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Sample records for continuum quasiparticle linear

  1. Thermal quasiparticle correlations and continuum coupling in nuclei far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Nguyen Dinh; Arima, Akito

    2003-01-01

    The contributions of quasiparticle correlations and continuum coupling upon the superfluid properties of neutron-rich Ni isotopes are studied within the modified BCS approximation at finite temperature. The effect of quasiparticle correlations is included using a secondary Bogoliubov transformation explicitly involving the quasiparticle occupation numbers at temperature T. The effect of continuum coupling is taken in to account via the finite widths of the single-particle resonant states. It is shown that the combination of these effects washes out the sharp superfluid-normal phase transition given by the standard finite-temperature BCS calculations. It is also found that the two-neutron separation energy for 84 Ni drops to zero at T congruent with 0.8 MeV

  2. Chromomagnetism and quasiparticles at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonyi, J.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1987-01-01

    The necessity for chromomagnetically charged quasiparticles in QCD is discussed. It is shown numerically that such quasiparticles are present in pure continuum QCD. Some effects of the gas of quasiparticles are conjectured. (orig.)

  3. Linearized self-consistent quasiparticle GW method: Application to semiconductors and simple metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutepov, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a code implementing the linearized self-consistent quasiparticle GW method (QSGW) in the LAPW basis. Our approach is based on the linearization of the self-energy around zero frequency which differs it from the existing implementations of the QSGW method. The linearization allows us to use Matsubara frequencies instead of working on the real axis. This results in efficiency gains by switching to the imaginary time representation in the same way as in the space time method. The all electron LAPW basis set eliminates the need for pseudopotentials. We discuss the advantages of our approach, such as its N 3 scaling with the system size N, as well as its shortcomings. We apply our approach to study the electronic properties of selected semiconductors, insulators, and simple metals and show that our code produces the results very close to the previously published QSGW data. Our implementation is a good platform for further many body diagrammatic resummations such as the vertex-corrected GW approach and the GW+DMFT method.

  4. Linearized self-consistent quasiparticle GW method: Application to semiconductors and simple metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, A. L.; Oudovenko, V. S.; Kotliar, G.

    2017-10-01

    We present a code implementing the linearized quasiparticle self-consistent GW method (LQSGW) in the LAPW basis. Our approach is based on the linearization of the self-energy around zero frequency which differs it from the existing implementations of the QSGW method. The linearization allows us to use Matsubara frequencies instead of working on the real axis. This results in efficiency gains by switching to the imaginary time representation in the same way as in the space time method. The all electron LAPW basis set eliminates the need for pseudopotentials. We discuss the advantages of our approach, such as its N3 scaling with the system size N, as well as its shortcomings. We apply our approach to study the electronic properties of selected semiconductors, insulators, and simple metals and show that our code produces the results very close to the previously published QSGW data. Our implementation is a good platform for further many body diagrammatic resummations such as the vertex-corrected GW approach and the GW+DMFT method. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/cpchkfty4w.1 Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License Programming language: Fortran 90 External routines/libraries: BLAS, LAPACK, MPI (optional) Nature of problem: Direct implementation of the GW method scales as N4 with the system size, which quickly becomes prohibitively time consuming even in the modern computers. Solution method: We implemented the GW approach using a method that switches between real space and momentum space representations. Some operations are faster in real space, whereas others are more computationally efficient in the reciprocal space. This makes our approach scale as N3. Restrictions: The limiting factor is usually the memory available in a computer. Using 10 GB/core of memory allows us to study the systems up to 15 atoms per unit cell.

  5. Bounding the electrostatic free energies associated with linear continuum models of molecular solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Knepley, Matthew G; Anitescu, Mihai

    2009-03-14

    The importance of electrostatic interactions in molecular biology has driven extensive research toward the development of accurate and efficient theoretical and computational models. Linear continuum electrostatic theory has been surprisingly successful, but the computational costs associated with solving the associated partial differential equations (PDEs) preclude the theory's use in most dynamical simulations. Modern generalized-Born models for electrostatics can reproduce PDE-based calculations to within a few percent and are extremely computationally efficient but do not always faithfully reproduce interactions between chemical groups. Recent work has shown that a boundary-integral-equation formulation of the PDE problem leads naturally to a new approach called boundary-integral-based electrostatics estimation (BIBEE) to approximate electrostatic interactions. In the present paper, we prove that the BIBEE method can be used to rigorously bound the actual continuum-theory electrostatic free energy. The bounds are validated using a set of more than 600 proteins. Detailed numerical results are presented for structures of the peptide met-enkephalin taken from a molecular-dynamics simulation. These bounds, in combination with our demonstration that the BIBEE methods accurately reproduce pairwise interactions, suggest a new approach toward building a highly accurate yet computationally tractable electrostatic model.

  6. Bounding the electrostatic free energies associated with linear continuum models of molecular solvation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, J. P.; Knepley, M. G.; Anitescu, M. (Biosciences Division); ( MCS); (Rush Univ.)

    2009-03-01

    The importance of electrostatic interactions in molecular biology has driven extensive research toward the development of accurate and efficient theoretical and computational models. Linear continuum electrostatic theory has been surprisingly successful, but the computational costs associated with solving the associated partial differential equations (PDEs) preclude the theory's use in most dynamical simulations. Modern generalized-Born models for electrostatics can reproduce PDE-based calculations to within a few percent and are extremely computationally efficient but do not always faithfully reproduce interactions between chemical groups. Recent work has shown that a boundary-integral-equation formulation of the PDE problem leads naturally to a new approach called boundary-integral-based electrostatics estimation (BIBEE) to approximate electrostatic interactions. In the present paper, we prove that the BIBEE method can be used to rigorously bound the actual continuum-theory electrostatic free energy. The bounds are validated using a set of more than 600 proteins. Detailed numerical results are presented for structures of the peptide met-enkephalin taken from a molecular-dynamics simulation. These bounds, in combination with our demonstration that the BIBEE methods accurately reproduce pairwise interactions, suggest a new approach toward building a highly accurate yet computationally tractable electrostatic model.

  7. Trojan quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertjerenken, Bettina; Holthaus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We argue that a time-periodically driven bosonic Josephson junction supports stable, quasiparticle-like collective response modes which are N-particle analogs of the nonspreading Trojan wave packets known from microwave-driven Rydberg atoms. Similar to their single-particle counterparts, these collective modes, dubbed ‘flotons’, are well described by a Floquet–Mathieu approximation, and possess a well-defined discrete set of excitations. In contrast to other, ‘chaotic’ modes of response, the nonheating Trojan modes conform to a mean-field description, and thus may be of particular interest for the more general question under which conditions the reduction of quantum N-particle dynamics to a strongly simplified mean-field evolution is feasible. Our reasoning is supported by phase-space portraits which reveal the degree of correspondence beween the N-particle dynamics und the mean-field picture in an intuitive manner. (paper)

  8. Quasiparticle Breakdown in a Quantum Spin Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Matthew B.; Zalinznyak, I.; Hong, T.; Broholm, C.L.; Reich, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Much of modern condensed matter physics is understood in terms of elementary excitations, or quasiparticles -- fundamental quanta of energy and momentum. Various strongly interacting atomic systems are successfully treated as a collection of quasiparticles with weak or no interactions. However, there are interesting limitations to this description: in some systems the very existence of quasiparticles cannot be taken for granted. Like unstable elementary particles, quasiparticles cannot survive beyond a threshold where certain decay channels become allowed by conservation laws; their spectrum terminates at this threshold. Such quasiparticle breakdown was first predicted for an exotic state of matter -- super-fluid 4 He at temperatures close to absolute zero, a quantum Bose liquid where zero-point atomic motion precludes crystallization. Here we show, using neutron scattering, that quasiparticle breakdown can also occur in a quantum magnet and, by implication, in other systems with Bose quasiparticles. We have measured spin excitations in a two-dimensional quantum magnet, piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC), in which spin-1/2 copper ions form a non-magnetic quantum spin liquid, and find remarkable similarities with excitations in superfluid 4 He. We observe a threshold momentum beyond which the quasiparticle peak merges with the two-quasiparticle continuum. It then acquires a finite energy width and becomes indistinguishable from a leading-edge singularity, so that excited states are no longer quasiparticles but occupy a wide band of energy. Our findings have important ramifications for understanding excitations with gapped spectra in many condensed matter systems, ranging from band insulators to high-transition-temperature superconductors.

  9. On the existence of eigenmodes of linear quasi-periodic differential equations and their relation to the MHD continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salat, A.

    1981-12-01

    The existence of quasi-periodic eigensolutions of a linear second order ordinary differential equation with quasi-periodic coefficient f(ω 1 t,ω 2 t) is investigated numerically and graphically. For sufficiently incommensurate frequencies ω 1 , ω 2 a doubly indexed infinite sequence of eigenvalues and eigenmodes is obtained. The equation considered is a model for the magneto-hydrodynamic 'continuum' in general toroidal geometry. The result suggests that continuum modes exist at least on sufficiently irrational magnetic surfaces. (orig.)

  10. Quasiparticle trapping and the quasiparticle multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Superconductors and in particular superconducting tunnel junctions can be used to detect phonons, electromagnetic radiation, x rays, and nuclear particles by the mechanism of Cooper-pair breaking to produce excess quasiparticles and phonons. We show that the sensitivity can be increased by a factor of 100 or more by trapping the quasiparticles in another superconductor of lower gap in the region of the tunnel junction. Moreover, if the ratio of the gap energies is >3 a multiplication process can occur due to the interaction of the relaxation phonons. This leads to the concept of the quasiparticle multiplier, a device which could have wider applications than the Gray effect transistor or the quiteron

  11. Field induced spontaneous quasiparticle decay and renormalization of quasiparticle dispersion in a quantum antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Qiu, Y; Matsumoto, M; Tennant, D A; Coester, K; Schmidt, K P; Awwadi, F F; Turnbull, M M; Agrawal, H; Chernyshev, A L

    2017-05-05

    The notion of a quasiparticle, such as a phonon, a roton or a magnon, is used in modern condensed matter physics to describe an elementary collective excitation. The intrinsic zero-temperature magnon damping in quantum spin systems can be driven by the interaction of the one-magnon states and multi-magnon continuum. However, detailed experimental studies on this quantum many-body effect induced by an applied magnetic field are rare. Here we present a high-resolution neutron scattering study in high fields on an S=1/2 antiferromagnet C 9 H 18 N 2 CuBr 4 . Compared with the non-interacting linear spin-wave theory, our results demonstrate a variety of phenomena including field-induced renormalization of one-magnon dispersion, spontaneous magnon decay observed via intrinsic linewidth broadening, unusual non-Lorentzian two-peak structure in the excitation spectra and a dramatic shift of spectral weight from one-magnon state to the two-magnon continuum.

  12. Quasiparticle band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manghi, F., E-mail: franca.manghi@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR – Institute of NanoSciences – S3 (Italy); Boni, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We review many body techniques for quasiparticle calculations. • We focus on transition metals and transition metal oxides. • We discuss spin dependent energy renormalization and quasiparticle quenching. • We present a detailed comparison between two methods (DMFT and 3BS).

  13. Quasiparticle band structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manghi, F.; Boni, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review many body techniques for quasiparticle calculations. • We focus on transition metals and transition metal oxides. • We discuss spin dependent energy renormalization and quasiparticle quenching. • We present a detailed comparison between two methods (DMFT and 3BS).

  14. Quasiparticles in condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Quasiparticles are a powerful concept of condensed matter quantum theory. In this review, the appearence and the properties of quasiparticles are presented in a unifying perspective. The principles behind the existence of quasiparticle excitations in both quantum disordered and ordered phases of fermionic and bosonic systems are discussed. The lifetime of quasiparticles is considered in particular near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, when the nature of quasiparticles on both sides of a transition into an ordered state changes. A new concept of critical quasiparticles near a quantum critical point is introduced, and applied to quantum phase transitions in heavy fermion metals. Fractional quasiparticles in systems of restricted dimensionality are reviewed. Dirac quasiparticles emerging in so-called Dirac materials are discussed. The more recent discoveries of topologically protected chiral quasiparticles in topological matter and Majorana quasiparticles in topological superconductors are briefly reviewed.

  15. Linearly scaling and almost Hamiltonian dielectric continuum molecular dynamics simulations through fast multipole expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul, E-mail: tavan@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Lehrstuhl für BioMolekulare Optik, Ludig–Maximilians Universität München, Oettingenstr. 67, 80538 München (Germany)

    2015-11-14

    Hamiltonian Dielectric Solvent (HADES) is a recent method [S. Bauer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104103 (2014)] which enables atomistic Hamiltonian molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of peptides and proteins in dielectric solvent continua. Such simulations become rapidly impractical for large proteins, because the computational effort of HADES scales quadratically with the number N of atoms. If one tries to achieve linear scaling by applying a fast multipole method (FMM) to the computation of the HADES electrostatics, the Hamiltonian character (conservation of total energy, linear, and angular momenta) may get lost. Here, we show that the Hamiltonian character of HADES can be almost completely preserved, if the structure-adapted fast multipole method (SAMM) as recently redesigned by Lorenzen et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244-3259 (2014)] is suitably extended and is chosen as the FMM module. By this extension, the HADES/SAMM forces become exact gradients of the HADES/SAMM energy. Their translational and rotational invariance then guarantees (within the limits of numerical accuracy) the exact conservation of the linear and angular momenta. Also, the total energy is essentially conserved—up to residual algorithmic noise, which is caused by the periodically repeated SAMM interaction list updates. These updates entail very small temporal discontinuities of the force description, because the employed SAMM approximations represent deliberately balanced compromises between accuracy and efficiency. The energy-gradient corrected version of SAMM can also be applied, of course, to MD simulations of all-atom solvent-solute systems enclosed by periodic boundary conditions. However, as we demonstrate in passing, this choice does not offer any serious advantages.

  16. Quasiparticles, phonons and beyond. Enlargement the basis of quasiparticle-phonon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    The version of Quasiparticle-Phonon Model (QPM) which accounts up to three-phonons is discussed. The new basis is used to study the low-lying isovector mode and the low-energy E1 transitions forbidden in the ideal boson picture. The coupling to the continuum is incorporated in the formalism of QPM. The phenomenon of trapping of states is studied in the case of high-lying states with large angular momentum. (author)

  17. Asymptotic kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas: quasi-particle concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Zagorodny, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    The asymptotic kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas is elaborated within the context of general statistical approach and asymptotic methods, developed by M. Krylov and M. Bohol'ubov, for linear and non-linear dynamic systems with a rapidly rotating phase. The quasi-particles are introduced already on the microscopic level. Asymptotic expansions enable to close the description for slow processes, and to relate consistently particles and guiding centres to quasi-particles. The kinetic equation for quasi-particles is derived. It makes a basis for the reduced description of slow collective phenomena in the medium. The kinetic equation for quasi-particles takes into account self-consistent interaction fields, quasi-particle collisions and collective-fluctuation-induced relaxation of quasi-particle distribution function. The relationships between the distribution functions for particles, guiding centres and quasi-particles are derived taking into account fluctuations, which can be especially important in turbulent states. In this way macroscopic (statistical) particle properties can be obtained from those of quasi-particles in the general case of non-equilibrium. (authors)

  18. Superconductors with excess quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kopaev, Y.V.

    1981-01-01

    This review presents a systematic kinetic theory of nonequilibrium phenomena in superconductors with excess quasiparticles created by electromagnetic or tunnel injection. The energy distributions of excess quasiparticles and of nonequilibrium phonons, dependence of the order parameter on the power and frequency (or intensity) of the electromagnetic field, magnetic properties of nonequilibrium superconductors, I-V curves of superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions, and other properties are described in detail. The stability of superconducting states far from thermodynamic equilibrium is investigated and it is shown that characteristic instabilities leading to the formation of nonuniform states of a new type or phase transitions of the first kind are inherent to superconductors with excess quasiparticles. The results are compared with experimental data

  19. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: Linearization of the calibration curves within a broad concentration range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katskov, Dmitri, E-mail: katskovda@tut.ac.za [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hlongwane, Miranda [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Heitmann, Uwe [German Aerospace Center, Rose-Luxemburg Str. 2, 10178 Berlin (Germany); Florek, Stefan [ISAS-Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The calculation algorithm suggested provides linearization of the calibration curves in high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The algorithm is based on the modification of the function wavelength-integrated absorbance vs. concentration of analyte vapor in the absorption volume. According to the suggested approach, the absorption line is represented by a triangle for low and trapezium for high analyte vapor concentration in the absorption volume. The respective semi-empirical formulas include two linearization parameters, which depend on properties of the absorption line and characteristics of the atomizer and spectrometer. The parameters can be approximately evaluated from the theory and determined in practice from the original broad-range calibration curve. The parameters were found and the proposed calculation algorithm verified in the experiments on direct determination of Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb in the solutions within a concentration ranges from 0.15 to 625 {mu}g{center_dot}L{sup -1} using tube, platform tube and filter furnace atomizers. The use of various atomizers, lines, elements and atomization temperatures made possible the simulation of various practical analytical conditions. It was found that the algorithm and optimal linearization parameters made it possible to obtain for each line and atomizer linear approximations of the calibration curves within 3-4 orders of magnitude with correlation coefficients close to 0.999. The algorithm makes possible to employ a single line for the direct element determination over a broad concentration range. The sources of errors and the possibility of a priori theoretical evaluation of the linearization parameters are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New calculation algorithm for HR-CS ET AAS measurements was proposed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggested formulas include two parameters to be determined experimentally. Black

  20. Linear response coupled cluster theory with the polarizable continuum model within the singles approximation for the solvent response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, Marco

    2018-04-01

    We report the theory and the implementation of the linear response function of the coupled cluster (CC) with the single and double excitations method combined with the polarizable continuum model of solvation, where the correlation solvent response is approximated with the perturbation theory with energy and singles density (PTES) scheme. The singles name is derived from retaining only the contribution of the CC single excitation amplitudes to the correlation density. We compare the PTES working equations with those of the full-density (PTED) method. We then test the PTES scheme on the evaluation of excitation energies and transition dipoles of solvated molecules, as well as of the isotropic polarizability and specific rotation. Our results show a negligible difference between the PTED and PTES schemes, while the latter affords a significantly reduced computational cost. This scheme is general and can be applied to any solvation model that includes mutual solute-solvent polarization, including explicit models. Therefore, the PTES scheme is a competitive approach to compute response properties of solvated systems using CC methods.

  1. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  2. Renormalized plasma turbulence theory: A quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    A general renormalized statistical theory of Vlasov turbulence is given which proceeds directly from the Vlasov equation and does not assume prior knowledge of sophisticated field-theoretic techniques. Quasiparticles are the linear excitations of the turbulent system away from its instantaneous mean (ensemble-averaged) state or background; the properties of this background state ''dress'' or renormalize the quasiparticle responses. It is shown that all two-point responses (including the dielectric) and all two-point correlation functions can be completely described by the mean distribution function and three fundamental quantities. Two of these are the quasiparticle responses: the propagator and the potential source: which measure, respectively, the separate responses of the mean distribution function and the mean electrostatic potential to functional changes in an external phase-space source added to Vlasov's equation. The third quantity is the two-point correlation function of the incoherent part of the phase-space density which acts as a self-consistent source of quasiparticle and potential fluctuations. This theory explicitly takes into account the self-consistent nature of the electrostatic-field fluctuations which introduces new effects not found in the usual ''test-particle'' theories. Explicit equations for the fundamental quantities are derived in the direct interaction approximation. Special attention is paid to the two-point correlations and the relation to theories of phase-space granulation

  3. Quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    The general assumptions of the quasiparticle-phonon model of complex nuclei are given. The choice of the model hamiltonian as an average field and residual forces is discussed. The phonon description and quasiparticle-phonon interaction are presented. The system of basic equations and their approximate solutions are obtained. The approximation is chosen so as to obtain the most correct description of few-quasiparticle components rather than of the whole wave function. The method of strenght functions is presented, which plays a decisive role in practical realization of the quasiparticle-phonon model for the description of some properties of complex nuclei. The range of applicability of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is determined as few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions at low, intermediate and high excitation energies averaged in a certain energy interval

  4. Resonant quasiparticles in plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, J.T.; Bingham, R.; Shukla, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    A general view is proposed on wave propagation in fluids and plasmas where the resonant interaction of monochromatic waves with quasiparticles is considered. A kinetic equation for quasiparticles is used to describe the broadband turbulence interacting with monochromatic waves. Resonant interactions occur when the phase velocity of the long wavelength monochromatic wave is nearly equal to the group velocity of short wavelength wave packets, or quasiparticles, associated with the turbulent spectrum. It is shown that quasiparticle Landau damping can take place, as well as quasiparticle beam instabilities, thus establishing a direct link between short and large wavelength perturbations of the medium. This link is distinct from the usual picture of direct and inverse energy cascades, and it can be used as a different paradigm for the fluid and plasma turbulence theories

  5. Notes on continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Eduardo W V

    2013-01-01

    This publication is aimed at students, teachers, and researchers of Continuum Mechanics and focused extensively on stating and developing Initial Boundary Value equations used to solve physical problems. With respect to notation, the tensorial, indicial and Voigt notations have been used indiscriminately.   The book is divided into twelve chapters with the following topics: Tensors, Continuum Kinematics, Stress, The Objectivity of Tensors, The Fundamental Equations of Continuum Mechanics, An Introduction to Constitutive Equations, Linear Elasticity, Hyperelasticity, Plasticity (small and large deformations), Thermoelasticity (small and large deformations), Damage Mechanics (small and large deformations), and An Introduction to Fluids. Moreover, the text is supplemented with over 280 figures, over 100 solved problems, and 130 references.

  6. Quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-07-01

    A microscopic calculation of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter is detailed. In order to take especial care of the contributions from the low momentum states, a model space is introduced. Excluded from the model space, the high momentum states are absorbed into the model interaction. Brueckner theory suggests the choice of a truncated G-matrix as a good approximation for this model interaction. A simple perturbative approach is attempted within the model space. The calculated quasiparticle interaction is consistent with experimental results. (11 tables, 14 figures)

  7. Scaling versus asymptotic scaling in the non-linear σ-model in 2D. Continuum version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyvbjerg, H.

    1990-01-01

    The two-point function of the O(N)-symmetric non-linear σ-model in two dimensions is large-N expanded and renormalized, neglecting terms of O(1/N 2 ). At finite cut-off, universal, analytical expressions relate the magnetic susceptibility and the dressed mass to the bare coupling. Removing the cut-off, a similar relation gives the renormalized coupling as a function of the mass gap. In the weak-coupling limit these relations reproduce the results of renormalization group improved weak-coupling perturbation theory to two-loop order. The constant left unknown, when the renormalization group is integrated, is determined here. The approach to asymptotic scaling is studied for various values of N. (orig.)

  8. Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This book offers a broad overview of the potential of continuum mechanics to describe a wide range of macroscopic phenomena in real-world problems. Building on the fundamentals presented in the authors' previous book, Continuum Mechanics using Mathematica(R), this new work explores interesting models of continuum mechanics, with an emphasis on exploring the flexibility of their applications in a wide variety of fields.Specific topics, which have been chosen to show the power of continuum mechanics to characterize the experimental behavior of real phenomena, include: * various aspects of nonlin

  9. Brownian quasi-particles and quantum quasi-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronteau, J.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of quasi-particles is used in Statistical Mechanics as well as in Quantum Mechanics, to associate differentiable trajectories to the equations of evolution, trajectories on which a maximum of informations is concentrated concerning the phenomena studied. Two cases are treated numerically, that of the Fokker-Planck equation with an x - x 3 field, and that of the Schroedinger equation with null potential, in a situation of interference [fr

  10. Accurate Solution of Multi-Region Continuum Biomolecule Electrostatic Problems Using the Linearized Poisson-Boltzmann Equation with Curved Boundary Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Michael D.; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; White, Jacob K.; Tidor, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    We present a boundary-element method (BEM) implementation for accurately solving problems in biomolecular electrostatics using the linearized Poisson–Boltzmann equation. Motivating this implementation is the desire to create a solver capable of precisely describing the geometries and topologies prevalent in continuum models of biological molecules. This implementation is enabled by the synthesis of four technologies developed or implemented specifically for this work. First, molecular and accessible surfaces used to describe dielectric and ion-exclusion boundaries were discretized with curved boundary elements that faithfully reproduce molecular geometries. Second, we avoided explicitly forming the dense BEM matrices and instead solved the linear systems with a preconditioned iterative method (GMRES), using a matrix compression algorithm (FFTSVD) to accelerate matrix-vector multiplication. Third, robust numerical integration methods were employed to accurately evaluate singular and near-singular integrals over the curved boundary elements. Finally, we present a general boundary-integral approach capable of modeling an arbitrary number of embedded homogeneous dielectric regions with differing dielectric constants, possible salt treatment, and point charges. A comparison of the presented BEM implementation and standard finite-difference techniques demonstrates that for certain classes of electrostatic calculations, such as determining absolute electrostatic solvation and rigid-binding free energies, the improved convergence properties of the BEM approach can have a significant impact on computed energetics. We also demonstrate that the improved accuracy offered by the curved-element BEM is important when more sophisticated techniques, such as non-rigid-binding models, are used to compute the relative electrostatic effects of molecular modifications. In addition, we show that electrostatic calculations requiring multiple solves using the same molecular geometry

  11. Brownian quasi-particles in statistical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez-Arenas, A.; Fronteau, J.; Combis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The idea of a Brownian quasi-particle and the associated differentiable flow (with nonselfadjoint forces) are used here in the context of a stochastic description of the approach towards statistical equilibrium. We show that this quasi-particle flow acquires, at equilibrium, the principal properties of a conservative Hamiltonian flow. Thus the model of Brownian quasi-particles permits us to establish a link between the stochastic description and the Gibbs description of statistical equilibrium

  12. Quasiparticles in non-uniformly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is generalized for the case of non-uniformly magnetized plasma. Exact and reduced continuity equations for the microscopic density in the quasiparticle phase space are derived, and the nature of quasiparticles is analyzed. The theory is developed for the general case of relativistic particles in electromagnetic fields, besides non-uniform but stationary magnetic fields. Effects of non-stationary magnetic fields are briefly investigated also. 26 refs

  13. Heavy-fermion quasiparticles in UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillefer, L.; Lonzarich, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    The quasiparticle band structure of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt 3 has been investigated by means of angle-resolved measurements of the de Haas--van Alphen effect. Most of the results are consistent with a model of five quasiparticle bands at the Fermi level corresponding to Fermi surfaces similar to those calculated by band theory. However, as inferred from the extremely high cyclotron masses, the quasiparticle bands are much flatter than the calculated ones. The nature of the observed quasiparticles and their relationship to thermodynamic properties are briefly considered

  14. Stretched horizons, quasiparticles, and quasinormal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose that stretched horizons can be described in terms of a gas of noninteracting quasiparticles. The quasiparticles are unstable, with a lifetime set by the imaginary part of the lowest quasinormal mode frequency. If the horizon arises from an AdS-CFT style duality the quasiparticles are also the effective low-energy degrees of freedom of the finite-temperature CFT. We analyze a large class of models including Schwarzschild black holes, nonextremal Dp-branes, the rotating BTZ black hole and de Sitter space, and we comment on degenerate horizons. The quasiparticle description makes manifest the relationship between entropy and area

  15. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, W Michael; Rubin, David

    1996-01-01

    Introduction to Continuum Mechanics is a recently updated and revised text which is perfect for either introductory courses in an undergraduate engineering curriculum or for a beginning graduate course.Continuum Mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation, and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, a

  16. Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in CVD-grown graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jingzhi; Yu, Ting; Lin, Jianyi; Gurzadyan, Gagik G

    2011-04-26

    Ultrafast quasiparticle dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been studied by UV pump/white-light probe spectroscopy. Transient differential transmission spectra of monolayer graphene are observed in the visible probe range (400-650 nm). Kinetics of the quasiparticle (i.e., low-energy single-particle excitation with renormalized energy due to electron-electron Coulomb, electron-optical phonon (e-op), and optical phonon-acoustic phonon (op-ap) interactions) was monitored with 50 fs resolution. Extending the probe range to near-infrared, we find the evolution of quasiparticle relaxation channels from monoexponential e-op scattering to double exponential decay due to e-op and op-ap scattering. Moreover, quasiparticle lifetimes of mono- and randomly stacked graphene films are obtained for the probe photon energies continuously from 1.9 to 2.3 eV. Dependence of quasiparticle decay rate on the probe energy is linear for 10-layer stacked graphene films. This is due to the dominant e-op intervalley scattering and the linear density of states in the probed electronic band. A dimensionless coupling constant W is derived, which characterizes the scattering strength of quasiparticles by lattice points in graphene.

  17. Continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, A J M

    2004-01-01

    The mechanics of fluids and the mechanics of solids represent the two major areas of physics and applied mathematics that meet in continuum mechanics, a field that forms the foundation of civil and mechanical engineering. This unified approach to the teaching of fluid and solid mechanics focuses on the general mechanical principles that apply to all materials. Students who have familiarized themselves with the basic principles can go on to specialize in any of the different branches of continuum mechanics. This text opens with introductory chapters on matrix algebra, vectors and Cartesian ten

  18. Physical dynamics of quasi-particles in nonlinear wave equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, Ivan [Department of Mathematics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3368 (United States)], E-mail: christov@alum.mit.edu; Christov, C.I. [Department of Mathematics, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-1010 (United States)], E-mail: christov@louisiana.edu

    2008-02-04

    By treating the centers of solitons as point particles and studying their discrete dynamics, we demonstrate a new approach to the quantization of the soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, one of the first model nonlinear field equations. In particular, we show that a linear superposition of the non-interacting shapes of two solitons offers a qualitative (and to a good approximation quantitative) description of the true two-soliton solution, provided that the trajectories of the centers of the superimposed solitons are considered unknown. Via variational calculus, we establish that the dynamics of the quasi-particles obey a pseudo-Newtonian law, which includes cross-mass terms. The successful identification of the governing equations of the (discrete) quasi-particles from the (continuous) field equation shows that the proposed approach provides a basis for the passage from the continuous to a discrete description of the field.

  19. Physical dynamics of quasi-particles in nonlinear wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christov, Ivan; Christov, C.I.

    2008-01-01

    By treating the centers of solitons as point particles and studying their discrete dynamics, we demonstrate a new approach to the quantization of the soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, one of the first model nonlinear field equations. In particular, we show that a linear superposition of the non-interacting shapes of two solitons offers a qualitative (and to a good approximation quantitative) description of the true two-soliton solution, provided that the trajectories of the centers of the superimposed solitons are considered unknown. Via variational calculus, we establish that the dynamics of the quasi-particles obey a pseudo-Newtonian law, which includes cross-mass terms. The successful identification of the governing equations of the (discrete) quasi-particles from the (continuous) field equation shows that the proposed approach provides a basis for the passage from the continuous to a discrete description of the field

  20. Quasi-particles at finite chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardim, F. G.; Steffens, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present in this work the thermodynamic consistent quasi-particle model at finite chemical potential, to describe the Quark Gluon Plasma composed of two light quarks and gluons. The quasi-particle general solution will be discussed, and comparison with perturbative QCD and lattice data will be shown.

  1. Qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanker, Sebastian; Marthaler, Michael; Schoen, Gerd [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We study dephasing of a superconducting qubit due to quasiparticle tunneling through a Josephson junction. While qubit decay due to tunneling processes is well understood within a golden rule approximation, pure dephasing due to BCS quasiparticles gives rise to a divergent golden rule rate. We calculate qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling beyond lowest order approximation in coupling between qubit and quasiparticles. Summing up a certain class of diagrams we show that qubit dephasing due to purely longitudinal coupling to quasiparticles leads to dephasing ∝ exp(-x(t)) where x(t) ∝ t{sup 3/2} for short time scales and x(t) ∝ tlog(t) for long time scales.

  2. Quasi-particles at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.; Requardt, M.

    1983-01-01

    We study the consequences of the KMS-condition on the properties of quasi-particles, assuming their existence. We establish: (i) If the correlation functions decay sufficiently, we can create them by quasi-free field operators. (ii) There are many age-operators T conjugate to H. For special forms of the dispersion law epsilon(k) of the quasi-particles there is a T commuting with the; (iii) There are many age-operators T conjugate to H. For special forms of the dispersion law epsilon(k) of the quasi-particles there is a T commuting with the number of quasi-particles and its time-monotonicity describes how the quasi-particles travel to infinity. (orig.)

  3. Microscopic description of magnetized plasma: quasiparticle concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is developed systematically, from first principles, within the context of microscopic description of magnetized plasma. It is argued that the zeroth velocity-gyroangle harmonic of the microscopic particle distribution function under the gyrokinetic change of variables can be taken as a microscopic quasi-particle density in a reduced phase space. The nature of quasiparticles is discussed and equations of their motion are derived within both exact and reduced microscopic descriptions. The reduced one employs explicitly the separation of interesting time scales. (orig.)

  4. Phonon-Mediated Quasiparticle Poisoning of Superconducting Microwave Resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, U.; Pechenezhskiy, Ivan V.; Plourde, B. L. T.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium quasiparticles represent a significant source of decoherence in superconducting quantum circuits. Here we investigate the mechanism of quasiparticle poisoning in devices subjected to local quasiparticle injection. We find that quasiparticle poisoning is dominated by the propagation of pair-breaking phonons across the chip. We characterize the energy dependence of the timescale for quasiparticle poisoning. Finally, we observe that incorporation of extensive normal metal quasipar...

  5. Flare continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the metre-wave continuum radiation which is related to similar solar emissions observed in the decimetre and centimetre spectral regions. This type of emission, known as Flare Contiuum, is related to the radio bursts of types II and IV. After summarising the history of the phenomenon and reviewing the observational work, the author discusses the various possible radiation mechanisms and their relation to the solar corona, the interplanetary medium and related regions. The theoretical topics covered include the role of high-energy particles, the trapping of such particles, gyro-synchrotron radiation, polarization and plasma interactions. (U.K.)

  6. Temperature dependent quasiparticle renormalization in nickel metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Fink, Joerg; Duerr, Hermann A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). BESSY II

    2009-07-01

    One of the fundamental consequences of electron correlation effects is that the bare particles in solids become 'dressed', i.e. they acquire an increased effective mass and a lifetime. We studied the spin dependent quasiparticle band structure of Ni(111) with high resolution angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. At low temperatures (50 K) a renormalization of quasiparticle energy and lifetime indicative of electron-phonon coupling is observed in agreement with literature. With increasing temperature we observe a decreasing quasiparticle lifetime at the Fermi level for all probed minority spin bands as expected from electron phonon coupling. Surprisingly the majority spin states behave differently. We actually observe a slightly increased lifetime at room temperature. The corresponding increase in Fermi velocity points to a temperature dependent reduction of the majority spin quasiparticle renormalization.

  7. Continuum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This small book on the properties of continuously distributed matter covers a huge field. It sets out the governing principles of continuum physics and illustrates them by carefully chosen examples. These examples comprise structural mechanics and elasticity, fluid media, electricity and optics, thermoelectricity, fluctuation phenomena and more, from Archimedes' principle via Brownian motion to white dwarfs. Metamaterials, pattern formation by reaction-diffusion and surface plasmon polaritons are dealt with as well as classical topics such as Stokes' formula, beam bending and buckling, crystal optics and electro- and magnetooptic effects, dielectric waveguides, Ohm's law, surface acoustic waves, to mention just some.   The set of balance equations for content, flow and production of particles, mass, charge, momentum, energy and entropy is augmented by material, or constitutive equations. They describe entire classes of materials, such as viscid fluids and gases, elastic media, dielectrics or electrical con...

  8. Quasiparticle Lifetime in Ultracold Fermionic Mixtures with Density and Mass Imbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Zhihao; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We show that atomic Fermi mixtures with density and mass imbalance exhibit a rich diversity of scaling laws for the quasiparticle decay rate beyond the quadratic energy and temperature dependence of conventional Fermi liquids. For certain densities and mass ratios, the decay rate is linear, whereas...

  9. Quantum statistical description of transport of the quasi-particles in optic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, M.Yu.; Hassan, T.; Mohamed Ridza bin Wahiddin; Umarov, B.

    2006-12-01

    On the basis of BBGKY hierarchy of quantum kinetic equations the quasi-quantum analogue of the linearized wave equation for one, two quasi-particles in optic fiber is obtained. The method which enables to obtain the quasi-quantum analogue of wave equations for any number of quasi- particles in fiber is suggested. (author)

  10. Renormalization of boundary conditions for distribution functions of quasiparticles obeying quantum statistics at interfaces between crystalline grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grendel, M.

    1981-01-01

    Boundary conditions for distribution functions of quasiparticles scattered by an interface between two crystalline grains are presented. Contrary to former formulations where Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics was considered, the present boundary conditions take into account the quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein) of quasiparticles. Provided that small deviations only from thermodynamic equilibrium are present, the boundary conditions are linearized, and then their ''renormalization'' is investigated in case of elastic scattering. The final results of the renormalization, which are obtained for a simplified model of an interface, sugo.est that the portion of the Fermi (Bose)-quasiparticles reflected or transmitted specularly is decreased (increased) in comparison with the case of quasiparticles obeying Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. (author)

  11. Exact-exchange-based quasiparticle calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulbur, Wilfried G.; Staedele, Martin; Goerling, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    One-particle wave functions and energies from Kohn-Sham calculations with the exact local Kohn-Sham exchange and the local density approximation (LDA) correlation potential [EXX(c)] are used as input for quasiparticle calculations in the GW approximation (GWA) for eight semiconductors. Quasiparticle corrections to EXX(c) band gaps are small when EXX(c) band gaps are close to experiment. In the case of diamond, quasiparticle calculations are essential to remedy a 0.7 eV underestimate of the experimental band gap within EXX(c). The accuracy of EXX(c)-based GWA calculations for the determination of band gaps is as good as the accuracy of LDA-based GWA calculations. For the lowest valence band width a qualitatively different behavior is observed for medium- and wide-gap materials. The valence band width of medium- (wide-) gap materials is reduced (increased) in EXX(c) compared to the LDA. Quasiparticle corrections lead to a further reduction (increase). As a consequence, EXX(c)-based quasiparticle calculations give valence band widths that are generally 1-2 eV smaller (larger) than experiment for medium- (wide-) gap materials. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, David; Lai, W Michael

    1994-01-01

    Continuum mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, and the book contains an abundance of illustrative examples and problems, many with solutions. Through the addition of more advanced material (solution of classical elasticity problems, constitutive e

  13. Quasiparticle branch mixing rates in superconducting aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, C.C.; Clarke, J.

    1979-01-01

    The kinetic equation is used to compute the elastic and inelastic quasiparticle branch mixing rates for a superconducting film into which quasiparticles are injected via a tunnel barrier from a second superconducting film. Representative graphs are presented of the steady-state quasiparticle distribution, the quasiparticle charge imbalance Q* versus injection current, the charge relaxation rate tau -1 /sub Q/* vs Δ/k/sub B/T/sub c/ for several values of elastic scattering rate, and the quasiparticle branch relaxation rate tau -1 /sub Q/ as a function of energy. The quasiparticle potential developed in the injection film is related to tau -1 /sub Q/, and thence to tau -1 0 , a characteristic electron-phonon scattering time. Detailed measurements of tau/sub Q/ are reported for films of superconducting Al, some of which were doped with oxygen to give a range of transition temperatures from 1.2 to 2.1 K. From the dependence of tau -1 /sub Q/* on Δ/k/sub B/T/sub c/, values are deduced for the gap anisotropy of the films. In the cleanest samples, tau 0 or approx. = 2Δ) mean-free-path measurements, but a factor of about 4 smaller than that obtained from recombination time measurements and theoretical calculations. The value of tau -1 /sub o/ in the Al films increases with the transition temperature T/sub c/ as T 5 /sub c/ or T 6 /sub c/, instead of T 3 /sub c/ as predicted by simple theory. It is suggested that the rapid increase of tau -1 0 with T/sub c/ may arise from either a strong dependence of α 2 F (ω) on T/sub c/ or from a small concentration of magnetic impurities

  14. Superconducting quasiparticle lifetimes due to spin-fluctuation scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, S.M.; Scalapino, D.J.; Bulut, N.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting quasiparticle lifetimes associated with spin-fluctuation scattering are calculated. A Berk-Schrieffer interaction with an irreducible susceptibility given by a BCS form is used to model the quasiparticle damping due to spin fluctuations. Results are presented for both s-wave and d-wave gaps. Also, quasiparticle lifetimes due to impurity scattering are calculated for a d-wave superconductor

  15. Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)

  16. Quasiparticle dynamics in reshaped helical Dirac cone of topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lin; Wang, Z F; Ming, Wenmei; Yao, Meng-Yu; Wang, Meixiao; Yang, Fang; Song, Y R; Zhu, Fengfeng; Fedorov, Alexei V; Sun, Z; Gao, C L; Liu, Canhua; Xue, Qi-Kun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Liu, Feng; Qian, Dong; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2013-02-19

    Topological insulators and graphene present two unique classes of materials, which are characterized by spin-polarized (helical) and nonpolarized Dirac cone band structures, respectively. The importance of many-body interactions that renormalize the linear bands near Dirac point in graphene has been well recognized and attracted much recent attention. However, renormalization of the helical Dirac point has not been observed in topological insulators. Here, we report the experimental observation of the renormalized quasiparticle spectrum with a skewed Dirac cone in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Te(3) substrate from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. First-principles band calculations indicate that the quasiparticle spectra are likely associated with the hybridization between the extrinsic substrate-induced Dirac states of Bi bilayer and the intrinsic surface Dirac states of Bi(2)Te(3) film at close energy proximity. Without such hybridization, only single-particle Dirac spectra are observed in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Se(3), where the extrinsic Dirac states Bi bilayer and the intrinsic Dirac states of Bi(2)Se(3) are well separated in energy. The possible origins of many-body interactions are discussed. Our findings provide a means to manipulate topological surface states.

  17. Statistical quasi-particle theory for open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hou-Dao; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive account on the recently developed dissipaton-equation-of-motion (DEOM) theory. This is a statistical quasi-particle theory for quantum dissipative dynamics. It accurately describes the influence of bulk environments, with a few number of quasi-particles, the dissipatons. The novel dissipaton algebra is then followed, which readily bridges the Schrödinger equation to the DEOM theory. As a fundamental theory of quantum mechanics in open systems, DEOM characterizes both the stationary and dynamic properties of system-and-bath interferences. It treats not only the quantum dissipative systems of primary interest, but also the hybrid environment dynamics that could be experimentally measurable. Examples are the linear or nonlinear Fano interferences and the Herzberg-Teller vibronic couplings in optical spectroscopies. This review covers the DEOM construction, the underlying dissipaton algebra and theorems, the physical meanings of dynamical variables, the possible identifications of dissipatons, and some recent advancements in efficient DEOM evaluations on various problems. The relations of the present theory to other nonperturbative methods are also critically presented.

  18. Using Quasiparticle Poisoning To Detect Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Pierre; Day, Peter

    2006-01-01

    According to a proposal, a phenomenon associated with excitation of quasiparticles in certain superconducting quantum devices would be exploited as a means of detecting photons with exquisite sensitivity. The phenomenon could also be exploited to perform medium-resolution spectroscopy. The proposal was inspired by the observation that Coulomb blockade devices upon which some quantum logic gates are based are extremely sensitive to quasiparticles excited above the superconducting gaps in their leads. The presence of quasiparticles in the leads can be easily detected via the charge states. If quasiparticles could be generated in the leads by absorption of photons, then the devices could be used as very sensitive detectors of electromagnetic radiation over the spectral range from x-rays to submillimeter waves. The devices in question are single-Cooper-pair boxes (SCBs), which are mesoscopic superconducting devices developed for quantum computing. An SCB consists of a small superconducting island connected to a reservoir via a small tunnel junction and connected to a voltage source through a gate capacitor. An SCB is an artificial two-level quantum system, the Hamiltonian of which can be controlled by the gate voltage. One measures the expected value of the charge of the eigenvectors of this quantum system by use of a radio-frequency single-electron transistor. A plot of this expected value of charge as a function of gate voltage resembles a staircase that, in the ideal case, consists of steps of height 2 e (where e is the charge of one electron). Experiments have shown that depending on the parameters of the device, quasiparticles in the form of "broken" Cooper pairs present in the reservoir can tunnel to the island, giving rise to steps of 1 e. This effect is sometimes called "poisoning." Simulations have shown that an extremely small average number of quasiparticles can generate a 1-e periodic signal. In a device according to the proposal, this poisoning would be

  19. Quasiparticle Interference Studies of Quantum Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Nurit; Reiner, Jonathan; Kumar-Nayak, Abhay; Morali, Noam; Batabyal, Rajib; Yan, Binghai; Beidenkopf, Haim

    2018-06-03

    Exotic electronic states are realized in novel quantum materials. This field is revolutionized by the topological classification of materials. Such compounds necessarily host unique states on their boundaries. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of these surface states have provided a wealth of spectroscopic characterization, with the successful cooperation of ab initio calculations. The method of quasiparticle interference imaging proves to be particularly useful for probing the dispersion relation of the surface bands. Herein, how a variety of additional fundamental electronic properties can be probed via this method is reviewed. It is demonstrated how quasiparticle interference measurements entail mesoscopic size quantization and the electronic phase coherence in semiconducting nanowires; helical spin protection and energy-momentum fluctuations in a topological insulator; and the structure of the Bloch wave function and the relative insusceptibility of topological electronic states to surface potential in a topological Weyl semimetal. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Geometrical Description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeje; Yang, Bo; Haldane, F. D. M.

