobe, H; Rhoades, H; Barman-Adhikari, A; Cederbaum, J; Rice, E; Milburn, N

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to understand the associations of contraceptive service utilization (ie, accessing condoms or birth control), pregnancy attitudes, and lifetime pregnancy history among male and female homeless youth in relation to use of effective contraception and withdrawal. Between October 2011 and February 2012, homeless youth (14-27 years old) from 2 drop-in centers in Los Angeles (N = 380) were recruited and completed a questionnaire. The data in this paper are restricted to those who reported vaginal sex at last sex (N = 283). Analyses examined history of foster care, sexual abuse, exchange sex, pregnancy, lifetime homelessness duration, current living situation, contraceptive service utilization, and pregnancy attitudes in predicting use of effective contraception and withdrawal at last sex. Over 62% of females and 43% of males report having ever been pregnant or impregnating someone. There are no gender-based differences in pregnancy attitudes; 21% agree they would like to become pregnant within the year. Additionally, there are no gender-based differences in reported contraceptive use at last vaginal sex. In the multivariable model, high school education, contraceptive service utilization (Relative Risk Ratio [RRR]: 4.0), and anti-pregnancy attitudes (RRR: 1.3) are significant positive predictors of using effective contraception; anti-pregnancy attitudes (RRR: 1.2) and gender (RRR: 0.3) are significantly associated with using withdrawal. Health professionals should acknowledge that some homeless youth desire pregnancy; for those that do not, access to effective contraception is important. Programs must continue to promote pregnancy prevention, and include discussions of healthy pregnancy habits for pregnancy-desiring youth. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. State variations in women's socioeconomic status and use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamidi, Esther O

    2015-01-01

    According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country. I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria. Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models. The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use. Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.

  20. State variations in women's socioeconomic status and use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther O Lamidi

    Full Text Available According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country.I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria.Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910, I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models.The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use.Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.

  1. Effect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin A. Divani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of combined hormonal contraceptives has been reported to increase the level of C-reactive protein (CRP. We assessed the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on inflammatory cytokines including CRP, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and soluble CD40 ligand. We used 79 female subjects (19 to 30 years old who were combined oral contraceptives users (n=29, combined vaginal contraceptive users (n=20, and nonusers (n=30 with CRP values of ≤1 (n=46 or ≥3 (n=33. Information on medical history, physical activities, and dietary and sleeping habits were collected. Both oral and vaginal contraceptive users had higher levels of CRP (P<0.0001, compared to nonusers. Only oral contraceptive users exhibited elevated sCD40L (P<0.01. When comparing the groups with CRP ≤ 1 and CRP ≥ 3, levels of IL-6 and sTNF-RI were positively correlated with CRP among oral contraceptive users. We did not observe the same elevation for other inflammatory biomarkers for the CRP ≥ 3 group among vaginal contraceptive users. The clear cause of elevation in CRP level due to the use of different hormonal contraceptive formulations and methods is not well understood. Longitudinal studies with larger sample size are required to better assess the true cause of CRP elevation among hormonal contraceptive users.

  2. Utilization and discontinuation of contraceptive methods: the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njoku CO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contraception has an important role to play in reducing the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Objective: The objective is to determine the prevalence rate, methods and reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods at UCTH, Calabar. Method: This was a retrospective study of all clients that utilised different forms of contraceptives at UCTH, Calabar from 1st January, 2009 to 31st December, 2013. Results: A total of 5,381 clients used various methods of contraception while 13,492 live births were recorded giving the prevalence rate of 39.9% of total live birth. Common methods were intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD 1,745(32.8% and injectable contraceptives 1,268(23.8%. Most clients 1,876(35.2% were graduates while 81(1.5% had no formal education. A total of 535(10.1% clients discontinued different family planning method commonly due to desire for pregnancy and side effects. IUCD had the highest discontinuation rate. Conclusion: The study revealed low prevalence rate of contraceptive use which was more among teenagers and illiterate women. The main reasons for discontinuation of different methods were desire for pregnancy, side effects and menopause. Creating more contraceptive awareness, improvement in contraceptive counselling and female education will help to improve contraceptive utilisation rate and reduce discontinuation rate.

  3. Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Lisa L M; Puts, David A; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Female hormonal contraceptive use has been associated with a variety of physical and psychological side effects. Women who use hormonal contraceptives report more intense affective responses to partner infidelity and greater overall sexual jealousy than women not using hormonal contraceptives. Recently, researchers have found that using hormonal contraceptives with higher levels of synthetic estradiol, but not progestin, is associated with significantly higher levels of self-reported jealousy in women. Here, we extend these findings by examining the relationship between mate retention behavior in heterosexual women and their male partners and women's use of hormonal contraceptives. We find that women using hormonal contraceptives report more frequent use of mate retention tactics, specifically behaviors directed toward their partners (i.e., intersexual manipulations). Men partnered with women using hormonal contraceptives also report more frequent mate retention behavior, although this relationship may be confounded by relationship satisfaction. Additionally, among women using hormonal contraceptives, the dose of synthetic estradiol, but not of synthetic progesterone, positively predicts mate retention behavior frequency. These findings demonstrate how hormonal contraceptive use may influence behavior that directly affects the quality of romantic relationships as perceived by both female and male partners. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Progesterone Only Contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    argues further that the physiological effect of oestrogen in oral contraceptives on .... release of LH and FSH, exactly the same mechaniSm as that of the combined ... each the size of a matchstick, which contain levonorgestrel. The hormone is ...

  5. Emergency contraception: clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) is widely used to prevent unwanted pregnancy. This review considers the safety and efficacy of three commonly used methods -- levonorgestrel (LNG-EC), ulipristal acetate (UPA) and the copper intrauterine device. All are extremely safe, and side effects are minimal. Concerns about increased risks of ectopic pregnancy after EC use have proved unfounded, and possible teratogenic effects seem unlikely. Although the true effectiveness of EC is impossible to estimate, recent research suggests that LNG-EC prevents around 50% of expected pregnancies in women using the method within 72 h of intercourse, whereas UPA appeared to prevent almost two thirds of pregnancies. Emergency intrauterine device insertion probably prevents over 95% of pregnancies. However, although improved accessibility of EC has clearly led to increased use, it does not appear to have had any public health benefit in reducing unintended pregnancy rates. Most of the data on sexual behavior following improved access to EC do not show any detrimental effect on subsequent use of other more effective methods of contraception or on the incidence of unintended pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. However, unless these other methods of contraception are also made easily available from pharmacies, improved access to EC risks unlinking its use with use of subsequent ongoing contraception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CUP: contraceptive users pamphlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    This pamphlet, edited by an ad hoc committee of several consultants, scientists, theologians, public health and family planning directors, and an international attorney, covers the following topics: contra-conception; choices of contraceptives; contraceptive package information; copper IUDs; pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); sexually transmitted diseases; and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It includes a questionnaire for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Professor Joseph Goldzieher describes the "Contra-Conception" database as "a synthesis of up-to-date literature and contemporary guidelines, designed to provide ready access for practicing physicians and medical students." It contains data on several types of hormonal contraception. "Contra-Conceptions" is designed to allow the physician to set his or her own pace when working with the computer, and no previous computer experience is required. 1 of the program's many innovative features is the patient-profiling/decisionmaking section which can be used in the doctor's office to help decide what type of hormonal contraceptive is appropriate for a particular patient. The program permits the doctor to evaluate the significance of patient variables such as parity, smoking, menstrual difficulties and helps the doctor to identify the risks and benefits of the various methods and, ultimately, to make a balanced decision in the context of the most recent data. Contraceptive drugs and devices should include detailed information on the following: description of formula or device; indication, usage, and contraindications, clinical pharmacology and toxicology; dose-related risk; pregnancies per 100 women year; and detailed warning. The sequence of major pathophysiological reactions associated with copper IUDs is identified as are special problems of pelvic infections in users of copper IUDs. Those women who use oral contraceptives (OCs) or a barrier method of contraception or whose partners use a condom have a lower

  7. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V

    2002-10-01

    With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution

  8. The COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam prevents pregnancy when administered as an emergency contraceptive to nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Nicole C; Lynch, Terrie J; Kim, Soon Ok; Duffy, Diane M

    2013-12-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors reduce prostaglandin synthesis and disrupt essential reproductive processes. Ultrasound studies in women demonstrated that oral COX-2 inhibitors can delay or prevent follicle collapse associated with ovulation. The goal of this study was to determine if oral administration of a COX-2 inhibitor can inhibit reproductive function with sufficient efficacy to prevent pregnancy in primates. The COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam (or vehicle) was administered orally to proven fertile female cynomolgus macaques using one emergency contraceptive model and three monthly contraceptive models. In the emergency contraceptive model, females were bred with a proven fertile male once 2±1 days before ovulation, returned to the females' home cage, and then received 5 days of meloxicam treatment. In the monthly contraceptive models, females were co-caged for breeding with a proven fertile male for a total of 5 days beginning 2±1 days before ovulation. Animals received meloxicam treatment (1) cycle days 5-22, or (2) every day, or (3) each day of the 5-day breeding period. Female were then assessed for pregnancy. The pregnancy rate with meloxicam administration using the emergency contraception model was 6.5%, significantly lower than the pregnancy rate of 33.3% when vehicle without meloxicam was administered. Pregnancy rates with the three monthly contraceptive models (75%-100%) were not consistent with preventing pregnancy. Oral COX-2 inhibitor administration can prevent pregnancy after a single instance of breeding in primates. While meloxicam may be ineffective for regular contraception, pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 may be an effective method of emergency contraception for women. COX-2 inhibitors can interfere with ovulation, but the contraceptive efficacy of drugs of this class has not been directly tested. This study, conducted in nonhuman primates, is the first to suggest that a COX-2 inhibitor may be effective as an emergency contraceptive.

  9. Female condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  10. Contraceptive challenges experienced by women who requested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of contraceptives over weekends and during lunch breaks could enable more women to prevent unwanted pregnancies, reducing the number of requests for TOP services. Keywords: abortions; accessibility of contraceptives; contraceptive challenges; contraceptives' side-effects; emergency contraceptives; termination of ...

  11. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training Stephanie Adrianse, MD1, Lance M. Pollack, Ph.D2, Cherrie B...keywords: unintended pregnancy, prevention, contraceptive use, adolescents /young adults, psychosocial factors Purpose: Over 50% of pregnancies among

  12. Influence of women health care adoption on contraceptive use: utilization of prenatal and postnatal care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.U.; Abbasi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of women heat seeking behaviour during pregnancy and post delivery period on contraceptive use and family size are important dimension of female fertility. These determinants of female fertility have rarely been explored, particularly in developing countries confronting problems of rising population growth. A study was conducted in district Faisalabad, Pakistan to explore the influence of pre and postnatal care on contraceptive use. A random sample of 1051 married women was studied from the urban and rural areas of the district through formal survey. It was found that contraceptive use is associated with pre-and postnatal care. Minimum of 5-7 prenatal and at least 2 postnatal visit have been identified as effective to promote contraceptive use. Involvement of health professional, motivation through mass media and improved access to health care services during the period of pregnancy and after childbirth are the measures suggested to enhance contraceptive use in the society to curtail family size. (author)

  13. Adolescent girls in Denmark use oral contraceptives at an increasingly young age, and with more pauses and shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Nielsen, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    was to describe the use of hormonal contraceptives among the Danish adolescent female population, focusing on age, period and cohort effects and including types of hormonal contraceptives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All women aged 14-50 years during the 1995-2012 period were identified through the Central Person...... Register. Furthermore, the National Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics provided information on redeemed prescriptions for hormonal contraceptives characterised by Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical (ATC) classification codes. RESULTS: At the age of 17 years, more than 50% of the Danish adolescent......, adolescent girls have more pauses and shifts between types of hormonal contraceptives. Since 2010 there has been a shift toward use of second generation oral contraceptives away from third and fourth generation contraceptives. CONCLUSION: Adolescent girls tend to initiate their use of oral contraceptives...

  14. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Senikas, Vyta

    2008-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance for women and their health care providers on the management of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptive doses in order to prevent unintended pregnancy. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published in English, from 1974 to 2007, about hormonal contraceptive methods that are available in Canada and that may be missed or delayed. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate reproductive health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. The quality of evidence is rated using the criteria developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This committee opinion will help health care providers offer clear information to women who have not been adherent in using hormonal contraception with the purpose of preventing unintended pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Instructions for what women should do when they miss hormonal contraception have been complex and women do not understand them correctly. (I) 2. The highest risk of ovulation occurs when the hormone-free interval is prolonged for more than seven days, either by delaying the start of combined hormonal contraceptives or by missing active hormone doses during the first or third weeks of combined oral contraceptives. (II) Ovulation rarely occurs after seven consecutive days of combined oral contraceptive use. (II) RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Health care providers should give clear, simple instructions, both written and oral, on missed hormonal contraceptive pills as part of contraceptive counselling. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should provide women with telephone/electronic resources for reference in the event of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptives. (III-A) 3. In order to avoid an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, the hormone-free interval should not exceed seven days in combined hormonal contraceptive users. (II-A) 4. Back-up contraception should

  15. Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma...

  16. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  17. Virtual fetal pig dissection as an agent of knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change in female high school biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Rebecca Scudari

    One way to determine if all students can learn through the use of computers is to introduce a lesson taught completely via computers and compare the results with those gained when the same lesson is taught in a traditional manner. This study attempted to determine if a virtual fetal pig dissection can be used as a viable alternative for an actual dissection for females enrolled in high school biology classes by comparing the knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change between the experimental (virtual dissection) and control (actual dissection) groups. Two hundred and twenty-four students enrolled in biology classes in a suburban all-girl parochial high school participated in this study. Female students in an all-girl high school were chosen because research shows differences in science competency and computer usage between the genders that may mask the performance of females on computer-based tasks in a science laboratory exercise. Students who completed the virtual dissection scored significantly higher on practical test and objective tests that were used to measure knowledge acquisition. Attitudinal change was measured by examining the students' attitudes toward dissections, computer usage in the classroom, and toward biology both before and after the dissections using pre and post surveys. Significant results in positive gain scores were found in the virtual dissection group's attitude toward dissections, and their negative gain score toward virtual dissections. Attitudinal changes toward computers and biology were not significant. A purposefully selected sample of the students were interviewed, in addition to gathering a sample of the students' daily dissection journals, as data highlighting their thoughts and feelings about their dissection experience. Further research is suggested to determine if a virtual laboratory experience can be a substitute for actual dissections, or may serve as an enhancement to an actual dissection.

  18. The underutilization of emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kit S

    2012-04-01

    Despite the availability of effective contraceptive methods, unintended pregnancy continues to be a significant health problem for women throughout the world. The reasons for unplanned pregnancy include failure to use contraception, incorrect use of contraception, unplanned consensual intercourse, and rape. Emergency contraception was once heralded as a means of reducing the rates of unintended pregnancy, elective abortion, and unwanted childbirth. But more than three decades after the first oral form was introduced, the use of emergency contraception remains suboptimal-even in the United States, where it is available to most women of childbearing age without a prescription. Nurses can help narrow this clinical gap in women's health care by increasing awareness of emergency contraception, correcting common misconceptions about its mechanism of action and potential adverse effects, and facilitating patient access.

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Emergency Contraception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Emergency contraception refers to methods that women can use to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse, method failure or incorrect use. Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion can be avoided by using different contraceptive methods including emergency contraceptives.

  20. [Sexual behavior and contraceptive practices among university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repossi, A; Araneda, J M; Bustos, L; Puente, C; Rojas, C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the knowledge, opinions and sexual behaviour of a sample of 464 students from the Universidad Austral de Chile. Results show that 78% of male and 41% of female students have had a sexual intercourse and that 78% of males and 72% of females with an active sexual life use contraceptive methods. The principal reasons to avoid the use of these methods are the irregularity of sexual intercourse and the reduction in pleasure. Most students think that these methods are harmful for their health but they should be used. The use of contraceptive methods increase with the frequency of sexual relations and university experience, but first year students use them more frequently than second year students. Most students know several contraceptive methods, but their knowledge about mechanisms of action is inadequate or distorted. Likewise, more than 50% think that it is possible to prevent pregnancy after a sexual intercourse. It is concluded that most sexually active students use contraceptive methods, but inappropriately. Stereotypes, myths and lack of information are influencing their sexual and contraceptive practices, showing incoherence between their knowledge and behavior. A possible explanation could be a scarce influence of high school and religion on their sexual formation.

  1. The effect of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the influence of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum total protein using 48 adult female rats in four groups -A as control and B, C and D as tests. The animals were further divided into two subgroups - treatment (A1 - D1; n=6 each) and reversal (A2 - D2; n=6 each). Groups A1&A2 ...

  2. Dual protection, contraceptive use, HIV status and risk among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate dual protection, contraceptive use, HIV status risk among a national sample of South African women. The final sample included only female participants (N=4675) who reported to have had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months aged 15 to 49 years. Results indicate that almost one ...

  3. Oestrogen, headache and oral contraceptives | Utian | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible relationship between headache and the oral contraceptive is considered. In the present study, no association has been demonstrat~d between oestrogen withdrawal (as produced by oophorectomy, or cessation of exogenous oestrogen replacement therapy in oophorectomised females) or by exogenous ...

  4. Efficacy and safety of topical depigmenting agent in healthy human fair skin female volunteers: A single-arm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saurabh; Chew, Soon-Keong

    2017-11-28

    Skin hyperpigmentation is the darkening of skin due to the increased production of melanin in the body. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a botanical-based Rosa E pigmentation serum in healthy fair skin female volunteers with wrinkles, skin tone, and pigmentation. This was a single-arm, open label study conducted in healthy Indian females; 18 subjects aged 30-55, having fair Caucasian-like skin with at least 2 dark skin pigments with facial wrinkles diagnosed by dermatologist were selected. Rosa E pigmentation serum was applied twice a day for 84 days. Effect was evaluated by (i) instrumental technique (spectrophotometer ® 2600D), (ii) clinically by dermatologist regarding product efficacy (skin tone, antiwrinkle, pigmentation), and (iii) volunteers self-evaluation. The L* value of spectrophotometer reading represents lightness in the skin pigment. Reduction in the pigment was reported from day 14, with significant reductions observed till day 84 compared with baseline. Significant (P < .0001) skin pigmentation lightening was seen on day 14 (1.11) vastly improving on day 84 (1.94) based on photographic assessments. The significant reduction in skin pigment was 76.85%, Felix von Luschan skin color score was 30.24% (P < .0001) with a 7.38-fold reduction in skin tone and 57% reduction in facial wrinkles at day 84 from baseline. Rosa E pigmentation serum was found safe and effective in significant reduction in skin pigments, improvement of skin tone, and antiwrinkle properties instrumentally, clinically, and self-evaluation by volunteers. In these evaluations, best results were seen the longer the Rosa E was used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Male contraception: what is on the horizon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blithe, Diana

    2008-10-01

    Male contraception remains an important area of research. Methods can inhibit sperm production or can be targeted to inhibit sperm functions such as motility, orientation or interaction with the egg. Hormonal methods appear to be safe and effective in proof of concept studies but efforts are underway to improve delivery options or lead time until full efficacy is achieved. Nonhormonal methods are based on numerous targets that impact sperm production or function. Several agents that inhibit the sperm-specific or testis-specific targets have been identified and studies in animals have shown promising results.

  6. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in Sobi barracks, Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N A; Akande, T M; Osagbemi, G K; Olasupo, S T; Salawu, K Y; Adebayo, E T

    2013-06-01

    There is a popular belief among the general population that Nigerian soldiers tend to have large families but this has not been substantiated with evidence-based research. The Nigerian military health authority implements female-targetted contraception strategies, with less focus on their husbands; who are the dominant fertility determinants. To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi Cantonment, Ilorin, Nigeria, with a view to instituting male-targeted contraceptive/family planning strategies. A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling technique and pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaires. The respondents' approval of contraception (73.6%) and willingness to discuss it with their spouses/partners (71.6%) were high. Fear of wives/partner's sexual promiscuity (55.7%), cultural and religious beliefs (43.2%), fear of the side effects of contraceptives (29.5%) and the desire for more children (21.6%) were reported reasons for the non-approval of contraception. The prevalence of contraceptive use among the respondents was low (12.3%). There was a significant relationship between the respondents' educational level and contraceptive use (pcontraception with their spouses/partners but low contraceptive use.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of secondary school girls towards contraception in Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.

  8. Trend in the use of modern contraception in sub-Saharan Africa: Does women's education matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques B O; Chirwa, Tobias; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2014-08-01

    Existing literature revealed positive association between women's education and modern contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Overall modern contraception prevalence (MCP) and proportion of women with formal education have increased in region. However, little is known about how much the change in the prevalence of modern contraceptive methods is relative to the compositional change in population and how much of the change is actually due to increases in the number of women adopting the new behavior. This study aims to (1) describe trends in modern contraception prevalence by female education; and (2) identify the source of changes in modern contraceptive use by educational attainment (changes in structure or in population behavior). This is a cross-sectional study using Demographic and Health Surveys from 27 SSA countries where at least two comparable surveys have been conducted. Overall modern contraception prevalence (MCP) has increased in SSA over the study period. The ongoing increase in the contraceptive use is due to changes in behavior consistent with the ongoing family planning promotion over the past 30 years. By contrast, an increase in the proportion of women with secondary education does not explain the change in MCP in most SSA countries. To achieve universal access to family planning, efforts in promoting female education should be complemented with economic, cultural and geographical access to MCP. Household-based sensitization, general hospitals, mobile family planning clinics, and community-based distributors of modern contraceptive methods are key strategies to improve access to modern contraceptive use. Findings from this study suggest that countries should combine social investments, including health services and education, with family planning programs using reproductive health services, mobile family planning clinics and community-based distributors of modern contraceptive methods. Therefore, governments' legislation measures that

  9. Use of non-emergency contraceptive pills and concoctions as emergency contraception among Nigerian University students: results of a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Idowu Ajayi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency contraception (EC can significantly reduce the rate of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the increasing awareness of EC among educated young women in Nigeria, the rate of utilisation remains low. This study therefore explores the main barriers to the use of EC among female university students by analysing their knowledge of emergency contraception, methods ever used, perceived efficacy, and its acceptability. Methods This paper brings together the findings from several focus groups (N = 5 and in-depth interviews (N = 20 conducted amongst unmarried female undergraduate students in two Nigerian universities. Results Participants considered the use of condom and abstinence as the most effective methods of preventing unplanned pregnancy. However, many participants were misinformed about emergency contraception. Generally, participants relied on unconventional and unproven ECs; Ampiclox, “Alabukun”, salt water solution, and lime and potash and perceived them to be effective in preventing unplanned pregnancies. Furthermore, respondents’ narratives about methods of preventing unwanted pregnancies revealed that inadequate information on emergency contraception, reliance on unproven crude contraceptive methods, and misconception about modern contraception constitute barriers to the use of emergency contraception. Conclusions The findings suggested that female university students are misinformed about emergency contraception and their reliance on unproven ECs constitutes a barrier to the use of approved EC methods. These barriers have serious implications for prevention of unplanned pregnancies in the cohort. Behavioural interventions targeting the use of unproven emergency contraceptive methods and misperceptions about ECs would be crucial for this cohort in Nigeria.

