Quasi-particle Continuum and Resonances in the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pei, J. C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kruppa, Andras Tibor [ORNL; Nazarewicz, Witold [ORNL
2011-01-01
The quasi-particle energy spectrum of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) equations contains discrete bound states, resonances, and non-resonant continuum states. We study the structure of the unbound quasi-particle spectrum of weakly bound nuclei within several methods that do not rely on imposing scattering or outgoing boundary conditions. Various approximations are examined to estimate resonance widths. It is shown that the stabilization method works well for all HFB resonances except for very narrow ones. The Thomas-Fermi approximation to the non-resonant continuum has been shown to be very effective, especially for coordinate-space HFB calculations in large boxes that involve huge amounts of discretized quasi-particle continuum states.
Quasiparticle continuum and resonances in the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pei, Junchen [ORNL; Kruppa, A. T. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge; Nazarewicz, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
2011-01-01
The quasi-particle energy spectrum of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) equations contains discrete bound states, resonances, and non-resonant continuum states. We study the structure of the unbound quasi-particle spectrum of weakly bound nuclei within several methods that do not rely on imposing scattering or outgoing boundary conditions. Various approximations are examined to estimate resonance widths. It is shown that the stabilization method works well for all HFB resonances except for very narrow ones. The Thomas-Fermi approximation to the non-resonant continuum has been shown to be very effective, especially for coordinate-space HFB calculations in large boxes that involve huge amounts of discretized quasi-particle continuum states.
Matsuo, Masayuki
2014-01-01
We formulate a many-body theory to calculate the cross section of direct radiative neutron capture reaction by means of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field model and the continuum quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). A focus is put on very neutron-rich nuclei and low-energy neutron kinetic energy in the range of O(1 keV) - O(1 MeV), relevant for the rapid neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis. We begin with the photo-absorption cross section and the E1 strength function, t...
Zhang, Ying; Meng, Jie
2010-01-01
The neutron pair correlation in nuclei near the neutron drip-line is investigated using the selfconsistent continuum Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory formulated with the coordinate-space Green's function technique. Numerical analysis is performed for even-even N = 86 isotones in the Mo-Sn region, where the 3p3/2 and 3p1/2 orbits lying near the Fermi energy are either weakly bound or unbound. The quasiparticle states originating from the l = 1 orbits form resonances with large widths, which are due to the low barrier height and the strong continuum coupling caused by the pair potential. Analyzing in detail the pairing properties and roles of the quasiparticle resonances, we found that the l = 1 broad quasiparticle resonances persist to feel the pair potential and contribute to the pair correlation even when their widths are comparable with the resonance energy.
Measuring the continuum linear polarization with ESPaDOnS
Pereyra, A; Martioli, E
2014-01-01
Our goal is to test the feasibility to obtain accurate measurements of the continuum linear polarization from high-resolution spectra using the spectropolarimetric mode of ESPaDOnS. We used the new pipeline OPERA to reduce recent and archived ESPaDOnS data. A couple of standard polarization stars and several science objects were tested. Synthetic broad-band polarization was computed from the ESPaDOnS continuum linear polarization spectra and compared with published values to quantify the accuracy of the instrument. The continuum linear polarization measured by ESPaDOnS is consistent with the broad-band polarimetry measurements available in the literature. The polarization degree accuracy is better than 0.2% considering the full sample. The accuracy in polarization position angle using the most polarized objects is better than 5deg. Our results suggest that measurements of the continuum linear polarization using ESPaDOnS are viable.
Thermodynamics and higher order moments in SU(3) linear σ-model with gluonic quasiparticles
Nasser Tawfik, Abdel; Magdy, Niseem
2015-01-01
In the framework of the linear σ-model (LSM) with three quark flavors, the chiral phase diagram at finite temperature and density is investigated. For temperatures higher than the critical temperature ({{T}c}), we added to the LSM the gluonic sector from the quasi-particle model (QPM), which assumes that the interacting gluons in the strongly interacting matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), are phenomenologically the same as non-interacting massive quasi-particles. The dependence of the chiral condensates of strange and non-strange quarks on the temperature and chemical potential is analyzed. Then, we calculate the thermodynamics in the new approach (using a combination of the LSM and the QPM). Confronting the results with those from recent lattice quantum chromodynamics simulations reveals an excellent agreement for almost all thermodynamic quantities. The dependences of the first-order and second-order moments of the particle multiplicity on the chemical potential at fixed temperature are studied. These investigations are implemented through characterizing the large fluctuations accompanying the chiral phase transition. The results for the first-order and second-order moments are compared with those from the SU(3) Polyakov linear σ-model (PLSM). Also, the resulting phase diagrams deduced in the PLSM and the LSM+QPM are compared with each other.
Linearized self-consistent quasiparticle GW method: Application to semiconductors and simple metals
Kutepov, A. L.; Oudovenko, V. S.; Kotliar, G.
2017-10-01
We present a code implementing the linearized quasiparticle self-consistent GW method (LQSGW) in the LAPW basis. Our approach is based on the linearization of the self-energy around zero frequency which differs it from the existing implementations of the QSGW method. The linearization allows us to use Matsubara frequencies instead of working on the real axis. This results in efficiency gains by switching to the imaginary time representation in the same way as in the space time method. The all electron LAPW basis set eliminates the need for pseudopotentials. We discuss the advantages of our approach, such as its N3 scaling with the system size N, as well as its shortcomings. We apply our approach to study the electronic properties of selected semiconductors, insulators, and simple metals and show that our code produces the results very close to the previously published QSGW data. Our implementation is a good platform for further many body diagrammatic resummations such as the vertex-corrected GW approach and the GW+DMFT method. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/cpchkfty4w.1 Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License Programming language: Fortran 90 External routines/libraries: BLAS, LAPACK, MPI (optional) Nature of problem: Direct implementation of the GW method scales as N4 with the system size, which quickly becomes prohibitively time consuming even in the modern computers. Solution method: We implemented the GW approach using a method that switches between real space and momentum space representations. Some operations are faster in real space, whereas others are more computationally efficient in the reciprocal space. This makes our approach scale as N3. Restrictions: The limiting factor is usually the memory available in a computer. Using 10 GB/core of memory allows us to study the systems up to 15 atoms per unit cell.
Thermodynamics and higher order moments in SU(3) linear $\\sigma$-model with gluonic quasi-particles
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser
2014-01-01
In framework of linear $\\sigma$-model (LSM) with three quark flavors, the chiral phase-diagram at finite temperature and density is investigated. At temperatures higher than the critical temperature ($ T_c $), we added to LSM the gluonic sector from the quasi-particle model (QPM), which assumes that the interacting gluons in the strongly interacting matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), are phenomenologically the same as non-interacting massive quasi-particles. The dependence of the chiral condensates of strange and non-strange quarks on temperature and chemical potential is analysed. Then, we have calculated the thermodynamics in the new approach (combination of LSM and QPM). Confronting the results with recent lattice QCD simulations shows an excellent agreement in almost all thermodynamic quantities. The first and second order moments of particle multiplicity are studied in dependence on the chemical potential but at fixed temperature and on the chemical potential but at fixed temperature. These are implem...
2014-03-07
the convergent solution in the case of the continuum mechanics based bi- linear shear deformable ANCF shell element. 5.3 Slit Annular Plate Subjected...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. #24515 CONTINUUM MECHANICS BASED BI- LINEAR SHEAR DEFORMABLE SHELL ELEMENT...MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED 07-01-2014 to 04-03-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CONTINUUM MECHANICS BASED BI- LINEAR
Aurière, M; Ariste, López; Mathias, P; Lèbre, A; Josselin, E; Montargès, M; Petit, P; Chiavassa, A; Paletou, F; Fabas, N; Konstantinova-Antova, R; Donati, J -F; Grunhut, J H; Wade, G A; Herpin, F; Kervella, P; Perrin, G; Tessore, B
2016-01-01
Betelgeuse is an M supergiant that harbors spots and giant granules at its surface and presents linear polarization of its continuum. We have previously discovered linear polarization signatures associated with individual lines in the spectra of cool and evolved stars. Here, we investigate whether a similar linearly polarized spectrum exists for Betelgeuse. We used the spectropolarimeter Narval, combining multiple polarimetric sequences to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of individual lines, as well as the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) approach. We have discovered the existence of a linearly polarized spectrum for Betelgeuse, detecting a rather strong signal (at a few times 10$^{-4}$ of the continuum intensity level), both in individual lines and in the LSD profiles. Studying its properties and the signal observed for the resonant \\ion{Na}{i}\\,D lines, we conclude that we are mainly observing depolarization of the continuum by the absorption lines. The linear polarization of the Betelgeuse conti...
Design Parallel Linear PD Compensation by Fuzzy Sliding Compensator for Continuum Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amin Jalali
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a linear proportional derivative (PD controller is designed for highly nonlinear and uncertain system by using robust factorization approach. To evaluate a linear PD methodology two type methodologies are introduced; sliding mode controller and fuzzy logic methodology. This research aims to design a new methodology to fix the position in continuum robot manipulator. PD method is a linear methodology which can be used for highly nonlinear system’s (e.g., continuum robot manipulator. To estimate this method, new parallel fuzzy sliding mode controller (PD.FSMC is used. This estimator can estimate most of nonlinearity terms of dynamic parameters to achieve the best performance. The asymptotic stability of fuzzy PD control with first-order sliding mode compensation in the parallel structure is proven. For the parallel structure, the finite time convergence with a super-twisting second-order sliding-mode is guaranteed.
Synthetic line and continuum linear-polarisation signatures of axisymmetric type II supernova ejecta
Dessart, Luc
2011-01-01
We present synthetic single-line and continuum linear-polarisation signatures due to electron scattering in axially-symmetric Type II supernovae (SNe) which we calculate using a Monte Carlo and a long-characteristic radiative-transfer code. Aspherical ejecta are produced by prescribing a latitudinal scaling or stretching of SN ejecta inputs obtained from 1-D non-LTE time-dependent calculations. We study polarisation signatures as a function of inclination, shape factor, wavelength, line identity, post-explosion time. At early times, cancellation and optical-depth effects make the polarisation intrinsically low, causing complicated sign reversals with inclination or continuum wavelength, and across line profiles. While the line polarisation is positive (negative) for an oblate (prolate) morphology at the peak and in the red wing, the continuum polarisation may be of any sign. These complex polarisation variations are produced not just by the asymmetric distribution of scatterers but also of the flux. Our early...
Aurière, M.; López Ariste, A.; Mathias, P.; Lèbre, A.; Josselin, E.; Montargès, M.; Petit, P.; Chiavassa, A.; Paletou, F.; Fabas, N.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Donati, J.-F.; Grunhut, J. H.; Wade, G. A.; Herpin, F.; Kervella, P.; Perrin, G.; Tessore, B.
2016-06-01
Context. Betelgeuse is an M supergiant that harbors spots and giant granules at its surface and presents linear polarization of its continuum. Aims: We have previously discovered linear polarization signatures associated with individual lines in the spectra of cool and evolved stars. Here, we investigate whether a similar linearly polarized spectrum exists for Betelgeuse. Methods: We used the spectropolarimeter Narval, combining multiple polarimetric sequences to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of individual lines, as well as the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) approach, to investigate the presence of an averaged linearly polarized profile for the photospheric lines. Results: We have discovered the existence of a linearly polarized spectrum for Betelgeuse, detecting a rather strong signal (at a few times 10-4 of the continuum intensity level), both in individual lines and in the LSD profiles. Studying its properties and the signal observed for the resonant Na i D lines, we conclude that we are mainly observing depolarization of the continuum by the absorption lines. The linear polarization of the Betelgeuse continuum is due to the anisotropy of the radiation field induced by brightness spots at the surface and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere. We have developed a geometrical model to interpret the observed polarization, from which we infer the presence of two brightness spots and their positions on the surface of Betelgeuse. We show that applying the model to each velocity bin along the Stokes Q and U profiles allows the derivation of a map of the bright spots. We use the Narval linear polarization observations of Betelgeuse obtained over a period of 1.4 yr to study the evolution of the spots and of the atmosphere. Conclusions: Our study of the linearly polarized spectrum of Betelgeuse provides a novel method for studying the evolution of brightness spots at its surface and complements quasi-simultaneous observations obtained with PIONIER at the
Hong, Tao; Qiu, Y; Matsumoto, M; Tennant, D A; Coester, K; Schmidt, K P; Awwadi, F F; Turnbull, M M; Agrawal, H; Chernyshev, A L
2017-05-05
The notion of a quasiparticle, such as a phonon, a roton or a magnon, is used in modern condensed matter physics to describe an elementary collective excitation. The intrinsic zero-temperature magnon damping in quantum spin systems can be driven by the interaction of the one-magnon states and multi-magnon continuum. However, detailed experimental studies on this quantum many-body effect induced by an applied magnetic field are rare. Here we present a high-resolution neutron scattering study in high fields on an S=1/2 antiferromagnet C9H18N2CuBr4. Compared with the non-interacting linear spin-wave theory, our results demonstrate a variety of phenomena including field-induced renormalization of one-magnon dispersion, spontaneous magnon decay observed via intrinsic linewidth broadening, unusual non-Lorentzian two-peak structure in the excitation spectra and a dramatic shift of spectral weight from one-magnon state to the two-magnon continuum.
Venema, Liesbeth; Verberck, Bart; Georgescu, Iulia; Prando, Giacomo; Couderc, Elsa; Milana, Silvia; Maragkou, Maria; Persechini, Lina; Pacchioni, Giulia; Fleet, Luke
2016-12-01
Quasiparticles are an extremely useful concept that provides a more intuitive understanding of complex phenomena in many-body physics. As such, they appear in various contexts, linking ideas across different fields and supplying a common language.
Linearly Polarized Millimeter and Submillimeter Continuum Emission of Sgr A* Constrained by ALMA
Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Ho, Paul T P; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Martín, Sergio; Falcke, Heino; Matsushita, Satoki; Martí-Vidal, Ivan
2016-01-01
Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at $\\sim$100 (3.0 mm), $\\sim$230 (1.3 mm), $\\sim$345 (0.87 mm), $\\sim$500 (0.6 mm), and $\\sim$700 GHz (0.43 mm). We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at the above frequency bands, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from ALMA single pointing and mosaic observations. We performed sinusoidal fittings to the observed (XX-YY)/I intensity ratios, to derive the polarization position angles and polarization percentages. We successfully detect polarized continuum emission from all observed frequency bands. We observed lower Stokes I intensity at $\\sim$700 GHz than that at $\\sim$500 GHz, which suggests that emission at $\\gtrsim$500 GHz is from optically thin part of a synchrotron emission spectrum. Both the Stokes I intensity and the polarization position angle at our highest observin...
Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics
Alqahtani, Mubarak
2016-01-01
We study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. We consider the predictions of the three methods for the differential particle spectra and mean transverse momentum. We find that the three methods agree for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\eta/s$, but show differences at large $\\eta/s$. Additionally, we find that the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics method shows suppressed production at low transverse-momentum compared to the other two methods, and the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative at large $p_T$ in viscous hydrodynamics.
Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul
2015-11-14
Hamiltonian Dielectric Solvent (HADES) is a recent method [S. Bauer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104103 (2014)] which enables atomistic Hamiltonian molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of peptides and proteins in dielectric solvent continua. Such simulations become rapidly impractical for large proteins, because the computational effort of HADES scales quadratically with the number N of atoms. If one tries to achieve linear scaling by applying a fast multipole method (FMM) to the computation of the HADES electrostatics, the Hamiltonian character (conservation of total energy, linear, and angular momenta) may get lost. Here, we show that the Hamiltonian character of HADES can be almost completely preserved, if the structure-adapted fast multipole method (SAMM) as recently redesigned by Lorenzen et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244-3259 (2014)] is suitably extended and is chosen as the FMM module. By this extension, the HADES/SAMM forces become exact gradients of the HADES/SAMM energy. Their translational and rotational invariance then guarantees (within the limits of numerical accuracy) the exact conservation of the linear and angular momenta. Also, the total energy is essentially conserved-up to residual algorithmic noise, which is caused by the periodically repeated SAMM interaction list updates. These updates entail very small temporal discontinuities of the force description, because the employed SAMM approximations represent deliberately balanced compromises between accuracy and efficiency. The energy-gradient corrected version of SAMM can also be applied, of course, to MD simulations of all-atom solvent-solute systems enclosed by periodic boundary conditions. However, as we demonstrate in passing, this choice does not offer any serious advantages.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul, E-mail: tavan@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Lehrstuhl für BioMolekulare Optik, Ludig–Maximilians Universität München, Oettingenstr. 67, 80538 München (Germany)
2015-11-14
Hamiltonian Dielectric Solvent (HADES) is a recent method [S. Bauer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104103 (2014)] which enables atomistic Hamiltonian molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of peptides and proteins in dielectric solvent continua. Such simulations become rapidly impractical for large proteins, because the computational effort of HADES scales quadratically with the number N of atoms. If one tries to achieve linear scaling by applying a fast multipole method (FMM) to the computation of the HADES electrostatics, the Hamiltonian character (conservation of total energy, linear, and angular momenta) may get lost. Here, we show that the Hamiltonian character of HADES can be almost completely preserved, if the structure-adapted fast multipole method (SAMM) as recently redesigned by Lorenzen et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244-3259 (2014)] is suitably extended and is chosen as the FMM module. By this extension, the HADES/SAMM forces become exact gradients of the HADES/SAMM energy. Their translational and rotational invariance then guarantees (within the limits of numerical accuracy) the exact conservation of the linear and angular momenta. Also, the total energy is essentially conserved—up to residual algorithmic noise, which is caused by the periodically repeated SAMM interaction list updates. These updates entail very small temporal discontinuities of the force description, because the employed SAMM approximations represent deliberately balanced compromises between accuracy and efficiency. The energy-gradient corrected version of SAMM can also be applied, of course, to MD simulations of all-atom solvent-solute systems enclosed by periodic boundary conditions. However, as we demonstrate in passing, this choice does not offer any serious advantages.