    2012-02-01

    We examine a description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles and quasiholes suggested by a recent geometrical approach (F. D. M. Haldane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 116801 (2011)) to FQH systems, where the local excess electric charge density in the incompressible state is given by a topologically-quantized ``guiding-center spin'' times the Gaussian curvature of a ``guiding-center metric tensor'' that characterizes the local shape of the correlation hole around electrons in the fluid. We use a phenomenological energy function with two ingredients: the shear distortion energy of area-preserving distortions of the fluid, and a local (short-range) approximation to the Coulomb energy of the fluctuation of charge density associated with the Gaussian curvature. Quasiparticles and quasiholes of the 1/3 Laughlin state are modeled as ``punctures'' in the incompressible fluid which then relax by geometric distortion which generates Gaussian curvature, giving rise to the charge-density profile around the topological excitation.

  1. Projected quasiparticle theory for molecular electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Samanta, Kousik; Ellis, Jason K.

    2011-09-01

    We derive and implement symmetry-projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) equations and apply them to the molecular electronic structure problem. All symmetries (particle number, spin, spatial, and complex conjugation) are deliberately broken and restored in a self-consistent variation-after-projection approach. We show that the resulting method yields a comprehensive black-box treatment of static correlations with effective one-electron (mean-field) computational cost. The ensuing wave function is of multireference character and permeates the entire Hilbert space of the problem. The energy expression is different from regular HFB theory but remains a functional of an independent quasiparticle density matrix. All reduced density matrices are expressible as an integration of transition density matrices over a gauge grid. We present several proof-of-principle examples demonstrating the compelling power of projected quasiparticle theory for quantum chemistry.

  2. Quasiparticle Interference on Cubic Perovskite Oxide Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Chang, Guoqing; Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Ryota; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Shiraki, Susumu; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun; Lin, Hsin; Hitosugi, Taro

    2017-08-25

    We report the observation of coherent surface states on cubic perovskite oxide SrVO_{3}(001) thin films through spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. A direct link between the observed quasiparticle interference patterns and the formation of a d_{xy}-derived surface state is supported by first-principles calculations. We show that the apical oxygens on the topmost VO_{2} plane play a critical role in controlling the coherent surface state via modulating orbital state.

  3. Number conserving approach in quasiparticle representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudih, M.R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    An exact number conserving approach is formulated in the quasiparticle representation to show the effect of the particle-number projection on the ground and the first 0+ excited states. It is applied to the two-level pairing model, which allows an exact solution and a comparison to other approaches. The present method has proved to be an advantageous alternative as compared to the BCS and to the usual methods used to restore the particle number symmetry. (author)

  4. Long-range spin deformations around quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, M.; Gunn, M.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-particle formed by a hole in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet has an associated long-range spin distortion whose amplitude increases with the velocity of the hole. The authors show that the existence and properties of this distortion follow from simple classical arguments based on the long-wavelength equations of motion for the spin system. A similar long-range distortion is found in the quantum-mechanical problem of an electron exchange coupled to a Heisenberg antiferromagnet

  5. Normal-metal quasiparticle traps for superconducting qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinkhani, Amin [Peter Grunberg Institute (PGI-2), Forschungszentrum Julich, D-52425 Julich (Germany); JARA-Institute for Quantum Information, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Superconducting qubits are promising candidates to implement quantum computation, and have been a subject of intensive research in the past decade. Excitations of a superconductor, known as quasiparticles, can reduce the qubit performance by causing relaxation; the relaxation rate is proportional to the density of quasiparticles tunneling through Josephson junction. Here, we consider engineering quasiparticle traps by covering parts of a superconducting device with normal-metal islands. We utilize a phenomenological quasiparticle diffusion model to study both the decay rate of excess quasiparticles and the steady-state profile of the quasiparticle density in the device. We apply the model to various realistic configurations to explore the role of geometry and location of the traps.

  6. Continuum description for jointed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.K.

    1982-04-01

    A general three-dimensional continuum description is presented for a material containing regularly spaced and approximately parallel jointing planes within a representative elementary volume. Constitutive relationships are introduced for linear behavior of the base material and nonlinear normal and shear behavior across jointing planes. Furthermore, a fracture permeability tensor is calculated so that deformation induced alterations to the in-situ values can be measured. Examples for several strain-controlled loading paths are presented

  7. Non-equilibrium quasiparticle processes in superconductor tunneling structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perold, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    A broad overview is presented of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The tunneling of quasiparticles in superconducter-insulator structures is described. Related non-equilibrium processes, such as superconductor bandgap suppresion, quasiparticle diffusion and recombination, and excess quasiparticle collection are discussed. The processes are illustrated with numerical computer simulation data. The importance of the inter-relationship between these processes in practical multiple tunneling junction superconducting device structures is also emphasized. 14 refs., 8 figs

  8. Experimental estimates of quasiparticle interactions for rotational nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauendorf, S.; Riedinger, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Previously presented data on rotationally aligned quasiparticle bands in sup(160,161,162,163)Yb are analyzed to give experimental values of the quasiparticle interactions Vsub(μν) as a function of rotational frequency. The measured level energies are converted to the rotating frame of reference and expressed as routhians. The routhian of a multi-quasiparticle band is compared to the sum of the routhians of the component quasiparticles at a given frequency, the difference being the quasiparticle interaction. The experimental spectra of bands in these nuclei are consistent with the assumption of a binary interaction between the rotating quasiparticles, where most of the Vsub(μν) are in the range -0.3 to -0.1 MeV. Analysis of the shift in the observed crossing frequencies for bands of different quasiparticle number yields similar values. The extracted Vsub(μν) are found to have a frequency dependence, which is associated with the loss of alignment of a multi-quasiparticle state. An equidistant-level model is used to estimate the contributions to the quasiparticle interactions by polarization of the collective degrees of freedom. This model yields typical Vsub(μν) values of -0.15 MeV, which is only half of some values extracted from experiment. This suggests that the extracted Vsub(μν) contain a significant amount of nuclear-structure information. (orig.)

  9. Study on frugmentation of one-quasiparticle and one-phonon states in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The general assumptions of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model are given. This model describes the few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. The method of strength functions which plays a key role in describing complex nuclei is also presented. A further development of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is outlined. The fragmentation of one-quasiparticle and one-phonon states over nuclear levels is studied. The results on the fragmentation of deep hole states in spherical nuclei are presented, which describe well the experimental data. The neutron strength functions and their spin dependence are calculated. A good agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and widths of the giant resonances are calculated in spherical and deformed nuclei. The information on the many-quasiparticle components of excited state wave functions is shown to be very scarce. The necessity of studying the few-quasiparticle configurations is pointed out

  10. Analysis of two- and four-quasiparticle states in lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomar, C.; Insolia, A.

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of a quasiparticle multistep shell model method we study four-quasiparticle states in lead isotopes. For this we first calculate single-quasiparticle quantities within the BCS formalism and two-quasiparticle states within a QRPA. Finally the four-quasiparticle basis set of states is formed as the tensorial product of two-quasiparticle states previously evaluated. The resulting spectra agree reasonable well with available experimental data. A number of as yet undetected states are predicted. (orig.)

  11. A quantitative study of quasiparticle traps using the single-Cooper-pair-transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Court, N. A.; Ferguson, A. J.; Lutchyn, Roman; Clark, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    We use radio-frequency reflectometry to measure quasiparticle tunneling rates in the single-Cooper-pair-transistor. Devices with and without quasiparticle traps in proximity to the island are studied. A $10^2$ to $10^3$-fold reduction in the quasiparticle tunneling rate onto the island is observed in the case of quasiparticle traps. In the quasiparticle trap samples we also measure a commensurate decrease in quasiparticle tunneling rate off the island.

  12. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-15

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe 2 ), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  13. Effective distributions of quasiparticles for thermal photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Akihiko

    2015-07-01

    It has been found in recent heavy-ion experiments that the second and the third flow harmonics of direct photons are larger than most theoretical predictions. In this study, I construct effective parton phase-space distributions with in-medium interaction using quasiparticle models so that they are consistent with a lattice QCD equation of state. Then I investigate their effects on thermal photons using a hydrodynamic model. Numerical results indicate that elliptic flow and transverse momentum spectra are modified by the corrections to Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions.

  14. Quasiparticles in QCD thermodynamics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.; Renk, T.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel quasiparticle interpretation of the equation of state of deconfined QCD at finite temperature. Using appropriate thermal masses, we introduce a phenomenological parametrization of the onset of confinement in the vicinity of the phase transition. Lattice results of the energy density, the pressure and the interaction measure of pure SU(3) gauge theory are well reproduced. A relation between the thermal energy density of the Yang-Mills vacuum and the chromomagnetic condensate left angle B 2 right angle T is found. We also present the two flavour QCD equation of state for realistic quark masses and apply the model to dilepton production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)

  15. Nonequilibrium Quasiparticle Distribution Induced by Kondo Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroha, J.; Zawadowski, A.

    2002-04-01

    It is shown that in resistive nanowires out of equilibrium containing either single- or two-channel Kondo impurities the distribution function f(E,U) obeys scaling behavior in terms of the quasiparticle energy E and the bias voltage U. The numerically calculated f(E,U) curves explain quantitatively recent experiments on Cu and Au nanowires. The systematics of the impurity concentration cimp extracted from the comparison between theory and results on various Cu and Au samples strongly suggests that in these systems the scaling arises from magnetic Kondo impurities.

  16. Zn-VI quasiparticle gaps and optical spectra from many-body calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riefer, A; Weber, N; Mund, J; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M; Schindlmayr, Arno; Meier, C; Schmidt, W G

    2017-06-01

    The electronic band structures of hexagonal ZnO and cubic ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe compounds are determined within hybrid-density-functional theory and quasiparticle calculations. It is found that the band-edge energies calculated on the [Formula: see text] (Zn chalcogenides) or GW (ZnO) level of theory agree well with experiment, while fully self-consistent QSGW calculations are required for the correct description of the Zn 3d bands. The quasiparticle band structures are used to calculate the linear response and second-harmonic-generation (SHG) spectra of the Zn-VI compounds. Excitonic effects in the optical absorption are accounted for within the Bethe-Salpeter approach. The calculated spectra are discussed in the context of previous experimental data and present SHG measurements for ZnO.

  17. Quasiparticle-phonon coupling in inelastic proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissbach, B.

    1980-01-01

    Multistep-processes in inelastic proton scattering from 89 Y are analyzed by using CCBA and DWBA on a quasiparticle phonon nuclear structure model. Indirect excitations caused by quasiparticle phonon coupling effects are found to be very important for the transition strengths and the shape of angular distributions. Core excitations are dominant for the higher order steps of the reaction. (author)

  18. Intrinsic and experimental quasiparticle recombination times in superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmenger, W.; Lassmann, K.; Trumpp, H.J.; Krauss, R.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental quasiparticle recombination lifetime data for superconducting Al, Sn, and Pb films are compared with calculations based on a ray acoustic model taking account of the film thickness dependence of the reabsorption of recombination phonons. Information on the true or intrinsic quasiparticle recombination lifetime obtained from these and other data is discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Calculations of quasi-particle spectra of semiconductors under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Egede; Svane, Axel; Cardona, M.

    2011-01-01

    Different approximations in calculations of electronic quasiparticle states in semiconductors are compared and evaluated with respect to their validity in predictions of optical properties. The quasi-particle self-consistent GW (QSGW) approach yields values of the band gaps which are close...

  20. Quasiparticle Aggregation in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-10-10

    Quasiparticles in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect behave qualitatively like electrons confined to the lowest landau level, and can do everything electrons can do, including condense into second generation Fractional Quantum Hall ground states. I review in this paper the reasoning leading to variational wavefunctions for ground state and quasiparticles in the 1/3 effect. I then show how two-quasiparticle eigenstates are uniquely determined from symmetry, and how this leads in a natural way to variational wavefunctions for composite states which have the correct densities (2/5, 2/7, ...). I show in the process that the boson, anyon and fermion representations for the quasiparticles used by Haldane, Halperin, and me are all equivalent. I demonstrate a simple way to derive Halperin`s multiple-valued quasiparticle wavefunction from the correct single-valued electron wavefunction. (auth)

  1. Coherent suppression of quasiparticle dissipation in a superconducting artificial atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop, Ioan [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate immunity to quasiparticle dissipation in a Josephson junction. At the foundation of this protection rests a prediction by Brian Josephson from fifty years ago: the particle-hole interference of superconducting quasiparticles when tunneling across a Josephson junction. The junction under study is the central element of a fluxonium artificial atom, which we place in an extremely low loss environment and measure using radio-frequency dispersive techniques. Furthermore, by using a quantum limited amplifier (a Josephson Parametric Converter) we can observe quantum jumps between the 0 and 1 states of the qubit in thermal equilibrium with the environment. The distribution of the times in-between the quantum jumps reveals quantitative information about the population and dynamics of quasiparticles. The data is entirely consistent with the hypothesis that our system is sensitive to single quasiparticle excitations, which opens new perspectives for quasiparticle monitoring in low temperature devices.

  2. Quasiparticle lifetime in a mixture of Bose and Fermi superfluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhai, Hui

    2014-12-31

    In this Letter, we study the effect of quasiparticle interactions in a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture. We consider the lifetime of a quasiparticle of the Bose superfluid due to its interaction with quasiparticles in the Fermi superfluid. We find that this damping rate, i.e., the inverse of the lifetime, has quite a different threshold behavior at the BCS and the BEC side of the Fermi superfluid. The damping rate is a constant near the threshold momentum in the BCS side, while it increases rapidly in the BEC side. This is because, in the BCS side, the decay process is restricted by the constraint that the fermion quasiparticle is located near the Fermi surface, while such a restriction does not exist in the BEC side where the damping process is dominated by bosonic quasiparticles of the Fermi superfluid. Our results are related to the collective mode experiment in the recently realized Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture.

  3. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-02-16

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e = n, with n = 1-4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD ~ 2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ~ 0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure.

  4. Quasiparticle interference, quasiparticle interactions, and the origin of the charge density wave in 2H-NbSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, C J; Rosenthal, E P; Andrade, E F; Jin, W; Yeh, P C; Zaki, N; Jia, S; Cava, R J; Fernandes, R M; Millis, A J; Valla, T; Osgood, R M; Pasupathy, A N

    2015-01-23

    We show that a small number of intentionally introduced defects can be used as a spectroscopic tool to amplify quasiparticle interference in 2H-NbSe2 that we measure by scanning tunneling spectroscopic imaging. We show, from the momentum and energy dependence of the quasiparticle interference, that Fermi surface nesting is inconsequential to charge density wave formation in 2H-NbSe2. We demonstrate that, by combining quasiparticle interference data with additional knowledge of the quasiparticle band structure from angle resolved photoemission measurements, one can extract the wave vector and energy dependence of the important electronic scattering processes thereby obtaining direct information both about the fermiology and the interactions. In 2H-NbSe2, we use this combination to confirm that the important near-Fermi-surface electronic physics is dominated by the coupling of the quasiparticles to soft mode phonons at a wave vector different from the charge density wave ordering wave vector.

  5. The Virtuality Continuum Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Traum, D.; Zhai, Sh.; Kellogg, W.

    2005-01-01

    We survey the themes and the aims of a workshop devoted to the state-of-the-art virtuality continuum. In this continuum, ranging from fully virtual to real physical environments, allowing for mixed, augmented and desktop virtual reality, several perspectives can be taken. Originally, the emphasis

  6. Frequency chirpings in Alfven continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Berk, Herb; Breizman, Boris; Zheng, Linjin

    2017-10-01

    We have used a self-consistent mapping technique to describe both the nonlinear wave-energetic particle resonant interaction and its spatial mode structure that depends upon the resonant energetic particle pressure. At the threshold for the onset of the energetic particle mode (EPM), strong chirping emerges in the lower continuum close to the TAE gap and then, driven by strong continuum damping, chirps rapidly to lower frequencies in the Alfven continuum. An adiabatic theory was developed that accurately replicated the results from the simulation where the nonlinearity was only due to the EPM resonant particles. The results show that the EPM-trapped particles have their action conserved during the time of rapid chirping. This adiabaticity enabled wave trapped particles to be confined within their separatrix, and produce even larger resonant structures, that can produce a large amplitude mode far from linearly predicted frequencies. In the present work we describe the effect of additional MHD nonlinearity to this calculation. We studied how the zonal flow component and its nonlinear feedback to the fundamental frequency and found that the MHD nonlinearity doesn't significantly alter the frequency chirping response that is predicted by the calculation that neglects the MHD nonlinearity.

  7. Optimizing SuperCDMS phonon energy sensitivity by studying quasiparticle transport in Al films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jeffrey; Shank, Benjamin; Cabrera, Blas; Moffatt, Robert; Redl, Peter; Brink, Paul; Tomada, Astrid; Cherry, Matt; Young, Betty; Tortorici, Teddy; Kreikebaum, John Mark

    2014-03-01

    In order to further improve the phonon energy sensitivity of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detectors, we studied quasiparticle transport at ~ 40 mK in superconducting Al films similar in geometry to those used for CDMS detectors. Test structures of Al were deposited and photolithographically patterned on Si wafers using the same production-line equipment used to fabricate kg-scale CDMS detectors. Three Al film lengths and two film thicknesses were used in this study. In the test experiments described here, an 55Fe source was used to excite a NaCl reflector, producing 2.6 keV x-rays that hit our test devices after passing through a collimator. The impinging x-rays broke Cooper pairs in the Al films, producing quasiparticles that propagated into W transition edge sensors (TESs) coupled to the ends of the Al films. In this talk, we will give the motivation behind these studies, describe our experimental setup, and compare our data to results obtained using signal processing models constructed from basic physical parameters. We show that a non-linear, non-stationary optimal filter applied to the data allows us to precisely measure quasiparticle diffusion and other aspects of energy transport in our thin-film Al-W test devices. These results are being used to further optimize next-generation CDMS detectors.

  8. Continuum mechanics of electromagnetic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, GA

    1988-01-01

    This volume is a rigorous cross-disciplinary theoretical treatment of electromechanical and magnetomechanical interactions in elastic solids. Using the modern style of continuum thermomechanics (but without excessive formalism) it starts from basic principles of mechanics and electromagnetism, and goes on to unify these two fields in a common framework. It treats linear and nonlinear static and dynamic problems in a variety of elastic solids such as piezoelectrics, electricity conductors, ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, ionic crystals and ceramics. Chapters 1-3 are introductory, describing the e

  9. Toward thermodynamic consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.; Shanenko, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasiparticle-based description of quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamic consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamic consistency. Particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential that can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics

  10. Quasiparticle dynamics in superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozorezov, A.G.; Brammertz, G.; Hijmering, R.A.; Wigmore, J.K.; Peacock, A.; Martin, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Golubov, A.A.; Rogalla, H.

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (STJs) used as single photon detectors possess extreme sensitivity and excellent resolving power. However, like many other cryogenic detectors they operate under extremely non-equilibrium conditions. In order to understand the physics of the non-equilibrium, non-stationary state, to interpret experimental data adequately, and to optimize the STJs unique performance, it is necessary to use a fully kinetic approach. We have developed the detailed theory of interactions between quasiparticles (qps) and the two types of phonons, sub-gap and pair-breaking, in STJ photon detectors. We discuss the results of extensive sets of experiments to study the non-equilibrium state in Al-based STJs. For the first time we are capable of explaining all available data systematically using a single set of parameters determined from STJ diagnostics and independent experiments

  11. Multi-quasiparticle excitations in 145Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yong; Zhou Xiaohong; Zhang Yuhu; Liu Minliang; Guo Yingxiang; Lei Xiangguo; Kusakari, H.; Sugawara, M.

    2004-01-01

    High-spin states in 145 Tb have been populated using the 118 Sn( 32 S, 1p4n) reaction at a beam energy of 165 MeV. The level scheme of 145 Tb has been established for the first time. The level scheme shows characteristics of spherical or slightly oblate nucleus. Based on the systematic trends of the level structure in the neighboring N=80 isotones, the level structure in 145 Tb below 2 MeV excitation is well explained by coupling an h 11/2 valence proton to the even-even 144 Gd core. Above 2 MeV excitation, most of the yrast levels are interpreted with multi-quasiparticle shell-model configurations. (authors)

  12. Quasiparticle Dynamics and Exponential Protection in Majorana Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Sven Marian

    -shell. Measuring quasiparticle transport, we observe a gate voltage dependent even-odd Coulomb blockade pattern, associated with quasiparticle occupation of bound states, for which we demonstrate state parity lifetimes exceeding 10 milliseconds. Using Coulomb-blockade spectroscopy and varying the magnetic field...... Majorana modes. A preliminary analysis shows that Coulomb peaks also feature an alternating magnetic field dependent skew, the subject of future work. We additionally observe novel transport signatures of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island strongly coupled to normal metal leads. Numerical...

  13. Microscopic mechanism of identical multi-quasiparticle bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yian; Zhao Enguang; Zeng Jinyan

    1997-01-01

    Identical one-quasiparticle and two-quasiparticle bands in neighboring odd-and even-mass nuclei are recognized; The intrinsic structure of identical bands is demonstrated by using the particle-number-conserving (PNC) treatment. The occurrence of almost identical moments of inertia is the result of competition among the shell effect (including shape variation), pairing (anti-alignment) effect and blocking (anti-pairing) effect. The observed moments of inertia of identical multi-quasiparticle bands are reproduced quite well by the PNC calculation

  14. Transport and relaxation properties of superfluid 3He. I. Kinetic equation and Bogoliubov quasiparticle relaxation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einzel, D.; Woelfle, P.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic equation for Bogoliubov quasiparticles for both the A and B phases of superfluid 3 He is derived from the general matrix kinetic equation. A condensed expression for the exact spin-symmetric collision integral is given. The quasiparticle relaxation rate is calculated for the BW state using the s--p approximation for the quasiparticle scattering amplitude. By using the results for the quasiparticle relaxation rate, the mean free path of Bogoliubov quasiparticles is calculated for all temperatures

  15. Quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS) of Kondo lattice heavy fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, L. H.; Narasiwodeyar, S. M.; Banerjee, P.; Park, W. K.; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Baumbach, R. E.; Ronning, F.; Sarrao, J. L.; Thompson, J. D.

    2013-03-01

    Point-contact spectroscopy (PCS) is a powerful technique to study electronic properties via measurements of non-linear current-voltage characteristic across a ballistic junction. It has been frequently adopted to investigate novel and/or unconventional superconductors by detecting the energy-dependent Andreev scattering. PCS of non-superconducting materials has been much rarely reported. From our recent studies on heavy fermions, we have frequently observed strongly bias-dependent and asymmetric conductance behaviors. Based on a Fano resonance model in a Kondo lattice, we attribute them to energy-dependent quasiparticle scattering off hybridized renormalized electronic states, dubbing it QPS. We will present our QPS results on several heavy-fermion systems and discuss QPS as a novel technique to probe the bulk spectroscopic properties of the electronic structure. For instance, it reveals that the hybridization gap in URu2Si2 opens well above the hidden order transition. The work at UIUC is supported by the U.S. DOE under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46453 and the NSF DMR 12-06766, and the work at LANL is carried out under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Office of Science.

  16. Computational Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shabana, Ahmed A

    2011-01-01

    This text presents the theory of continuum mechanics using computational methods. Ideal for students and researchers, the second edition features a new chapter on computational geometry and finite element analysis.

  17. Measurement and control of quasiparticle dynamics in a superconducting qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Gao, Y Y; Pop, I M; Vool, U; Axline, C; Brecht, T; Heeres, R W; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H; Catelani, G; Glazman, L I; Schoelkopf, R J

    2014-12-18

    Superconducting circuits have attracted growing interest in recent years as a promising candidate for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Extensive efforts have always been taken to completely shield these circuits from external magnetic fields to protect the integrity of the superconductivity. Here we show vortices can improve the performance of superconducting qubits by reducing the lifetimes of detrimental single-electron-like excitations known as quasiparticles. Using a contactless injection technique with unprecedented dynamic range, we quantitatively distinguish between recombination and trapping mechanisms in controlling the dynamics of residual quasiparticle, and show quantized changes in quasiparticle trapping rate because of individual vortices. These results highlight the prominent role of quasiparticle trapping in future development of superconducting qubits, and provide a powerful characterization tool along the way.

  18. Quantum Computing With Quasiparticles of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Averin, Dmitri

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this project was the theoretical study of quantum computation based on controlled transfer of individual quasiparticles in systems of quantum antidots in the regime of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE...

  19. Rate of tunneling nonequilibrium quasiparticles in superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohammad H

    2015-01-01

    In superconducting qubits the lifetime of quantum states cannot be prolonged arbitrarily by decreasing temperature. At low temperature quasiparticles tunneling between the electromagnetic environment and superconducting islands takes the condensate state out of equilibrium due to charge imbalance. We obtain the tunneling rate from a phenomenological model of non-equilibrium, where nonequilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling stimulates a temperature-dependent chemical potential shift in the superconductor. As a result we obtain a non-monotonic behavior for relaxation rate as a function of temperature. Depending on the fabrication parameters for some qubits, the lowest tunneling rate of nonequilibrium quasiparticles can take place only near the onset temperature below which nonequilibrium quasiparticles dominate over equilibrium one. Our theory also indicates that such tunnelings can influence the probability of transitions in qubits through a coupling to the zero-point energy of phase fluctuations. (paper)

  20. Proximity effect in normal-superconductor hybrids for quasiparticle traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinkhani, Amin [Peter Grunberg Institute (PGI-2), Forschungszentrum Julich, D-52425 Julich (Germany); JARA-Institute for Quantum Information, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Coherent transport of charges in the form of Cooper pairs is the main feature of Josephson junctions which plays a central role in superconducting qubits. However, the presence of quasiparticles in superconducting devices may lead to incoherent charge transfer and limit the coherence time of superconducting qubits. A way around this so-called ''quasiparticle poisoning'' might be using a normal-metal island to trap quasiparticles; this has motivated us to revisit the proximity effect in normal-superconductor hybrids. Using the semiclassical Usadel equations, we study the density of states (DoS) both within and away from the trap. We find that in the superconducting layer the DoS quickly approaches the BCS form; this indicates that normal-metal traps should be effective at localizing quasiparticles.

  1. Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedik, N.; Orenstein, J.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D.A.; Hardy, W.N.

    2003-01-01

    We report a transport study of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a high-transition-temperature cuprate superconductor using the transient grating technique. Low-intensity laser excitation (at a photon energy of 1.5 electron volts) was used to introduce a spatially periodic density of quasi-particles into a high-quality untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O6.5. Probing the evolution of the initial density through space and time yielded the quasi-particle diffusion coefficient and the inelastic and elastic scattering rates. The technique reported here is potentially applicable to precision measurements of quasi-particle dynamics not only in cuprate superconductors but in other electronic systems as well

  2. Dynamical local field, compressibility, and frequency sum rules for quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The finite temperature dynamical response function including the dynamical local field is derived within a quasiparticle picture for interacting one-, two-, and three-dimensional Fermi systems. The correlations are assumed to be given by a density-dependent effective mass, quasiparticle energy shift, and relaxation time. The latter one describes disorder or collisional effects. This parametrization of correlations includes local-density functionals as a special case and is therefore applicable for density-functional theories. With a single static local field, the third-order frequency sum rule can be fulfilled simultaneously with the compressibility sum rule by relating the effective mass and quasiparticle energy shift to the structure function or pair-correlation function. Consequently, solely local-density functionals without taking into account effective masses cannot fulfill both sum rules simultaneously with a static local field. The comparison to the Monte Carlo data seems to support such a quasiparticle picture

  3. Nodal quasiparticle dynamics in the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn₅ revealed by precision microwave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truncik, C J S; Huttema, W A; Turner, P J; Ozcan, S; Murphy, N C; Carrière, P R; Thewalt, E; Morse, K J; Koenig, A J; Sarrao, J L; Broun, D M

    2013-01-01

    CeCoIn₅ is a heavy fermion superconductor with strong similarities to the high-Tc cuprates, including quasi-two-dimensionality, proximity to antiferromagnetism and probable d-wave pairing arising from a non-Fermi-liquid normal state. Experiments allowing detailed comparisons of their electronic properties are of particular interest, but in most cases are difficult to realize, due to their very different transition temperatures. Here we use low-temperature microwave spectroscopy to study the charge dynamics of the CeCoIn₅ superconducting state. The similarities to cuprates, in particular to ultra-clean YBa₂Cu₃O(y), are striking: the frequency and temperature dependence of the quasiparticle conductivity are instantly recognizable, a consequence of rapid suppression of quasiparticle scattering below T(c); and penetration-depth data, when properly treated, reveal a clean, linear temperature dependence of the quasiparticle contribution to superfluid density. The measurements also expose key differences, including prominent multiband effects and a temperature-dependent renormalization of the quasiparticle mass.

  4. Marginal Fermi liquid and kink structure of quasiparticles in cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Y.; Fulde, P.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the self-consistent projection operator method for nonlocal excitations, we show that a kink structure appears in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum of the two-dimensional Hubbard model at low doping concentrations. It is caused by a mixing between the quasiparticle state and the excitations with short-range antiferromagnetic order. The results explain the kink in high-T c cuprates

  5. Dyson Orbitals, Quasi-Particle effects and Compton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dyson orbitals play an important role in understanding quasi-particle effects in the correlated ground state of a many-particle system and are relevant for describing the Compton scattering cross section beyond the frameworks of the impulse approximation (IA) and the independent particle model (IPM). Here we discuss corrections to the Kohn-Sham energies due to quasi-particle effects in terms of Dyson orbitals and obtain a relatively simple local form of the exchange-correlation energy. Illust...

  6. Quasiparticle current in superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskij, A.V.; Fistul', M.V.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the quasiparticle current in a superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junction may significantly increase as a result of resonant passage of the quasiparticle along particular trajectories from periodically situated localized centers. A prediction of the theory is that with increasing junction resistance there should be a change from an excessive current to a insufficient current on the current-voltage characteristics (at high voltages). The effect of transparency of the boundaries on resonance tunneling in such junctions is also investigated

  7. Continuum radiation of argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Yachkov, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    A simple completely analytical method of the calculation of radiative continuum of plasmas is derived and an analysis of experimental data on continuum radiation of argon plasma is made. The method is based on the semiclassical quantum defect theory. To calculate radial matrix elements of dipole transitions the asymptotic expansion in powers of E c /ω 2/3 , with an accuracy to the linear term, where E, is the arithmetic mean of the initial and final energies of the transition, is used. This expansion has the same form for free-free, free-bound and bound-bound transitions. If the quantum defects are also approximated by a linear function of energy, the integration over the electron energy (the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is assumed) can be performed in analytical form. For Rydberg states the sum of photoionization continua can be replaced by an integral. We have calculated the absorption coefficient pf argon plasma. The photoionization cross section is calculated for all the states of 4s, 5s, 6s, 4p, 5p, 3d, 4d, 4s', 5s', 6s', 4p', 5p', 3d' and 4d' configurations taking into account P-coupling and multiplet splitting (56 states). Other excited states are allowed for by the integral formula together with free-free transitions

  8. Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoutidis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)

  9. Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoutidis, Ioannis

    2009-10-01

    Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)

  10. Shooting quasiparticles from Andreev bound states in a superconducting constriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riwar, R.-P.; Houzet, M.; Meyer, J. S. [University of Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS (France); Nazarov, Y. V., E-mail: Y.V.Nazarov@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Kavli Institute of NanoScience (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    A few-channel superconducting constriction provides a set of discrete Andreev bound states that may be populated with quasiparticles. Motivated by recent experimental research, we study the processes in an a.c. driven constriction whereby a quasiparticle is promoted to the delocalized states outside the superconducting gap and flies away. We distinguish two processes of this kind. In the process of ionization, a quasiparticle present in the Andreev bound state is transferred to the delocalized states leaving the constriction. The refill process involves two quasiparticles: one flies away while another one appears in the Andreev bound state. We notice an interesting asymmetry of these processes. The electron-like quasiparticles are predominantly emitted to one side of the constriction while the hole-like ones are emitted to the other side. This produces a charge imbalance of accumulated quasiparticles, that is opposite on opposite sides of the junction. The imbalance may be detected with a tunnel contact to a normal metal lead.

  11. Spin-dependent quasiparticle tunneling in junction superconductor-isolator-ferromagnetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlapak, Yu.V.; Shaternik, V.E.; Rudenko, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of Andreev reflection of quasiparticles in transparent tunnel junctions of superconductor-isolator-ferromagnetic on electric-current transport is studied within the framework of the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) model. It's obtained that current and signal-to-noise ratio can be increased for the memory cell by using in it the double-barrier tunnel junction ferromagnetic-isolator-superconductor-isolator-ferromagnetic instead off the usual tunnel junction ferromagnetic-isolator-ferromagnetic. The evolution of non-linear (tunnel-type) current-voltage characteristics with increasing of the junction transparency is described. (orig.)

  12. Influence of quasiparticle multi-tunneling on the energy flow through the superconducting tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samedov, V. V.; Tulinov, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector consists of two layers of superconducting material separated by thin insulating barrier. An incident particle produces in superconductor excess nonequilibrium quasiparticles. Each quasiparticle in superconductor should be considered as quantum superposition of electron-like and hole-like excitations. This duality nature of quasiparticle leads to the effect of multi-tunneling. Quasiparticle starts to tunnel back and forth through the insulating barrier. After tunneling from biased electrode quasiparticle loses its energy via phonon emission. Eventually, the energy that equals to the difference in quasiparticle energy between two electrodes is deposited in the signal electrode. Because of the process of multi-tunneling, one quasiparticle can deposit energy more than once. In this work, the theory of branching cascade processes was applied to the process of energy deposition caused by the quasiparticle multi-tunneling. The formulae for the mean value and variance of the energy transferred by one quasiparticle into heat were derived. (authors)

  13. Majorana quasiparticles in semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Magdalena; Milz, Lars; Izumida, Wataru; Strunk, Christoph; Grifoni, Milena

    2018-02-01

    Engineering effective p -wave superconductors hosting Majorana quasiparticles (MQPs) is nowadays of particular interest, also in view of the possible utilization of MQPs in fault-tolerant topological quantum computation. In quasi-one-dimensional systems, the parameter space for topological superconductivity is significantly reduced by the coupling between transverse modes. Together with the requirement of achieving the topological phase under experimentally feasible conditions, this strongly restricts in practice the choice of systems which can host MQPs. Here, we demonstrate that semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in proximity with ultrathin s -wave superconductors, e.g., exfoliated NbSe2, satisfy these needs. By precise numerical tight-binding calculations in the real space, we show the emergence of localized zero-energy states at the CNT ends above a critical value of the applied magnetic field, of which we show the spatial evolution. Knowing the microscopic wave functions, we unequivocally demonstrate the Majorana nature of the localized states. An effective four-band model in the k -space, with parameters determined from the numerical spectrum, is used to calculate the topological phase diagram and its phase boundaries in analytic form. Finally, the impact of symmetry breaking contributions, like disorder and an axial component of the magnetic field, is investigated.

  14. Statistically interacting quasiparticles in Ising chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ping; Vanasse, Jared; Piecuch, Christopher; Karbach, Michael; Mueller, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    The exclusion statistics of two complementary sets of quasiparticles, generated from opposite ends of the spectrum, are identified for Ising chains with spin s = 1/2, 1. In the s = 1/2 case the two sets are antiferromagnetic domain walls (solitons) and ferromagnetic domains (strings). In the s = 1 case they are soliton pairs and nested strings, respectively. The Ising model is equivalent to a system of two species of solitons for s = 1/2 and to a system of six species of soliton pairs for s = 1. Solitons exist on single bonds but soliton pairs may be spread across many bonds. The thermodynamics of a system of domains spanning up to M lattice sites is amenable to exact analysis and shown to become equivalent, in the limit M → ∞, to the thermodynamics of the s = 1/2 Ising chain. A relation is presented between the solitons in the Ising limit and the spinons in the XX limit of the s = 1/2 XXZ chain

  15. Quasiparticle Level Alignment for Photocatalytic Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migani, Annapaoala; Mowbray, Duncan J; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje; Rubio, Angel

    2014-05-13

    Electronic level alignment at the interface between an adsorbed molecular layer and a semiconducting substrate determines the activity and efficiency of many photocatalytic materials. Standard density functional theory (DFT)-based methods have proven unable to provide a quantitative description of this level alignment. This requires a proper treatment of the anisotropic screening, necessitating the use of quasiparticle (QP) techniques. However, the computational complexity of QP algorithms has meant a quantitative description of interfacial levels has remained elusive. We provide a systematic study of a prototypical interface, bare and methanol-covered rutile TiO2(110) surfaces, to determine the type of many-body theory required to obtain an accurate description of the level alignment. This is accomplished via a direct comparison with metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and two-photon photoemission (2PP) spectroscopy. We consider GGA DFT, hybrid DFT, and G0W0, scQPGW1, scQPGW0, and scQPGW QP calculations. Our results demonstrate that G0W0, or our recently introduced scQPGW1 approach, are required to obtain the correct alignment of both the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied interfacial molecular levels (HOMO/LUMO). These calculations set a new standard in the interpretation of electronic structure probe experiments of complex organic molecule/semiconductor interfaces.

  16. Quasiparticle--phonon model of the nucleus. V. Odd spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Voronov, V.V.; Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanov, C.

    1985-01-01

    The formalism of the quasiparticle--phonon model of the nucleus for odd spherical nuclei is presented. The exact commutation relations of the quasiparticle and phonon operators together with the anharmonic corrections for the phonon excitations are taken into account in the derivation of equations for the energies and structure coefficients of the wave functions of excited states, which include quasiparticle--phonon and quasiparticle--two-phonon components. The influence of various physical effects and of the dimension of the phonon basis on the fragmentation of the single-quasiparticle and quasiparticle-phonon states is investigated

  17. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  18. Recombination and propagation of quasiparticles in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedik, Nuh

    2004-01-01

    Rapid developments in time-resolved optical spectroscopy have led to renewed interest in the nonequilibrium state of superconductors and other highly correlated electron materials. In these experiments, the nonequilibrium state is prepared by the absorption of short (less than 100 fs) laser pulses, typically in the near-infrared, that perturb the density and energy distribution of quasiparticles. The evolution of the nonequilibrium state is probed by time resolving the changes in the optical response functions of the medium that take place after photoexcitation. Ultimately, the goal of such experiments is to understand not only the nonequilibrium state, but to shed light on the still poorly understood equilibrium properties of these materials. We report nonequilibrium experiments that have revealed aspects of the cup rates that have been inaccessible by other techniques. Namely, the diffusion and recombination coefficients of quasiparticles have been measured in both YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.5 and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x using time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Dependence of these measurements on doping, temperature and laser intensity is also obtained. To study the recombination of quasiparticles, we measure the change in reflectivity ΔR which is directly proportional to the nonequilibrium quasiparticle density created by the laser. From the intensity dependence, we estimate β, the inelastic scattering coefficient and γ th thermal equilibrium quasiparticle decay rate. We also present the dependence of recombination measurements on doping in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x . Going from underdoped to overdoped regime, the sign of ΔR changes from positive to negative right at the optimal doping. This is accompanied by a change in dynamics. The decay of ΔR stops being intensity dependent exactly at the optimal doping. We provide possible interpretations of these two observations. To study the propagation of quasiparticles, we interfered two laser pulses to introduce a spatially

  19. Quasiparticle semiconductor band structures including spin-orbit interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Brad D; Cohen, Marvin L

    2013-03-13

    We present first-principles calculations of the quasiparticle band structure of the group IV materials Si and Ge and the group III-V compound semiconductors AlP, AlAs, AlSb, InP, InAs, InSb, GaP, GaAs and GaSb. Calculations are performed using the plane wave pseudopotential method and the 'one-shot' GW method, i.e. G(0)W(0). Quasiparticle band structures, augmented with the effects of spin-orbit, are obtained via a Wannier interpolation of the obtained quasiparticle energies and calculated spin-orbit matrix. Our calculations explicitly treat the shallow semicore states of In and Ga, which are known to be important in the description of the electronic properties, as valence states in the quasiparticle calculation. Our calculated quasiparticle energies, combining both the ab initio evaluation of the electron self-energy and the vector part of the pseudopotential representing the spin-orbit effects, are in generally very good agreement with experimental values. These calculations illustrate the predictive power of the methodology as applied to group IV and III-V semiconductors.

  20. Cold deconfined matter EOS through an HTL quasi-particle model

    OpenAIRE

    Romatschke, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Using quasi-particle models, lattice data can be mapped to finite chemical potential. By comparing a simple and an HTL quasi-particle model, we derive the general trend that a full inclusion of the plasmon effect will give.

  1. Evidence of a Nonequilibrium Distribution of Quasiparticles in the Microwave Response of a Superconducting Aluminum Resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, P.J.; Goldie, D.J.; Diener, P.; Withington, S.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In a superconductor, absorption of photons with an energy below the superconducting gap leads to redistribution of quasiparticles over energy and thus induces a strong nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distribution. We have measured the electrodynamic response, quality factor, and resonant

  2. Transport quasiparticles and transverse interactions in quark-gluon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baym, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of the properties of interacting quark-gluon plasmas are beset by infrared divergences associated with the fact that magnetic interactions, i.e., those occurring through exchange of transverse gluons, are, in the absence of a 'magnetic mass''in QCD, not screened. In this lecture we discuss the effects of magnetic interactions on the transport coefficients and the quasiparticle structure of quark-gluon plasmas. We describe how inclusion of dynamical screening effects - corresponding to Landau damping of the virtual quanta exchanged - leads to finite transport scattering rates. In the weak coupling limit, dynamical screening effects dominate over a magnetic mass. We illustrate the breakdown of the quasi particle structure of degenerate plasmas caused by long-ranged magnetic interactions, describe the structure of fermion quasiparticles in hot relativistic plasmas, and touch briefly on the problem of the lifetime of quasiparticle in the presence of long-ranged magnetic interactions. (author)

  3. Metastability in spin polarised Fermi gases and quasiparticle decays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadeghzadeh, Kayvan; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the metastability associated with the first order transition from normal to superfluid phases in the phase diagram of two-component polarised Fermi gases.We begin by detailing the dominant decay processes of single quasiparticles.Having determined the momentum thresholds of each...... the interaction strength at which a polarised phase of molecules becomes the groundstate, to the one at which the single quasiparticle groundstate changes character from polaronic to molecular. Our argument in terms of a Fermi sea of polarons naturally suggests their use as an experimental probe. We propose...... experiments to observe the threshold of the predicted region of metastability, the interaction strength at which the quasiparticle groundstate changes character, and the decay rate of polarons....

  4. Quasiparticle and optical properties of strained stanene and stanane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pengfei; Wu, Liyuan; Yang, Chuanghua; Liang, Dan; Quhe, Ruge; Guan, Pengfei; Wang, Shumin

    2017-06-20

    Quasiparticle band structures and optical properties of two dimensional stanene and stanane (fully hydrogenated stanene) are studied by the GW and GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) approaches, with inclusion of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The SOC effect is significant for the electronic and optical properties in both stanene and stanane, compared with their group IV-enes and IV-anes counterparts. Stanene is a semiconductor with a quasiparticle band gap of 0.10 eV. Stanane has a sizable band gap of 1.63 eV and strongly binding exciton with binding energy of 0.10 eV. Under strain, the quasiparticle band gap and optical spectrum of both stanene and stanane are tunable.