  10. Ongoing contraception after use of emergency contraception from a specialist contraceptive service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon T; Glasier, Anna; Johnstone, Anne; Rae, Leanne

    2011-10-01

    A consultation for emergency contraception (EC) gives way to an opportunity to provide women with an ongoing effective method of contraception. A review of the case notes of women seeking EC from a large family planning clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, was conducted to determine what percentage of women were provided with an effective method of ongoing contraception. Case notes of 460 women presenting for EC over a 2-year period were reviewed. Women were of mean age 26 years (range 15-49 years) and presented because they had used no contraception (47%), experienced condom failure (42%) or missed oral contraceptive pills (9%). Only 2% (n=11) were given an intrauterine device for EC. All women who had missed contraceptive pills prior to taking EC opted to continue this method. Only 23% (n=89) of women using no method or condoms at EC received supplies of an effective contraceptive method (pills, patch, injectable). Two thirds (n=263) of the women chose condoms for ongoing contraception. Research is required to develop strategies to improve the uptake of effective contraception after EC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Retrospective Chart Review of Contraceptive Use among Adolescents with Opioid Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Caitlin J; Lange, Hannah L H; Manos, Brittny E; Berlan, Elise D; Bonny, Andrea E

    2018-04-01

    To describe contraceptive use among female adolescents initiating outpatient treatment for opioid use disorder. Retrospective chart review. Outpatient clinic providing medication-assisted treatment for substance use disorders to adolescents and young adults. Nonpregnant female adolescents who presented for treatment from January 1, 2013 to January 31, 2016 (N = 123). None. Prescription contraceptive use at baseline and initiation of a new method within 90 days. Of 123 female adolescents who presented for treatment of opioid use disorder, 113 (91.9%) reported sexual activity and 80 (65.0%) were not using prescription contraception at intake. Previous pregnancy was reported by 43 (35.0%) and 20 (16.3%) were positive for a sexually transmitted infection. Contraceptive counseling was not documented for 73 (59.3%) patients. Among patients with no prescription contraception at baseline, 56 of 80 (70.0%) initiated a method within the study window. Significant predictors (odds ratio [OR]; 95% confidence interval) of contraceptive initiation included previous pregnancy (8.6; 1.39-52.99), education of less than a high school diploma/general equivalency diploma (7.4; 1.63-33.41), and return for follow-up visit (9.8; 2.18-43.69). Young women who presented for opioid use disorder treatment were at high risk of adverse reproductive health outcomes. Most were sexually active and not using prescription contraception. Findings underscore the need for contraceptive counseling in this patient population. Optimally, these services would be provided in conjunction with substance use treatment. Improved contraceptive counseling documentation will allow evaluation of effective contraceptive counseling strategies for adolescents with opioid use disorders and might serve to inform future interventions. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Contraceptive behavior as risk factor for reproductive health of junior students attending a medical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Govyazina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 1–3 year students attending medical and preventive faculty of a medical university were our research object. Our research had many stages, and at the first one our goal was to examine and to assess basic behavioral risks for reproductive health of students attending medical and preventive faculty of a medical university. We conducted a sociological examination via questioning. 428 students were questioned as per materials collecting program which included 74 parameters; they accounted for 91.6 % out of the overall official number of students, 45.0 % male students and 40.0 % female students combined work and studies. We detected that, as per questioning results, the specific weight of students who took care of their health amounted to 79.2 % boys and 95.2 % girls. However, the students tended to have bad habits, i.e. constant alcohol intake or smoking. And although information on diseases prevention and on how to pursue healthy lifestyle was perfectly available to them, students didn't try to use it and preserve their health. All the respondents said they were against abortion. Girls were likely to adopt a complex approach when choosing a contraceptive, they resorted to hormonal agents, and, with their partners' consent, to condoms. But they often took hormonal agents without any consultations with a gynecologist or an endocrinologist. Contraceptives were rather rarely applied, and students appeared to have no knowledge on risk factors causing reproductive health deterioration. They also tended to be negligent and too self-confident when it came to reproductive health protection. A risk of abortions was very high for girls who didn't use contraceptives, and also all students ran rather high risk of catching sexual diseases. Sexual education is needed to correct contraceptive behavior; medical workers are a main source of information on reproductive health of young people in 7–10 % cases only. We need to create interactive educational programs

  13. Effects of oral contraceptives on thyroid tests using 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, N.; Silva, W.N. da; Papaleo Netto, M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of oral contraceptives on 131 I uptake, the depuration rate of this isotope and the PBI was studied in 24 euthyroid female patients. The dose administered was of 2.5 mg of norestinodrel and 0.05 mg of ethynil estradiol. The data were submitted to a statistical study applying analysis of variance, comparison of the means, determination of the standard deviations and the confidence interval. It is concluded that drug does affect thyroid function and that these effects may cause certain disturbances, as arterial hypertension, thrombosis, etc., in patients under prolonged contraceptive treatment [pt

  14. Contraception for the perimenopausal woman

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these women. Most of these methods also have beneficial non-contraceptive properties. Introduction. Falling pregnant in the perimenopausal years can potentially ... tinuation of use. The risk reduction in developing epithelial ovarian cancer in women using oral contraception is 40%. After 10 years of use the risk reduction.

  15. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lining of the uterus. Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... them late and had sex without a backup method of birth control.If you want to become ... Progestin-only contraceptives should not delay your ability ...

  16. Intra-uterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, J

    1985-05-01

    Among the advantages of IUDs are the device's high continuation rate, the lack of systemic side effects, and the absence of a need for continual motivation to practice contraception. The effectiveness of plastic IUDs is directly proportional to their surface area, but the degree of excessive bleeding experienced is inversely related to device size. Thus, devices represent a compromise between large size for effectiveness and small size for acceptability. The optimum time to fit an IUD is during the 1st hald of the menstrual cycle. Absolute contraindications to IUD use include the presence of active pelvic inflammatory disease, undiagnosed irregular bleeding, a history of ectopic pregnancy or tubal surgery, and a distorted uteine cavity. Failure rates associated with IUD use range from 2-3% in the 1st year and then decrease. Since the main mechanism of action appears to be production of a sterile inflammatory reaction in the uterine cavity, the IUD prevents intrauterine pregnancy more effectively than ectopic pregnancy. Nonetheless, there is little evidence to suggest that IUD use actually increases the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. Resumption of fertility after IUD removal is not delayed. There is not need to change inert plastic IUDs in women who remain symptom free. The copper devices should be changed every 3-4 years. A search is under way for antifertility agents that can be incorporated into the device to reduce side effects. In general, the IUD is most suitable for older, parous women.

  17. Considerations for the use of progestin-only contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sarah; Shulman, Lee P

    2010-02-01

    To highlight the characteristics of progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) currently available in the United States, and to explore the potential of these agents as first-line contraceptive options for women seeking health promotion by prevention of an unwanted pregnancy. The progestin-only pills (Micronor and Ovrette), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections (Depo-Provera and depo-subQ provera 104), levonorgestrel intrauterine system (IUS) (Mirena), and etonogestrel implant (Implanon) will be reviewed. The use of levonorgestrel (Plan B) as an emergency contraceptive will also be considered briefly. Worldwide medical literature and the prescribing information for the specified products. A number of POCs are currently available for routine birth control in the United States, ranging from the daily progestin-only pill to nondaily contraceptive options such as injectable DMPA, the levonorgestrel-releasing IUS, and the etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant. Each of these methods has specific advantages, but also specific drawbacks that can result in discontinuation of treatment if users are not given adequate information about what to expect in terms of side effects. It is critical that clinicians provide adequate and accurate information along with detailed counseling to women who are considering using POCs, as well as providing periodic reinforcement of the information at regular clinic visits for those already using POCs. Given that a large number of pregnancies are unplanned and create a significant impact on social, economic, and health outcomes, it is important for the clinician to have a vast knowledge of contraceptive options. POCs offer significant choices in contraception. By proactively addressing common concerns (such as potential effects on weight, mood, menstrual bleeding patterns, and bone mineral density), clinicians may improve the likelihood of adherence and continuation with POCs for routine birth control.

  18. Emergency contraception: different bioethical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraceptives, in this case post-morning pills, are contraceptive methods used to avoid an unwanted pregnancy after an unprotected sexual intercourse. Their use is feeding a strong ethical debate between subjects for and against their prescription and leading some health professionals to conscientious objection. Among people contrary to prescription some oppose to it because of a general refuse of all contraceptive methods, others considering post-morning pills as abortive. Among people supporting prescription, some consider emergency contraception necessary to assure fundamental women’s rights, in particular the right to sexual auto-determination, while others prescribe emergency contraception only to avoid a greater demand for abortion. It is up to the Italian National Health Service warranting a correct balance between the two opposite positions, that can protect women’s right of access to health services.

  19. Medicaid spending on contraceptive coverage and pregnancy-related care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective Up to 50% of pregnancies are unintended in the United States, and the healthcare costs associated with pregnancy are the most expensive among hospitalized conditions. The current study aims to assess Medicaid spending on various methods of contraception and on pregnancy care including unintended pregnancies. Methods We analyzed Medicaid health claims data from 2004 to 2010. Women 14–49 years of age initiating contraceptive methods and pregnant women were included as separate cohorts. Medicaid spending was summarized using mean all-cause and contraceptive healthcare payments per patient per month (PPPM) over a follow-up period of up to 12 months. Medicaid payments were also estimated in 2008 per female member of childbearing age per month (PFCPM) and per member per month (PMPM). Medicaid payments on unintended pregnancies were also evaluated PFCPM and PMPM in 2008. Results For short-acting reversible contraception (SARC) users, all-cause payments and contraceptive payments PPPM were respectively $365 and $18.3 for oral contraceptive (OC) users, $308 and $19.9 for transdermal users, $215 and $21.6 for vaginal ring users, and $410 and $8.8 for injectable users. For long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) users (follow-up of 9–10 months), corresponding payments were $194 and $36.8 for IUD users, and $237 and $29.9 for implant users. Pregnancy cohort all-cause mean healthcare payments PPPM were $610. Payments PFCPM and PMPM for contraceptives were $1.44 and $0.54, while corresponding costs of pregnancies were estimated at $39.91 and $14.81, respectively. Payments PFCPM and PMPM for contraceptives represented a small fraction at 6.56% ($1.44/$21.95) and 6.63% ($0.54/$8.15), respectively of the estimated payments for unintended pregnancy. Conclusions This study of a large sample of Medicaid beneficiaries demonstrated that, over a follow-up period of 12 months, Medicaid payments for pregnancy were considerably higher than payments for either SARC or

  20. Conhecimento, consumo e acesso à contracepção de emergência entre mulheres universitárias no sul do Estado de Santa Catarina Awareness, consumption and access to emergency contraception among female university students in the south of the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Modolon Alano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção de emergência tem sido utilizada na prevenção da gravidez não planejada. Este estudo objetivou investigar o conhecimento, o consumo e o acesso desse método entre mulheres universitárias do Sul do Estado de Santa Catarina. Trata-se de estudo observacional, transversal, aplicando-se formulário de setembro a outubro de 2008. Participaram 360 mulheres entre 18 e 45 anos, a maioria da classe econômica B2 ou superior (74,2%, onde 79,4% já haviam mantido relação sexual. Destas, 48,6% haviam utilizado a contracepção de emergência, sendo mais frequente quanto menor a idade. O método foi usado em média 2,4 vezes e 87,1% administraram-no até 24 horas após a relação sexual. Foram referidas reações adversas por 20,9% das usuárias, sendo as mais comuns, alterações menstruais (44,8% e náuseas (44,8%. Os principais motivos para o uso do método foram: não uso do preservativo (44,6% e rompimento do mesmo (39,6%. Das entrevistadas, 15,0% não souberam responder ou responderam de modo errado à questão sobre a não prevenção de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível pelo método e 97,8% negaram ter alterado o método utilizado rotineiramente. Apenas 2,9% das mulheres adquiriram o medicamento mediante prescrição médica e 35,3% receberam orientações no momento da compra.The scope of this study was to investigate knowledge about and access to emergency contraception among female university students in the south of the State of Santa Catarina. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between September and October 2008, in which a questionnaire was given to 360 women aged 18 to 45 years. Most belonged to the B2 economic class or higher (74.2% and 79.4% of them had already had intercourse. Of these, 48.6% had used emergency contraception, though this was more frequent among younger women. Emergency contraception was used 2.4 times, and 87.1% had used contraceptive methods within 24 hours after intercourse

  1. Patterns of contraceptive use among Mexican-origin women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari White

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mexican women in the United States (US have higher rates of fertility compared to other ethnic groups and women in Mexico. Whether variation in women's access to family planning services or patterns of contraceptive use contributes to this higher fertility has received little attention. OBJECTIVE We explore Mexican women's contraceptive use, taking into account women's place in the reproductive life course. METHODS Using nationally representative samples from the US (National Survey of Family Growth and Mexico (Encuesta National de la Dinámica Demográfica, we compared the parity-specific frequency of contraceptive use and fertility intentions for non-migrant women, foreign-born Mexicans in the US, US-born Mexicans, and whites. RESULTS Mexican women in the US were less likely to use IUDs and more likely to use hormonal contraception than women in Mexico. Female sterilization was the most common method among higher parity women in both the US and Mexico, however, foreign-born Mexicans were less likely to be sterilized, and the least likely to use any permanent contraceptive method. Although foreign-born Mexicans were slightly less likely to report that they did not want more children, differences in method use remained after controlling for women's fertility intentions. CONCLUSIONS At all parities, foreign-born Mexicans used less effective methods. These findings suggest that varying access to family planning services may contribute to variation in women's contraceptive use. COMMENTS Future studies are needed to clarify the extent to which disparities in fertility result from differences in contraceptive access.

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Humera; Khan, Parwez Sajad; Imtiyaz, Bhat; Hayat, Gazala; Hayat, Rehana

    2013-12-01

    Human fertility is determined by many factors such as customs, morals and habits of social groups with regard to marital obligation of life. Acceptance of family planning methods varies within and between societies and there are many factors which are responsible for such variation at community, family and individual level. Socioeconomic environment, culture and education are few of them that play a vital role. Jammu and Kashmir state in general and Kashmir valley in particular is a Muslim-dominated population with traditionally a conservative society. Apart from family customs and influence of the elders, religious background has always been behind the passive resistance, or at the best indifference towards contraception. This study makes an attempt to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural Kashmir. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural Kashmir. Community-based Cross-Sectional study. December 2006 to May 2008. 1900 currently married women in the age group of 15-49 years of age. Rural households. 1900 currently married women, aged 15-49 years, selected by multi-stage random sampling technique from three districts of Kashmir valley who were interviewed at home using a pretested oral questionnaire. The assessment of various socioeconomic and other variables made as per the available standard procedures and scales. Percentage, Chi square test and Bivariate analysis. Knowledge of the contraceptive methods was fairly good especially for terminal methods i.e. female sterilization (97.7 %). Main source of information on contraception was obtained from mass media (60.4 %). Contraceptive practice was significantly related to number of living children, literacy, socioeconomic status and type of family. What is needed is to promote and stress contraceptive methods and their advantages using mass media approach and to explore more and more participation of private sector.

  3. OPTION OF USERS IN SURGICAL CONTRACEPTION FAMILY HEALTH UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is a descriptive and quantitative approach, which aimed to meet customers the option of surgical contraception by a Family Health Unit in the municipality of Barra do Herons - Mato Grosso. Data were collected on 22 forms of reference that would be forwarded to the sector and family planning counseling. Data were collected and grouped by age, marital status, gender, children and quantitative choice of surgical method of contraception. The period of data collection occurred from March to December 2011. The age group with the highest participation was from 18 to 25 years. Predominantly single, female, with two sons and opting for sterilization. The variety of options to be used as contraceptive methods should be widely publicized and encouraged by health professionals, leaving the surgical methods of reversible or irreversible disruption as a last choice.

  4. Knowledge of emergency contraceptives among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... emergency contraceptives, while 52.5% reported that they had never heard of emergency contraceptives. ... are freely available to women of all ages in South Africa (SA).[4] ..... Contraceptive Technology. .... prescribing pattern of emergency contraceptives by health care workers in Kampala, Uganda. Acta.

  5. Oral contraception in Denmark 1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nadia M; Laursen, Maja; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated.......Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated....

  6. Women's willingness to use emergency contraception: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to emergency contraception (EC) has little restriction in South Africa. EC is a contraceptive method that can be used by women up to 7 days after unprotected intercourse. It can be used in the following situations: when no contraceptive has been used; for condom accidents; after intrauterine contraceptive device ...

  7. Contraception: Everyone's responsibility | Patel | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intrauterine contraceptive device, the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and the injectable progestogen contraceptives form part of this group of contraceptives. The most recently launched LARC is Implanon NXT. A comprehensive guideline to assess suitability of the various contraceptive methods in various medical ...

  8. Contraception: a questionnaire on knowledge and attitude of adolescents, distributed on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Lies; Storms, Machteld; Peremans, Lieve; Van Royen, Kathleen; Verhoeven, Veronique

    2016-11-01

    The contraceptive pill is widely used. An accurate knowledge is necessary for correct use. This study sheds light on adolescents' knowledge, attitude and behavior in regard to contraceptive use, in the year 2014. The goal is to provide general practitioners (GP) with information about the potential gaps in knowledge concerning contraceptive use in order to give better counseling and prevent high-risk behavior in adolescents. A quantitative descriptive study was carried out among 14-25-year-old female and male adolescents. Data were collected through a web-based survey using the online survey software Qualtrics (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA) and was distributed via the social networking site Facebook. The survey was started by 1185 participants. The most popular contraceptive method among females is the oral contraceptive pill (63.7%). Four out of ten females (42.6%) do not know that when using an emergency pill, they must still take their regular contraceptive pill on the same day. The majority of female respondents (80.0%) go to their general practitioner for a prescription for the pill. Ninety-five percent (95.1%) of the females would feel comfortable asking their GP for extra information about the drug. The sex of the GP does not influence the likelihood of female patients seeking more information. The Internet also seems to serve as an important source of information. We defined a female subgroup, called "vulnerable". The majority of females in the non-vulnerable group (70.4%) protected themselves before their first sexual contact instead of only half of the members in the vulnerable group (51.0%). The level of knowledge among adolescents about contraception is not alarming, but there are a few blind spots. Eliminating these gaps should be the aim of the doctor and pharmacologist.

  9. Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors among Adolescents Requesting Emergency Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiak, Carrie; Howard, Brandon; Hsieh, Jennifer; Ricciotti, Nancy; Sucato, Gina S

    2016-12-01

    Unintended pregnancy rates in the United States remain high among adolescents. Emergency contraception (EC) provides the only option for pregnancy prevention after unprotected sex. To better define the population of adolescents who request and use EC pills, we performed a post hoc analysis of an over-the-counter simulation study of EC pills. Teen reproductive health clinics in 5 cities. Adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years who requested EC. Single-tablet levonorgestrel 1.5 mg. We calculated the correlations between age and baseline sexual and contraceptive behaviors. χ 2 Tests were used to compare behaviors of first-time and repeat EC users. Overall, the most commonly reported contraceptive methods ever used were condoms, oral contraceptives, none, and withdrawal; the most common method ever used in each age group was no method for 13- to 14-year-olds and condom for 15-, 16-, and 17-year-olds. The percentage of participants who had never used contraception before requesting EC decreased with age (53% [20/28] of 13- to 14-year-olds vs 15% [10/65] of 17-year-olds). First-time EC users were more likely to report no previous contraceptive use compared with repeat EC users (42% [88/208] vs 10% [13/135]; P contraceptive method (ie, "unprotected sex"). Adolescents who requested EC most commonly reported ever-use of contraceptive methods that rely on user adherence or no method at all, with younger adolescents more likely than older adolescents to have used no previous method. The provision of EC presents an opportunity to provide education and access to highly effective, long-term contraceptive methods. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A; Carayon, Florence; Schulz, Kenneth F; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2014-01-29

    Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. The aim of the review was to evaluate the potential association between combination contraceptive use and changes in weight. In November 2013, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for studies of combination contraceptives, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). For the initial review, we also wrote to known investigators and manufacturers to request information about other published or unpublished trials not discovered in our search. All English-language, randomized controlled trials were eligible if they had at least three treatment cycles and compared a combination contraceptive to a placebo or to a combination contraceptive that differed in drug, dosage, regimen, or study length. All titles and abstracts located in the literature searches were assessed. Data were entered and analyzed with RevMan. A second author verified the data entered. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean change in weight between baseline and post-treatment measurements using a fixed-effect model. For categorical data, such as the proportion of women who gained or lost more than a specified amount of weight, the Peto odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. We found 49 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The trials included 85 weight change comparisons for 52 distinct contraceptive pairs (or placebos). The four trials with a placebo or no intervention group did not find

  11. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE NIŠ UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ABOUT EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Veljković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception is a treatment that used as an emergency procedure to prevent unwanted pregnancy after an unprotected sexual intercourse or contraception failure regardless of the point in the menstrual cycle. The most common method is the treatment with sexual steroids and the second-line form is the copper intrauterine device. A considerable number of female students of Nis were informed about the existence of emergency contraception. Younger generations (I/II years of sudy were better informed than older generations (III/IV years of study: 81.6% vs. 57.5%. The difference was statistically significant (χ2 =7.91;p<0.005. The students of medicine were better informed than the students of art and science: 87.9% vs. 78.2% vs. 70.0% but there was not statistical difference. It is expected that adequate usage of emergency contraception will significantly reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies. It is only emergency treatment and is not a substitution for regular contraception. Students are very important in the population of youth and it is expected that they could be optimally informed about this method of fertility control.

  12. Choice of Postpartum Contraception: Factors Predisposing Pregnant Adolescents to Choose Less Effective Methods Over Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Mariam R; Wiemann, Constance M; Buzi, Ruth S; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Peskin, Melissa; Smith, Peggy B

    2016-06-01

    The purposes were to determine contraceptive methods pregnant adolescents intend to use postpartum and to understand factors that predispose intention to use less effective birth control than long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Participants were 247 pregnant minority adolescents in a prenatal program. Intention was assessed by asking "Which of the following methods of preventing pregnancy do you intend to use after you deliver?" Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with intent to use nonhormonal (NH) contraception (male/female condoms, abstinence, withdrawal and no method) or short-/medium-acting hormonal (SMH) contraception (birth control pill, patch, vaginal ring, injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate) compared with LARC (implant and intrauterine device) postpartum. Twenty-three percent intended to use LARC, 53% an SMH method, and 24% an NH method. Participants who intended to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC were significantly more likely to believe that LARC is not effective at preventing pregnancy, to report that they do not make decisions to help reach their goals and that partners are not important when making contraceptive decisions. Other important factors were having a mother who was aged >19 years at first birth and had not graduated from high school, not having experienced a prior pregnancy or talked with parents about birth control options, and the perception of having limited financial resources. Distinct profiles of factors associated with intending to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC postpartum were identified and may inform future interventions to promote the use of LARC to prevent repeat pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Unconscious resistance to contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, P A

    1978-12-01

    The Swiss penal code of 1942 requires the presence of a psychiatrist in all decisions about termination of pregnancy and of sterilization. The so called sexual revolution of the last 20 years has brought about a dissociation of the traditional psychosexual behavior, where eroticism, affection, and desire of a child do not integrate as harmoniously as before. Narcissistic libido, inherent in all of us, can make an individual want a baby for reasons other than normal, but as a reflection of a parent, as a toy for an infantile mother, as a termination to free, sexual life, felt as sin, for a young couple, as a hope for the future, as the rival of one of the parents, as a remedy for something lost. These are just some of the reasons why contraception, completely accepted on a conscious level, can be rejected on an unconscious one, leading to unwanted pregnancies. Family planning, through a better and deeper psychological preparation of its personnel, should better identify patients more at risk of contraceptive failure, and the unconscious resistances of individuals and couples. This very important task can be started in schools with sex education, and in family planning centers with sexual therapy for the couple. This new approach would imply an increased interest for psychology on the part of doctors assisting young couples.

  14. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  15. Emergency contraception: Focus on the facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najera, Deanna Bridge

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress on contraception, and in particular emergency contraception, has been made in the past decade. Emergency contraception was first introduced as a stand-alone prescription in 1998, and the interaction of politics and medicine meant a tumultuous course to the drug becoming available over the counter. This article reviews how emergency contraception works, the effectiveness of different methods, pros and cons, and the history of emergency contraception.

  16. Temporal Trends and Predictors of Modern Contraceptive Use in Lusaka, Zambia, 2004–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Hancock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although increasing access to family planning has been an important part of the global development agenda, millions of women continue to face unmet need for contraception. Materials and Methods. We analyzed data from a repeated cross-sectional community survey conducted in Lusaka, Zambia, over an eight-year period. We described prevalence of modern contraceptive use, including long-acting reversible contraception (LARC, among female heads of household aged 16–50 years. We also identified predictors of LARC versus short-term contraceptive use among women using modern methods. Results and Discussion. Twelve survey rounds were completed between November 2004 and September 2011. Among 29,476 eligible respondents, 17,605 (60% reported using modern contraception. Oral contraceptive pills remained the most popular method over time, but use of LARC increased significantly, from less than 1% in 2004 to 9% by 2011 (p<0.001. Younger women (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.61 and women with lower levels of education (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.89 were less likely to report LARC use compared to women using short-term modern methods. Conclusions. Population-based assessments of contraceptive use over time can guide programs and policies. To achieve reproductive health equity and reduce unmet contraceptive need, future efforts to increase LARC use should focus on young women and those with less education.

  17. A cross-sectional study of contraceptive use among married women living in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Ning; Zhou, You; Mao, Qunxia; Cheng, Yimin

    2012-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of contraceptive use in rural China and to determine factors that influence choice of contraceptive method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage cluster sampling to identify married women aged 20-49 years residing in Shaanxi Province, China. Data on demographics and contraceptive use were collected via detailed questionnaire. The prevalence of contraceptive use in the study population was 93.9% (19 599/20 878 eligible women). Among the women using contraceptives, 10 408 (53.1%) used sterilization (female and male) and 6947 (35.4%) chose an intrauterine device. In total, 2244 (11.4%) women used short-acting contraceptive (SAC) methods: condoms and pills accounted for 8.7% (n=1712) and 1.0% (n=216), respectively. Young age; high level of education; low parity; increased number of abortions; low frequency of sexual intercourse; long duration between marriage and delivery; and marriage after 1994 were all associated with SAC usage. Although contraceptive use was high in rural China, the participants' awareness of free selection of contraceptive method and the rate of SAC use were both low. Appropriate and diverse family-planning services should be provided to meet the needs of women living in rural areas. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency contraception. General practitioner knowledge, attitudes and practices in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, E; Fraser, I S; Carrick, S E; Wilde, F M

    1995-02-06

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners in New South Wales regarding the provision of emergency contraception. Randomised group comparison of 100 rural and 100 urban general practitioners (GPs) by questionnaire. Eighty-four rural and 76 urban GPs responded. More rural GPs were knowledgeable about emergency contraception than urban GPs (95% v. 78%), and more women knew about it than men. More urban GPs frequently prescribed emergency contraception than rural GPs (26% v. 6%) and female GPs prescribed it more readily than male GPs (22% v. 12%). There was great variation in the regimens prescribed, especially among rural GPs. Twenty-five per cent of urban GPs and 31% of rural GPs did not offer women information about emergency contraception, while 16% of both groups included such information in any discussion about contraceptive options, and 18% gave information only if requested by the woman. More than 60% of the GPs would provide information about emergency contraception as a back-up to use of barrier methods. The sex, attitude and knowledge of the GPs influence the likelihood of women being made aware of or being given emergency contraception in NSW. There is a need to further educate both the public and practitioners about emergency contraception.