Quasiparticle band structure of antiferromagnetic Eu Te
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathi Jaya, S.; Nolting, W. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Lehrstuhl Festkoerpertheorie, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)
1997-11-24
The temperature-dependent electronic quasiparticle spectrum of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor Eu Te is derived by use of a combination of a many-body model procedure with a tight-binding-'linear muffin tin orbital' (TB - LMTO) band structure calculation. The central part is the d-f model for a single band electron ('test electron') being exchange coupled to the anti ferromagnetically ordered localized moments of the Eu ions. The single-electron Bloch energies of the d-f model are taken from a TB-LMTO calculation for paramagnetic Eu Te. The d-f model is evaluated by a recently proposed moment conserving Green function technique to get the temperature-dependent sublattice-quasiparticle band structure (S-QBS) and sublattice-quasiparticle density of states (S-QDOS) of the unoccupied 5 d-6 s energy bands. Unconventional correlation effects and the appearance of characteristic quasiparticles ('magnetic polarons') are worked out in detail. The temperature dependence of the S-QDOS and S-QBS is mainly provoked by the spectral weights of the energy dispersions. Minority- and majority-spin spectra coincide for all temperatures but with different densities of states. Upon cooling from T{sub N} to T = 0 K the lower conduction band edge exhibits a small blue shift of -0.025 eV in accordance with the experiment. Quasiparticle damping manifesting itself in a temperature-dependent broadening of the spectral density peaks arises from spin exchange processes between (5 d-6 s) conduction band electrons and localized 4 f moments. (author)
Quasiparticle bandstructure of antiferromagnetic EuTe
Mathi Jaya, S.; Nolting, W.
1997-11-01
The temperature-dependent electronic quasiparticle spectrum of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor EuTe is derived by use of a combination of a many-body model procedure with a tight-binding - `linear muffin tin orbital' (TB - LMTO) band structure calculation. The central part is the d - f model for a single band electron (`test electron') being exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetically ordered localized moments of the Eu ions. The single-electron Bloch energies of the d - f model are taken from a TB - LMTO calculation for paramagnetic EuTe. The d - f model is evaluated by a recently proposed moment conserving Green function technique to get the temperature-dependent sublattice - quasiparticle bandstructure (S - QBS) and sublattice - quasiparticle density of states (S - QDOS) of the unoccupied 5d - 6s energy bands. Unconventional correlation effects and the appearance of characteristic quasiparticles (`magnetic polarons') are worked out in detail. The temperature dependence of the S - QDOS and S - QBS is mainly provoked by the spectral weights of the energy dispersions. Minority- and majority-spin spectra coincide for all temperatures but with different densities of states. Upon cooling from 0953-8984/9/47/012/img1 to T = 0 K the lower conduction band edge exhibits a small blue shift of -0.025 eV in accordance with the experiment. Quasiparticle damping manifesting itself in a temperature-dependent broadening of the spectral density peaks arises from spin exchange processes between (5d - 6s) conduction band electrons and localized 4f moments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katskov, Dmitri, E-mail: katskovda@tut.ac.za [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hlongwane, Miranda [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Heitmann, Uwe [German Aerospace Center, Rose-Luxemburg Str. 2, 10178 Berlin (Germany); Florek, Stefan [ISAS-Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9,12489 Berlin (Germany)
2012-05-15
The calculation algorithm suggested provides linearization of the calibration curves in high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The algorithm is based on the modification of the function wavelength-integrated absorbance vs. concentration of analyte vapor in the absorption volume. According to the suggested approach, the absorption line is represented by a triangle for low and trapezium for high analyte vapor concentration in the absorption volume. The respective semi-empirical formulas include two linearization parameters, which depend on properties of the absorption line and characteristics of the atomizer and spectrometer. The parameters can be approximately evaluated from the theory and determined in practice from the original broad-range calibration curve. The parameters were found and the proposed calculation algorithm verified in the experiments on direct determination of Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb in the solutions within a concentration ranges from 0.15 to 625 {mu}g{center_dot}L{sup -1} using tube, platform tube and filter furnace atomizers. The use of various atomizers, lines, elements and atomization temperatures made possible the simulation of various practical analytical conditions. It was found that the algorithm and optimal linearization parameters made it possible to obtain for each line and atomizer linear approximations of the calibration curves within 3-4 orders of magnitude with correlation coefficients close to 0.999. The algorithm makes possible to employ a single line for the direct element determination over a broad concentration range. The sources of errors and the possibility of a priori theoretical evaluation of the linearization parameters are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New calculation algorithm for HR-CS ET AAS measurements was proposed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggested formulas include two parameters to be determined experimentally. Black
Quasiparticle excitations in frustrated antiferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trumper, Adolfo E. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)]. E-mail: trumper@ifir.edu.ar; Gazza, Claudio J. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Manuel, Luis O. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)]. E-mail: manuel@ifir.edu.ar
2004-12-31
We have computed the quasiparticle wave function corresponding to a hole injected in a triangular antiferromagnet. We have taken into account multi-magnon contributions within the self-consistent Born approximation. We have found qualitative differences, under sign reversal of the integral transfer t, regarding the multi-magnon components and the own existence of the quasiparticle excitations. Such differences are due to the subtle interplay between magnon-assisted and free hopping mechanisms. We conclude that the conventional quasiparticle picture can be broken by geometrical frustration without invoking spin liquid phases.
2013-01-01
response (stress, internal state variables (ISVs)). The micromorphic continuum constitutive model will account for the inherent length scale of damaged ...2008, 56 (2), 297–335. 9. Regueiro, R. On finite strain micromorphic elastoplasticity . Int. J. Solids Struct. 2010, 47, 786–800. 10. Isbuga, V.; Regueiro
Yamada, Hirofumi
2015-01-01
We apply the $\\delta$-expansion to the Gross-Neveu model in the large $N$ limit with Wilson fermion and investigate dynamical mass generation from inverse-mass expansion. The dimensionless mass $M$ defined via the effective potential is employed as the expansion parameter of the bare coupling constant $\\beta$ which is partially renormalized by the subtraction of linear divergence. We show that $\\delta$-expansion of the $1/M$ series of $\\beta$ is compatible with the mass renormalization. After the confirmation of the continuum scaling of the bare coupling without fermion doubling, we attempt to estimate dynamical mass in the continuum limit and obtain the results converging to the exact value for values of Wilson parameter $r\\in (0.8,1.0)$.
Bulgakov, Evgeny; Pichugin, Konstantin; Sadreev, Almas
2013-10-01
We show that two nonlinear resonant cavities aligned between two parallel waveguides can support self-induced bound states in the continuum (BSCs). These BSCs are symmetrical relative to an inversion of the waveguides and to inversion of the transport axis. Due to this BSCs can drop an incident wave from one waveguide to another with very high efficiency. We show also that the frequency of the efficient channel dropping can be tuned by injecting power. All these results are in good agreement with numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations in a two-dimensional photonic crystal of GaAs rods holding two parallel waveguides and two defects made of a Kerr medium.
Stretched horizons, quasiparticles and quasinormal modes
Iizuka, N; Lifschytz, G; Lowe, D A; Iizuka, Norihiro; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.
2003-01-01
We propose that stretched horizons can be described in terms of a gas of non-interacting quasiparticles. The quasiparticles are unstable, with a lifetime set by the imaginary part of the lowest quasinormal mode frequency. If the horizon arises from an AdS/CFT style duality the quasiparticles are also the effective low-energy degrees of freedom of the finite-temperature CFT. We analyze a large class of models including Schwarzschild black holes, non-extremal Dp-branes, the rotating BTZ black hole and de Sitter space, and we comment on degenerate horizons. The quasiparticle description makes manifest the relationship between entropy and area.
Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation with an optimal Ground State
Simkovic, F; Raduta, A A
2001-01-01
A new Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation approach is presented. The corresponding ground state is variationally determined and exhibits a minimum energy. New solutions for the ground state, some with spontaneously broken symmetry, of a solvable Hamiltonian are found. A non-iterative procedure to solve the non-linear QRPA equations is used and thus all possible solutions are found. These are compared with the exact results as well as with the solutions provided by other approaches.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. W.; Park, S. N. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science 209 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-09-11
To realize the temperature scale above the freezing point of silver according to the definition of ITS-90, the dynamic range of the spectral responsivity is one of the most important factors which limit its uncertainty. When the residual spectral response at both side bands of a spectral band is not negligible, a significant uncertainty can be caused by a low dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement. In general, incandescent lamps are used to measure the spectral responsivity and the linearity. The dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement is often limited by a trade-off with the desired spectral resolution, which is less than 6 decades. Nonlinearity is another limiting fact of uncertainties of the temperature scale. Tungsten lamps have disadvantage in the nonlinearity measurements in terms of adjustability of radiance level and spectral selectivity. We report spectral responsivity measurements of which the measurable dynamic range is enhanced 50 times after replacing a QTH lamp with a super continuum laser. We also present a spectrally selected linearity measurement over a wide dynamic range using high-brightness light emitting diode arrays to observe a slight saturation of linearity.
Nunes-Alves, Ariane; Arantes, Guilherme Menegon
2014-08-25
Accurate calculations of free energies involved in small-molecule binding to a receptor are challenging. Interactions between ligand, receptor, and solvent molecules have to be described precisely, and a large number of conformational microstates has to be sampled, particularly for ligand binding to a flexible protein. Linear interaction energy models are computationally efficient methods that have found considerable success in the prediction of binding free energies. Here, we parametrize a linear interaction model for implicit solvation with coefficients adapted by ligand and binding site relative polarities in order to predict ligand binding free energies. Results obtained for a diverse series of ligands suggest that the model has good predictive power and transferability. We also apply implicit ligand theory and propose approximations to average contributions of multiple ligand-receptor poses built from a protein conformational ensemble and find that exponential averages require proper energy discrimination between plausible binding poses and false-positives (i.e., decoys). The linear interaction model and the averaging procedures presented can be applied independently of each other and of the method used to obtain the receptor structural representation.
Chaves, Eduardo W V
2013-01-01
This publication is aimed at students, teachers, and researchers of Continuum Mechanics and focused extensively on stating and developing Initial Boundary Value equations used to solve physical problems. With respect to notation, the tensorial, indicial and Voigt notations have been used indiscriminately. The book is divided into twelve chapters with the following topics: Tensors, Continuum Kinematics, Stress, The Objectivity of Tensors, The Fundamental Equations of Continuum Mechanics, An Introduction to Constitutive Equations, Linear Elasticity, Hyperelasticity, Plasticity (small and large deformations), Thermoelasticity (small and large deformations), Damage Mechanics (small and large deformations), and An Introduction to Fluids. Moreover, the text is supplemented with over 280 figures, over 100 solved problems, and 130 references.
Quasiparticle parity lifetime of bound states in a hybrid superconductor-semiconductor quantum dot
Higginbotham, Andrew; Albrecht, Sven; Kirsanskas, Gediminas; Chang, Willy; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Krogstrup, Peter; Jespersen, Thomas; Nygård, Jesper; Flensberg, Karsten; Marcus, Charles
2015-03-01
We measure quasiparticle transport in an InAs nanowire that is half-covered with epitaxial superconducting aluminum, then locally gated to form a quantum dot. We observe negative differential conductance at finite source-drain bias, and temperature dependent even-odd alternations in the Coulomb blockade peak spacings at zero bias. These observations can be understood in terms of a mid-gap semiconductor discrete state and a continuum of BCS quasiparticle states. Comparing with simple models, we bound the discrete state's parity lifetime and the quasiparticle temperature. These results indicate that parity fluctuations are slow, and imply Majorana qubit poisoning times on the order of a millisecond. Additional results indicate that the bound states move to zero energy in a magnetic field, qualitatively consistent with expectations for Majorana fermions in a finite system. Research supported by Microsoft Station Q, Danish National Research Foundation, Villum Foundation, Lundbeck Foundation, and the European Commission.
Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Naomi; Rao, Ramprasad; Li, I-Hsiu; Fukagawa, Misato; Girart, Josep M; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F
2016-01-01
We report new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), 0$"$.5 angular resolution observations of linearly polarized continuum emission at 6.9 mm, towards the Class 0 young stellar object (YSO) NGC1333 IRAS4A. This target source is a collapsing dense molecular core, which was resolved at short wavelengths to have hourglass shaped B-field configuration. We compare these 6.9 mm observations with previous polarization Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 0.88 mm, which have comparable angular resolution ($\\sim$0$"$7). We found that at the same resolution, the observed polarization position angles at 6.9 mm are slightly deviated from those observed at 0.88 mm. Due to the lower optical depth of the emission at 6.9 mm, and the potential effect of dust grain growth, the new JVLA observations are likely probing B-field alignments in regions interior to those sampled by the previous polarization observations at higher frequencies. Our understanding can be improved by more sensitive observations, and observations fo...
Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Naomi; Rao, Ramprasad; Li, I.-Hsiu; Fukagawa, Misato; Girart, Josep M.; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.
2016-04-01
We report new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), 0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_farcs;5 angular resolution observations of linearly polarized continuum emission at 6.9 mm, toward the class 0 young stellar object NGC 1333 IRAS4A. This target source is a collapsing dense molecular core that was resolved at short wavelengths to have an hourglass shaped B-field configuration. We compare these 6.9 mm observations with previous polarization Submillimeter Array observations at 0.88 mm, which have a comparable angular resolution (∼0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_farcs;7). We find that at the same resolution, the observed polarization position angles at 6.9 mm are slightly deviated from those observed at 0.88 mm. Due to the lower optical depth of the emission at 6.9 mm, and the potential effect of dust grain growth, the new JVLA observations are likely probing B-field alignments in regions interior to those sampled by the previous polarization observations at higher frequencies. Our understanding can be improved with more sensitive observations, and with observations for the more extended spatial scales.
Quasiparticle Dynamics and Exponential Protection in Majorana Islands
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albrecht, Sven Marian
This thesis presents measurements on Majorana islands: semiconductor-superconductor hybrid nanowire quantum dots in the trivial and the topological superconducting phase. We fabricate Majorana island devices based on indium arsenide nanowires with an epitaxially matched aluminum half-shell. Measu......This thesis presents measurements on Majorana islands: semiconductor-superconductor hybrid nanowire quantum dots in the trivial and the topological superconducting phase. We fabricate Majorana island devices based on indium arsenide nanowires with an epitaxially matched aluminum half......-shell. Measuring quasiparticle transport, we observe a gate voltage dependent even-odd Coulomb blockade pattern, associated with quasiparticle occupation of bound states, for which we demonstrate state parity lifetimes exceeding 10 milliseconds. Using Coulomb-blockade spectroscopy and varying the magnetic field...... for Majorana modes, with a characteristic length of 260 nm. For long devices exceeding one micron, transport at high magnetic fields shows discrete zero-energy states, with an energy gap to a higher-energy continuum, and evenly spaced Coulomb-blockade conductance peaks, a signature of teleportation via...
Continuum Coupling and Pair Correlation in Weakly Bound Deformed Nuclei
Oba, Hiroshi
2009-01-01
We formulate a new Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method applicable to weakly bound deformed nuclei using the coordinate-space Green's function technique. An emphasis is put on treatment of quasiparticle states in the continuum, on which we impose the correct boundary condition of the asymptotic out-going wave. We illustrate this method with numerical examples.
Quasiparticle excitations in relativistic quantum field theory
Arteaga, Daniel
2008-01-01
We analyze the particle-like excitations arising in relativistic field theories in states different than the vacuum. The basic properties characterizing the quasiparticle propagation are studied using two different complementary methods. First we introduce a frequency-based approach, wherein the quasiparticle properties are deduced from the spectral analysis of the two-point propagators. Second, we put forward a real-time approach, wherein the quantum state corresponding to the quasiparticle excitation is explicitly constructed, and the time-evolution is followed. Both methods lead to the same result: the energy and decay rate of the quasiparticles are determined by the real and imaginary parts of the retarded self-energy respectively. Both approaches are compared, on the one hand, with the standard field-theoretic analysis of particles in the vacuum and, on the other hand, with the mean-field-based techniques in general backgrounds.
Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics for central collisions
Alqahtani, Mubarak; Strickland, Michael
2016-01-01
We use quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics to study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. In quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics, a single finite-temperature quasiparticle mass is introduced and fit to the lattice data in order to implement a realistic equation of state. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard method of imposing the equation of state in anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. Using these three methods, we extract the primordial particle spectra, total number of charged particles, and average transverse momentum for various values of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s. We find that the three methods agree well for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, eta/s, but differ at large eta/s. We find, in particular, that when using standard viscous hydrodynamics, the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative...
Introduction to continuum mechanics
Lai, W Michael; Rubin, David
1996-01-01
Introduction to Continuum Mechanics is a recently updated and revised text which is perfect for either introductory courses in an undergraduate engineering curriculum or for a beginning graduate course.Continuum Mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation, and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, a
Quasiparticle model for deconfined matter and the nucleation of hadrons
Bessa, A
2006-01-01
Assuming a first-order chiral transition scenario, we study the process of phase conversion driven by homogeneous nucleation. We adopt a quasiparticle model whose parameters are fit to lattice QCD data to describe the pressure at high temperature in the deconfined sector, and a bag model equation of state for pions in the low-temperature sector. We compute the critical radius and nucleation rate in the thin-wall approximation, and compare the results to the ones obtained using the bag model and the linear $\\sigma$ model.
Spencer, A J M
2004-01-01
The mechanics of fluids and the mechanics of solids represent the two major areas of physics and applied mathematics that meet in continuum mechanics, a field that forms the foundation of civil and mechanical engineering. This unified approach to the teaching of fluid and solid mechanics focuses on the general mechanical principles that apply to all materials. Students who have familiarized themselves with the basic principles can go on to specialize in any of the different branches of continuum mechanics. This text opens with introductory chapters on matrix algebra, vectors and Cartesian ten
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper S; Dyre, Jeppe C; Daivis, Peter
2015-01-01
This paper introduces the fundamental continuum theory governing momentum transport in isotropic nanofluidic systems. The theory is an extension of the classical Navier-Stokes equation, and includes coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom as well as nonlocal response...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper S; Dyre, Jeppe C; Daivis, Peter;
2015-01-01
This paper introduces the fundamental continuum theory governing momentum transport in isotropic nanofluidic systems. The theory is an extension of the classical Navier-Stokes equation, and includes coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom as well as nonlocal response...
Quantum-matter physics: Quasiparticles on a collision course
van der Marel, Dirk
2016-05-01
Emergent quanta of momentum and charge, called quasiparticles, govern many of the properties of materials. The development of a quasiparticle collider promises to reveal fundamental insights into these peculiar entities. See Letter p.225
Topological quantum computing with only one mobile quasiparticle.
Simon, S H; Bonesteel, N E; Freedman, M H; Petrovic, N; Hormozi, L
2006-02-24
In a topological quantum computer, universal quantum computation is performed by dragging quasiparticle excitations of certain two dimensional systems around each other to form braids of their world lines in 2 + 1 dimensional space-time. In this Letter we show that any such quantum computation that can be done by braiding n identical quasiparticles can also be done by moving a single quasiparticle around n - 1 other identical quasiparticles whose positions remain fixed.
Separabelized Skyrme Interactions and Quasiparticle RPA
Severyukhin, A P; Stoyanov, C; Nguyen Van Giai; Stoyanov, Ch.; Giai, Nguyen Van
2002-01-01
A finite rank separable approximation for the quasiparticle RPA with Skyrme interactions is applied to study the low lying quadrupole and octupole states in some S isotopes and giant resonances in some spherical nuclei. It is shown that characteristics calculated within the suggested approach are in a good agreement with available experimental data.
Using Quasiparticle Poisoning To Detect Photons
Echternach, Pierre; Day, Peter
2006-01-01
According to a proposal, a phenomenon associated with excitation of quasiparticles in certain superconducting quantum devices would be exploited as a means of detecting photons with exquisite sensitivity. The phenomenon could also be exploited to perform medium-resolution spectroscopy. The proposal was inspired by the observation that Coulomb blockade devices upon which some quantum logic gates are based are extremely sensitive to quasiparticles excited above the superconducting gaps in their leads. The presence of quasiparticles in the leads can be easily detected via the charge states. If quasiparticles could be generated in the leads by absorption of photons, then the devices could be used as very sensitive detectors of electromagnetic radiation over the spectral range from x-rays to submillimeter waves. The devices in question are single-Cooper-pair boxes (SCBs), which are mesoscopic superconducting devices developed for quantum computing. An SCB consists of a small superconducting island connected to a reservoir via a small tunnel junction and connected to a voltage source through a gate capacitor. An SCB is an artificial two-level quantum system, the Hamiltonian of which can be controlled by the gate voltage. One measures the expected value of the charge of the eigenvectors of this quantum system by use of a radio-frequency single-electron transistor. A plot of this expected value of charge as a function of gate voltage resembles a staircase that, in the ideal case, consists of steps of height 2 e (where e is the charge of one electron). Experiments have shown that depending on the parameters of the device, quasiparticles in the form of "broken" Cooper pairs present in the reservoir can tunnel to the island, giving rise to steps of 1 e. This effect is sometimes called "poisoning." Simulations have shown that an extremely small average number of quasiparticles can generate a 1-e periodic signal. In a device according to the proposal, this poisoning would be
Watanabe, Yohei; Hino, Ken-ichi; Hase, Muneaki; Maeshima, Nobuya
2017-01-01
We examine generation dynamics of coherent phonons in both polar and nonpolar semiconductors, such as GaAs and Si, based on a polaronic-quasiparticle (PQ) model. In this model, the PQ operator is composed of two kinds of operators: one is a quasiboson operator, defined as a linear combination of a set of pairs of electron operators, and the other is a longitudinal optical (LO) phonon operator. In particular, the problem of transient and nonlinear Fano resonance (FR) is tackled, where the vestige of this quantum interference effect was observed exclusively in lightly n -doped Si immediately after carriers were excited by an ultrashort pulse laser [M. Hase et al., Nature (London) 426, 51 (2003), 10.1038/nature02044], although not observed yet in GaAs. The PQ model enables us to show straightforwardly that the phonon energy state is embedded in continuum states formed by a set of adiabatic eigenstates of the quasiboson; this energy configuration is a necessary condition of the manifestation of the transient FR in the present optically nonlinear system. Numerical calculations are done for photoemission spectra relevant to the retarded longitudinal dielectric function of transient photoexcited states and for power spectra relevant to the LO-phonon displacement function of time. The photoemission spectra show that in undoped Si, an asymmetric spectral profile characteristic of FR comes into existence immediately after the instantaneous carrier excitation to fade out gradually, whereas in undoped GaAs, no asymmetry in spectra appears in the whole temporal region. The similar results are also obtained in the power spectra. These results are in harmony with the reported experimental results. It is found that the obtained difference in spectral profile between undoped Si and GaAs is attributed to a phase factor of an effective interaction between the LO phonon and the quasiboson. More detailed discussion of the FR dynamics is made in the text.
Hertel, Peter
2012-01-01
This small book on the properties of continuously distributed matter covers a huge field. It sets out the governing principles of continuum physics and illustrates them by carefully chosen examples. These examples comprise structural mechanics and elasticity, fluid media, electricity and optics, thermoelectricity, fluctuation phenomena and more, from Archimedes' principle via Brownian motion to white dwarfs. Metamaterials, pattern formation by reaction-diffusion and surface plasmon polaritons are dealt with as well as classical topics such as Stokes' formula, beam bending and buckling, crystal optics and electro- and magnetooptic effects, dielectric waveguides, Ohm's law, surface acoustic waves, to mention just some. The set of balance equations for content, flow and production of particles, mass, charge, momentum, energy and entropy is augmented by material, or constitutive equations. They describe entire classes of materials, such as viscid fluids and gases, elastic media, dielectrics or electrical con...
Quasiparticle interactions in frustrated Heisenberg chains
Vanderstraeten, Laurens; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank; Poilblanc, Didier
2016-06-01
Interactions between elementary excitations in quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnets are of experimental relevance and their quantitative theoretical treatment has been a theoretical challenge for many years. Using matrix product states, one can explicitly determine the wave functions of the one- and two-particle excitations, and, consequently, the contributions to dynamical correlations. We apply this framework to the (nonintegrable) frustrated dimerized spin-1/2 chain, a model for generic spin-Peierls systems, where low-energy quasiparticle excitations are bound states of topological solitons. The spin structure factor involving two quasiparticle scattering states is obtained in the thermodynamic limit with full momentum and frequency resolution. This allows very subtle features in the two-particle spectral function to be revealed which, we argue, could be seen, e.g., in inelastic neutron scattering of spin-Peierls compounds under a change of the external pressure.
Scattering of a composite quasiparticle by an impurity on a lattice
Suzuki, Fumika; Litinskaya, Marina; Unruh, William G.
2017-08-01
We study scattering of a composite quasiparticle, which possesses a degree of freedom corresponding to relative separation between two bound excitations, by a δ -like impurity potential on a one-dimensional discrete lattice. First, we show that, due to specific properties of their dispersion, lattice excitations bind to impurities with both negative and positive potentials. We demonstrate that the finite size of the composite excitation leads to formation of multiple excitation-impurity bound states. The number and the degree of localization of these bound states depend on the signs and relative magnitudes of the impurity potential and the binding strength of two quasiparticles. We also report the existence of excitation-impurity bound states whose energies are located in the continuum band. Secondly, we study a change in the entanglement between the center of mass and relative coordinate degrees of freedom of a biexciton wave packet during single impurity scattering and decoherence caused by it. For a composite quasiparticle on a lattice, the entanglement between its relative and center of mass coordinate degrees of freedom arises naturally due to inseparability of the two-particle Hamiltonian. One of the main focuses of our study is to investigate how this inseparability affects the creation of the biexciton-impurity bound states and the entanglement dynamics.
Introduction to continuum mechanics
Rubin, David; Lai, W Michael
1994-01-01
Continuum mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, and the book contains an abundance of illustrative examples and problems, many with solutions. Through the addition of more advanced material (solution of classical elasticity problems, constitutive e
Quasiparticle specific heats for the crystalline color superconducting phase of QCD
Casalbuoni, R; Mannarelli, M; Nardulli, G; Ruggieri, M; Stramaglia, S; 10.1016/j.physletb.2003.09.071
2003-01-01
We calculate the specific heats of quasiparticles of two-flavor QCD in its crystalline phases for low temperature. We show that for the different crystalline structures considered here there are gapless modes contributing linearly in temperature to the specific heat. We evaluate also the phonon contributions which are cubic in temperature. These features might be relevant for compact stars with an inner shell in a color superconducting crystalline phase. (21 refs).
Quasi-particle Specific Heats for the Crystalline Color Superconducting Phase of QCD
Casalbuoni, Roberto; Mannarelli, M; Nardulli, Giuseppe; Ruggieri, Marco; Stramaglia, S
2003-01-01
We calculate the specific heats of quasi-particles of two-flavor QCD in its crystalline phases for low temperature. We show that for the different crystalline structures considered here there are gapless modes contributing linearly in temperature to the specific heat. We evaluate also the phonon contributions which are cubic in temperature. These features might be relevant for compact stars with an inner shell in a color superconducting crystalline phase.
Quasi-particle specific heats for the crystalline color superconducting phase of QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casalbuoni, R.; Gatto, R.; Mannarelli, M.; Nardulli, G.; Ruggieri, M.; Stramaglia, S
2003-11-27
We calculate the specific heats of quasi-particles of two-flavor QCD in its crystalline phases for low temperature. We show that for the different crystalline structures considered here there are gapless modes contributing linearly in temperature to the specific heat. We evaluate also the phonon contributions which are cubic in temperature. These features might be relevant for compact stars with an inner shell in a color superconducting crystalline phase.
Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems
Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui
2017-03-01
At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.
Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor
Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas
2016-01-01
Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e=n, with n = 1–4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD∼2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ∼0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure. PMID:26831071
Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor.
Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas
2016-02-16
Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e = n, with n = 1-4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD ~ 2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ~ 0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure.
Irreducible tensor description. II. A quasiparticle gas
Banach, Zbigniew; Piekarski, Slawomir
1989-08-01
Let E be a three-dimensional Euclidean vector space and assume that ℏΩ(k) is a quasiparticle energy in the mode k∈E; thus k is a wave vector. Within the framework of the Boltzmann-Peierls equation and a broad class of isotropic dispersion relations [Ω(k)⇒Ω(k), k: =||k||], the exact system of irreducible equations of transfer for the symmetric traceless moments of the distribution function f is derived and the range of validity of Grad's moment procedure is extended to the case of quasiparticle gases. Thus not without reason, an expansion with respect to k of the one-particle density f around the local Bose-Einstein occupation probability f0 in terms of the appropriately chosen Tchebychef functions Aβ(z;Θ) and Ikenberry's harmonics Yα(g) is carefully recognized. Also, the importance of the Tchebychef basis {Aβ; β=0,1,...}, both in any serious analysis of equilibrium fluctuations and in exploiting the Chapman-Enskog procedure, is clearly established.
Quasiparticle lifetime in a mixture of Bose and Fermi superfluids.
Zheng, Wei; Zhai, Hui
2014-12-31
In this Letter, we study the effect of quasiparticle interactions in a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture. We consider the lifetime of a quasiparticle of the Bose superfluid due to its interaction with quasiparticles in the Fermi superfluid. We find that this damping rate, i.e., the inverse of the lifetime, has quite a different threshold behavior at the BCS and the BEC side of the Fermi superfluid. The damping rate is a constant near the threshold momentum in the BCS side, while it increases rapidly in the BEC side. This is because, in the BCS side, the decay process is restricted by the constraint that the fermion quasiparticle is located near the Fermi surface, while such a restriction does not exist in the BEC side where the damping process is dominated by bosonic quasiparticles of the Fermi superfluid. Our results are related to the collective mode experiment in the recently realized Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture.
Coherent suppression of quasiparticle dissipation in a superconducting artificial atom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pop, Ioan [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)
2016-07-01
We demonstrate immunity to quasiparticle dissipation in a Josephson junction. At the foundation of this protection rests a prediction by Brian Josephson from fifty years ago: the particle-hole interference of superconducting quasiparticles when tunneling across a Josephson junction. The junction under study is the central element of a fluxonium artificial atom, which we place in an extremely low loss environment and measure using radio-frequency dispersive techniques. Furthermore, by using a quantum limited amplifier (a Josephson Parametric Converter) we can observe quantum jumps between the 0 and 1 states of the qubit in thermal equilibrium with the environment. The distribution of the times in-between the quantum jumps reveals quantitative information about the population and dynamics of quasiparticles. The data is entirely consistent with the hypothesis that our system is sensitive to single quasiparticle excitations, which opens new perspectives for quasiparticle monitoring in low temperature devices.
Chakraborty, P.; Kapusta, J. I.
2017-01-01
In simulations of high energy heavy ion collisions that employ viscous hydrodynamics, single particle distributions are distorted from their thermal equilibrium form due to gradients in the flow velocity. These are closely related to the formulas for the shear and bulk viscosities in the quasiparticle approximation. Distorted single particle distributions are now commonly used to calculate the emission of photons and dilepton pairs, and in the late stage to calculate the conversion of a continuous fluid to individual particles. We show how distortions of the single particle distribution functions due to both shear and bulk viscous effects can be done rigorously in the quasiparticle approximation and illustrate it with the linear σ model at finite temperature.
Nonlocal Theories in Continuum Mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Jirásek
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explain why the standard continuum theory fails to properly describe certain mechanical phenomena and how the description can be improved by enrichments that incorporate the influence of gradients or weighted spatial averages of strain or of an internal variable. Three typical mechanical problems that require such enrichments are presented: (i dispersion of short elastic waves in heterogeneous or discrete media, (ii size effects in microscale elastoplasticity, in particular with the size dependence of the apparent hardening modulus, and (iii localization of strain and damage in quasibrittle structures and with the resulting transitional size effect. Problems covered in the examples encompass static and dynamic phenomena, linear and nonlinear behavior, and three constitutive frameworks, namely elasticity, plasticity and continuum damage mechanics. This shows that enrichments of the standard continuum theory can be useful in a wide range of mechanical problems.
Nonlinear nonequilibrium quasiparticle relaxation in Josephson junctions.