  5. Field-orientation dependence of low-energy quasiparticle excitations in the heavy-electron superconductor UBe(13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yusei; Kittaka, Shunichiro; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Haga, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Amitsuka, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Yasumasa; Machida, Kazushige

    2015-04-10

    Low-energy quasiparticle excitations in the superconducting (SC) state of UBe_{13} were studied by means of specific-heat (C) measurements in a rotating field. Quite unexpectedly, the magnetic-field dependence of C(H) is linear in H with no angular dependence at low fields in the SC state, implying that the gap is fully open over the Fermi surfaces, in stark contrast to previous expectations. In addition, a characteristic cubic anisotropy of C(H) was observed above 2 T with a maximum (minimum) for H∥[001] ([111]) within the (11[over ¯]0) plane, in the normal as well as in the SC states. This oscillation possibly originates from the anisotropic response of the heavy quasiparticle bands, and might be a key to understand the unusual properties of UBe_{13}.

  6. Viscosities in the Gluon-Plasma within a Quasiparticle Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, M; Redlich, K

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological quasiparticle model, featuring dynamically generated self-energies of excitation modes, successfully describes lattice QCD results relevant for the QCD equation of state and related quantities both at zero and non-zero net baryon density. Here, this model is extended to study bulk and shear viscosities of the gluon-plasma within an effective kinetic theory approach. In this way, the compatibility of the employed quasiparticle ansatz with the apparent low viscosities of the strongly coupled deconfined gluonic medium is shown.

  7. The role of quasiparticles in rotating transitional nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauendorf, Stefan

    1984-01-01

    The yrast sequency of nuclei rotating about the symmetry axis is classified in analogy to class I and II superconductors, where the quasiparticles play the role of the quantized flux in metals. The experimental spectra show a class I behaviour. The ω-dependence of the quasiparticle excitation energy in collectively rotating nuclei is used as evidence for magnitude of the pair correlations and the occurrence of triaxial shapes. A transition from triaxial to oblate shape explains the experimental spectra and E2-transition probabilities in the N=88-90 nuclei. (author)

  8. Josephson junction analog and quasiparticle-pair current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1973-01-01

    A close analogy exists between a Josephson junction and a phase-locked loop. A new type of electrical analog based on this principle is presented. It is shown that the inclusion in this analog of a low-pass filter gives rise to a current of the same form as the Josephson quasiparticle-pair current....... A simple picture of the quasiparticle-pair current, which gives the right dependences, is obtained by assuming a junction cutoff frequency to be at the energy gap. ©1973 American Institute of Physics...

  9. Polarization particle drift and quasi-particle invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    The second-order approximation in quasi-particle description of magnetized plasmas is studied. Reduced particle and guiding-centre velocities are derived taking account of the second-order renormalization and polarization drift modified owing to finite-Larmor-radius effects. The second-order adiabatic invariant of quasi-particle motion is found. Global adiabatic invariants for the magnetized plasma are revealed, and their possible role in energy exchange between particles and fields, nonlinear mode cascades and global plasma stability is shown. 49 refs

  10. Extended quasiparticle approximation for relativistic electrons in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G.Morozov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with Dyson equations for the path-ordered Green's function, it is shown that the correlation functions for relativistic electrons (positrons in a weakly coupled non-equilibrium plasmas can be decomposed into sharply peaked quasiparticle parts and off-shell parts in a rather general form. To leading order in the electromagnetic coupling constant, this decomposition yields the extended quasiparticle approximation for the correlation functions, which can be used for the first principle calculation of the radiation scattering rates in QED plasmas.

  11. Quasiparticles in the superconducting state of high-Tc metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Shaginyan, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of quasiparticles in the superconducting state of high-T c metals within the framework of the theory of superconducting state based on the fermion condensation quantum phase transition is considered. It is shown that the behavior coincides with the behavior of Bogoliubov quasiparticles, whereas the maximum value of the superconducting gap and other exotic properties are determined by the presence of the fermion condensate. If at low temperatures the normal state is recovered by the application of a magnetic field suppressing the superconductivity, the induced state can be viewed as Landau-Fermi liquid. These observations are in good agreement with recent experimental facts [ru

  12. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  13. Continuum mechanics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Mase, G Thomas; Mase, George E

    2009-01-01

    Continuum TheoryContinuum MechanicsStarting OverNotationEssential MathematicsScalars, Vectors and Cartesian TensorsTensor Algebra in Symbolic Notation - Summation ConventionIndicial NotationMatrices and DeterminantsTransformations of Cartesian TensorsPrincipal Values and Principal DirectionsTensor Fields, Tensor CalculusIntegral Theorems of Gauss and StokesStress PrinciplesBody and Surface Forces, Mass DensityCauchy Stress PrincipleThe Stress TensorForce and Moment Equilibrium; Stress Tensor SymmetryStress Transformation LawsPrincipal Stresses; Principal Stress DirectionsMaximum and Minimum Stress ValuesMohr's Circles For Stress Plane StressDeviator and Spherical Stress StatesOctahedral Shear StressKinematics of Deformation and MotionParticles, Configurations, Deformations and MotionMaterial and Spatial CoordinatesLangrangian and Eulerian DescriptionsThe Displacement FieldThe Material DerivativeDeformation Gradients, Finite Strain TensorsInfinitesimal Deformation TheoryCompatibility EquationsStretch RatiosRot...

  14. Continuum mechanics the birthplace of mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Myron B

    2015-01-01

    Continuum mechanics is a standard course in many graduate programs in engineering and applied mathematics as it provides the foundations for the various differential equations and mathematical models that are encountered in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, and heat transfer.  This book successfully makes the topic more accessible to advanced undergraduate mathematics majors by aligning the mathematical notation and language with related courses in multivariable calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations; making connections with other areas of applied mathematics where parial differe

  15. Are Quasiparticles and Phonons Identical in Bose-Einstein Condensates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kazumasa; Kato, Yusuke; Kita, Takafumi

    2016-12-01

    We study an interacting spinless Bose-Einstein condensate to clarify theoretically whether the spectra of its quasiparticles (one-particle excitations) and collective modes (two-particle excitations) are identical, as concluded by Gavoret and Nozières [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 28, 349 (1964)]. We derive analytic expressions for their first and second moments so as to extend the Bijl-Feynman formula for the peak of the collective-mode spectrum to its width (inverse lifetime) and also to the one-particle channel. The obtained formulas indicate that the width of the collective-mode spectrum manifestly vanishes in the long-wavelength limit, whereas that of the quasiparticle spectrum apparently remains finite. We also evaluate the peaks and widths of the two spectra numerically for a model interaction potential in terms of the Jastrow wave function optimized by a variational method. It is thereby found that the width of the quasiparticle spectrum increases towards a constant as the wavenumber decreases. This marked difference in the spectral widths implies that the two spectra are distinct. In particular, the lifetime of the quasiparticles remains finite even in the long-wavelength limit.

  16. Quasiparticle losses at the surface of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panteleit, F.; Schroeder, T.; Martin, J.; Huebener, R.P.; Kiewiet, F.B.; Berg, van den M.L.; Korte, P.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are promising as high energy resolution x-ray detectors. However, the theoretical limit of the energy resolution of STJs has not yet been reached for several reasons. In many cases quasiparticle losses limit the energy resolution. We have investigated STJs

  17. Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a subcycle timescale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, F; Hohenleutner, M; Schmid, C P; Poellmann, C; Nagler, P; Korn, T; Schüller, C; Sherwin, M S; Huttner, U; Steiner, J T; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R

    2016-05-12

    Ever since Ernest Rutherford scattered α-particles from gold foils, collision experiments have revealed insights into atoms, nuclei and elementary particles. In solids, many-body correlations lead to characteristic resonances--called quasiparticles--such as excitons, dropletons, polarons and Cooper pairs. The structure and dynamics of quasiparticles are important because they define macroscopic phenomena such as Mott insulating states, spontaneous spin- and charge-order, and high-temperature superconductivity. However, the extremely short lifetimes of these entities make practical implementations of a suitable collider challenging. Here we exploit lightwave-driven charge transport, the foundation of attosecond science, to explore ultrafast quasiparticle collisions directly in the time domain: a femtosecond optical pulse creates excitonic electron-hole pairs in the layered dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide while a strong terahertz field accelerates and collides the electrons with the holes. The underlying dynamics of the wave packets, including collision, pair annihilation, quantum interference and dephasing, are detected as light emission in high-order spectral sidebands of the optical excitation. A full quantum theory explains our observations microscopically. This approach enables collision experiments with various complex quasiparticles and suggests a promising new way of generating sub-femtosecond pulses.

  18. Transport signatures of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, S. M.; Hansen, E. B.; Higginbotham, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state...

  19. Doping-dependent quasiparticle band structure in cuprate superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eder, R; Ohta, Y.; Sawatzky, G.A

    1997-01-01

    We present an exact diagonalization study of the single-particle spectral function in the so-called t-t'-t ''-J model in two dimensions. As a key result, we find that hole doping leads to a major reconstruction of the quasiparticle band structure near (pi,0): whereas for the undoped system the

  20. The coupling one quasi-particle to a Bohr core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewenkopf, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Odd nuclei are studied coupling one quasi-particle to a Bohr's core, solved by Kumar Baranger's method. Calculations are performed for energies and transition rates for the following isotopes: 133 Xe, 183 W, 99 Tc and 101 Rh. Limitations of the model are discussed. (author) [pt

  1. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  2. Non-Poissonian quantum jumps of a fluxonium qubit due to quasiparticle excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vool, U; Pop, I M; Sliwa, K; Abdo, B; Wang, C; Brecht, T; Gao, Y Y; Shankar, S; Hatridge, M; Catelani, G; Mirrahimi, M; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J; Glazman, L I; Devoret, M H

    2014-12-12

    As the energy relaxation time of superconducting qubits steadily improves, nonequilibrium quasiparticle excitations above the superconducting gap emerge as an increasingly relevant limit for qubit coherence. We measure fluctuations in the number of quasiparticle excitations by continuously monitoring the spontaneous quantum jumps between the states of a fluxonium qubit, in conditions where relaxation is dominated by quasiparticle loss. Resolution on the scale of a single quasiparticle is obtained by performing quantum nondemolition projective measurements within a time interval much shorter than T₁, using a quantum-limited amplifier (Josephson parametric converter). The quantum jump statistics switches between the expected Poisson distribution and a non-Poissonian one, indicating large relative fluctuations in the quasiparticle population, on time scales varying from seconds to hours. This dynamics can be modified controllably by injecting quasiparticles or by seeding quasiparticle-trapping vortices by cooling down in a magnetic field.

  3. Continuum analogues of contragredient Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveliev, M.V.; Vershik, A.M.

    1989-03-01

    We present an axiomatic formulation of a new class of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras - the generalizations of Z-graded Lie algebras with, generally speaking, an infinite-dimensional Cartan subalgebra and a contiguous set of roots. We call such algebras ''continuum Lie algebras''. The simple Lie algebras of constant growth are encapsulated in our formulation. We pay particular attention to the case when the local algebra is parametrized by a commutative algebra while the Cartan operator (the generalization of the Cartan matrix) is a linear operator. Special examples of these algebras are the Kac-Moody algebras, algebras of Poisson brackets, algebras of vector fields on a manifold, current algebras, and algebras with differential or integro-differential Cartan operator. The nonlinear dynamical systems associated with the continuum contragredient Lie algebras are also considered. (author). 9 refs

  4. Anisotropic Weyl fermions from the quasiparticle excitation spectrum of a 3D Fulde-Ferrell superfluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Chu, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2014-04-04

    Weyl fermions, first proposed for describing massless chiral Dirac fermions in particle physics, have not been observed yet in experiments. Recently, much effort has been devoted to explore Weyl fermions around band touching points of single-particle energy dispersions in certain solid state materials (named Weyl semimetals), similar as graphene for Dirac fermions. Here we show that such Weyl semimetals also exist in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum of a three-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Fulde-Ferrell superfluid. By varying Zeeman fields, the properties of Weyl fermions, such as their creation and annihilation, number and position, as well as anisotropic linear dispersions around band touching points, can be tuned. We study the manifestation of anisotropic Weyl fermions in sound speeds of Fulde-Ferrell fermionic superfluids, which are detectable in experiments.

  5. Breaking the theoretical scaling limit for predicting quasiparticle energies: the stochastic GW approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Gao, Yi; Arntsen, Christopher; Karshenas, Cyrus; Rabani, Eran; Baer, Roi

    2014-08-15

    We develop a formalism to calculate the quasiparticle energy within the GW many-body perturbation correction to the density functional theory. The occupied and virtual orbitals of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian are replaced by stochastic orbitals used to evaluate the Green function G, the polarization potential W, and, thereby, the GW self-energy. The stochastic GW (sGW) formalism relies on novel theoretical concepts such as stochastic time-dependent Hartree propagation, stochastic matrix compression, and spatial or temporal stochastic decoupling techniques. Beyond the theoretical interest, the formalism enables linear scaling GW calculations breaking the theoretical scaling limit for GW as well as circumventing the need for energy cutoff approximations. We illustrate the method for silicon nanocrystals of varying sizes with N_{e}>3000 electrons.

  6. Quasi-particle energies and optical excitations of hydrogenated and fluorinated germanene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Huabing; Li, Yunhai; Wang, Shudong; Wang, Jinlan

    2015-02-14

    Using density functional theory, the G0W0 method and Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations, we systematically explore the structural, electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated and fluorinated germanene. The hydrogenated/fluorinated germanene tends to form chair and zigzag-line configurations and its electronic and optical properties show close geometry dependence. The chair hydrogenated/fluorinated and zigzag-line fluorinated germanene are direct band-gap semiconductors, while the zigzag-line hydrogenated germanene owns an indirect band-gap. Moreover, the quasi-particle corrections are significant and strong excitonic effects with large exciton binding energies are observed. Moreover, the zigzag-line hydrogenated/fluorinated germanene shows highly anisotropic optical responses, which may be used as a good optical linear polarizer.

  7. Quasiparticle and excitonic gaps of one-dimensional carbon chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaani, E; Monserrat, B; Drummond, N D; Lambert, C J

    2016-06-01

    We report diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations of the quasiparticle and excitonic gaps of hydrogen-terminated oligoynes and extended polyyne. The electronic gaps are found to be very sensitive to the atomic structure in these systems. We have therefore optimised the geometry of polyyne by directly minimising the DMC energy with respect to the lattice constant and the Peierls-induced carbon-carbon bond-length alternation. We find the bond-length alternation of polyyne to be 0.136(2) Å and the excitonic and quasiparticle gaps to be 3.30(7) and 3.4(1) eV, respectively. The DMC zone-centre longitudinal optical phonon frequency of polyyne is 2084(5) cm(-1), which is consistent with Raman spectroscopic measurements for large oligoynes.

  8. Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, C H L; Weideneder, M; Chiffaudel, Y; Strunk, C; Aprili, M

    2015-10-26

    Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (∼100 ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott-Yafet spin-orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (∼10 ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics.

  9. Quasiparticle Approach to Molecules Interacting with Quantum Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2017-03-03

    Understanding the behavior of molecules interacting with superfluid helium represents a formidable challenge and, in general, requires approaches relying on large-scale numerical simulations. Here, we demonstrate that experimental data collected over the last 20 years provide evidence that molecules immersed in superfluid helium form recently predicted angulon quasiparticles [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 203001 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.114.203001]. Most important, casting the many-body problem in terms of angulons amounts to a drastic simplification and yields effective molecular moments of inertia as straightforward analytic solutions of a simple microscopic Hamiltonian. The outcome of the angulon theory is in good agreement with experiment for a broad range of molecular impurities, from heavy to medium-mass to light species. These results pave the way to understanding molecular rotation in liquid and crystalline phases in terms of the angulon quasiparticle.

  10. Suppressing relaxation in superconducting qubits by quasiparticle pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Simon; Yan, Fei; Catelani, Gianluigi; Bylander, Jonas; Kamal, Archana; Birenbaum, Jeffrey; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Samach, Gabriel; Sears, Adam P; Weber, Steven J; Yoder, Jonilyn L; Clarke, John; Kerman, Andrew J; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Orlando, Terry P; Oliver, William D

    2016-12-23

    Dynamical error suppression techniques are commonly used to improve coherence in quantum systems. They reduce dephasing errors by applying control pulses designed to reverse erroneous coherent evolution driven by environmental noise. However, such methods cannot correct for irreversible processes such as energy relaxation. We investigate a complementary, stochastic approach to reducing errors: Instead of deterministically reversing the unwanted qubit evolution, we use control pulses to shape the noise environment dynamically. In the context of superconducting qubits, we implement a pumping sequence to reduce the number of unpaired electrons (quasiparticles) in close proximity to the device. A 70% reduction in the quasiparticle density results in a threefold enhancement in qubit relaxation times and a comparable reduction in coherence variability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Quasi-Particle Self-Consistent GW for Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, F; Harding, M E; Seiler, C; Weigend, F; Evers, F; van Setten, M J

    2016-06-14

    We present the formalism and implementation of quasi-particle self-consistent GW (qsGW) and eigenvalue only quasi-particle self-consistent GW (evGW) adapted to standard quantum chemistry packages. Our implementation is benchmarked against high-level quantum chemistry computations (coupled-cluster theory) and experimental results using a representative set of molecules. Furthermore, we compare the qsGW approach for five molecules relevant for organic photovoltaics to self-consistent GW results (scGW) and analyze the effects of the self-consistency on the ground state density by comparing calculated dipole moments to their experimental values. We show that qsGW makes a significant improvement over conventional G0W0 and that partially self-consistent flavors (in particular evGW) can be excellent alternatives.

  12. Quasiparticle features and level statistics of odd-odd nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Nanpu; Zheng Renrong; Zhu Shunquan

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y are calculated by using the axially symmetric rotor plus quasiparticles model. The two standard statistical tests of Random-Matrix Theory such as the distribution function p(s) of the nearest-neighbor level spacings (NNS) and the spectral rigidity Δ 3 are used to explore the statistical properties of the energy levels. By analyzing the properties of p(s) and Δ 3 under various conditions, the authors find that the quasiparticle features mainly affect the statistical properties of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y through the recoil term and the Coriolis force in this theoretical mode, and that the chaotic degree of the energy levels decreases with the decreasing of the Fermi energy and the energy-gap parameters. The effect of the recoil term is small while the Coriolis force plays a major role in the spectral structure of 84 Y

  13. On the Bengtsson-Frauendorf cranked-quasiparticle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, K.F.; Nagarajan, M.A.; Rowley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The cranked-quasiparticle model of Bengtsson and Frauendorf (non-self-consistent HFB) is compared with some exact calculations of particles moving in a cranked, deformed mean field but interacting via rotationally invariant two-body forces. In order to make the exact calculations manageable, a single shell is used but despite this small basis the quasiparticle model is shown to have a high degree of success. The usual choice of pair gap is discussed and shown to be good. The general structures of band crossings in the exact calculations are well reproduced and some crossing frequencies are given quantitatively though the odd-particle systems require blocking. Interaction strengths are not well reproduced though some qualitative features, e.g. oscillations, are obtained. These interactions are generally underestimated, an effect which causes the HFB yrast band to behave less collectively than it should. (orig.)

  14. Continuum gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, R.

    1976-09-01

    The mathematics of gauge fields and some related concepts are discussed: some corrections on the principal fiber bundles emphasize the idea that the present formulation of continuum theories is incomplete. The main ingredients used through the construction of the renormalized perturbation series are then described: the Faddeev Popov argument, and the Faddeev Popov Lagrangian; the Slavnov symmetry and the nature of the Faddeev Popov ghost fields; the Slavnov identity, with an obstruction: the Adler Bardeen anomaly, and its generalization to the local cohomology of the gauge Lie algebra. Some smooth classical configurations of gauge fields which ought to play a prominent role in the evaluation of the functional integral describing the theory are also reviewed

  15. Alfven continuum with toroidicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1985-06-01

    The symmetry property of the MHD wave propagation operator is utilized to express the toroidal eigenmodes as a superposition of the mutually orthogonal cylindrical modes. Because of the degeneracy among cylindrical modes with the same frequency but resonant surfaces of different helicity the toroidal perturbation produces a zeroth order mixing of the above modes. The toroidal eigenmodes of frequency ω 0 2 have multiple resonant surfaces, with each surface shifted relative to its cylindrical position and carrying a multispectral content. Thus a single helicity toroidal antenna of frequency ω 0 couples strongly to all different helicity resonant surfaces with matching local Alfven frequency. Zeroth order coupling between modes in the continuum and global Alfven modes also results from toroidicity and degeneracy. Our perturbation technique is the MHD counterpart of the quantum mechanical methods and is applicable through the entire range of the MHD spectrum

  16. The geometry of the thermal quasi-particle transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, P.A.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt; Graf, M.; Matthaeus, F.

    1991-12-01

    We introduce a new concept for thermal quantum theories, which expresses a time dependent quasi-particle picture as the coupling to an external (classical) gauge field. The non-abelian nature of this field even for quasi-free systems can lead to renormalization factors that depend on the system's history. In this framework, the geometry of adiabatic time evolutions is investigated in detail, and implications for non-equilibrium systems are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Quasi-particle states of electron systems out of equilibrium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 19 (2007), 195125/1-195125/9 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0585 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green’s functions * quantum transport equations * quasi-particles Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  18. Deformed nuclear state as a quasiparticle-pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, J.; Skalski, J.

    1988-01-01

    The deformed nuclear states, obtained in terms of the Hartree-Fock plus BCS method with the Skyrme SIII interaction, are approximated by condensates of the low-angular-momentum quasiparticle and particle pairs. The optimal pairs are determined by the variation after truncation method. The influence of the truncation on the deformation energy and the importance of the core-polarization effects are investigated

  19. Dynamics of correlation-frozen antinodal quasiparticles in superconducting cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilento, Federico; Manzoni, Giulia; Sterzi, Andrea; Peli, Simone; Ronchi, Andrea; Crepaldi, Alberto; Boschini, Fabio; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard; Springate, Emma; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Greven, Martin; Berciu, Mona; Kemper, Alexander F.; Damascelli, Andrea; Capone, Massimo; Giannetti, Claudio; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2018-01-01

    Many puzzling properties of high–critical temperature (Tc) superconducting (HTSC) copper oxides have deep roots in the nature of the antinodal quasiparticles, the elementary excitations with wave vector parallel to the Cu–O bonds. These electronic states are most affected by the onset of antiferromagnetic correlations and charge instabilities, and they host the maximum of the anisotropic superconducting gap and pseudogap. We use time-resolved extreme-ultraviolet photoemission with proper photon energy (18 eV) and time resolution (50 fs) to disclose the ultrafast dynamics of the antinodal states in a prototypical HTSC cuprate. After photoinducing a nonthermal charge redistribution within the Cu and O orbitals, we reveal a dramatic momentum-space differentiation of the transient electron dynamics. Whereas the nodal quasiparticle distribution is heated up as in a conventional metal, new quasiparticle states transiently emerge at the antinodes, similarly to what is expected for a photoexcited Mott insulator, where the frozen charges can be released by an impulsive excitation. This transient antinodal metallicity is mapped into the dynamics of the O-2p bands, thus directly demonstrating the intertwining between the low- and high-energy scales that is typical of correlated materials. Our results suggest that the correlation-driven freezing of the electrons moving along the Cu–O bonds, analogous to the Mott localization mechanism, constitutes the starting point for any model of high-Tc superconductivity and other exotic phases of HTSC cuprates. PMID:29507885

  20. Temperature dependent quasiparticle renormalization in nickel and iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Thirupathaiah, Setti; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Fink, Joerg; Duerr, Hermann [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    One of the fundamental consequences of electron correlation effects is that the bare particles in solids become 'dressed' with an excitation cloud resulting in quasiparticles. Such a quasiparticle will carry the same spin and charge as the original particle, but will have a renormalized mass and a finite lifetime. The properties of many-body interactions are described with a complex function called self energy which is directly accessible to modern high-resolution angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Ferromagnetic metals like nickel or iron offers the exciting possibility to study the spin dependence of quasiparticle coupling to bosonic modes. Utilizing the exchange split band structure as an intrinsic 'spin detector' it is possible to distinguish between electron-phonon and electron-magnon coupling phenomena. In this contribution we will report a systematic investigation of the k- and temperature dependence of the electron-boson coupling in nickel and iron metals as well as discuss origin of earlier observed anomalous lifetime broadening of majority spin states of nickel at Fermi level.

  1. Continuum limbed robots for locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Alper

    This thesis focuses on continuum robots based on pneumatic muscle technology. We introduce a novel approach to use these muscles as limbs of lightweight legged robots. The flexibility of the continuum legs of these robots offers the potential to perform some duties that are not possible with classical rigid-link robots. Potential applications are as space robots in low gravity, and as cave explorer robots. The thesis covers the fabrication process of continuum pneumatic muscles and limbs. It also provides some new experimental data on this technology. Afterwards, the designs of two different novel continuum robots - one tripod, one quadruped - are introduced. Experimental data from tests using the robots is provided. The experimental results are the first published example of locomotion with tripod and quadruped continuum legged robots. Finally, discussion of the results and how far this technology can go forward is presented.

  2. Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.

  3. Continuum robots and underactuated grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Giri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the capabilities of continuum (continuous backbone robot structures in the performance of under-actuated grasping. Continuum robots offer the potential of robust grasps over a wide variety of object classes, due to their ability to adapt their shape to interact with the environment via non-local continuum contact conditions. Furthermore, this capability can be achieved with simple, low degree of freedom hardware. However, there are practical issues which currently limit the application of continuum robots to grasping. We discuss these issues and illustrate via an experimental continuum grasping case study.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  4. Influence of the Pauli principle on the one-quasiparticle states in odd spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Zuy Khuong

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the Pauli principle on the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states in odd spherical nuclei is studied within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. It is shown that the Pauli principle influences considerably the position and structure of a few low-lying states. The fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states at intermediate and high excitation energies is slightly affected by the Pauli principle, and the calculations can be performed by taking the Pauli principle into account roughly. (author)

  5. Quasiparticle scattering by quantum phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum phase slips (QPS) in narrow superfluid channels generate momentum by unwinding the supercurrent. In a uniform Bose gas, this momentum needs to be absorbed by quasiparticles (phonons). We show that this requirement results in an additional exponential suppression of the QPS rate (compared to the rate of QPS induced by a sharply localized perturbation). In BCS-paired fluids, momentum can be transferred to fermionic quasiparticles, and we find an interesting interplay between quasiparticle scattering on QPS and on disorder

  6. Effect of quasi-particle injection on retrapping current of Josephson junction

    OpenAIRE

    Utsunomiya, K.; Yagi, Ryuta

    2006-01-01

    We report that the energy dissipation of Josephson junction can be controlled by quasi-particle injection. We fabricated two Josephson junctions on the narrow aluminum wire and controlled the energy dissipation of one junction by quasi-particle injection from the other. We observed the retrapping current increased as the quasi-particles were injected. We also studied the heating effect of our measurement.

  7. Strong quasi-particle tunneling study in the paired quantum Hall states

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Kentaro; Yoshioka, Daijiro

    2001-01-01

    The quasi-particle tunneling phenomena in the paired fractional quantum Hall states are studied. A single point-contact system is first considered. Because of relevancy of the quasi-particle tunneling term, the strong tunneling regime should be investigated. Using the instanton method it is shown that the strong quasi-particle tunneling regime is described as the weak electron tunneling regime effectively. Expanding to the network model the paired quantum Hall liquid to insulator transition i...

  8. Quasiparticle recombination time in superconducting lead and the quasiparticle nonequilibrium energy distribution of optically perturbed tin superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworski, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    The effective quasiparticle recombination time in Pb superconductors was experimentally measured by optically perturbing Pb-oxide-Pb tunnel junctions. Analysis by carefully studying the optically modulated energy gap as a function of temperature determined the effective recombination time to be 2.06 x 10 - 10 T - 1/2e/sup δ//sup kT/ +- 30%. Careful studies on optically perturbed Sn-oxide-Sn tunnel junctions provide information on the quasiparticle nonequilibrium energy distribution function. Initial data compared closer with a modified heating model describing the photo-excited quasi particles rather than with an effective chemical potential model. However, an analysis of the IV characteristic of voltage-biased Sn junctions numerically unfolded the exact energy distribution from an integral equation. The results compare favorably to the theory of Chang and Scalapino, who calculate from the coupled Boltzmann kinetic equations the phonon and quasiparticle energy distributions. Lastly, a brief study describes Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy as applied to the problem of the identification of altered DNA bases. The technique demonstrates an exciting potential application of physics to a contemporary problem in molecular biology

  9. Dependence of the quasiparticle recombination rate on the superconducting gap and TC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G. L.; Xi, Xiaoxiang; Hwang, J.; Tashiro, H.; Reitze, D. H.; Tanner, D. B.

    2010-03-01

    The relaxation of excess quasiparticles in a BCS superconductor is known to depend on quantities such as the quasiparticle & phonon density of states, and their coupling (Kaplan et al, Phys. Rev. B 14 4854, 1976). Disorder or an applied field can disrupt superconductivity, as evidenced by a reduced TC. We consider some simple modifications to the quasiparticle density of states consistent with a suppressed energy gap and TC, leading to changes in the intrinsic and effective (measured) rates for excess quasiparticles to recombine into pairs. We review some results for disordered MoGe and discuss the magnetic-field dependence of the recombination process.

  10. Tensor quasiparticle interaction and spin-isospin sound in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, P.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the tensor components of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter on the spin-isospin sound type excitations is studied. Numerical results are obtained using a simplified model of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter. The quasiparticle distribution matrix corresponding to the spin-isospin sound is found to be qualitatively different from that obtained for purely central quasiparticle interaction. The macroscopic effects, however, are restricted to a small change in the phase velocity of the spin-isospin sound. (Auth.)

  11. Structure of quasiparticles and their fusion algebra in fractional quantum Hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-05-01

    It was recently discovered that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states can be characterized quantitatively by the pattern of zeros that describe how the ground-state wave function goes to zero when electrons are brought close together. Quasiparticles in the FQH states can be described in a similar quantitative way by the pattern of zeros that result when electrons are brought close to the quasiparticles. In this paper, we combine the pattern of zeros approach and the conformal field theory (CFT) approach to calculate the topological properties of quasiparticles. We discuss how the quasiparticles in FQH states naturally form representations of a magnetic translation algebra, with members of a representation differing from each other by Abelian quasiparticles. We find that this structure dramatically simplifies topological properties of the quasiparticles, such as their fusion rules, charges, and scaling dimensions, and has consequences for the ground state degeneracy of FQH states on higher genus surfaces. We find constraints on the pattern of zeros of quasiparticles that can fuse together, which allow us to derive the fusion rules of quasiparticles from their pattern of zeros, at least in the case of the (generalized and composite) parafermion states. We also calculate from CFT the number of quasiparticle types in the generalized and composite parafermion states, which confirm the result obtained previously through a completely different approach.

  12. Structure of quasiparticles and their fusion algebra in fractional quantum Hall states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    It was recently discovered that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states can be characterized quantitatively by the pattern of zeros that describe how the ground-state wave function goes to zero when electrons are brought close together. Quasiparticles in the FQH states can be described in a similar quantitative way by the pattern of zeros that result when electrons are brought close to the quasiparticles. In this paper, we combine the pattern of zeros approach and the conformal field theory (CFT) approach to calculate the topological properties of quasiparticles. We discuss how the quasiparticles in FQH states naturally form representations of a magnetic translation algebra, with members of a representation differing from each other by Abelian quasiparticles. We find that this structure dramatically simplifies topological properties of the quasiparticles, such as their fusion rules, charges, and scaling dimensions, and has consequences for the ground state degeneracy of FQH states on higher genus surfaces. We find constraints on the pattern of zeros of quasiparticles that can fuse together, which allow us to derive the fusion rules of quasiparticles from their pattern of zeros, at least in the case of the (generalized and composite) parafermion states. We also calculate from CFT the number of quasiparticle types in the generalized and composite parafermion states, which confirm the result obtained previously through a completely different approach.

  13. Inhomogeneous states of nonequilibrium superconductors: Quasiparticle bags and antiphase domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkola, M.I.; Schrieffer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Nonequilibrium properties of short-coherence-length s-wave superconductors are analyzed in the presence of extrinsic and intrinsic inhomogeneities. In general, the lowest-energy configurations of quasiparticle excitations are topological textures into which quasiparticles segregate and that are described as antiphase domain walls between superconducting regions whose order parameter phases differ by π. Antiphase domain walls can be probed by various experimental techniques, for example, by optical absorption and NMR. At zero temperature, quasiparticles seldom appear as self-trapped bag states. However, for low concentrations of quasiparticles, they may be stabilized in superconductors by extrinsic defects. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  14. Role of quasiparticle x phonon components in gamma-decay of hogh-lying states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Solov'ev, V.G.; Vdovin, A.I.; Stoyanov, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of quasiparticle-phonon model of a nucleus the probabilities of gamma-transitions (E1, M1, E2) from a high-lying resonance-similar structure to the excitation of neutron hole state (lg 9/2 ) -1 of 111 Sn nucleus to the main and low-excited one-quasiparticle states have been calculated. Wave function of a highly excited state comprised the components ''quasiparticle x phonon'' and ''quasiparticle x two phonons''. For E1-transitions 9/2 + → 11/2 1 - the main contribution to the transition is made by one-quasiparticle components of wave functions of the initial and final states. E2-transition 9/2 + → 7/2 g,s + takes place at the expense of impurities in ''quasiparticle x phonon'' states. For M1-transition from the states 9/2 + to the main one a strong destructive interference of contributions of one-quasiparticle and ''quasiparticle x phonon'' components is observed. Thus it is shown that components ''quasiparticle x phonon'' may play the major role in correct description of gamma-transitions from high-lying one-particle or low-lying hole states

  15. Quasiparticle relaxation in Heavy Fermions studied using Inverse Fourier Transform of optical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordevic, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Inverse Fourier Transform of optical conductivity is used for studies of quasiparticle relaxation in Heavy Fermions in time domain. We demonstrate the usefulness of the procedure on model spectra and then use it to study quasiparticle relaxation in two Heavy Fermions YbFe 4 Sb 12 and CeRu 4 Sb 12 . Optical conductivity in time domain reveals details of quasiparticle relaxation close to the Fermi level, not readily accessible from the spectra in the frequency domain. In particular, we find that the relaxation of heavy quasiparticles does not start instantaneously, but typically after a few hundred femto-seconds.

  16. The continuum of behavior guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Behavior guidance is a continuum of techniques, basic and advanced, fundamental to the provision of quality dental care for pediatric patients. This practice must be individualized, pairing the correct method of behavior guidance with each child. To select the appropriate technique, the clinician must have a thorough understanding of each aspect of the continuum and anticipate parental expectations, child temperament, and the technical procedures necessary to complete care. By effectively using techniques within the continuum of behavior guidance, a healing relationship with the family is maintained while addressing dental disease and empowering the child to receive dental treatment throughout their lifetime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Continuum of Care (COC) Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs is to reduce the incidence of homelessness in CoC communities by assisting homeless...

  18. An improved particle population balance equation in the continuum-slip regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved moment model is proposed to solve the population balance equation for Brownian coagulation in the continuum-slip regime, and it reduces to a known one in open literature when the non-linear terms in the slip correction factor are ignored. The present model shows same asymptotic behavior as that in the continuum regime.

  19. Electron Heating and Quasiparticle Tunnelling in Superconducting Charge Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M. D.; Bueno, J.; Delsing, P.; Echternach, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    We have directly measured non-equilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling in the time domain as a function of temperature and RF carrier power for a pair of charge qubits based on the single Cooper-pair box, where the readout is performed with a multiplexed quantum capacitance technique. We have extracted an effective electron temperature for each applied RF power, using the data taken at the lowest power as a reference curve. This data has been fit to a standard T? electron heating model, with a reasonable correspondence with established material parameters.

  20. Hund's Induced Fermi-Liquid Instabilities and Enhanced Quasiparticle Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De' Medici, Luca

    2017-04-21

    Hund's coupling is shown to generally favor, in a doped half-filled Mott insulator, an increase in the compressibility culminating in a Fermi-liquid instability towards phase separation. The largest effect is found near the frontier between an ordinary and an orbitally decoupled ("Hund's") metal. The increased compressibility implies an enhancement of quasiparticle scattering, thus favoring other possible symmetry breakings. This physics is shown to happen in simulations of the 122 Fe-based superconductors, possibly implying the relevance of this mechanism in the enhancement of the critical temperature for superconductivity.

  1. A general numerical analysis of the superconducting quasiparticle mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R. G.; Feldman, M. J.; Kerr, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    For very low noise millimeter-wave receivers, the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) quasiparticle mixer is now competitive with conventional Schottky mixers. Tucker (1979, 1980) has developed a quantum theory of mixing which has provided a basis for the rapid improvement in SIS mixer performance. The present paper is concerned with a general method of numerical analysis for SIS mixers which allows arbitrary terminating impedances for all the harmonic frequencies. This analysis provides an approach for an examination of the range of validity of the three-frequency results of the quantum mixer theory. The new method has been implemented with the aid of a Fortran computer program.

  2. Quasi-particles and quantum condensate in the Quantum Chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, J.

    1987-01-01

    The non-perturbative structure of Quantum Chromodynamics is investigated with the help of a generalisation of the formalism of Green's functions according to Gorkow and Nambu's studies in the theory of superconductivity methods. Taking into account the existence of the gluon condensation, the self-energy of the gluon-quasi-particles in the form of integral-equations is calculated with the help of modified rules for Feynman diagrams. The form of these equations implies the existence of particular solutions with an energy gap in the spectrum of the quasi-particles and a phase transition at a critical momentum. (author)

  3. Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Arteaga, D.

    2007-06-25

    Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)

  4. Exchange scattering of quasiparticles by positive ion in He3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdel'shtejn, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    The difference in the mobility of negative and positive ions in normal 3 He at low temperatures is discussed. The mobility mechanisms for the ions of different sign are qualitatively different since the positive ion can exchange quasiparticles with the helium atoms from the ice-like shell surrounding the ion. A study of the mobility in a magnetic field may yield quantitative information on the magnitude of the exchange interaction. A calculation for the exchange scattering model is carried out and it is shown that a logarithmic contribution to the positive ion mobility μsub(+)(T) appears which is analogous to the Kondo effect

  5. Two correlated quasiparticles states in the principal series approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukelsky, J.; Dussel, G.G.; Sofia, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The principal series approximation is extended to the description of two correlated quasiparticles states, enabling a treatment of these states that takes into account the coupling among the two particle Green's function and the particle-hole one. This description is related to a random phase approximation treatment of collective states in open shell nuclei that includes simultaneously the particle-particle and particle-hole versions of the nuclear residual Hamiltonian. Using separable interactions it is found that the inclusion of the particle-particle part of the Hamiltonians greatly changes the properties of the 2 + states in the Sn isotopes

  6. Fluctuations in macroscopically agitated plasma:quasiparticles and effective temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fluctuations in the plasma, in which macroscopic fluid-like motion is agitated due to large-scale and low-frequency electro-magnetic fields, are studied. Such fields can be produced by external factors or internally, for example due to turbulence. Fluctuation spectral distributions are calculated with regard to the renormalization of the transition probability for a test-particle and of the test-particle shielding. If the correlation length for the random fluid-like motion is large as compared to the fluctuation scale lengths, then the fluctuation spectral distributions can be explained in terms of quasiparticles originating from macroscopic plasma agitation and of an effective temperature

  7. High-Field Quasiparticle Tunneling in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ : Negative Magnetoresistance in the Superconducting State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, N.; Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Shibauchi, T.; Bulaevskii, L. N.; Maley, M. P.; Latyshev, Yu. I.; Yamashita, T.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the c -axis resistivity ρ c (H) in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ that peaks in quasistatic magnetic fields up to 60 T. By suppressing the Josephson part of the two-channel (Cooper pair/quasiparticle) conductivity σ c (H) , we find that the negative slope of ρ c (H) above the peak is due to quasiparticle tunneling conductivity σ q (H) across the CuO 2 layers below H c2 . At high fields (a) σ q (H) grows linearly with H , and (b) ρ c (T) tends to saturate (σ c ≠0 ) as T→0 , consistent with the scattering at the nodes of the d -wave gap. A superlinear σ q (H) marks the normal state above T c . (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. Excitation energy of a helium 3 quasiparticle in the bulk mixture at constant pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    A 3 He quasiparticle excitation energy in bulk mixture at zero pressure and 6% solution is calculated to O(x) using the bulk effective interaction of Yim and Massey. The present 3 He quasiparticle excitation energy is in agreement with the experimental result of Hilton, Scherm and Stirling. (author)

  9. Configuration changes and hindered decays in four- and six-quasiparticle isomers in 178Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondev, F.G.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Kibedi, T.; Bayer, S.; Lane, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A six-quasiparticle isomer with K π =21 - , a half-life of 290(12) ms, and the π 3 ν 3 configuration has been identified in the odd-odd nucleus 178 Ta, at an excitation energy of 2902 keV. The rotational bands built on the known K π =15 - isomer and on the newly found 16 + four-quasiparticle and 22 + six-quasiparticle states, have also been identified, allowing characterization of the configurations. The 15 - band is predominantly of πν 3 character with a π 3 ν admixture. When the mixing is taken into account the excitation energies of the main yrast multi-quasiparticle states can be reproduced. The multi-quasiparticle states observed are related essentially through the addition of the two-quasiparticle component ν 2 [6 + ] or π 2 [6 + ]. Depending on whether the transition between the states involves the change ν 2 [6 + ] → [0] or π 2 [6 + ] → [0], the E2 hindrance factors for decays between the six- and four-quasiparticle states are relatively large or small. This dependence mimics the pattern observed in the two-quasiparticle core transitions and, because the 15 - isomer is mainly πν 3 , the magnitude sequence is inverted compared to that observed in 176 Ta. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Acceleration of quasi-particle modes in Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Marzlin, Karl-Peter; Zhang, Weiping

    1998-01-01

    We analytically examine the dynamics of quasi-particle modes occuring in a Bose-Einstein condensate which is subject to a weak acceleration. It is shown that the momentum of a quasi-particle mode is squeezed rather than accelerated.

  11. Quasiparticle GW calculations for solids, molecules, and two-dimensional materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüser, Falco; Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2013-01-01

    band gap is around 1eV too low. Similar relative deviations are found for the ionization potentials of a test set of 32 small molecules. The importance of substrate screening for a correct description of quasiparticle energies and Fermi velocities in supported two-dimensional (2D) materials...... of quasiparticle states....

  12. Quasi-particle lifetime broadening in normal-superconductor junctions with UPt3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deWilde, Y; Klapwijk, TM; Jansen, AGM; Heil, J; Wyder, P

    For the Andreev-reflection process of quasi-particles at a normal-metal-superconductor interface the influence of lifetime broadening of the quasi-particles on the current-voltage characteristics of NS point contacts is analyzed along the lines of the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model. The anomalous

  13. Quasiparticles in Raman scattering of an electromagnetic wave by an atomic condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il’ichev, L. V.

    2011-01-01

    Raman scattering of an intense electromagnetic wave by a free atomic Bose condensate is considered. In a system of atoms and photons, a subsystem is separated whose dynamics can be naturally described in terms of quasiparticles: quasi-atoms and quasi-photons. The dispersion laws of quasiparticles are interrupted by the instability interval. The introduction of quasiparticles within this interval is impossible, while dispersion laws that are continued formally acquire imaginary components. The dynamic scattering model is generalized by including dissipative annihilation processes of scattered photons and uncondensed atoms. A stationary solution of the corresponding quantum control equation is found, allowing the calculation of momentum distributions of real particles and quasiparticles. The outlook for the experimental detection of quasiparticles is discussed.

  14. Charge separation at nanoscale interfaces: energy-level alignment including two-quasiparticle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huashan; Lin, Zhibin; Lusk, Mark T; Wu, Zhigang

    2014-10-21

    The universal and fundamental criteria for charge separation at interfaces involving nanoscale materials are investigated. In addition to the single-quasiparticle excitation, all the two-quasiparticle effects including exciton binding, Coulomb stabilization, and exciton transfer are considered, which play critical roles on nanoscale interfaces for optoelectronic applications. We propose a scheme allowing adding these two-quasiparticle interactions on top of the single-quasiparticle energy level alignment for determining and illuminating charge separation at nanoscale interfaces. Employing the many-body perturbation theory based on Green's functions, we quantitatively demonstrate that neglecting or simplifying these crucial two-quasiparticle interactions using less accurate methods is likely to predict qualitatively incorrect charge separation behaviors at nanoscale interfaces where quantum confinement dominates.