  19. Solution of Azelaic Acid (20%), Resorcinol (10%) and Phytic Acid (6%) Versus Glycolic Acid (50%) Peeling Agent in the Treatment of Female Patients with Facial Melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Taheri, Azam; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Melasma, a common acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation, especially in women, is often resistant to therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid solution in chemical peeling of melasma in comparison to 50% glycolic acid. This clinical trial was performed, on 42 female patients with bilateral melasma. Severity of melasma was assessed by melasma area and severity index (MASI). Combination of (20% azelaic acid + 10% resorcinol + 6% phytic acid) was used as a new peeling agent on the right side of the face and 50% glycolic acid on the left side every 2 weeks for 6 times. Follow-up was carried out for 3 months after the last session. Any decrease in MASI score and unwanted complications following peeling were evaluated and compared during the trial. Patients showed marked improvement as calculated with MASI score before and after treatment in both sides of the face. The efficacy of combination formula (azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid) was similar to glycolic acid, but with fewer complications. There was no statistically difference in improvement between two groups ( P > 0.05). However, the patient's discomfort following procedures was significantly lower with azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic compared with the glycolic acid peels ( P < 0.05) and there was the same duration in the beginning of the therapeutic response in both groups. Results showed that triple-combination was found to be an effective and safe peeling agent in the treatment of melasma and it was as effective as 50% glycolic acid peel.

  20. Solution of Azelaic Acid (20%, Resorcinol (10% and Phytic Acid (6% Versus Glycolic Acid (50% Peeling Agent in the Treatment of Female Patients with Facial Melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma, a common acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation, especially in women, is often resistant to therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid solution in chemical peeling of melasma in comparison to 50% glycolic acid. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed, on 42 female patients with bilateral melasma. Severity of melasma was assessed by melasma area and severity index (MASI. Combination of (20% azelaic acid + 10% resorcinol + 6% phytic acid was used as a new peeling agent on the right side of the face and 50% glycolic acid on the left side every 2 weeks for 6 times. Follow-up was carried out for 3 months after the last session. Any decrease in MASI score and unwanted complications following peeling were evaluated and compared during the trial. Results: Patients showed marked improvement as calculated with MASI score before and after treatment in both sides of the face. The efficacy of combination formula (azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid was similar to glycolic acid, but with fewer complications. There was no statistically difference in improvement between two groups (P > 0.05. However, the patient's discomfort following procedures was significantly lower with azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic compared with the glycolic acid peels (P < 0.05 and there was the same duration in the beginning of the therapeutic response in both groups. Conclusion: Results showed that triple-combination was found to be an effective and safe peeling agent in the treatment of melasma and it was as effective as 50% glycolic acid peel.

  1. Current status of contraceptive use among rural married women in Anhui Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-J; Wang, G-Y; Shen, Q; Yu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H; Yu, G-B; Zhao, D; Ye, D-Q

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to explore the current status of married women in regard of their use of contraceptive methods (permanent methods versus non-permanent methods) and to find out factors that affect the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Anhui Province of China. Survey. Anhui, China. A total of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. All women were asked to provide detailed information by completing detailed questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence and influence factors. The total birth control rate of the sample was 95.2%. Samples choosing the permanent and nonpermanent contraceptive methods have taken up 46.7 and 48.5% respectively. Female sterilisation was the first choice with a usage rate of 43.6%, followed by intrauterine device (IUD), which was used by 41.1% of samples. Single-variable analysis showed that the choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age, education level, parity, frequency of sex intercourses in a month, contraceptive knowledge, RTI symptom and the gender of the last child of rural married women. A significant increase in contraceptive use of rural married women in Anhui Province of China. Female sterilisation and IUD still play the dominant role. Effective family planning methods should be advocated through adequate counselling on the correct use and proper management, with consideration of the background of custom and belief.

  2. A Study On Correlation Between Fertility And Contraceptive Prevalence In Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Verma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1    To find the contraceptive prevalence in different reproductive age group females. (2    What is the correlation between fertility pattern and contraceptive prevalence. Study Design : Cross sectional descriptive study. Setting : Community Development block Sarojini Nagar, Lucknow district. Study universe : Married females in reproductive age group (15-49 Years. Study variables : Age, fertility, contraceptive prevalence, education and social class. Statistical analysis : Chi Square test. Result : Contraceptive prevalence was 29.7%. It was 6.5% for women aged 15-19 year to 45.2% for women aged 35­39 years. The acceptors were analyzed based on the number of living children. 74% of the acceptors had 3 or more children as against 26% with 0 to 2 living children.

  3. The safety of hormonal contraceptives for women living with HIV and their sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sharon J; Polis, Chelsea B; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are important for the health and well-being of some women living with HIV, so evaluation of evidence regarding their safety vis-à-vis HIV-related risks is important. We updated two prior systematic reviews on the impact of hormonal contraception (HC) on HIV disease progression and female-to-male HIV transmission. One new study finds no increased risk for HIV disease progression or death associated with oral contraceptive use [adjusted (adj) hazard ratio (HR) 0.83, confidence interval [CI] 0.48-1.44] or injectables (adj HR 0.72, CI 0.53-0.98). Three new studies did not find significantly increased risks for measures of female-to-male HIV transmission with HC use. Hormonal contraceptive methods do not appear to accelerate HIV disease progression. More research is needed to clarify whether HC impacts HIV transmissibility. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Premarital sexual activity and contraceptive use in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, J M; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

    1992-01-01

    The Santiago Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey was conducted in 1988 to examine the sexual behavior of and contraceptive use among young adults in Chile. The survey was based on multistage household probability samples of 865 women and 800 men aged 15-24 who were living in Santiago in 1988. Findings show that 35 percent of females and 65 percent of males had had premarital intercourse. Among those who had done so, the median age at first experience was 18.4 years for women and 16.4 years for men. Only 20 percent of females and 19 percent of males used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. Use of contraceptives increased with age at the time of that event. Fertility data reveal that 70 percent of first births were premaritally conceived, and more than one-third of these were born prior to union. The high rates of premarital and unintended pregnancy among young women and the low prevalence of effective contraceptive use indicate a need for greater emphasis on sex education and family planning services directed at adolescents and unmarried young adults in Santiago.

  5. Barriers and facilitators to implementing a patient-centered model of contraceptive provision in community health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Mary C; Estlund, Amy; Milne, Anne; Buckel, Christina M; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Madden, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    The Contraceptive CHOICE Project developed a patient-centered model for contraceptive provision including: (1) structured, evidence-based counseling; (2) staff and health care provider education; and (3) removal of barriers such as cost and multiple appointments to initiate contraception. In preparation for conducting a research study of the CHOICE model in three community health settings, we sought to identify potential barriers and facilitators to implementation. Using a semi-structured interview guide guided by a framework of implementation research, we conducted 31 qualitative interviews with female patients, staff, and health care providers assessing attitudes, beliefs, and barriers to receiving contraception. We also asked about current contraceptive provision and explored organizational practices relevant to implementing the CHOICE model. We used a grounded theory approach to identify major themes. Many participants felt that current contraceptive provision could be improved by the CHOICE model. Potential facilitators included agreement about the necessity for improved contraceptive knowledge among patients and staff; importance of patient-centered contraceptive counseling; and benefits to same-day insertion of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Potential barriers included misconceptions about contraception held by staff and providers; resistance to new practices; costs associated with LARC; and scheduling challenges required for same-day insertion of LARC. In addition to staff and provider training, implementing a patient-centered model of contraceptive provision needs to be supplemented by strategies to manage patient and system-level barriers. Community health center staff, providers, and patients support patient-centered contraceptive counseling to improve contraception provision if organizations can address these barriers.

  6. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Koyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency post-coital contraception (EC is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method, and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference.

  7. Oral contraceptives and neuroactive steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, Andrea J; Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra

    2006-08-01

    A deregulation in the peripheral and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids has been found in certain pathological conditions characterized by emotional or affective disturbances, including major depression and anxiety disorders. In this article we summarize data pertaining to the modulatory effects of oral contraceptive treatment on neuroactive steroids in women and rats. Given that the neuroactive steroids concentrations are reduced by oral contraceptives, together with the evidence that a subset of women taking oral contraceptives experience negative mood symptoms, we propose the use of this pharmacological treatment as a putative model to study the role of neuroactive steroids in the etiopathology of mood disorders. Moreover, since neuroactive steroids are potent modulators of GABA(A) receptor function and plasticity, the treatment with oral contraceptives might also represent a useful experimental model to further investigate the physiological role of these steroids in the modulation of GABAergic transmission.

  8. Sexual Attitudes and Contraceptive Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Donn

    1978-01-01

    Discusses barriers to effective contraception, such as informational, emotional, and imaginative factors, and what might be done to avoid unwanted pregnancies by using these factors in positive programs and behaviors. (Author/RK)

  9. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  10. University of Venda’s male students’ attitudes towards contraception and family planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morwe, Keamogetse G.; Tshitangano, Takalani

    2016-01-01

    Background Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being. Aim This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students’ sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda. Methods Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students. Results This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students’ negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda. Conclusion The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students’ sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda. PMID:27542288

  11. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: An appraisal of the socioeconomic impact

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, I.; Dias, J. G.; Padmadas, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    WOS:000330510000069 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) Background: The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This re...

  12. Black South African freshmen's experience of first coitus and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, L

    1994-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire investigating Black South African first-year college students' experience of first intercourse and contraception was administered during the February 1993 orientation at a Black university. 754 females and 959 males of mean age 20.4 years in an age range of 16-50 years participated. 96.5% of the respondents were single. The study findings relate to the 894 single students who reported having experienced sexual intercourse. Male and female respondents' mean ages at first intercourse were, respectively, 15.5 and 17.8 years. 35.7% of males and 32.8% of females reported not using contraception during first intercourse, 12.3% of males and 7.1% of females were unsure, and 6.2% reported using withdrawal. 36.8% reported not using a condom because first sexual intercourse was unplanned, while 38.1% simply did not think about contraception at the time. Peers were reported as the primary first source of learning about sexual intercourse as well as the preferred source. These findings lend support to the need to target safer sex messages to college freshmen in this setting. In so doing, safer sex behavior can be encouraged and possibly adopted before high-risk sex behavior patterns develop.

  13. Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavicić; Skrgatić, Lana; Radaković, Branko; Vrbić, Hrvoje; Canić, Tomislav

    2014-03-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception.

  14. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  15. KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ABOUT EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVE USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Camargo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergency contraception is a hormonal measure adopted to prevent undesired pregnancy after unprotected sexual relation or when it occurs a flaw in the conventional method. The method is inserted in the policy of Sexual and Reproductive Rightsof Brazilian Health Ministry since 1996 with the purpose of preventing undesired pregnancy and consequently reducing the illegal abortion rate and maternal mortality. This study has as objective to seek the degree of knowledge of women, female health care college students of Centro Universitário Padre Anchieta, Jundiaí-SP, who make use of this contraceptive method. To perform the survey a questionnaire was elaborated and approved by the Human Ethics Committee, number 30407014.9.0000.5386. A survey of 11 closed questions and 3 open questions were applied to the volunteers after they had signed the TCLE. Sixty- five (65 women ranging from 18 to 35 years old were interviewed, of those 76,92% have active sexual life and 33,85% are married. The most cited contraceptive method was the hormonal contraceptive (46.15% and 43.08% have used emergency contraceptive. Among the respondents 49.23 % said they did not know the side effects of the EC. The results allowed us to evaluate that this method of contraception is not used by fully satisfactory way with these students that will be future health professionals, this is a worrying fact because many do not know how to use in yourself, which may reflect in the information provided to their future patients.

  16. Gender and oral contraceptive steroids as determinants of drug glucuronidation: effects on clofibric acid elimination.

    OpenAIRE

    Miners, J O; Robson, R A; Birkett, D J

    1984-01-01

    The disposition of clofibric acid, a drug metabolised largely by glucuronidation, was studied in eight males, eight females and eight females receiving oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Clofibric acid plasma clearance was not significantly different in males compared to the control female group but was 48% greater (P less than 0.01) in women receiving OCS compared to non-pill using females. This difference was due to an alteration in clofibric acid metabolic clearance as there were no differ...

  17. Hispanic and Black American Adolescents' Beliefs Relating to Sexuality and Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the level of scientific knowledge regarding sexuality and contraception of Black and Hispanic inner-city adolescents. Results indicated that Hispanic males were the most knowledgeable, Hispanic females the least, and Black males and females were intermediate. A cultural basis for this difference is considered, and the need to design…

  18. Strategies for communicating contraceptive effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Steiner, Markus; Grimes, David A; Hilgenberg, Deborah; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2013-04-30

    Knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness is crucial to making an informed choice. The consumer has to comprehend the pros and cons of the contraceptive methods being considered. Choice may be influenced by understanding the likelihood of pregnancy with each method and factors that influence effectiveness. To review all randomized controlled trials comparing strategies for communicating to consumers the effectiveness of contraceptives in preventing pregnancy. Through February 2013, we searched the computerized databases of MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO and CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. Previous searches also included EMBASE. We also examined references lists of relevant articles. For the initial review, we wrote to known investigators for information about other published or unpublished trials. We included randomized controlled trials that compared methods for communicating contraceptive effectiveness to consumers. The comparison could be usual practice or an alternative to the experimental intervention.Outcome measures were knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness, attitude about contraception or toward any particular contraceptive, and choice or use of contraceptive method. For the initial review, two authors independently extracted the data. One author entered the data into RevMan, and a second author verified accuracy. For the update, an author and a research associate extracted, entered, and checked the data.For dichotomous variables, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous variables, we computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria and had a total of 4526 women. Five were multi-site studies. Four trials were conducted in the USA, while Nigeria and Zambia were represented by one study each, and one trial was done in both Jamaica and India.Two trials provided multiple sessions for participants. In one study that examined contraceptive choice, women in

  19. Contraceptive use in women enrolled into preventive HIV vaccine trials: experience from a phase I/II trial in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kibuuka

    Full Text Available HIV vaccine trials generally require that pregnant women are excluded from participation, and contraceptive methods must be used to prevent pregnancy during the trial. However, access to quality services and misconceptions associated with contraceptive methods may impact on their effective use in developing countries. We describe the pattern of contraceptive use in a multi-site phase I/IIa HIV Vaccine trial in East Africa (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania and factors that may have influenced their use during the trial.Pregnancy prevention counseling was provided to female participants during informed consent process and at each study visit. Participants' methods of contraception used were documented. Methods of contraceptives were provided on site. Pregnancy testing was done at designated visits during the trial. Obstacles to contraceptive use were identified and addressed at each visit.Overall, 103 (31.8% of a total of 324 enrolled volunteers were females. Female participants were generally young with a mean age of 29(+/-7.2, married (49.5% and had less than high school education (62.1%. Hormonal contraceptives were the most common method of contraception (58.3% followed by condom use (22.3%. The distribution of methods of contraception among the three sites was similar except for more condom use and less abstinence in Uganda. The majority of women (85.4% reported to contraceptive use prior to screening. The reasons for not using contraception included access to quality services, insufficient knowledge of certain methods, and misconceptions.Although hormonal contraceptives were frequently used by females participating in the vaccine trial, misconceptions and their incorrect use might have led to inconsistent use resulting in undesired pregnancies. The study underscores the need for an integrated approach to pregnancy prevention counseling during HIV vaccine trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00123968.

  20. Utilização de métodos contraceptivos por adolescentes do sexo feminino da Comunidade Restinga e Extremo Sul Utilización de métodos contraceptivos por adolescentes del sexo femenino de la comunidad Restinga y extremo sur Use of contraceptive methods by female adolescents in Restinga and Extremo Sul communities in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena S Duarte

    2011-12-01

    de la piel, clase social, estado civil, escolaridad en años de estudio, situación conyugal, actividad remunerada, religión, embarazo no planeado y aborto. RESULTADOS: De las adolescentes entrevistadas, el 51% tenía entre 15 y 19, el 67% eran blancas, el 29% pertenecían a las clases A y B y el 59% a la clase C. La primera relación sexual ocurrió, en promedio, a los 15 años. El uso de algún método contraceptivo fue referido por el 75% de las adolescentes sexualmente activas. La píldora anticonceptiva fue el método más referido (62%, seguido del preservativo masculino (38% y del anticonceptivo hormonal no oral (inyectable o implante, 16%. No hubo asociación significante entre el uso de método contraceptivo y las variables demográficas y socioeconómicas analizadas. CONCLUSIONES: El número de adolescentes sexualmente activas sin uso de contracepción eficaz (25% es preocupante, principalmente al observarse el nivel socioeconómico de esa muestra.OBJECTIVE:To estimate the prevalence of contraceptives use among female adolescents and to describe their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out at the Community Management District "Restinga/Extremo Sul", in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, from July to December 2009. The sample included 487 adolescents aged ten to 19 years old, who live in this community. The main outcome was the use of contraceptive method alone or in association whit other methods; independent variables were age, skin color, social class, marital status, education level in years, marital situation, job, religion, unplanned pregnancy and abortion. RESULTS: Among the interviewed adolescents, 51% had 15-19 years old, 67% were white, 29% and 59% respectively belonged to A/B and C socio-economical levels. The first sexual intercourse occurred on average at 15 years old. The use of contraceptive methods was reported by 75% of sexually active teens. The pill was the most frequently mentioned method

  1. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Nurdan; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen; Kounis, Nicholas G

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute first-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female wi...

  2. Determinants of sexual activity, awareness, and use of contraception among Malaysian college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Renjhen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Young people’s vulnerability to risky or unwanted sex and other unhealthy behaviours is tied to host of individual, family, and community factors and is closely related to economic and educational opportunities. Aims This study aimed to identify factors determining the sexual activity, awareness and use of contraception among college students in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among students aged 17–24 years in four colleges of Malaysia. Data were collected via a self-administered multiple response questionnaire. Data analysis was performed on 552 completed questionnaires. Results The mean age of the participants was 19.7±1.6 years. The majority of the respondents were females, Malays, residing in rented accommodations. Contraceptive awareness, sexual activity and use of contraception increased significantly with age of the respondents and were more in males. Better contraceptive awareness was found in those staying away from parents and those studying in colleges with urban exposure. Almost 40 per cent respondents had indulged in sexual activity but only 37 per cent reported use of contraception. A significantly higher proportion of respondents who did not use contraception were females, those in the age group of 19–20 years old and those who were studying in colleges with rural exposure. Male students were more likely to engage in sexual activity and use contraception compared to females. Conclusion There is a need to impart sexual and reproductive health knowledge during the adolescent period so that young people can make informed choices and be motivated to use of contraceptives effectively.

  3. Contraceptive services for adolescents in Latin America: facts, problems and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J E

    1999-12-01

    This review presents facts about sexual and contraceptive behavior of Latin American adolescents, analyzes barriers to contraception, and summarizes present perspectives. Between 13 and 30% of Latin American adolescent women live in union before their 20th birthday and between 46 and 63% have had sexual relations. The prevalence of contraceptive use among adolescents at risk of pregnancy remains very low. The pill is the best known contraceptive method. When sexual activity becomes a permanent practice, contraceptive use increases but remains low. Barriers to contraception can be identified as: (1) arising from adolescents themselves (moral objections, alleged medical reasons, lack of confidence in adults and in the health system, promiscuity; (2) arising from the sexual partner (partner's opposition, masculine irresponsibility); (3) arising from adults (moral objections, fear of sex education, adult control and power of decision-making); (4) arising from the health system (inappropriateness of services, regulatory barriers, gender inequality); (5) arising from health professionals (medical barriers to contraceptive use, discomfort with sexual matters); (6) arising from the educational system (educational failure, teachers' reluctance); and (7) arising from other social agents (religious opposition, media ambivalent messages, fund restraints). There have been improvements in recent years, including the achievements of groups working for and with adolescents, and the support from distinguished personalities.

  4. Oral contraception following abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060

  5. [Customization of hormonal contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Leo, Vincenzo; Cianci, Antonio; DI Carlo, Costantino; Cappelli, Valentina; Fruzzetti, Franca

    2018-02-01

    In the last few years new oral contraceptives have been marketed showing a better safety profile for women. They are the result of important changes made to the old compounds. As far as the estrogenic component, with the aim of decreasing side effects, the dose of ethinyl estradiol has been reduced and synthetic estrogens have been replaced by natural estradiol, further improving the safety profile. Also the progestin component in the last years has been changed in terms of dose, endocrine and metabolic characteristics. Levonorgestrel is an androgenic progestin, but now there is the possibility of choosing progestins without androgenic effect (gestodene and desogestrel) or progestins with antiandrogenic effect (cyproterone acetate, dienogest, drospirenone, chlormadinone acetate), very useful in patients with hyperandrogenism. Some of these progestins, like Drospirenone, represented the real held contributing, because of its antimineralcorticoid action, to reduce an important side effect like fluid retention; moreover there is the possibility to choose products with high progestogen effect on endometrium (dienogest, nomegestrole acetate), resulting very effective in women with abnormal uterine bleedings. Also the regimens of administration have been changed, by shortening or eliminating the tablet-free period; in this way the women may avoid premenstrual symptoms. The oral is not the only route of administration, but today there are alternative routes like transdermal, transvaginal, intrauterine and subcutaneous, reducing gastro-intestinal interferences and possible mistakes in pill intake.

  6. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives are effective methods of birth control that provide contraception for an extended ... The World Health Organization (WHO) has online tools available .... trials and marketing experience.

  7. Communication and Contraceptive Practices in Adolescent Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit-O'Hara, Denise; Kahn, Janet R.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a descriptive analysis of couple communication among stable, sexually active adolescent couples (N=83) and the effect of communication on actual contraceptive practices. Results showed couples with good communication were more likely to practice effective contraception. (BH)

  8. Influence of hormonal contraceptives and the occurrence of stroke: integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adman Câmara Soares; Martins, Larissa Castelo Guedes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Araújo, Thelma Leite de; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    To identify scientific evidence regarding the influence of hormonal contraceptive use and the occurrence of stroke. Integrative review of the literature, through database search using the descriptors "contraceptive agents", "contraceptive devices", "contraceptives, Oral" and "Stroke". Original studies in Portuguese, Spanish and English, published in full and available online were included. Studies that did not answer our guiding questions and duplicated studies were excluded. Women using combined oral contraceptives have higher risk of stroke, even with a lower hormonal dosage and different types of progestogen, regardless of the duration of use. The use of contraceptives associated with smoking, hypertension, migraine, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and sedentary lifestyle increases the chance of stroke. Contraceptive patch and vaginal ring are associated to increased risk. Use of combined hormonal contraceptives, except for the injectable and the transdermal ones, increases the chance of occurrence of the event. Progestogen-only contraceptives were considered safe. Identificar evidências científicas acerca da influência do uso de anticoncepcionais hormonais na ocorrência do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Revisão integrativa da literatura, com pesquisa em bases de dados, utilizando os descritores "contraceptive agents", "contraceptive devices", "contraceptives, Oral" e "stroke". Foram incluídos artigos originais nos idiomas português, espanhol e inglês, publicados na íntegra e disponíveis eletronicamente. Foram excluídos artigos que não respondiam às questões norteadoras e repetidos. Usuárias de anticoncepcional oral combinado apresentam risco maior de AVC, mesmo com dosagem hormonal menor e diferentes tipos de progestágeno, independente do tempo de uso. A presença associada de tabagismo, hipertensão arterial, enxaqueca, hipercolesterolemia, obesidade e sedentarismo aumenta a chance desse desfecho. Adesivo anticoncepcional e anel vaginal s

  9. Menstrual Concerns and Intrauterine Contraception Among Adolescent Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel J.; Inge, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Adolescent obesity has dramatically increased in recent decades, and along with that so have other medical comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and pseudotumor cerebri. Obesity and related comorbidites may be contraindications to hormonal contraception, making contraception counseling of morbidly obese adolescents more challenging. Obese adolescent females seeking bariatric surgery need effective contraception in the postoperative period. This study is designed to determine the acceptance rate of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) and describe common menstrual problems in obese adolescent bariatric surgery patients. Methods This is a historic cohort study of adolescent females who underwent bariatric surgery over a 2-year period at a tertiary referral center for pediatric obesity. Data were systematically abstracted. The percent of patients with menstrual problems and the acceptance rate for the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD were determined. Results Twenty-five adolescents met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 17.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 2.6), and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 51.4 (SD 6.3) kg/m2. Eighty-four percent were white. Twenty-eight percent had menorrhagia, 32% had oligomenorrhea, 40% had dysmenorrhea, and 36% had PCOS. Ninety-two percent (23 of 25) underwent IUD placement. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of menstrual problems among this sample of severely obese adolescent females. The majority accepted the IUD, indicating it is a viable option among this population. PMID:21413894

  10. Mechanistic and "natural" body metaphors and their effects on attitudes to hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A small, self-selected convenience sample of male and female contraceptive users in the United Kingdom (n = 34) were interviewed between 2006 and 2008 concerning their feelings about the body and their contraceptive attitudes and experiences. The interviewees were a sub-sample of respondents (n = 188) who completed a paper-based questionnaire on similar topics, who were recruited through a poster placed in a family planning clinic, web-based advertisements on workplace and university websites, and through direct approaches to social groups. The bodily metaphors used when discussing contraception were analyzed using an interpretative phenomenological analytical approach facilitated by Atlas.ti software. The dominant bodily metaphor was mechanistic (i.e.,"body as machine"). A subordinate but influential bodily metaphor was the "natural" body, which had connotations of connection to nature and a quasi-sacred bodily order. Interviewees drew upon this "natural" metaphorical image in the context of discussing their anxieties about hormonal contraception. Drawing upon a "natural," non-mechanistic body image in the context of contraceptive decision-making contributed to reluctance to use a hormonal form of contraception. This research suggests that clinicians could improve communication and advice about contraception by recognizing that some users may draw upon non-mechanistic body imagery.