Krasnov, V M
2009-11-27
I solve numerically a full set of nonlinear kinetic balance equations for stacked Josephson junctions, which allows analysis of strongly nonequilibrium phenomena. It is shown that nonlinearity becomes significant already at very small disequilibrium. The following new, nonlinear effects are obtained: (i) At even-gap voltages V = 2nDelta/e (n = 2, 3, ...) nonequilibrium bosonic bands overlap. This leads to enhanced emission of Omega = 2Delta bosons and to the appearance of dips in tunnel conductance. (ii) A new type of radiative solution is found at strong disequilibrium. It is characterized by the fast stimulated relaxation of quasiparticles. A stack in this state behaves as a light emitting diode and directly converts electric power to boson emission, without utilization of the ac-Josephson effect. The phenomenon can be used for realization of a new type of superconducting cascade laser in the THz frequency range.
QCD Critical Point in a Quasiparticle Model
Srivastava, P K; Singh, C P
2010-01-01
Recent theoretical investigations have unveiled a rich structure in the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram which consists of quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadronic phases but also supports the existence of a cross-over transition ending at a critical end point (CEP). We find a too large variation in determination of the coordinates of the CEP in the temperature (T), baryon chemical potential ($\\mu_{B}$) plane and, therefore, its identification in the current heavy-ion experiments becomes debatable. Here we use an equation of state (EOS) for a deconfined QGP using a thermodynamically consistent quasiparticle model involving quarks and gluons having thermal masses. We further use a thermodynamically consistent excluded volume model for the hadron gas (HG) which was recently proposed by us. Using these equations of state, a first order deconfining phase transition is constructed using Gibbs' criteria. This leads to an interesting finding that the phase transition line ends at a critical point (CEP) be...
Quasiparticle self-consistent GW theory.
van Schilfgaarde, M; Kotani, Takao; Faleev, S
2006-06-09
In past decades the scientific community has been looking for a reliable first-principles method to predict the electronic structure of solids with high accuracy. Here we present an approach which we call the quasiparticle self-consistent approximation. It is based on a kind of self-consistent perturbation theory, where the self-consistency is constructed to minimize the perturbation. We apply it to selections from different classes of materials, including alkali metals, semiconductors, wide band gap insulators, transition metals, transition metal oxides, magnetic insulators, and rare earth compounds. Apart from some mild exceptions, the properties are very well described, particularly in weakly correlated cases. Self-consistency dramatically improves agreement with experiment, and is sometimes essential. Discrepancies with experiment are systematic, and can be explained in terms of approximations made.
Lifetime of quasiparticles in hot QED plasmas
Blaizot, J P; Blaizot, Jean Paul; Iancu, Edmond
1996-01-01
The calculation of the lifetime of quasiparticles in a QED plasma at high temperature remains plagued with infrared divergences, even after one has taken into account the screening corrections. The physical processes responsible for these divergences are the collisions involving the exchange of very soft, unscreened, magnetic photons, whose contribution is enhanced by the thermal Bose-Einstein occupation factor. The self energy diagrams which diverge in perturbation theory contain no internal fermion loops, but an arbitrary number of internal magnetostatic photon lines. By generalizing the Bloch-Nordsieck model at finite temperature, we can resum all the singular contributions of such diagrams, and obtain the correct long time behaviour of the retarded fermion propagator in the hot QED plasma: S_R(t)\\sim \\exp\\{-\\alpha T \\, t\\, \\ln\\omega_pt\\}, where \\omega_p=eT/3 is the plasma frequency and \\alpha=e^2/4\\pi.
Diffusion of long-lived quasiparticles over long distances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loidl, M. E-mail: loidl@mppmu.mpg.de; Bravin, M.; Bruckmayer, M.; Stefano, P. Di; Frank, T.; Meier, O.; Meunier, P.; Proebst, F.; Safran, G.; Seidel, W.; Sergeyev, I.; Sisti, M.; Stodolsky, L.; Uchaikin, S.; Zerle, L
2000-04-07
Diffusion of quasiparticles over distances up to 4 mm has been observed in various superconducting films. The quasiparticles were created by X-ray absorption in film strips with critical temperatures near 1 K and were detected in two superconducting phase transition thermometers at the ends of each strip. Position and energy of the absorbed X-rays as well as diffusion constants and lifetimes of the quasiparticles were determined. Very long lifetimes up to 9 ms allow the realization of large area phonon collector films on massive cryogenic particle detectors. Recently, with a first such detector a high efficiency of the phonon collection could be demonstrated.
Pseudolocalized Three-dimensional Solitary Waves as Quasi-Particles
Christov, C I
2012-01-01
A higher-order dispersive equation is introduced as a candidate for the governing equation of a field theory. A new class of solutions of the three-dimensional field equation are considered, which are not localized functions in the sense of the integrability of the square of the profile over an infinite domain. For the new type of solutions, the gradient and/or the Hessian/Laplacian are square integrable. In the linear limiting case, analytical expression for the pseudolocalized solution is found and the method of variational approximation is applied to find the dynamics of the centers of the quasi-particles (QPs) corresponding to these solutions. A discrete Lagrangian can be derived due to the localization of the gradient and the Laplacian of the profile. The equations of motion of the QPs are derived from the discrete Lagrangian. The pseudomass ("wave mass") of a QP is defined as well as the potential of interaction. The most important trait of the new QPs is that at large distances, the force of attraction...
Quasiparticle diffusion over several mm in cryogenic detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loidl, M. E-mail: loidl@hep.saclay.cea.fr; Cooper, S.; Meier, O.; Proebst, F.; Safran, G.; Seidel, W.; Sisti, M.; Stodolsky, L.; Uchaikin, S
2001-06-11
The use of quasiparticle diffusion in a superconducting film has the potential to allow an increase in the size of a cryogenic detector without proportional loss of energy resolution. The quasiparticle lifetime and the diffusion constant are critical parameters which have limited this development. Using W superconducting phase transition thermometers as the sensors and a W/Al bilayer as the diffusion film, we have measured quasiparticle diffusion over a distance of 2 mm and deduced a diffusion constant of D=2.5x10{sup -4} m{sup 2}/s and a quasiparticle lifetime of {tau}=9.0 ms, which is, to our knowledge, by far the longest ever observed. With Ir/Au thermometers and an Ir/Au/Al diffusion film we found D=4.6x10{sup -3} m{sup 2}/s and {tau}=0.43 ms with diffusion over 4 mm, the longest distance observed to date.
Shot Noise and the Transmission of Dilute Laughlin Quasiparticles
Kane, C. L.; Fisher, Matthew P. A.
2002-01-01
We analyze theoretically a three-terminal geometry in a fractional quantum Hall system - studied in a recent experiment - which allows a dilute beam of Laughlin quasiparticles to be prepared and subsequently scattered by a point contact. Employing a chiral Luttinger liquid description of the nu^{-1} = m integer edge states, we compute the current and noise of the quasiparticle beam after transmission through the point contact at finite temperature and bias voltage. A re-fermionization procedu...
Quantum logic gates from Dirac quasiparticles
Marino, E. C.; Brozeguini, J. C.
2015-03-01
We show that one of the fundamental operations of topological quantum computation, namely the non-Abelian braiding of identical particles, can be physically realized in a general system of Dirac quasiparticles in 1 + 1D. Our method is based on the study of the analytic structure of the different Euclidean correlation functions of Dirac fields, which are conveniently expressed as functions of a complex variable. When the Dirac field is an (Abelian) anyon with statistics parameter s (2s not an integer), we show that the associated Majorana states of such a field present non-Abelian statistics. The explicit form of the unitary, non-commuting (monodromy) matrices generated upon braiding is derived as a function of s and is shown to satisfy the Yang-Baxter algebra. For the special case of s = 1/4, we show that the braiding matrices become the logic gates NOT, CNOT,… required in the algorithms of universal quantum computation. We suggest that maybe polyacetylene, alternately doped with alkali and halogen atoms, is a potential candidate for a physical material realization of the system studied here.
Multi-quasiparticle Excitations in 145Tb
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZhengYong; ZhouXiaohong; ZhangYuhu; T.Hayakawa; M.Oshima; T.Toh; T.Shizuma; J.Katakura; Y.Hatsukawa; M.Matsuda; H.Kusakari; M.Sugawara; K.Furuno; T.Komatsubara
2003-01-01
Study of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy of 145Tb has been carried out by using 118Sn (32 S, 1p4n) 145Tb reaction. Excitation functions, X-γ-t and γ-γ-t coincidences and γ-ray anisotropies were measured. Here, t refers to the relative time difference between any two coincident γ-rays detected within ±200 ns. A level scheme of 14tTb, including 81 γ-transitions as shown in Fig.l, has been established up to 7.4 MeV in excitation energy and spinparity assignments for most of the observed levels have been done. The level structure shows characteristics of spherical nucleus. The observed states with excitation energies less than 2 MeV are interpreted by coupling an h11/2 proton to the 2+, 4+ and 3- core excitations in 144Gd. The excitation energies of these states fit wellin to the systematics of the neighboring odd-A N=80 isotones, and are well reproduced by the quasiparticle-cluster interaction calculations[1]. Semi-empirical shell model calculations[2] have been done for the higher-lying levels. The results clearly reveal the characteristic features of multiparticle configurations in a spherical nucleus. Specific configurations are proposed for the yrast and some non-yrast levels.
Nodal Quasiparticle in Pseudogapped Colossal Magnetoresistive Manganites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mannella, N.
2010-06-02
A characteristic feature of the copper oxide high-temperature superconductors is the dichotomy between the electronic excitations along the nodal (diagonal) and antinodal (parallel to the Cu-O bonds) directions in momentum space, generally assumed to be linked to the d-wave symmetry of the superconducting state. Angle-resolved photoemission measurements in the superconducting state have revealed a quasiparticle spectrum with a d-wave gap structure that exhibits a maximum along the antinodal direction and vanishes along the nodal direction. Subsequent measurements have shown that, at low doping levels, this gap structure persists even in the high-temperature metallic state, although the nodal points of the superconducting state spread out in finite Fermi arcs. This is the so-called pseudogap phase, and it has been assumed that it is closely linked to the superconducting state, either by assigning it to fluctuating superconductivity or by invoking orders which are natural competitors of d-wave superconductors. Here we report experimental evidence that a very similar pseudogap state with a nodal-antinodal dichotomous character exists in a system that is markedly different from a superconductor: the ferromagnetic metallic groundstate of the colossal magnetoresistive bilayer manganite La{sub 1.2}Sr{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Our findings therefore cast doubt on the assumption that the pseudogap state in the copper oxides and the nodal-antinodal dichotomy are hallmarks of the superconductivity state.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张俊波; 李锡夔
2009-01-01
A numerical method attributed to a solution procedure of linear complementary problem (LCP) for gradient plasticity continuum is proposed. With the mesh-free method based on moving least-square approxima-tion (MLS) procedure, the displacements and plastic multiplier taken as primary field variables are interpolated in terms of their discretized counterparts defined at the nodal points and the integration points, respectively. The weak form of the equilibrium equation along with the non-local constitutive equation and the non-local yield criterion locally enforced at each integration point are combined to mathematically educe a normal form of LCP solved by means of Lexico-Lemke algorithm. An iterative procedure based on the Newton-Raphson method is developed with no need of consistent tangent elasto-plastic modulus matrix to be derived while still retaining the second convergence rate for the solution of the boundary problem of gradient plasticity continuum. The numerical results for one and two dimensional examples demonstrate the validity of the proposed method in dealing with the numerical solution of the strain localization problem due to strain softening.%对梯度塑性连续体提出了一个归结为线性互补问题的数值分析方法.塑性乘子与位移均为主要未知变量,并采用基于移动最小二乘的无网格方法分别在积分点与节点上插值.联立弱形式下的平衡方程与积分点上逐点满足的非局部本构方程和屈服准则可以导出一个线性互补问题,并通过Lexico-Lemke算法求解.构造了一个基于N-R方法的迭代方案,使得不需要形成一致性切线刚度矩阵而仍保持二阶收敛性.一维和二维的数值算例证明了所提出的方法处理由应变软化引起的应变局部化问题的有效性.
Quasiparticle Lifetime in Ultracold Fermionic Mixtures with Density and Mass Imbalance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lan, Zhihao; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos
2013-01-01
We show that atomic Fermi mixtures with density and mass imbalance exhibit a rich diversity of scaling laws for the quasiparticle decay rate beyond the quadratic energy and temperature dependence of conventional Fermi liquids. For certain densities and mass ratios, the decay rate is linear, whereas...... in other cases, it exhibits a plateau. Remarkably, this plateau extends from the deeply degenerate to the high temperature classical regime of the light species. Many of these scaling laws are analogous to what is found in very different systems, including dirty metals, liquid metals, and high temperature...
Quasiparticle Lifetime in Ultracold Fermionic Mixtures with Density and Mass Imbalance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lan, Zhihao; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos
2013-01-01
We show that atomic Fermi mixtures with density and mass imbalance exhibit a rich diversity of scaling laws for the quasiparticle decay rate beyond the quadratic energy and temperature dependence of conventional Fermi liquids. For certain densities and mass ratios, the decay rate is linear, whereas...... plasmas. The Fermi mixtures can in this sense span a whole range of seemingly diverse and separate physical systems. Our results are derived in the weakly interacting limit, making them quantitatively reliable. The different regimes can be detected with radio-frequency spectroscopy....
Recombination and propagation of quasiparticles in cuprate superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gedik, Nuh [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2004-05-01
Rapid developments in time-resolved optical spectroscopy have led to renewed interest in the nonequilibrium state of superconductors and other highly correlated electron materials. In these experiments, the nonequilibrium state is prepared by the absorption of short (less than 100 fs) laser pulses, typically in the near-infrared, that perturb the density and energy distribution of quasiparticles. The evolution of the nonequilibrium state is probed by time resolving the changes in the optical response functions of the medium that take place after photoexcitation. Ultimately, the goal of such experiments is to understand not only the nonequilibrium state, but to shed light on the still poorly understood equilibrium properties of these materials. We report nonequilibrium experiments that have revealed aspects of the cup rates that have been inaccessible by other techniques. Namely, the diffusion and recombination coefficients of quasiparticles have been measured in both YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{6.5} and Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+x} using time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Dependence of these measurements on doping, temperature and laser intensity is also obtained. To study the recombination of quasiparticles, we measure the change in reflectivity ΔR which is directly proportional to the nonequilibrium quasiparticle density created by the laser. From the intensity dependence, we estimate β, the inelastic scattering coefficient and γ_{th} thermal equilibrium quasiparticle decay rate. We also present the dependence of recombination measurements on doping in Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+x}. Going from underdoped to overdoped regime, the sign of ΔR changes from positive to negative right at the optimal doping. This is accompanied by a change in dynamics. The decay of ΔR stops being intensity dependent exactly at the optimal doping. We provide possible interpretations of these two
Resonant quasiparticle-ion scattering in anisotropic superfluid 3He
Salmelin, R. H.; Salomaa, M. M.
1990-03-01
Low-energy excitations in quantum fluids are most directly encountered by ions. In the superfluid phases of 3He the relevant elementary excitations are Bogoliubov quasiparticles, which undergo repeated scattering off an ion in the presence of a divergent density of states. We present a quantum-mechanical calculation of the resonant 3He quasiparticle-scattering-limited mobility for negative ions in the anisotropic bulk 3A (A phase) and 3P (polar phase) that is exact when the quasiparticles scatter elastically. We develop a numerical scheme to solve the singular equations for quasiparticle-ion scattering in the A and P phases. Both of these superfluid phases feature a uniaxially symmetric order parameter but distinct topology for the magnitude of the energy gap on the Fermi sphere, i.e., points versus lines of nodes. In particular, the perpetual orbital circulation of Cooper pairs in 3A results in a novel, purely quantum-mechanical intrinsic Magnus effect, which is absent in the polar phase, where Cooper pairs possess no spontaneous orbital angular momentum. This is of interest also for transport properties of heavy-fermion superconductors. We discuss the 3He quasiparticle-ion cross sections, which allow one to account for the mobility data with essentially no free parameters. The calculated mobility thus facilitates an introduction of ``ion spectroscopy'' to extract useful information on fundamental properties of the superfluid state, such as the temperature dependence of the energy gap in 3A.
Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Byskov, Esben
•The principle of virtual work is used to establish consistent theories of kinematic nonlinearity and linearity for other kinds of bodies, such as beams and plates •An in-depth treatment of structural instability as many structures fail due to this phenomenon •An introduction to the most versatile...... numerical method, the finite element method, including means of mending inherent problems •An informal, yet precise exposition that emphasizes not just how a topic is treated, but discusses why a particular choice is made The book opens with a derivation of kinematically nonlinear 3-D continuum mechanics...... for solids. Then the principle of virtual work is utilized to derive the simpler, kinematically linear 3-D theory and to provide the foundation for developing consistent theories of kinematic nonlinearity and linearity for specialized continua, such as beams and plates, and finite element methods...