  15. Quasiparticle properties of a coupled quantum-wire electron-phonon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, E. H.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Sarma, S. Das

    1996-01-01

    We study leading-order many-body effects of longitudinal-optical phonons on electronic properties of one-dimensional quantum-wire systems. We calculate the quasiparticle properties of a weakly polar one-dimensional electron gas in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron-electron interac......We study leading-order many-body effects of longitudinal-optical phonons on electronic properties of one-dimensional quantum-wire systems. We calculate the quasiparticle properties of a weakly polar one-dimensional electron gas in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron......-electron interactions, The leading-order dynamical screening approximation (GW approximation) is used to obtain the electron self-energy, the quasiparticle spectral function, and the quasiparticle damping rate in our calculation by treating electrons and phonons on an equal footing. Our theory includes effects (within...... theoretical results for quasiparticle properties....

  16. Measurements of quasiparticle tunneling dynamics in a band-gap-engineered transmon qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; DiCarlo, L; Reed, M D; Catelani, G; Bishop, Lev S; Schuster, D I; Johnson, B R; Yang, Ge A; Frunzio, L; Glazman, L; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

    2012-06-08

    We have engineered the band gap profile of transmon qubits by combining oxygen-doped Al for tunnel junction electrodes and clean Al as quasiparticle traps to investigate energy relaxation due to quasiparticle tunneling. The relaxation time T1 of the qubits is shown to be insensitive to this band gap engineering. Operating at relatively low-E(J)/E(C) makes the transmon transition frequency distinctly dependent on the charge parity, allowing us to detect the quasiparticles tunneling across the qubit junction. Quasiparticle kinetics have been studied by monitoring the frequency switching due to even-odd parity change in real time. It shows the switching time is faster than 10  μs, indicating quasiparticle-induced relaxation has to be reduced to achieve T1 much longer than 100  μs.

  17. Effect of electronic correlations on the quasiparticle dispersion of USb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaodong; Riseborough, Peter S; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Oppeneer, P M; Elgazzar, S

    2010-01-01

    Angle resolved photoemission experiments have been performed on USb 2 , and very narrow quasiparticle peaks have been observed in a band which LSDA predicts to osculate the Fermi-energy. The observed band is found to be depressed by 17 meV below the Fermi-energy, furthermore, the inferred quasiparticle dispersion relation for this band exhibits a kink at an energy of about 23 meV below the Fermi-energy. The kink is not found in LSDA calculations and, therefore, is attributable to a change in the quasiparticle mass renormalization by a factor of approximately 2. The existence of a kink in the quasiparticle dispersion relation of a band which does not cross the Fermi-energy is unprecedented. The origin of the observed depression of the band, its quasi-particle mass enhancement, and the characteristic energy are discussed on the basis of a theoretical model.

  18. Pump probe spectroscopy of quasiparticle dynamics in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, Gino P.

    2001-01-01

    Pump probe spectroscopy is used to examine the picosecond response of a BSCCO thin film, and two YBCO crystals in the near infrared. The role of pump fluence and temperature have been closely examined in an effort to clarify the mechanism by which the quasiparticles rejoin the condensate. BSCCO results suggest that the recombination behavior is consistent with the d-wave density of states in that quasiparticles appear to relax to the nodes immediately before they rejoin the condensate. The first substantial investigation of polarized pump probe response in detwinned YBCO crystals is also reported. Dramatic doping dependent anisotropies along the a and b axes are observed in time and temperature resolved studies. Among many results, we highlight the discovery of an anomalous temperature and time dependence of a- axis response in optimally doped YBCO. We also report on the first observation of the photoinduced response in a magnetic field. We find the amplitude of the response, and in some cases, the dynamics considerably changed with the application of a 6T field. Finally, we speculate on two of the many theoretical directions stimulated by our results. We find that the two-fluid model suggests a mechanism to explain how changes at very low energies are visible to a high-energy probe. Also discussed are basic recombination processes which may play a role in the observed decay

  19. Quasiparticles and Fermi liquid behaviour in an organic metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, T.; Chainani, A.; Yamamoto, H.M.; Miyazaki, T.; Akimoto, T.; Shimojima, T.; Ishizaka, K.; Watanabe, S.; Chen, C.-T.; Fukaya, A.; Kato, R.; Shin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organic metals display exotic properties such as superconductivity, spin-charge separation and so on and have been described as quasi-one-dimensional Luttinger liquids. However, a genuine Fermi liquid behaviour with quasiparticles and Fermi surfaces have not been reported to date for any organic metal. Here, we report the experimental Fermi surface and band structure of an organic metal (BEDT-TTF)3Br(pBIB) obtained using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, and show its consistency with first-principles band structure calculations. Our results reveal a quasiparticle renormalization at low energy scales (effective mass m*=1.9 me) and ω2 dependence of the imaginary part of the self energy, limited by a kink at ~50 meV arising from coupling to molecular vibrations. The study unambiguously proves that (BEDT-TTF)3Br(pBIB) is a quasi-2D organic Fermi liquid with a Fermi surface consistent with Shubnikov-de Haas results. PMID:23011143

  20. Quasiparticle scattering image in hidden order phases and chiral superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmeier, Peter [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Akbari, Alireza, E-mail: alireza@apctp.org [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, and Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The technique of Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference (QPI) has been successfully used to investigate the symmetry of unconventional superconducting gaps, also in heavy fermion compounds. It was demonstrated that QPI can distinguish between the d-wave singlet candidates in CeCoIn{sub 5}. In URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} presumably a chiral d-wave singlet superconducting (SC) state exists inside a multipolar hidden order (HO) phase. We show that hidden order leaves an imprint on the symmetry of QPI pattern that may be used to determine the essential question whether HO in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} breaks the in-plane rotational symmetry or not. We also demonstrate that the chiral d-wave SC gap leads to a crossover to a quasi-2D QPI spectrum below T{sub c} which sharpens the HO features. Furthermore we investigate the QPI image of chiral p-wave multigap superconductor Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • The chiral multigap structure of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} leads to rotation of QPI spectrum with bias voltage. • 5f band reconstruction in hidden order phase of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is obtained from two orbital model. • The chiral superconductivity in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} leads to quasi-2D quasiparticle interference (QPI).

  1. Quasiparticle self-consistent GW method: a short summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Takao; Schilfgaarde, Mark van; Faleev, Sergey V; Chantis, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a quasiparticle self-consistent GW method (QSGW), which is a new self-consistent method to calculate the electronic structure within the GW approximation. The method is formulated based on the idea of a self-consistent perturbation; the non-interacting Green function G 0 , which is the starting point for GWA to obtain G, is determined self-consistently so as to minimize the perturbative correction generated by GWA. After self-consistency is attained, we have G 0 , W (the screened Coulomb interaction) and G self-consistently. This G 0 can be interpreted as the optimum non-interacting propagator for the quasiparticles. We will summarize some theoretical discussions to justify QSGW. Then we will survey results which have been obtained up to now: e.g., band gaps for normal semiconductors are predicted to a precision of 0.1-0.3 eV; the self-consistency including the off-diagonal part is required for NiO and MnO; and so on. There are still some remaining disagreements with experiments; however, they are very systematic, and can be explained from the neglect of excitonic effects

  2. Continuum mechanics using Mathematica fundamentals, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This textbook's methodological approach familiarizes readers with the mathematical tools required to correctly define and solve problems in continuum mechanics. Covering essential principles and fundamental applications, this second edition of Continuum Mechanics using Mathematica® provides a solid basis for a deeper study of more challenging and specialized problems related to nonlinear elasticity, polar continua, mixtures, piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, magneto-fluid mechanics, and state changes (see A. Romano, A. Marasco, Continuum Mechanics: Advanced Topics and Research Trends, Springer (Birkhäuser), 2010, ISBN 978-0-8176-4869-5). Key topics and features: * Concise presentation strikes a balance between fundamentals and applications * Requisite mathematical background carefully collected in two introductory chapters and one appendix * Recent developments highlighted through coverage of more significant applications to areas such as wave propagation, fluid mechanics, porous media, linear elasticity....

  3. Quasiparticle Lagrangian for the binding energies and self-consistent fields of nuclei in the Fermi-liquid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapershtein, E.E.; Khodel', V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of calculating the binding energy and self-consistent field of a nucleus in terms of the effective interaction of quasiparticles at the Fermi surface is solved. It is shown that for this one can go over from the system of N Fermi particles to a system of N interacting quasiparticles described by an effective quasiparticle Lagrangian L/sub q/. It is shown that the corresponding quasiparticle energy is equal to the ground-state energy of the system. The connection between the parameters of the effective Lagrangian and the constants of the quasiparticle interaction introduced in the theory of finite Fermi systems is established

  4. A quasiparticle-based multi-reference coupled-cluster method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolik, Zoltán; Kállay, Mihály

    2014-10-07

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a quasiparticle-based multi-reference coupled-cluster (MRCC) approach. The quasiparticles are introduced via a unitary transformation which allows us to represent a complete active space reference function and other elements of an orthonormal multi-reference (MR) basis in a determinant-like form. The quasiparticle creation and annihilation operators satisfy the fermion anti-commutation relations. On the basis of these quasiparticles, a generalization of the normal-ordered operator products for the MR case can be introduced as an alternative to the approach of Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg [Recent Prog. Many-Body Theor. 4, 127 (1995); Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 432 (1997)]. Based on the new normal ordering any quasiparticle-based theory can be formulated using the well-known diagram techniques. Beyond the general quasiparticle framework we also present a possible realization of the unitary transformation. The suggested transformation has an exponential form where the parameters, holding exclusively active indices, are defined in a form similar to the wave operator of the unitary coupled-cluster approach. The definition of our quasiparticle-based MRCC approach strictly follows the form of the single-reference coupled-cluster method and retains several of its beneficial properties. Test results for small systems are presented using a pilot implementation of the new approach and compared to those obtained by other MR methods.

  5. Dynamic and thermal behaviour of quasi-particles in superfluid 3He-B. Ch. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenault, A.M.; Pickett, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    In superfluid 3 He-B, the quasi-particle gas is particularly accessible to experimental study of quasi-particle dynamics. The authors discuss some of their own experiments in this field. In section 2 the experimental methods are outlined briefly. Then experiments are introduced which can be made with vibrating-wire resonators. They can be used as detectors of the thermal background quasi-particles, which means that they can be used as thermometers. They can be used as quasiparticle sources, i.e. they can be used as heaters; and they can be used as detectors of directed quasi-particle beams, which leads to the possibility of the use of two wires together as source and detector in a beam spectrometer. This logical order is largely followed in this chapter. In section 3 the thermal behavior of the quasi-particle gas is discussed, including the use of the damping of a resonator as a thermometer, leading to experiments on boundary conductance and on bulk ballistic thermal transport. Section 4 covers the onset of dissipation in a strongly driven wire resonator, in particular the Landau critical velocity and pair-breaking effects, together with a discussion of supercritical dissipation. This leads, in section 5, to some early results of the ballistic quasi-particle galvanometer. This latter field is a rapidly developing one and some possible intriguing experiments for the future are discussed in section 6. (author). 30 refs.; 17 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation: Dipole response of open-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, E.; Ring, P.; Tselyaev, V.

    2008-01-01

    The self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (RQRPA) is extended by the quasiparticle-phonon coupling (QPC) model using the quasiparticle time blocking approximation (QTBA). The method is formulated in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) in the two-quasiparticle space with an energy-dependent two-quasiparticle residual interaction. This equation is solved either in the basis of Dirac states forming the self-consistent solution of the ground state or in the momentum representation. Pairing correlations are treated within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model with a monopole-monopole interaction. The same NL3 set of the coupling constants generates the Dirac-Hartree-BCS single-quasiparticle spectrum, the static part of the residual two-quasiparticle interaction and the quasiparticle-phonon coupling amplitudes. A quantitative description of electric dipole excitations in the chain of tin isotopes (Z=50) with the mass numbers A=100,106,114,116,120, and 130 and in the chain of isotones with (N=50) 88 Sr, 90 Zr, 92 Mo is performed within this framework. The RQRPA extended by the coupling to collective vibrations generates spectra with a multitude of 2q x phonon (two quasiparticles plus phonon) states providing a noticeable fragmentation of the giant dipole resonance as well as of the soft dipole mode (pygmy resonance) in the nuclei under investigation. The results obtained for the photo absorption cross sections and for the integrated contributions of the low-lying strength to the calculated dipole spectra agree very well with the available experimental data

  7. Self-consistent determination of quasiparticle properties in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Palanques-Mestre, A.

    1981-01-01

    The self-energy of nuclear matter is calculated by directing the attention to the energy and momentum dependent pieces which determine the quasiparticle properties. A microscopic approach is followed which starts from the boson exchange picture for the NN interaction, then the π-and p-mesons are shown to play a major role in the nucleon renormalization. The calculation is done self-consistently and the effective mass and pole strength determined as a function of the nuclear density and momentum. Particular emphasis is put on the non-static character of the interaction and its consequences. Finally a comparison is made with other calculations and with experimental results. The consequences of the nucleon renormalization in pion condensation are also examined with the result that the critical density is pushed up appreciably. (orig.)

  8. Quasiparticle many-body dynamics of the Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzemskij, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper addresses the many-body quasiparticle dynamics of the Anderson impurity model at finite temperatures in the framework of the equation-of-motion method. We find a new exact identity relating the one-particle and many-particle Green's Functions. Using this identity we present a consistent and general scheme for a construction of generalised mean fields (elastic scattering corrections) and self-energy (inelastic scattering) in terms of the Dyson equation. A new approach for the complex expansion for the single-particle propagator in terms of the Coulomb repulsion U and hybridization V is proposed. Using the exact identity, the essentially new many-body dynamical solution of SIAM has been derived. This approach offers a new way for the systematic construction of the approximative interpolating dynamical solutions of the strongly correlated electron systems. 47 refs

  9. Identical high- K three-quasiparticle rotational bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Harjeet; Singh, Pardeep [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Physics, Amritsar (India)

    2016-12-15

    A comprehensive study of high-K three-quasiparticle rotational bands in odd-A nuclei indicates the similarity in γ-ray energies and dynamic moment of inertia I{sup (2)}. The extent of the identicality between the rotational bands is evaluated by using the energy factor method. For nuclei pairs exhibiting identical bands, the average relative change in the dynamic moment of inertia I{sup (2)} is also determined. The identical behaviour shown by these bands is attributed to the interplay of nuclear structure parameters: deformation and the pairing correlations. Also, experimental trend of the I(ℎ) vs. ℎω (MeV) plot for these nuclei pairs is shown to be in agreement with Tilted-Axis Cranking (TAC) model calculations. (orig.)

  10. Transport Signatures of Quasiparticle Poisoning in a Majorana Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S M; Hansen, E B; Higginbotham, A P; Kuemmeth, F; Jespersen, T S; Nygård, J; Krogstrup, P; Danon, J; Flensberg, K; Marcus, C M

    2017-03-31

    We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state of the island. Comparison to a simple model yields an estimate of parity lifetime for the strongly coupled island (∼1  μs) and sets a bound for a weakly coupled island (>10  μs). Fluctuations in the gate-voltage spacing of Coulomb peaks at high field, reflecting Majorana hybridization, are enhanced by the reduced lever arm at strong coupling. When converted from gate voltage to energy units, fluctuations are consistent with previous measurements.

  11. Source conductance scaling for high frequency superconducting quasiparticle receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qing; Feldman, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that the optimum source conductance G(sub s) for the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) quasiparticle mixer should have a l/f dependence. This would imply that the critical current density of SIS junctions used for mixing should increase as frequency squared, a stringent constraint on the design of submillimeter SIS mixers, rather than in simple proportion to frequency as previously believed. We have used Tucker's quantum theory of mixing for extensive numerical calculations to determine G(sub s) for an optimized SIS receiver. We find that G(sub s) is very roughly independent of frequency (except for the best junctions at low frequency), and discuss the implications of our results for the design of submillimeter SIS mixers.

  12. Baryon number fluctuations in quasi-particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ameng [Southeast University Chengxian College, Department of Foundation, Nanjing (China); Luo, Xiaofeng [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE), Institute of Particle Physics, Wuhan (China); Zong, Hongshi [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-04-15

    Baryon number fluctuations are sensitive to the QCD phase transition and the QCD critical point. According to the Feynman rules of finite-temperature field theory, we calculated various order moments and cumulants of the baryon number distributions in the quasi-particle model of the quark-gluon plasma. Furthermore, we compared our results with the experimental data measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. It is found that the experimental data can be well described by the model for the colliding energies above 30 GeV and show large discrepancies at low energies. This puts a new constraint on the qQGP model and also provides a baseline for the QCD critical point search in heavy-ion collisions at low energies. (orig.)

  13. Doping dependence of low-energy quasiparticle excitations in superconducting Bi2212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Akihiro; Anzai, Hiroaki; Arita, Masashi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shinichi

    2013-12-05

    : The doping-dependent evolution of the d-wave superconducting state is studied from the perspective of the angle-resolved photoemission spectra of a high-Tc cuprate, Bi2Sr2CaCu2 O8+δ (Bi2212). The anisotropic evolution of the energy gap for Bogoliubov quasiparticles is parametrized by critical temperature and superfluid density. The renormalization of nodal quasiparticles is evaluated in terms of mass enhancement spectra. These quantities shed light on the strong coupling nature of electron pairing and the impact of forward elastic or inelastic scatterings. We suggest that the quasiparticle excitations in the superconducting cuprates are profoundly affected by doping-dependent screening.

  14. Kondo dynamics of quasiparticle tunneling in a two-reservoir Anderson model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongbae

    2011-07-13

    We study the Kondo dynamics in a two-reservoir Anderson impurity model in which quasiparticle tunneling occurs between two reservoirs. We show that singlet hopping is an essential component of Kondo dynamics in the quasiparticle tunneling. We prove that two resonant tunneling levels exist in the two-reservoir Anderson impurity model and the quasiparticle tunnels through one of these levels when a bias is applied. The Kondo dynamics is explained by obtaining the retarded Green's function. We obtain the analytic expressions of the spectral weights of coherent peaks by analyzing the Green's function at the atomic limit.

  15. High Tc superconducting three-terminal device under quasi-particle injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kabasawa, U.; Tonouchi, M.; Kobayashi, T.

    1988-01-01

    A new type of the current injection type three terminal device was fabricated using the high Tc YBaCuO thin epitaxial films, wherein the hot quasi-particle injection effect on the superconducting current was closely examined. The zero bias drain current was efficiently suppressed by the injection of the hot quasi-particles through the gate electrode. Though it is speculative, a comparison of the experimental results and analyses based on the familiar BCS theory intimates that the main mechanism of the current modulation is the non-equilibrium superconductivity due to accumulation of the excess quasi-particles

  16. Vlasov equation for photons and quasi-particles in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    We show that, in quite general conditions, a Vlasov equation can be derived for photons in a medium. The same is true for other quasi-particles, such as plasmons, phonons or driftons, associated with other wave modes in a plasma. The range of validity of this equation is discussed. We also discuss the Landau resonance, and its relation with photon acceleration. Exact and approximate expressions for photon and quasi-particle Landau damping are stated. Photon and quasi-particle acceleration and trapping is also discussed. Specific applications to laser-plasma interaction, and to magnetic fusion turbulence, are considered as illustrations of the general approach. (author)

  17. Temperature Dependence of Quasiparticle Spectral Weight and Coherence in High Tc Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Zhang, Jessie; Hoffman, Jennifer; Hoffman Lab Team

    2014-03-01

    Superconductivity arises from the Cooper pairing of quasiparticles on the Fermi surface. Understanding the formation of Cooper pairs is an essential step towards unveiling the mechanism of high Tc superconductivity. We compare scanning tunneling microscope investigations of the temperature dependence of quasiparticle spectral weight and quasiparticle interference in several families of high Tc materials. We calculate the coherent spectral weight related to superconductivity, despite the coexistence of competing orders. The relation between pairing temperature and coherent spectral weight is discussed. We acknowledge support by the New York Community Trust-George Merck Fund.

  18. Kondo dynamics of quasiparticle tunneling in a two-reservoir Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jongbae

    2011-01-01

    We study the Kondo dynamics in a two-reservoir Anderson impurity model in which quasiparticle tunneling occurs between two reservoirs. We show that singlet hopping is an essential component of Kondo dynamics in the quasiparticle tunneling. We prove that two resonant tunneling levels exist in the two-reservoir Anderson impurity model and the quasiparticle tunnels through one of these levels when a bias is applied. The Kondo dynamics is explained by obtaining the retarded Green's function. We obtain the analytic expressions of the spectral weights of coherent peaks by analyzing the Green's function at the atomic limit.

  19. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    numerical method, the finite element method, including means of mending inherent problems •An informal, yet precise exposition that emphasizes not just how a topic is treated, but discusses why a particular choice is made The book opens with a derivation of kinematically nonlinear 3-D continuum mechanics...

  20. The Co-creation Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ind, Nicholas; Iglesias, Oriol; Markovic, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    -creation - from tactical market research tool to strategic collaborative innovation method, and shows that brands can be positioned along a continuum between these two polarities. This article also presents the implications for those that want to seize the potential of co-creation....

  1. The geometry of continuum regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations

  2. The climate continuum revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Wang, J.; Partin, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    A grand challenge of climate science is to quantify the extent of natural variability on adaptation-relevant timescales (10-100y). Since the instrumental record is too short to adequately estimate the spectra of climate measures, this information must be derived from paleoclimate proxies, which may harbor a many-to-one, non-linear (e.g. thresholded) and non-stationary relationship to climate. In this talk, I will touch upon the estimation of climate scaling behavior from climate proxies. Two case studies will be presented: an investigation of scaling behavior in a reconstruction of global surface temperature using state-of- the-art data [PAGES2K Consortium, in prep] and methods [Guillot et al., 2015]. Estimating the scaling exponent β in spectra derived from this reconstruction, we find that 0 long-term memory. Overall, the reconstruction-based spectra are steeper than the ones based on an instrumental dataset [HadCRUT4.2, Morice et al., 2012], and those estimated from PMIP3/CMIP5 models, suggesting the climate system is more energetic at multidecadal to centennial timescales than can be inferred from the short instrumental record or from the models developed to reproduce it [Laepple and Huybers, 2014]. an investigation of scaling behavior in speleothems records of tropical hydroclimate. We will make use of recent advances in proxy system modeling [Dee et al., 2015] and investigate how various aspects of the speleothem system (karst dynamics, age uncertainties) may conspire to bias the estimate of scaling behavior from speleothem timeseries. The results suggest that ignoring such complications leads to erroneous inferences about hydroclimate scaling. References Dee, S. G., J. Emile-Geay, M. N. Evans, Allam, A., D. M. Thompson, and E. J. Steig (2015), J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sys., 07, doi:10.1002/2015MS000447. Guillot, D., B. Rajaratnam, and J. Emile-Geay (2015), Ann. Applied. Statist., pp. 324-352, doi:10.1214/14-AOAS794. Laepple, T., and P. Huybers (2014), PNAS, doi

  3. Particle-number conserving analysis for the 2-quasiparticle and high-K multi-quasiparticle states in doubly-odd 174,176Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bingheng; Lei Yi'an; Zhang Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Two-quasiparticle bands and low-lying excited high-K four-, six-, and eight-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd 174,176 Lu are analyzed by using the cranked shell model (CSM) with the pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving (PNC) method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The proton and neutron Nilsson level schemes for 174,176 Lu are taken from the adjacent odd-A Lu and Hf isotopes, which are adopted to reproduce the experimental bandhead energies of the one-quasiproton and one-quasineutron bands of these odd-A Lu and Hf nuclei, respectively. Once the quasiparticle configurations are determined, the experimental bandhead energies and the moments of inertia of these two- and multi-quasiparticle bands are well reproduced by PNC-CSM calculations. The Coriolis mixing of the low-K (K=|Ω 1 -Ω 2 |) two-quasiparticle band of the Gallagher-Moszkowski doublet with one nucleon in the Ω=1/2 orbital is analyzed. (authors)

  4. Photoexcitations in a 1D manganite model: From quasiclassical light absorption to quasiparticle relaxations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T.; Schumann, O.; Biebl, F.; Kramer, S.; Kehrein, S.; Manmana, S.; Rajpurohit, S.; Sotoudeh, M.; Blöchl, P.

    We investigate 1D correlated systems following a photoexcitation by combining ab-initio methods, time-dependent matrix product state (MPS) approaches, analytical insights from linearized quantum Boltzmann equations (LBE), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to describe the dynamics on different time scales ranging from femto- up to nanoseconds. This is done for manganite systems in the material class Pr1-xCaxMnO3. We derive 1D ab-initio model Hamiltonians for which we compute the ground states at different values of the doping using MD simulations. At half doping, we obtain a magnetic microstructure of alternating dimers from which we derive a 1D Hubbard-type model. The dynamics is analyzed concerning the formation and lifetime of such quasiparticles via a LBE. We find that the magnetic microstructure strongly enhances the lifetime of the excitations. In this way, our work constitutes a first step to building a unifying theoretical framework for the description of photoexcitations in strongly correlated materials over a wide range of time scales, capable of making predictions for ongoing experiments investigating pump-probe situations and unconventional photovoltaics. Financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through SFB/CRC1073 (Projects B03 and C03) is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Effect of ladder diagrams on optical absorption spectra in a quasiparticle self-consistent GW framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Brian; Grüning, Myrta; Azarhoosh, Pooya; Pashov, Dimitar; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We present an approach to calculate the optical absorption spectra that combines the quasiparticle self-consistent GW method [Phys. Rev. B 76, 165106 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.165106] for the electronic structure with the solution of the ladder approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the macroscopic dielectric function. The solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation has been implemented within an all-electron framework, using a linear muffin-tin orbital basis set, with the contribution from the nonlocal self-energy to the transition dipole moments (in the optical limit) evaluated explicitly. This approach addresses those systems whose electronic structure is poorly described within the standard perturbative GW approaches with density-functional theory calculations as a starting point. The merits of this approach have been exemplified by calculating optical absorption spectra of a strongly correlated transition metal oxide, NiO, and a narrow gap semiconductor, Ge. In both cases, the calculated spectrum is in good agreement with the experiment. It is also shown that for systems whose electronic structure is well-described within the standard perturbative GW , such as Si, LiF, and h -BN , the performance of the present approach is in general comparable to the standard GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation. It is argued that both vertex corrections to the electronic screening and the electron-phonon interaction are responsible for the observed systematic overestimation of the fundamental band gap and spectrum onset.

  6. Towards a generalized Landau theory of quasi-particles for hot dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leermakers, R.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis it is tried to construct a Landau quasi-particle theory for relativistic systems, using field-theoretical methods. It includes a perturbative calculation of the pressure of a quark-gluon plasma. It reports the existence of a hitherto unnoticed plasmon contribution of the order g 3 due to transverse quasi-gluons. A new and Lorentz covariant formulation of the Landau theory is being developed, for a general relativistic system. A detailed calculation is presented of the observables of a quantum electrodynamical (QED) plasma, in lowest orders of perturbation theory. A transverse plasmon effect is discovered, both analytically and numerically. In addition, the analysis shows quasi-electrons and positrons to be stable excitations at any temperature. This is proven in all orders of perturbation theory. Along with a Landau theory for quark-gluon matter, a linearized kinetic equation is derived for the singlet quark distribution function, with a collision term for soft encounters between quasi-quarks. (Auth.)

  7. A simple derivation of the exact quasiparticle theory and its extension to arbitrary initial excited eigenstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Kaoru; Ono, Shota; Isobe, Tomoharu

    2017-02-28

    The quasiparticle (QP) energies, which are minus of the energies required by removing or produced by adding one electron from/to the system, corresponding to the photoemission or inverse photoemission (PE/IPE) spectra, are determined together with the QP wave functions, which are not orthonormal and even not linearly independent but somewhat similar to the normal spin orbitals in the theory of the configuration interaction, by self-consistently solving the QP equation coupled with the equation for the self-energy. The electron density, kinetic, and all interaction energies can be calculated using the QP wave functions. We prove in a simple way that the PE/IPE spectroscopy and therefore this QP theory can be applied to an arbitrary initial excited eigenstate. In this proof, we show that the energy-dependence of the self-energy is not an essential difficulty, and the QP picture holds exactly if there is no relaxation mechanism in the system. The validity of the present theory for some initial excited eigenstates is tested using the one-shot GW approximation for several atoms and molecules.

  8. Variational principles of continuum mechanics I fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Berdichevskii, V L

    2009-01-01

    This is a concise and understandable book about variational principles of continuum mechanics. The book is accessible to applied mathematicians, physicists and engineers who have an interest in continuum mechanics.

  9. Variational principles of continuum mechanics II applications

    CERN Document Server

    Berdichevsky, Victor L

    2009-01-01

    This concise and understandable book about variational principles of continuum mechanics presents the classical models. The book is accessible to applied mathematicians, physicists and engineers who have an interest in continuum mechanics.

  10. Continuum methods of physical modeling continuum mechanics, dimensional analysis, turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Kolumban

    2004-01-01

    The book unifies classical continuum mechanics and turbulence modeling, i.e. the same fundamental concepts are used to derive model equations for material behaviour and turbulence closure and complements these with methods of dimensional analysis. The intention is to equip the reader with the ability to understand the complex nonlinear modeling in material behaviour and turbulence closure as well as to derive or invent his own models. Examples are mostly taken from environmental physics and geophysics.

  11. Quasiparticle Breakdown and Spin Hamiltonian of the Frustrated Quantum Pyrochlore Yb2 Ti2 O7 in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. D.; McClarty, P. A.; Prabhakaran, D.; Cabrera, I.; Guidi, T.; Coldea, R.

    2017-08-01

    The frustrated pyrochlore magnet Yb2 Ti2 O7 has the remarkable property that it orders magnetically but has no propagating magnons over wide regions of the Brillouin zone. Here we use inelastic neutron scattering to follow how the spectrum evolves in cubic-axis magnetic fields. At high fields we observe, in addition to dispersive magnons, a two-magnon continuum, which grows in intensity upon reducing the field and overlaps with the one-magnon states at intermediate fields leading to strong renormalization of the dispersion relations, and magnon decays. Using heat capacity measurements we find that the low- and high-field regions are smoothly connected with no sharp phase transition, with the spin gap increasing monotonically in field. Through fits to an extensive data set of dispersion relations combined with magnetization measurements, we reevaluate the spin Hamiltonian, finding dominant quantum exchange terms, which we propose are responsible for the anomalously strong fluctuations and quasiparticle breakdown effects observed at low fields.

  12. Quasiparticle Breakdown and Spin Hamiltonian of the Frustrated Quantum Pyrochlore Yb_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} in a Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J D; McClarty, P A; Prabhakaran, D; Cabrera, I; Guidi, T; Coldea, R

    2017-08-04

    The frustrated pyrochlore magnet Yb_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} has the remarkable property that it orders magnetically but has no propagating magnons over wide regions of the Brillouin zone. Here we use inelastic neutron scattering to follow how the spectrum evolves in cubic-axis magnetic fields. At high fields we observe, in addition to dispersive magnons, a two-magnon continuum, which grows in intensity upon reducing the field and overlaps with the one-magnon states at intermediate fields leading to strong renormalization of the dispersion relations, and magnon decays. Using heat capacity measurements we find that the low- and high-field regions are smoothly connected with no sharp phase transition, with the spin gap increasing monotonically in field. Through fits to an extensive data set of dispersion relations combined with magnetization measurements, we reevaluate the spin Hamiltonian, finding dominant quantum exchange terms, which we propose are responsible for the anomalously strong fluctuations and quasiparticle breakdown effects observed at low fields.

  13. Signature splitting in two quasiparticle rotational bands of 180, 182 Ta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quasiparticle rotor model. The phase as well as magnitudeof the experimentally observed signature splitting in K π = 1 + band of 180 Ta, which could not be explained in earlier calculations, is successfully reproduced. The conflict regarding placement of ...

  14. Tunable quasiparticle trapping in Meissner and vortex states of mesoscopic superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, M; Khaymovich, I M; Meschke, M; Mel'nikov, A S; Pekola, J P

    2016-03-16

    Nowadays, superconductors serve in numerous applications, from high-field magnets to ultrasensitive detectors of radiation. Mesoscopic superconducting devices, referring to those with nanoscale dimensions, are in a special position as they are easily driven out of equilibrium under typical operating conditions. The out-of-equilibrium superconductors are characterized by non-equilibrium quasiparticles. These extra excitations can compromise the performance of mesoscopic devices by introducing, for example, leakage currents or decreased coherence time in quantum devices. By applying an external magnetic field, one can conveniently suppress or redistribute the population of excess quasiparticles. In this article, we present an experimental demonstration and a theoretical analysis of such effective control of quasiparticles, resulting in electron cooling both in the Meissner and vortex states of a mesoscopic superconductor. We introduce a theoretical model of quasiparticle dynamics, which is in quantitative agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Universal spectral signatures in pnictides and cuprates: the role of quasiparticle-pair coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, William; Mauger, Alain; Noat, Yves

    2017-11-08

    Understanding the physical properties of a large variety of high-T c superconductors (SC), the cuprate family as well as the more recent iron-based superconductors, is still a major challenge. In particular, these materials exhibit the 'peak-dip-hump' structure in the quasiparticle density of states (DOS). The origin of this structure is explained within our pair-pair interaction (PPI) model: The non-superconducting state consists of incoherent pairs, a 'Cooper-pair glass' which, due to the PPI, undergoes a Bose-like condensation below T c to the coherent SC state. We derive the equations of motion for the quasiparticle operators showing that the DOS 'peak-dip-hump' is caused by the coupling between quasiparticles and excited pair states, or 'super-quasiparticles'. The renormalized SC gap function becomes energy-dependent and non retarded, reproducing accurately the experimental spectra of both pnictides and cuprates, despite the large difference in gap value.

  16. GW quasiparticle bandgaps of anatase TiO2 starting from DFT + U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher E; Giustino, Feliciano

    2012-05-23

    We investigate the quasiparticle band structure of anatase TiO(2), a wide gap semiconductor widely employed in photovoltaics and photocatalysis. We obtain GW quasiparticle energies starting from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations including Hubbard U corrections. Using a simple iterative procedure we determine the value of the Hubbard parameter yielding a vanishing quasiparticle correction to the fundamental bandgap of anatase TiO(2). The bandgap (3.3 eV) calculated using this optimal Hubbard parameter is smaller than the value obtained by applying many-body perturbation theory to standard DFT eigenstates and eigenvalues (3.7 eV). We extend our analysis to the rutile polymorph of TiO(2) and reach similar conclusions. Our work highlights the role of the starting non-interacting Hamiltonian in the calculation of GW quasiparticle energies in TiO(2) and suggests an optimal Hubbard parameter for future calculations.

  17. Quasi-particle entanglement: redefinition of the vacuum and reduced density matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, P; Sukhorukov, E V; Buettiker, M

    2005-01-01

    A scattering approach to entanglement in mesoscopic conductors with independent fermionic quasi-particles is discussed. We focus on conductors in the tunnelling limit, where a redefinition of the quasi-particle vacuum transforms the wavefunction from a many-body product state of non-interacting particles to a state describing entangled two-particle excitations out of the new vacuum (Samuelsson, Sukhorukov and Buettiker 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 157002). The approach is illustrated with two examples: (i) a normal-superconducting system, where the transformation is made between Bogoliubov-de Gennes quasi-particles and Cooper pairs, and (ii) a normal system, where the transformation is made between electron quasi-particles and electron-hole pairs. This is compared to a scheme where an effective two-particle state is derived from the manybody scattering state by a reduced density matrix approach

  18. Kinetic stability constraints on magnetized plasma equilibria: Quasi-particle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.; Weiland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Macroscopic adiabatic invariants for the magnetized plasma are studied within the context of the quasi-particle description, as well as constraints which they impose on energy transfer and stable plasma equilibria. 6 refs

  19. Coherence factors in a high-tc cuprate probed by quasi-particle scattering off vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaguri, T; Kohsaka, Y; Ono, M; Maltseva, M; Coleman, P; Yamada, I; Azuma, M; Takano, M; Ohishi, K; Takagi, H

    2009-02-13

    When electrons pair in a superconductor, quasi-particles develop an acute sensitivity to different types of scattering potential that is described by the appearance of coherence factors in the scattering amplitudes. Although the effects of coherence factors are well established in isotropic superconductors, they are much harder to detect in their anisotropic counterparts, such as high-superconducting-transition-temperature cuprates. We demonstrate an approach that highlights the momentum-dependent coherence factors in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2. We used Fourier-transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy to reveal a magnetic-field dependence in quasi-particle scattering interference patterns that is sensitive to the sign of the anisotropic gap. This result is associated with the d-wave coherence factors and quasi-particle scattering off vortices. Our technique thus provides insights into the nature of electron pairing as well as quasi-particle scattering processes in unconventional superconductors.

  20. γ-transitions from neutron resonances and many-quasiparticle configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1991-01-01

    One should answer the question posed in 1972: Are there large many-quasiparticle components in the wave functions of highly excited low-spin states and, in particular, of neutron resonances? With increasing excitation energy the structure of states becomes more complex; the contribution of few-quasiparticle components to wave function normalization decreases exponentially and for the neutron resonances of heavy nuclei it equals 10 -6 . It is obvious that the wave function of neutron resonances contain many thousands of various quasiparticle components. Two extreme cases are possible. In the first case all the components are small and distributed according to statistical laws. In the second case among many components there is one or a few large many-quasiparticle components. There are many-quasiparticle isomers with high spins whose large life-time is due to the absence of few-quasiparticle components. This indicates a small fragmentation of these states. Low-spin states are fragmented more strongly than high-spin ones. What experiments are to be performed to answer the question about the existence are to be performed to answer the question about the existence of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of neutron resonances? It seems that the most straight way for observing large many-quasiparticle components is many-nucleon transfer reactions. However, in this way one faces great difficulties. The author thinks it to be more convenient to study γ transitions from neutron resonances to the states with energies by 1-2 MeV less than the energies of neutron resonances

  1. Quasi-particle description of strongly interacting matter: Towards a foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, M.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulze, R.; Seipt, D.

    2007-01-01

    We confront our quasi-particle model for the equation of state of strongly interacting matter with recent first-principle QCD calculations. In particular, we test its applicability at finite baryon densities by comparing with Taylor expansion coefficients of the pressure for two quark flavours. We outline a chain of approximations starting from the Φ-functional approach to QCD which motivates the quasi-particle picture. (orig.)

  2. Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, H., E-mail: hawal@chalmers.se; Desmaris, V.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V. [Group for Advanced Receiver Development, Earth and Space Sciences Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, 412 96 (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.

  3. Quasiparticle structure and coherent propagation in the t-Jz-Jperpendicular model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, J.; Hedegard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical studies, from variational calculation to exact diagonalization, all indicate that the quasiparticle generated by introducing one hole into a two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet has the same nature as a string state in the t-J z model. Based on this observation, we attempt to visualize the quasiparticle formation and subsequent coherent propagation at low energy by studying the generalized t-J z -J perpendicular model in which we first diagonalize the t-J z model and then perform a degenerate perturbation in J perpendicular . We construct the quasiparticle state and derive an effective Hamiltonian describing the coherent propagation of the quasiparticle and its interaction with the spin wave excitations in the presence of the Nacute eel order. We expect that qualitative properties of the quasiparticle remain intact when analytically continuing J perpendicular from the anisotropic J perpendicular z to the isotropic J perpendicular =J z limit, despite the fact that the spin wave excitations change from gapful to gapless. Extrapolating to J perpendicular =J z , our quasiparticle dispersion and spectral weight compare well with the exact numerical results for small clusters. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.

  5. Quasiparticle energy distribution and relaxation times in a tunnel-injected superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirtley, J.R.; Kent, D.S.; Langenberg, D.N.; Kaplan, S.B.; Chang, J.; Yang, C.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are reported in which a nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution was created in a dirty Al film by tunnel injection and probed using a second tunnel junction. The distribution was found to have the form of a quasithermal distribution characterized by an effective temperature greater than the ambient bath temperature and dependent on injection level, plus small sharp structures which originate in structures in the injected quasiparticle distribution due to gap-edge peaks in the quasiparticle density of states. A systematic theoretical analysis of these structures correctly predicts their shapes and relative amplitudes. The amplitudes show directly the presence of branch imbalance in the nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution. Using the theoretical model, inelastic quasiparticle relaxation and elastic branch mixing times, as functions of energy and temperature, are extracted from the experimental data without need for phonon-trapping corrections. The qualitative and quantitative behavior of these times is in reasonable accord with theoretical expectations and the results of other experiments. Experiments of the type reported here are shown to provide a kind of spectroscopy of tunnel-injection and quasiparticle-relaxation processes in superconductors

  6. Detecting stray microwaves and nonequilibrium quasiparticles in thin films by single-electron tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saira, Olli-Pentti; Maisi, Ville; Kemppinen, Antti; Möttönen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka

    2013-03-01

    Superconducting thin films and tunnel junctions are the building blocks of many state-of-the-art technologies related to quantum information processing, microwave detection, and electronic amplification. These devices operate at millikelvin temperatures, and - in a naive picture - their fidelity metrics are expected to improve as the temperature is lowered. However, very often one finds in the experiment that the device performance levels off around 100-150 mK. In my presentation, I will address three common physical mechanisms that can cause such saturation: stray microwaves, nonequilibrium quasiparticles, and sub-gap quasiparticle states. The new experimental data I will present is based on a series of studies on quasiparticle transport in Coulomb-blockaded normal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction devices. We have used a capacitively coupled SET electrometer to detect individual quasiparticle tunneling events in real time. We demonstrate the following record-low values for thin film aluminum: quasiparticle density nqp < 0 . 033 / μm3 , normalized density of sub-gap quasiparticle states (Dynes parameter) γ < 1 . 6 ×10-7 . I will also discuss some sample stage and chip designs that improve microwave shielding.

  7. Strong coupling between localized 5f moments and itinerant quasiparticles in the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yun; Xie, Donghua

    2018-03-01

    The heavy fermion physics arises from the complex interplay of nearly localized 4f/5f electrons and itinerant band-like ones, yielding heavy quasiparticles with an effective mass about 100 times (or more) of the bare electrons. Recently, experimental and theoretical investigations point out a localized and delocalized dual nature in actinide compounds, where itinerant quasiparticles account for the unconventional superconductivity in the vicinity of a magnetic instability. Here we report the strong coupling between localized 5f moments and itinerant quasiparticles in the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe2. The coupling is nearly antiferromagnetic. As embedded in the ferromagnetic matrix of localized 5f moments below {T}{{C}}≈ 52 {{K}}, this coupling leads to short-range dynamic correlations of heavy quasiparticles, characterized by fluctuations of magnetic clusters. Those cluster-like spins of itinerant quasiparticles show a broad hump of magnetization at {T}X≈ 28 {{K}}, which is typical for the spin-glass freezing. Thus, our results present the direct observation of itinerant quasiparticles coexisting with localized 5f moments by conventional magnetic measurements, providing a new route into the coexistence between ferromagnetism and superconductivity in heavy fermion systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11404297), the Science Challenge Project (Grant No. TZ2016004), and the Science and Technology Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2013B0301050 and 2014A0301013).

  8. New numerical methods for quantum field theories on the continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emirdag, P.; Easter, R.; Guralnik, G.S.; Hahn, S.C

    2000-03-01

    The Source Galerkin Method is a new numerical technique that is being developed to solve Quantum Field Theories on the continuum. It is not based on Monte Carlo techniques and has a measure to evaluate relative errors. It promises to increase the accuracy and speed of calculations, and takes full advantage of symmetries of the theory. The application of this method to the non-linear {sigma} model is outlined.

  9. Generalized Continuum: from Voigt to the Modeling of Quasi-Brittle Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Salim Fuina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of the generalized continuum theories to incorporate the effects of the microstructure in the nonlinear finite element analysis of quasi-brittle materials and, thus, to solve mesh dependency problems. A description of the problem called numerically induced strain localization, often found in Finite Element Method material non-linear analysis, is presented. A brief historic about the Generalized Continuum Mechanics based models is presented, since the initial work of Voigt (1887 until the more recent studies. By analyzing these models, it is observed that the Cosserat and microstretch approaches are particular cases of a general formulation that describes the micromorphic continuum. After reporting attempts to incorporate the material microstructure in Classical Continuum Mechanics based models, the article shows the recent tendency of doing it according to assumptions of the Generalized Continuum Mechanics. Finally, it presents numerical results which enable to characterize this tendency as a promising way to solve the problem.