  11. A multicenter survey of contraceptive knowledge among adolescents in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokkary, Nancy; Mansouri, Roshanak; Yoost, Jennie; Focseneanu, Mariel; Dumont, Tania; Nathwani, Meera; Allen, Lisa; Hertweck, S Paige; Dietrich, Jennifer E

    2013-10-01

    To assess knowledge about contraceptive efficacy and side effects in an adolescent population seen in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology referral centers. This is a multisite cross-sectional survey study. A 23-question survey assessing knowledge of contraception and demographic information was administered. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, simple paired t tests, and chi-square analyses using SAS 9.3. Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology clinics in 4 tertiary care centers. The study was conducted in 3 institutions in the United States and 1 institution in Canada. A convenience sample of 354 female patients aged 10-24 y seeking reproductive healthcare at participating institutions. None The percentage of correct answers to questions assessing general knowledge about contraception, familiarity with different contraceptive methods, and comparison of results between study sites. The mean percentage of correct answers among all participants was 55.8% ± 17%. Younger participants (age 10-13 years) scored significantly lower than their older counterparts (49%, 55%, and 60% respectively, P contraceptives scored significantly higher. Of all contraceptive methods, participants were least likely to have heard of etonogestrel implants (18%), rhythm method/natural family planning (28%), and IUDs (32%). Adolescents and young adults performed poorly overall demonstrating both the lack of overall knowledge regarding methods of contraception and misinformation about side effects. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Willingness to pay and benefit-cost analysis of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Ogbonna, Chinwe; Ibe, Ogochukwu; Uzochukwu, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    To determine the willingness to pay (WTP) and the benefit-cost of modern contraceptives delivered through the public sector in Nigeria. Data were collected from 4517 randomly selected households. The WTP for the 6 major contraceptive methods available in the public sector was elicited. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the decision to state a positive WTP amount was valid; Tobit regression was used to test the validity of the elicited WTP amounts. For each contraceptive, 3 BCR values were computed, based on the official unit price, the unit cost per couple-year of protection (CYP), and the average actual expenditure for contraceptives in the month preceding the interview. The mean WTP for the different contraceptives varied by socioeconomic status and geographic (urban versus rural) location (Pcontraceptives through the public sector far outweighed the costs, except for female condoms, where the CYP-based BCR was 0.9. The benefits of providing contraceptives outweigh the costs, making public sector investment worthwhile. The median WTP amounts, which reflect the ideal upper thresholds for pricing, indicate that cost recovery is feasible for all contraceptives. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  14. Male contraception: another Holy Grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Fern E; Goldberg, Erwin

    2014-01-15

    The idea that men should participate in family planning by playing an active role in contraception has become more acceptable in recent years. Up to the present the condom and vasectomy have been the main methods of male contraception. There have been and continue to be efforts to develop an acceptable hormonal contraceptive involving testosterone (T) suppression. However the off target affects, delivery of the analogs and the need for T replacement have proven difficult obstacles to this technology. Research into the development of non-hormonal contraception for men is progressing in several laboratories and this will be the subject of the present review. A number of promising targets for the male pill are being investigated. These involve disruption of spermatogenesis by compromising the integrity of the germinal epithelium, interfering with sperm production at the level of meiosis, attacking specific sperm proteins to disrupt fertilizing ability, or interfering with the assembly of seminal fluid components required by ejaculated sperm for acquisition of motility. Blocking contractility of the vas deferens smooth muscle vasculature to prevent ejaculation is a unique approach that prevents sperm from reaching the egg. We shall note the lack of interest by big pharma with most of the support for male contraception provided by the NIH. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. About Implantable Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this topic for: Parents Teens About Birth Control: What Parents Need to Know Sexual Development Female Reproductive System Questions and Answers About Sex About Birth Control Birth Control Methods: How Well Do They Work? ...

  16. Promoting the female condom to refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Papo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?

  17. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive potential of Cordia dichotoma leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaban Bhattacharya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the safety-risk ratio of steroidal contraceptives, the present work was carried out to evaluate ethno-contraceptive use of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst., Boraginaceae, leaves (LCD. Preliminary pharmacological screening was performed on post-coital female albino rats. The leaves extract (LD50 5.50 g/kg bw showed 100% anti-implantation activity (n=10 at 800 mg/kg dose level. (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD was used as bioavailability enhancer to form LCD-BCD complex, characterized by DLS, SEM and XRD analyses. The LCD-BCD complex (1:1, w/w exhibited 100% pregnancy interception (n=20 at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and also showed strong estrogenic potential with a luteal phase defect. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out. The LCD extract was standardized by a validated HPTLC method and two contraceptive phytoconstituents, apigenin and luteolin were isolated. A detailed pharmacological analyses followed by chronic toxicity study were performed to predict the reversible nature of the developed phytopharmaceutical. The histological and biochemical estimations detected the reversible contraceptive potential after withdrawal. The observations suggested that the developed phyto-pharmaceutical has potential antifertility activity with safety aspects.

  18. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive potential of Cordia dichotoma leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaban Bhattacharya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the safety-risk ratio of steroidal contraceptives, the present work was carried out to evaluate ethno-contraceptive use of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst., Boraginaceae, leaves (LCD. Preliminary pharmacological screening was performed on post-coital female albino rats. The leaves extract (LD50 5.50 g/kg bw showed 100% anti-implantation activity (n=10 at 800 mg/kg dose level. (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD was used as bioavailability enhancer to form LCD-BCD complex, characterized by DLS, SEM and XRD analyses. The LCD-BCD complex (1:1, w/w exhibited 100% pregnancy interception (n=20 at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and also showed strong estrogenic potential with a luteal phase defect. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out. The LCD extract was standardized by a validated HPTLC method and two contraceptive phytoconstituents, apigenin and luteolin were isolated. A detailed pharmacological analyses followed by chronic toxicity study were performed to predict the reversible nature of the developed phytopharmaceutical. The histological and biochemical estimations detected the reversible contraceptive potential after withdrawal. The observations suggested that the developed phyto-pharmaceutical has potential antifertility activity with safety aspects.

  19. The Rise of Female Sterilization: A Closer Look at Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Beatriz M; Betstadt, Sarah; Li, Dongmei; Whaley, Natalie

    2017-09-01

    Objective In the 1970s, OCPs and IUDs were the most popular contraceptive methods in Colombia. According to data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), sterilization has become the most common form of birth control in Colombia. This study aims to examine the characteristics of Colombian women desiring long-acting contraception. Methods This study uses the 2005 and 2010 Colombian DHS dataset. Women who choose long-acting contraception were divided into those using female sterilization and those using long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to compare demographic and social determinants of contraceptive choice among reproductive age women seeking long-acting contraception between the years 2005 and 2010. Results Among women using a long-acting contraceptive method in 2010, compared to 2005, women were significantly more likely to be sterilized (1.14 OR, 95% CI 1.09-1.18) and less likely to use LARC (0.88 OR, 95% CI 0.85-0.92). Of women seeking long-acting contraception, those exposed to a family planning provider were less likely to undergo sterilization (0.54 OR, 95% CI 0.51-0.58) and more likely to use LARC (1.84 OR, 95% CI 1.73-1.96). When compared to all contraceptive users, younger women and women with less than two children were more likely to use LARC than sterilization. Conclusion Between 2005 and 2010, an increase in the proportion of contracepting women being sterilized in Colombia occurred. Our findings suggest that exposure to a family planning provider and appropriate contraceptive counseling appears to be key determinants of long-acting contraceptive choice. To improve use of long-acting, effective contraception, efforts should be made to increase access to family planning providers.

  20. Do the emotional side-effects of hormonal contraceptives come from pharmacologic or psychological mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephen A; Dowell, Matt; Pedulla, Dominic; McCauley, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Hormonal preparations have become one of the most popular methods used for controlling fertility. The literature over the last 40 years continues to reveal how their numerous side effects negatively impact many users and even society at large. Three large cohort trials were the first to demonstrate, on a grand scale, certain emotional and behavioral associations with contraceptive use. Current contraceptive use was associated with an increase rate in depression, divorce, tranquilizer use, sexual dysfunction, and suicide and other violent and accidental deaths. Despite the advent of more "user friendly" contraceptives, the discontinuation rate secondary to side effects has changed little through the years. While in rare cases hormonal preparations can be deadly to the user, there is substantial evidence that their negative effect issues more from their emotional and behavioral properties. This paper reviews the results of over seven studies which further characterize these prominent associations, particularly with hormonal contraception, in an attempt to demonstrate their association with the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of hormonal preparations. Hormonal contraceptive users, in contrast with non users, were found to have higher rates of depression, anxiety, fatigue, neurotic symptoms, sexual disturbances, compulsion, anger, and negative menstrual effects. The question of whether the association of these maladies is directly due to the effect of taking exogenous hormones versus the psychological impact of the contraceptive behavior itself had yet to be studied. Seven small randomized-controlled trials were found in a review of the literature which studied this hypothesis in a direct way. They do not support the origination of these side effects being from the pharmacological properties of hormones. No association was found between hormone levels and emotional functioning in females. Psychiatric evaluations among IUD and oral contraceptive pill (OCP) users

  1. Missed Opportunities: Emergency Contraception Utilisation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although contraceptives, including emergency contraceptives, are widely available free at public health facilities in South Africa, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy are high. This paper analyses awareness and utilisation of emergency contraception amongst 193 young women (aged 15-24 years) attending public ...

  2. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Emergency Contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 309 (46.8%) of the students had heard about emergency contraceptives and from those who heard emergency contraceptives, 27.2% had good knowledge. Majority, four hundred fifteen (62.9%) of the students had positive attitude towards it. However, only 31(4.7%) had used emergency contraceptive methods.

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and practice on emergency contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion can be avoided by using different contraceptive methods, including emergency contraceptives. Information on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among women is particularly important because of high rates of teenage and ...

  4. The influence of nurse home visits, including provision of 3 months of contraceptives and contraceptive counseling, on perceived barriers to contraceptive use and contraceptive use self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Alan L; Rdesinski, Rebecca E; Creach, E Dawn; Choi, Dongseok; Harvey, S Marie

    2008-01-01

    To identify the influence of a community health nurse (CHN) home visit on perceived barriers to contraceptive access and contraceptive use self-efficacy. We enrolled 103 women into two groups in a randomized trial evaluating the influence of contraceptive dispensing and family planning counseling during home visits on perceived barriers to accessing contraceptives and contraceptive use self-efficacy. Both groups received counseling by a CHN about sexually transmitted disease and pregnancy prevention, and a resource card listing phone numbers of family planning clinics. After randomization, the CHN dispensed three months of hormonal contraception to the intensive intervention group and advised the minimal intervention group to schedule an appointment at a family planning clinic. Data collection at baseline and 12 months included demographic, reproductive and other health-related information as well as quantitative assessments of information on perceived barriers to contraceptive access and contraceptive use self-efficacy. The mean age of participants was 24.7 years. Three-fourths had household incomes under $25,000. We found significant reductions in three perceived barriers to contraceptive access for both groups, as well as significant increases in two measures of contraceptive use self-efficacy at twelve months compared to baseline. Nurse home visits involving family planning counseling might be effective in reducing perceived barriers to contraceptive access and increasing contraceptive use self-efficacy.

  5. Gender issues in contraceptive use among educated women in Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osemwenkha, Sylvia Osayi

    2004-04-01

    While traditional contraception is widely used, in southern Nigerian modern contraception is a relatively recent phenomenon. Modern contraception is more wide spread among the educated and sexually active youth in Nigeria. Few studies have been done on contraception among educated women in Nigeria. This study was carried out in December 2000 to determine factors that influence the choice of contraceptives among female undergraduates at the University of Benin and Edo State University Ekpoma. Data was collected from a sample of 800 female undergraduates matched ethnic group, socio economic status, religion and rural urban residence. Subjects were selected by proportional representation and the instrument used was closed ended questionnaire. The responses obtained were analysed using Spearman Rank Correlation co-efficient and regression analysis. Findings revealed the highest correlation for availability (r =.96) vis a vis the use of various types of artificial contraceptive and cost (r =.96), next was safety (r =.95) and effectiveness (r =.95). Others were peer group influence (r =.80) and convenience (r =.77). An important step in improving women's reproductive health is the involvement of men. Health programmes should conduct campaigns to educate men about reproductive health and the role they can assume in family planning.

  6. AWARENESS AND ACCEPTANCE OF TEMPORARY METHODS OF CONTRACEPTIVE AMONG PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicija Kalloopparamban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Contraceptive advice is a component of good preventive healthcare. Socioeconomic factors, education are a few of factors that play vital role in family planning acceptance. To provide this, understanding the attitude and knowledge of patient towards contraception is very much necessary. Objective of this study is to assess the awareness and acceptance of temporary methods of contraception in postpartum primiparas during their first visit to Family Planning OPD, MCH, Kottayam. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based prospective descriptive study was conducted among the primiparas presented in Family Planning OPD for the first time in postpartum at 6 wks. in MCH during the study period. Informed written consent was obtained from the patients. The study subjects were interviewed with questionnaire to assess the awareness and acceptance of temporary contraceptive methods and the level to which each of them will keep compliance. The questionnaire was to elicit information regarding age, educational status, occupation, knowledge and source of contraceptive methods, attitude of female towards contraception. RESULTS In our study, majority include graduates (37%, but most of study population were unemployed (43.2%. Literate people are more conscious about their own health and that of their families and try to limit their families much more effectively than the illiterates do. The awareness of the group about contraception was 80.5%, mostly through health workers, 39.6%. 53.9% of the study population had accepted any of the temporary contraceptive methods; maximum opted being the barrier contraception, 19%. 60.9% had peer group support. 74.5% had antenatal counselling from a healthcare worker regarding the use of temporary contraceptive methods. Acceptance was maximum among the graduated subjects, 66.9%.The type accepted by graduates include mostly barrier. Contraceptives, 23.2%. 48% of the graduates used for the need of spacing. A maximum peer

  7. New developments in oral contraception: clinical utility of estradiol valerate/dienogest (Natazia® for contraception and for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: patient considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson AL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anita L NelsonObstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, USAAbstract: Natazia® is a new oral contraceptive with estradiol valerate and dienogest in a unique multiphasic formulation that includes a shortened hormone-free interval. This new formulation has been approved for both contraception and also as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding in women who desire to use oral contraceptives as their method of birth control. It is marketed in the US as Natazia® and elsewhere as Qlaira®. This article will review the properties of each of the major new features of this pill: estradiol used in place of ethinyl estradiol, dienogest as the progestin, and the unique dosing pattern of this product. It will also summarize the results of the pivotal clinical trials of contraceptive effectiveness, bleeding patterns, safety and tolerability. The lessons learned from the clinical trials about the effectiveness of this formulation in the treatment of excessive menstrual bleeding will be summarized. Also, results of trials comparing this new pill to other popular formulations for "menstrually-related" symptoms and for potential female sexual dysfunction related to use of oral contraceptives will be presented. This review will suggest how all this information might be used to counsel women about how to use this pill most successfully.Keywords: oral contraceptives, estradiol valerate, dienogest, heavy menstrual bleeding, menorrhagia, dynamic dosing

  8. Pregnancy and contraceptive use among women participating in the FEM-PrEP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Nanda, Kavita; Kapiga, Saidi; Malahleha, Mookho; Mandala, Justin; Ogada, Teresa; Van Damme, Lut; Taylor, Douglas

    2015-02-01

    Pregnancy among study participants remains a challenge for trials of new HIV prevention agents despite promotion and provision of contraception. We evaluated contraceptive use, pregnancy incidence, and study drug adherence by contraceptive method among women enrolled in the FEM-PrEP trial of once-daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for HIV prevention. We required women to be using effective non-barrier contraception at enrollment. At each monthly follow-up visit, women were counseled on contraceptive use and tested for pregnancy. TDF-FTC adherence was determined by measuring plasma drug concentrations at 4-week intervals. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess factors associated with incident pregnancy and multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between contraceptive method used at enrollment and TDF-FTC adherence. More than half of women were not using effective contraception before enrollment. Ninety-eight percent of these women adopted either injectable (55%) or oral (43%) contraceptives. The overall pregnancy rate was 9.6 per 100 woman-years. Among injectable users and new users of combined oral contraceptives (COCs), the rates were 1.6 and 35.1, respectively. New users of injectables had significantly greater odds of adhering to TDF-FTC than new COC users [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 4.4 (1.7 to 11.6), P = 0.002], existing COC users [3.1 (1.3 to 7.3), P = 0.01], and existing injectable users [2.4 (1.1 to 5.6), P = 0.04]. Women using COCs during FEM-PrEP, particularly new adopters, were more likely to become pregnant and less likely to adhere to study product than injectable users. HIV prevention trials should consider requiring long-acting methods, including injectables, for study participation.

  9. Breaking the barrier: the Health Belief Model and patient perceptions regarding contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wendy; Ottney, Anne; Nguyen, Sammie

    2011-05-01

    The study was conducted to determine the discrepancy between unintended pregnancies and use of contraception is attributed to imperfect use, misconceptions and an inability to adjust therapy to lifestyle. A survey administered at a Federal clinic incorporated the Health Belief Model to determine patient's emphasis in pregnancy prevention. Analysis focused on comparing participant demographics to reasons for contraceptive selection. Ease of use ranked the most important for contraception as patient's education levels increased (p=.001). As household income increased, emphasis on potential side effects became less (p=.02). Patients with private insurance ranked ease of use most frequently (p=.01). Males emphasized effectiveness and menstrual suppression more than females (p=.04 and .008). A positive correlation between perceived benefit regarding ease of use as educational level increased and perceived barriers due to side effects as income level decreased immerged. Special counseling by practitioners to improve patient's self-efficacy, ultimately enhancing contraceptive adherence, are warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interventions for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Che, Yan; Showell, Emily; Chen, Ke; Cheng, Linan

    2017-08-02

    Emergency contraception (EC) is using a drug or copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) to prevent pregnancy shortly after unprotected intercourse. Several interventions are available for EC. Information on the comparative effectiveness, safety and convenience of these methods is crucial for reproductive healthcare providers and the women they serve. This is an update of a review previously published in 2009 and 2012. To determine which EC method following unprotected intercourse is the most effective, safe and convenient to prevent pregnancy. In February 2017 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Popline and PubMed, The Chinese biomedical databases and UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme on Human Reproduction (HRP) emergency contraception database. We also searched ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov as well as contacting content experts and pharmaceutical companies, and searching reference lists of appropriate papers. Randomised controlled trials including women attending services for EC following a single act of unprotected intercourse were eligible. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. The primary review outcome was observed number of pregnancies. Side effects and changes of menses were secondary outcomes. We included 115 trials with 60,479 women in this review. The quality of the evidence for the primary outcome ranged from moderate to high, and for other outcomes ranged from very low to high. The main limitations were risk of bias (associated with poor reporting of methods), imprecision and inconsistency. Comparative effectiveness of different emergency contraceptive pills (ECP)Levonorgestrel was associated with fewer pregnancies than Yuzpe (estradiol-levonorgestrel combination) (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.84, 6 RCTs, n = 4750, I 2 = 23%, high-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of pregnancy using Yuzpe is assumed to be 29 women per 1000, the chance of pregnancy using levonorgestrel would be between

  11. Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bastos, Marcos; Stegeman, Bernardine H; Rosendaal, Frits R; Van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2014-03-03

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT) (i.e., deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). The VT risk has been evaluated for many estrogen doses and progestagen types contained in COC but no comprehensive comparison involving commonly used COC is available. To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and ScienceDirect) were searched in 22 April 2013 for eligible studies, without language restrictions. We selected studies including healthy women taking COC with VT as outcome. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported.Two independent reviewers extracted data from selected studies. 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 0.19 and 0.37 per 1 000 person years, in line with previously reported incidences of 0,16 per 1 000 person years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 μg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene

  12. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    : First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome......INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  13. A Snapshot of Urban Adolescent Women's Contraceptive Knowledge at the Onset of a Community Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Promotion Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Katherine Blumoff; Jenks, Sara Catherine; Piazza, Nina; Malibiran, Beatriz Ramos; Aligne, C Andrew

    2017-08-01

    To contextualize young women's knowledge and attitudes regarding contraception at the outset of an intervention promoting long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use for teen pregnancy prevention. Our intervention was on the basis of diffusion of innovation theory, and at the outset we were interested in likely early adopters' existing knowledge and attitudes toward contraception. This mixed methods study consisted of focus groups within positive youth development programs in Rochester, New York; we discussed young women's knowledge and sources of information for all US Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptive methods. Seven focus groups and 24 female adolescent participants aged 15-19 years. Quantitative ranking of all contraceptive methods; qualitative themes from focus group discussions. Our findings showed a high level of knowledge about a select group of methods, which included LARC methods, and that participants received contraceptive information from peers and family. Participants had more concerns than positive impressions regarding the effectiveness, safety, practicality, and partner reception of the contraceptive methods, with the exception of the condom. Quantitatively, the condom received the highest average rating. The importance of personal anecdotes in our findings supports the use of outreach and information campaigns; providing medically accurate information and spreading positive personal anecdotes will be key to improving young women's impressions of the safety and acceptability of LARC use. This snapshot of contraceptive knowledge indicates that young women can be mature, informed consumers of sexual and reproductive health care, and through diffusion of innovation could be key players in promoting the most effective means of pregnancy prevention. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of male partners on contraceptive usage in sub-Saharan Africa-Lagos experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omololu Adegbola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family planning programs, researches, and studies have focused mainly on women with little attention to men′s role in the contraceptive choices by the couple. Men′s exclusion from these programs has serious implications on the acceptance and use of contraceptives by the couple. Objective: To determine the influence of male partners on contraceptive use of their spouses. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study at a Tertiary Care Centre in Lagos, Nigeria. It was conducted from January 1 to April 30, 2010, where all consecutive consenting pregnant women were given structured questionnaires to give to their partners so as to evaluate the contribution of the male partners to contraceptives use in their spouses as well as assess their awareness and knowledge of contraception. Categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test as appropriate while continuous variables by t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 370 respondents, only 51.9% (192 knew about female contraceptive methods, while 50% (185 were willing to allow their wives to use contraception. Barrier method (17.3% and periodic abstinence (15.7% were the leading preferred choice for their wives. However, bilateral tubal ligation was the least preferred method (1.6%. Previous counseling of male partner significantly influenced their decision to allow their wives to use contraceptives (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Involving the male partner in family planning counseling plays an important role in increasing the acceptance and use of contraceptives by the couple.

  15. Contraception Initiation in the Emergency Department: A Pilot Study on Providers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Iyanna; Haddad, Lisa B; Lathrop, Eva; Hankin, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended; these pregnancies are associated with adverse outcomes. Many reproductive-age females seek care in the emergency department (ED), are at risk of pregnancy, and are amenable to contraceptive services in this setting. Through a pilot study, we sought to assess ED providers' current practices; attitudes; and knowledge of emergency contraception (EC) and nonemergency contraception (non-EC), as well as barriers with respect to contraception initiation. ED physicians and associate providers in Georgia were e-mailed a link to an anonymous Internet questionnaire using state professional databases and contacts. The questionnaire included Likert scales with multiple-choice questions to assess study objectives. Descriptive statistics were generated as well as univariate analyses using χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. A total of 1232 providers were e-mailed, with 119 questionnaires completed. Participants were predominantly physicians (80%), men (59%), and individuals younger than 45 years (59%). Common practices were referrals (96%), EC prescriptions (77%), and non-EC prescriptions (40%). Common barriers were perceived as low likelihood for follow-up (63%), risk of complications (58%), and adverse effects (51%). More than 70% of participants correctly identified the highly effective contraceptive methods, 3% identified the correct maximum EC initiation time, and 42% correctly recognized pregnancy as a higher risk than hormonal contraception use for pulmonary embolism. Most ED providers in this pilot study referred patients for contraception; however, there was no universal contraceptive counseling and management. Many ED providers in this study had an incorrect understanding of the efficacy, risks, and eligibility associated with contraceptive methods. This lack of understanding may affect patient access and be a barrier to patient care.