Systematic distillation of composite Fibonacci anyons using one mobile quasiparticle
Reichardt, Ben W
2012-01-01
A topological quantum computer should allow intrinsically fault-tolerant quantum computation, but there remains uncertainty about how such a computer can be implemented. It is known that topological quantum computation can be implemented with limited quasiparticle braiding capabilities, in fact using only a single mobile quasiparticle, if the system can be properly initialized by measurements. It is also known that measurements alone suffice without any braiding, provided that the measurement devices can be dynamically created and modified. We study a model in which both measurement and braiding capabilities are limited. Given the ability to pull nontrivial Fibonacci anyon pairs from the vacuum with a certain success probability, we show how to simulate universal quantum computation by braiding one quasiparticle and with only one measurement, to read out the result. The difficulty lies in initializing the system. We give a systematic construction of a family of braid sequences that initialize to arbitrary acc...
A non-abelian quasi-particle model for gluon plasma
Politis, E. P.; Tsagkarakis, C. E.; Diakonos, F. K.; Maintas, X. N.; Tsapalis, A.
2016-12-01
We propose a quasi-particle model for the thermodynamic description of the gluon plasma which takes into account non-abelian characteristics of the gluonic field. This is accomplished utilizing massive non-linear plane wave solutions of the classical equations of motion with a variable mass parameter, reflecting the scale invariance of the Yang-Mills Lagrangian. For the statistical description of the gluon plasma we interpret these non-linear waves as quasi-particles with a temperature dependent mass distribution. Quasi-Gaussian distributions with a common variance but different temperature dependent mean masses for the longitudinal and transverse modes are employed. We use recent Lattice results to fix the mean transverse and longitudinal masses while the variance is fitted to the equation of state of pure SU (3) on the Lattice. Thus, our model succeeds to obtain both a consistent description of the gluon plasma energy density as well as a correct behavior of the mass parameters near the critical point.
Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg Physics with a Singular Continuum of States
Basko, D. M.
2017-01-01
This Letter addresses the dynamical quantum problem of a driven discrete energy level coupled to a semi-infinite continuum whose density of states has a square-root-type singularity, such as states of a free particle in one dimension or quasiparticle states in a BCS superconductor. The system dynamics is strongly affected by the quantum-mechanical repulsion between the discrete level and the singularity, which gives rise to a bound state, suppresses the decay into the continuum, and can produce Stueckelberg oscillations. This quantum coherence effect may limit the performance of mesoscopic superconducting devices, such as the quantum electron turnstile.
Extended quasiparticle approximation for relativistic electrons in plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.G.Morozov
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Starting with Dyson equations for the path-ordered Green's function, it is shown that the correlation functions for relativistic electrons (positrons in a weakly coupled non-equilibrium plasmas can be decomposed into sharply peaked quasiparticle parts and off-shell parts in a rather general form. To leading order in the electromagnetic coupling constant, this decomposition yields the extended quasiparticle approximation for the correlation functions, which can be used for the first principle calculation of the radiation scattering rates in QED plasmas.
Annihilation of colliding Bogoliubov quasiparticles reveals their Majorana nature.
Beenakker, C W J
2014-02-21
The single-particle excitations of a superconductor are coherent superpositions of electrons and holes near the Fermi level, called Bogoliubov quasiparticles. They are Majorana fermions, meaning that pairs of quasiparticles can annihilate. We calculate the annihilation probability at a beam splitter for chiral quantum Hall edge states, obtaining a 1±cosϕ dependence on the phase difference ϕ of the superconductors from which the excitations originated (with the ± sign distinguishing singlet and triplet pairing). This provides for a nonlocal measurement of the superconducting phase in the absence of any supercurrent.
Continuum mechanics of electromagnetic solids
Maugin, GA
1988-01-01
This volume is a rigorous cross-disciplinary theoretical treatment of electromechanical and magnetomechanical interactions in elastic solids. Using the modern style of continuum thermomechanics (but without excessive formalism) it starts from basic principles of mechanics and electromagnetism, and goes on to unify these two fields in a common framework. It treats linear and nonlinear static and dynamic problems in a variety of elastic solids such as piezoelectrics, electricity conductors, ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, ionic crystals and ceramics. Chapters 1-3 are introductory, describing the e
Chakraborty, P
2016-01-01
In high energy heavy ion collisions, single particle distributions are distorted from their thermal equilibrium form due to gradients in the flow velocity. These are closely related to the formulas for the shear and bulk viscosities in the quasi-particle approximation. Distorted single particle distributions are now commonly used to calculate the emission of photons and dilepton pairs, and in the late stage to calculate the conversion of a continuous fluid to individual particles. In practice this is done only in a very approximate way. We show how it can be done rigorously in the quasi-particle approximation and illustrate it with the linear $\\sigma$ model at finite temperature for both the shear and bulk contributions.
De Visser, P.J.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Yates, S.J.C.; Diener, P.; Endo, A.; Klapwijk, T.M.
2012-01-01
We have measured the number of quasiparticles and their lifetime in aluminium superconducting microwave resonators. The number of excess quasiparticles below 160 mK decreases from 72 to 17 μm−3 with a 6 dB decrease of the microwave power. The quasiparticle lifetime increases accordingly from 1.4 to
Computational Continuum Mechanics
Shabana, Ahmed A
2011-01-01
This text presents the theory of continuum mechanics using computational methods. Ideal for students and researchers, the second edition features a new chapter on computational geometry and finite element analysis.
Metastability in spin polarised Fermi gases and quasiparticle decays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadeghzadeh, Kayvan; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos
2011-01-01
the interaction strength at which a polarised phase of molecules becomes the groundstate, to the one at which the single quasiparticle groundstate changes character from polaronic to molecular. Our argument in terms of a Fermi sea of polarons naturally suggests their use as an experimental probe. We propose...
Doping-dependent quasiparticle band structure in cuprate superconductors
Eder, R; Ohta, Y.; Sawatzky, G.A
1997-01-01
We present an exact diagonalization study of the single-particle spectral function in the so-called t-t'-t ''-J model in two dimensions. As a key result, we find that hole doping leads to a major reconstruction of the quasiparticle band structure near (pi,0): whereas for the undoped system the quasi
Isoscalar Giant Resonances of 120Sn in the Quasiparticle RRPA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAOLi-gang; MAZhong-yu
2003-01-01
In present work we have formulated the quasiparticle relativistic random phase approximation (QRRPA) model based on the relativistic mean field ground state in the response function formalism. The pairing correlations are taken into account in the BCS approximation with a constant pairing gap extracted from the experimental binding energies of neighboring nuclei.
Transport signatures of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albrecht, S. M.; Hansen, E. B.; Higginbotham, A. P.
2017-01-01
We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state...
Temperature dependence of bag pressure from quasiparticle model
Prasad, N.; Singh, C. P.
2001-03-01
A quasiparticle model with effective thermal gluon and quark masses is used to derive a temperature /T- and baryon chemical potential /μ-dependent bag constant /B(μ,T). Consequences of such a bag constant are obtained on the equation of state (EOS) for a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP).
Are Quasiparticles and Phonons Identical in Bose-Einstein Condensates?
Tsutsui, Kazumasa; Kato, Yusuke; Kita, Takafumi
2016-12-01
We study an interacting spinless Bose-Einstein condensate to clarify theoretically whether the spectra of its quasiparticles (one-particle excitations) and collective modes (two-particle excitations) are identical, as concluded by Gavoret and Nozières [http://doi.org/10.1016/0003-4916(64)90200-3" xlink:type="simple">Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 28, 349 (1964)]. We derive analytic expressions for their first and second moments so as to extend the Bijl-Feynman formula for the peak of the collective-mode spectrum to its width (inverse lifetime) and also to the one-particle channel. The obtained formulas indicate that the width of the collective-mode spectrum manifestly vanishes in the long-wavelength limit, whereas that of the quasiparticle spectrum apparently remains finite. We also evaluate the peaks and widths of the two spectra numerically for a model interaction potential in terms of the Jastrow wave function optimized by a variational method. It is thereby found that the width of the quasiparticle spectrum increases towards a constant as the wavenumber decreases. This marked difference in the spectral widths implies that the two spectra are distinct. In particular, the lifetime of the quasiparticles remains finite even in the long-wavelength limit.
Quasiparticle operators with non-abelian braiding statistics
Cabra, D C; Rossini, G L; Cabra, Daniel C.; Moreno, Enrique F.; Rossini, Gerardo L.
1998-01-01
We study the gauge invariant fermions in the fermion coset representation of $SU(N)_k$ Wess-Zumino-Witten models which create, by construction, the physical excitations (quasiparticles) of the theory. We show that they provide an explicit holomorphic factorization of $SU(N)_k$ WZW primaries and satisfy non-abelian braiding relations.
Critical relaxation with overdamped quasiparticles in open quantum systems
Lang, Johannes; Piazza, Francesco
2016-09-01
We study the late-time relaxation following a quench in an open quantum many-body system. We consider the open Dicke model, describing the infinite-range interactions between N atoms and a single, lossy electromagnetic mode. We show that the dynamical phase transition at a critical atom-light coupling is characterized by the interplay between reservoir-driven and intrinsic relaxation processes in the absence of number conservation. Above the critical coupling, small fluctuations in the occupation of the dominant quasiparticle mode start to grow in time, while the quasiparticle lifetime remains finite due to losses. Near the critical interaction strength, we observe a crossover between exponential and power-law 1 /τ relaxation, the latter driven by collisions between quasiparticles. For a quench exactly to the critical coupling, the power-law relaxation extends to infinite times, but the finite lifetime of quasiparticles prevents aging from appearing in two-times response and correlation functions. We predict our results to be accessible to quench experiments with ultracold bosons in optical resonators.
Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a subcycle timescale.
Langer, F; Hohenleutner, M; Schmid, C P; Poellmann, C; Nagler, P; Korn, T; Schüller, C; Sherwin, M S; Huttner, U; Steiner, J T; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R
2016-05-12
Ever since Ernest Rutherford scattered α-particles from gold foils, collision experiments have revealed insights into atoms, nuclei and elementary particles. In solids, many-body correlations lead to characteristic resonances--called quasiparticles--such as excitons, dropletons, polarons and Cooper pairs. The structure and dynamics of quasiparticles are important because they define macroscopic phenomena such as Mott insulating states, spontaneous spin- and charge-order, and high-temperature superconductivity. However, the extremely short lifetimes of these entities make practical implementations of a suitable collider challenging. Here we exploit lightwave-driven charge transport, the foundation of attosecond science, to explore ultrafast quasiparticle collisions directly in the time domain: a femtosecond optical pulse creates excitonic electron-hole pairs in the layered dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide while a strong terahertz field accelerates and collides the electrons with the holes. The underlying dynamics of the wave packets, including collision, pair annihilation, quantum interference and dephasing, are detected as light emission in high-order spectral sidebands of the optical excitation. A full quantum theory explains our observations microscopically. This approach enables collision experiments with various complex quasiparticles and suggests a promising new way of generating sub-femtosecond pulses.
Josephson junction analog and quasiparticle-pair current
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1973-01-01
A close analogy exists between a Josephson junction and a phase-locked loop. A new type of electrical analog based on this principle is presented. It is shown that the inclusion in this analog of a low-pass filter gives rise to a current of the same form as the Josephson quasiparticle-pair current...
Quasiparticle Dynamics and Exponential Protection in Majorana Islands
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albrecht, Sven Marian
Majorana modes. A preliminary analysis shows that Coulomb peaks also feature an alternating magnetic field dependent skew, the subject of future work. We additionally observe novel transport signatures of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island strongly coupled to normal metal leads. Numerical...
Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daoutidis, Ioannis
2009-10-01
Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)
3D real-space calculations of continuum response
Nakatsukasa, T; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro
2001-01-01
We present linear response theories in the continuum capable of describing continuum spectra and dynamical correlations of finite systems with no spatial symmetry. Our formulation is essentially the same as the continuum random-phase approximation (RPA) but suitable for uniform grid representation in the three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian coordinate. Effects of the continuum are taken into account by solving equations iteratively with a retarded Green's function. The method is applied to photoabsorption spectra in small molecules (acetylene and ethylene) and inelastic electron scattering from a deformed nucleus 12C.
Non-Poissonian quantum jumps of a fluxonium qubit due to quasiparticle excitations.
Vool, U; Pop, I M; Sliwa, K; Abdo, B; Wang, C; Brecht, T; Gao, Y Y; Shankar, S; Hatridge, M; Catelani, G; Mirrahimi, M; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J; Glazman, L I; Devoret, M H
2014-12-12
As the energy relaxation time of superconducting qubits steadily improves, nonequilibrium quasiparticle excitations above the superconducting gap emerge as an increasingly relevant limit for qubit coherence. We measure fluctuations in the number of quasiparticle excitations by continuously monitoring the spontaneous quantum jumps between the states of a fluxonium qubit, in conditions where relaxation is dominated by quasiparticle loss. Resolution on the scale of a single quasiparticle is obtained by performing quantum nondemolition projective measurements within a time interval much shorter than T₁, using a quantum-limited amplifier (Josephson parametric converter). The quantum jump statistics switches between the expected Poisson distribution and a non-Poissonian one, indicating large relative fluctuations in the quasiparticle population, on time scales varying from seconds to hours. This dynamics can be modified controllably by injecting quasiparticles or by seeding quasiparticle-trapping vortices by cooling down in a magnetic field.
Fundamentals of continuum mechanics
Rudnicki, John W
2014-01-01
A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally. This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ
Quasiparticle Gaps and Exciton Coulomb Energies in Si Nanoshells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frey, K. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Tiago, Murilo L [ORNL; Reboredo, Fernando A [ORNL; Ogut, Serdar [University of Illinois, Chicago
2009-01-01
Quasiparticle gaps and exciton Coulomb energies of H-passivated spherical Si nanoshells are computed using rst principles SCF and GW methods. We nd that the quasiparticle gap of a nanoshell depends on both its inner radius R1 (weakly) and outer radius R2 (strongly). These dependences on R1 and R2 are mostly consistent with electrostatics of a metallic shell. We also nd that the unscreened Coulomb energy ECoul in Si nanoshells has a somewhat unexpected size dependence at xed outer radius R2: ECoul decreases as the nanoshell becomes more conning, contrary to what one would expect from quantum connement eects. We show that this is a consequence of an increase in the average electron-hole distance, giving rise to reduced exciton Coulomb energies in spite of the reduction in the conning nanoshell volume.
Quasiparticle Approach to Molecules Interacting with Quantum Solvents.
Lemeshko, Mikhail
2017-03-03
Understanding the behavior of molecules interacting with superfluid helium represents a formidable challenge and, in general, requires approaches relying on large-scale numerical simulations. Here, we demonstrate that experimental data collected over the last 20 years provide evidence that molecules immersed in superfluid helium form recently predicted angulon quasiparticles [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 203001 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.114.203001]. Most important, casting the many-body problem in terms of angulons amounts to a drastic simplification and yields effective molecular moments of inertia as straightforward analytic solutions of a simple microscopic Hamiltonian. The outcome of the angulon theory is in good agreement with experiment for a broad range of molecular impurities, from heavy to medium-mass to light species. These results pave the way to understanding molecular rotation in liquid and crystalline phases in terms of the angulon quasiparticle.
Quasiparticle approach to molecules interacting with quantum solvents
Lemeshko, Mikhail
2016-01-01
Understanding the behavior of molecules interacting with superfluid helium represents a formidable challenge and, in general, requires approaches relying on large-scale numerical simulations. Here we demonstrate that experimental data collected over the last 20 years provide evidence that molecules immersed in superfluid helium form recently-predicted angulon quasiparticles [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 203001 (2015)]. Most importantly, casting the many-body problem in terms of angulons amounts to a drastic simplification and yields effective molecular moments of inertia as straightforward analytic solutions of a simple microscopic Hamiltonian. The outcome of the angulon theory is in good agreement with experiment for a broad range of molecular impurities, from heavy to medium-mass to light species. These results pave the way to understanding molecular rotation in liquid and crystalline phases in terms of the angulon quasiparticle.
Ultrafast spectroscopy of quasiparticle dynamics in cuprate superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Wei [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Chunfeng, E-mail: cfzhang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Xiaoyong [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chakhalian, Jak, E-mail: jchakhal@uark.edu [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Xiao, Min, E-mail: mxiao@uark.edu [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)
2015-02-15
Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study the nonequilibrium dynamics in high-Tc cuprate superconductors. The photo-induced quasiparticle (QP) dynamics revealed by pump-probe spectroscopy are sensitive to the near-Fermi level electronic structures. Here we review several selected examples to illustrate the enduring challenges including pairing glue, phase separation, and phase transitions in cuprate superconductors. We also present the data obtained on thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} in connection to these issues. - Highlights: • This paper reviews recent ultrafast spectroscopic study on cuprates. • Dynamics related to pairing glues and phase separations are summarized. • Mid-IR pulses enhance the coherent transport in underdoped cuprates. • Pump-probe data on the quasiparticle dynamics in YBCO films are presented.