  10. Quasiparticles in leptogenesis. A hard-thermal-loop study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessig, Clemens Paul

    2011-06-29

    We analyse the effects of thermal quasiparticles in leptogenesis using hard-thermal-loop-resummed propagators in the imaginary time formalism of thermal field theory. We perform our analysis in a leptogenesis toy model with three right-handed heavy neutrinos N{sub 1}, N{sub 2} and N{sub 3}. We consider decays and inverse decays and work in the hierarchical limit where the mass of N{sub 2} is assumed to be much larger than the mass of N{sub 1}, that is M{sub 2} >> M{sub 1}. We neglect flavour effects and assume that the temperatures are much smaller than M{sub 2} and M{sub 3}. We pay special attention to the influence of fermionic quasiparticles. We allow for the leptons to be either decoupled from each other, except for the interactions with neutrinos, or to be in chemical equilibrium by some strong interaction, for example via gauge bosons. In two additional cases, we approximate the full hard-thermal-loop lepton propagators with zero-temperature propagators, where we replace the zero-temperature mass by the thermal mass of the leptons m{sub l}(T) in one case and the asymptotic mass of the positive-helicity mode {radical}(2)m{sub l}(T) in the other case. We calculate all relevant decay rates and CP-asymmetries and solve the corresponding Boltzmann equations we derived. We compare the final lepton asymmetry of the four thermal cases and the vacuum case for three different initial neutrino abundances; zero, thermal and dominant abundance. The final asymmetries of the thermal cases differ considerably from the vacuum case and from each other in the weak washout regime for zero abundance and in the intermediate regime for dominant abundance. In the strong washout regime, where no influences from thermal corrections are commonly expected, the final lepton asymmetry can be enhanced by a factor of two by hiding part of the lepton asymmetry in the quasi-sterile minus-mode in the case of strongly interacting lepton modes. (orig.)

  11. Theory of quasiparticle surface states in semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybertsen, M.S.; Louie, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    A first-principles theory of the quasiparticle surface-state energies on semiconductor surfaces is developed. The surface properties are calculated using a repeated-slab geometry. Many-body effects due to the electron-electron interaction are represented by the electron self-energy operator including the full surface Green's function and local fields and dynamical screening effects in the Coulomb interaction. Calculated surface-state energies for the prototypical Si(111):As and Ge(111):As surfaces are presented. The calculated energies and dispersions for the occupied surface states (resonances) are in excellent agreement with recent angle-resolved photoemission data. Predictions are made for the position of empty surface states on both surfaces which may be experimentally accessible. The resulting surface state gap at Gamma-bar for Si(111):As agrees with recent scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy measurements. Comparison of the present results to eigenvalues from the local-density-functional calculation reveals substantial corrections for the gaps between empty and occupied surface states. This correction is found to depend on the character of the surface states involved

  12. Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation with a separable pairing force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yuan; Ma Zhongyu; Ring Peter

    2009-01-01

    In our previous work, we introduced a separable pairing force for relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculations. This force was adjusted to reproduce the pairing properties of the Gogny force in nuclear matter. By using the well known techniques of Talmi and Moshinsky it can be expanded in a series of separable terms and converges quickly after a few terms. It was found that the pairing properties can be depicted on almost the same footing as the original pairing interaction, not only in nuclear matter, but also in finite nuclei. In this study, we construct a relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA) with this separable pairing interaction and calculate the excitation energies of the first excited 2 + states and reduced B(E2; 0 + →2 + ) transition rates for a chain of Sn isotopes in RQRPA. Compared with the results of the full Gogny force, we find that this simple separable pairing interaction can describe the pairing properties of the excited vibrational states as well as the original pairing interaction. (authors)

  13. Separable pairing force for relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yuan; Ma Zhongyu; Ring, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We have introduced a separable pairing force, which was adjusted to reproduce the pairing properties of the Gogny force in nuclear matter. This separable pairing force is able to describe in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) calculations the pairing properties in the ground state of finite nuclei on almost the same footing as the original Gogny interaction. In this work we investigate excited states using the Relativistic Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation (RQRPA) with the same separable pairing force. For consistency the Goldstone modes and the convergence with various cutoff parameters in this version of RQRPA are studied. The first excited 2 + states for the chain of Sn isotopes with Z=50 and the chain of isotones with N=82 isotones are calculated in RQRPA together with the 3 - states of Sn isotopes. By comparing our results with experimental data and with the results of the original Gogny force we find that this simple separable pairing interaction is very successful in depicting the pairing properties of vibrational excitations.

  14. Colossal photon bunching in quasiparticle-mediated nanodiamond cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew A.; Dumitrescu, Eugene F.; Bridges, Denzel; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Davidson, Roderick B.; Evans, Philip G.; Hachtel, Jordan A.; Hu, Anming; Pooser, Raphael C.; Haglund, Richard F.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.

    2018-02-01

    Nanoscale control over the second-order photon correlation function g(2 )(τ ) is critical to emerging research in nonlinear nanophotonics and integrated quantum information science. Here we report on quasiparticle control of photon bunching with g(2 )(0 ) >45 in the cathodoluminescence of nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy (NV0) centers excited by a converged electron beam in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Plasmon-mediated NV0 cathodoluminescence exhibits a 16-fold increase in luminescence intensity correlated with a threefold reduction in photon bunching compared with that of uncoupled NV0 centers. This effect is ascribed to the excitation of single temporally uncorrelated NV0 centers by single surface plasmon polaritons. Spectrally resolved Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry is employed to demonstrate that the bunching is mediated by the NV0 phonon sidebands, while no observable bunching is detected at the zero-phonon line. The data are consistent with fast phonon-mediated recombination dynamics, a conclusion substantiated by agreement between Bayesian regression and Monte Carlo models of superthermal NV0 luminescence.

  15. Machine learning Z2 quantum spin liquids with quasiparticle statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Melko, Roger G.; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2017-12-01

    After decades of progress and effort, obtaining a phase diagram for a strongly correlated topological system still remains a challenge. Although in principle one could turn to Wilson loops and long-range entanglement, evaluating these nonlocal observables at many points in phase space can be prohibitively costly. With growing excitement over topological quantum computation comes the need for an efficient approach for obtaining topological phase diagrams. Here we turn to machine learning using quantum loop topography (QLT), a notion we have recently introduced. Specifically, we propose a construction of QLT that is sensitive to quasiparticle statistics. We then use mutual statistics between the spinons and visons to detect a Z2 quantum spin liquid in a multiparameter phase space. We successfully obtain the quantum phase boundary between the topological and trivial phases using a simple feed-forward neural network. Furthermore, we demonstrate advantages of our approach for the evaluation of phase diagrams relating to speed and storage. Such statistics-based machine learning of topological phases opens new efficient routes to studying topological phase diagrams in strongly correlated systems.

  16. The effect of the Pauli principle on the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states in spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuong, C.Z.; Soloviev, V.G.; Voronov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the Pauli principle on the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states in spherical nuclei is studied within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. It is shown that the Pauli principle influences considerably the position and structure of a few low-lying states, the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states at intermediate and high excitation energies is slightly affected by the Pauli principle, and the calculations can be performed by taking the Pauli principle roughly into account. (author)

  17. Quasi-particle excitations and dynamical structure function of trapped Bose-condensates in the WKB approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Csordás, András; Graham, Robert; Szépfalusy, Péter

    1997-01-01

    The Bogoliubov equations of the quasi-particle excitations in a weakly interacting trapped Bose-condensate are solved in the WKB approximation in an isotropic harmonic trap, determining the discrete quasi-particle energies and wave functions by torus (Bohr-Sommerfeld) quantization of the integrable classical quasi-particle dynamics. The results are used to calculate the position and strengths of the peaks in the dynamic structure function which can be observed by off-resonance inelastic light...

  18. Femtosecond optical detection of quasiparticle dynamics in high-Tc YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.G.; Vardeny, Z.V.; Wong, K.S.; Symko, O.G.; Koren, G.

    1990-01-01

    Femtosecond dynamics of photogenerated quasiparticles in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconducting thin films shows, at T≤T c , two main electronic processes: (i) quasiparticle avalanche production during hot-carrier thermalization, which takes about 300 fsec; (ii) recombination of quasiparticles to form Cooper pairs, which is completed within 5 psec. In contrastr, nonsuperconducting epitaxial films such as PrBa 2 Cu 2 O 7 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6 show regular picosecond electronic response

  19. Non-classical solutions of a continuum model for rock descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Guzev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The strain-gradient and non-Euclidean continuum theories are employed for construction of non-classical solutions of continuum models. The linear approximation of both models' results in identical structures in terms of their kinematic and stress characteristics. The solutions obtained in this study exhibit a critical behaviour with respect to the external loading parameter. The conclusions are obtained based on an investigation of the solution for the scalar curvature in the non-Euclidean continuum theory. The proposed analysis enables us to use different theoretical approaches for description of rock critical behaviour under different loading conditions.

  20. Justifying quasiparticle self-consistent schemes via gradient optimization in Baym-Kadanoff theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2017-09-27

    The question of which non-interacting Green's function 'best' describes an interacting many-body electronic system is both of fundamental interest as well as of practical importance in describing electronic properties of materials in a realistic manner. Here, we study this question within the framework of Baym-Kadanoff theory, an approach where one locates the stationary point of a total energy functional of the one-particle Green's function in order to find the total ground-state energy as well as all one-particle properties such as the density matrix, chemical potential, or the quasiparticle energy spectrum and quasiparticle wave functions. For the case of the Klein functional, our basic finding is that minimizing the length of the gradient of the total energy functional over non-interacting Green's functions yields a set of self-consistent equations for quasiparticles that is identical to those of the quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) (van Schilfgaarde et al 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 226402-4) approach, thereby providing an a priori justification for such an approach to electronic structure calculations. In fact, this result is general, applies to any self-energy operator, and is not restricted to any particular approximation, e.g., the GW approximation for the self-energy. The approach also shows that, when working in the basis of quasiparticle states, solving the diagonal part of the self-consistent Dyson equation is of primary importance while the off-diagonals are of secondary importance, a common observation in the electronic structure literature of self-energy calculations. Finally, numerical tests and analytical arguments show that when the Dyson equation produces multiple quasiparticle solutions corresponding to a single non-interacting state, minimizing the length of the gradient translates into choosing the solution with largest quasiparticle weight.

  1. Continuum theory for nanotube piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, P J; Sai, Na; Mele, E J

    2005-09-09

    We develop and solve a continuum theory for the piezoelectric response of one-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires, and apply the theory to study electromechanical effects in boron-nitride nanotubes. We find that the polarization of a nanotube depends on its aspect ratio, and a dimensionless constant specifying the ratio of the strengths of the elastic and electrostatic interactions. The solutions of the model as these two parameters are varied are discussed. The theory is applied to estimate the electric potential induced along the length of a boron-nitride nanotube in response to a uniaxial stress.

  2. Continuum-regularized quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)

  3. BCS equations in the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, N.; Liotta, R. J.; Wyss, R.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of nuclei close to the drip line are significantly influenced by the continuum part of the single-particle spectrum. The main role is played by the resonant states which are largely confined in the region of nuclear potential and therefore stronger coupled with the bound states in an excitation process. Resonant states are also important in the nuclei beyond the drip line. In this case the decay properties of the nucleus can be directly related to the widths of the narrow resonances occupied by the unbound nucleons. The aim of this work is to propose an alternative for evaluating the effect of the resonant part of single-particle spectrum on the pairing correlations calculated within the BCS approximation. We estimated the role of resonances in the case of the isotope 170 Sn. The Resonant-BCS (RBCS) equations are solved for the case of a seniority force. The BCS approximation based on a seniority force cannot be applied in the case of a nucleus immersed in a box if all discrete states simulating the continuum are considered. In such a case the pairing correlations will increase with the number of states in the box. In our case one can still apply a seniority force with RBCS because the effect of the continuum appears here through a finite number of physical resonances, well defined by the given mean field. Because these resonances have a spatial distribution concentrated within the region of the nuclear potential, one expects that the localization probability of nucleons, far out from the nuclear surface, to be small. The gap obtained taking correctly the contribution of resonances, according to RBCS equations, is about 1.3 MeV, while pairing gap calculated only with the bound single-particle spectrum has the value Δ = 1.10 MeV. If we introduce also the resonant states, neglecting completely their widths, the gap will increase to the value Δ = 1.880 MeV. Therefore, one cannot estimate properly the pairing correlations by supplementing the spectrum

  4. Continuum gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1981-06-01

    When angular momentum is added to a nucleus, it is, of course, carried by the individual nucleons, but two limiting types of behavior may be distinguished: (1) a small number of high-j particles align with the rotation axis and (2) the nucleus is deformed and rotates as a whole. At high spin all nuclei seem to show a compromise utilizing both motions. The excited nuclei left as products of (HI,xn) reactions have so many pathways down that none of the γ-ray transitions have enough intensity to be seen individually until the population gathers near the yrast line. This occurs usually between spin 20 to 40 h-bar. All our information on the higher states comes from their continuum spectra. With the new techniques that are developing, including the use of multiplicity filters, total-energy spectrometers, energy correlation studies, crystal balls, and observation of giant dipole resonances in the continuum spectra, there is hope to learn much about the nature of the high-spin states

  5. Probing the interaction of microscopic material defects with quasiparticles using a superconducting qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilmes, Alexander; Lisenfeld, Juergen; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V. [PI, Fakultaet fuer Physik, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Heimes, Andreas; Zanker, Sebastian; Schoen, Gerd [TFP, Fakultaet fuer Physik, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Two-Level-Systems (TLS) are one of the main sources of decoherence in superconducting nano-scale devices such as SQUIDs, photon detectors, resonators and quantum bits (qubits), although the TLS' microscopic nature remains unclear. We use a superconducting phase qubit to detect TLS contained within the tunnel barrier of the qubit's Josephson junction. We coherently operate individual TLS by resonant microwave pulses and access their quantum state by utilizing their strong coupling to the qubit. Our previous measurements of TLS coherence in dependence of the temperature indicate that quasiparticles may give rise to TLS energy loss and dephasing. Here, we probe the TLS-quasiparticle interaction using a reliable method of in-situ quasiparticle injection via an on-chip dc-SQUID that is pulse-biased beyond its critical current. The quasiparticle density is calibrated by measuring associated characteristic changes to the qubit's resonance frequency and energy relaxation rate. We will present experimental data that clearly show the influence of quasiparticles on TLS coherence.

  6. Quasiparticles of strongly correlated Fermi liquids at high temperatures and in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing, best experimentally studied and fundamental systems in physics. There is, however, lack of theoretical understanding in this field of physics. The ideas based on the concepts like Kondo lattice and involving quantum and thermal fluctuations at a quantum critical point have been used to explain the unusual physics. Alas, being suggested to describe one property, these approaches fail to explain the others. This means a real crisis in theory suggesting that there is a hidden fundamental law of nature. It turns out that the hidden fundamental law is well forgotten old one directly related to the Landau-Migdal quasiparticles, while the basic properties and the scaling behavior of the strongly correlated systems can be described within the framework of the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). The phase transition comprises the extended quasiparticle paradigm that allows us to explain the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in these systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Our observations are in good agreement with experimental facts and show that FCQPT is responsible for the observed NFL behavior and quasiparticles survive both high temperatures and high magnetic fields.

  7. Scaling analysis of the non-Abelian quasiparticle tunneling in [Formula: see text] FQH states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Jiang, Na; Wan, Xin; Hu, Zi-Xiang

    2018-06-27

    Quasiparticle tunneling between two counter propagating edges through point contacts could provide information on its statistics. Previous study of the short distance tunneling displays a scaling behavior, especially in the conformal limit with zero tunneling distance. The scaling exponents for the non-Abelian quasiparticle tunneling exhibit some non-trivial behaviors. In this work, we revisit the quasiparticle tunneling amplitudes and their scaling behavior in a full range of the tunneling distance by putting the electrons on the surface of a cylinder. The edge-edge distance can be smoothly tuned by varying the aspect ratio for a finite size cylinder. We analyze the scaling behavior of the quasiparticles for the Read-Rezayi [Formula: see text] states for [Formula: see text] and 4 both in the short and long tunneling distance region. The finite size scaling analysis automatically gives us a critical length scale where the anomalous correction appears. We demonstrate this length scale is related to the size of the quasiparticle at which the backscattering between two counter propagating edges starts to be significant.

  8. Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a sub-cycle timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, F.; Hohenleutner, M.; Schmid, C.; Poellmann, C.; Nagler, P.; Korn, T.; Schüller, C.; Sherwin, M. S.; Huttner, U.; Steiner, J. T.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.; Huber, R.

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Ernest Rutherford first scattered α-particles from gold foils1, collision experiments have revealed unique insights into atoms, nuclei, and elementary particles2. In solids, many-body correlations also lead to characteristic resonances3, called quasiparticles, such as excitons, dropletons4, polarons, or Cooper pairs. Their structure and dynamics define spectacular macroscopic phenomena, ranging from Mott insulating states via spontaneous spin and charge order to high-temperature superconductivity5. Fundamental research would immensely benefit from quasiparticle colliders, but the notoriously short lifetimes of quasiparticles6 have challenged practical solutions. Here we exploit lightwave-driven charge transport7–24, the backbone of attosecond science9–13, to explore ultrafast quasiparticle collisions directly in the time domain: A femtosecond optical pulse creates excitonic electron–hole pairs in the layered dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide while a strong terahertz field accelerates and collides the electrons with the holes. The underlying wave packet dynamics, including collision, pair annihilation, quantum interference and dephasing, are detected as light emission in high-order spectral sidebands17–19 of the optical excitation. A full quantum theory explains our observations microscopically. This approach opens the door to collision experiments with a broad variety of complex quasiparticles and suggests a promising new way of sub-femtosecond pulse generation. PMID:27172045

  9. Effect of superconducting correlation on the localization of quasiparticles in low dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, T.

    1995-01-01

    Localization lengths of superconducting quasiparticles λ s are evaluated and compared with the corresponding normal-state values λ n in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional lattices. The effect of superconducting correlation on the localization of quasiparticles is generally stronger in an off-site pairing state than in an on-site pairing state. The modification of superconducting correlation to λ is strongly correlated with the density of states (DOS) of superconducting quasiparticles. λ s drops within the energy gap but is largely enhanced around energies where DOS peaks appear. For a gapless pairing state in 1D or a d-wave pairing state in 2D, λ s /λ n at the Fermi energy E F is of order 1 and determined purely by the value of gap parameter not by the random potential. For the d-wave pairing state, the localization effect is largely weakened compared with the corresponding normal state and quasiparticles with energies close to E F are more strongly localized than other low-energy quasiparticles

  10. Electrons, pseudoparticles, and quasiparticles in the one-dimensional many-electron problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmelo, J.M.; Castro Neto, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    We generalize the concept of quasiparticle for one-dimensional (1D) interacting electronic systems. The ↑ and ↓ quasiparticles recombine the pseudoparticle colors c and s (charge and spin at zero-magnetic field) and are constituted by one many-pseudoparticle topological-momentum shift and one or two pseudoparticles. These excitations cannot be separated. We consider the case of the Hubbard chain. We show that the low-energy electron-quasiparticle transformation has a singular character which justifies the perturbative and nonperturbative nature of the quantum problem in the pseudoparticle and electronic basis, respectively. This follows from the absence of zero-energy electron-quasiparticle overlap in 1D. The existence of Fermi-surface quasiparticles both in 1D and three dimensional (3D) many-electron systems suggests their existence in quantum liquids in dimensions 1 1 or whether it becomes finite as soon as we leave 1D remains an unsolved question. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Quantitative determination of spin-dependent quasiparticle renormalization in ferromagnetic 3d metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Varykhalov, Andrei; Fink, Joerg; Rader, Oliver; Duerr, Hermann; Eberhardt, Wolfgang [Bessy GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Spin dependent low-energy electronic excitations in 3d ferromagnets are of special interest due to the need of a microscopic understanding of the electronic structure of solids. Low-energy electrons (or holes) become dressed by a cloud of excitations resulting in quasiparticles of a finite lifetime and a different effective mass. These type of excitations have been studied by many theoretical methods, and it has been found that because of many body effects no sharp quasiparticle peaks exist for binding energies larger than 2 eV. Interestingly, it has been shown that strong correlation effects could particularly affect majority spin electrons, leading to a pronounced damping of quasiparticles at binding energies around 2 eV and above. In order to give an experimental corroboration to these findings, we have performed a systematic study of the spin-dependent quasiparticle lifetime and band structure of ferromagnetic 3d transition metal surfaces by means of spin and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. On hcp Co(0001), fcc Ni(111) and bcc Fe(110), we have found a more pronounced renormalization of the majority spin quasiparticle spectral weight going from Ni to Co which are both strong ferromagnets. For Fe, a weak ferromagnet, such a process becomes more prominent in the minority channel.

  12. Quasiparticles of widely tuneable inertial mass: The dispersion relation of atomic Josephson vortices and related solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S. Shamailov, Joachim Brand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting Josephson vortices have direct analogues in ultracold-atom physics as solitary-wave excitations of two-component superfluid Bose gases with linear coupling. Here we numerically extend the zero-velocity Josephson vortex solutions of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations to non-zero velocities, thus obtaining the full dispersion relation. The inertial mass of the Josephson vortex obtained from the dispersion relation depends on the strength of linear coupling and has a simple pole divergence at a critical value where it changes sign while assuming large absolute values. Additional low-velocity quasiparticles with negative inertial mass emerge at finite momentum that are reminiscent of a dark soliton in one component with counter-flow in the other. In the limit of small linear coupling we compare the Josephson vortex solutions to sine-Gordon solitons and show that the correspondence between them is asymptotic, but significant differences appear at finite values of the coupling constant. Finally, for unequal and non-zero self- and cross-component nonlinearities, we find a new solitary-wave excitation branch. In its presence, both dark solitons and Josephson vortices are dynamically stable while the new excitations are unstable.

  13. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  14. Passing waves from atomistic to continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Diaz, Adrian; Xiong, Liming; McDowell, David L.; Chen, Youping

    2018-02-01

    Progress in the development of coupled atomistic-continuum methods for simulations of critical dynamic material behavior has been hampered by a spurious wave reflection problem at the atomistic-continuum interface. This problem is mainly caused by the difference in material descriptions between the atomistic and continuum models, which results in a mismatch in phonon dispersion relations. In this work, we introduce a new method based on atomistic dynamics of lattice coupled with a concurrent atomistic-continuum method to enable a full phonon representation in the continuum description. This permits the passage of short-wavelength, high-frequency phonon waves from the atomistic to continuum regions. The benchmark examples presented in this work demonstrate that the new scheme enables the passage of all allowable phonons through the atomistic-continuum interface; it also preserves the wave coherency and energy conservation after phonons transport across multiple atomistic-continuum interfaces. This work is the first step towards developing a concurrent atomistic-continuum simulation tool for non-equilibrium phonon-mediated thermal transport in materials with microstructural complexity.

  15. GW correlation effects on plutonium quasiparticle energies: Changes in crystal-field splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chantis, A.N.; Albers, R.C.; Svane, Axel

    2009-01-01

    We present results for the electronic structure of plutonium by using a recently developed quasiparticle self-consistent GW method (QSGW). We consider a paramagnetic solution without spin-orbit interaction as a function of volume for the face-centred cubic (fcc) unit cell. We span unit-cell volumes...... ranging from 10% greater than the equilibrium volume of the δ phase to 90% of the equivalent for the α phase of Pu. The selfconsistent GW quasiparticle energies are compared to those obtained within the Local Density Approximation (LDA). The goal of the calculations is to understand systematic trends...... in the effects of electronic correlations on the quasiparticle energy bands of Pu as a function of the localisation of the f orbitals. We show that correlation effects narrow the f bands in two significantly different ways. Besides the expected narrowing of individual f bands (flatter dispersion), we find...

  16. Shell structure effects at high excitations and many-quasiparticle configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical data available on few- and many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of complex nuclei at low, intermediate and high energies are shortly analyzed. The components are treated in the nuclear quasiparticle-phonon model. Specific features of the lowest and high-spin states, giant resonances, neutron resonances and the effects of the energy-level structure in the few-and many-particle transfer reactions are discussed. It is concluded that the most reliable nuclear properties are determined by the components, their behaviour reflecting the shell structure effects. Wich increasing excitation energy the density of levels increases exponentially and the contribution of few-quasiparticle components to the normalization of the wave functions decreases exponentially

  17. Microscopic model of quasiparticle wave packets in superfluids, superconductors, and paired Hall states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, S A; Kivelson, S A; Shankar, R; Sondhi, S L; Spivak, B Z

    2012-12-07

    We study the structure of Bogoliubov quasiparticles, bogolons, the fermionic excitations of paired superfluids that arise from fermion (BCS) pairing, including neutral superfluids, superconductors, and paired quantum Hall states. The naive construction of a stationary quasiparticle in which the deformation of the pair field is neglected leads to a contradiction: it carries a net electrical current even though it does not move. However, treating the pair field self-consistently resolves this problem: in a neutral superfluid, a dipolar current pattern is associated with the quasiparticle for which the total current vanishes. When Maxwell electrodynamics is included, as appropriate to a superconductor, this pattern is confined over a penetration depth. For paired quantum Hall states of composite fermions, the Maxwell term is replaced by a Chern-Simons term, which leads to a dipolar charge distribution and consequently to a dipolar current pattern.

  18. Anisotropic breakdown of Fermi liquid quasiparticle excitations in overdoped La₂-xSrxCuO₄.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J; Månsson, M; Pailhès, S; Claesson, T; Lipscombe, O J; Hayden, S M; Patthey, L; Tjernberg, O; Mesot, J

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity emerges from an un-conventional metallic state. This has stimulated strong efforts to understand exactly how Fermi liquids breakdown and evolve into an un-conventional metal. A fundamental question is how Fermi liquid quasiparticle excitations break down in momentum space. Here we show, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, that the Fermi liquid quasiparticle excitations of the overdoped superconducting cuprate La1.77Sr0.23CuO4 is highly anisotropic in momentum space. The quasiparticle scattering and residue behave differently along the Fermi surface and hence the Kadowaki-Wood's relation is not obeyed. This kind of Fermi liquid breakdown may apply to a wide range of strongly correlated metal systems where spin fluctuations are present.

  19. Multi-quasiparticle high-K isomeric states in deformed nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu F. R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, we have made many theoretical investigations on multi-quasiparticle high-K isomeric states. A deformation-pairing-configuration self-consistent calculation has been developed by calculating a configuration-constrained multi-quasiparticle potential energy surface (PES. The specific single-particle orbits that define the high-K configuration are identified and tracked (adiabatically blocked by calculating the average Nilsson numbers. The deformed Woods-Saxon potential was taken to give single-particle orbits. The configuration-constrained PES takes into account the shape polarization effect. Such calculations give good results on excitation energies, deformations and other structure information about multi-quasiparticle high-K isomeric states. Many different mass regions have been investigated.

  20. Shot-noise evidence of fractional quasiparticle creation in a local fractional quantum Hall state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashisaka, Masayuki; Ota, Tomoaki; Muraki, Koji; Fujisawa, Toshimasa

    2015-02-06

    We experimentally identify fractional quasiparticle creation in a tunneling process through a local fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state. The local FQH state is prepared in a low-density region near a quantum point contact in an integer quantum Hall (IQH) system. Shot-noise measurements reveal a clear transition from elementary-charge tunneling at low bias to fractional-charge tunneling at high bias. The fractional shot noise is proportional to T(1)(1-T(1)) over a wide range of T(1), where T(1) is the transmission probability of the IQH edge channel. This binomial distribution indicates that fractional quasiparticles emerge from the IQH state to be transmitted through the local FQH state. The study of this tunneling process enables us to elucidate the dynamics of Laughlin quasiparticles in FQH systems.

  1. Fragmentation of two-quasiparticle states in 92Zr and even-even Sn isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanova, O.; Voronov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The fragmentation of two-quasiparticle states in doubly even spherical nuclei is calculated within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The fragmentation is due to the interactions leading to the formation of phonons and to the quasiparticle-phonon interaction. The spectroscopic factors for the ''particle-valence particle'' states in 92 Zr are calculated. The agreement with the experimental data of the reaction 91 Zr(d, p) 92 Zr is obtained. The centroid energy Esub(jjsub(0)) and width GITAsub(jjsub(0)) are calculated for the configurations excited in the (p, d) reactions on odd-A isotopes of Cd, Sn and Te. It is shown that the valence particle-hole lgsub(9/2) configuration is localized at the excitation energies of 7-9 MeV. The corresponding experimental data are well described

  2. Excitation spectra and wave functions of quasiparticle bound states in bilayer Rashba superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Yoichi, E-mail: higashiyoichi@ms.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Nagai, Yuki [CCSE, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 178-4-4, Wakashiba, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Tomohiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kato, Masaru [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Yanase, Youichi [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We focus on the pair-density wave state in bilayer Rashba superconductors. • The zero energy Bogoliubov wave functions are localized at the edge and vortex core. • We investigate the excitation spectra of edge and vortex bound states. - Abstract: We study the excitation spectra and the wave functions of quasiparticle bound states at a vortex and an edge in bilayer Rashba superconductors under a magnetic field. In particular, we focus on the quasiparticle states at the zero energy in the pair-density wave state in a topologically non-trivial phase. We numerically demonstrate that the quasiparticle wave functions with zero energy are localized at both the edge and the vortex core if the magnetic field exceeds the critical value.

  3. Topological defect and quasi-particle dynamics in charge density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahiko; Ebisawa, Hiromichi

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of topological defects (dislocations) in charge density waves (CDW's) is largely affected by the quasi-particle dynamics in the cores of the dislocations. The dislocations mediate the conversion of the electron number between condensate and quasi-particle sub-systems. This is especially important in the sliding conduction of CDW. In this work we propose a simple model, which is obtained by extending the Ginzburg-Landau theory partially taking into account the quasi-particle dynamics in the sense of two-fluid model. We perform the numerical simulation of sliding conduction of CDW based on our model. Using this model we may clarify the detailed process of dislocation nucleation and annihilation near the contacts.

  4. Quasi-particle properties from tunneling in the v = 5/2 fractional quantum Hall state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Iuliana P; Miller, J B; Marcus, C M; Kastner, M A; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W

    2008-05-16

    Quasi-particles with fractional charge and statistics, as well as modified Coulomb interactions, exist in a two-dimensional electron system in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Theoretical models of the FQH state at filling fraction v = 5/2 make the further prediction that the wave function can encode the interchange of two quasi-particles, making this state relevant for topological quantum computing. We show that bias-dependent tunneling across a narrow constriction at v = 5/2 exhibits temperature scaling and, from fits to the theoretical scaling form, extract values for the effective charge and the interaction parameter of the quasi-particles. Ranges of values obtained are consistent with those predicted by certain models of the 5/2 state.

  5. Equations of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with effective finite-rank separable interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Basic equations are derived for the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model for the finite-rank separable isoscalar and isovector multipole and spin-multipole and isovector tensor particle-hole and particle-particle interactions between quasiparticles. For even-even spherical nuclei it is shown that in the calculation of single-phonon states in the random phase approximation a significant complication arises due to the finite rank n max >1 of separable interactions. Taking into account separable interactions with n max >1 does not lead to significant difficulties in the calculation of fragmentation of quasiparticle and collective states. It is asserted that the model can be used as a basis for calculations of many characteristics of complex nuclei

  6. The description of neutron and giant resonances within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The general assumptions of the quasiparticle-phonon model of complex nuclei are given. The choice of the model Hamiltonian as an average field and residual forces is discussed. The phonon description and quasiparticle-phonon interaction are presented. The system of basic equations and their approximate solutions are obtained. The approximation is chosen so as to obtain the most correct description of few-quasiparticle components rather than of the whole wave function. The method of strength functions is presented, which plays a decisive role in practical realization of the quasiparticle-phonon model for the description of some properties of complex nuclei. The range of applicability of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is determined as few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions at low, intermediate and high excitation energies averaged in a certain energy interval. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied within this model. The dependence of neutron strength functions on the excitation energy is investigated for the transfer reactions of the type (d,p) and (d,t). The s - ,p - , and d-wave neutron strength functions are calculated at the neutron binding energy Bsub(n). A satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. A correct description of the radiative strength functions in spherical nuclei is obtained. The influence of the tail of the giant dipole resonance on the E1-strength functions is studied. The energies and EΛ-strength functions for giant multipole resonances in spherical and deformed nuclei are calculated. A correct description of their widths is obtained. (author)

  7. The thermo field transformation in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Kosov, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The method of extension of quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model to describe hot nuclei is proposed. For this aim the formalism of the thermo field dynamics is used. Following the main principles of the TFD we express the Hamiltonian of the QPM in terms of thermal quasiparticles. The coefficients of the corresponding transformation are determined by minimizing the grand thermodynamical potential of a hot nucleus in the thermal vacuum state. Then the RPA part of the thermal QPM Hamiltonian is extracted and the RPA equations are derived. They are in the agreement with the RPA equations derived by the Green function method and the equation of motion method. (author.). 15 refs

  8. Convergence of quasiparticle self-consistent GW calculations of transition metal monoxides

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Suvadip; Coulter, John E.; Manousakis, Efstratios

    2014-01-01

    Finding an accurate ab initio approach for calculating the electronic properties of transition metal oxides has been a problem for several decades. In this paper, we investigate the electronic structure of the transition metal monoxides MnO, CoO, and NiO in their undistorted rock-salt structure within a fully iterated quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QPscGW) scheme. We study the convergence of the QPscGW method, i.e., how the quasiparticle energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions converge as a f...

  9. Taking into account of the Pauli principle in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of an exact account taken of the Pauli principle and correlations in ground states in calculations in the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model of a nucleus has been studied. It is elucidated when it is possible to use the random phase approximation (RPA) and when the Pauli principle should be exactly taken into account. It has been shown that in the quasiparticle-phonon model of a nucleus one may perform calculations with a precise account of the Pauli principle. In most of the problems calculations can be carried out with RPA-phonons

  10. Description of multi-quasiparticle bands by the tilted axis cranking model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauendorf, S.

    2000-01-01

    The selfconsistent cranking approach is extended to the case of rotation about an axis which is tilted with respect to the principal axes of the deformed potential (Tilted Axis Cranking). Expressions for the energies and the intra bands electro-magnetic transition probabilities are given. The mean field solutions are interpreted in terms of quantal rotational states. The construction of the quasiparticle configurations and the elimination of spurious states is discussed. The application of the theory to high spin data is demonstrated by analyzing the multi-quasiparticle bands in the nuclides with N=102,103 and Z=71,72,73

  11. Tunneling spectroscopy of quasiparticle bound states in a spinful Josephson junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W; Manucharyan, V E; Jespersen, T S; Nygård, J; Marcus, C M

    2013-05-24

    The spectrum of a segment of InAs nanowire, confined between two superconducting leads, was measured as function of gate voltage and superconducting phase difference using a third normal-metal tunnel probe. Subgap resonances for odd electron occupancy-interpreted as bound states involving a confined electron and a quasiparticle from the superconducting leads, reminiscent of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states-evolve into Kondo-related resonances at higher magnetic fields. An additional zero-bias peak of unknown origin is observed to coexist with the quasiparticle bound states.

  12. Quasi-particle lifetime broadening in normal-superconductor junctions with UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, T. de; Argonne National Lab., IL; Klapwijk, T.M.; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Jansen, A.G.M.; Heil, J.; Wyder, P.

    1996-01-01

    For the Andreev-reflection process of quasi-particles at a normal-metal-superconductor interface the influence of lifetime broadening of the quasi-particles on the current-voltage characteristics of NS point contacts is analyzed along the lines of the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model. The anomalous Andreev-reflection spectra obtained for the heavy-fermion compound UPt 3 cannot be explained by lifetime broadening alone. Instead, an anisotropic superconducting order parameter has to be assumed which, if also lifetime broadening is included, leads to a fairly good agreement with the data. (orig.)

  13. Identicity in high-K three quasiparticle rotational bands: a theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harjeet; Singh, Pardeep; Malik, Sham S

    2015-01-01

    The systematics are studied for the identical band phenomenon in high-K three quasiparticle rotational bands. The identical rotational bands based on the same bandhead spin are analyzed on the basis of similarities in γ-ray energies, dynamic moment of inertia and kinematic moment of inertia in particular, which is a function of deformation degrees of freedom, pairing strengths and Nilsson orbitals in nuclei. It is established that a combined effect of all these parameters decides the identicity of the moment of inertia in high-K three quasiparticle rotational bands as the systematics are backed by the Tilted Axis Cranking model calculations. (paper)

  14. A massive quasi-particle model of the SU(3) gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshier, A.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Pavlenko, O.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev; Soff, G.

    1995-09-01

    Recent SU(3) gauge field lattice data for the equation of state are interpreted by a quasi-particle model with effective thermal gluon masses. The model is motivated by lowest-order perturbative QCD and describes very well the data. The proposed quasi-particle approach can be applied to study color excitations in the non-perturbative regime. As an example we estimate the temperature dependence of the Debye screening mass and find that it declines sharply when approaching the confinement temperature from above, while the thermal mass continuously rises. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of quasiparticle transport in aluminum films using tungsten transition-edge sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, J. J.; Shank, B.; Cabrera, B.; Moffatt, R.; Redl, P.; Young, B. A.; Tortorici, E. C.; Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Tomada, A.; Kreikebaum, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on experimental studies of phonon sensors which utilize quasiparticle diffusion in thin aluminum films connected to tungsten transition-edge-sensors (TESs) operated at 35 mK. We show that basic TES physics and a simple physical model of the overlap region between the W and Al films in our devices enables us to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed pulse shapes from x-rays absorbed in the Al films. We further estimate quasiparticle loss in Al films using a simple diffusion equation approach. These studies allow the design of phonon sensors with improved performance.

  16. Physics of the continuum of borromean nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaagen, J S; Rogde, T [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Danilin, B V [RRC The Kurchatov Inst., Kurchatov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, S N [JINR, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation); Thompson, I J [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Zhukov, M V [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); RNBT Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    The continuum states of two-neutron halo nuclei are calculated in the method of hyperspherical harmonics. Using DWIA theory appropriate for dilute halo matter we have probed the structure of the low-lying {sup 6}He continuum via calculations of charge-exchange and inelastic scattering. (orig.)

  17. Giant resonances in the deformed continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsukasa, T.; Yabana, K.

    2004-01-01

    Giant resonances in the continuum for deformed nuclei are studied with the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory in real time and real space. The continuum effect is effectively taken into account by introducing a complex Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC). (orig.)

  18. Continuum Level Density in Complex Scaling Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, R.; Myo, T.; Kato, K.

    2005-01-01

    A new calculational method of continuum level density (CLD) at unbound energies is studied in the complex scaling method (CSM). It is shown that the CLD can be calculated by employing the discretization of continuum states in the CSM without any smoothing technique

  19. Parallel algorithms for continuum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.L.; Liebrock, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Simply porting existing parallel programs to a new parallel processor may not achieve the full speedup possible; to achieve the maximum efficiency may require redesigning the parallel algorithms for the specific architecture. The authors discuss here parallel algorithms that were developed first for the HEP processor and then ported to the CRAY X-MP/4, the ELXSI/10, and the Intel iPSC/32. Focus is mainly on the most recent parallel processing results produced, i.e., those on the Intel Hypercube. The applications are simulations of continuum dynamics in which the momentum and stress gradients are important. Examples of these are inertial confinement fusion experiments, severe breaks in the coolant system of a reactor, weapons physics, shock-wave physics. Speedup efficiencies on the Intel iPSC Hypercube are very sensitive to the ratio of communication to computation. Great care must be taken in designing algorithms for this machine to avoid global communication. This is much more critical on the iPSC than it was on the three previous parallel processors

  20. Lattice continuum and diffusional creep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarovic, Sinisa Dj

    2016-04-01

    Diffusional creep is characterized by growth/disappearance of lattice planes at the crystal boundaries that serve as sources/sinks of vacancies, and by diffusion of vacancies. The lattice continuum theory developed here represents a natural and intuitive framework for the analysis of diffusion in crystals and lattice growth/loss at the boundaries. The formulation includes the definition of the Lagrangian reference configuration for the newly created lattice, the transport theorem and the definition of the creep rate tensor for a polycrystal as a piecewise uniform, discontinuous field. The values associated with each crystalline grain are related to the normal diffusional flux at grain boundaries. The governing equations for Nabarro-Herring creep are derived with coupled diffusion and elasticity with compositional eigenstrain. Both, bulk diffusional dissipation and boundary dissipation accompanying vacancy nucleation and absorption, are considered, but the latter is found to be negligible. For periodic arrangements of grains, diffusion formally decouples from elasticity but at the cost of a complicated boundary condition. The equilibrium of deviatorically stressed polycrystals is impossible without inclusion of interface energies. The secondary creep rate estimates correspond to the standard Nabarro-Herring model, and the volumetric creep is small. The initial (primary) creep rate is estimated to be much larger than the secondary creep rate.

  1. Study of multi-quasiparticle band structures in 197Tl using α beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, G.; Nandi, S.; Pai, H.

    2016-01-01

    Study of the multi-quasiparticle (qp) states and the band structures built on them in the neutron deficient Tl nuclei in A ∼ 190 mass region provides useful information on particle-hole interaction in the heavy nuclei. In order to investigate the multi-qp band structures we have studied the excited states in 197 Tl by gamma ray spectroscopy

  2. Quasiparticle effects in the two-body photodisintegration of 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, W.; Casel, A.; Sandhas, W.

    1979-09-01

    The total cross sections for the reactions 4 He(γ,n) 3 He and 4 He(γ,p) 3 H are calculated for photon energies between 50 MeV and 150 MeV in a quasiparticle formalism, leading to a simple interpretation for the γ-absorption mechanism. Results are compared with shell model calculations. (orig.)

  3. Quasiparticle energies and lifetimes in a metallic chain model of a tunnel junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepieniec, Mark; Yeriskin, Irene; Greer, J C

    2013-04-14

    As electronics devices scale to sub-10 nm lengths, the distinction between "device" and "electrodes" becomes blurred. Here, we study a simple model of a molecular tunnel junction, consisting of an atomic gold chain partitioned into left and right electrodes, and a central "molecule." Using a complex absorbing potential, we are able to reproduce the single-particle energy levels of the device region including a description of the effects of the semi-infinite electrodes. We then use the method of configuration interaction to explore the effect of correlations on the system's quasiparticle peaks. We find that when excitations on the leads are excluded, the device's highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital quasiparticle states when including correlation are bracketed by their respective values in the Hartree-Fock (Koopmans) and ΔSCF approximations. In contrast, when excitations on the leads are included, the bracketing property no longer holds, and both the positions and the lifetimes of the quasiparticle levels change considerably, indicating that the combined effect of coupling and correlation is to alter the quasiparticle spectrum significantly relative to an isolated molecule.

  4. Phase-Dependent Resistance in a Superconductor—Two-Dimensional-Electron-Gas Quasiparticle Interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimoulas, A.; Heida, J.P.; Wees, B.J. v.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Graaf, W. v.d.; Borghs, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the interplay between Josephson coupling and quasiparticle interference effects in the resistance of a two-dimensional electron gas connected to superconducting electrodes with an interrupted ring geometry. By reducing the influence of the Josephson coupling strength at high dc

  5. The effect of exchange interaction on quasiparticle Landau levels in narrow-gap quantum well heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtopenko, S S; Gavrilenko, V I; Goiran, M

    2012-04-04

    Using the 'screened' Hartree-Fock approximation based on the eight-band k·p Hamiltonian, we have extended our previous work (Krishtopenko et al 2011 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 385601) on exchange enhancement of the g-factor in narrow-gap quantum well heterostructures by calculating the exchange renormalization of quasiparticle energies, the density of states at the Fermi level and the quasiparticle g-factor for different Landau levels overlapping. We demonstrate that exchange interaction yields more pronounced Zeeman splitting of the density of states at the Fermi level and leads to the appearance of peak-shaped features in the dependence of the Landau level energies on the magnetic field at integer filling factors. We also find that the quasiparticle g-factor does not reach the maximum value at odd filling factors in the presence of large overlapping of spin-split Landau levels. We advance an argument that the behavior of the quasiparticle g-factor in weak magnetic fields is defined by a random potential of impurities in narrow-gap heterostructures. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  6. Recursion method for the quasiparticle structure of a single vortex with induced magnetic order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, L.; Andersen, B.M.; Hedegård, P.

    2006-01-01

    . Furthermore, we study the low-energy quasiparticle structure when magnetic vortices operate as pinning centers for surrounding unidirectional spin density waves (stripes). We calculate the Fourier transformed LDOS and show how the energy dependence of relevant Fourier components can be used to determine...

  7. Calculating excitons, plasmons, and quasiparticles in 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2017-01-01

    and quasiparticle band structures in 2D materials and their heterostructures. The general theory is illustrated by applications to various types of 2D materials including transition metal dichalcogenides, graphene, phosphorene, and hexagonal boron nitride. The weak and highly non-local dielectric function...