  16. Contraception with combined oral contraceptive pills in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass media was the commonest source of information, and one accidental pregnancy occurred (Pearl index 0.03 per 100 woman years). Conclusion: This study shows that combined oral contraceptives pills appear to be acceptable, safe and effective in Port Harcourt. This compares to world wide experience. Concerted ...

  17. Contraception with Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One accidental pregnancy occurred (pearl index of 0.007 per 100 woman years). IUCD is an effective method of contraception in Port Harcourt ; comparable to worldwide experience. The low uptake rate calls for concerted effort to create more awareness about it especially in the rural areas/ non literate population.

  18. Routine counseling about intrauterine contraception for women seeking emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, E Bimla; Papic, Melissa; Parisi, Sara M; Baldauf, Erin; Rapkin, Rachel; Updike, Glenn

    2014-07-01

    To compare contraceptive knowledge and use among women seeking emergency contraception (EC) before and after an inner-city clinic began providing structured counseling and offering same-day intrauterine device (IUD) or implant placement to all women seeking EC. For 8 months before and 21 months after this change in clinic policy, women aged 15-45 who wanted to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months were asked to complete surveys immediately, 3 and 12 months after their clinic visit. In addition, we abstracted electronic medical record (EMR) data on all women who sought EC (n=328) during this period. We used chi-squared tests to assess pre/post differences in survey and EMR data. Surveys were completed by 186 women. After the clinic began offering structured counseling, more women had accurate knowledge of the effectiveness of IUDs, immediately and 3 months after their clinic visit. In addition, more women initiated IUD or implant use (survey: 40% vs. 17% preintervention, p=0.04; EMR: 22% vs. 10% preintervention, p=0.01), and fewer had no contraceptive use (survey: 3% vs. 17% preintervention, pcontraceptives with the option of same-day contraceptive placement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Practice Bulletin Summary No. 152: Emergency Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Emergency contraception, also known as postcoital contraception, is therapy used to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected act of sexual intercourse. Common indications for emergency contraception include contraceptive failure (eg, condom breakage or missed doses of oral contraceptives) and failure to use any form of contraception (1-3). Although oral emergency contraception was first described in the medical literature in the 1960s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 1998. Since then, several new products have been introduced. Methods of emergency contraception include oral administration of combined estrogen-progestin, progestin only, or selective progesterone receptor modulators and insertion of a copper intrauterine device (IUD). Many women are unaware of the existence of emergency contraception, misunderstand its use and safety, or do not use it when a need arises (4-6). The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of available methods of emergency contraception and to increase awareness of these methods among obstetrician-gynecologists and other gynecologic providers.

  1. Practice Bulletin No. 152: Emergency Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Emergency contraception, also known as postcoital contraception, is therapy used to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected act of sexual intercourse. Common indications for emergency contraception include contraceptive failure (eg, condom breakage or missed doses of oral contraceptives) and failure to use any form of contraception (). Although oral emergency contraception was first described in the medical literature in the 1960s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 1998. Since then, several new products have been introduced. Methods of emergency contraception include oral administration of combined estrogen-progestin, progestin only, or selective progesterone receptor modulators and insertion of a copper intrauterine device (IUD). Many women are unaware of the existence of emergency contraception, misunderstand its use and safety, or do not use it when a need arises (). The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of available methods of emergency contraception and to increase awareness of these methods among obstetrician-gynecologists and other gynecologic providers.

  2. Efficacy of contraceptive methods: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Diana; Inki, Pirjo; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2010-12-01

    To provide a comprehensive and objective summary of contraceptive failure rates for a variety of methods based on a systematic review of the literature. Medline and Embase were searched using the Ovid interface from January 1990 to February 2008, as well as the reference lists of published articles, to identify studies reporting contraceptive efficacy as a Pearl Index or life-table estimate. Reports that recruited less than 400 subjects per study group and those covering less than six cycles/six months were excluded. In addition, unlicensed products or those not internationally available, emergency contraception, and vasectomy studies were excluded. Information was identified and extracted from 139 studies. One-year Pearl Indices reported for short-acting user-dependent hormonal methods were generally less than 2.5. Gross life-table rates for long-acting hormonal methods (implants and the levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine system [LNG-IUS]) generally ranged between 0-0.6 per 100 at one year, but wider ranges (0.1-1.5 per 100) were observed for the copper intrauterine devices (0.1-1.4 per 100 for Cu-UIDs with surface area ≥ 300 mm2 and 0.6-1.5 per 100 for those with surface area natural methods were the least effective. Our review broadly confirms the hierarchy of contraceptive effectiveness in descending order as: (1) female sterilisation, long-acting hormonal contraceptives (LNG-IUS and implants); (2) Cu-IUDs with ≥ 300 mm2 surface area; (3) Cu-IUDs with natural methods.

  3. Impact of Pharmacists’ Religious and Personal Beliefs in Dispensing Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krupa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently, pharmacies were not permitted to dispense any emergency contraceptives to women to prevent pregnancy. No legal statutes existed under which pharmacists with religious, moral or ethical objections could refuse to fill a prescription for contraceptives, nor were there direct guidelines describing the pharmacist’s professional obligations. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore the frequency of cases in which pharmacists have refused, due to their personal beliefs, to provide counsel regarding contraceptives or have refused to refer to a patient to a different pharmacist or healthcare provider. This study will compare and contrast the differences between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies (i.e. time spent, location, most common recommended contraception. Finally, this study will compare the results evident between male pharmacists and female pharmacists. Method: Quantitative method employed uses two interview questions directed to pharmacists: (1 “I am moving in with my fiancée/boyfriend next month and I have never used contraceptives. What are my options?” (2 “If I use a condom and it breaks, do I have any choices to prevent pregnancy after the fact?” The survey was conducted in two locations, the greater Philadelphia area and Hershey, PA. The survey was conducted through face-to-face interactions with pharmacists, either employed at independent pharmacy or at a chain pharmacy. Data collected from each pharmacist included number of approximate age/gender; minutes spent in each consultation with a patient; the kind of privacy provided during the consultation; and the referrals given, if any. Results: Fifty (50 pharmacists were interviewed. No pharmacist indicated that counseling would be denied, although one (1 pharmacist refused to counsel on Plan B and four (4 pharmacists referred the interviewer to a doctor immediately, indicating that all medications require a prescription. Two (2

  4. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-01-01

    to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...... whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register...

  5. Trends in contraceptive use according to HIV status among privately insured women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Lisa B; Monsour, Michael; Tepper, Naomi K; Whiteman, Maura K; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-12-01

    There is limited information on the patterns and trends of contraceptive use among women living with HIV, compared with noninfected women in the United States. Further, little is known about whether antiretroviral therapy correlates with contraceptive use. Such information is needed to help identify potential gaps in care and to enhance unintended pregnancy prevention efforts. We sought to compare contraceptive method use among HIV-infected and noninfected privately insured women in the United States, and to evaluate the association between antiretroviral therapy use and contraceptive method use. We used a large US nationwide health care claims database to identify girls and women ages 15-44 years with prescription drug coverage. We used diagnosis, procedure, and National Drug Codes to assess female sterilization and reversible prescription contraception use in 2008 and 2014 among women continuously enrolled in the database during 2003 through 2008 or 2009 through 2014, respectively. Women with no codes were classified as using no method; these may have included women using nonprescription methods, such as condoms. We calculated prevalence of contraceptive use by HIV infection status, and by use of antiretroviral therapy among those with HIV. We used multivariable polytomous logistic regression to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for female sterilization, long-acting reversible contraception, and short-acting hormonal contraception compared to no method. While contraceptive use increased among HIV-infected and noninfected women from 2008 through 2014, in both years, a lower proportion of HIV-infected women used prescription contraceptive methods (2008: 17.5%; 2014: 28.9%, compared with noninfected women (2008: 28.8%; 2014: 39.8%, P contraception (adjusted odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.86 compared to no method) or short-acting hormonal contraception method (adjusted odds ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence

  6. Long-acting reversible contraception for adolescents and young adults - a cross-sectional study of women and general practitioners in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratlie, Marte; Aarvold, Trine; Skårn, Elling Skeide; Lundekvam, Jonas Andre; Nesheim, Britt-Ingjerd; Askevold, Erik Tandberg

    2014-06-01

    To investigate awareness and use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in the Norwegian primary care sector. We surveyed 359 women aged 16 to 23 years visiting a free sexual health clinic and 140 general practitioners (GPs) in Oslo, Norway, to assess contraceptive usage patterns, knowledge, opinions, and counselling content. Eighty-two percent (n = 295) of the female respondents were current contraceptive users and of this group, 12% (n = 34) were LARC users. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs, 56%) and condoms (20%) were the methods most commonly used. Apart from those two, the women considered themselves insufficiently knowledgeable about other family planning modalities. Knowledge was an independent predictor of current LARC use (p Oslo, Norway. These young women need better contraceptive counselling. Dispelling misconceptions and improved provider training could encourage GPs to cover LARCs when giving contraceptive guidance.

  7. Correlates of oral contraception continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewer, P A; Gibbs, J O

    1971-05-01

    A sample of 139 predominantly black, young, low-income patients who had accepted oral contraception at a publicly supported family planning clinic has been analyzed for correlates of oral contraception continuation. Interviews were conducted 10-12 months after the clinic visit; at this time 38% of the patients continued taking oral contraceptives. It was found that patients with the highest continuation rates were 18-24 years old, in the 2-3 parity group, living with their husbands, had low-parity mothers, and were able to fill prescriptions in less time with more convenient methods of transportation. Discontinuers tended to have high-parity mothers, live with parents or head their own households, and to be in the 13-17 or 25-45 year old age groups. Fear of long-term use of oral contraceptives and perceived side effects appeared to be implicated in discontinuation. The rate of discontinuation may be associated with irregular coital experience and less consistent exposure to pregnancy.

  8. Differences in contraceptive use between family planning providers and the U.S. population: results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Lisa F; Simons, Hannah R; Kohn, Julia E; Debevec, Elie J; Morfesis, Johanna M; Patel, Ashlesha A

    2015-06-01

    To describe contraceptive use among U.S. female family planning providers and to compare their contraceptive choices to the general population. We surveyed a convenience sample of female family planning providers ages 25-44 years, including physicians and advanced practice clinicians, via an internet-based survey from April to May 2013. Family planning providers were compared to female respondents ages 25-44 years from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth. A total of 488 responses were eligible for analysis; 331 respondents (67.8%) were using a contraceptive method. Providers' contraceptive use differed markedly from that of the general population, with providers significantly more likely to use intrauterine contraception, an implant, and the vaginal ring. Providers were significantly less likely to use female sterilization and condoms. There were no significant differences between providers and the general population in use of partner vasectomy or the pill. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) use was significantly higher among providers than in the general population (41.7% vs. 12.1%, pfamily planning providers differed significantly from the general population. These findings have implications for clinical practice, patient education, and health policy. Family planning providers report higher use of LARC than the general population. This may reflect differences in preferences and access. Providers might consider sharing these findings with patients, while maintaining patient choice and autonomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. What makes a contraceptive acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berer, M

    1995-01-01

    The women's health movement is developing an increasing number of negative campaigns against various contraceptive methods based on three assumptions: 1) user-controlled methods are better for women than provider-controlled methods, 2) long-acting methods are undesirable because of their susceptibility to abuse, and 3) systemic methods carry unacceptable health risks to women. While these objections have sparked helpful debate, criticizing an overreliance on such methods is one thing and calling for bans on the provision of injectables and implants and on the development of vaccine contraceptives is another. Examination of the terms "provider-controlled," "user-controlled," and "long-acting" reveals that their definitions are not as clear-cut as opponents would have us believe. Some women's health advocates find the methods that are long-acting and provider-controlled to be the most problematic. They also criticize the near 100% contraceptive effectiveness of the long-acting methods despite the fact that the goal of contraception is to prevent pregnancy. It is wrong to condemn these methods because of their link to population control policies of the 1960s, and it is important to understand that long-acting, effective methods are often beneficial to women who require contraception for 20-22 years of their lives. Arguments against systemic methods (including RU-486 for early abortion and contraceptive vaccines) rebound around issues of safety. Feminists have gone so far as to create an intolerable situation by publishing books that criticize these methods based on erroneous conclusions and faulty scientific analysis. While women's health advocates have always rightly called for bans on abuse of various methods, they have not extended this ban to the methods themselves. In settings where other methods are not available, bans can lead to harm or maternal deaths. Another perspective can be used to consider methods in terms of their relationship with the user (repeated

  10. Selection and use of contraceptive methods among internal migrant workers in three large Chinese cities: a workplace-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Xin; Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Ye, Jiang-Feng; Zhan, Shao-Kang; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Ting-Zhong

    2011-08-01

    To describe the current status of the decision-making process with regard to the use of contraceptive methods among internal migrant workers in three large Chinese cities. A total of 4313 sexually active internal migrant workers were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chengdu. Information on contraceptive use was collected by means of questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence was 86% among unmarried sexually active migrant workers and 91% among married workers. The main contraceptive methods used by married migrants were the intrauterine device (51%), condoms (25%) and female/male sterilisation (17%); the main methods resorted to by unmarried, sexually active migrants were condoms (74%) and oral contraceptives (11%). The contraceptive method applied by 20% of married respondents had been selected by other people, without they themselves having their share in an informed choice. Adopting the contraceptive decisions made by others was associated with being a married migrant, a construction or service worker, a rural-urban migrant, a migrant living in collective or rented rooms, or a migrant with more children. Many internal migrants in these large cities did not choose their contraceptive method on their own. Efforts enabling and encouraging migrants to make informed choices are needed.

  11. Is there any association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia in a poor Nigerian setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chibuike Ogwuegbu Chigbu,2 Benjamin Chukwuma Ozumba,2 Theophilus Chimezie Oguanuo,2 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The association between hormonal contraception and cervical cancer is controversial. These controversies may hamper the uptake of hormonal contraceptives. Objective: To determine the association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia. Materials and methods: This was a case-control study in which Pap-smear results of 156 participants on hormonal contraceptives were compared with those of 156 participants on no form of modern contraception. Modern contraception is defined as the use of such contraceptives as condoms, pills, injectables, intrauterine devices, implants, and female or male sterilization. Those found to have abnormal cervical smear cytology results were subjected further to colposcopy. Biopsy specimens for histology were collected from the participants with obvious cervical lesions or those with suspicious lesions on colposcopy. The results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 71 (45.5%, 60 (38.5%, and 25 (16.0% of the participants on hormonal contraceptives were using oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives, and implants, respectively. Cervical neoplasia was significantly more common among participants who were ≥35 years old (6% versus 1%, P<0.0001, rural dwellers (6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, unmarried (7.6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, unemployed (6.8% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, less educated (6% versus 3.8%, P<0.0001, and had high parity (6.8% versus 3.6%, P<0.0001. There was no statistical significant difference in cervical neoplasia between the two groups of participants (7 [4.5%] versus 6 [3.8%], P=1.0. Conclusion

  12. Increasing access to emergency contraception through online prescription requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbach, Sarah; Wendt, Jacqueline Moro; Levine, Deborah K; Philip, Susan S; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    To describe a pilot program, Plan B Online Prescription Access, to provide easy access to prescriptions for emergency contraception via the Internet. We measured electronic prescriptions for Plan B (Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, Ohio) by month over time. Pharmacists faxed patient-generated prescriptions back to the Department of Public Health for confirmation. Despite no marketing, within the first 18 months of the program, 152 electronic prescriptions for Plan B were requested by 128 female San Francisco residents. Seventy-eight prescriptions were filled (51%) by pharmacists. If correctly marketed, online prescriptions for Plan B have the potential to be an effective means of increasing emergency contraception access in both urban and rural settings across the United States. Further user-acceptability studies are warranted.

  13. Students’ Perceptions of Contraceptives in University of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Kayi, Esinam Afi

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study sought to explore University of Ghana Business School diploma student's knowledge of contraceptives, types of contraceptives, attitudes towards contraceptive users, preference for contraceptives, benefits, and side-effects of contraceptives. Materials and methods Data was conducted with three sets of focus group discussions. Participants were systematically sampled from accounting and public administration departments. Results Findings showed that students had little know...

  14. How does intimate partner violence affect condom and oral contraceptive Use in the United States?: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Julie N; Stockman, Jamila K

    2015-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is estimated to affect 25% of adult women in the United States alone. IPV directly impacts women's ability to use contraception, resulting in many of unintended pregnancies and STIs. This review examines the relationship between IPV and condom and oral contraceptive use within the United States at two levels: the female victim's perspective on barriers to condom and oral contraceptive use, in conjunction with experiencing IPV (Aim 1) and the male perpetrator's perspective regarding condom and oral contraceptive use (Aim 2). We systematically reviewed and synthesized all publications meeting the study criteria published since 1997. We aimed to categorize the results by emerging themes related to each study aim. We identified 42 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found 37 studies that addressed Aim 1. Within this we identified three themes: violence resulting in reduced condom or oral contraceptive use (n=15); condom or oral contraceptive use negotiation (n=15); which we further categorized as IPV due to condom or oral contraceptive request, perceived violence (or fear) of IPV resulting in decreased condom or oral contraceptive use, and sexual relationship power imbalances decreasing the ability to use condoms or oral contraceptives; and reproductive coercion (n=7). We found 5 studies that addressed Aim 2. Most studies were cross-sectional, limiting the ability to determine causality between IPV and condom or oral contraceptive use; however, most studies did find a positive relationship between IPV and decreased condom or oral contraceptive use. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research has demonstrated the linkages between female IPV victimization/male IPV perpetration and condom or oral contraceptive use. However, additional qualitative and longitudinal research is needed to improve the understanding of dynamics in relationships with IPV and determine causality between IPV, intermediate variables (e

  15. ["Hormone bomb": risks of emergency contraception from the perspective of pharmacy attendants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Elaine Reis; Cabral, Cristiane da Silva; Ventura, Miriam; Paiva, Sabrina Pereira; Bastos, Luiza Lena; Oliveira, Naira Villas Boas Vidal de; Szabo, Iolanda

    2016-09-19

    This study focused on views towards emergency contraception among pharmacy attendants in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The empirical material came from a socio-anthropological study with 20 semi-structured interviews of pharmacy attendants of both sexes (8 females and 12 males). The interviews showed negative views of emergency contraception, emphasizing its potential health risks. Interviews considered emergency contraception a "hormone bomb" that can harm the female reproductive organs and other organ systems. The pharmacy attendants highlighted the risks of "uncontrolled" or "indiscriminate" use, especially by adolescents and young women. Since they considered it "dangerous" to women's bodies, they assigned the responsibility for orientation and counseling on use of the method to gynecologists rather than to pharmacists. The article discusses the need to expand the public debate on emergency contraception in Brazil to include pharmacists and pharmacy attendants, in addition to health professionals in general and teachers.

  16. Acceptability of the vaginal contraceptive ring among adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Lekeisha R; Tanner, Amanda E; Hensel, Devon J; Blythe, Margaret J; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Although underutilized, the vaginal contraceptive ring has several advantages over other contraceptive methods that could benefit adolescents. We examined factors that may influence willingness to try the vaginal ring including: sexual and contraceptive history, genital comfort, and vaginal ring characteristics. Cross sectional Midwestern adolescent health clinics Adolescent women (N = 200; 14-18 years; 89% African-American) INTERVENTIONS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All participants received education about the vaginal ring and viewed pictures demonstrating insertion; they then completed a visual/audio computer-assisted self interview. The primary outcome variable, willingness to try the vaginal ring, was a single Likert-scale item. Over half the participants reported knowledge of the vaginal ring with healthcare providers identified as the most important source of contraceptive information. Comfort with one's genitals, insertion and removal, using alternative methods of insertion, and knowing positive method characteristics were significantly associated with willingness to try the vaginal ring. A decreased willingness to try the vaginal ring was related to concerns of the ring getting lost inside or falling out of the vagina. Willingness to try the ring was associated with positive feelings about genitals (e.g., comfort with appearance, hygiene, function). Thus, to increase willingness to try the vaginal ring among adolescents, providers should make it common practice to discuss basic female reproductive anatomy, raise awareness about female genital health and address concerns about their genitals. Providers can offer alternative insertion techniques (e.g., gloves) to make use more accessible. These strategies may increase vaginal ring use among adolescents. 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived competence and contraceptive use during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jennifer B; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about psychosocial correlates of different contraceptive methods in adolescence. Cross-sectional analyses of 209 postmenarcheal girls [mean age (years)+/-SD=15.68+/-1.74], primarily Caucasian (62.8%) or African American (32.8%). Competence (activities and social) and rule-breaking behavior were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR; adolescent) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; parent). Three contraceptive-use groups were created: no hormonal contraceptive (n=142), combined oral contraceptives or the transdermal patch (COCs/patch, n=41), and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, n=20). There was a significant effect of contraceptive-use group on competence (p=.003). The DMPA group had lower competence (CBCL activities and social; YSR social) than the no-hormonal-contraceptive and COCs/patch groups. The COCs/patch group scored lower than the no-hormonal-contraceptive group on YSR activities competence, but was not different from the DMPA group. Lastly, there was an effect of contraceptive-use group on CBCL (but not YSR) rule-breaking behavior (p=.029) with the DMPA group having higher rule-breaking behavior than the other groups. Type of contraceptive method was associated with parent and adolescent's perceived competence. For rule-breaking behavior, parental perception may be more relevant to contraceptive use. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  19. Emergency contraception - potential for women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Suneeta

    2014-11-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) is a safe and effective method which is used to prevent unwanted pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Many of the unwanted pregnancies end in unsafe abortions. The search for an ideal contraceptive, which does not interfere with spontaneity or pleasure of the sexual act, yet effectively controls the fertility, is still continuing. Numerous contraceptive techniques are available, yet contraceptive coverage continues to be poor in India. Thus, even when not planning for a pregnancy, exposure to unprotected sex takes place often, necessitating the use of emergency contraception. This need may also arise due to failure of contraceptive method being used (condom rupture, diaphragm slippage, forgotten oral pills) or following sexual assault. Emergency contraception is an intervention that can prevent a large number of unwanted pregnancies resulting from failure of regular contraception or unplanned sexual activity, which in turn helps in reducing the maternal mortality and morbidity due to unsafe abortions. However, a concern has been expressed regarding repeated and indiscriminate usage of e-pill, currently the rational use of emergency contraception is being promoted as it is expected to make a significant dent in reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. In fact, since the introduction of emergency contraception, the contribution of unsafe abortion towards maternal mortality has declined from 13 to 8 per cent.

  20. Vaginal contraception--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, D A; Thompson, S

    1982-04-01

    A number of new and innovative methods of vaginal contraceptive have been developed in recent years and are currently being evaluated. Some of these methods are described briefly and the available data on their safety and efficacy are presented. 3 types of contraceptive sponges have been developed--collagen sponge, intravaginal insert, and Secure sponge--and are now being evaluated. The collagen sponge, a cylindrical-shaped disk, exerts its contraceptive effect by acting as a physical barrier to the sperm and through its ability to absorb semen much in excess of its own weight. Preliminary data confirm the effectiveness of the sponge obtained from post-coital tests. The intravaginal insert (IVI) is made of a polyester material incorporating the spermicide nonoxynol-9. In a small clinical evaluation of the IVI, 49 women were followed up for 1 month. No pregnancies or unexpected adverse reactions were reported. The Secure sponge is made of polyurethane and incorporates 1 g of the spermicide nonoxynol-9. Its primary mode of action in preventing pregnancy is through the release of nonoxynol-9. In a multiclinic phase 2 evaluation of the Secure, which included 382 women, the 6-month gross life-table pregnancy rate was 3.8 +or- 1.3/100 women; the 6-month gross discontinuation rate for all reasons was 26.2 +or- 3.4/100 women. Sufficient data from the comparative trials of the Secure and Neo Sampoon foaming suppository studies conducted in Yugoslavia, Taiwan, and Bangladesh have been reported to the International Fertility Research Program (IFRP). The 12-month life-table rates for reasons leading to discontinuation of the contraceptive methods were not significantly different except for the category of "other personal reasons." The advantages Secure provides over other vaginal contraceptives are identified. Foaming vaginal suppositories similar to Neo Sampoon but containing 100 mg nonoxynol-9 are being developed and evaluated in the U.S. Clinical data on these products are

  1. Contraception as a risk factor for urinary tract infection in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Paul O. Dienye; Precious K. Gbeneol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The concerted effort of government and donor agencies to limit fertility by the use of contraceptives has been reported in some studies to predispose to urinary tract infection (UTI). Similar studies have not been conducted in the General Outpatient Department (GOPD) of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Objectives This study was aimed at assessing the role of contraceptives in the development of UTI amongst adult females attending the GOPD of UPTH. ...