Quasi-particle vortex scattering in UPt{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suderow, H.; Huxley, A. [CEA Centre des Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, Grenoble (France). DRFMC; Aubin, H.; Behnia, K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides (CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay (France)
1997-09-08
We present a study of thermal conductivity in the superconducting phase of the heavy fermion superconductor UPt{sub 3}. The angular dependence of the thermal conductivity shows a cosine-square law when the magnetic field rotates in the basal plane. For a field rotating out of the basal plane, however, our results present features which can not be explained through our current conventional picture for vortex scattering of heat-carrying quasi-particles. (orig.).
Dirac-graphene quasiparticles in strong slow-light pulse
Golovinski, P. A.; Astapenko, V. A.; Yakovets, A. V.
2017-02-01
An analytical Volkov's solution of the massless Dirac equation for graphene in the field of slow-light pulse with arbitrary time dependence is obtained. Exact solutions are presented for special cases of monochromatic field and a single-cycle pulse. Following the Fock-Schwinger proper time method, the Green's function for quasiparticles is derived with the account of the influence an external classical electromagnetic wave field.
Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a subcycle timescale
Langer, F.; Hohenleutner, M.; Schmid, C. P.; Poellmann, C.; Nagler, P.; Korn, T.; Schüller, C.; Sherwin, M. S.; Huttner, U.; Steiner, J. T.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.; Huber, R.
2016-05-01
Ever since Ernest Rutherford scattered α-particles from gold foils, collision experiments have revealed insights into atoms, nuclei and elementary particles. In solids, many-body correlations lead to characteristic resonances—called quasiparticles—such as excitons, dropletons, polarons and Cooper pairs. The structure and dynamics of quasiparticles are important because they define macroscopic phenomena such as Mott insulating states, spontaneous spin- and charge-order, and high-temperature superconductivity. However, the extremely short lifetimes of these entities make practical implementations of a suitable collider challenging. Here we exploit lightwave-driven charge transport, the foundation of attosecond science, to explore ultrafast quasiparticle collisions directly in the time domain: a femtosecond optical pulse creates excitonic electron-hole pairs in the layered dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide while a strong terahertz field accelerates and collides the electrons with the holes. The underlying dynamics of the wave packets, including collision, pair annihilation, quantum interference and dephasing, are detected as light emission in high-order spectral sidebands of the optical excitation. A full quantum theory explains our observations microscopically. This approach enables collision experiments with various complex quasiparticles and suggests a promising new way of generating sub-femtosecond pulses.
Topological strings linking with quasiparticle exchange in superconducting Dirac semimetals
Lopes, Pedro L. e. S.; Teo, Jeffrey C. Y.; Ryu, Shinsei
2017-06-01
We demonstrate a topological classification of vortices in three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological superconductors based on superconducting Dirac semimetals with an s -wave superconducting order parameter by means of a pair of numbers (NΦ,N ) , accounting how many units NΦ of magnetic fluxes h c /4 e and how many N chiral Majorana modes the vortex carries. From these quantities, we introduce a topological invariant, which further classifies the properties of such vortices under linking processes. While such processes are known to be related to instanton processes in a field theoretic description, we demonstrate here that they are, in fact, also equivalent to the fractional Josephson effect on junctions based at the edges of quantum spin Hall systems. This allows one to consider microscopically the effects of interactions in the linking problem. We therefore demonstrate that associated to links between vortices, one has the exchange of quasiparticles, either Majorana zero modes, or e /2 quasiparticles, which allows for a topological classification of vortices in these systems, seen to be Z8 classified. While NΦ and N are shown to be both even or odd in the weakly interacting limit, in the strongly interacting scenario one loosens this constraint. In this case, one may have further fractionalization possibilities for the vortices, whose excitations are described by SO(3) 3 -like conformal field theories with quasiparticle exchanges of more exotic types.
Beyond the quasi-particle: stochastic domain wall dynamics in soft ferromagnetic nanowires
Hayward, T. J.; Omari, K. A.
2017-03-01
We study the physical origins of stochastic domain wall pinning in soft ferromagnetic nanowires using focused magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements and dynamic micromagnetic simulations. Our results illustrate the ubiquitous nature of these effects in Ni80Fe20 nanowires, and show that they are not only a result of the magnetisation history of the system (i.e. the magnetisation structure of the injected domain walls), and the onset of non-linear propagation dynamics above the Walker breakdown field, but also a complex interplay between the two. We show that this means that, while micromagnetics can be used to make qualitative predictions of the behaviour of domain walls at defect sites, making quantitative predictions is much more challenging. Together, our results reinforce the view that even in these simple pseudo-one dimensional nanomagnets, domain walls must be considered as complex, dynamically evolving objects rather than simple quasi-particles.
Collective Modes in a Superfluid Neutron Gas within the Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation
Martin, Noël
2014-01-01
We study collective excitations in a superfluid neutron gas at zero temperature within the quasiparticle random phase approximation. The particle-hole residual interaction is obtained from a Skyrme functional, while a separable interaction is used in the pairing channel which gives a realistic density dependence of the pairing gap. In accordance with the Goldstone theorem, we find an ungapped collective mode (analogous to the Bogoliubov-Anderson mode). At low momentum, its dispersion relation is approximately linear and its slope coincides with the hydrodynamic speed of sound calculated with the Skyrme equation of state. The response functions are compared with those obtained within the Landau approximation. We also compute the contribution of the collective mode to the specific heat of the neutron gas, which is relevant for the thermodynamic properties of the inner crust of neutron stars.
Universal signatures of Fermi arcs in quasiparticle interference on the surface of Weyl semimetals
Kourtis, Stefanos; Li, Jian; Wang, Zhijun; Yazdani, Ali; Bernevig, B. Andrei
2016-01-01
Weyl semimetals constitute a newly discovered class of three-dimensional topological materials with linear touchings of valence and conduction bands in the bulk. The most striking property of topological origin in these materials, so far unequivocally observed only in photoemission experiments, is the presence of open constant-energy contours at the boundary— the so-called Fermi arcs. In this Rapid Communication, we establish the universal characteristics of Fermi-arc contributions to surface quasiparticle interference. Using a general phenomenological model, we determine the defining interference patterns stemming from the existence of Fermi arcs in a surface band structure. We then trace these patterns in both simple tight-binding models and realistic ab initio calculations. Our results show that definitive signatures of Fermi arcs can be observed in existing and proposed Weyl semimetals using scanning tunneling spectroscopy.
Impurity- and magnetic-field-induced quasiparticle states in chiral p-wave superconductors
Guo, Yao-Wu; Li, Wei; Chen, Yan
2017-10-01
Both impurity- and magnetic-field-induced quasiparticle states in chiral p-wave superconductors are investigated theoretically by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations self-consistently. At the strong scattering limit, we find that a universal state bound to the impurity can be induced for both a single nonmagnetic impurity and a single magnetic impurity. Furthermore, we find that different chiral order parameters and the corresponding supercurrents have uniform distributions around linear impurities. Calculations of the local density of states in the presence of an external magnetic field show that the intensity peak of the zero-energy Majorana mode in the vortex core can be enhanced dramatically by tuning the strength of the external magnetic field or pairing interaction.
Kukudzhanov, Vladimir N
2013-01-01
This work focuses on computational methods in continuum thermomechanics. The text is based on the author's lectures, which ensures a didactical and coherent buildup.The main emphasis is put on the presentation of ideas and qualitative considerations, illustrated by specific examples and applications. Conditions and explanations that are essential for the practical application of methods are discussed thoroughly.
Continuum Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation II
Hagstrom, G I
2013-01-01
Building on the development of [MOR13], bifurcation of unstable modes that emerge from continuous spectra in a class of infinite-dimensional noncanonical Hamiltonian systems is investigated. Of main interest is a bifurcation termed the continuum Hamiltonian Hopf (CHH) bifurcation, which is an infinite-dimensional analog of the usual Hamiltonian Hopf (HH) bifurcation. Necessary notions pertaining to spectra, structural stability, signature of the continuous spectra, and normal forms are described. The theory developed is applicable to a wide class of 2+1 noncanonical Hamiltonian matter models, but the specific example of the Vlasov-Poisson system linearized about homogeneous (spatially independent) equilibria is treated in detail. For this example, structural (in)stability is established in an appropriate functional analytic setting, and two kinds of bifurcations are considered, one at infinite and one at finite wavenumber. After defining and describing the notion of dynamical accessibility, Kre\\u{i}n-like the...
Besse, Nicolas
2011-02-01
The aim of this paper is to study the existence of a classical solution for the waterbag model with a continuum of waterbags, which can been viewed as an infinite dimensional system of first-order conservation laws. The waterbag model, which constitutes a special class of exact weak solution of the Vlasov equation, is well known in plasma physics, and its applications in gyrokinetic theory and laser-plasma interaction are very promising. The proof of the existence of a continuum of regular waterbags relies on a generalized definition of hyperbolicity for an integrodifferential hyperbolic system of equations, some results in singular integral operators theory and harmonic analysis, Riemann-Hilbert boundary value problems and energy estimates.
Nonlocal continuum field theories
2002-01-01
Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...
Baez, John C
2016-01-01
Our assumption that spacetime is a continuum leads to many challenges in mathematical physics. Singularities, divergent integrals and the like threaten many of our favorite theories, from Newtonian gravity to classical electrodynamics, quantum electrodynamics and the Standard Model. In general relativity, singularities are intimately connected to some of the theory's most dramatic successful predictions. We survey these problems and the large amount of work that has gone into dealing with them.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela Rezende Fernandes
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, non-linear analyses of reinforced concrete plates are performed by using a BEM formulation, based on Kirchhoff’s theory, which has already proved to be a robust technique to deal with plate problems. The non-linear behavior of concrete is modeled by theMazars model, which is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM and has an easy parametric identification, while the reinforcement is governed by the uniaxial elasto-plastic model with constant hardening. Initially, the different types of damage models and their parametric identification are discussed and the Mazars model is presented. Then the BEM formulation is discussed, which is based on the initial moment technique, where the remaining domain integralsare evaluated by approaching the initial moment field over internal cells. The stress distribution over the plate thickness is obtained by using a Gauss scheme in which the adopted criterion is verified ineach Gauss point defined along the plate. Then, the internal values of moments are approached by numerical integrals along the plate thickness. Finally, some numerical examples of reinforced concrete plates are analyzed, where the potentiality of the Mazars model is verified despite the difficulties of the parametric identification.Nesse trabalho são feitas análises nãolineares de placas de concreto armado,utilizando-se uma formulação do MEC (método dos elementos de contorno baseada nas hipóteses de Kirchhoff. O modelo constitutivo adotado para o concreto é o modelo proposto por Mazars baseado na Mecânica do da Dano Contínuo (MDC, sendo o comportamento não-linear das armaduras governado pelo modelo elastoplástico comencruamento isótropo. Justifica-se a escolha de tal modelo numérico pela simplicidade paramétrica do modelo de dano e pela robustez do MEC, que já provou ser eficiente na análise de placas. Inicialmente, apresenta-se uma revisão dos tipos de modelos de dano e suas implicações na identifica
Methods to measure the charge of the quasiparticles in the fractional quantum Hall effect
Kivelson, S. A.; Pokrovsky, V. L.
1989-07-01
We propose various experimental circumstances in which the longitudinal resistance of a two-dimensional electron gas in a high transverse magnetic field depends in a simple and characteristic way on the charge of the quasiparticle excitations. We propose that experiments of this sort could be used to directly measure the charge of the quasiparticle excitations which carry the dissipative part of the current. While it has been persuasively argued by Laughlin that the Hall conductance itself measures the quasiparticle charge, the connection is indirect, since the Hall current is carried by the condensate, not by the quasiparticles.
Quasi-particle injection into YBa2Cu3O7-δ micro-bridge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
Several types of quasi-particle injections into YBa2Cu3O70-δ (YBCO) micro-bridge have been studied, re-vealing the quasi-particle non-equilibrium effect, the current superposition effect and the heating effect. The current gain's dependence on temperatures indicates that supercon-ductivity of YBCO is really suppressed by quasi-particle injection. We propose a new type of quasi-particle injection which turns out to be a promising candidate for interface between superconductor and semiconductor circuits.
Continuum mechanics the birthplace of mathematical models
Allen, Myron B
2015-01-01
Continuum mechanics is a standard course in many graduate programs in engineering and applied mathematics as it provides the foundations for the various differential equations and mathematical models that are encountered in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, and heat transfer. This book successfully makes the topic more accessible to advanced undergraduate mathematics majors by aligning the mathematical notation and language with related courses in multivariable calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations; making connections with other areas of applied mathematics where parial differe
Simultaneous quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling in BSCCO-2212 break junctions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozyuzer, L.
1998-10-27
Tunneling measurements are reported for superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) break junctions on underdoped, optimally-doped, and overdoped single crystals of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} (Bi-2212). The junction I-V characteristics exhibit well-defined quasiparticle current jumps at eV = 2A as well as hysteretic Josephson currents. The quasiparticle branch has been analyzed in the framework of d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} (d-wave) superconductivity and indicates that there is preferential tunneling along the lobe directions of the d-wave gap. For overdoped Bi-2212 with T{sub c} = 62 K, the Josephson current is measured as a function of junction resistance, R{sub n}, which varied by two orders of magnitude (1 k{Omega} to 100 k{Omega}). I{sub c}R{sub n} product is proportional to the 0.47 power of I{sub c} and displays a maximum of 7.0 mV. When the hole doping is decreased from overdoped (T{sub c} = 62 K) to the underdoped regime (T{sub c} = 70 K), the average I{sub c}R{sub n} product increases as does the quasiparticle gap. The maximum I{sub c}R{sub n} is {approximately} 40% of the {Delta}/e at each doping level, with a value as high as 25 mV in underdoped Bi-2212.
Excited quasiparticles and entropy in 161,162Dy
Razavi, R.; Mohassel, A. Rashed; Mohammadi, S.
2015-11-01
In this paper, the nuclear level densities of 161,162Dy is studied by the use of a microscopic theory which includes nuclear pairing interaction. It is based on the modified harmonic oscillator model according to the Nilsson potential. The entropy of even-odd and even-even nuclei as a function of nuclear temperature is obtained. The entropy excess of 161Dy is compared with that of 162Dy. It is concluded that the difference is related to the entropy carried by the neutron hole coupled to the even-even core. The numbers of excited quasiparticles are calculated. Good agreement was observed between calculated results and the experimental data.
Critical quasiparticles in single-impurity and lattice Kondo models
Vojta, M.; Bulla, R.; Wölfle, P.
2015-07-01
Quantum criticality in systems of local moments interacting with itinerant electrons has become an important and diverse field of research. Here we review recent results which concern (a) quantum phase transitions in single-impurity Kondo and Anderson models and (b) quantum phase transitions in heavy-fermion lattice models which involve critical quasiparticles. For (a) the focus will be on impurity models with a pseudogapped host density of states and their applications, e.g., in graphene and other Dirac materials, while (b) is devoted to strong-coupling behavior near antiferromagnetic quantum phase transitions, with potential applications in a variety of heavy-fermion metals.
Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pena Arteaga, D.
2007-06-25
Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)
Towards thermodynamics of the quark quasi-particles
Molodtsov, S V
2011-01-01
Some features of hot and dense gas of quarks which are considered as the quasi-particles of the model Hamiltonian with four-fermion interaction are studied. Being adapted to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model this approach allows us to accommodate a phase transition similar to the nuclear liquid-gas one at the proper scale and to argue an existence of the mixed phase of vacuum and normal baryonic matter as a plausible scenario of chiral symmetry (partial) restoration. Analyzing the transition layer between two phases we estimate the surface tension coefficient and discuss the possibility of quark droplet formation.
Quasiparticle tunneling in a periodically driven bosonic Josephson junction
Gertjerenken, Bettina; Holthaus, Martin
2014-11-01
A resonantly driven bosonic Josephson junction supports stable collective excitations, or quasiparticles, which constitute analogs of the Trojan wave packets previously explored with Rydberg atoms in strong microwave fields. We predict a quantum beating effect between such symmetry-related many-body Trojan states taking place on time scales which are long in comparison with the driving period. Within a mean-field approximation, this quantum beating can be regarded as a manifestation of dynamical tunneling. On the full N -particle level, the beating phenomenon leads to an experimentally feasible, robust strategy for probing highly entangled mesoscopic states.
Transverse thermoelectric response as a probe for existence of quasiparticles
Schattner, Yoni; Oganesyan, Vadim; Orgad, Dror
2016-12-01
The electrical Hall conductivities of any anisotropic interacting system with reflection symmetry obey σx y=-σy x . In contrast, we show that the analogous relation between the transverse thermoelectric Peltier coefficients, αx y=-αy x , does not generally hold in the same system. This fact may be traced to interaction contributions to the heat current operator and the mixed nature of the thermoelectric response functions. Remarkably, however, it appears that emergence of quasiparticles at low temperatures forces αx y=-αy x . This suggests that quasiparticle-free ground states (so-called non-Fermi liquids) may be detected by examining the relationship between αx y and αy x in the presence of reflection symmetry and microscopic anisotropy. These conclusions are based on the following results. (i) The relation between the Peltier coefficients is exact for elastically scattered noninteracting particles. (ii) It holds approximately within Boltzmann theory for interacting particles when elastic scattering dominates over inelastic processes. In a disordered Fermi liquid, the latter lead to deviations that vanish as T3. (iii) We calculate the thermoelectric response in a model of weakly coupled spin-gapped Luttinger liquids and obtain strong breakdown of antisymmetry between the off-diagonal components of α ̂. We also find that the Nernst signal in this model is enhanced by interactions and can change sign as function of magnetic field and temperature.