  8. Tunneling Spectroscopy Study of Spin-Polarized Quasiparticle Injection Effects in Cuparate/Manganite Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J. Y. T.; Yeh, N. C.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy was performed at 4.2K on epitaxial thin-film heterostructures comprising YBa2Cu3O7 and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3, to study the microscopic effects of spin-polarized quasiparticle injection from the half-metallic ferromagnetic manganite on the high-Tc cuprate superconductor.

  9. Quasiparticle engineering and entanglement propagation in a quantum many-body system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevic, P; Lanyon, B P; Hauke, P; Hempel, C; Zoller, P; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2014-07-10

    The key to explaining and controlling a range of quantum phenomena is to study how information propagates around many-body systems. Quantum dynamics can be described by particle-like carriers of information that emerge in the collective behaviour of the underlying system, the so-called quasiparticles. These elementary excitations are predicted to distribute quantum information in a fashion determined by the system's interactions. Here we report quasiparticle dynamics observed in a quantum many-body system of trapped atomic ions. First, we observe the entanglement distributed by quasiparticles as they trace out light-cone-like wavefronts. Second, using the ability to tune the interaction range in our system, we observe information propagation in an experimental regime where the effective-light-cone picture does not apply. Our results will enable experimental studies of a range of quantum phenomena, including transport, thermalization, localization and entanglement growth, and represent a first step towards a new quantum-optic regime of engineered quasiparticles with tunable nonlinear interactions.

  10. Coherent amplitudon generation in blue bronze through ultrafast interband quasi-particle decay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagar, Dodderi M.; Tsvetkov, Artem A.; Fausti, Daniele; van Smaalen, Sander; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    The charge density wave system K(0.3)MoO(3) has been studied using variable pulse energy pump-probe spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and inelastic light scattering. The observed transient reflectivity response exhibits quite a complex behaviour, containing contributions due to quasi-particle excitations,

  11. Quasi-particle interference of heavy fermions in resonant x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenis, András; da Silva Neto, Eduardo H; Sutarto, Ronny; Schierle, Enrico; He, Feizhou; Weschke, Eugen; Kavai, Mariam; Baumbach, Ryan E; Thompson, Joe D; Bauer, Eric D; Fisk, Zachary; Damascelli, Andrea; Yazdani, Ali; Aynajian, Pegor

    2016-10-01

    Resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) has recently become an increasingly important tool for the study of ordering phenomena in correlated electron systems. Yet, the interpretation of RXS experiments remains theoretically challenging because of the complexity of the RXS cross section. Central to this debate is the recent proposal that impurity-induced Friedel oscillations, akin to quasi-particle interference signals observed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), can lead to scattering peaks in RXS experiments. The possibility that quasi-particle properties can be probed in RXS measurements opens up a new avenue to study the bulk band structure of materials with the orbital and element selectivity provided by RXS. We test these ideas by combining RXS and STM measurements of the heavy fermion compound Ce M In 5 ( M = Co, Rh). Temperature- and doping-dependent RXS measurements at the Ce- M 4 edge show a broad scattering enhancement that correlates with the appearance of heavy f -electron bands in these compounds. The scattering enhancement is consistent with the measured quasi-particle interference signal in the STM measurements, indicating that the quasi-particle interference can be probed through the momentum distribution of RXS signals. Overall, our experiments demonstrate new opportunities for studies of correlated electronic systems using the RXS technique.

  12. Quasi-particle and collective magnetism: Rotation, pairing and blocking in high-K isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.; Stone, J.R.; Walker, P.M.; Bingham, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, a wide range of collective magnetic g-factors g R , obtained from a novel analysis of experimental data for multi-quasi-particle configurations in high-K isomers, is shown to exhibit a striking systematic variation with the relative number of proton and neutron quasi-particles, N p −N n . Using the principle of additivity, the quasi-particle contribution to magnetism in high-K isomers of Lu–Re, Z=71–75, has been estimated. Based on these estimates, band-structure branching ratio data are used to explore the behavior of the collective contribution as the number and proton/neutron nature (N p , N n ), of the quasi-particle excitations, change. Basic ideas of pairing, its quenching by quasi-particle excitation and the consequent changes to moment of inertia and collective magnetism are discussed. Existing model calculations do not reproduce the observed g R variation adequately. The paired superfluid system of nucleons in these nuclei, and their excitations, present properties of general physics interest. The new-found systematic behavior of g R in multi-quasi-particle excitations of this unique system, showing variation from close to zero for multi-neutron states to above 0.5 for multi-proton states, opens a fresh window on these effects and raises the important question of just which nucleons contribute to the ‘collective’ properties of these nuclei

  13. Asymptotic description of plasma turbulence: Krylov-Bogoliubov methods and quasi-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Bertrand, P.; Decyk, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    The asymptotic theory of charged particle motion in electromagnetic fields is developed for the general case of finite Larmor-radius effects by means of Krylov-Bogoliubov averaging method. The correspondence between the general asymptotic methods, elaborated by M. Krylov and M.Bogoliubov, the quasi-particle description and gyrokinetics is established. Such a comparison is used to shed more light on the physical sense of the reduced Poisson equation, introduced in gyrokinetics, and the particle polarization drift. It is shown that the modification of the Poisson equation in the asymptotic theory is due to the non-conservation of the magnetic moment and gyrophase trembling. it is shown that the second-order modification of the adiabatic invariant can determine the conditions of global plasma stability and introduces new nonlinear terms into the reduced Poisson equation. Such a modification is important for several plasma orderings, e.g. NHD type ordering. The feasibility of numerical simulation schemes in which the polarization drift is included into the quasi-particle equations of motion, and the Poisson equation remains unchanged is analyzed. A consistent asymptotic model is proposed in which the polarization drift is included into the quasi-particle equations of motion and the particle and quasi-particle velocities are equal. It is shown that in such models there are additional modifications of the reduced Poisson equation. The latter becomes even more complicated in contrast to earlier suggestions

  14. Supercurrent and quasi-particle transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with superconducting electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWees, BJ

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated supercurrent and quasi-particle transport in the 2DEG present in InAs/Al(Ga)Sb quantum wells. The physics of these systems will be discussed with two examples: (i) supercurrent transport in Nb/InAs/Nb junctions, and (ii) phase-dependent resistance in a superconductor-2DEG

  15. The decay from the two-quasiparticle regime in even-even deformed rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, A.; Thorstensen, T.F.; Hammaren, E.

    1983-06-01

    A bump at 1 MeV has been identified in coincidence gamma-ray spectra from the ( 3 He, 4 He) reaction in deformed rare earth nuclei. Particle/gamma-ray angular correlation indicates a dipole character. It is suggested that this bump corresponds to transitions from two-quasiparticle states to the ground state band

  16. Effects of the coupling of quasiparticle and collective vibrations on the properties of 120Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigezzi, Enrico

    2018-03-01

    Assuming quasiparticles and collective vibrations as fundamental modes of excitation and taking into account their interplay within the framework of Nuclear Field Theory, it is possible to give an accurate and comprehensive description of the low-energy spectrum of the superfluid nucleus 120Sn.

  17. Causality of the quasi-particle pole in strong coupling theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicting statements on the boundary condition for the causal propagation of quasi-particles are related to a consistency criterion for perturbation theory in strong fields. It is shown, that the two descriptions coincide in the commonly accepted physical region. (orig.)

  18. Decay spectroscopy of 160Sm: The lightest four-quasiparticle K isomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The decay of a new four-quasiparticle isomeric state in 160Sm has been observed using γ-ray spectroscopy at the RIBF, RIKEN. The four-quasiparticle state is assigned a 2π⊗2ν π52−[532], π52+[413], ν52−[523], ν72+[633] configuration. The half-life of this (11+ state is measured to be 1.8(4 μs. The (11+ isomer decays into a rotational band structure, based on a (6− ν52−[523]⊗ν72+[633] bandhead, consistent with the gK−gR values. This decays to a (5− two-proton quasiparticle state, which in turn decays to the ground state band. Potential energy surface and blocked-BCS calculations were performed in the deformed midshell region around 160Sm. They reveal a significant influence from β6 deformation and that 160Sm is the best candidate for the lightest four-quasiparticle K isomer to exist in this region. The relationship between reduced hindrance and isomer excitation energy for E1 transitions from multiquasiparticle states is considered with the new data from 160Sm. The E1 data are found to agree with the existing relationship for E2 transitions.

  19. Quasi-particle properties in a quasi-two-dimensional electron liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects are incorporated into the local-field factors that describe the charge and spin correla- ... dient of which is the quasi-particle concept and its interactions. .... factors. Note that we have approximated the local-field factors by their static, frequency-independent limits. Quite generally, once the QP self-energy is known, the ...

  20. Ab initio quasiparticle bandstructure of ABA and ABC-stacked graphene trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Marcos; Capaz, Rodrigo; Louie, Steven

    2013-03-01

    We obtain the quasiparticle band structure of ABA and ABC-stacked graphene trilayers through ab initio density functional theory (DFT) and many-body quasiparticle calculations within the GW approximation. To interpret our results, we fit the DFT and GW π bands to a low energy tight-binding model, which is found to reproduce very well the observed features near the K point. The values of the extracted hopping parameters are reported and compared with available theoretical and experimental data. For both stackings, the quasiparticle corrections lead to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity, an effect also observed in previous calculations on monolayer graphene. They also increase the separation between the higher energy bands, which is proportional to the nearest neighbor interlayer hopping parameter γ1. Both features are brought to closer agreement with experiment through the quasiparticle corrections. Finally, other effects, such as trigonal warping, electron-hole assymetry and energy gaps are discussed in terms of the associated parameters. This work was supported by the Brazilian funding agencies: CAPES, CNPq, FAPERJ and INCT-Nanomateriais de Carbono. It was also supported by NSF grant No. DMR10-1006184 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  1. Converged G W quasiparticle energies for transition metal oxide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönenc, Zeynep; Kim, Bongjae; Liu, Peitao; Kresse, Georg; Franchini, Cesare

    2018-02-01

    The ab initio calculation of quasiparticle (QP) energies is a technically and computationally challenging problem. In condensed matter physics, the most widely used approach to determine QP energies is the G W approximation. Although the G W method has been widely applied to many typical semiconductors and insulators, its application to more complex compounds such as transition metal oxide perovskites has been comparatively rare, and its proper use is not well established from a technical point of view. In this work, we have applied the single-shot G0W0 method to a representative set of transition metal oxide perovskites including 3 d (SrTiO3, LaScO3, SrMnO3, LaTiO3, LaVO3, LaCrO3, LaMnO3, and LaFeO3), 4 d (SrZrO3, SrTcO3, and Ca2RuO4 ), and 5 d (SrHfO3, KTaO3, and NaOsO3) compounds with different electronic configurations, magnetic orderings, structural characteristics, and band gaps ranging from 0.1 to 6.1 eV. We discuss the proper procedure to obtain well-converged QP energies and accurate band gaps within single-shot G0W0 by comparing the conventional approach based on an incremental variation of a specific set of parameters (number of bands, energy cutoff for the plane-wave expansion and number of k points) and the basis-set extrapolation scheme [J. Klimeš et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 075125 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.075125]. Although the conventional scheme is not supported by a formal proof of convergence, for most cases it delivers QP energies in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by the basis-set correction procedure and it is by construction more useful for calculating band structures. In addition, we have inspected the difference between the adoption of norm-conserving and ultrasoft potentials in G W calculations and found that the norm violation for the d shell can lead to less accurate results in particular for charge-transfer systems and late transition metals. A minimal statistical analysis indicates that the correlation of the G W data

  2. Continuum spectra in light-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, T.; Udagawa, T. [Texas Univ., Austin (USA). Dept. of Physics; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M [eds.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of multi-step direct reaction method, to fit continuum cross sections of light-ion reactions, are reviewed. There has been a long-standing difficulty in reproducing sufficiently large (p, p') continuum cross section, but it has now been all but removed. It will be discussed in some detail, how this was achieved. Analyses of very recent data on analyzing powers in the continuum of (p, p') and (p, ..cap alpha..) reactions will also be discussed. Finally, analysis of the breakup of h into d and p will be presented.

  3. Area Regge calculus and continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Encountered in the literature generalisations of general relativity to independent area variables are considered, the discrete (generalised Regge calculus) and continuum ones. The generalised Regge calculus can be either with purely area variables or, as we suggest, with area tensor-connection variables. Just for the latter, in particular, we prove that in analogy with corresponding statement in ordinary Regge calculus (by Feinberg, Friedberg, Lee and Ren), passing to the (appropriately defined) continuum limit yields the generalised continuum area tensor-connection general relativity

  4. Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1975-01-01

    Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k

  5. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  6. Effects of pairing correlation on low-lying quasi-particle resonance in neutron drip-line nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We discuss effects of pairing correlation on quasi-particle resonance. We analyze in detail how the width of low-lying quasi-particle resonance is governed by the pairing correlation in the neutron drip-line nuclei. We consider the 46Si + n system to discuss low-lying p wave quasi-particle resonance. Solving the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation in the coordinate space with scattering boundary condition, we calculate the phase shift, the elastic cross section, the resonance width and the reson...

  7. The key point of fragmentation of quasiparticle-phonon configurations in the order-disorder transformations of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    To find out at what excitation energies the order-disorder transformations occur in intermediate and heavy nuclei, it is suggested to study fragmentation of multiquasiparticle and quasiparticle-phonon configurations. One-nucleon transfer reactions on odd-odd targets, for instance on 176 Lu and 180 Ta, should be taken as a particular case of fragmentation of three-quasiparticle configurations on the long living isomer 178 m 2 Hf-fragmentation of five-quasiparticle configurations. From the analysis of γ-decay of high-spin isomers one can information on fragmentation of quasi-phonon configurations

  8. Commitment to Quality throughout the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    This editorial by the president of the Council for Exceptional Children indicates the organization's support of a continuum of special education placements for students with special needs and calls for improving transition of students from one placement to another. (JDD)

  9. Computational Method for Atomistic-Continuum Homogenization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The homogenization method is used as a framework for developing a multiscale system of equations involving atoms at zero temperature at the small scale and continuum mechanics at the very large scale...

  10. Continuum emission from classical nova winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    The emergent continuum of a slow classical nova during outburst is considered in the quasi-steady optically thick, transonic wind model. Models are presented for various steady mass loss rates and are related to the evolution of slow novae during decline and early post-maximum. The continuum emission is found to depart radically from a blackbody spectrum and to exhibit features common to highly extended stellar atmospheres. (author)

  11. Loop quantization as a continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, Elisa; Oeckl, Robert; Weber, Axel; Zapata, Jose A

    2006-01-01

    We present an implementation of Wilson's renormalization group and a continuum limit tailored for loop quantization. The dynamics of loop-quantized theories is constructed as a continuum limit of the dynamics of effective theories. After presenting the general formalism we show as a first explicit example the 2D Ising field theory, an interacting relativistic quantum field theory with local degrees of freedom quantized by loop quantization techniques

  12. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs

  13. Continuum of active nuclei of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, C.; Durret, F.

    1987-01-01

    Most of the luminosity of active galactic nuclei (NAG) is radiated in the form of a continuum extending from radio to X-ray energies. It is important to understand the origin of this continuum in order to explain the relative importance of thermal and non-thermal processes in the different classes of NAG. We present here the observational aspect. A detailed study of the mechanisms will be presented by J.L. Masnou [fr

  14. Changing public stigma with continuum beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Schmidt, Annie; Bink, Andrea B; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Al-Khouja, Maya A; Qin, Sang; Discont, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Given the egregious effect of public stigma on the lives of people with mental illness, researchers have sought to unpack and identify effective components of anti-stigma programs. We expect to show that continuum messages have more positive effect on stigma and affirming attitudes (beliefs that people with mental illness recover and should be personally empowered) than categorical perspectives. The effect of continuum beliefs will interact with contact strategies. A total of 598 research participants were randomly assigned to online presentations representing one of the six conditions: three messages (continuum, categorical, or neutral control) by two processes (education or contact). Participants completed measures of continuum beliefs (as a manipulation check), stigma and affirming attitudes after viewing the condition. Continuum messages had significantly better effect on views that people with mental illness are "different," a finding that interacted with contact. Continuum messages also had better effects on recovery beliefs, once again an effect that interacted significantly with contact. Implications of these findings for improving anti-stigma programs are discussed.

  15. The optical and near-infrared continuum polarization of five magnetic white dwarf stars - new observations and considerations regarding its origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, S.C. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Observatories, Pasadena, CA (USA) Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Linear and circular broadband continuum polarization measurements throughout the 0.35-1.65-micron spectral region were obtained for GrW +70 deg 8247, GD 229, G240-72, G227-35, and LP 790-29. The continuum is found to be characterized by significant Coulomb modification of the Landau-type autoionization thresholds. The spectral characteristics of continuum polarization originating from a centered dipole field distribution are predicted. The magnetobremsstrahlung model can describe several characteristics of the polarization of Grw + 70 deg 8247, suggesting that plasma eigenmodes draw the resultant continuum polarization away from a photoionization edge. 86 refs.

  16. Quasiparticle Scattering in the Rashba Semiconductor BiTeBr: The Roles of Spin and Defect Lattice Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher John; Yang, Po-Ya; Sankar, Raman; Lien, Yen-Neng; Lu, Chun-I; Chang, Luo-Yueh; Chen, Chia-Hao; Wei, Ching-Ming; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2016-09-28

    Observations of quasiparticle interference have been used in recent years to examine exotic carrier behavior at the surfaces of emergent materials, connecting carrier dispersion and scattering dynamics to real-space features with atomic resolution. We observe quasiparticle interference in the strongly Rashba split 2DEG-like surface band found at the tellurium termination of BiTeBr and examine two mechanisms governing quasiparticle scattering: We confirm the suppression of spin-flip scattering by comparing measured quasiparticle interference with a spin-dependent elastic scattering model applied to the calculated spectral function. We also use atomically resolved STM maps to identify point defect lattice sites and spectro-microscopy imaging to discern their varying scattering strengths, which we understand in terms of the calculated orbital characteristics of the surface band. Defects on the Bi sublattice cause the strongest scattering of the predominantly Bi 6p derived surface band, with other defects causing nearly no scattering near the conduction band minimum.

  17. Direct observation of the Andreev reflection of a quasiparticle beam by quantum turbulence in superfluid 3He-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.I.; Fisher, S.N.; Guenault, A.M.; Lowe, M.R.; Pickett, G.R.; Rahm, A.

    2003-01-01

    A beam of quasiparticles from a black-body radiator is directed at a localized region of quantum turbulence generated by a vibrating wire resonator driven at super-critical velocity. We are able to measure directly the fraction of the incident quasiparticle beam which is retro-reflected from the turbulence by Andreev processes. Combining these measurements with previous measurements on the spatial extent of the turbulence may allow us to infer the vortex line density

  18. Instabilities of line-driven stellar winds. V. Effect of an optically thick continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owocki, S.P.; Rybicki, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    Earlier analyses of the linear instability of line-driven stellar winds are extended to the case, relevant to Wolf-Rayet stars, in which the continuum remains optically thick well above the sonic point. It is found that an optically thick flow driven by pure scattering lines is stabilized by the drag effect of the diffuse, scattered radiation. However, even a relatively small photon destruction probability can cause a flow with continuum optical thickness much greater than 1 to remain unstable, with a given growth rate. The implications of these results for the variability characteristics of winds from Wolf-Rayet stars are briefly discussed. 16 refs

  19. A bimodal temom model for particle Brownian coagulation in the continuum-slip regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a bimodal Taylor-series expansion moment of method is proposed to deal with Brownian coagulation in the continuum-slip regime, where the non-linear terms in the Cunningham correction factor is approximated by Taylor-series expansion technology. The results show that both the number concentration and volume fraction decrease with time in the smaller mode due to the intra and inter coagulation, and the asymptotic behavior of the larger mode is as same as that in the continuum regime.

  20. A linear model of ductile plastic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, J.

    1983-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of isotropic ductile plastic damage based on a continuum damage variable on the effective stress concept and on thermodynamics is derived. As shown by experiments on several metals and alloys, the model, integrated in the case of proportional loading, is linear with respect to the accumulated plastic strain and shows a large influence of stress triaxiality [fr

  1. The shadow continuum : testing the records continuum model through the Djogdja Documenten and the migrated archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karabinos, Michael Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation tests the universal suitability of the records continuum model by using two cases from the decolonization of Southeast Asia. The continuum model is a new model of records visualization invented in the 1990s that sees records as free to move throughout four ‘dimensions’ rather than

  2. Improved model of quasi-particle turbulence (with applications to Alfven and drift wave turbulence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, J. T.; Hizanidis, K.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the classical problem of wave stability and dispersion in a turbulent plasma background. We adopt a kinetic description for the quasi-particle turbulence. We describe an improved theoretical approach, which goes beyond the geometric optics approximation and retains the recoil effects associated with the emission and absorption of low frequency waves by nearly resonant quasi-particles. We illustrate the present approach by considering two particular examples. One is the excitation of zonal flows by drift wave turbulence or driftons. The other is the coupling between ion acoustic waves and Alfven wave turbulence, eventually leading to saturation of Alfven wave growth. Both examples are relevant to anomalous transport in magnetic fusion devices. Connection with previous results is established. We show that these results are recovered in the geometric optics approximation.

  3. Quasiparticle interference in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Alireza; Thalmeier, Peter; Eremin, Ilya

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the quasiparticle interference in the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 as a direct method to confirm the d-wave gap symmetry. The ambiguity between dxy and dx2-y2 symmetry remaining from earlier specific heat and thermal transport investigations has been resolved in favor of the latter by the observation of a spin resonance that can occur only in dx2-y2 symmetry. However, these methods are all indirect and depend considerably on theoretical interpretation. Here we propose that quasiparticle interference (QPI) spectroscopy by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can give a direct fingerprint of the superconducting gap in real space that may lead to a definite conclusion on its symmetry for CeCoIn5 and related 115 compounds. The QPI pattern for both magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities is calculated for the possible d-wave symmetries and characteristic differences are found that may be identified by use of the STM method.

  4. Quasiparticle recombination and 2 Δ-phonon-trapping in superconducting tunneling junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmenger, W.; Lassmann, K.; Trumpp, H.J.; Krauss, R.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental recombination lifetime Tsub(eff) of quasiparticles in superconducting films in general exceeds tge intrinsic recombination lifetime tau sub(R) by phonon trapping. On the basis of geometric acoustic propagation and reabsorption of phonons emitted in quasiparticle recombination, tau sub(eff) is calculated as a function of film thickness d taking into account longitudinal and transverse phonon reabsorption, bulk loss process and acoustical phonon transmission into the substrate. With increasing thickness d three characteristic ranges are found: range 1 with film thickness d small compared to the phonon reabsorption mean free path Λsub(w) range 2 with d larger than Λsub(w) and dominating boundary losses, and range 3, also with d larger than Λsub(w) but with dominating bulk losses. (orig./HPOE) [de

  5. Quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamura, T; Akaike, H; Omori, Y; Niimi, Y; Takahashi, S; Fujimaki, A; Maekawa, S; Otani, Y

    2015-07-01

    In some materials the competition between superconductivity and magnetism brings about a variety of unique phenomena such as the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetism in heavy-fermion superconductors or spin-triplet supercurrent in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions. Recent observations of spin-charge separation in a lateral spin valve with a superconductor evidence that these remarkable properties are applicable to spintronics, although there are still few works exploring this possibility. Here, we report the experimental observation of the quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor, NbN. This compound exhibits the inverse spin Hall (ISH) effect even below the superconducting transition temperature. Surprisingly, the ISH signal increases by more than 2,000 times compared with that in the normal state with a decrease of the injected spin current. The effect disappears when the distance between the voltage probes becomes larger than the charge imbalance length, corroborating that the huge ISH signals measured are mediated by quasiparticles.

  6. Inflationary Quasiparticle Creation and Thermalization Dynamics in Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann

    2016-06-03

    A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.

  7. Interband quasiparticle scattering in superconducting LiFeAs reconciles photoemission and tunneling measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christian; Sykora, Steffen; Hänke, Torben; Schlegel, Ronny; Baumann, Danny; Zabolotnyy, Volodymyr B; Harnagea, Luminita; Wurmehl, Sabine; van den Brink, Jeroen; Büchner, Bernd

    2013-01-04

    Several angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies reveal a poorly nested Fermi surface of LiFeAs, far away from a spin density wave instability, and clear-cut superconducting gap anisotropies. On the other hand a very different, more nested Fermi surface and dissimilar gap anisotropies have been obtained from quasiparticle interference (QPI) data, which were interpreted as arising from intraband scattering within holelike bands. Here we show that this ARPES-QPI paradox is completely resolved by interband scattering between the holelike bands. The resolution follows from an excellent agreement between experimental quasiparticle scattering data and T-matrix QPI calculations (based on experimental band structure data), which allows disentangling interband and intraband scattering processes.

  8. Bulk and shear viscosities of the gluon plasma in a quasiparticle description

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, M; Redlich, K

    2011-01-01

    Bulk and shear viscosities of deconfined gluonic matter are investigated within an effective kinetic theory by describing the strongly interacting medium phenomenologically in terms of quasiparticle excitations with medium-dependent self-energies. In this approach, local conservation of energy and momentum follows from a Boltzmann-Vlasov type kinetic equation and guarantees thermodynamic self-consistency. We show that the resulting transport coefficients reproduce the parametric dependencies on temperature and coupling obtained in perturbative QCD at large temperatures and small running coupling. The extrapolation into the non-perturbative regime results in a decreasing specific shear viscosity with decreasing temperature, exhibiting a minimum in the vicinity of the deconfinement transition temperature, while the specific bulk viscosity is sizeable in this region falling off rapidly with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of specific bulk and shear viscosities found within this quasiparticle d...

  9. Quantitative analysis of valence photoemission spectra and quasiparticle excitations at chromophore-semiconductor interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher E; Giustino, Feliciano

    2012-09-14

    Investigating quasiparticle excitations of molecules on surfaces through photoemission spectroscopy forms a major part of nanotechnology research. Resolving spectral features at these interfaces requires a comprehensive theory of electron removal and addition processes in molecules and solids which captures the complex interplay of image charges, thermal effects, and configurational disorder. Here, we develop such a theory and calculate the quasiparticle energy-level alignment and the valence photoemission spectrum for the prototype biomimetic solar cell interface between anatase TiO(2) and the N3 chromophore. By directly matching our calculated photoemission spectrum to experimental data, we clarify the atomistic origin of the chromophore peak at low binding energy. This case study sets a new standard in the interpretation of photoemission spectroscopy at complex chromophore-semiconductor interfaces.

  10. States with a great number of quasi-particles in even lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, G.; Manfredi, V.R.

    1975-01-01

    The even lead isotopes have been studied by means of a spectral distribution calculation in the sub-spaces defined by their number of quasi-particles. The comparison with results obtained in the thin isotopes shows that the overlap of the various sub-spaces is strongly dependent on the residual interaction used; namely, states with a great number of quasi-particles do exist in the low energy part of the spectra. The problem of spurious states implied by this method, states responsible for an over-estimation of the sub-space coupling, is treated and various corrections are proposed for the dimensions as well as for the centroids and widths of the sub-spaces [fr

  11. Quasiparticle explanation of ``weak thermalization'' regime under quench in a non-integrable quantum spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei

    Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis provides one picture of thermalization in a quantum system by looking at individual eigenstates. However, it is also important to consider how local observables reach equilibrium values dynamically. Quench protocol is one of the settings to study such questions. A recent numerical study [Banuls, Cirac, and Hastings, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 050405 (2011)] of a nonintegrable quantum Ising model with longitudinal field under such quench setting found different behaviors under different initial quantum states. One particular case termed ``weak thermalization'' regime showed apparently persistent oscillations of some observables. Here we provide an explanation of such oscillations. We use perturbation theory near the ground state of the model, and identify the oscillation frequency as the quasiparticle mass. With this quasiparticle picture, we can then address the long-time behavior of the oscillations.

  12. Quasiparticle transport properties of mesoscopic wires containing normal-metal/superconductor/normal-metal proximity junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam; Kim, Kijoon; Lee, Hu Jong; Lee, Seongjae; Yuk, Jong Seol; Park, Kyoung Wan; Lee, El Hang

    1997-01-01

    We measured the differential resistance dV/dI of mesoscopic normal-metal/superconductor/normal-metal (N-S-N) junctions. At low temperatures (T PbIn /e, where Δ PbIn is the gap energy of superconducting Pb-In, and at a higher bias V c . The zero-bias dip is supposed to originate from Andreev reflections of quasiparticles and the peak near 2Δ PbIn /e from the formation of a standing-wave mode of quasiparticles inside the superconducting potential barrier. We attribute the peaks at V c to a transition of the superconducting region to the normal state as the current exceeds the critical current I c of S

  13. Strongly correlated Fermi-systems: Non-Fermi liquid behavior, quasiparticle effective mass and their interplay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, Syktyvkar 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Basing on the density functional theory of fermion condensation, we analyze the non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi-systems such as heavy-fermion metals. When deriving equations for the effective mass of quasiparticles, we consider solids with a lattice and homogeneous systems. We show that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties are formed by quasiparticles, while the dependence of the effective mass on temperature, number density, magnetic fields, etc., gives rise to the non-Fermi liquid behavior. Our theoretical study of the heat capacity, magnetization, energy scales, the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetic entropy are in good agreement with the remarkable recent facts collected on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.

  14. Strongly correlated Fermi-systems: Non-Fermi liquid behavior, quasiparticle effective mass and their interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, V.R.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Popov, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Basing on the density functional theory of fermion condensation, we analyze the non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi-systems such as heavy-fermion metals. When deriving equations for the effective mass of quasiparticles, we consider solids with a lattice and homogeneous systems. We show that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties are formed by quasiparticles, while the dependence of the effective mass on temperature, number density, magnetic fields, etc., gives rise to the non-Fermi liquid behavior. Our theoretical study of the heat capacity, magnetization, energy scales, the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetic entropy are in good agreement with the remarkable recent facts collected on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh 2 Si 2 .

  15. Three- and five-quasiparticle isomers, rotational bands and residual interactions in 175Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Walker, P.M.

    1980-03-01

    Two 3-quasiparticle isomers with spins, parities and half lives of 19/2 + , 1.1 μ and 23/2 - , 1.2 ns have been identified at 1433 and 1766 keV in 175 Hf. A third isomer possibly 35/2 - with a 1.2 μs half-life is found at 3015 keV. The first two are characterised as a 7/2 + (633) neutron coupled to the known 6 + and 8 - 2-proton isomers of the core nuclei. Rotational bands based on the 3-qp isomers are highly perturbed, due to Coriolis mixing, and their structure is reproduced in a band mixing calculation. The energy depression of the 3-quasiparticle states relative to the 2-quasiproton core states is attributed mainly to the residual proton-neutron interaction, and possibly also to blocking effects through neutron admixtures

  16. Quasiparticle Diffusion in Al Films Coupled to Tungsten Transition Edge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Cabrera, B.; Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Moffatt, R.; Pyle, M.; Redl, P.; Tomada, A.; Tortorici, E. C.

    2014-08-01

    We report recent results obtained from several W/Al test devices on Si wafers fabricated specifically to better understand energy collection in phonon sensors used for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. The devices under study consist of three different lengths of 250 m-wide by 300 nm-thick Al absorber films, coupled to 250 m x 250 m (40 nm thick) W-TESs at each end of the Al film. An Fe source was used to excite a NaCl reflector producing 2.6 keV Cl X-rays that were absorbed in our test device after passing through a collimator. The impinging X-rays broke Cooper pairs in the Al film, producing quasiparticles that we detected after they propagated into the W-TESs. We studied the diffusion of these quasiparticles in the Al, trapping effects in the Al film, and energy transmission at the Al/W interfaces.

  17. Quasiparticle properties of DNA bases from GW calculations in a Wannier basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaofeng; Marzari, Nicola; Umari, Paolo

    2009-03-01

    The quasiparticle GW-Wannier (GWW) approach [1] has been recently developed to overcome the size limitations of conventional planewave GW calculations. By taking advantage of the localization properties of the maximally-localized Wannier functions and choosing a small set of polarization basis we reduce the number of Bloch wavefunctions products required for the evaluation of dynamical polarizabilities, and in turn greatly reduce memory requirements and computational efficiency. We apply GWW to study quasiparticle properties of different DNA bases and base-pairs, and solvation effects on the energy gap, demonstrating in the process the key advantages of this approach. [1] P. Umari,G. Stenuit, and S. Baroni, cond-mat/0811.1453

  18. Inflationary Quasiparticle Creation and Thermalization Dynamics in Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann

    2016-06-01

    A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.

  19. Relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculation of total muon capture rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketin, T.; Paar, N.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-RQRPA) is applied in the calculation of total muon capture rates on a large set of nuclei from 12 C to 244 Pu, for which experimental values are available. The microscopic theoretical framework is based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model for the nuclear ground state, and transitions to excited states are calculated using the pn-RQRPA. The calculation is fully consistent, i.e., the same interactions are used both in the RHB equations that determine the quasiparticle basis, and in the matrix equations of the pn-RQRPA. The calculated capture rates are sensitive to the in-medium quenching of the axial-vector coupling constant. By reducing this constant from its free-nucleon value g A =1.262 by 10% for all multipole transitions, the calculation reproduces the experimental muon capture rates to better than 10% accuracy.

  20. Effects of quasiparticle tunnelling in a circuit-QED realization of a strongly driven two-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppäkangas, J; De Graaf, S E; Adamyan, A; Fogelström, M; Danilov, A V; Kubatkin, S E; Johansson, G; Lindström, T

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally and theoretically study the frequency shift of a driven cavity coupled to a superconducting charge qubit. In addition to previous studies, here we also consider drive strengths large enough to energetically allow for quasiparticle creation. Quasiparticle tunnelling leads to the inclusion of more than two charge states in the dynamics. To explain the observed effects, we develop a master equation for the microwave dressed charge states, including quasiparticle tunnelling. A bimodal behaviour of the frequency shift as a function of gate voltage can be used for sensitive charge detection. However, at weak drives, the charge sensitivity is significantly reduced by nonequilibrium quasiparticles, which induce transitions to a non-sensitive state. Unexpectedly, at high-enough drives, the quasiparticle tunnelling enables a very fast relaxation channel to the sensitive state. In this regime, the charge sensitivity is thus robust against externally injected quasiparticles and the desired dynamics prevail over a broad range of temperatures. We find very good agreement between the theory and experiment over a wide range of drive strengths and temperatures. (paper)

  1. Introduction to linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  2. Alignments of multi-quasiparticle bands and seniority-dependent reduced pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.

    1994-09-01

    Pairing correlations in multi-quasiparticle states in deformed nuclei are expected to be reduced because of blocking. New intrinsic states and their associated rotational bands have been identified allowing comparisons to be made as a function of seniority and between nuclei. The possible effects of the reduced pairing on the collective rotation, and its manifestation in terms of alignment, are discussed. 13 refs., 2 figs

  3. Self-consistent quasi-particle RPA for the description of superfluid Fermi systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rahbi, A; Chanfray, G; Schuck, P

    2002-01-01

    Self-Consistent Quasi-Particle RPA (SCQRPA) is for the first time applied to a more level pairing case. Various filling situation and values for the coupling constant are considered. Very encouraging results in comparison with the exact solution of the model are obtaining. The nature of the low lying mode in SCQRPA is identified. The strong reduction of the number fluctuation in SCQRPA vs BCS is pointed out. The transition from superfluidity to the normal fluid case is carefully investigated.

  4. Rapid enhancement of nodal quasiparticle mass with heavily underdoping in Bi2212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Hiroaki; Arita, Masashi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Ino, Akihiro

    2018-05-01

    We report substantial advance of our low-energy angle-resolved photoemission study of nodal quasiparticles in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The new data cover the samples from underdoped down to heavily underdoped levels. We also present the nodal Fermi velocities that determined by using an excitation-photon energy of hν = 7.0 eV over a wide doping range. The consistency between the results with hν = 8.1 and 7.0 eV allows us to rule out the effect of photoemission matrix elements. In comparison with the data previously reported, the nodal effective mass increases by a factor of ∼ 1.5 in going from optimally doped to heavily underdoped levels. We find a rapid enhancement of the nodal quasiparticle mass at low doping levels near the superconductor-to-insulator transition. The effective coupling spectrum, λ (ω) , is extracted directly from the energy derivatives of the quasiparticle dispersion and scattering rate, as a causal function of the mass enhancement factor. A steplike increase in Reλ (ω) around ∼ 65 meV is demonstrated clearly by the Kramers-Kronig transform of Imλ (ω) . To extract the low-energy renormalization effect, we calculated a simple model for the electron-boson interaction. This model reveals that the contribution of the renormalization at | ω | ≤ 15 meV to the quasiparticle mass is larger than that around 65 meV in underdoped samples.

  5. Emergence of the bcc Phase and Phase Transition in Be through Phonon Quasiparticle Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D. B., Sr.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Beryllium (Be) is an important material with applications in a number of areas ranging from aerospace components to X-ray equipment. Yet a precise understanding of the phase diagram of Be remains elusive. We have investigated the phase stability of Be using a recently developed hybrid free energy computation method that accounts for anharmonic effects by invoking phonon quasiparticle properties. We find that the hcp to bcc transition occurs near the melting curve at 0

  6. Account of the Pauli principle in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Kh.L.

    1980-01-01

    The correlation effects in the ground states of even-even deformed nuclei on their one- and two-phonon states are studied in terms of the semimicroscopic nuclear theory. A secular equation for one-phonon excitations is derived, which take into account, in average, exact commutation relations between quasiparticle operators. It is demonstrated, that the account of the correlation in the ground state can significantly influence the values of the wave function two-phonon components

  7. Calculating beta decay in the deformed self-consistent quasiparticle random phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Jonathan, E-mail: engelj@physics.unc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Mustonen, M. T., E-mail: mika.mustonen@yale.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06052 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    We discuss a recent global calculation of beta-decay rates in the self-consistent Skyrme quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), with axially symmetric nuclear deformation treated explicitly. The calculation makes makes use of the finite-amplitude method, first proposed by Nakatsukasa and collaborators, to reduce computation time. The results are comparable in quality to those of several other global QRPA calculations. The QRPA may have reached the limit of its accuracy.

  8. Critical quasiparticle theory applied to heavy fermion metals near an antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Elihu; Wölfle, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We use the recently developed critical quasiparticle theory to derive the scaling behavior associated with a quantum critical point in a correlated metal. This is applied to the magnetic-field induced quantum critical point observed in YbRh2Si2, for which we also derive the critical behavior of the specific heat, resistivity, thermopower, magnetization and susceptibility, the Grüneisen coefficient, and the thermal expansion coefficient. The theory accounts very well for the available experimental results. PMID:22331893

  9. Anomalous Quasiparticle Symmetries and Non-Abelian Defects on Symmetrically Gapped Surfaces of Weak Topological Insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mross, David F; Essin, Andrew; Alicea, Jason; Stern, Ady

    2016-01-22

    We show that boundaries of 3D weak topological insulators can become gapped by strong interactions while preserving all symmetries, leading to Abelian surface topological order. The anomalous nature of weak topological insulator surfaces manifests itself in a nontrivial action of symmetries on the quasiparticles; most strikingly, translations change the anyon types in a manner impossible in strictly 2D systems with the same symmetry. As a further consequence, screw dislocations form non-Abelian defects that trap Z_{4} parafermion zero modes.

  10. Mesoscopic conductance fluctuations in high-T{sub c} grain boundary Josephson junctions: Coherent quasiparticle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafuri, F. [Dip. Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81031 Aversa (Italy); CNR-INFM Coherentia, Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: tafuri@na.infn.it; Tagliacozzo, A.; Born, D.; Stornaiuolo, D. [CNR-INFM Coherentia, Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Gambale, E.; Dalena, D. [Dip. Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Lombardi, F. [Department of Microelectronics and Nanoscience, MINA, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-09-01

    Magneto-fluctuations of the normal resistance R{sub N} have been reproducibly observed in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (HTS) biepitaxial grain boundary junctions at low temperatures. We attribute them to mesoscopic transport in narrow channels across the grain boundary line. The Thouless energy appears to be the relevant energy scale. Possible implications on the understanding of coherent transport of quasiparticles in HTS and of the dissipation mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Nonequilibrium states of high tc YBCO superconductors under tunnel injection of quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, I.; Wang, Q.; Lee, K.; Yoshida, K.

    1995-01-01

    The nonequilibrium states of high Tc superconductors are investigated by means of tunnel injection of quasiparticles using Pb(or Au)/MgO/YBCO tunnel junctions. The effective critical-current reduction due to tunnel injection is observed, whose behaviour is different from simple heating. The observed results suggest that the resultant nonequilibrium states may also differ from those described by conventional nonequilibrium models

  12. Quasi-particles and effective mean field in strongly interacting matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levai, P.; Ko, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a quasi-particle model of strongly interacting quark-gluon matter and explore the possible connection to an effective field theoretical description consisting of a scalar σ field by introducing a dynamically generated mass, M(σ), and a self-consistently determined interaction term, B(σ). We display a possible connection between the two types of effective description, using the Friedberg-Lee model.

  13. Neutrino-nucleus reaction rates based on the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Marketin, T.; Ring, P.

    2008-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus cross sections are described in a novel theoretical framework where the weak interaction of leptons with hadrons is expressed in the standard current-current form, the nuclear ground state is described in the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model, and the relevant transitions to excited states are calculated in the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation. The model is employed in studies of neutrino-nucleus reactions in several test cases

  14. Effect of quasiparticles on interlayer transport in highly anisotropic layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemenko, S.N.; Bulaevskii, L.N.; Maley, M.P.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    We have performed a microscopic calculation of the dielectric response function in highly anisotropic layered superconductors and used the developed approach to obtain the frequency-dependent London penetration length and conductivity in the case of d-wave pairing for currents perpendicular to the layers. We consider a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling of electrons and take into account contributions from both superconducting electrons and quasiparticles to the dielectric response. We show that quasiparticles change the low-temperature behavior of the penetration length in the intermediate frequency range where the frequency is smaller than the superconducting order parameter but larger than the inverse quasiparticle scattering time. The obtained results are used to describe the low-temperature behavior of the Josephson plasma resonance, in particular the temperature dependence of the resonance frequency and the resonance linewidth in zero external magnetic field. We compare our results with the available experimental data for Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6 and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi-2212) and show that results of a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling for the dc c-axis resistivity in the superconducting state are inconsistent with experimental data for underdoped and optimally doped Bi-2212 crystals. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Equation of motion method to describe quasiparticle structures in transitional and deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenau, F.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the experimental techniques will supply one with more and more complete level schemes and transition matrix elements. This is a great challenge for the theorists to put the right questions and to work out the models accordingly. In this respect the method of equation of motion (EQM) seems to be a sulitable approach the inherent possibilities of which are yet not fully explored. The EQM is sketched for the case of one-quasiparticle (1qp) excitation in odd-mass nuclei. The coupling of a particle to the quasrupole and pair field is treated using the IBA for the collective degrees of freedom. Physical implications are shortly discussed. The selfconsistent aspects of the theory are considered. A perturbational treatment is proposed to construct the physical subspace that is necessary to perform selfconsistent calculations of the collective core energies. The EQM is formulated for the two-quasiparticle (2qp) excitations in transitional nuclei inclusive the coupling to the collective excitations (0 qp space). EQM can be widely applied to describe the complicated interplay between collective degrees of freedom and quasiparticle configurations are concluded

  16. Two energy scales and two quasiparticle dynamics in the superconducting state of under-doped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Tacon, M.; Sacuto, A. [Paris-7 Univ., Lab. Mat riaux et Ph nom nes Quantiques (UMR 7162 CNRS), 75 (France); Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, ESPCI, 75 - Paris (France); Georges, A. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Kotliar, G. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Rutgers Univ., Serin Physics Lab. (United States); Gallais, Y. [Columbia Univ. New York, Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics, NY (United States); Colson, D.; Forget, A. [CEA Saclay, Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    The superconducting state of under-doped cuprates is often described in terms of a single energy scale, associated with the maximum of the (d-wave) gap. Here, we report on electronic Raman scattering results, which show that the gap function in the under-doped regime is characterized by two energy scales, depending on doping in opposite manners. Their ratios to the maximum critical temperature are found to be universal in cuprates. Our experimental results also reveal two different quasiparticle dynamics in the under-doped superconducting state, associated with two regions of momentum space: nodal regions near the zeros of the gap and anti-nodal regions. While anti-nodal quasiparticles quickly loose coherence as doping is reduced, coherent nodal quasiparticles persist down to low doping levels. A theoretical analysis using a new sum-rule allows us to relate the low-frequency-dependence of the Raman response to the temperature-dependence of the superfluid density, both controlled by nodal excitations. (authors)

  17. Nuclear response theory for spin-isospin excitations in a relativistic quasiparticle-phonon coupling framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, Caroline; Litvinova, Elena [Western Michigan University, Department of Physics, Kalamazoo, MI (United States)

    2016-07-15

    A new theoretical approach to spin-isospin excitations in open-shell nuclei is presented. The developed method is based on the relativistic meson-exchange nuclear Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics and extends the response theory for superfluid nuclear systems beyond relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in the proton-neutron channel (pn-RQRPA). The coupling between quasiparticle degrees of freedom and collective vibrations (phonons) introduces a time-dependent effective interaction, in addition to the exchange of pion and ρ-meson taken into account without retardation. The time-dependent contributions are treated in the resonant time-blocking approximation, in analogy to the previously developed relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the neutral (non-isospin-flip) channel. The new method is called proton-neutron RQTBA (pn-RQTBA) and is applied to the Gamow-Teller resonance in a chain of neutron-rich nickel isotopes {sup 68-78}Ni. A strong fragmentation of the resonance along with quenching of the strength, as compared to pn-RQRPA, is obtained. Based on the calculated strength distribution, beta-decay half-lives of the considered isotopes are computed and compared to pn-RQRPA half-lives and to experimental data. It is shown that a considerable improvement of the half-life description is obtained in pn-RQTBA because of the spreading effects, which bring the lifetimes to a very good quantitative agreement with data. (orig.)