  2. 'Stratified Contraception': Emergency Contraceptive Pills and Women's Differential Experiences in Contemporary India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheoran, Nayantara

    2015-01-01

    Available without prescriptions in India since 2005, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and their advertisements have provided women with increased contraceptive options and a vocabulary to talk about their reproductive lives. I draw on long-term fieldwork with women in urban India about ECPs, demonstrating a new form of 'stratified contraception' enabled by these pills and their advertisements. I posit that there are within India spaces that replicate the luxuries and privileges of the global North. These material conditions, I suggest, are replicated when it comes to contraception as there are hubs of women consumers of contraception and contraceptive advertising that participate in an 'imagined cosmopolitanism' within the global South in close proximity to 'contraceptive ghettos.' Moving beyond simplistic binaries, I outline three major stratifications along which women experience this medical technology and outline the implications for women and their contraceptive choices when notions of northern privilege exist in the 'South.'

  3. A Survey of Teenagers' Attitudes Toward Moving Oral Contraceptives Over the Counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Ruth; Kottke, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives may help expand use among adult women. Teenagers may particularly benefit from this approach, as they experience disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique challenges accessing contraceptives. However, limited research has explored teenagers' attitudes toward over-the-counter access. In 2014, a sample of 348 females aged 14-17, recruited via Facebook advertisements, participated in an online survey assessing teenagers' attitudes toward over-the-counter access and their understanding of how to use oral contraceptives after reading a prototype over-the-counter product label. Differences by participants' characteristics were assessed in bivariate analyses (Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests for categorical measures, and independent t tests and one-way analyses of variance for continuous measures). Seventy-three percent of participants supported over-the-counter access, and 61% reported that they would likely use oral contraceptives available through this approach. Few subgroup differences were found. Notably, sexually experienced participants were significantly more likely than others both to support this approach (85% vs. 63%) and to be interested in obtaining oral contraceptives this way (77% vs. 48%). Participants understood an average of 7.1 of eight key concepts that the prototype product label was intended to convey; no significant differences were found among subgroups. Over-the-counter access may be a promising approach for providing oral contraceptives to teenagers. Additional research is needed to evaluate whether teenagers can screen themselves for contraindications to oral contraceptive use and correctly use oral contraceptives obtained over the counter. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  4. Emergency contraceptive pills: knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy personnel in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrle, Nina; Sarker, Malabika

    2011-06-01

    As abortion is illegal in Nicaragua, postcoital contraception is an important option for preventing pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive pills are available in Nicaraguan pharmacies over the counter, but pharmacy personnel's knowledge and attitudes about this method can affect access. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Managua, Nicaragua's capital. Interviewers administered a semistructured questionnaire to 93 pharmacy employees to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills. Descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations were used to examine responses of and differences between male and female employees. All participants knew about emergency contraceptive pills and reported experience selling them. The majority sold them at least once a week (92%), usually without a prescription (97%). Of participants who were aware that emergency contraceptive pills should be taken only after sexual intercourse, 45% knew that the pills can be taken up to three days afterward; none knew that the pills are effective up to five days afterward. More than one-third of all respondents (39%) thought the pills can induce abortion, and most overestimated contraindications and side effects. Large majorities believed the availability of emergency contraceptive pills discourages use of ongoing methods (75%), encourages sexual risk-taking (82%) and increases transmission of HIV and other STIs (76%). Sixty-three participants (68%) thought emergency contraceptive pills are necessary to reduce unwanted and unplanned pregnancy; 65% were willing to provide them to all women in need, although only 13% would provide them to minors. Managuan pharmacy personnel frequently dispense emergency contraceptive pills, but need additional education to accurately counsel women about the method.

  5. Contraceptive options for women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sharon; Steyn, Petrus; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-08-01

    Women living with HIV are often of reproductive age, and many desire effective contraceptive options to delay or prevent pregnancy. We review the safety of various hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Additionally, we discuss drug interactions between contraceptive methods and antiretrovirals and the safety of methods with respect to onward transmission to HIV-negative partners for women in sero-discordant partnerships. In general, most methods are safe for most women living with HIV. An understanding of the reproductive goals of each individual patient, as well as her medical condition and medication, should be taken into account when counselling women on their contraceptive options. Further research is needed to understand drug interactions between contraceptives and antiretrovirals better and how to fulfil the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Search for an Emergency Contraception Provider in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency contraception provider. Concerned about cost? Click here . ---------- Emergency contraceptive pills are stocked by all major pharmacy chains, ... daily birth control pills you can use as emergency contraceptive pills. You can search for a provider in ...

  7. Contraceptive availability during an emergency response in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Sascha R; Kourtis, Athena P; Curtis, Kathryn M; Tepper, Naomi; Gorman, Susan; Jamieson, Denise J; Zotti, Marianne; Barfield, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    This article provides the evidence for contraceptive need to prevent unintended pregnancy during an emergency response, discusses the most appropriate types of contraceptives for disaster situations, and details the current provisions in place to provide contraceptives during an emergency response.

  8. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception | Dahan-Farkas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives are effective methods of birth control that provide contraception for an extended period without requiring user action. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives include progesterone only injectables, subdermal implants and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

  9. Efficacy and safety of metformin or oral contraceptives, or both in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang YM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Young-Mo Yang, Eun Joo Choi College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an endocrinopathy that affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women throughout their lives. Women with PCOS present with heterogeneous symptoms including ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Therefore, lifelong individualized management should be considered. Pharmacological agents commonly used to manage the symptoms are metformin and oral contraceptive pills. Although these medications have been beneficial in treating PCOS symptoms, their efficacy and safety are still not entirely elucidated. This study aimed to report the efficacy and safety of metformin, oral contraceptives, or their combination in the treatment of PCOS and to define their specific individual roles.Methods: A literature search of original studies published in PubMed and Scopus was conducted to identify studies comparing metformin with oral contraceptives or evaluating the combination of both in PCOS.  Results: Eight clinical trials involving 313 patients were examined in the review. The intervention dosage of metformin ranged from 1,000 to 2,000 mg/d and that of oral contraceptives was ethinylestradiol 35 µg and cyproterone acetate 2 mg. Lower body mass index was observed with regimens including metformin, but increased body mass index was observed in monotherapy with oral contraceptives. Administration of metformin or oral contraceptives, especially as monotherapy, had a negative effect on lipid profiles. In addition, there are still uncertainties surrounding the effects of metformin or oral contraceptives in the management of insulin level, although they improved total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. In the included studies, significant side effects due to metformin or oral contraceptives were not reported.  Conclusion: The clinical trials suggest that metformin or oral

  10. The use of oral contraception by adolescents for contraception, menstrual cycle problems or acne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.H.A. van; Hirasing, R.A.; Kaptein, M.B.M.; Koppenaal, C.; Voorhorst, F.J.; Schoemaker, J.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Oral contraceptives are prescribed as contraception but also as therapy for menstrual cycle disturbances and acne. We studied the prevalence of oral contraceptive (OC) use and the indications to start OC use among adolescents. Methods. A cohort consisting of ninth grade secondary school

  11. Do hormonal contraceptives stimulate growth of neurofibromas? A survey on 59 NF1 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammert, Marge; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Kluwe, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign tumors of the peripheral nerves and hallmark of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a tumor suppressor gene syndrome. Neurofibromas mostly start developing at puberty and can increase in size and number during pregnancy. Expression of progesterone receptors has been found in 75% of the tumors. Many female NF1 patients are thus concerned about the possibility that hormonal contraceptives may stimulate the growth of their neurofibromas. A survey was carried out on 59 female NF1 patients who are practicing or have practiced hormonal contraception to examine the effect of the various contraceptives on the growth of neurofibromas. Majority (53 out of 58) of patients who received oral estrogen-progestogen or pure progestogen preparations reported no associated tumor growth. In contrast, significant tumor growth was reported by two patients who received depot contraceptive containing high dose of synthetic progesterone. Oral contraceptives do not seem to stimulate the growth of neurofibromas in NF1 patients. High doses of progesterone might stimulate the growth of neurofibromas and deserve more caution

  12. A gendered study of young adult contraceptive use at one university in KwaZulu-N atal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OA Oyedeji

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores contraceptive use among young adult male and female students (aged 18-25 who visit the campus clinic at a university in KwaZulu-Natal. Both a descriptive survey and face to face interviews were used for data collection. In this study, it is affirmed that gender stratification, societal attitudes, and misconceptions about contraceptive use play an important role in the attitudes of young adults, male and female towards contraception and its use. Evidence of this is the high use of condoms amongst both male and female students’ compared with other available methods. Among female students this was highly attributed to personal convenience and comfort with condom use as an unmarried young woman. It was clear from the data collected that respondents themselves attached some stigma to being associated with the use of contraceptive pills or having to visit the clinic regularly for injections as young unmarried women. Male respondents affirmed the use of the condom, although this was hardly with the view of taking reproductive/contraceptive responsibility, but rather, it was attributed to the function of the condom as a safe sex method that offered protection against sexually transmitted diseases and infections. Also evident from the study was the fact that male respondents felt more comfortable with their sexual functioning than the female respondents. This was easily attributed to the role of societal gender stratification in an individual’s life.

  13. ACOG Committee Opinion Number 542: Access to emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Emergency contraception includes contraceptive methods used to prevent pregnancy in the first few days after unprotected intercourse, sexual assault, or contraceptive failure. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 1998, numerous barriers to access to emergency contraception remain. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to examine the barriers to the use of oral emergency contraception methods and to highlight the importance of increasing access.

  14. Improvement of stability of polidocanol foam for nonsurgical permanent contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian Xin; Lucchesi, Lisa; Gregory, Kenton W

    2015-08-01

    Polidocanol foam (PF), used clinically as a venous sclerosant, has recently been studied as a safe and inexpensive means for permanent contraception. Delivering the sclerosant to the fallopian tubes as a foam rather than a liquid increases the surface areas and thus enhances the desired epithelial disrupting activity of the agent. However, the foam is inherently unstable and degrades with time. Therefore, increasing foam stability and thus duration of the agent exposure time could increase epithelial effect while allowing reduction in agent concentration and potential toxicity. We studied methods to improve foam properties that might improve safety and efficacy of PF for intrauterine application. Several types of microporous filters adapted to a syringe-based foaming device were used to study the effect of pore structures on the formation of PF. The foam drainage time and bubble size were characterized. The addition of benzalkonium chloride (BZK) to polidocanol was also investigated for its effects on foam characteristics. A syringe-based foaming device adapted with an inline filter produced smaller bubble PF with a longer foam drainage time. PF generated with a circular pore filter lasts longer than with a noncircular pore filter. The addition of 0.01% of BZK also improved the stability of PF. The stability of PF is affected by the pore characteristics of the filter used for foam generation and enhanced by the presence of a small amount of BZK. The improved foam, if shown to be efficacious in animal models of contraception, could lead to a safe, simple and inexpensive method alternative to surgical contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of Contraceptives Used in Unwanted Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Aghababaei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unintended pregnancy is a worldwide problem that affects women, their families, and society. Unintended pregnancy can result from contraceptive failure, non-use or use mistake of contraceptive Methods: This study examined the Frequency and pattern of contraceptive method use in unintended pregnancy women reffering to health and medical center of Hamadan medical science university in Iran. Design and setting: A descriptive study was conducted at health and medical center of Hamadan medical science in Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire in 2006 from a convenience sample of 900 unintended pregnancy women . The survey included measures of demographic variables, type and pattern of contraceptive method use. Data were analyzed by Chi square and t-test using SPSS. Results: Of the 900 participants, 93.9% had used contraceptive methods. The most common contraceptive method use in unintended pregnancy women were oral contraceptive pills 38.1% , natural method 31.9%, condom 19.8%, breastfeeding 4.4%, IUD 3.6%, emergency 1.9% and rhythm 0.4%. The most common problem in contraceptive use were irregular and incorrectly use in hormonal methods and condom users, no control in IUD users and mistake in date calculation in rhythmic users. Conclusion: The majority of participants had used contraceptive methods but have unintended pregnancy. More education is needed in this subject.

  16. Suspect online sellers and contraceptive access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K; Lovett, Kimberly M

    2012-11-01

    Issues surrounding contraception access have been a national focus. During this debate, adolescent and adult women may seek these products online. Due to safety concerns, including potential counterfeit forms, we wished to assess whether online "no prescription" contraceptives were available. We assessed online availability of reversible, prescription contraceptive methods resulting in online pharmacy marketing is shifting from direct search engine access to social media (Facebook, Twitter, Slidehare, flickr). Online contraceptive sales represent patient safety risks and a parallel system of high-risk product access absent professional guidance. Providers should educate patients, while policy makers employ legal strategies to address these systemic risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of smoking and oral contraception in a sample of Danish young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, B; Wielandt, H

    1991-01-01

    A representative sample of 286 Danish females aged 16-20 years were interviewed during the period April 1984--February 1985. The response rate was 75%. Both use of oral contraception (OC) and smoking were common; 46.6% used OC, 34.2% smoked and 19.6% combined smoking and OC. The prevalence...

  18. Parents' Behavioral Norms as Predictors of Adolescent Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sharon A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Used clustered sample household survey of 329 males and females aged 14 to 17, and 470 of their parents to examine influence of parental factors on adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Found parents' reported behavioral norms accounted for 5% of variance in whether adolescents had had intercourse, and for 33% of variance in…

  19. Factors Influencing College Women's Contraceptive Behavior: An Application of the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jazmyne A.; Walsh-Buhi, Eric R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated variables within the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) as well as differences across socioeconomic status (SES) levels within the context of inconsistent contraceptive use among college women. Participants: A nonprobability sample of 515 female college students completed an Internet-based survey…

  20. Influence of Parents, Peers, and Partners on the Contraceptive Use of College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Linda; Spanier, Graham B.

    1978-01-01

    This study investigates the relative influences of parents, peers, and partners on the contraceptive use of college men and women. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a nonprobability, purposive sample of 434 never-married, sexually active males and females between the ages of 17 and 22 years. (Author)

  1. Contraceptive use and risk of unintended pregnancy in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Diana G; Bley, Julia; Mikanda, John; Induni, Marta; Arons, Abigail; Baumrind, Nikki; Darney, Philip D; Stewart, Felicia

    2004-07-01

    California is home to more than one out of eight American women of reproductive age. Because California has a large, diverse and growing population, national statistics do not necessarily describe the reproductive health of California women. This article presents risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among women in California based on the California Women's Health Survey. Over 8900 women of reproductive age who participated in this survey between 1998 and 2001 provide estimates of access to care and use of family-planning methods in the state. We find that 49% of the female population aged 18-44 in California is at risk of unintended pregnancy. Nine percent (9%) of women at risk of an unintended pregnancy are not using any method of contraception, primarily for method-related reasons, such as a concern about side effects or a dislike of available contraceptive methods. Among women at risk for unintended pregnancy, we find disparities by race/ethnicity and education in use of contraceptive methods.

  2. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women using contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Hamadiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The world health organization defines sexual health as a coordination and integration between mind, body and feelings which leads an individual towards personality improvement, relationship and love. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women referring health centers of Bandar Abbas in 2013 who used contraceptive methods. Method: In this descriptive study, 385 women aged between 16-45 years were included. A questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire consisted of two sections; demographic data and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. The questionnaire was equally distributed among all health centers. Data were entered SPSS v. 19 and were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation and ANOVA. Results: There was no significant difference between contraceptive methods and questionnaire aspects. Significant associations were found between level of education and sexual function such as libido, orgasm, sexual satisfaction and age groups with libido, orgasm and vaginal lubrication. Conclusion: The participants of this study might have referred their sexual dysfunctions to other reasons other than contraception which needs further research. According to the results, it is suggested to increase couple knowledge using consultation and sex education and guide them into finding treatments for their sexual dysfunction.

  3. Mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype, oral contraceptives and emotional information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, D A; de Kloet, E R; van Hemert, A M; de Rijk, R H; Van der Does, A J W

    2015-02-12

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) affect mood in some women and may have more subtle effects on emotional information processing in many more users. Female carriers of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) haplotype 2 have been shown to be more optimistic and less vulnerable to depression. To investigate the effects of oral contraceptives on emotional information processing and a possible moderating effect of MR haplotype. Cross-sectional study in 85 healthy premenopausal women of West-European descent. We found significant main effects of oral contraceptives on facial expression recognition, emotional memory and decision-making. Furthermore, carriers of MR haplotype 1 or 3 were sensitive to the impact of OCs on the recognition of sad and fearful faces and on emotional memory, whereas MR haplotype 2 carriers were not. Different compounds of OCs were included. No hormonal measures were taken. Most naturally cycling participants were assessed in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. Carriers of MR haplotype 2 may be less sensitive to depressogenic side-effects of OCs. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of and Adherence to Oral Contraceptive Pills and Associated Disparities in the United States: A Baseline Assessment for the Impact of the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Lee, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sociological factors that may influence women's utilization of and adherence to oral contraceptive pills. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the 2010-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Female adults aged 18-50 years were included. Logistic regression was performed to discern women's decisions to use oral contraceptive pills or not. Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were conducted to examine the number of oral contraceptive pills received, refill frequency, and annual out-of-pocket expenditure on oral contraceptive pills. Covariates were based on the Andersen model of health care utilization. Among the study sample (weighted n = 207,007,531), 14.8% were oral contraceptive pill users. Factors positively related to oral contraceptive pill use included non-Hispanic white ethnicity, younger age, not currently married, having private insurance, residing in the Midwest, higher education level, and higher annual family income. Being non-Hispanic white and having a higher education level were positively related to oral contraceptive pill adherence. Our findings therefore demonstrate disparities in oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence, especially according to women's race/ethnicity and educational level. This study serves as a baseline assessment for the impact of the Affordable Care Act on oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence for future studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Satisfaction with the use of contraceptive methods among women from primary health care services in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to assess satisfaction with the use of contraceptive methods among women attending primary health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: crosssectional study conducted with a sample of 668 women aged 1849 years, who were enrolled in 38 primary health care facilities in São Paulo city, Brazil, in 2015. Exclusion criteria were no sexual initiation, use of irreversible contraceptive methods for more than five years, pregnancy and no contraceptive method use. Data were analyzed using chisquare and multivariate logistic regression. Results: in general, women were satisfied with current contraceptive method (78.7%. The higher percentage of satisfaction was observed among IUD users (94.7%, and female and male sterilization users (93.5% and 91.7%, respectively. Withdrawal users were less satisfied (52.9%. Contraceptive method itself was the only factor associated with satisfaction. Barrier or traditional method users were less likely to be satisfied with their contraceptive methods than irreversible method users. Conclusions: long acting contraceptive method and irreversible method users were more satisfied with their contraceptive methods. Efforts should be undertaken in order to make these contraceptives available and accessible in primary health care facilities in Brazil.

  6. Inequity in contraceptive care between refugees and other migrant women?: a retrospective study in Dutch general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raben, Liselotte A D; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria E T C

    2018-01-17

    Female refugees are at high risk of reproductive health problems including unmet contraceptive needs. In the Netherlands, the general practitioner (GP) is the main entrance to the healthcare system and plays a vital role in the prescription of contraceptives. Little is known about contraceptive care in female refugees in primary care. To get insight into GP care related to contraception in refugees and other migrants compared with native Dutch women. A retrospective descriptive study of patient records of refugees, other migrants and native Dutch women was carried out in five general practices in the Netherlands. The prevalence of discussions about contraception and prescriptions of contraceptives over the past 6 years was compared in women of reproductive age (15-49 years). In total, 104 refugees, 58 other migrants and 162 native Dutch women were included. GPs in our study (2 male, 3 female) discussed contraceptives significantly less often with refugees (51%) and other migrants (66%) than with native Dutch women (84%; P Dutch women (79%; P Dutch women (4% respectively 4%). Contraceptives were significantly less often discussed with and prescribed to refugees and other migrant women compared with native Dutch women. More research is needed to elicit the reproductive health needs and preferences of migrant women regarding GP's care and experiences in discussing these issues. Such insights are vital in order to provide equitable reproductive healthcare to every woman regardless of her background. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Free-roaming unowned stray and feral cats exist throughout the world, creating concerns regarding their welfare as well as their impact on the environment on public health. Millions of healthy cats are culled each year in an attempt to control their numbers. Surgical sterilization followed by return to the environment is an effective nonlethal population control method but is limited in scope due to expense and logistical impediments. Immunocontraception has the potential to be a more practical and cost-effective method of control. Method of study This is a review of current research in immunocontraception in domestic cats. Functional characteristics of an ideal immunocontraceptive for community cats would include a wide margin of safety for target animals and the environment, rapid onset and long duration of activity following a single treatment in males and females of all ages, and sex hormone inhibition. In addition, product characteristics should include stability and ease of use under field conditions, efficient manufacturing process, and low cost to the user. Two reproductive antigens, zona pellucida and GnRH, have been identified as possible targets for fertility control in cats. Results Zona pellucida, which is used successfully in multiple wildlife species, has achieved little success in cats. In contrast, immunization against GnRH has resulted in long-term contraception in both male and female cats following a single dose. GnRH is an ideal contraceptive target because it regulates pituitary and gonadal hormone responses in both males and females, thus suppressing nuisance behaviors associated with sex hormones in addition to preventing pregnancy. Conclusion The responsiveness of cats to fertility control via GnRH suppression should encourage researchers and cat control stakeholders to continue efforts to optimize vaccines that induce multi-year contraception following a single dose in a high proportion of treated cats. PMID:21501281

  8. Contraception. Family planning: by whom and for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemerding, B

    1992-01-01

    Many people consider family planning to be the cure for population growth and its consequences (poverty, child mortality, morbidity, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation). International organizations support family planning programs and population-political strategies control their operations. Other key players in family planning are the pharmaceutical industry, the churches, and governments. Women tend not be involved in developing population and family planning policies, however, but instead implement the policies. Population planners are generally not interested in family planning methods which give women control over their own bodies, e.g., female-controlled barrier methods. In fact, they distrust them because the planners consider women to be unreliable. Besides, the low effectiveness of these methods means women need to rely on abortion, which is a problem in many developing countries, e.g., Latin America. Further, family planning programs must meet predetermined goals, so their service is lacking, e.g., limited supply of contraceptives and not enough time to provide information to clients. Family planning revolves around women. For example, they encourage them to talk their partners into approving the women's use of contraception, but this is almost always difficult for women in developing countries. Provision of family planning cannot be successful without society accepting and treating women as full citizens. In addition, society needs to realize that women have a sexuality separate from men. Political will is needed for these changes in attitude. The international women's movement does not agree on the degree which women can control contraceptives themselves. Women's groups are working to improve the position and independence of women and contraception is just 1 factor which can help them achieve this goal. The Women's Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is an example of a coalition of women's health

  9. Women's perceptions of contraceptive efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaiya, Roshni; Lopez, Lia L; Nelson, Anita L

    2017-01-01

    Adoption of contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices has been less than might be expected given their superior efficacy and convenience. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge and beliefs held by women, which may influence their contraceptive choices and theirongoing utilization of contraceptive methods. English speaking, nonpregnant, reproductive-age women, who were not surgically sterilized, were individually interviewed to obtain limited demographic characteristics and to assess their knowledge about the efficacy of various contraceptive methods in typical use and about the relative safety of oral contraceptives. A convenience sample of 500 women aged 18-45 years, with education levels that ranged from middle school to postdoctoral level was interviewed. The efficacy in typical use of both combined oral contraceptives and male condoms was correctly estimated by 2.2%; over two-thirds of women significantly over estimated the efficacy of each of those methods in typical use. Oral contraceptives were thought to be at least as hazardous to a woman's health as pregnancy by 56% of women. The majority of reproductive aged women surveyed substantially overestimated the efficacy of the two most popular contraceptive methods, often saying that they were 99% effective. Women with higher education levels were most likely to overestimate efficacy of oral contraceptives. Women of all ages and education levels significantly overestimated the health hazards of oral contraceptives compared to pregnancy. Overestimation of effectiveness of these methods of contraception, may contribute to lower adoption of implants and intrauterine devices. When individualizing patient counselling, misperceptions must be identified and addressed with women of all educational backgrounds. Not applicable.

  10. Cluster headache in women: relation with menstruation, use of oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, J A; Favier, I; Helmerhorst, F M; Haan, J; Ferrari, M D

    2006-01-01

    In contrast with migraine, little is known about the relation between cluster headache and menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause. A population based questionnaire study was performed among 224 female cluster headache patients, and the possible effect of hormonal influences on cluster headache attacks studied. For control data, a similar but adjusted questionnaire was sent to healthy volunteers and migraine patients. It was found that menstruation, use of oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause had a much smaller influence on cluster headache attacks than in migraine. Cluster headache can, however, have a large impact on individual women, for example to refrain from having children. PMID:16407458

  11. Female physiology meets psychology : menstrual cycle and contraceptive pill effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly Denise

    2013-01-01

    In dit proefschrift toon ik aan dat het gebruik van hormonale contraceptie (HC) de natuurlijke hormonale fluctuaties verstoort, wat negatieve psychologische gevolgen kan hebben voor sociale relaties. Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van HC op gedrag in sociale relaties draagt mogelijk bij aan meer

  12. Oral Contraceptives and Bone Health in Female Runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelsey, Jennifer L

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous cross-sectional research has shown that women with exercise-induced menstrual irregularities have a significantly higher frequency of stress fractures and low bone mass than normally menstruating controls...