Genetic braid optimization: A heuristic approach to compute quasiparticle braids
McDonald, Ross B.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2013-02-01
In topologically protected quantum computation, quantum gates can be carried out by adiabatically braiding two-dimensional quasiparticles, reminiscent of entangled world lines. Bonesteel [Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.140503 95, 140503 (2005)], as well as Leijnse and Flensberg [Phys. Rev. B10.1103/PhysRevB.86.104511 86, 104511 (2012)], recently provided schemes for computing quantum gates from quasiparticle braids. Mathematically, the problem of executing a gate becomes that of finding a product of the generators (matrices) in that set that approximates the gate best, up to an error. To date, efficient methods to compute these gates only strive to optimize for accuracy. We explore the possibility of using a generic approach applicable to a variety of braiding problems based on evolutionary (genetic) algorithms. The method efficiently finds optimal braids while allowing the user to optimize for the relative utilities of accuracy and/or length. Furthermore, when optimizing for error only, the method can quickly produce efficient braids.
The quark susceptibility in a generalized dynamical quasiparticle model
Berrehrah, Hamza; Bratkovskaya, Elena; Steinert, Thorsten
2015-01-01
The quark susceptibility $\\chi_q$ at zero and finite quark chemical potential provides a critical benchmark to determine the quark-gluon-plasma (QGP) degrees of freedom in relation to the results from lattice QCD (lQCD) in addition to the equation of state and transport coefficients. Here we extend the familiar dynamical-quasiparticle model (DQPM) to partonic propagators that explicitly depend on the three-momentum with respect to the partonic medium at rest in order to match perturbative QCD (pQCD) at high momenta. Within the extended dynamical-quasi-particle model (DQPM$^*$) we reproduce simultaneously the lQCD results for the quark number density and susceptibility and the QGP pressure at zero and finite (but small) chemical potential $\\mu_q$. The shear viscosity $\\eta$ and the electric conductivity $\\sigma_e$ from the extended quasiparticle model (DQPM$^*$) also turn out in close agreement with lattice results for $\\mu_q$ =0. The DQPM$^*$, furthermore, allows to evaluate the momentum $p$, temperature $T$ ...
Quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor
Wakamura, Taro
Superconductivity often brings novel phenomena to spintronics. According to theoretical predictions, superconductivity may enhance the spin Hall effect (SHE) due to the increase in the resistance of superconducting quasiparticles which mediate spin transport in superconductors. In this work, we show a first experimental observation of quasiparticle-mediated SHE in a superconducting NbN, which exhibits an enormous enhancement below the superconducting critical temperature (TC = 10 K). We fabricated a lateral device structure composed of Py (NiFe) and NbN wires bridged by a nonmagnetic Cu wire. A pure spin current is generated in the Cu bridge by a spin injection current (I) between the Py and the Cu, and absorbed into the NbN wire. The absorbed spin currents are converted into charge currents via the inverse SHE, thereby generating the inverse SH voltage (VISHE) . When NbN is in the normal state at 20 K (>TC) , inverse SH signals ΔRISHE (RISHE ≡VISHE / I) are independent of I. However, at 3 K (
Features of the Generalized Dynamics of Quasiparticles in Graphene
Suprun, Anatol D.; Shmeleva, Liudmyla V.
2017-03-01
The general dynamic properties of the electron, as quasiparticle in conduction band of graphene, were analyzed. It is shown that in graphene, these properties essentially differ from similar base properties for crystals with a simple lattice, despite insignificant, on the first sight, difference of dispersion law ɛ( p). Primarily, crystals with an elementary cell of arbitrary complexity of structure were considered. The obtained general relations were applied further to graphene. Herewith two-dimensional lattice of graphene has been considered as consisting of elementary cells with two atoms. Typically, graphene is considered as crystals consisting of two simple nested sublattices. It has been shown that both considerations lead to the analogous basic results. On the basis of obtained wave Hamiltonian, all the dynamic characteristics of the injected electron, considered as a quasiparticle, were found: speed, tensor of effective dynamic mass, and wave Lagrangian. Also, for some physically actual situations, the dynamic characteristics of an alternative description have been found: a mechanical momentum p m , mechanical Hamiltonian, and mechanical Lagrangian. For these situations, a generalized Louis de Broglie relationship between mechanical p m and wave p momenta was found also.
Quasiparticles in Leptogenesis - A hard-thermal-loop study
Kie\\ssig, Clemens Paul
2011-01-01
We analyse the effects of thermal quasiparticles in leptogenesis using hard-thermal-loop-resummed propagators in the imaginary time formalism of thermal field theory. We perform our analysis in a leptogenesis toy model with three right-handed heavy neutrinos $N_1$, $N_2$ and $N_3$. We consider decays and inverse decays and work in the hierarchical limit where $M_2 \\gg M_1$. We neglect flavour effects and assume that the temperatures are much smaller than $M_2$ and $M_3$. We pay special attention to the influence of fermionic quasiparticles. We allow for the leptons to be either decoupled from each other, except for the interactions with neutrinos, or to be in chemical equilibrium by some strong interaction, for example via gauge bosons. In two additional cases, we approximate the full hard-thermal-loop lepton propagators with zero-temperature propagators, where we replace the zero-temperature mass by the thermal mass of the leptons $m_\\ell(T)$ in one case and the asymptotic mass of the positive-helicity mode ...
Ab initio Sternheimer-GW method for quasiparticle calculations
Lambert, Henry; Giustino, Feliciano
2014-03-01
The GW method has emerged as the standard computational tool for investigating electronic excitations in bulk and nanoscale systems. Recently significant efforts have been devoted to extending the range of applicability of the GW method. With this aim, Ref. introduced the Sternheimer-GW method, reformulating the standard GW approach so that no unoccupied electronic states are required in the calculations. Here we present the implementation of the Sternheimer-GW method using planewaves and norm-conserving pseudopotentials. In our method we calculate the complete position- and energy-dependent GW self-energy operator, and as a by-product we obtain the entire G0W0 quasiparticle spectral function. We have validated our method by calculating the quasiparticle band structures of standard semiconductors and insulators (Si, SiC, diamond, LiCl) and by comparing the results with previous GW calculations. This method is currently being used for investigating the electronic structure of novel materials of reduced dimensionality. This work was supported by the ERC under the EU FP7/ERC Grant No. 239578 and by the UK EPSRC Grant No. EP/J009857/1.
Projected shell model study of quasiparticle structure of arsenic isotopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verma, Preeti; Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Suram [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu, 180006 (India); Bharti, Arun, E-mail: arunbharti_2003@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu, 180006 (India); Khosa, S.K. [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu, 180006 (India); Bhat, G.H. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190006 (India); Sheikh, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190006 (India); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)
2013-11-20
Odd-mass isotopic chain of {sup 67–79}As has been studied within the context of the projected shell model. Deformed single-particle states generated by the standard Nilsson potential are used to calculate various nuclear structure properties like yrast spectra, rotational frequencies and reduced transition probabilities. The study of band structures of these As nuclei based on the band diagrams indicates the presence of multi-quasiparticle structure in the high spin realm of these nuclei. Rotational alignment phenomenon has also been studied in terms of band crossing which is understood to occur due to the rotational alignment of g{sub 9/2} neutron pair. We also have compared the results of the present calculations with the available experimental as well as the other theoretical data and an overall good agreement has been achieved between the two.
Baryon number fluctuations in quasi-particle model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Ameng [Southeast University Chengxian College, Department of Foundation, Nanjing (China); Luo, Xiaofeng [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE), Institute of Particle Physics, Wuhan (China); Zong, Hongshi [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)
2017-04-15
Baryon number fluctuations are sensitive to the QCD phase transition and the QCD critical point. According to the Feynman rules of finite-temperature field theory, we calculated various order moments and cumulants of the baryon number distributions in the quasi-particle model of the quark-gluon plasma. Furthermore, we compared our results with the experimental data measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. It is found that the experimental data can be well described by the model for the colliding energies above 30 GeV and show large discrepancies at low energies. This puts a new constraint on the qQGP model and also provides a baseline for the QCD critical point search in heavy-ion collisions at low energies. (orig.)
Baryon Number Fluctuations in Quasi-particle Model
Zhao, Ameng; Zong, Hongshi
2016-01-01
Baryon number fluctuations are sensitive to the QCD phase transition and QCD critical point. According to the Feynman rules of finite-temperature field theory, we calculated various order moments and cumulants of the baryon number distributions in the quasi-particle model of quark gluon plasma. Furthermore, we compared our results with the experimental data measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. It is found that the experimental data can be well described by the model for the colliding energies above 30 GeV and show large discrepancies at low energies. It can put new constraint on qQGP model and also provide a baseline for the QCD critical point search in heavy-ion collisions at low energies.
Quasiparticle current and phase locking of intrinsic Josephson junctions
Seidel, P.; Grib, A. N.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Scherbel, J.; Hübner, U.; Schmidl, F.
2001-09-01
On the base of our experiments on thin film Josephson junctions in mesa geometry we discuss the quasiparticle branches of the intrinsic arrays within a tunnelling model using d-wave superconductor density of states. We find temperature dependent current contributions and a zero bias anomaly. The coherent behaviour is studied for intrinsic arrays with an additional side-wall shunt. The existence of thresholds of phase locking at small as well as at large inductances is demonstrated. We discuss the problems with experimental realisation of the shunts as well as with an alternative concept to enhance phase locking in such arrays towards application as oscillators in the frequency range up to some THz.
Identical high- K three-quasiparticle rotational bands
Kaur, Harjeet; Singh, Pardeep
2016-12-01
A comprehensive study of high- K three-quasiparticle rotational bands in odd- A nuclei indicates the similarity in γ -ray energies and dynamic moment of inertia Im^{(2)} . The extent of the identicality between the rotational bands is evaluated by using the energy factor method. For nuclei pairs exhibiting identical bands, the average relative change in the dynamic moment of inertia Im^{(2)} is also determined. The identical behaviour shown by these bands is attributed to the interplay of nuclear structure parameters: deformation and the pairing correlations. Also, experimental trend of the I(hbar) vs. hbar ω (MeV) plot for these nuclei pairs is shown to be in agreement with Tilted-Axis Cranking (TAC) model calculations.
Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials
Cowin, Stephen C
2013-01-01
Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.
Continuum robots and underactuated grasping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Giri
2011-02-01
Full Text Available We discuss the capabilities of continuum (continuous backbone robot structures in the performance of under-actuated grasping. Continuum robots offer the potential of robust grasps over a wide variety of object classes, due to their ability to adapt their shape to interact with the environment via non-local continuum contact conditions. Furthermore, this capability can be achieved with simple, low degree of freedom hardware. However, there are practical issues which currently limit the application of continuum robots to grasping. We discuss these issues and illustrate via an experimental continuum grasping case study.
This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.
Non coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism
Alemán, T del Pino; Bueno, J Trujillo
2014-01-01
Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering by neutral hydrogen and Thompson scattering by free electrons. Often a continuum depolarization results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non coherent continumm scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both, the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non coherence of the continuum scattering may modify significantly the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns, even yielding polarization sign...
Bing-Huan, Li; Yi-An, Lei
2014-01-01
Two-quasiparticle bands and low-lying excited high-$K$ four-, six-, and eight-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd ${}^{174, 176}$Lu are analyzed by using the cranked shell model (CSM) with the pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving (PNC) method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The proton and neutron Nilsson level schemes for ${}^{174, 176}$Lu are taken from the adjacent odd-$A$ Lu and Hf isotopes, which are adopted to reproduce the experimental bandhead energies of the one-quasiproton and one-quasineutron bands of these odd-$A$ Lu and Hf nuclei, respectively. Once the quasiparticle configurations are determined, the experimental bandhead energies and the moments of inertia of these two- and multi-quasiparticle bands are well reproduced by PNC-CSM calculations. The Coriolis mixing of the low-$K$ ($K=|\\Omega_1-\\Omega_2|$) two-quasiparticle band of the Gallagher-Moszkowski doublet with one nucleon in the $\\Omega = 1/2$ orbital is analyzed.
Ab initio Sternheimer-GW method for quasiparticle calculations using plane waves
Lambert, Henry; Giustino, Feliciano
2013-08-01
We report on the extension and implementation of the Sternheimer-GW method introduced by Giustino [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.115105 81, 115105 (2010)] to the case of first-principles pseudopotential calculations based on a plane-waves basis. The Sternheimer-GW method consists of calculating the GW self-energy operator without resorting to the standard expansion over unoccupied Kohn-Sham electronic states. The Green's function is calculated by solving linear systems for frequencies along the real axis. The screened Coulomb interaction is calculated for frequencies along the imaginary axis by using the Sternheimer equation. Analytic continuation to the real axis is performed using Padé approximants. The generalized plasmon-pole approximation is avoided by performing explicit calculations at multiple frequencies using Frommer's multishift solver. We demonstrate our methodology by reporting tests on common insulators and semiconductors, including Si, diamond, LiCl, and SiC. Our calculated quasiparticle energies are in agreement with the results of fully converged calculations based on the sum-over-states approach. As the Sternheimer-GW method yields the complete self-energy Σ(r,r',ω) and not only its expectation values on Kohn-Sham states, this work opens the way to nonperturbative GW calculations and to direct calculations of spectral functions for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. As an example of the capabilities of the method we calculate the G0W0 spectral functions of silicon and diamond.
Albright, M
2016-01-01
We develop a flexible quasiparticle theory of transport coefficients of hot hadronic matter at finite baryon density. We begin with a hadronic quasiparticle model which includes a scalar and a vector mean field. Quasiparticle energies and the mean fields depend on temperature and baryon chemical potential. Starting with the quasiparticle dispersion relation, we derive the Boltzmann equation and use the Chapman-Enskog expansion to derive formulas for the shear and bulk viscosities and thermal conductivity. We obtain both relaxation time approximation formulas and more general integral equations. Throughout the work, we explicitly enforce the Landau-Lifshitz conditions of fit and ensure the theory is thermodynamically self-consistent. The derived formulas should be useful for predicting the transport coefficients of the hadronic phase of matter produced in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and at other accelerators.
Quasiparticles in leptogenesis. A hard-thermal-loop study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiessig, Clemens Paul
2011-06-29
We analyse the effects of thermal quasiparticles in leptogenesis using hard-thermal-loop-resummed propagators in the imaginary time formalism of thermal field theory. We perform our analysis in a leptogenesis toy model with three right-handed heavy neutrinos N{sub 1}, N{sub 2} and N{sub 3}. We consider decays and inverse decays and work in the hierarchical limit where the mass of N{sub 2} is assumed to be much larger than the mass of N{sub 1}, that is M{sub 2} >> M{sub 1}. We neglect flavour effects and assume that the temperatures are much smaller than M{sub 2} and M{sub 3}. We pay special attention to the influence of fermionic quasiparticles. We allow for the leptons to be either decoupled from each other, except for the interactions with neutrinos, or to be in chemical equilibrium by some strong interaction, for example via gauge bosons. In two additional cases, we approximate the full hard-thermal-loop lepton propagators with zero-temperature propagators, where we replace the zero-temperature mass by the thermal mass of the leptons m{sub l}(T) in one case and the asymptotic mass of the positive-helicity mode {radical}(2)m{sub l}(T) in the other case. We calculate all relevant decay rates and CP-asymmetries and solve the corresponding Boltzmann equations we derived. We compare the final lepton asymmetry of the four thermal cases and the vacuum case for three different initial neutrino abundances; zero, thermal and dominant abundance. The final asymmetries of the thermal cases differ considerably from the vacuum case and from each other in the weak washout regime for zero abundance and in the intermediate regime for dominant abundance. In the strong washout regime, where no influences from thermal corrections are commonly expected, the final lepton asymmetry can be enhanced by a factor of two by hiding part of the lepton asymmetry in the quasi-sterile minus-mode in the case of strongly interacting lepton modes. (orig.)
Basic equations of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model for odd spherical nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vdovin, A.I.; Tien Khoa, D.; Voronov, V.V.
1986-02-01
This paper obtains, in general form, the system of basic equations of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model for odd spherical nuclei. The equations take into account the anharmonicity of the vibrations of the even-even core and the corrections made necessary by the Pauli principle. It is shown that the system of equations contains all the variants of approximate equations of the quasiparticle-phonon model that are widely used in calculations.