  18. Probing the unconventional superconducting state of LiFeAs by quasiparticle interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänke, Torben; Sykora, Steffen; Schlegel, Ronny; Baumann, Danny; Harnagea, Luminita; Wurmehl, Sabine; Daghofer, Maria; Büchner, Bernd; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hess, Christian

    2012-03-23

    A crucial step in revealing the nature of unconventional superconductivity is to investigate the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy has proven a powerful technique to probe this symmetry by measuring the quasiparticle interference (QPI) which sensitively depends on the superconducting pairing mechanism. A particularly well-suited material to apply this technique is the stoichiometric superconductor LiFeAs as it features clean, charge neutral cleaved surfaces without surface states and a relatively high T(c)∼18  K. Our data reveal that in LiFeAs the quasiparticle scattering is governed by a van Hove singularity at the center of the Brillouin zone which is in stark contrast to other pnictide superconductors where nesting is crucial for both scattering and s(±) superconductivity. Indeed, within a minimal model and using the most elementary order parameters, calculations of the QPI suggest a dominating role of the holelike bands for the quasiparticle scattering. Our theoretical findings do not support the elementary singlet pairing symmetries s(++), s(±), and d wave. This brings to mind that the superconducting pairing mechanism in LiFeAs is based on an unusual pairing symmetry such as an elementary p wave (which provides optimal agreement between the experimental data and QPI simulations) or a more complex order parameter (e.g., s+id wave symmetry).

  19. Decay and Fission Hindrance of Two- and Four-Quasiparticle K Isomers in ^{254}Rf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H M; Chen, J; Seweryniak, D; Kondev, F G; Gates, J M; Gregorich, K E; Ahmad, I; Albers, M; Alcorta, M; Back, B B; Baartman, B; Bertone, P F; Bernstein, L A; Campbell, C M; Carpenter, M P; Chiara, C J; Clark, R M; Cromaz, M; Doherty, D T; Dracoulis, G D; Esker, N E; Fallon, P; Gothe, O R; Greene, J P; Greenlees, P T; Hartley, D J; Hauschild, K; Hoffman, C R; Hota, S S; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Konki, J; Kwarsick, J T; Lauritsen, T; Macchiavelli, A O; Mudder, P R; Nair, C; Qiu, Y; Rissanen, J; Rogers, A M; Ruotsalainen, P; Savard, G; Stolze, S; Wiens, A; Zhu, S

    2015-09-25

    Two isomers decaying by electromagnetic transitions with half-lives of 4.7(1.1) and 247(73) μs have been discovered in the heavy ^{254}Rf nucleus. The observation of the shorter-lived isomer was made possible by a novel application of a digital data acquisition system. The isomers were interpreted as the K^{π}=8^{-}, ν^{2}(7/2^{+}[624],9/2^{-}[734]) two-quasineutron and the K^{π}=16^{+}, 8^{-}ν^{2}(7/2^{+}[624],9/2^{-}[734])⊗8^{-}π^{2}(7/2^{-}[514],9/2^{+}[624]) four-quasiparticle configurations, respectively. Surprisingly, the lifetime of the two-quasiparticle isomer is more than 4 orders of magnitude shorter than what has been observed for analogous isomers in the lighter N=150 isotones. The four-quasiparticle isomer is longer lived than the ^{254}Rf ground state that decays exclusively by spontaneous fission with a half-life of 23.2(1.1) μs. The absence of sizable fission branches from either of the isomers implies unprecedented fission hindrance relative to the ground state.

  20. Quasiparticle band structure of rocksalt-CdO determined using maximally localized Wannier functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, H; Lamoen, D; Partoens, B

    2013-01-23

    CdO in the rocksalt structure is an indirect band gap semiconductor. Thus, in order to determine its band gap one needs to calculate the complete band structure. However, in practice, the exact evaluation of the quasiparticle band structure for the large number of k-points which constitute the different symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone can be an extremely demanding task compared to the standard density functional theory (DFT) calculation. In this paper we report the full quasiparticle band structure of CdO using a plane-wave pseudopotential approach. In order to reduce the computational effort and time, we make use of maximally localized Wannier functions (MLWFs). The MLWFs offer a highly accurate method for interpolation of the DFT or GW band structure from a coarse k-point mesh in the irreducible Brillouin zone, resulting in a much reduced computational effort. The present paper discusses the technical details of the scheme along with the results obtained for the quasiparticle band gap and the electron effective mass.

  1. Revisiting the quasi-particle model of the quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannur, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    The quasi-particle model of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is revisited here with a new method, different from earlier studies, one without the need of a temperature dependent bag constant and other effects such as confinement, effective degrees of freedom etc. Our model has only one system dependent parameter and shows a surprisingly good fit to the lattice results for the gluon plasma, and for 2-flavor, 3-flavor and (2+1)-flavor QGP. The basic idea is first to evaluate the energy density ε from the grand partition function of quasi-particle QGP, and then derive all other thermodynamic functions from ε. Quasi-particles are assumed to have a temperature dependent mass equal to the plasma frequency. Energy density, pressure and speed of sound at zero chemical potential are evaluated and compared with the available lattice data. We further extend the model to a finite chemical potential, without any new parameters, to obtain the quark density, quark susceptibility etc., and the model fits very well with the lattice results on 2-flavor QGP. (orig.)

  2. Quasi-particles ultrafastly releasing kink bosons to form Fermi arcs in a cuprate superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Y; Saitoh, T; Mochiku, T; Nakane, T; Hirata, K; Shin, S

    2016-01-05

    In a conventional framework, superconductivity is lost at a critical temperature (Tc) because, at higher temperatures, gluing bosons can no longer bind two electrons into a Cooper pair. In high-Tc cuprates, it is still unknown how superconductivity vanishes at Tc. We provide evidence that the so-called ≲ 70-meV kink bosons that dress the quasi-particle excitations are playing a key role in the loss of superconductivity in a cuprate. We irradiated a 170-fs laser pulse on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) and monitored the responses of the superconducting gap and dressed quasi-particles by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observe an ultrafast loss of superconducting gap near the d-wave node, or light-induced Fermi arcs, which is accompanied by spectral broadenings and weight redistributions occurring within the kink binding energy. We discuss that the underlying mechanism of the spectral broadening that induce the Fermi arc is the undressing of quasi-particles from the kink bosons. The loss mechanism is beyond the conventional framework, and can accept the unconventional phenomena such as the signatures of Cooper pairs remaining at temperatures above Tc.

  3. Effect of spontaneous decay of superconductor quasiparticles in the tunneling density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D.

    1993-01-01

    Superconductivity has been successfully described with either the Landau-Ginzburg theory of second order phase transitions or with strong-coupling versions of the original BCS theory for almost fifty years. Recent tunneling and photoemission data on the cuprate oxide superconductors may now provide evidence of corrections to the mean field approximation. It has been shown by Zasadzinski et al. that there is a dip at eV ≅ 3Δ 0 in the SIS tunneling conductance, which is the derivative of the current across a superconductor-insulator-superconductor junction with respect to the applied voltage, for a set of cuprate superconductors whose T c 's range from 5.5K to 100K. Recently L. Coffey and I proposed an explanation of this feature in terms of the spontaneous decay of mean field quasiparticles. We showed that corrections to the mean field approximation for a superconductor lead to different frequency thresholds for spontaneous quasiparticle decay with different superconductor order parameter symmetries. These effects lead to features in the superconductor density of states and in the SIS tunneling conductance and provide experimental evidence of d-wave symmetry for the superconductor order parameter in the cuprates. I discuss model and also evidence of quasiparticle decay in ARPES data on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8

  4. Localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in interacting Bose gases with correlated disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugan, P.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the Anderson localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles (elementary many-body excitations) in a weakly interacting Bose gas of chemical potential μ subjected to a disordered potential V. We introduce a general mapping (valid for weak inhomogeneous potentials in any dimension) of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations onto a single-particle Schroedinger-like equation with an effective potential. For disordered potentials, the Schroedinger-like equation accounts for the scattering and localization properties of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles. We derive analytically the localization lengths for correlated disordered potentials in the one-dimensional geometry. Our approach relies on a perturbative expansion in V/μ, which we develop up to third order, and we discuss the impact of the various perturbation orders. Our predictions are shown to be in very good agreement with direct numerical calculations. We identify different localization regimes: For low energy, the effective disordered potential exhibits a strong screening by the quasicondensate density background, and localization is suppressed. For high-energy excitations, the effective disordered potential reduces to the bare disordered potential, and the localization properties of quasiparticles are the same as for free particles. The maximum of localization is found at intermediate energy when the quasicondensate healing length is of the order of the disorder correlation length. Possible extensions of our work to higher dimensions are also discussed.

  5. Magnetic oscillations and quasiparticle band structure in the mixed state of type-II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M.R.; MacDonald, A.H.; Akera, H.

    1995-01-01

    We consider magnetic oscillations due to Landau quantization in the mixed state of type-II superconductors. Our work is based on a previously developed formalism which allows the mean-field gap equations of the Abrikosov state to be conveniently solved in a Landau-level representation. We find that the quasiparticle band structure changes qualitatively when the pairing self-energy becomes comparable to the Landau-level separation. For small pairing self-energies, Landau-level mixing due to the superconducting order is weak and magnetic oscillations survive in the superconducting state although they are damped. We find that the width of the quasiparticle Landau levels in this regime varies approximately as Δ 0 n μ -1/4 where Δ 0 is proportional to the magnitude of the order parameter and n μ is the Landau-level index at the Fermi energy. For larger pairing self-energies, the lowest energy quasiparticle bands occur in pairs which are nearly equally spaced from each other and evolve with weakening magnetic field toward the bound states of an isolated vortex core. These bands have a weak magnetic field dependence and magnetic oscillations vanish rapidly in this regime. We discuss recent observations of the de Haas--van Alphen effect in the mixed state of several type-II superconductors in light of our results

  6. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  7. Hyperbolic conservation laws in continuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, Constantine M

    2016-01-01

    This is a masterly exposition and an encyclopedic presentation of the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. It illustrates the essential role of continuum thermodynamics in providing motivation and direction for the development of the mathematical theory while also serving as the principal source of applications. The reader is expected to have a certain mathematical sophistication and to be familiar with (at least) the rudiments of analysis and the qualitative theory of partial differential equations, whereas prior exposure to continuum physics is not required. The target group of readers would consist of (a) experts in the mathematical theory of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws who wish to learn about the connection with classical physics; (b) specialists in continuum mechanics who may need analytical tools; (c) experts in numerical analysis who wish to learn the underlying mathematical theory; and (d) analysts and graduate students who seek introduction to the theory of hyperbolic systems of conser...

  8. Lattice gravity near the continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, G.; Friedberg, R.; Lee, T.D.; Ren, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    We prove that the lattice gravity always approaches the usual continuum limit when the link length l -> 0, provided that certain general boundary conditions are satisfied. This result holds for any lattice, regular or irregular. Furthermore, for a given lattice, the deviation from its continuum limit can be expressed as a power series in l 2 . General formulas for such a perturbative calculation are given, together with a number of illustrative examples, including the graviton propagator. The lattice gravity satisfies all the invariance properties of Einstein's theory of general relativity. In addition, it is symmetric under a new class of transformations that are absent in the usual continuum theory. The possibility that the lattice theory (with a nonzero l) may be more fundamental is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Microscopic theory of linear and nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Johannes

    2008-12-09

    This Thesis presents a fully microscopic theory to describe terahertz (THz)-induced processes in optically-excited semiconductors. The formation process of excitons and other quasi-particles after optical excitation has been studied in great detail for a variety of conditions. Here, the formation process is not modelled but a realistic initial many-body state is assumed. In particular, the linear THz response is reviewed and it is demonstrated that correlated quasi-particles such as excitons and plasmons can be unambiguously detected via THz spectroscopy. The focus of the investigations, however, is on situations where the optically-excited many-body state is excited by intense THz fields. While weak pulses detect the many-body state, strong THz pulses control and manipulate the quasi-particles in a way that is not accessible via conventional techniques. The nonlinear THz dynamics of exciton populations is especially interesting because similarities and differences to optics with atomic systems can be studied. (orig.)

  10. Continuum gauge fields from lattice gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Schierholz, G.; Wiese, U.J.

    1993-01-01

    On the lattice some of the salient features of pure gauge theories and of gauge theories with fermions in complex representations of the gauge group seem to be lost. These features can be recovered by considering part of the theory in the continuum. The prerequisite for that is the construction of continuum gauge fields from lattice gauge fields. Such a construction, which is gauge covariant and complies with geometrical constructions of the topological charge on the lattice, is given in this paper. The procedure is explicitly carried out in the U(1) theory in two dimensions, where it leads to simple results. (orig.)

  11. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  12. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  13. Adaptive spacetime method using Riemann jump conditions for coupled atomistic-continuum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraczek, B.; Miller, S.T.; Haber, R.B.; Johnson, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    We combine the Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin (SDG) method for elastodynamics with the mathematically consistent Atomistic Discontinuous Galerkin (ADG) method in a new scheme that concurrently couples continuum and atomistic models of dynamic response in solids. The formulation couples non-overlapping continuum and atomistic models across sharp interfaces by weakly enforcing jump conditions, for both momentum balance and kinematic compatibility, using Riemann values to preserve the characteristic structure of the underlying hyperbolic system. Momentum balances to within machine-precision accuracy over every element, on each atom, and over the coupled system, with small, controllable energy dissipation in the continuum region that ensures numerical stability. When implemented on suitable unstructured spacetime grids, the continuum SDG model offers linear computational complexity in the number of elements and powerful adaptive analysis capabilities that readily bridge between atomic and continuum scales in both space and time. A special trace operator for the atomic velocities and an associated atomistic traction field enter the jump conditions at the coupling interface. The trace operator depends on parameters that specify, at the scale of the atomic spacing, the position of the coupling interface relative to the atoms. In a key finding, we demonstrate that optimizing these parameters suppresses spurious reflections at the coupling interface without the use of non-physical damping or special boundary conditions. We formulate the implicit SDG-ADG coupling scheme in up to three spatial dimensions, and describe an efficient iterative solution scheme that outperforms common explicit schemes, such as the Velocity Verlet integrator. Numerical examples, in 1dxtime and employing both linear and nonlinear potentials, demonstrate the performance of the SDG-ADG method and show how adaptive spacetime meshing reconciles disparate time steps and resolves atomic-scale signals in

  14. Anomalous vibrational properties in the continuum limit of glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masanari; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Ikeda, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The low-temperature thermal properties of glasses are anomalous with respect to those of crystals. These thermal anomalies indicate that the low-frequency vibrational properties of glasses differ from those of crystals. Recent studies revealed that, in the simplest model of glasses, i.e., the harmonic potential system, phonon modes coexist with soft localized modes in the low-frequency (continuum) limit. However, the nature of low-frequency vibrational modes of more realistic models is still controversial. In the present work, we study the Lennard-Jones (LJ) system using large-scale molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation and establish that the vibrational property of the LJ glass converges to coexistence of the phonon modes and the soft localized modes in the continuum limit as in the case of the harmonic potential system. Importantly, we find that the low-frequency vibrations are rather sensitive to the numerical scheme of potential truncation, which is usually implemented in the MD simulation, and this is the reason why contradictory arguments have been reported by previous works. We also discuss the physical origin of this sensitiveness by means of a linear stability analysis.

  15. Vibrational quasi-continuum in unimolecular multiphoton dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Fernandez, P.; Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    The vibrational quasi-continuum of the boron trifluoride molecule has been qualitatively studied and the formalism extended to treat N-normal-mode molecules. The anharmonic potential curves for the BF/sub 3/ normal modes have been calculated, and the computed anharmonicity constants have been tested against the fundamental frequencies. The potential curve of the wagging mode has been simulated by an internal rotation of one of the fluoride atoms. The vibrational-energy levels and wave functions have been calculated applying second-order perturbation theory. The quasi-continuum energy levels of BF/sub 3/ have been obtained by means of a method based in forming adequate linear combinations of wave functions belonging to the N-1 modes resulting from removing the i.r.-active mode;the associated energies have been minimized using a constrained minimization procedure. It has been found that the energy pattern of the N-1 vibrational modes possesses an energy density high enough for constituting a vibrational heat bath and, finally, it has been verified that the ''fictitious'' pattern of the active mode is included in the pattern of the N-1 modes.

  16. Morphing continuum theory for turbulence: Theory, computation, and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James

    2017-10-01

    A high order morphing continuum theory (MCT) is introduced to model highly compressible turbulence. The theory is formulated under the rigorous framework of rational continuum mechanics. A set of linear constitutive equations and balance laws are deduced and presented from the Coleman-Noll procedure and Onsager's reciprocal relations. The governing equations are then arranged in conservation form and solved through the finite volume method with a second-order Lax-Friedrichs scheme for shock preservation. A numerical example of transonic flow over a three-dimensional bump is presented using MCT and the finite volume method. The comparison shows that MCT-based direct numerical simulation (DNS) provides a better prediction than Navier-Stokes (NS)-based DNS with less than 10% of the mesh number when compared with experiments. A MCT-based and frame-indifferent Q criterion is also derived to show the coherent eddy structure of the downstream turbulence in the numerical example. It should be emphasized that unlike the NS-based Q criterion, the MCT-based Q criterion is objective without the limitation of Galilean invariance.

  17. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  18. Reproducing the nonlinear dynamic behavior of a structured beam with a generalized continuum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, J.; Fernández-Sáez, J.; Zaera, R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we study the coupled axial-transverse nonlinear vibrations of a kind of one dimensional structured solids by application of the so called Inertia Gradient Nonlinear continuum model. To show the accuracy of this axiomatic model, previously proposed by the authors, its predictions are compared with numeric results from a previously defined finite discrete chain of lumped masses and springs, for several number of particles. A continualization of the discrete model equations based on Taylor series allowed us to set equivalent values of the mechanical properties in both discrete and axiomatic continuum models. Contrary to the classical continuum model, the inertia gradient nonlinear continuum model used herein is able to capture scale effects, which arise for modes in which the wavelength is comparable to the characteristic distance of the structured solid. The main conclusion of the work is that the proposed generalized continuum model captures the scale effects in both linear and nonlinear regimes, reproducing the behavior of the 1D nonlinear discrete model adequately.

  19. Dynamical corrections to density-functional theory for quasiparticles in ferromagnetic 4f systems. I. T = 0 results for EuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolting, W.; Borstel, G.; Borgiel, W.

    1987-01-01

    A theory for the electronic quasiparticle spectrum of ferromagnetic 4f systems is presented and applied to the semiconductor EuO. The starting point is a d-f exchange model, which we solve exactly for T = 0. One of the results is a simple relationship between the spin-up quasiparticle energies and the ''free'' Bloch energies epsilon-c/sub m/(k), which we use to fix the epsilon-c/sub m/(k) in a highly realistic manner by performing a new self-consistent spin-polarized band-structure calculation based on density-functional theory. With the so-determined Bloch energies we investigate the spin-down quasiparticle spectrum, which exhibits even at T = 0 strong many-body effects as a consequence of spin-exchange processes between localized magnetic 4f moments and itinerant conduction electrons. We discuss in detail the spin-down quasiparticle spectral density for the ΓL direction, which should be observable in an inverse photoemission experiment. The shape of this function is strongly k dependent, revealing different types of quasiparticles. The prominent quasiparticle peaks in the spin-down quasiparticle spectral density are used to construct a quasiparticle band structure, which shows some striking deviations from the one-particle solution of the density-functional theory. Furthermore, results for the electronic self-energy and the quasiparticle density of states are presented

  20. Measurement of filling factor 5/2 quasiparticle interference with observation of charge e/4 and e/2 period oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, R L; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W

    2009-06-02

    A standing problem in low-dimensional electron systems is the nature of the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state: Its elementary excitations are a focus for both elucidating the state's properties and as candidates in methods to perform topological quantum computation. Interferometric devices may be used to manipulate and measure quantum Hall edge excitations. Here we use a small-area edge state interferometer designed to observe quasiparticle interference effects. Oscillations consistent in detail with the Aharonov-Bohm effect are observed for integer quantum Hall and FQH states (filling factors nu = 2, 5/3, and 7/3) with periods corresponding to their respective charges and magnetic field positions. With these factors as charge calibrations, periodic transmission through the device consistent with quasiparticle charge e/4 is observed at nu = 5/2 and at lowest temperatures. The principal finding of this work is that, in addition to these e/4 oscillations, periodic structures corresponding to e/2 are also observed at 5/2 nu and at lowest temperatures. Properties of the e/4 and e/2 oscillations are examined with the device sensitivity sufficient to observe temperature evolution of the 5/2 quasiparticle interference. In the model of quasiparticle interference, this presence of an effective e/2 period may empirically reflect an e/2 quasiparticle charge or may reflect multiple passes of the e/4 quasiparticle around the interferometer. These results are discussed within a picture of e/4 quasiparticle excitations potentially possessing non-Abelian statistics. These studies demonstrate the capacity to perform interferometry on 5/2 excitations and reveal properties important for understanding this state and its excitations.

  1. A general numerical analysis program for the superconducting quasiparticle mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R. G.; Feldman, M. J.; Kerr, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    A user-oriented computer program SISCAP (SIS Computer Analysis Program) for analyzing SIS mixers is described. The program allows arbitrary impedance terminations to be specified at all LO harmonics and sideband frequencies. It is therefore able to treat a much more general class of SIS mixers than the widely used three-frequency analysis, for which the harmonics are assumed to be short-circuited. An additional program, GETCHI, provides the necessary input data to program SISCAP. The SISCAP program performs a nonlinear analysis to determine the SIS junction voltage waveform produced by the local oscillator. The quantum theory of mixing is used in its most general form, treating the large signal properties of the mixer in the time domain. A small signal linear analysis is then used to find the conversion loss and port impedances. The noise analysis includes thermal noise from the termination resistances and shot noise from the periodic LO current. Quantum noise is not considered. Many aspects of the program have been adequately verified and found accurate.

  2. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  3. Continuum emission of excited sodium dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, A.; Poyato, J.M.L.; Alonso, J.I.; Rico, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been made of the behaviour of excited molecular sodium using high-power Ar + laser radiation. A continuum emission was observed in the red wavelength region. This emission was thought to be caused by the formation of excited triatomic molecules. Energy transfer was observed from excited molecules to atoms. (orig.)

  4. Discrete expansions of continuum wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Ershov, S.N.; Gareev, F.A.; Kazacha, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Different methods of expanding continuum wave functions in terms of discrete basis sets are discussed. The convergence properties of these expansions are investigated, both from a mathematical and a numerical point of view, for the case of potentials of Woods-Saxon and square well type. (orig.)

  5. Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...

  6. Continuum damage mechanics analysis of crack tip zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yinchu, L.; Jianping, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The crack tip field and its intensity factor play an important role in fracture mechanics. Generally, the damage such as microcracks, microvoids etc. will initiate and grow in materials as the cracked body is subjected to external loadings, especially in the crack tip zone. The damage evolution will load to the crack tip damage field and the change of the stress, strain and displacement fields of cracks tip zone. In this paper, on the basis of continuum damage mechanics, the authors have derived the equations which the crack tip field and its intensity factor must satisfy in a loading process, calculated the angle distribution curves of stress, strain and displacement fields in a crack tip zone and have compared them with the corresponding curves of HRR field and linear elastic field in undamaged materials. The equations of crack tip field intensity factors have been solved and its solutions give the variation of the field intensity factors with the loading parameter

  7. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  8. A thermodynamically consistent quasi-particle model without temperature-dependent infinity of the vacuum zero point energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jing; Jiang Yu; Sun Weimin; Zong Hongshi

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, an improved quasi-particle model is presented. Unlike the previous approach of establishing quasi-particle model, we introduce a classical background field (it is allowed to depend on the temperature) to deal with the infinity of thermal vacuum energy which exists in previous quasi-particle models. After taking into account the effect of this classical background field, the partition function of quasi-particle system can be made well-defined. Based on this and following the standard ensemble theory, we construct a thermodynamically consistent quasi-particle model without the need of any reformulation of statistical mechanics or thermodynamical consistency relation. As an application of our model, we employ it to the case of (2+1) flavor QGP at zero chemical potential and finite temperature and obtain a good fit to the recent lattice simulation results of Borsányi et al. A comparison of the result of our model with early calculations using other models is also presented. It is shown that our method is general and can be generalized to the case where the effective mass depends not only on the temperature but also on the chemical potential.

  9. Quasiparticle picture of high-temperature superconductors in the frame of a Fermi liquid with the fermion condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Shaginyan, V. R.

    2001-06-01

    A model of a Fermi liquid with the fermion condensate (FC) is applied to the consideration of quasiparticle excitations in high-temperature superconductors, in their superconducting and normal states. Within our model the appearance of the fermion condensate presents a quantum phase transition that separates the regions of normal and strongly correlated electron liquids. Beyond the phase transition point the quasiparticle system is divided into two subsystems, one containing normal quasiparticles and the other{emdash}fermion condensate localized at the Fermi surface and characterized by almost dispersionless single-particle excitations. In the superconducting state the quasiparticle dispersion in systems with FC can be presented by two straight lines, characterized by effective masses M{sub FC}{sup *} and M{sub L}{sup *}, respectively, and intersecting near the binding energy, which is of the order of the superconducting gap. This same quasiparticle picture persists in the normal state, thus manifesting itself over a wide range of temperatures as new energy scales. Arguments are presented that fermion systems with FC have features of a {open_quotes}quantum protectorate{close_quotes} [R. B. Laughlin and D. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. >97, 28 (2000); P. W. Anderson, cond-mat/0007185 (unpublished); cond-mat/0007287 (unpublished)].

  10. Quasiparticle picture of high-temperature superconductors in the frame of a Fermi liquid with the fermion condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Shaginyan, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    A model of a Fermi liquid with the fermion condensate (FC) is applied to the consideration of quasiparticle excitations in high-temperature superconductors, in their superconducting and normal states. Within our model the appearance of the fermion condensate presents a quantum phase transition that separates the regions of normal and strongly correlated electron liquids. Beyond the phase transition point the quasiparticle system is divided into two subsystems, one containing normal quasiparticles and the other-fermion condensate localized at the Fermi surface and characterized by almost dispersionless single-particle excitations. In the superconducting state the quasiparticle dispersion in systems with FC can be presented by two straight lines, characterized by effective masses M FC * and M L * , respectively, and intersecting near the binding energy, which is of the order of the superconducting gap. This same quasiparticle picture persists in the normal state, thus manifesting itself over a wide range of temperatures as new energy scales. Arguments are presented that fermion systems with FC have features of a 'quantum protectorate' [R. B. Laughlin and D. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. >97, 28 (2000); P. W. Anderson, cond-mat/0007185 (unpublished); cond-mat/0007287 (unpublished)

  11. Continuum emission in the 1980 July 1 solar flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.; Neidig, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of continuum measurements of the 1980 July 1 flare at Big Bear Solar Observatory and Sacramento Peak Observatory show strong blue emission kernels with the ratio of Balmer continuum (Bac):lambda3862 continuum:continuum above 4275 A to be about 10:5:1. The blue continuum at 3862 A is too strong to be explained by unresolved lines. The Bac intensity was 2.5 times the photosphere and the strongest lambda3862 continuum was 2 times the photosphere. The brightest continuum kernel occurred late in the flare, after the hard X-ray peak and related in time to an isolated peak in the 2.2 MeV line, suggesting that the continuum was excited by protons above 20 MeV

  12. A Coupling Tool for Parallel Molecular Dynamics-Continuum Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp; Tchipev, Nikola

    2012-01-01

    We present a tool for coupling Molecular Dynamics and continuum solvers. It is written in C++ and is meant to support the developers of hybrid molecular - continuum simulations in terms of both realisation of the respective coupling algorithm

  13. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  14. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  15. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  16. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  17. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  18. Boundary critical phenomena and a quasiparticle-quasihole symmetric metal-insulator: transition in a constricted quantum hall circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Siddhartha

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by surprises in recent experimental findings, we study transport in a model of a quantum Hall edge system with a gate-voltage controlled constriction. A finite backscattered current at finite edge-bias is explained as arising from the splitting of edge current caused by the difference in the filling fractions of the bulk (ν 1 ) and constriction (ν 2 ) quantum Hall fluid regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model. The constriction region splits the incident long-wavelength chiral edge density-wave excitations among the transmitting and reflecting edge states encircling it. The competition between two interedge tunneling processes taking place inside the constriction, related by a quasiparticle-quasihole (qp-qh) symmetry, is accounted for by computing the boundary theories of the system. This competition is found to determine the strong coupling configuration of the system. A separatrix of qp-qh symmetric gapless critical states is found to lie between the relevant RG flows to a metallic and an insulating configuration of the constriction system. This constitutes an interesting generalisation of the Kane-Fisher quantum impurity model. The features of the RG phase diagram are also confirmed by computing various correlators and chiral linear conductances of the system. In this way, our results find excellent agreement with many recent puzzling experimental results for the cases of ν 1 = 1/3, 1. We also discuss and make predictions for the case of a constriction system with ν 2 = 5/2. (author)

  19. Continuum of eLearning: 2012 Project Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    multimedia, and Continuum of eLearning | Purpose and Vision 19 << UNCLASSIFIED>> (limited) situated learning. Future versions of the CoL self-paced...Continuum of eLearning : 2012 Project Summary Report Continuum of eLearning The Next Evolution of Joint Training on JKO October 2012 Joint...Technical Report November 2011 – August 2012 Continuum of eLearning : 2012 Project Summary Report N00140-06-D-0060 David T. Fautua, Sae Schatz, Andrea

  20. Four-quasiparticle isomers and K-forbidden transitions in 176Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoram, T.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Kibedi, T.; Mullins, M.; Byrne, A.P.; Baxter, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The odd-odd nucleus 176 Lu has been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigation over the last forty years. Much of this interest has stemmed from the role of 176 Lu in the s-process in nucleosynthesis. From a nuclear structure perspective, 176 Lu resides in a region of the nuclear chart where collective rotation and high-K, multi-quasiparticle states compete to form the yrast line (the locus of state with the lowest energy at a given angular momentum). The electromagnetic decay of intermediate and high-K states is often hindered due to the K-selection rule, while apparent violations of this selection rule have been ascribed to Coriolis mixing, shape changes in the gamma-degree of freedom, and so-called 'statistical' mixing. The relative importance of these mechanisms remains an open question. We present here the results of gamma-ray and conversion-electron spectroscopic measurements, performed at the Heavy Ion Facility at the Australian National University in Canberra, using the reaction 176 Yb( 7 Li, α3n) at a beam energy of 45 MeV. Two new four-quasiparticle isomers have been established, with mean lives of 400(100)ns and 58(5)μs, and spin projections and parities of 12 + and (14 + ) respectively. The shorter--lived isomer displays both normal and anomalous K-forbidden decays, which we show is the result of two-state mixing between the isomeric state and a member of a two-quasiparticle rotational band. The implied mixing matrix element of only 5 eV shows explicitly that very small mixing matrix elements may be responsible for anomalous K-hindered decays

  1. The quasiparticle band structure of zincblende and rocksalt ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, H; Saniz, R; Lamoen, D; Partoens, B

    2010-03-31

    We present the quasiparticle band structure of ZnO in its zincblende (ZB) and rocksalt (RS) phases at the Γ point, calculated within the GW approximation. The effect of the p-d hybridization on the quasiparticle corrections to the band gap is discussed. We compare three systems, ZB-ZnO which shows strong p-d hybridization and has a direct band gap, RS-ZnO which is also hybridized but includes inversion symmetry and therefore has an indirect band gap, and ZB-ZnS which shows a weaker hybridization due to a change of the chemical species from oxygen to sulfur. The quasiparticle corrections are calculated with different numbers of valence electrons in the Zn pseudopotential. We find that the Zn(20+) pseudopotential is essential for the adequate treatment of the exchange interaction in the self-energy. The calculated GW band gaps are 2.47 eV and 4.27 eV respectively, for the ZB and RS phases. The ZB-ZnO band gap is underestimated compared to the experimental value of 3.27 by ∼ 0.8 eV. The RS-ZnO band gap compares well with the experimental value of 4.5 eV. The underestimation for ZB-ZnO is correlated with the strong p-d hybridization. The GW band gap for ZnS is 3.57 eV, compared to the experimental value of 3.8 eV.

  2. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone - and Some More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    Quite trivially, Continuum mechanics per se deals with the description of deformations of three-dimensional continua i.e. models whose properties are independent of scale in that the continuum does not possess a structure. Thus, continuum mechanics does not try to model the atomic structure...

  3. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone - And Some More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    Quite trivially, Continuum mechanics per se deals with the description of deformations of three-dimensional continua i.e. models whose properties are independent of scale in that the continuum does not possess a structure. Thus, continuum mechanics does not try to model the atomic structure...

  4. Nodal quasi-particles of the high-Tc superconductors as carriers of heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Behnia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   In the quest for understanding correlated electrons, high-temperature superconductivity remains a formidable challenge and a source of insight. This paper briefly recalls the central achievement by the study of heat transport at low temperatures. At very low temperatures, nodal quasi-particles of the d-wave superconducting gap become the main carriers of heat. Their thermal conductivity is unaffected by disorder and reflects the fine structure of the superconducting gap. This finding had led to new openings in the exploration of other unconventional superconductors

  5. Quasiparticle band structure for the Hubbard systems: Application to α-CeAl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F.; Balle, S.; Salvador, R.

    1990-01-01

    A self-energy formalism for determining the quasiparticle band structure of the Hubbard systems is deduced. The self-energy is obtained from the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction whose bare value is the correlation energy U. A method for integrating the Schroedingerlike equation with the self-energy operator is given. The method is applied to the cubic Laves phase of α-CeAl 2 because it is a clear Hubbard system with a very complex electronic structure and, moreover, this system provides us with sufficient experimental data for testing our method

  6. Quantum turbulence in superfluid 3He illuminated by a beam of quasiparticle excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.I.; Fisher, S.N.; Guenault, A.M.; Lowe, M.R.; Pickett, G.R.; Rahm, A.; Whitehead, R.C.V.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured directly the Andreev scattering of a controllable beam of quasiparticle excitations by a localized tangle of quantum vortices in superfluid 3 He-B at low temperatures. We present a microscopic description of the Andreev scattering from a vortex line allowing us to estimate the vortex separation scale in a dilute tangle of vortices, providing a better comparison of the observed decay time of the turbulence with recent numerical simulations. The experiments also suggest that below 200 μK we reach the low temperature limit for turbulent dynamics

  7. Quantitative analysis of Josephson-quasiparticle current in superconducting single-electron transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Chen, C.D.; Tsai, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated Josephson-quasiparticle (JQP) current in superconducting single-electron transistors in which charging energy E C was larger than superconducting gap energy Δ and junction resistances were much larger than R Q ≡h/4e 2 . We found that not only the shapes of the JQP peaks but also their absolute height were reproduced quantitatively with a theory by Averin and Aleshkin using a Josephson energy of Ambegaokar-Baratoff close-quote s value. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Quasiparticle phonon model description of low-energy states in 152Pr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, P.; Ramdhane, M.; Thiamova, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Faust, H. R.; Genevey, J.; Köster, U.; Materna, T.; Orlandi, R.; Pinston, J. A.; Scherillo, A.; Hons, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Delayed γ -ray and conversion-electron spectroscopy is performed on A =152 fission fragments, at the Lohengrin spectrometer of the Institut Laue-Langevin, providing a new decay scheme for 152Pr. The quasiparticle phonon model, combined with the particle-rotor model, which allows octupole correlations and Coriolis mixing to be taken into account, is applied to analyze its low-energy structure. The main configurations are found to be (π 3 /2 [422 ] ⊗ν 5 /2 [642 ] ) 1+ for the isomer and (π 3 /2 [541 ] ⊗ν 3 /2 [521 ] ) 3+ for the ground state.

  9. Quasiclassical calculation of the quasiparticle thermal conductivity in a mixed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Hiroto; Miranovic, Predrag; Ichioka, Masanori; Machida, Kazushige

    2007-01-01

    We report the result of calculation of the quasiparticle thermal conductivity κ xx (∇T orthogonal B) in the vortex state of a two-dimensional superconductor. We compute κ xx for both s-wave and d-wave superconductors, taking account of the spatial dependence of normal Green's function g, which is neglected in the previous studies using the Brandt-Pesch-Tewordt (BPT) method. Our results indicate that κ xx based on the BPT method is slightly underestimated due to its incoherent spatial averaging procedure

  10. Atomic-Scale Visualization of Quasiparticle Interference on a Type-II Weyl Semimetal Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Bian, Guang; Chang, Guoqing; Lu, Hong; Xu, Su-Yang; Wang, Guangqiang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zhang, Songtian; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Sanchez, Daniel S; Song, Fengqi; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Yao, Nan; Bansil, Arun; Jia, Shuang; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M Zahid

    2016-12-23

    We combine quasiparticle interference simulation (theory) and atomic resolution scanning tunneling spectromicroscopy (experiment) to visualize the interference patterns on a type-II Weyl semimetal Mo_{x}W_{1-x}Te_{2} for the first time. Our simulation based on first-principles band topology theoretically reveals the surface electron scattering behavior. We identify the topological Fermi arc states and reveal the scattering properties of the surface states in Mo_{0.66}W_{0.34}Te_{2}. In addition, our result reveals an experimental signature of the topology via the interconnectivity of bulk and surface states, which is essential for understanding the unusual nature of this material.

  11. Quasiparticle states driven by a scattering on the preformed electron pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domanski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze evolution of the single particle excitation spectrum of the underdoped cuprate superconductors near the anti-nodal region, considering temperatures below and and above the phase transition. We inspect the phenomenological self-energy that reproduces the angle-resolved-photoemission-spectroscopy (ARPES data and we show that above the critical temperature, such procedure implies a transfer of the spectral weight from the Bogoliubov-type quasiparticles towards the in-gap damped states. We also discuss some possible microscopic arguments explaining this process.

  12. Decay of a three-quasiparticle isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus 183Ta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Excited states in neutron-rich tantalum isotopes have been studied with deep-inelastic reactions using 136Xe ions incident on a 186W target. New transitions observed below the τ=1.3 μs isomer in 183Ta have enabled the establishment of its energy and put limits on the spin and parity. On the basis of the reduced hindrances for the depopulating transitions, a 3-quasiparticle configuration of ν1/2−[510]11/2+[615] ⊗ π9/2−[514] is suggested.

  13. The pion quasiparticle in the low-temperature phase of QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Bastian B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend our previous studies [PhysRevD.90.054509, PhysRevD.92.094510] of the pion quasiparticle in the low-temperature phase of two-flavor QCD with support from chiral effective theory. This includes the analysis performed on a finite temperature ensemble of size 20 × 643 at T ≈ 151MeV and a lighter zero-temperature pion mass mπ ≈ 185 MeV. Furthermore, we investigate the Gell-Mann–Oakes-Renner relation at finite temperature and the Dey-Eletsky-Ioffe mixing theorem at finite quark mass.

  14. Decay patterns of multi-quasiparticle bands—a model independent test of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, E A

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear chiral systems exhibit chiral symmetry bands, built on left-handed and right-handed angular momentum nucleon configurations. The experimental search for such chiral systems revealed a number of suitable candidates, however an unambiguous identification of nuclear chiral symmetry is still outstanding. In this work it is shown that the decay patterns of chiral bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations are different from those involving different single-particle configurations. It is suggested to use the observed decay patterns of chiral candidates as a new model-independent test of chiral symmetry. (paper)

  15. Quasiparticle electronic and optical properties of the Si-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Rasmus V S; Pedersen, Thomas G; Larsen, Arne N

    2011-01-01

    The Si 1-x Sn x material system is an interesting candidate for an optically active material compatible with Si. Based on density functional theory with quasiparticle corrections we calculate the electronic band structure of zinc-blende SiSn under both compressive and tensile strain. At 2.2% tensile strain the band gap becomes direct with a magnitude of 0.85 eV. We develop an accurate tight-binding parameterization of the electronic structure and calculate the optical properties of SiSn. Furthermore, the silicide SiSn 2 is investigated and found to have metallic character. (paper)

  16. Theory of s-wave superconductor containing impurities with retarded interaction with quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K V Grigorishin

    2014-01-01

    We propose a perturbation theory and diagram technique for a disordered metal when scattering of quasiparticles by nonmagnetic impurities is caused with a retarded interaction. The perturbation theory generalizes a case of elastic scattering in a disordered metal. Eliashberg equations for s-wave superconductivity are generalized for such a disordered superconductor. Anderson's theorem is found to be violated in the sense that embedding of the impurities into an s-wave superconductor increases its critical temperature. We show that the amplification of superconducting properties is a result of nonelastic effects in a scattering by the impurities. (paper)

  17. Close near-degeneracy in a pair of four-quasiparticle bands in 194Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiteng, P.L.; Lawrie, E.A.; Ramashidzha, T.M.; Bark, R.A.; Carlsson, B.G.; Lawrie, J.J.; Lindsay, R.; Komati, F.; Kau, J.; Maine, P.; Maliage, S.M.; Matamba, I.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T.; Mutshena, K.P.; Pasternak, A.A.; Ragnarsson, I.

    2013-01-01

    A pair of rotational bands associated with the πh 9/2 ⊗νi 13/2 −1 configuration at lower spins and with the πh 9/2 ⊗νi 13/2 −3 configuration at higher spins is found in 194 Tl. The two 4-quasiparticle bands show exceptionally close near-degeneracy in the excitation energies. Furthermore close similarity is also found in their alignments and B(M1)/B(E2) reduced transition probability ratios. Such close near-degeneracy probably indicates chiral geometry in the angular momentum space

  18. Multi-quasiparticle excitation: Extending shape coexistence in A∼190 neutron-deficient nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yue; Liu, H. L.; Xu, F. R.; Walker, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Multi-quasiparticle high-K states in neutron-deficient mercury, lead, and polonium isotopes have been investigated systematically by means of configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations. An abundance of high-K states is predicted with both prolate and oblate shapes, which extends the shape coexistence of the mass region. Well-deformed shapes provide good conditions for the formation of isomers, as exemplified in 188 Pb. Of particular interest is the prediction of low-lying 10 - states in polonium isotopes, which indicate long-lived isomers.

  19. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, F.

    2014-03-11

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, F.; Guerrero, P.; Alarcon, T.; Maini, P. K.; Byrne, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  2. Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Polarization Energies of Organic Molecular Crystals: Quantitative Estimations from a Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM)–Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haitao

    2016-05-16

    We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a non-empirical, optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional with the polarizable continuum model, is applied to a series of eight representative molecular semiconductor crystals. We show that it provides ionization energies, electron affinities, and transport gaps in very good agreement with experimental values as well as with the results of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation at a fraction of the computational costs. Hence, this approach represents an easily applicable and computationally efficient tool to estimate the gas-to-crystal-phase shifts of the frontier-orbital quasiparticle energies in organic electronic materials.

  3. Sensitivity filtering from a continuum mechanics perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    In topology optimization filtering is a popular approach for preventing numerical instabilities. This short note shows that the well-known sensitivity filtering technique, that prevents checkerboards and ensures mesh-independent designs in density-based topology optimization, is equivalent to min...... to minimizing compliance for nonlocal elasticity problems known from continuum mechanics. Hence, the note resolves the long-standing quest for finding an explanation and physical motivation for the sensitivity filter....