  13. [Hypertension in females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cífková, Renata

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).

  14. Factors impacting on contraceptive practices: Introduction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this literature review is to identify and describe factors impacting on the contraceptive practices of women. The discussion includes factors impacting positively or negatively on contraceptive practices in terms of age-related issues, education and status, religion, socio-cultural beliefs, values and norms, knowledge ...

  15. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of emergency contraception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The contraceptive prevalence in our environment is very low with attendant increase in unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. The use of emergency contraception (EC) in women with unprotected intercourse could be the only option that can avoid the unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. Objective: ...

  16. Emergency Contraception: A Wareness And Knowledge Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional descriptive survey of awareness and knowledge of emergency contraception among medical/paramedical and non-medical workers was carried out in the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria. Most of the hospital workers were not aware of emergency contraceptive methods. 59.9% were not aware of ...

  17. Adolescent mothers' knowledge and perceptions of contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive quantitative survey attempted to identify reasons why adolescent mothers (aged 19 or younger at the birth of their babies) failed to utilise contraceptive, emergency contraceptive and / or termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. The research population comprised all adolescent mothers in the region, the ...

  18. Emergency Contraception: A Global Overview of Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Recent concerns over teenage pregnancy, abortion and sexuality have pushed emergency contraceptive methods to the fore once again. The studies on knowledge and attitudes of providers are of particular importance, as they will have direct effects on potential users of emergency contraception. Aim/Method: ...

  19. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods. Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance. Study design: Population based cross - sectional study. Setting: Rural area of East Delhi. Participants: Married women in the reproductive age group. Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group. Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child. Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptives Statistical Analysis: By proportions. Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception. Recommendations: (i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention. (ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  20. Ultrasound appearances of Implanon implanted contraceptive devices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNeill, G

    2009-09-01

    Subdermal contraceptive devices represent a popular choice of contraception. Whilst often removed without the use of imaging, circumstances exist where imaging is required. Ultrasound is the modality of choice. The optimal technique and typical sonographic appearances are detailed in this article.

  1. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D.; Gompel, A.; Mueck, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  2. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D; Gompel, A; Mueck, A O

    2010-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  3. Contraceptive awareness among men in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Padmadas, Sabu S; Smith, Peter W F

    2006-04-01

    A considerable gap exists between contraceptive awareness and use. Traditional approaches to measuring awareness are inadequate to properly understand the linkages between awareness and use. The objective of this study was to examine the degree of men's modern contraceptive awareness in Bangladesh and the associated determinants and further testing of a hypothesis that current contraceptive use confers a high degree of method awareness. This study used the couple data set from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (1999-2000). A two-level, multinomial logistic regression was used with the degree of contraceptive awareness as the dependent variable. The degree of awareness was measured by the reported number of modern contraceptive methods known among men aged 15-59 years. Men's responses on method awareness were classified according to those reported spontaneously and probed. Nearly 100% of the study participants reported having heard of at least one method and about half reported awareness of at least eight different methods of contraception. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that older and educated men were more likely to have reported a high degree of awareness. The findings confirmed our hypothesis that current contraceptive use is likely to confer a high degree of modern method awareness among men (pknowledge of contraceptive methods to improve the uptake of especially male-based modern methods.

  4. Adolescent Contraceptive Use: Models, Research, and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.; Schofield, Janet Ward

    Both the career model and the decision model have been proposed to explain patterns of contraceptive use in teenagers. The career model views contraceptive use as a symbol of a woman's sexuality and implies a clear decision to be sexually active. The decision model is based on the subjective expected utility (SEU) theory which holds that people…

  5. Contraception and hormonal management in the perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Margaret E; Faubion, Stephanie S; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Pruthi, Sandhya; Casey, Petra M

    2015-01-01

    This literature review focuses on contraception in perimenopausal women. As women age, their fecundity decreases but does not disappear until menopause. After age 40, 75% of pregnancies are unplanned and may result in profound physical and emotional impact. Clinical evaluation must be relied on to diagnose menopause, since hormonal levels fluctuate widely. Until menopause is confirmed, some potential for pregnancy remains; at age 45, women's sterility rate is 55%. Older gravidas experience higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and death. Many safe and effective contraceptive options are available to perimenopausal women. In addition to preventing an unplanned and higher-risk pregnancy, perimenopausal contraception may improve abnormal uterine bleeding, hot flashes, and menstrual migraines. Long-acting reversible contraceptives, including the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), the etonogestrel subdermal implant (ESI), and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD), provide high efficacy without estrogen. LNG-IUS markedly decreases menorrhagia commonly seen in perimenopause. Both ESI and LNG-IUS provide endometrial protection for women using estrogen for vasomotor symptoms. Women without cardiovascular risk factors can safely use combined hormonal contraception. The CDC's Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use informs choices for women with comorbidities. No medical contraindications exist for levonorgestrel emergency-contraceptive pills, though obesity does decrease efficacy. In contrast, the Cu-IUD provides reliable emergency and ongoing contraception regardless of body mass index (BMI).

  6. Gender and risk assessment in contraceptive technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kammen, Jessika; Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.

    This paper concerns a comparison of risk assessment practices of contraceptives for women and men. Our analysis shows how the evaluation of health risks of contraceptives does not simply reflect the specific effects of chemical compounds in the human body. Rather, we show how side-effects were rated

  7. Long acting reversible contraception | Kluge | Obstetrics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long acting reversible contraception (LARC) has great potential in reducing these pregnancies as they are highly effective and do not rely a great deal on compliance and correct use. They have better continuation rates than short term hormonal contraception and as per definition require administration less than once per ...

  8. Awareness and utilization of emergency contraception among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the students, 321 (71.3%), were single. Overall, 295 ... Information from health personnel, news media and schools were the major influences of emergency contraceptive ... of its availability and advantages, women make better choices. .... where information about sex and/or contraception came from parents ...

  9. Advance Provision of Emergency Contraception for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamji, Jehan-Marie; Swartwout, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Emergency contraception is most effective at preventing unintended pregnancy when taken as early as possible following unprotected sexual intercourse. Advance provision of this medication supports more timely and effective use. In the midst of rising teen pregnancy rates, current policies often limit access to emergency contraception for…

  10. [The difficulties of contraception: conflicts and paradoxes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, F

    1988-06-01

    This work uses clinical examples to explore sources of conflict and denial of patients and physicians during contraception consultations. The discovery of oral contraceptives (OCs) and improvements in mechanical contraception raised hopes that couples could achieve total control of their fertility. But continued high abortion rates and the persistence of sexual problems and maladjustments have demonstrated that contraception alone is not a panacea. Conflicts about contraception may be conscious and quickly expressed during a consultation, even if a medical pretext is given. The resentment when 1 partner desires a child and the other does not for example can translate into a conflict about contraception. Some women are fully aware of their own ambivalence about pregnancy and contraception and able to express it openly, but very often the woman's concerns are expressed by questions, fears, and verbal slips. The fear that pills are unnatural or will cause congenital defects can be interpreted as an expression of guilt over the pleasure that pills permit. Sterility is the ultimate fear caused by this unlimited possibility for pleasure. In the majority of cases, physical complaints are the means by which contraception clients address their physicians. In some cases, intolerance to OCs may actually be a hysterical manifestation that is not understood. Such symptoms as nausea, breast swelling, dizziness, vomiting, nervousness, and insomnia may be signs of early pregnancy as well as of intolerance for pills. Intolerance to pills may be caused by intolerance of a sexuality in which all things seem possible but in which the individual feels unrecognized by the partner. The resulting aggression may be turned inward in the form of a morbid symptom or of forgetting or stopping pill use, recourse to abortion, and demand for recognition. Acting out, especially by adolescents, is common in the area of contraception. In some cases the psychological or emotional needs of the patient

  11. Animal models of contraception: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liechty ER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emma R Liechty,1 Ingrid L Bergin,1 Jason D Bell2 1Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2Program on Women's Health Care Effectiveness Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Appropriate animal modeling is vital for the successful development of novel contraceptive devices. Advances in reproductive biology have identified novel pathways for contraceptive intervention. Here we review species-specific anatomic and physiologic considerations impacting preclinical contraceptive testing, including efficacy testing, mechanistic studies, device design, and modeling off-target effects. Emphasis is placed on the use of nonhuman primate models in contraceptive device development. Keywords: nonhuman primate, preclinical, in vivo, contraceptive devices

  12. Contraceptive use in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Ingela; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to compare contraceptive use in the Nordic countries and to assess compliance with recommendations from the European Medicines Agency regarding the use of combined oral contraception containing low-dose estrogen and levonorgestrel, norethisterone or norgestimate. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: Data on hormonal contraceptive prescriptions and sales figures for copper intrauterine devices were obtained from national databases and manufacturers in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2010-2013. RESULTS: Contraceptive use was highest in Denmark (42%) and Sweden (41%), followed...... by Finland (40%). Combined oral contraception was the most used method in all countries, with the highest use in Denmark (26%). The second most used method was the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, with the highest use in Finland (15%) and ≈10% in the other countries. Copper intrauterine devices...

  13. Preconception counseling and contraception after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted-Pedersen, L; Skouby, S O; Damm, P

    1991-01-01

    -contraceptive compounds appear to be safe for women with previous GDM when administered for limited periods. At the follow-up examination, we found no increased risk of developing diabetes in women with previous GDM who used oral contraception. We consider the intrauterine contraceptives (IUD) a safe and effective......Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed in the period 1978-1984 were followed for on average 6 yr after the index pregnancy. Thirty percent had diabetes mellitus at the follow-up examination, and preliminary results indicate that at least another third will develop diabetes during...... a subsequent pregnancy. Therefore, family planning and contraceptive guidance should follow the lines for women with pregestational diabetes. When low-dose hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel were given to women with previous GDM, glucose tolerance and lipoprotein levels...

  14. Unplanned pregnancy-risks and use of emergency contraception: a survey of two Nigerian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ter Goon, Daniel; Akpan, Wilson

    2017-06-02

    The vulnerabilities of young women of low socio-economic status and those with little or no formal education tend to dominate the discourse on unplanned pregnancy, unsafe abortion and emergency contraception (EC) in sub-Saharan Africa. This article draws on a survey conducted among female undergraduate students to shed light on sexual behaviour and the dynamics of emergency contraceptive use among this cohort. The survey involved 420 female undergraduate students drawn using a multistage sampling technique, while a self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Univariate and bivariate analyses were applied to examine the factors associated with the use of emergency contraception. Of the 176 female students who reported being sexually active in the year preceding the survey, only 38.6% reported the use of condom during the entire year. Of those who reported unplanned pregnancy anxiety n = 94, about 30.1% used EC, 20.4% used non-EC pills as EC, while others reported having used no EC. A few respondents (n = 3) had terminated a pregnancy under unsafe conditions. Awareness of EC (p contraceptive methods. Poor knowledge of EC methods and timing of use, as well as wrong perception about EC side effects, are barriers to the utilisation of EC for the prevention of unplanned pregnancy among the study participants.

  15. Meeting rural demand: a case for combining community-based distribution and social marketing of injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can tailor interventions to match family

  16. Psychobehavioral Effects of Hormonal Contraceptive Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L. M. Welling

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although female use of hormonal contraceptives (HCs has been associated with a variety of physical side effects, the psychological and behavioral side effects have received comparatively little attention until recently. Indeed, the long-term impact of HC use on human psychology has been vastly under-researched and has only recently become a focus for mainstream scholars. Women who use HCs report higher rates of depression, reduced sexual functioning, and higher interest in short-term sexual relationships compared to their naturally-cycling counterparts. Also, HC use may alter women's ability to attract a mate, as well as the mate retention behaviors in both users and their romantic partners. Some evidence even suggests that HC use alters mate choice and may negatively affect sexual satisfaction in parous women, with potential effects on future offspring. Interestingly, HCs have become a standard method of population control for captive nonhuman primates, opening up exciting avenues for potential comparative research. Here, the existing literature on the psychobehavioral effects of HCs in humans and nonhuman primates is reviewed and discussed. The potential resulting downstream consequences for the path of human evolution and recommendations for how future research could tease apart the underlying causes of these psychobehavioral effects of HC use are discussed, including suggestions for research involving nonhuman primates.

  17. Oral contraceptives and the prothrombin time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrazzi, J; Roncaglioni, M C; Donati, M B

    1980-02-02

    Dr. De Teresa and others reported that mean prothrombin time ratio of 12 patients on long-term anticoagulation with warfarin was significantly higher when they were also taking oral contraceptives (OCs). A study of prothrombin complex activity was recently conducted in female rats treated with an estrogen-progestogen combination (lynestrenol 5 mg; mestranol 0.3 mg/kg body weight) which resulted in a 100% infertility in this species. After 1 treatment for only 1 estral cycle, OC-treated rats had a significantly longer Normotest clotting time (37.7+ or-0.5 sec) than control rats (31.0+or-0.4); the difference was even more notable after 10 cycles. Although this finding has not been reported in women on OCs, it may be that the estrogen-induced "lability" of the prothrombin complex occurs in humans only in special conditions, such as anticoagulation. Alternatively, liver dysfunction occurring among women on OCs may be responsible for reduced metabolism of warfarin, contributing to the effectiveness of the anticoagulation. Further pharmacology studies should be done to clarify the interaction between OCs and oral anticoagulants.

  18. Pregnancy and protection: perceptions, attitudes and experiences of Australian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Smith, Jennifer; Fenwick, Jennifer; Hendriks, Jacqueline; Fyfe, Sue; Kendall, Garth

    2009-06-01

    Despite decades of research, development and evaluation of educational and promotional strategies to prevent teenage pregnancy, we have only a limited understanding of the strategies that are effective and why. This study sought to explore female teenagers' attitudes, perceptions and experiences of contraceptive use, and describe the influence of this on pregnancy risk. A qualitative approach was used to explore the contraceptive behaviour in a purposive sample of sexually active Australian females aged 14-19 years. Teenagers were drawn from three sub-groups: antenatal and postnatal services (pregnant-continuing); termination services (pregnant-terminating); and sexual health clinics (never-pregnant). Sixty-eight individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data and generate a rich, description of contraceptive behaviour. Whilst participants were familiar with contraception, many used it inconsistently. Commitment to pregnancy prevention was firmly located within participants' attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and parenthood, perceptions of pregnancy risk and perceptions of the costs and benefits of using contraception. Further, motivation to use contraception fluctuated in different contexts, such as romantic relationships. Our research highlights the importance of attitudes toward contraception, pregnancy and parenthood in shaping teenagers' motivation to use contraception. Educational and prevention programs must address the spectrum of attitudes underlying teenagers' contraceptive and reproductive decisions in order to alter pathways to teenage pregnancy and early parenting.

  19. Microcredit, family planning programs, and contraceptive behavior: evidence from a field experiment in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jaikishan; Tarozzi, Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    The impact of community-based family planning programs and access to credit on contraceptive use, fertility, and family size preferences has not been established conclusively in the literature. We provide additional evidence on the possible effect of such programs by describing the results of a randomized field experiment whose main purpose was to increase the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Ethiopia. In the experiment, administrative areas were randomly allocated to one of three intervention groups or to a fourth control group. In the first intervention group, both credit and family planning services were provided and the credit officers also provided information on family planning. Only credit or family planning services, but not both, were provided in the other two intervention groups, while areas in the control group received neither type of service. Using pre- and post-intervention surveys, we find that neither type of program, combined or in isolation, led to an increase in contraceptive use that is significantly greater than that observed in the control group. We conjecture that the lack of impact has much to do with the mismatch between women's preferred contraceptive method (injectibles) and the contraceptives provided by community-based agents (pills and condoms).

  20. Knowledge, non-use, use and source of information on contraceptive methods among women in various stages of reproductive age in rural Lagos, Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Bamgboye M; Ezedinachi, Emmanuel Nu; Arikpo, Iwara; Ogunwale, Abiodun; Ganiyu, Damilola Fatimah; Abu, Rashidat A; Ajibade, Adewunmi A

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptives are advocated to be used against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as unsafe abortion contributes to high maternal mortality in Nigeria while unwanted pregnancies have terminated the educational development of many females. This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the knowledge, nonuse, and use of various contraceptive methods among women in different child-bearing age groups in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Between 2012 and 2013, 816 females in rural communities within Lagos State were surveyed for their knowledge, source of information, and use of contraceptives. They were grouped into early, mid, and late reproductive age. Statistical analysis of data harvested from respondents was carried out using STATA 13 software. In all, 816 females in different stages of reproductive age were involved in the study, among whom 19% were single, 78% married, 3% divorced, and 0.5% widowed. About 6% had no formal education, while the majority (81%) were of the Yoruba ethnic group. Married respondents were approximately thrice more likely to know of contraceptives than single respondents ( χ 2 =29.9, P =0.000, odds ratio =2.9, 95% confidence interval =1.9, 4.2). Condom use was the most widely known and used method of contraceptive regardless of marital status and reproductive age status. Information about contraceptives was mainly from health facilities among married and divorced women and from school or educational institution among singles. Overall prevalence of contraceptive use was 51.9%. Nonuse of contraceptives was 43% among married women and 67% among singles. Knowledge of contraceptive method was negatively associated with marital status ( t =-2.24, P =0.025) but positively associated with source of information on contraceptives ( t =20.00, P =0.000). Use of contraceptives was positively associated with stage of reproductive age ( t =1.94, P =0.05) and source of information on contraceptives ( t =11.22, P =0.000), but negatively

  1. Young persons' contraceptive clinic, 1975 to 1980: patterns of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, L; Bury, J K; McGlew, T

    1983-03-01

    From 1975 specific information has been collected for every 5th client who attends the Edinburgh Brook Advisory Center for the 1st time. The Center is a clinic providing contraceptive advice, pregnancy advice, and counseling on sexual concerns and oriented particularly to the needs of young people. As a result of the sustained and systematic data collection, there is a 1 in 5 sample from 1975-80 of new clients to the clinic. Background characteristics are recorded along with details concerning clients' service use and information about how the client learned about the clinic. The data is currently held on computer and is analyzed using the software package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Throughout the discussion, specific reference is made to younger clients, that is to clients under age 20. Due to the fact that Brook users may be unrepresentative of the age group as a whole, generalizations may not be made. It is only pssible to generalize about the type of teenager seen at the Brook Center. The Center sees about 2000 new clients each year and serves an almost exclusively female population. Approximately 20 men attend the clinic each year. Throughout the 1975-80 period, the new client population varied little with regard to age, marital status, and residence. About 86% of women paying a 1st visit were single, and the majority were 21 years of age or under. Around 40% were teenagers. 84% were nulliparous in 1980. Most of the young women came from Edinburgh, but roughly 1/4 came from outside the city. 2/3 of the clients heard about the clinic from someone they knew, a friend or relative who was often a Brook client. In 1975 Brook publicity accounted for 17% of the referrals. In 1980 general practitioner referrals accounted for 7% of new clients. The majority of clients came to the clinic to receive contraception, but a substantial minority attended because they were pregnant or suspected they might be pregnant. Of those clients obtaining contraception

  2. Contraception as a risk factor for urinary tract infection in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O. Dienye

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concerted effort of government and donor agencies to limit fertility by the use of contraceptives has been reported in some studies to predispose to urinary tract infection (UTI. Similar studies have not been conducted in the General Outpatient Department (GOPD of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH. Objectives: This study was aimed at assessing the role of contraceptives in the development of UTI amongst adult females attending the GOPD of UPTH. Method: A case control study in which contraceptive users who attended the GOPD of the UPTH in four months, and an equal number of age-matched controls, were screened for UTI. The information obtained from them was entered into a specially designed pre-tested questionnaire for analysis. The results were analysed using SPSS version 14. Results: A total of 150 contraceptive users and controls were evaluated. Their age range was 18–50 years, with a mean of 27.8 ± 5.3 years. Most of the participants belonged to the lower socioeconomic classes. The combined prevalence of UTI amongst the contraceptive users and the controls was 23.7%, with the contraceptive users at 35.3% and the controls at 12.0%. The association of UTI with contraceptive use was statistically significant, with McNemar’s χ2 = 16.28, p = 0.000, odds ratio (OR = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.7 – 5.3, attributable risk (AR = 23.3, population attributable risk (PAR = 11.7. The users of barrier contraceptives were more predisposed to UTI (OR = 17.30, 95% CI = 7.49 -39.96. Conclusion: Contraceptive use is a significant risk factor for acquiring urinary tract infection, with the barrier methods being more predisposing. Health education for the hygienic and safe use of family planning methods will prevent long-term complications.

  3. Geographical variation and factors influencing modern contraceptive use among married women in Ethiopia: evidence from a national population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Yihunie; Reda, Ayalu A; Tamene, Habtamu; Benedict, Susan; Deribe, Kebede

    2013-09-26

    Modern contraceptive use persists to be low in most African countries where fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. Though there is an evidence of increased overall contraceptive prevalence, a substantial effort remains behind in Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify factors associated with modern contraceptive use and to examine its geographical variations among 15-49 married women in Ethiopia. We conducted secondary analysis of 10,204 reproductive age women included in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The survey sample was designed to provide national, urban/rural, and regional representative estimates for key health and demographic indicators. The sample was selected using a two-stage stratified sampling process. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to determine the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and associated factors in Ethiopia. Being wealthy, more educated, being employed, higher number of living children, being in a monogamous relationship, attending community conversation, being visited by health worker at home strongly predicted use of modern contraception. While living in rural areas, older age, being in polygamous relationship, and witnessing one's own child's death were found negatively influence modern contraceptive use. The spatial analysis of contraceptive use revealed that the central and southwestern parts of the country had higher prevalence of modern contraceptive use than that of the eastern and western parts. The findings indicate significant socio-economic, urban-rural and regional variation in modern contraceptive use among reproductive age women in Ethiopia. Strengthening community conversation programs and female education should be given top priority.

  4. Contraceptive practices of women in Northern Tshwane, Gauteng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although most participants knew about legalised termination of pregnancy services in the RSA, they didnot know how to access these services. The recommendations address ways in which contraceptive services could be improved. Keywords: adolescents\\' contraceptive use; emergency contraception; contraception; ...

  5. Community-based study of Contraceptive Behaviour in Nigeria | Oye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contraceptive prevalence among sexually active respondents was 14.8% for all methods, 10.1% for modern methods and only 0.8% for emergency contraceptives. The most frequently stated reasons for non-use of contraceptives, among those who had never used any contraceptives but who did not want more children ...

  6. The Male Role in Contraception: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Chwee Lye

    1983-01-01

    Many males still perceive contraception as a woman's responsibility. This paper describes male contraceptives and their effectiveness and draws implications for school and community health education professionals. More equitable sharing of the responsibility for contraception might result in more effective contraception. (PP)

  7. Males and Morals: Teenage Contraceptive Behavior Amid the Double Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Peter

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on teenage contraceptive behavior and teenage contraceptive decision making. The paper describes the persistence of a sexual double standard in terms of moral motivation to use contraception and in terms of the relative lack of communication about contraception among young partners. (Author)

  8. Name that Contraceptive! A Game for the Human Sexuality Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Martha S.

    2010-01-01

    There are many contraceptive choices available to people today. Learning about them can be dry, but the game "Name that Contraceptive!" can be a fun and interactive way to review, remember, and retain the details about contraceptive options. Name that Contraceptive is a card game in which students "bid" on the number of clues it will take them to…

  9. Non-contraceptive benefits of hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Valeria Bahamondes, M; Shulman, Lee P

    2015-01-01

    Most contraceptive methods present benefits beyond contraception; however, despite a large body of evidence, many healthcare professionals (HCPs), users and potential users are unaware of those benefits. This review evaluates the evidence for non-contraceptive benefits of hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods. We searched the medical publications in PubMed, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE and LILACS for relevant articles, on non-contraceptive benefits of the use of hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods, which were published in English between 1980 and July 2014. Articles were identified using the following search terms: 'contraceptive methods', 'benefits', 'cancer', 'anaemia', 'heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB)', 'endometrial hyperplasia', 'endometriosis' and 'leiomyoma'. We identified, through the literature search, evidence that some combined oral contraceptives have benefits in controlling HMB and anaemia, reducing the rate of endometrial, ovarian and colorectal cancer and ectopic pregnancy as well as alleviating symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Furthermore, the use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system also controls HMB and anaemia and endometrial hyperplasia and cancer, reduces rates of endometrial polyps in users of tamoxifen and alleviates pain associated with endometriosis and adenomyosis. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate controls crises of pain associated with sickle cell disease and endometriosis. Users of the etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant have the benefits of a reduction of pain associated with endometriosis, and users of the copper intrauterine device have reduced rates of endometrial and cervical cancer. Despite the high contraceptive effectiveness of many hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods, many HCPs, users and potential users are concerned mainly about side effects and safety of both hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods, and there is scarce information

  10. Racial and ethnic differences in men's knowledge and attitudes about contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Sonya; Farkas, Amy; Dehlendorf, Christine; Rocca, Corinne H

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in men's contraceptive knowledge and attitudes. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine racial/ethnic differences in contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among 903 men aged 18-29 in the 2009 National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge. Black and Hispanic men were less likely than Whites to have heard of most contraceptive methods, including female and male sterilization, and also had lower knowledge about hormonal and long-acting reversible methods. They were less likely to know that pills are ineffective when 2-3 pills are missed [Blacks: adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.42; Hispanics: aOR=0.53] and that fertility was not delayed after stopping the pill (Blacks: aOR=0.52; Hispanics: aOR=0.27). Hispanics were less likely to know that nulliparous women can use the intrauterine device (aOR=0.47). Condom knowledge was similar by race/ethnicity, but Blacks were less likely to view condoms as a hassle than Whites (aOR=0.46). Efforts to educate men, especially men of color, about contraceptive methods are needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG THE ELIGIBLE COUPLES IN AN URBAN SLUM OF SAMBALPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatarani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spite of implementation of various programs and policies to curb the population of India, the population growth of India continues to be high in the count of large size of population (58% of total population in the reproductive age group and high fertilit y rate due to unmet need for contraception. OBJECTIVES: To know the knowledge and practice of various contraceptives among the eligible couples. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A cross sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of UHTC, Gaudapali whic h is an urban slum, Sambalpur. The data was collected by interview of the female partners of the eligible couple by house to house visit using a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: Total of 212 marries women of the reproductive age group participated in th e study, most of the couples (96% had knowledge about some contraceptive. Majority of them (69% considered those methods to be quite safe & effective and easy to use. Major source of information (39% was from health care workers. Only 62% of the couples had practiced the contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The increased use of contraceptive requires IEC activity and continuous motivation among the male partner of the couple

  12. Committee Opinion No 707: Access to Emergency Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Emergency contraception refers to contraceptive methods used to prevent pregnancy in the first few days after unprotected intercourse, sexual assault, or contraceptive failure. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 1998, numerous barriers to emergency contraception remain. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to examine barriers to the use of emergency contraception, emphasize the importance of increasing access, and review new methods of emergency contraception and limitations in efficacy in special populations.

  13. Committee Opinion No. 707 Summary: Access to Emergency Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Emergency contraception refers to contraceptive methods used to prevent pregnancy in the first few days after unprotected intercourse, sexual assault, or contraceptive failure. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 1998, numerous barriers to emergency contraception remain. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to examine barriers to the use of emergency contraception, emphasize the importance of increasing access, and review new methods of emergency contraception and limitations in efficacy in special populations.

  14. Adolescent women's contraceptive decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, C S; Plichta, S; Nathanson, C A; Chase, G A; Ensminger, M E; Robinson, J C

    1991-06-01

    A modified rational decision model incorporating salient events and social influences (particularly from sexual partners) is used to analyze adolescent women's consistent use of oral contraceptives (OCs) over a six-month period. Data are taken from a panel study of 308 clients of an inner-city family planning clinic. Expected OC use was computed for each subject on the basis of subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, and is found in multivariate analyses to be a significant predictor of actual OC use. In addition, variables representing baseline and follow-up partner influences, the salience of pregnancy for the subject, and positive side effects of OCs during the first months of use are found to predict OC use. Partner's support of OC use during follow-up and positive side effects of OCs are found to predict OC use among subjects for whom OC use was not the expected decision according to baseline SEU. Implications of the findings for models of adolescents' contraceptive behavior and for clinicians are discussed.

  15. Adolescent contraception: review and guidance for pediatric clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J; Santelli, J S

    2015-02-01

    The majority of adolescents initiate sexual activity during their teenage years, making contraception an important aspect of routine adolescent health care. Despite common misperceptions, all available methods of reversible contraception are appropriate for adolescent use. Contraceptive side effects profiles and barriers to use of certain methods should be considered when providing contraceptives to adolescents. In particular, ease of use, confidentiality, and menstrual effects are main concerns of adolescents. Contraceptive counseling with adolescents should describe method efficacy, discuss user preferences, explore barriers to use, counsel regarding sexually transmitted infection prevention, and consider what to do if contraception fails. Emergency contraception should be widely discussed with adolescents, as it is appropriate for use during gaps in other contraceptive use, method failure, and adolescents who are not using another form of contraception. Dual method use (condom plus a highly effective method of contraception) is the gold standard for prevention of both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

  16. Contraceptive update Y2K: need for contraception and new contraceptive options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A

    2000-01-01

    Despite the major strides made in birth control, which have produced a decline in unintended pregnancies over the past decade and the lowest rates of teen pregnancies seen since 1974 (1,2), significant problems still remain. Almost half (48%) of US pregnancies in 1995 were unintended (1) and many more that were "intended" were not planned or prepared for (3). To optimize maternal and fetal outcomes, it is incumbent that physicians both emphasize the need for women to be physically, emotionally, and socially prepared for pregnancy before they conceive as well as ensure the availability of effective methods to allow them to do so. Today, contraceptives are available that permit couples to choose if and when to have children. Although only 5% of women who are sexually active and say they do not want to become pregnant are using no method of birth control (4), that group accounts for nearly 40% of the unintended pregnancies. More than half of all unintended pregnancies occur in women who had used a method in the month of conception (1). The strategy with these women should be to find ways to make the method they select work better for them or to switch them to more effective methods. Unfortunately, the most effective reversible methods are among the least utilized--in part because they have the highest initial costs. Some states, such as California and Maryland, have passed Contraceptive Equity Acts, which require insurance companies that provide any prescriptive drug coverage to cover all forms of prescription contraception. Many other states, as well as the federal government, are now considering similar legislation. It is important, therefore, both from the perspective of quality patient care and also from a fiscal standpoint, that all who care for reproductive-aged women become familiar with the full array of contraceptive options. This article will review the methods of reversible birth control now available in the United States, including the most recent efficacy

  17. Effect of radiation and other cytotoxic agents on the growth of cells cultured from normal and tumor tissues from the female genital tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.B.; Bonnar, J.

    1990-01-01

    A technique is presented which allows the response of human gynecological tissue to radiation and cytotoxic drugs to be assessed using a tissue culture explant system. The technique is simple to use and gives results in line with those obtained for human tissues by more complex culture methods. Data are presented showing how the explant technique developed by the group for other tissues can be adapted to yield acceptable results for normal tissue response to radiation. The potential of the technique for use in predictive testing of individual tumor response is then assessed in five cases of gynecological malignancy. It is clear that variations in sensitivity to different radio- and chemotherapy agents and combinations can be detected. The results obtained require clinical validation and it is hoped that this will come over the next few years from evaluation of patient response to treatment using individually optimized, rather than empirical therapy

  18. Hormonal emergency contraception: a clinical primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Angela; Hansen, Keith A

    2007-03-01

    Unintended and teenage pregnancies are major public health concerns in the United States. Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after failure of a contraceptive method or after unprotected intercourse. Expanded use of emergency contraception has the potential to reduce unintended pregnancy and induced abortions, while reducing state and federal healthcare expenditures. The recent approval of Plan B as an over-the-counter medication for individuals over 18 years of age should improve access to this medication. However, there are still widespread misconceptions about the mechanisms and implications of emergency contraception. Expanded access to emergency contraception is associated with increased use, but not associated with decreased efficacy, increased sexual risk-taking behavior, or less consistent use of traditional birth control methods. This review is designed to provide clinicians with information regarding the use of emergency contraception for reproductive age patients. It includes a brief description of methods of use, mechanisms of action, and side effect profiles of the most commonly used methods of emergency contraception, levonorgestrel and the Yuzpe method.

  19. Contraception for adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Lourenço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Contraception is an important issue and should be a matter of concern in every medical visit of adolescent and young patients with chronic rheumatic diseases. This narrative review discusses contraception methods in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM. Barrier methods are safe and their use should be encouraged for all adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases. Combined oral contraceptives (COC are strictly prohibited for JSLE and APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Reversible long-acting contraception can be encouraged and offered routinely to the JSLE adolescent patient and other rheumatic diseases. Progestin-only pills are safe in the majority of rheumatic diseases, although the main concern related to its use by adolescents is poor adherence due to menstrual irregularity. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injections every three months is a highly effective contraception strategy, although its long-term use is associated with decreased bone mineral density. COC or other combined hormonal contraceptive may be options for JIA and JDM patients. Oral levonorgestrel should be considered as an emergency contraception method for all adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases, including patients with contraindication to COC.

  20. Controversies in contraception for women with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is an important choice that offers autonomy to women with regard to prevention of unintended pregnancies. There is wide variation in the contraceptive practices between continents, countries, and societies. The medical eligibility for contraception for sexually active women with epilepsy (WWE is determined by the type of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs that they use. Enzyme inducing AEDs such as phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine increase the metabolism of orally administered estrogen (and progesterone to a lesser extent. Estrogen can increase the metabolism of certain AEDs, such as lamotrigine, leading to cyclical variation in its blood level with resultant adverse effect profile or seizure dyscontrol. AEDs and sex hormones can increase the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in WWE. The potential interactions between AEDs and hormonal contraception need to be discussed with all women in reproductive age-group. The alternate options of oral contraception such as intrauterine copper device, intrauterine levonorgestrel release system, and supplementary protection with barriers need to be presented to them. World Health Organization has recommended to avoid combination contraceptive pills containing estrogen and progesteron in women who desire contraception and in breastfeeding mothers. Care providers need to consider the option of non-enzyme-inducing AEDs while initiating long-term treatment in adolescent and young WWE.

  1. Benefits and risks of hormonal contraception for women

    OpenAIRE

    Gorenoi, Vitali; Schönermark, Matthias P.; Hagen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Scientific background: A large proportion of women of reproductive age in Germany use various methods of pregnancy prevention (contraception), among them various hormone-based methods. Hormonal contraceptives may be divided into combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives (pills, skin patches, vaginal rings), progestogen-only contraceptives (pills, injections, implants, hormone spirals) and emergency contraceptives. Research questions: The evaluation addressed the question of benefits and ri...

  2. Mechanisms of action of hormonal emergency contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Vivian W Y; Levine, Marc; Soon, Judith A

    2010-02-01

    Hormonal emergency contraceptives have been used to prevent unwanted pregnancy for more than 3 decades. The mechanisms of action of the regimen containing a combination of estrogen and progestin, known as the Yuzpe regimen, and those of the levonorgestrel regimen continue to be controversial, especially over the possibility that these regimens might act by interfering with implantation of the fertilized ovum. We performed a search of the PubMed (1949-July 2009) and EMBASE (1980-July 2009) databases to identify literature on the mechanisms of action of these contraceptive regimens, and data were extracted from pertinent English-language studies. We classified studies according to the approach taken by the investigators to study the actions of emergency contraceptives on pregnancy: an indirect method that uses statistical models to determine whether emergency contraceptives would be as effective as reported if they act only by disrupting ovulation; direct observation of the effects of emergency contraceptives on surrogate outcomes, including ovulation, sperm activity, hormonal levels, and endometrial receptivity to implantation; and analysis of directly observed pregnancy outcomes against statistical data. Acceptability of emergency contraceptives by women and clinicians may depend on personal opinions about when life or pregnancy begins. The evidence strongly supports disruption of ovulation as a mechanism of action. The data suggest that emergency contraceptives are unlikely to act by interfering with implantation, although the possibility has not been completely excluded. The data also suggest that emergency contraceptives are ineffective after ovulation. Women and clinicians who consider implantation or later events to be the beginning of pregnancy should be aware that emergency contraceptives are likely nonabortive by this definition of pregnancy.

  3. Postpartum education for contraception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Hiller, Janet E; Grimes, David A

    2010-05-01

    Contraceptive education is generally considered a standard component of postpartum care, but the effectiveness is seldom examined. Two-thirds of postpartum women may have unmet needs for contraception, and many adolescents become pregnant again within a year of giving birth. Women may prefer to discuss contraception prenatally or after hospital discharge. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of educational interventions for postpartum mothers about contraceptive use. We searched computerized databases for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness of postpartum contraceptive education. The intervention must have started within 1 month after delivery. The Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio was calculated with 95% confidence interval for the dichotomous outcomes. Eight trials met the inclusion criteria. Of 4 short-term interventions, 1 did not have sufficient data and 1 was statistically underpowered. The remaining 2 showed a positive effect on contraceptive use. Of 4 multifaceted programs, 2 showed fewer pregnancies or births among adolescents in the experimental group that had enhanced services, and 1 structured home-visiting program showed more contraceptive use. The effective interventions were conducted in Australia, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States. Postpartum education about contraception led to more contraception use and fewer unplanned pregnancies. Short-term interventions were limited by self-reported outcomes or showing no effect for many comparisons. The longer-term programs were promising and not necessarily more costly than usual care. Health care providers can determine if 1 of these interventions suits their setting and level of resources. Obstetricians & Gynecologist, Family Physicians. After completing this educational activity, the participant should be better able to assess the importance of assessing delivery methods when examining intervention quality, evaluate the evidence from randomized trials on

  4. Combined oral contraceptives versus levonorgestrel for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, S M; Couchenour, R L

    1998-12-01

    A study supported by the World Health Organization's Task Force on Postovulatory Methods of Fertility Control compared the efficacy of the Yuzpe and levonorgestrel-only methods of emergency contraception (EC). Enrolled in this double-blind, randomized trial were 1998 women from 21 centers around the world who requested EC within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse. The pregnancy rate was 1.1% for levonorgestrel alone and 3.2% for the combined ethinyl estradiol-levonorgestrel regimen. The crude relative risk of pregnancy was 0.36 (95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.70) for levonorgestrel compared with the Yuzpe regimen. The former method prevented 85% of expected pregnancies, while the latter prevented only 57%. Finally, side effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and fatigue were significantly less common in the levonorgestrel group. Although these findings document the superiority of the levonorgestrel regimen for EC, the 0.75 mg tablets are not currently manufactured in the US.

  5. Ideation and intention to use contraceptives in Kenya and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Babalola

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contraceptive use remains low to moderate in most African countries. Ideation, or the ideas and views that people hold, has been advanced as a possible explanation for differences in contraceptive use within and across countries. Objective: In this paper, we sought to identify the relevant dimensions of ideation and assess how these dimensions relate to contraceptive use intentions in two illustrative countries, Kenya and Nigeria. Methods: Using factor analysis, we first identified the relevant dimensions of ideation from a set of cognitive, emotional, and social interaction items. Subsequently, we examined the relationships of these dimensions with intention to use contraceptives. Results: The data revealed four dimensions of contraceptive ideation in both countries: perceived self-efficacy, myths and rumors related to contraceptives, social interactions and influence, and contraceptive awareness. All four dimensions of ideation are strongly associated with contraceptive use intention in Nigeria. Only perceived self-efficacy was significantly associated with contraceptive use intention in Kenya. Conclusions: The ideation model is relevant for contraceptive use research and programing. Programs seeking to increase contraceptive use and help women to attain their desired family size should prioritize promotion of contraceptive self-efficacy. In addition, in countries with low contraceptive prevalence, programs should seek to identify ways to correct prevailing myths and rumors, increase contraceptive awareness, and promote positive social interactions around contraceptive use.

  6. Feminism and the Moral Imperative for Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Eve

    2015-08-01

    This commentary is adapted from the Irvin M. Cushner Memorial Lecture, "Feminism and the Moral Imperative for Contraception," given at 2014 Annual Clinical Meeting of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in Chicago. It provides a brief and simplified historical review of the feminist movement, primarily in the United States, focusing on feminism's association with contraception. This commentary reflects the perspective and opinions of the author. Contraception is fundamental to a woman's ability to achieve equality and realize her full social, economic, and intellectual potential.

  7. Contraception for Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Mathiesen, E.; Clausen, T.D.

    2005-01-01

    Planned pregnancy is mandatory in women with diabetes, and their need for contraception is essential. Basically, the same methods can be used as in women without diabetes, but a number of specific conditions have to be considered when guiding these women, as we discuss in this review. Unfortunately......, the field is limited in studies in certain areas, especially considering contraception for women with type 1 diabetes and late diabetic complications and women with type 2 diabetes. Thus, in the real clinical world, the choice of contraceptive often will be a kind of compromise, balancing pro and cons...

  8. Contraception for women with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth; Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Planned pregnancy is mandatory in women with diabetes, and their need for contraception is essential. Basically, the same methods can be used as in women without diabetes, but a number of specific conditions have to be considered when guiding these women, as we discuss in this review. Unfortunately......, the field is limited in studies in certain areas, especially considering contraception for women with type 1 diabetes and late diabetic complications and women with type 2 diabetes. Thus, in the real clinical world, the choice of contraceptive often will be a kind of compromise, balancing pro and cons...

  9. Usage patterns and attitudes towards emergency contraception: the International Emergency Contraception Research Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovics, Miklós; Virágh, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the survey was to gain understanding of women's usage patterns and attitudes towards emergency contraception (i.e., the 'morning after pill') and to gain insight into the role and attitudes of pharmacists as providers of emergency contraception. As part of the International Emergency Contraception Research Initiative, approximately 6500 women (15-49 years) and nearly 500 pharmacists from 14 countries in Western, Central and Eastern Europe, and Central Asia completed questionnaires via web-based interrogation or computer-assisted/paper-assisted personal interviews. Common to almost all countries and cultures was that, while awareness of emergency contraception was high (≥84% of respondents, except in Kazakhstan), usage was generally low (4-18%). In Austria, the Czech Republic, Spain, and the UK, better underlying protection with hormonal contraceptives or male condoms would have meant less need for emergency contraception. In Bulgaria, Lithuania, Romania, and Russia, greater dependence on less reliable contraceptive methods such as calendar + withdrawal was associated with higher use of the emergency contraceptive pill (11-18%) but also with higher abortion rates (19-21%). Overt rejection of emergency contraception in the event of an accident was low, except in countries (e.g., Austria, Poland) where the misperception that it acts as an abortifacient was common. Except for Bulgaria, pharmacists elsewhere tended to have limited knowledge and moralistic attitudes towards emergency contraception. Improved educational efforts, probably country-specific, are required to increase the use of highly effective methods of regular contraception and overcome barriers to acceptance of emergency contraception as a suitable postcoital solution to avoid unwanted pregnancy or abortion.

  10. Copper intrauterine device for emergency contraception: clinical practice among contraceptive providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Cynthia C; Speidel, J Joseph; Drey, Eleanor A; Trussell, James; Blum, Maya; Darney, Philip D

    2012-02-01

    The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the most effective emergency contraceptive available but is largely ignored in clinical practice. We examined clinicians' recommendations of the copper IUD for emergency contraception in a setting with few cost obstacles. We conducted a survey among clinicians (n=1,246; response rate 65%) in a California State family planning program, where U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptives are available at no cost to low-income women. We used multivariable logistic regression to measure the association of intrauterine contraceptive training and evidence-based knowledge with having recommended the copper IUD for emergency contraception. The large majority of clinicians (85%) never recommended the copper IUD for emergency contraception, and most (93%) required two or more visits for an IUD insertion. Multivariable analyses showed insertion skills were associated with having recommended the copper IUD for emergency contraception, but the most significant factor was evidence-based knowledge of patient selection for IUD use. Clinicians who viewed a wide range of patients as IUD candidates were twice as likely to have recommended the copper IUD for emergency contraception. Although more than 93% of obstetrician-gynecologists were skilled in inserting the copper IUD, they were no more likely to have recommended it for emergency contraception than other physicians or advance practice clinicians. Recommendation of the copper IUD for emergency contraception is rare, despite its high efficacy and long-lasting contraceptive benefits. Recommendation would require clinic flow and scheduling adjustments to allow same-day IUD insertions. Patient-centered and high-quality care for emergency contraception should include a discussion of the most effective method. III.

  11. Does the contraceptive pill alter mate choice in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvergne, Alexandra; Lummaa, Virpi

    2010-03-01

    Female and male mate choice preferences in humans both vary according to the menstrual cycle. Women prefer more masculine, symmetrical and genetically unrelated men during ovulation compared with other phases of their cycle, and recent evidence suggests that men prefer ovulating women to others. Such monthly shifts in mate preference have been suggested to bring evolutionary benefits in terms of reproductive success. New evidence is now emerging that taking the oral contraceptive pill might significantly alter both female and male mate choice by removing the mid-cycle change in preferences. Here, we review support for such conclusions and speculate on the consequences of pill-induced choice of otherwise less-preferred partners for relationship satisfaction, durability and, ultimately, reproductive outcomes.

  12. When can a woman resume or initiate contraception after taking emergency contraceptive pills? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Maria I; Curtis, Kathryn M; Kapp, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    Hormonal emergency contraception can postpone ovulation, making a woman vulnerable to pregnancy later in the same cycle. However, concern exists as to whether concurrently administered emergency contraception pills (ECP) and other hormonal methods of contraception may affect the effectiveness of both medications. A systematic review of the literature using PubMed and the Cochrane databases was performed to identify articles concerning the resumption or initiation of regular contraception within the same cycle as ECP use. We searched for articles in any language, published between 1980 and April 2012 and included all methods of emergency contraception pills available in the USA. The search strategy identified 184 articles in the PubMed and Cochrane databases, of which none met inclusion criteria. The drug manufacturer advises continuation or initiation of routine contraception as soon as possible after use of ulipristal acetate, with concomitant use of a reliable barrier method until next menses. However, a theoretical concern exists that given ulipristal acetate's function as a selective progesterone receptor modulator, coadministration of a progestin could decrease its effectiveness as an emergency contraceptive. Initiation of hormonal contraception following levonorgestrel or the Yuzpe regimen for emergency contraception carries no similar concern for decreased method effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge and Usage of Emergency Contraceptives Among University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darteh, Eugene Kofuor Maafo; Doku, David Teye

    2016-02-01

    Contraceptive use is an important strategy for the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of induced abortion. Of all the contraception methods, emergency contraceptive (EC) offers the last chance to achieve this. However, few studies have documented the use of EC among young people in Ghana. This study explored knowledge and usage of EC as well as the factors associated with it among University of Cape Coast students. Data were obtained on the knowledge and usage of ECs among University of Cape Coast students in 2013. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between students' socio-demographic characteristics and EC knowledge and use. More male students (72%) than females (59%) were sexually active. Fifty-seven percent of the respondents had ever heard of EC and 36% had ever used EC. Although males were more likely to be sexually active, females were more likely to have knowledge of EC use compared to males. The study underscores the need to increase awareness regarding EC among University students in order to offer them the opportunity that EC provides if other forms of contraceptives are missed.

  14. Health literacy and contraception: a readability evaluation of contraceptive instructions for condoms, spermicides and emergency contraception in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ibiary, Shareen Y; Youmans, Sharon L

    2007-03-01

    To assess readability of over-the-counter (OTC) contraceptive product instructions currently available, compare the results with previous studies from a decade ago, and review the implications for health care providers, in particular pharmacists counseling on OTC contraceptives. A sample of contraceptive instructions was submitted to a readability analysis using four standard readability formulas. Products included condoms, spermicides, and emergency contraception instruction pamphlets. Reading grade levels for condoms ranged from 6th to 12th grade. The average reading levels for the spermicides were 9th-10th grade and for the emergency contraceptives 10th-12th grade. These results were consistent with those of similar studies performed a decade ago. Consumers need to have at least a high school reading level in order to comprehend current product instructions. Very little has changed in the past decade regarding readability of OTC contraceptive patient instructions, despite calls to simplify written instructions. Healthcare providers, in particular pharmacists, must be aware of these disparities to enhance patient education and advocate for simpler reading materials.

  15. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country. Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2 of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9, males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2, studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4, and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4, mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4 reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6, females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5 and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5. Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7, with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6, and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0 and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6 from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9 and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8, and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA’s data analysis on sexuality and

  16. The use of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog deslorelin for short-term contraception in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppel, Katja N; Barrows, Michelle; Visser, Katherine

    2014-01-15

    Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CONTRACEPTIVE PRACTICE AMONG MARRIED MARKET MEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-07-01

    Jul 1, 2003 ... dominate familial and social relations including production and ... providers had focused almost exclusively on women. However, studies .... Mass media can ... by Islam, many of them think that modern contraceptive methods ...

  18. Awareness and Practice of Emergency Contraception Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    There is therefore an urgent need to improve the student's knowledge and use .... period to eliminate chances of correlated or block response. ... emergency contraception pills only in pharmacies and health facilities ... poor settings like ours.

  19. Attitudes towards and knowledge about intrauterine contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of attitudes, 40.0% (n=60) expressed concern about the pain during insertion, 33.3% (n=50) believed the IUCD can ... women are at risk of unintended pregnancy. ... pregnancies requires long periods of effective contraceptive use.

  20. New frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C Yan; Mruk, Dolores D

    2010-11-01

    The world's population is nearing 6.8 billion, and we are in need of a male contraceptive that is safe, effective, reversible and affordable. Hormonal approaches, which employ different formulations of testosterone administered in combination with other hormones, have shown considerable promise in clinical trials, and they are currently at the forefront of research and development. However, the long-term effects of using hormones throughout a male's reproductive life for contraception are unknown, and it may take decades before this information becomes available. Because of this, many investigators are aiming to bring a nonhormonal male contraceptive to the consumer market. Indeed, there are several distinct but feasible avenues in which fertility can be regulated without affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. In this review, we discuss several approaches for fertility control involving the testis that one day may lead to the development of a nonhormonal male contraceptive. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.