  4. How do we model continuum QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwall, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The nonperturbative aspects of continuum QCD are so complex that one can only hope to approach them through well-motivated models. The author reviews the general properties that any such model must have, based on the understanding of the gluon condensate in the QCD vacuum. A specific, practical model is proposed motivated by a picture of the condensate as made of thick vortex sheets self-consistently constructed from dynamically massive gluons. (author)

  5. New examples of continuum graded Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    Several new examples of continuum graded Lie algebras which provide an additional elucidation of these algebras are given. Here, in particular, the Kac-Moody algebras, the algebra S 0 Diff T 2 of infinitesimal area-preserving diffeomorphisms of the torus T 2 , the Fairlie, Fletcher and Zachos sine-algebras, etc., are described as special cases of the cross product Lie algebras. 8 refs

  6. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K

    2007-10-01

    Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.

  7. Continuum regularized Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadun, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Using the machinery of stochastic quantization, Z. Bern, M. B. Halpern, C. Taubes and I recently proposed a continuum regularization technique for quantum field theory. This regularization may be implemented by applying a regulator to either the (d + 1)-dimensional Parisi-Wu Langevin equation or, equivalently, to the d-dimensional second order Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations. This technique is non-perturbative, respects all gauge and Lorentz symmetries, and is consistent with a ghost-free gauge fixing (Zwanziger's). This thesis is a detailed study of this regulator, and of regularized Yang-Mills theory, using both perturbative and non-perturbative techniques. The perturbative analysis comes first. The mechanism of stochastic quantization is reviewed, and a perturbative expansion based on second-order SD equations is developed. A diagrammatic method (SD diagrams) for evaluating terms of this expansion is developed. We apply the continuum regulator to a scalar field theory. Using SD diagrams, we show that all Green functions can be rendered finite to all orders in perturbation theory. Even non-renormalizable theories can be regularized. The continuum regulator is then applied to Yang-Mills theory, in conjunction with Zwanziger's gauge fixing. A perturbative expansion of the regulator is incorporated into the diagrammatic method. It is hoped that the techniques discussed in this thesis will contribute to the construction of a renormalized Yang-Mills theory is 3 and 4 dimensions

  8. Integral equation hierarchy for continuum percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis a projection operator technique is presented that yields hierarchies of integral equations satisfied exactly by the n-point connectedness functions in a continuum version of the site-bond percolation problem. The n-point connectedness functions carry the same structural information for a percolation problem as then-point correlation functions do for a thermal problem. This method extends the Potts model mapping of Fortuin and Kastelyn to the continuum by exploiting an s-state generalization of the Widom-Rowlinson model, a continuum model for phase separation. The projection operator technique is used to produce an integral equation hierarchy for percolation similar to the Born-Green heirarchy. The Kirkwood superposition approximation (SA) is extended to percolation in order to close this hierarchy and yield a nonlinear integral equation for the two-point connectedness function. The fact that this function, in the SA, is the analytic continuation to negative density of the two-point correlation function in a corresponding thermal problem is discussed. The BGY equation for percolation is solved numerically, both by an expansion in powers of the density, and by an iterative technique due to Kirkwood. It is argued both analytically and numerically, that the BYG equation for percolation, unlike its thermal counterpart, shows non-classical critical behavior, with η = 1 and γ = 0.05 ± .1. Finally a sequence of refinements to the superposition approximations based in the theory of fluids by Rice and Lekner is discussed

  9. Comet Halley: An optical continuum study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoban, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    From an analysis of narrowband CCD images of Comet Halley from 1986 January, March, and April, certain dust structures which are redder than the remainder of the dust coma have become apparent. Mie calculations suggest that this reddening is due to an enhancement of particles with sizes comparable to the observing wavelengths. Although the mass range derived from the calculations presented here is somewhat uncertain as a result of the limitations of Mie theory, these values are in the expected range derived from the calculations presented here is somewhat uncertain as a result of particle sizes which would be both sensitive to radiation pressure and significantly reddened with respect to the solar spectrum at the observing wavelengths. Thus, the red envelopes are plausibly the result of size sorting by solar radiation pressure. The red jets observed on 1986 January 10, March 1 and March 9 can then be explained by the enhanced dust flux at the jet sources, and the subsequent trapping of a relative excess of intermediate mass (i.e. red) particles into the jets which are visible in the continuum images. Analysis of narrowband photometry of the optical continuum of Comet Halley reveals no correlation between the color of the dust and heliocentric distance, phase angle, strength of the continuum or gas-to-dust ratio. The photometric data are thus consistent with a post-ejection sorting mechanism. Chemical inhomogeneities of the nucleus are therefore not necessary to explain the observed structure in the color of the dust in Comet Halley

  10. Lyman continuum observations of solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M. E.; Noyes, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of Lyman continuum observations of solar flares, using data obtained by the EUV spectroheliometer on the Apollo Telescope Mount. It is found that there are two main types of flare regions: an overall 'mean' flare coincident with the H-alpha flare region, and transient Lyman continuum kernels which can be identified with the H-alpha and X-ray kernels observed by other authors. It is found that the ground level hydrogen population in flares is closer to LTE than in the quiet sun and active regions, and that the level of Lyman continuum formation is lowered in the atmosphere from a mass column density .000005 g/sq cm in the quiet sun to .0003 g/sq cm in the mean flare, and to .001 g/sq cm in kernels. From these results the amount of chromospheric material 'evaporated' into the high temperature region is derived, which is found to be approximately 10 to the 15th g, in agreement with observations of X-ray emission measures.

  11. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  12. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  13. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  14. Global distribution of dissolved organic matter along the aquatic continuum: Across rivers, lakes and oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massicotte, Philippe; Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin; Markager, Stiig

    2017-12-31

    Based on an extensive literature survey containing more than 12,000 paired measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and absorption of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) distributed over four continents and seven oceans, we described the global distribution and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) along the aquatic continuum across rivers and lakes to oceans. A strong log-linear relationship (R 2 =0.92) between DOC concentration and CDOM absorption at 350nm was observed at a global scale, but was found to be ecosystem-dependent at local and regional scales. Our results reveal that as DOM is transported towards the oceans, the robustness of the observed relation decreases rapidly (R 2 from 0.94 to 0.44) indicating a gradual decoupling between DOC and CDOM. This likely reflects the decreased connectivity between the landscape and DOM along the aquatic continuum. To support this hypothesis, we used the DOC-specific UV absorbance (SUVA) to characterize the reactivity of the DOM pool which decreased from 4.9 to 1.7m 2 × gC -1 along the aquatic continuum. Across the continuum, a piecewise linear regression showed that the observed decrease of SUVA occurred more rapidly in freshwater ecosystems compared to marine water ecosystems, suggesting that the different degradation processes act preferentially on CDOM rather than carbon content. The observed change in the DOM characteristics along the aquatic continuum also suggests that the terrestrial DOM pool is gradually becoming less reactive, which has profound consequences on cycling of organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Giant spin rotation under quasiparticle-photoelectron conversion: Joint effect of sublattice interference and spin-orbit coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Rashba, E I

    2009-01-01

    Spin- and angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is a basic experimental tool for unveiling spin polarization of electron eigenstates in crystals. We prove, by using spin-orbit coupled graphene as a model, that photoconversion of a quasiparticle inside a crystal into a photoelectron can...... be accompanied with a dramatic change in its spin polarization, up to a total spin flip. This phenomenon is typical of quasiparticles residing away from the Brillouin-zone center and described by higher rank spinors and results in exotic patterns in the angular distribution of photoelectrons....

  16. Interplay of quasiparticle-vibration coupling and pairing correlations on β-decay half-lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Y. F.; Niu, Z. M.; Colò, G.; Vigezzi, E.

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear β-decay half-lives of Ni and Sn isotopes, around the closed shell nuclei 78Ni and 132Sn, are investigated by computing the distribution of the Gamow-Teller strength using the Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) with quasiparticle-vibration coupling (QPVC), based on ground-state properties obtained by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations. We employ the effective interaction SkM* and a zero-range effective pairing force. The half-lives are strongly reduced by including the QPVC. We study in detail the effects of isovector (IV) and isoscalar (IS) pairing. Increasing the IV strength tends to increase the lifetime for nuclei in the proximity of, but lighter than, the closed-shell ones in QRPA calculations, while the effect is significantly reduced by taking into account the QPVC. On the contrary, the IS pairing mainly plays a role for nuclei after the shell closure. Increasing its strength decreases the half-lives, and the effect at QRPA and QRPA+QPVC level is comparable. The effect of IS pairing is particularly pronounced in the case of the Sn isotopes, where it turns out to be instrumental to obtain good agreement with experimental data.

  17. Quasiparticle density of states, localization, and distributed disorder in the cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulangi, Miguel Antonio; Zaanen, Jan

    2018-04-01

    We explore the effects of various kinds of random disorder on the quasiparticle density of states of two-dimensional d -wave superconductors using an exact real-space method, incorporating realistic details known about the cuprates. Random on-site energy and pointlike unitary impurity models are found to give rise to a vanishing DOS at the Fermi energy for narrow distributions and low concentrations, respectively, and lead to a finite, but suppressed, DOS at unrealistically large levels of disorder. Smooth disorder arising from impurities located away from the copper-oxide planes meanwhile gives rise to a finite DOS at realistic impurity concentrations. For the case of smooth disorder whose average potential is zero, a resonance is found at zero energy for the quasiparticle DOS at large impurity concentrations. We discuss the implications of these results on the computed low-temperature specific heat, the behavior of which we find is strongly affected by the amount of disorder present in the system. We also compute the localization length as a function of disorder strength for various types of disorder and find that intermediate- and high-energy states are quasiextended for low disorder, and that states near the Fermi energy are strongly localized and have a localization length that exhibits an unusual dependence on the amount of disorder. We comment on the origin of disorder in the cuprates and provide constraints on these based on known results from scanning tunneling spectroscopy and specific heat experiments.

  18. On the calculation of lattice sums arising in Bose-Einstein statistics of quasiparticle excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millev, Y.; Faehnle, M.

    1994-05-01

    A new method for the calculations of the average occupation number of bosonic quasi-particle excitations valid for any type of lattice is proposed. The method is based on the recognition of the connection with lattice Green's functions and generalized Watson integrals, on one hand, and on a very simple differentiation technique which renders unnecessary and artificial to this problem more sophisticated Laplace transform summation procedures. The mean-field approximation to Green's function theories of ferromagnetism arises naturally as the zeroth term in the obtained summation formulae. The results have been specified completely for the three cubic lattices. They are new for the simple cubic and face-centred cases, whereas certain redundancy is removed form the known body-centred cubic results. Applications of the method to more complex sums as, for instance, the thermodynamic sum for the total energy of the quasiparticles, are straightforward. There has also been found a new three-position recursion relation for the calculation of frequently occurring triple geometric integrals in the face-centred cubic case. It originates form a corresponding relation for a relevant Heun function. (author). 29 refs, 1 tab

  19. Delocalization of charge and current in a chiral quasiparticle wave packet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    A chiral quasiparticle wave packet (c-QPWP) is defined as a conventional superposition of chiral quasiparticle states corresponding to an interacting electron system in two dimensions (2D) in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). I investigate its internal structure via studying the charge and the current densities within the first-order perturbation in the electron-electron interaction. It is found that the c-QPWP contains a localized charge which is less than the magnitude of the bare charge and the remaining charge resides at the system boundary. The amount of charge delocalized turns out to be inversely proportional to the degenerate Fermi velocity v0(=√{α2+2 μ /m }) when RSOC (with strength α ) is weak, and therefore externally tunable. For strong RSOC, the magnitudes of both the delocalized charge and the current further strongly depend on the direction of propagation of the wave packet. Both the charge and the current densities consist of an anisotropic r-2 tail away from the center of the wave packet. Possible implications of such delocalizations in real systems corresponding to 2D semiconductor heterostructure are also discussed within the context of particle injection experiments.

  20. Phases of QCD, thermal quasiparticles, and dilepton radiation from a fireball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, Thorsten; Schneider, Roland; Weise, Wolfram

    2002-01-01

    We calculate dilepton production rates from a fireball adapted to the kinematical conditions realized in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of beam energies. The freeze-out state of the fireball is fixed by hadronic observables. We use this information combined with the initial geometry of the collision region to follow the space-time evolution of the fireball. Assuming entropy conservation, its bulk thermodynamic properties can then be uniquely obtained once the equation of state (EOS) is specified. The high-temperature quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase is modeled by a nonperturbative quasiparticle model that incorporates a phenomenological confinement description, adapted to lattice QCD results. For the hadronic phase, we interpolate the EOS into the region where a resonance gas approach seems applicable, keeping track of a possible overpopulation of the pion phase space. In this way, the fireball evolution is specified without reference to dilepton data, thus eliminating it as an adjustable parameter in the rate calculations. Dilepton emission in the QGP phase is then calculated within the quasiparticle model. In the hadronic phase, both temperature and finite baryon density effects on the photon spectral function are incorporated. Existing dilepton data from CERES at 158 and 40 A GeV Pb-Au collisions are well described, and a prediction for the PHENIX setup at RHIC for √(s)=200A GeV is given

  1. The rate of quasiparticle recombination probes the onset of coherence in cuprate superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, J P; Thewalt, E; Alpichshev, Z; Mahmood, F; Koralek, J D; Chan, M K; Veit, M J; Dorow, C J; Barišić, N; Kemper, A F; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Liang, Ruixing; Gedik, N; Greven, M; Lanzara, A; Orenstein, J

    2016-04-13

    In the underdoped copper-oxides, high-temperature superconductivity condenses from a nonconventional metallic "pseudogap" phase that exhibits a variety of non-Fermi liquid properties. Recently, it has become clear that a charge density wave (CDW) phase exists within the pseudogap regime. This CDW coexists and competes with superconductivity (SC) below the transition temperature Tc, suggesting that these two orders are intimately related. Here we show that the condensation of the superfluid from this unconventional precursor is reflected in deviations from the predictions of BSC theory regarding the recombination rate of quasiparticles. We report a detailed investigation of the quasiparticle (QP) recombination lifetime, τqp, as a function of temperature and magnetic field in underdoped HgBa2CuO(4+δ) (Hg-1201) and YBa2Cu3O(6+x) (YBCO) single crystals by ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity. We find that τqp(T) exhibits a local maximum in a small temperature window near Tc that is prominent in underdoped samples with coexisting charge order and vanishes with application of a small magnetic field. We explain this unusual, non-BCS behavior by positing that Tc marks a transition from phase-fluctuating SC/CDW composite order above to a SC/CDW condensate below. Our results suggest that the superfluid in underdoped cuprates is a condensate of coherently-mixed particle-particle and particle-hole pairs.

  2. Dispersion Corrected Structural Properties and Quasiparticle Band Gaps of Several Organic Energetic Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalakondaiah, S; Vaitheeswaran, G; Lebègue, S

    2015-06-18

    We have performed ab initio calculations for a series of energetic solids to explore their structural and electronic properties. To evaluate the ground state volume of these molecular solids, different dispersion correction methods were accounted in DFT, namely the Tkatchenko-Scheffler method (with and without self-consistent screening), Grimme's methods (D2, D3(BJ)), and the vdW-DF method. Our results reveal that dispersion correction methods are essential in understanding these complex structures with van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. The calculated ground state volumes and bulk moduli show that the performance of each method is not unique, and therefore a careful examination is mandatory for interpreting theoretical predictions. This work also emphasizes the importance of quasiparticle calculations in predicting the band gap, which is obtained here with the GW approximation. We find that the obtained band gaps are ranging from 4 to 7 eV for the different compounds, indicating their insulating nature. In addition, we show the essential role of quasiparticle band structure calculations to correlate the gap with the energetic properties.

  3. Influence of quasi-particle density over polaron mobility in armchair graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gesiel Gomes; da Cunha, Wiliam Ferreira; de Sousa Junior, Rafael Timóteo; Almeida Fonseca, Antonio Luciano; Ribeiro Júnior, Luiz Antônio; E Silva, Geraldo Magela

    2018-06-20

    An important aspect concerning the performance of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) as materials for conceiving electronic devices is related to the mobility of charge carriers in these systems. When several polarons are considered in the system, a quasi-particle wave function can be affected by that of its neighbor provided the two are close enough. As the overlap may affect the transport of the carrier, the question concerning how the density of polarons affect its mobility arises. In this work, we investigate such dependence for semiconducting AGNRs in the scope of nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Our results unambiguously show an impact of the density on both the stability and average velocity of the quasi-particles. We have found a phase transition between regimes where increasing density stops inhibiting and starts promoting mobility; densities higher than 7 polarons per 45 Å present increasing mean velocity with increasing density. We have also established three different regions relating electric field and average velocity. For the lowest electric field regime, surpassing the aforementioned threshold results in overcoming the 0.3 Å fs-1 limit, thus representing a transition between subsonic and supersonic regimes. For the highest of the electric fields, density effects alone are responsible for a stunning difference of 1.5 Å fs-1 in the mean carrier velocity.

  4. Calculation of Quasi-Particle Energies of Aromatic Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Lu, Deyu; Galli, Giulia

    2009-04-14

    We present many-body perturbation theory calculations of the electronic properties of phenylene diisocyanide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold surface. Using structural models obtained within density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated how the SAM molecular energies are modified by self-energy corrections and how they are affected by the presence of the surface. We have employed a combination of GW (G = Green's function; W = screened Coulomb interaction) calculations of the SAM quasi-particle energies and a semiclassical image potential model to account for surface polarization effects. We find that it is essential to include both quasi-particle corrections and surface screening in order to provide a reasonable estimate of the energy level alignment at a SAM-metal interface. In particular, our results show that within the GW approximation the energy distance between phenylene diisocyanide SAM energy levels and the gold surface Fermi level is much larger than that found within DFT, e.g., more than double in the case of low packing densities of the SAM.

  5. Dissociation of 1P states in hot QCD Medium Using Quasi-Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilima, Indrani; Agotiya, Vineet Kumar

    2018-03-01

    We extend the analysis of a very recent work [1] to study the dissociation phenomenon of 1P states of the charmonium and bottomonium spectra (χc and χb) in a hot QCD medium using Quasi-Particle Model. This study employed a medium modified heavy quark potential which has quite different form in the sense that it has a lomg range Coulombic tail in addition to the Yukawa term even above the deconfinement temperature. Then we study the flavor dependence of their binding energies and explore the nature of dissociation temperatures by employing the Quasi-Particle debye mass for pure gluonic and full QCD case. Interestingly, the dissociation temperatures obtained by employing EoS1 and EoS2 with the Γ criterion, is closer to the upper bound of the dissociation temperatures which are obtained by the dissolution of a given quarkonia state by the mean thermal energy of the quasi-partons in the hot QCD/QGP medium.

  6. Momentum-Space Imaging of the Dirac Band Structure in Molecular Graphene via Quasiparticle Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Anna; Gomes, Kenjiro K.; Ko, Wonhee; Mar, Warren; Manoharan, Hari C.

    2014-03-01

    Molecular graphene is a nanoscale artificial lattice composed of carbon monoxide molecules arranged one by one, realizing a dream of exploring exotic quantum materials by design. This assembly is done by atomic manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) on a Cu(111) surface. To directly probe the transformation of normal surface state electrons into massless Dirac fermions, we map the momentum space dispersion through the Fourier analysis of quasiparticle scattering maps acquired at different energies with the STM. The Fourier analysis not only bridges the real-space and momentum-space data but also reveals the chiral nature of those quasiparticles, through a set of selection rules of allowed scattering involving the pseudospin and valley degrees of freedom. The graphene-like band structure can be reshaped with simple alterations to the lattice, such as the addition of a strain. We analyze the effect on the momentum space band structure of multiple types of strain on our system. Supported by DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  7. Capacitance measurement of Josephson tunnel junctions with microwave-induced dc quasiparticle tunneling currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, K.; Yoshida, K.; Irie, F.; Enpuku, K.

    1982-01-01

    The microwave response of the dc quasiparticle tunneling current in Josephson tunnel junctions, where the Josephson current is suppressed by an external magnetic field, has been studied quantitatively in order to clarify its characteristics as a probe for the measurement of the junction capacitance. Extensive experiments for both small and long junctions are carried out for distinguishing between microwave behaviors of lumped and distributed constant junctions. It is shown that the observed voltage dependence of the dc quasiparticle tunneling current modified by an applied rf field is in good agreement with a theoretical result which takes into account the influence of the microwave circuit connected to the junction. The comparison between theory and experiment gives the magnitude of the internal rf field in the junction. Together with the applied rf field, this internal rf field leads to the junction rf impedance which is dominated by the junction capacitance in our experimental condition. In the case of lumped junctions, this experimental rf impedance is in reasonable agreement with the theoretical one with the junction capacitance estimated from the Fiske step of the distributed junction fabricated on the same substrate; the obtained ratio of the experimental impedance to the theoretical one is approximately 0.6--1.7. In the case of distributed junctions, however, experimental values of their characteristic impedances are approximately 0.2--0.3 of theoretical values calculated by assuming the one-dimensional junction model and taking account of the standing-wave effect in the junction

  8. Hidden order symmetry and superconductivity in heavy Fermions investigated by quasiparticle interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Alireza [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); MPI for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Thalmeier, Peter [MPI for the Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The hidden order (HO) in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} has been determined as a high rank multipole formed by itinerant 5f-electrons with distinct orbital structure imposed by the crystalline electric field. Because this can lead to a considerable number of different multipoles it is of great importance to use microscopic techniques that are sensitive to their subtle physical differences. Here we investigate whether quasiparticle interference (QPI) method can distinguish between the two most frequently proposed HO parameter models: the even rank-4 hexadecapole and the odd-rank-5 dotriacontapole model. We obtain the quasiparticle dispersion and reconstructed Fermi surface in each HO phase adapting an effective two-orbital model of 5f bands that reproduces the main Fermi surface sheets of the para phase. We show that the resulting QPI spectrum reflects directly the effect of fourfold symmetry breaking in the rank-5 model which is absent in the rank-4 model. Therefore we suggest that QPI method should give a possibility of direct discrimination between the two most investigated models of HO in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Furthermore the signature of proposed chiral d-wave superconducting (SC) order parameter in QPI of the coexisting HO+SC phase is investigated.

  9. Variational theory of valence fluctuations: Ground states and quasiparticle excitations of the Anderson lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandow, B. H.

    1986-01-01

    A variational study of ground states of the orbitally nondegenerate Anderson lattice model, using a wave function with one variational parameter per Bloch state k, has been extended to deal with essentially metallic systems having a nonintegral number of electrons per site. Quasiparticle excitations are obtained by direct appeal to Landau's original definition for interacting Fermi liquids, scrEqp(k,σ)=δEtotal/δn qp(k,σ). This approach provides a simple and explicit realization of the Luttinger picture of a periodic Fermi liquid. A close correspondence is maintained between the ``interacting'' (U=∞) system and the corresponding ``noninteracting'' (U=0) case, i.e., ordinary band theory; the result can be described as a renormalized band or renormalized hybridization theory. The occupation-number distribution for the conduction orbitals displays a finite discontinuity at the Fermi surface. If the d-f hybridization is nonzero throughout the Brillouin zone, the quasiparticle spectrum will always exhibit a gap, although this gap becomes exponentially small (i.e., of order TK) in the Kondo-lattice regime. In the ``ionic'' case with precisely two electrons per site, such a system may therefore exhibit an insulating (semiconducting) gap. The quasiparticle state density exhibits a prominent spike on each side of the spectral gap, just as in the elementary hybridization model (the U=0 case). For the metallic case, with a nonintegral number of electrons per site, the Fermi level falls within one of the two sharp density peaks. The effective mass at the Fermi surface tends to be very large; enhancements by a factor >~102 are quite feasible. The foregoing variational theory has also been refined by means of a trial wave function having two variational parameters per Bloch state k. The above qualitative features are all retained, with some quantitative differences, but there are also some qualitatively new features. The most interesting of these is the appearance, within

  10. Verification of continuum drift kinetic equation solvers in NIMROD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y. [Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-4415 (United States); Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Belli, E. A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Lyons, B. C. [Program in Plasma Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Verification of continuum solutions to the electron and ion drift kinetic equations (DKEs) in NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is demonstrated through comparison with several neoclassical transport codes, most notably NEO [E. A. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 015015 (2012)]. The DKE solutions use NIMROD's spatial representation, 2D finite-elements in the poloidal plane and a 1D Fourier expansion in toroidal angle. For 2D velocity space, a novel 1D expansion in finite elements is applied for the pitch angle dependence and a collocation grid is used for the normalized speed coordinate. The full, linearized Coulomb collision operator is kept and shown to be important for obtaining quantitative results. Bootstrap currents, parallel ion flows, and radial particle and heat fluxes show quantitative agreement between NIMROD and NEO for a variety of tokamak equilibria. In addition, velocity space distribution function contours for ions and electrons show nearly identical detailed structure and agree quantitatively. A Θ-centered, implicit time discretization and a block-preconditioned, iterative linear algebra solver provide efficient electron and ion DKE solutions that ultimately will be used to obtain closures for NIMROD's evolving fluid model.

  11. The effect of diffusion in a new viscous continuum traffic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lei; Li Tong; Shi Zhongke

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a new continuum traffic model with a viscous term. The linear stability condition for viscous shock waves is derived. We derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation near the neutral stability line. Then we investigate the effect of the viscous term by numerical simulations. The results show that viscosity may induce oscillations and the amplitude of the oscillation increases as the viscosity coefficient increases. This agrees with the linear stability condition. The local clusters are compressed by increasing the viscosity coefficient in the cluster study.

  12. The effect of diffusion in a new viscous continuum traffic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lei, E-mail: yuleijk@126.co [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, ShaanXi (China); Li Tong [Department of Mathematics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Shi Zhongke [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, ShaanXi (China)

    2010-05-10

    In this Letter, we propose a new continuum traffic model with a viscous term. The linear stability condition for viscous shock waves is derived. We derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation near the neutral stability line. Then we investigate the effect of the viscous term by numerical simulations. The results show that viscosity may induce oscillations and the amplitude of the oscillation increases as the viscosity coefficient increases. This agrees with the linear stability condition. The local clusters are compressed by increasing the viscosity coefficient in the cluster study.

  13. Longitudinal and radial MHD linear induction accelerator with hot conducting plasma core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual design of linear induction accelerator is presented using for the core continuum a highly conductive plasma with sustained pumping velocity. Karlovitz criterion of boundary theory is employed in the process of design

  14. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  15. On the dimerization of linear polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao Carvalho, C. de.

    1988-08-01

    We use the continuum limit of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model for linear polymers to construct its effective potential (Gibbs free energy) both at zero and finite temperature. We study both trans and cis-polymers. Our results show that, depending on a renormalization condition to be extracted from experiment, there are several possibilities for the minima of the dimerized ground state of cis-polymers. All calculations are done in the one-loop approximation. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs

  16. Global mass conservation method for dual-continuum gas reservoir simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi; Sun, Shuyu; Gong, Liang; Yu, Bo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we find that the numerical simulation of gas flow in dual-continuum porous media may generate unphysical or non-robust results using regular finite difference method. The reason is the unphysical mass loss caused by the gas compressibility and the non-diagonal dominance of the discretized equations caused by the non-linear well term. The well term contains the product of density and pressure. For oil flow, density is independent of pressure so that the well term is linear. For gas flow, density is related to pressure by the gas law so that the well term is non-linear. To avoid these two problems, numerical methods are proposed using the mass balance relation and the local linearization of the non-linear source term to ensure the global mass conservation and the diagonal dominance of discretized equations in the computation. The proposed numerical methods are successfully applied to dual-continuum gas reservoir simulation. Mass conservation is satisfied while the computation becomes robust. Numerical results show that the location of the production well relative to the large-permeability region is very sensitive to the production efficiency. It decreases apparently when the production well is moved from the large-permeability region to the small-permeability region, even though the well is very close to the interface of the two regions. The production well is suggested to be placed inside the large-permeability region regardless of the specific position.

  17. Global mass conservation method for dual-continuum gas reservoir simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2018-03-17

    In this paper, we find that the numerical simulation of gas flow in dual-continuum porous media may generate unphysical or non-robust results using regular finite difference method. The reason is the unphysical mass loss caused by the gas compressibility and the non-diagonal dominance of the discretized equations caused by the non-linear well term. The well term contains the product of density and pressure. For oil flow, density is independent of pressure so that the well term is linear. For gas flow, density is related to pressure by the gas law so that the well term is non-linear. To avoid these two problems, numerical methods are proposed using the mass balance relation and the local linearization of the non-linear source term to ensure the global mass conservation and the diagonal dominance of discretized equations in the computation. The proposed numerical methods are successfully applied to dual-continuum gas reservoir simulation. Mass conservation is satisfied while the computation becomes robust. Numerical results show that the location of the production well relative to the large-permeability region is very sensitive to the production efficiency. It decreases apparently when the production well is moved from the large-permeability region to the small-permeability region, even though the well is very close to the interface of the two regions. The production well is suggested to be placed inside the large-permeability region regardless of the specific position.

  18. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  19. Effect of couplings in the resonance continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, J; Larson, A; Orel, A E

    2004-01-01

    Electronic coupling of two or more resonances via the electron scattering continuum is investigated. The effect of this coupling as a function of the resonance curves and autoionization widths is investigated, and the conditions for the maximum effect are determined. The theory is applied to two physical problems, the product state distribution produced by the dissociative recombination of electrons with HeH + and a one-dimensional model for ion-pair production resulting from electron collisions with H + 3 . It is found that the coupling does not affect the product state distribution in HeH + but produces a significant effect in the H + 3 model

  20. Discrete expansions of continuum functions. General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Ershov, S.N.; Gareev, F.A.; Kazacha, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Different discrete expansions of the continuum wave functions are considered: pole expansion (according to the Mittag-Lefler theorem), Weinberg states. The general property of these groups of states is their completeness in the finite region of space. They satisfy the Schroedinger type equations and are matched with free solutions of the Schroedinger equation at the boundary. Convergence of expansions for the S matrix, the Green functions and the continuous-spectrum wave functions is studied. A new group of states possessing the best convergence is introduced

  1. Histidine in Continuum Electrostatics Protonation State Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Vernon; Stuchebruckhov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    A modification to the standard continuum electrostatics approach to calculate protein pKas which allows for the decoupling of histidine tautomers within a two state model is presented. Histidine with four intrinsically coupled protonation states cannot be easily incorporated into a two state formalism because the interaction between the two protonatable sites of the imidazole ring is not purely electrostatic. The presented treatment, based on a single approximation of the interrelation between histidine’s charge states, allows for a natural separation of the two protonatable sites associated with the imidazole ring as well as the inclusion of all protonation states within the calculation. PMID:22072521

  2. Set theory and the continuum hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. The independence of the continuum hypothesis is the focus of this study by Paul J. Cohen. It presents not only an accessible technical explanation of the author's landmark proof but also a fine introduction to mathematical logic. An emeritus professor of mathematics at Stanford University, Dr. Cohen won two of the most prestigious awards in mathematics: in 1964, he was awarded the American Mathematical Society's Bôcher Prize for analysis; and in 1966, he received the Fields Medal for Logic.

  3. On nonlocal modeling in continuum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Martowicz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to provide an overview of nonlocal formulations for models of elastic solids. The author presents the physical foundations for nonlocal theories of continuum mechanics, followed by various analytical and numerical techniques. The characteristics and range of practical applications for the presented approaches are discussed. The results of numerical simulations for the selected case studies are provided to demonstrate the properties of the described methods. The paper is illustrated with outcomes from peridynamic analyses. Fatigue and axial stretching were simulated to show the capabilities of the developed numerical tools.

  4. Continuum modeling an approach through practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Muntean, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This book develops continuum modeling skills and approaches the topic from three sides: (1) derivation of global integral laws together with the associated local differential equations, (2) design of constitutive laws and (3) modeling boundary processes. The focus of this presentation lies on many practical examples covering aspects such as coupled flow, diffusion and reaction in porous media or microwave heating of a pizza, as well as traffic issues in bacterial colonies and energy harvesting from geothermal wells. The target audience comprises primarily graduate students in pure and applied mathematics as well as working practitioners in engineering who are faced by nonstandard rheological topics like those typically arising in the food industry.

  5. Quasi-bound states in continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hatano, Naomichi; Garmon, Sterling; Petrosky, Tomio

    2007-08-01

    We report the prediction of quasi-bound states (resonant states with very long lifetimes) that occur in the eigenvalue continuum of propagating states for a wide region of parameter space. These quasi-bound states are generated in a quantum wire with two channels and an adatom, when the energy bands of the two channels overlap. A would-be bound state that lays just below the upper energy band is slightly destabilized by the lower energy band and thereby becomes a resonant state with a very long lifetime (a second QBIC lays above the lower energy band). (author)

  6. Quasiparticle band gap of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites: Crystal structure, spin-orbit coupling, and self-energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong

    2016-02-01

    The quasiparticle band gap is one of the most important materials properties for photovoltaic applications. Often the band gap of a photovoltaic material is determined (and can be controlled) by various factors, complicating predictive materials optimization. An in-depth understanding of how these factors affect the size of the gap will provide valuable guidance for new materials discovery. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the band gap formation mechanism in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites by decoupling various contributing factors which ultimately determine their electronic structure and quasiparticle band gap. Major factors, namely, quasiparticle self-energy, spin-orbit coupling, and structural distortions due to the presence of organic molecules, and their influences on the quasiparticle band structure of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are illustrated. We find that although methylammonium cations do not contribute directly to the electronic states near band edges, they play an important role in defining the band gap by introducing structural distortions and controlling the overall lattice constants. The spin-orbit coupling effects drastically reduce the electron and hole effective masses in these systems, which is beneficial for high carrier mobilities and small exciton binding energies.

  7. Quasiparticle lifetimes and tunneling times in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction with spatially inhomogeneous electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, A.A.; Houwman, E.P.; Gijsbertsen, J.G.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.; le Grand, J.B.; de Korte, P.A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The low-energy quasiparticle scattering and recombination lifetimes for a proximity sandwich of two superconductors S and S' with different bulk energy gaps, are calculated as a function of the spatial coordinate and temperature. The spatial dependence of the order parameter and density of states are calculated on the basis of a microscopic model of the proximity effect, based on the Usadel equations, for dirty superconductors in thermal equilibrium. A zero boundary resistance between S and S' and a Boltzmann-like energy distribution of the excess quasiparticles are assumed. In the case of a small diffusion time constant an effective quasiparticle relaxation rate into and excitation rate out of the reduced gap region in the SS' sandwich are obtained as a function of (finite, but low) temperature and strength of the proximity effect, determined by the parameter γ m , by averaging over the energies and positions of the quasiparticles. In the same way effective tunneling times for electrons and holes tunneling out of the trap in the SS' sandwich to the other electrode of an SS'IS''S junction are determined as a function of temperature, voltage, and γ m

  8. Integral-functional representation of mass operator of quasiparticles interacting with polarizational phonons at T = 0 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkach, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The integral-functional representation of mass operator of spinless quasiparticles interacting with polarizational phonons at T = 0 K is obtained for the first time. This representation is equivalent to the infinite branched integral fraction. It does not depend on the binding force and effectively takes into account the many phonon processes

  9. Quasiparticle density of states in a half metal in the presence of odd-frequency Cooper pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asano, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Takehito; Tanaka, Yukio; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2008-01-01

    We study the local density of states in a half metal sandwiched by the two superconductors. The spin-flip scattering at the junction interface opens the Josephson channels of the odd-frequency spin-triplet s-wave Cooper pairs. The penetration of the odd-frequency pairs enhances the quasiparticle

  10. A version of the Quasiparticle-Phonon Nuclear Model for doubly-even well-deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1992-06-01

    The basic assumptions concerning the Quasiparticle-Phonon Nuclear Model are formulated and the mathematical apparatus is developed. The Hamiltonian, containing a finite-rank separable isoscalar and isovector multipole, a spin-multipole and a tensor particle-hole as well as particle-particle interactions transforms to a form containing quasiparticle, phonon and quasiparticle-phonon interactions. The general RPA equation is derived and the particular cases are discussed. The very complex interaction does not complicate the description of the fragmentation one-phonon states. It is shown that the three-phonon terms added to the one- and two-phonon terms in the wave function lead to an additional small shift of the two-phonon poles in the secular equation. The influence of the density-dependent separable interaction on the vibrational states is small. A common description of the collective, weakly collective and two-quasiparticle states in doubly-even well-deformed nuclei is obtained. (author)

  11. QCD equation of state of hot deconfined matter at finite baryon density. A quasiparticle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    The quasiparticle model, based on quark and gluon degrees of freedom, has been developed for the description of the thermodynamics of a hot plasma of strongly interacting matter which is of enormous relevance in astrophysics, cosmology and for relativistic heavy-ion collisions as well. In the present work, this phenomenological model is extended into the realm of imaginary chemical potential and towards including, in general, different and independent quark flavour chemical potentials. In this way, nonzero net baryon-density effects in the equation of state are selfconsistently attainable. Furthermore, a chain of approximations based on formal mathematical manipulations is presented which outlines the connection of the quasiparticle model with the underlying gauge field theory of strong interactions, QCD, putting the model on firmer ground. The applicability of the model to extrapolate the equation of state known from lattice QCD at zero baryon density to nonzero baryon densities is shown. In addition, the ability of the model to extrapolate results to the chiral limit and to asymptotically large temperatures is illustrated by confrontation with available first-principle lattice QCD results. Basing on these successful comparisons supporting the idea that the hot deconfined phase can be described in a consistent picture by dressed quark and gluon degrees of freedom, a reliable QCD equation of state is constructed and baryon-density effects are examined, also along isentropic evolutionary paths. Scaling properties of the equation of state with fundamental QCD parameters such as the number of active quark flavour degrees of freedom, the entering quark mass parameters or the numerical value of the deconfinement transition temperature are discussed, and the robustness of the equation of state in the regions of small and large energy densities is shown. Uncertainties arising in the transition region are taken into account by constructing a family of equations of state

  12. Multiple Temperature Model for Near Continuum Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, Kun; Liu, Hongwei; Jiang, Jianzheng

    2007-01-01

    In the near continuum flow regime, the flow may have different translational temperatures in different directions. It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flow fields, the predictions from continuum formulation, such as the Navier-Stokes equations, lose accuracy. These inaccuracies may be partially due to the single temperature assumption in the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, based on the gas-kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation, a multitranslational temperature model is proposed and used in the flow calculations. In order to fix all three translational temperatures, two constraints are additionally proposed to model the energy exchange in different directions. Based on the multiple temperature assumption, the Navier-Stokes relation between the stress and strain is replaced by the temperature relaxation term, and the Navier-Stokes assumption is recovered only in the limiting case when the flow is close to the equilibrium with the same temperature in different directions. In order to validate the current model, both the Couette and Poiseuille flows are studied in the transition flow regime

  13. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  14. Continuum deformation of multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rastgoftar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents new algorithms for formation control of multi-agent systems (MAS) based on principles of continuum mechanics. Beginning with an overview of traditional methods, the author then introduces an innovative new approach whereby agents of an MAS are considered as particles in a continuum evolving in ℝn whose desired configuration is required to satisfy an admissible deformation function. The necessary theory and its validation on a mobile-agent-based swarm test bed are considered for two primary tasks: homogeneous transformation of the MAS and deployment of a random distribution of agents on a desired configuration. The framework for this model is based on homogeneous transformations for the evolution of an MAS under no inter-agent communication, local inter-agent communication, and intelligent perception by agents. Different communication protocols for MAS evolution, the robustness of tracking of a desired motion by an MAS evolving in ℝn, and the effect of communication delays in an MAS...

  15. Quasiparticle propagation in aluminum fins and tungsten TES dynamics in the CDMS ZIP detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyle, M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: mpyle1@stanford.edu; Brink, P.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cabrera, B. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Castle, J.P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Colling, P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chang, C.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cooley, J. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lipus, T. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ogburn, R.W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Young, B.A. [Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    With the aim of improving the rejection of surface beta contamination on the CDMS ZIP detector, we have studied the effectiveness of our phonon pulse-shape discrimination by matching a Monte Carlo calculation to data from a 350{mu}m long Al fin with W TESs (Transition-Edge Sensors) at both ends. From this fit, we determined the Al film diffusivity to be D{sub Al}=0.010+/-0.001m{sup 2}/s, the quasiparticle trapping length in the Al fin to be l{sub trap}=180+/-10{mu}m, and the Al to W TES transmission to be f{sub Al/W}=0.002+/-0.001.

  16. Quasiparticle scattering in type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Liang; Arafune, Ryuichi; Minamitani, Emi; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki

    2018-03-01

    The electronic structure of type-II Weyl semimetal molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) is studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. Through measuring energy-dependent quasiparticle interference (QPI) patterns with a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope, several characteristic features are found in the QPI patterns. Two of them arise from the Weyl semimetal nature; one is the topological Fermi arc surface state and the other can be assigned to be a Weyl point. The remaining structures are derived from the scatterings relevant to the bulk electronic states. The findings lead to further understanding of the topological electronic structure of type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2.

  17. Breakdown of quasiparticle picture in the low-density limit of the 1D Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Shaojin; Qian Tiezheng; Su Zhaobin

    1995-03-01

    Using the finite-size scaling of results obtained by exact diagonalization, we study the low-density limit of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. Calculating the quasiparticle weight, we demonstrate that for a given particle number N and system size L, there always exists a crossover point U c separating the Fermi-liquid (U c ) and non-Fermi-liquid (U > U c ) regimes (U is the Hubbard repulsion). We find that for a fixed N, U c is inversely proportional to L, keeping U c L/t constant (with t as the hopping integral), as L is large enough. It follows that in the low-density (in fact vanishing density) limit L → ∞, U c → 0, so the system is always in non-Fermi-liquid regime as long as U > 0. We show that our numerical results are consistent with the Bethe ansatz solution. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs

  18. Microwave amplification based on quasiparticle SIS up and down frequency converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kojima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterodyne instruments have recently attained quantum-limited low-noise performance, particularly in radio astronomy, but it is difficult to develop large heterodyne arrays such as a modern radio camera using cryogenic sensitive detectors based on microwave kinetic inductance detectors, transition edge sensors, etc. In the realization of the heterodyne array, the reduction of power dissipation for semiconductor-based amplifiers remains a major challenge. Alternatively, superconducting parametric amplifiers still seem to have several barriers to application, especially in terms of operating temperature. Here, we show a novel concept of microwave amplification based on up and down frequency-conversion processes using quasiparticle superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS tunnel junctions. We demonstrate positive gain using a proof-of-concept test module, which operates with a power dissipation of several μW at a bath temperature of 4 K. The performance of the module suggests great potential for application in large arrays.

  19. Superconductivity. Quasiparticle mass enhancement approaching optimal doping in a high-T(c) superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, B J; Sebastian, S E; McDonald, R D; Day, James; Tan, B S; Zhu, Z; Betts, J B; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Harrison, N

    2015-04-17

    In the quest for superconductors with higher transition temperatures (T(c)), one emerging motif is that electronic interactions favorable for superconductivity can be enhanced by fluctuations of a broken-symmetry phase. Recent experiments have suggested the existence of the requisite broken-symmetry phase in the high-T(c) cuprates, but the impact of such a phase on the ground-state electronic interactions has remained unclear. We used magnetic fields exceeding 90 tesla to access the underlying metallic state of the cuprate YBa2Cu3O(6+δ) over a wide range of doping, and observed magnetic quantum oscillations that reveal a strong enhancement of the quasiparticle effective mass toward optimal doping. This mass enhancement results from increasing electronic interactions approaching optimal doping, and suggests a quantum critical point at a hole doping of p(crit) ≈ 0.18. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Subgap resonant quasiparticle transport in normal-superconductor quantum dot devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramich, J., E-mail: joerg.gramich@unibas.ch; Baumgartner, A.; Schönenberger, C. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-04-25

    We report thermally activated transport resonances for biases below the superconducting energy gap in a carbon nanotube quantum dot (QD) device with a superconducting Pb and a normal metal contact. These resonances are due to the superconductor's finite quasi-particle population at elevated temperatures and can only be observed when the QD life-time broadening is considerably smaller than the gap. This condition is fulfilled in our QD devices with optimized Pd/Pb/In multi-layer contacts, which result in reproducibly large and “clean” superconducting transport gaps with a strong conductance suppression for subgap biases. We show that these gaps close monotonically with increasing magnetic field and temperature. The accurate description of the subgap resonances by a simple resonant tunneling model illustrates the ideal characteristics of the reported Pb contacts and gives an alternative access to the tunnel coupling strengths in a QD.