Losa, C; Dossing, T; Vigezzi, E; Broglia, R A
2010-01-01
We present a calculation of the properties of vibrational states in deformed, axially--symmetric even--even nuclei, within the framework of a fully self--consistent Quasparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA). The same Skyrme energy density and density-dependent pairing functionals are used to calculate the mean field and the residual interaction in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels. We have tested our software in the case of spherical nuclei against fully self consistent calculations published in the literature, finding excellent agreement. We investigate the consequences of neglecting the spin-orbit and Coulomb residual interactions in QRPA. Furthermore we discuss the improvement obtained in the QRPA result associated with the removal of spurious modes. Isoscalar and isovector responses in the deformed ${}^{24}{}^{-}{}^{26}$Mg, ${}^{34}$Mg isotopes are presented and compared to experimental findings.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs is to reduce the incidence of homelessness in CoC communities by assisting homeless...
Frauendorf, S
2000-01-01
The selfconsistent cranking approach is extended to the case of rotation about an axis which is tilted with respect to the principal axes of the deformed potential (Tilted Axis Cranking). Expressions for the energies and the intra bands electro-magnetic transition probabilities are given. The mean field solutions are interpreted in terms of quantal rotational states. The construction of the quasiparticle configurations and the elimination of spurious states is discussed. The application of the theory to high spin data is demonstrated by analyzing the multi-quasiparticle bands in the nuclides with N=102,103 and Z=71,72,73.
Radio-continuum observations of Sersic-Pastoriza galaxies
Yates, G. J.; Saikia, D. J.; Pedlar, A.; Axon, D. J.
1989-07-01
Preliminary results of radio continuum observations of selected Sersic-Pastoriza galaxies are presented. Subjects reported are their radio properties at 6 and 20 cm, estimates of linear polarization and spectral indices and a discussion of possible relationships between nuclear morphology and radio luminosity.
Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions
Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.
Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Rashid
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.
Spin-orbit scattering visualized in quasiparticle interference
Kohsaka, Y.; Machida, T.; Iwaya, K.; Kanou, M.; Hanaguri, T.; Sasagawa, T.
2017-03-01
In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, electron scattering off impurities depends on both spin and orbital angular momentum of electrons—spin-orbit scattering. Although some transport properties are subject to spin-orbit scattering, experimental techniques directly accessible to this effect are limited. Here we show that a signature of spin-orbit scattering manifests itself in quasiparticle interference (QPI) imaged by spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. The experimental data of a polar semiconductor BiTeI are well reproduced by numerical simulations with the T -matrix formalism that include not only scalar scattering normally adopted but also spin-orbit scattering stronger than scalar scattering. To accelerate the simulations, we extend the standard efficient method of QPI calculation for momentum-independent scattering to be applicable even for spin-orbit scattering. We further identify a selection rule that makes spin-orbit scattering visible in the QPI pattern. These results demonstrate that spin-orbit scattering can exert predominant influence on QPI patterns and thus suggest that QPI measurement is available to detect spin-orbit scattering.
Relativistic Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation with a Separable Pairing Force
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Yuan; MA Zhong-Yu; Ring Peter
2009-01-01
In our previous work [Phys. Lett. (to be published), Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 (2006) 3226], we introduced a separable pairing force for relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculations. This force was adjusted to reproduce the pairing properties of the Gogny force in nuclear matter. By using the well known techniques of Talmi and Moshinsky it can be expanded in a series of separable terms and converges quickly after a few terms. It was found that the pairing properties can be depicted on almost the same footing as the original pairing interaction, not only in nuclear matter, but also in finite nuclei. In this study, we construct a relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA ) with this separable pairing interaction and calculate the excitation energies of the first excited 2+ .states and reduced B(E2; 0+ → 2+) transition rates for a chain of Sn isotopes in RQRPA. Compared with the results of the full Gogny force, we find that this simple separable pairing interaction can describe the pairing properties of the excited vibrational states as well as the original pairing interaction.
Thompson, J. D.; McClarty, P. A.; Prabhakaran, D.; Cabrera, I.; Guidi, T.; Coldea, R.
2017-08-01
The frustrated pyrochlore magnet Yb2 Ti2 O7 has the remarkable property that it orders magnetically but has no propagating magnons over wide regions of the Brillouin zone. Here we use inelastic neutron scattering to follow how the spectrum evolves in cubic-axis magnetic fields. At high fields we observe, in addition to dispersive magnons, a two-magnon continuum, which grows in intensity upon reducing the field and overlaps with the one-magnon states at intermediate fields leading to strong renormalization of the dispersion relations, and magnon decays. Using heat capacity measurements we find that the low- and high-field regions are smoothly connected with no sharp phase transition, with the spin gap increasing monotonically in field. Through fits to an extensive data set of dispersion relations combined with magnetization measurements, we reevaluate the spin Hamiltonian, finding dominant quantum exchange terms, which we propose are responsible for the anomalously strong fluctuations and quasiparticle breakdown effects observed at low fields.
Justifying quasiparticle self-consistent schemes via gradient optimization in Baym-Kadanoff theory
Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab
2017-09-01
The question of which non-interacting Green’s function ‘best’ describes an interacting many-body electronic system is both of fundamental interest as well as of practical importance in describing electronic properties of materials in a realistic manner. Here, we study this question within the framework of Baym-Kadanoff theory, an approach where one locates the stationary point of a total energy functional of the one-particle Green’s function in order to find the total ground-state energy as well as all one-particle properties such as the density matrix, chemical potential, or the quasiparticle energy spectrum and quasiparticle wave functions. For the case of the Klein functional, our basic finding is that minimizing the length of the gradient of the total energy functional over non-interacting Green’s functions yields a set of self-consistent equations for quasiparticles that is identical to those of the quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) (van Schilfgaarde et al 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 226402-4) approach, thereby providing an a priori justification for such an approach to electronic structure calculations. In fact, this result is general, applies to any self-energy operator, and is not restricted to any particular approximation, e.g., the GW approximation for the self-energy. The approach also shows that, when working in the basis of quasiparticle states, solving the diagonal part of the self-consistent Dyson equation is of primary importance while the off-diagonals are of secondary importance, a common observation in the electronic structure literature of self-energy calculations. Finally, numerical tests and analytical arguments show that when the Dyson equation produces multiple quasiparticle solutions corresponding to a single non-interacting state, minimizing the length of the gradient translates into choosing the solution with largest quasiparticle weight.
Role of 'quasiparticle x phonon' components in gamma-decay of high-lying states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Soloviev, V.G.; Vdovin, A.I.; Stoyanov, C.
1987-01-15
The ..gamma.. decay rates of highly excited nuclear states of odd-mass nuclei into the low-lying one-quasiparticle states are calculated in a microscopic way. We conclude that not only the one quasiparticle component but also ''quasiparticle x phonon'' components of the wave function of highly excited states can play an important role in their ..gamma.. decay.
Quantum Theory of Continuum Optomechanics
Rakich, Peter
2016-01-01
We present the basic ingredients of continuum optomechanics, i.e. the suitable extension of cavity-optomechanical concepts to the interaction of photons and phonons in an extended waveguide. We introduce a real-space picture and argue which coupling terms may arise in leading order in the spatial derivatives. This picture allows us to discuss quantum noise, dissipation, and the correct boundary conditions at the waveguide entrance. The connections both to optomechanical arrays as well as to the theory of Brillouin scattering in waveguides are highlighted. We identify the 'strong coupling regime' of continuum optomechanics that may be accessible in future experiments.
Lagrangian continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward
2007-12-01
Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The Lagrangian continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.
Continuum mechanics using Mathematica fundamentals, methods, and applications
Romano, Antonio
2014-01-01
This textbook's methodological approach familiarizes readers with the mathematical tools required to correctly define and solve problems in continuum mechanics. Covering essential principles and fundamental applications, this second edition of Continuum Mechanics using Mathematica® provides a solid basis for a deeper study of more challenging and specialized problems related to nonlinear elasticity, polar continua, mixtures, piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, magneto-fluid mechanics, and state changes (see A. Romano, A. Marasco, Continuum Mechanics: Advanced Topics and Research Trends, Springer (Birkhäuser), 2010, ISBN 978-0-8176-4869-5). Key topics and features: * Concise presentation strikes a balance between fundamentals and applications * Requisite mathematical background carefully collected in two introductory chapters and one appendix * Recent developments highlighted through coverage of more significant applications to areas such as wave propagation, fluid mechanics, porous media, linear elasticity....
The climate continuum revisited
Emile-Geay, J.; Wang, J.; Partin, J. W.
2015-12-01
A grand challenge of climate science is to quantify the extent of natural variability on adaptation-relevant timescales (10-100y). Since the instrumental record is too short to adequately estimate the spectra of climate measures, this information must be derived from paleoclimate proxies, which may harbor a many-to-one, non-linear (e.g. thresholded) and non-stationary relationship to climate. In this talk, I will touch upon the estimation of climate scaling behavior from climate proxies. Two case studies will be presented: an investigation of scaling behavior in a reconstruction of global surface temperature using state-of- the-art data [PAGES2K Consortium, in prep] and methods [Guillot et al., 2015]. Estimating the scaling exponent β in spectra derived from this reconstruction, we find that 0 long-term memory. Overall, the reconstruction-based spectra are steeper than the ones based on an instrumental dataset [HadCRUT4.2, Morice et al., 2012], and those estimated from PMIP3/CMIP5 models, suggesting the climate system is more energetic at multidecadal to centennial timescales than can be inferred from the short instrumental record or from the models developed to reproduce it [Laepple and Huybers, 2014]. an investigation of scaling behavior in speleothems records of tropical hydroclimate. We will make use of recent advances in proxy system modeling [Dee et al., 2015] and investigate how various aspects of the speleothem system (karst dynamics, age uncertainties) may conspire to bias the estimate of scaling behavior from speleothem timeseries. The results suggest that ignoring such complications leads to erroneous inferences about hydroclimate scaling. References Dee, S. G., J. Emile-Geay, M. N. Evans, Allam, A., D. M. Thompson, and E. J. Steig (2015), J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sys., 07, doi:10.1002/2015MS000447. Guillot, D., B. Rajaratnam, and J. Emile-Geay (2015), Ann. Applied. Statist., pp. 324-352, doi:10.1214/14-AOAS794. Laepple, T., and P. Huybers (2014), PNAS, doi
Finite Element Analysis Using a Cosserat Linear Elastic Continuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfonso Mariano Ramos-Cañón
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Contexto: Los resultados experimentales en materiales granulares muestran que el comportamiento esfuerzo deformación tiene dependencia con la escala de análisis, sin embargo, debido a las supocisiones intrínsecas que tiene la mecánica del medio continuo, los análisis de elementos finitos basados en el continuo continuo de Boltzmann no permite tener en cuenta longitudes características en su formulación que refleje la escala. Método: En este trabajo se presenta la formulación especializada de los elementos finitos para un problema de deformación plana para el continuo de Cosserat. Se presentan los grados de libertad de un elemento finito cuadrilatero y se deduce el operador diferencial para obtener el vector de deformación, su función de forma, la matriz de interpolación, la matriz de rigidez y el vector de fuerza nodal. Finalmente se implementa el continuo de cosserat con el elemento descrito en un programa de elementos finitos codificado por los autores. El programa se ejecuta para resolver el problema de esfuerzos y deformaciones en una capa homogenea de material con comportamiento lineal elástico. Resultados: Se obtiene las diferencias entre los componentes de esfuerzos y deformaciones de corte entre el continuo convencional y el de Cosserat junto con la aparición de momentos a nivel de punto de Gauss. Conclusiones: La deducción e implementación del continuo de Cosserat permite un análisis de elementos finitos alternativo al del continuo Convencional con la posibilidad de introducir una longitud característica en su formulación para tener en cuenta los efectos de escala y rotaciones que se observan en materiales granulares.
Quasiparticle and Josephson Current in the Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in Htsc
Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Namiranian, A.; Najafi, A.
2000-09-01
The tunneling properties of the model structure consisting of HTSC and normal metal are studied. The influence of the impurity concentration in CuO2 layers on the high energy features is investigated, taking into account tight binding band structure, d-wave gap symmetry, group velocity and tunneling directionality. The increasing of the impurity lifetime broadening factor changes the degree of tunneling conductance peaks asymmetry, leads to nonequal shifting of the quasiparticle peaks and their width. We consider that the underlying asymmetry of the conductance peaks is primarily due to the features of quasiparticle energy spectrum and the d-wave symmetry enhances the degree of the peaks asymmetry. The analysis of c-axis transport of quasiparticles and Cooper pairs of stacked intrinsic junctions in HTSC is done.
Parameswaran, S A; Kivelson, S A; Shankar, R; Sondhi, S L; Spivak, B Z
2012-12-07
We study the structure of Bogoliubov quasiparticles, bogolons, the fermionic excitations of paired superfluids that arise from fermion (BCS) pairing, including neutral superfluids, superconductors, and paired quantum Hall states. The naive construction of a stationary quasiparticle in which the deformation of the pair field is neglected leads to a contradiction: it carries a net electrical current even though it does not move. However, treating the pair field self-consistently resolves this problem: in a neutral superfluid, a dipolar current pattern is associated with the quasiparticle for which the total current vanishes. When Maxwell electrodynamics is included, as appropriate to a superconductor, this pattern is confined over a penetration depth. For paired quantum Hall states of composite fermions, the Maxwell term is replaced by a Chern-Simons term, which leads to a dipolar charge distribution and consequently to a dipolar current pattern.
Robin, Caroline
2016-01-01
A new theoretical approach to spin-isospin excitations in open-shell nuclei is presented. The developed method is based on the relativistic meson-exchange nuclear Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics and extends the response theory for superfluid nuclear systems beyond relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in the proton-neutron channel (pn-RQRPA). The coupling between quasiparticle degrees of freedom and collective vibrations (phonons) introduces a time-dependent effective interaction, in addition to the exchange of pion and $\\rho$-meson taken into account without retardation. The time-dependent contributions are treated in the resonant time-blocking approximation, in analogy to previously developed relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the neutral (non-isospin-flip) channel. The new method is called proton-neutron RQTBA (pn-RQTBA) and applied to Gamow-Teller resonance in a chain of neutron-rich Nickel isotopes $^{68-78}$Ni. A strong fragmentation of the resonance al...
Electric Control of Dirac Quasiparticles by Spin-Orbit Torque in an Antiferromagnet
Šmejkal, L.; Železný, J.; Sinova, J.; Jungwirth, T.
2017-03-01
Spin orbitronics and Dirac quasiparticles are two fields of condensed matter physics initiated independently about a decade ago. Here we predict that Dirac quasiparticles can be controlled by the spin-orbit torque reorientation of the Néel vector in an antiferromagnet. Using CuMnAs as an example, we formulate symmetry criteria allowing for the coexistence of topological Dirac quasiparticles and Néel spin-orbit torques. We identify the nonsymmorphic crystal symmetry protection of Dirac band crossings whose on and off switching is mediated by the Néel vector reorientation. We predict that this concept verified by minimal model and density functional calculations in the CuMnAs semimetal antiferromagnet can lead to a topological metal-insulator transition driven by the Néel vector and to the topological anisotropic magnetoresistance.
Biased impurity tunneling current emission spectrum in the presence of quasi-particle interaction
Maslova, N. S.; Arseyev, P. I.; Mantsevich, V. N.
2016-09-01
We performed theoretical investigations of the tunneling current noise spectra through single-level impurity in the presence of quasi-particle (electron-phonon) interaction by means of the non-equilibrium Green function formalism. We demonstrated a fundamental link between quantum noise in tunneling contact and light emission processes. We calculated tunneling current noise spectra through a single level impurity atom both in the presence and in the absence of quasi-particle interaction for a finite bias voltage and identified it as a source of experimentally observed light emission from bias STM contacts. The results turn out to be sensitive to the tunneling contact parameters. Our findings provide important insight into the nature of non-equilibrium electronic transport in tunneling junctions with quasi-particle interaction.
Egorova, Irina A
2016-01-01
New results for electric dipole strength in the chain of even-even Calcium isotopes with the mass numbers A = 40 - 54 are presented. Starting from the covariant Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics, spectra of collective vibrations (phonons) and phonon-nucleon coupling vertices for $J \\leq 6$ and normal parity were computed in a self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA). These vibrations coupled to Bogoliubov two-quasiparticle configurations (2q$\\otimes$phonon) form the model space for the calculations of the dipole response function in the relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA). The results for giant dipole resonance in the latter approach are compared to those obtained in RQRPA and to available data. Evolution of the dipole strength with neutron number is investigated for both high-frequency giant dipole resonance (GDR) and low-lying strength. Development of a pygmy resonant structure on the low-energy shoulder of GDR is traced and analyzed in terms...
Anisotropic breakdown of Fermi liquid quasiparticle excitations in overdoped La₂-xSrxCuO₄.
Chang, J; Månsson, M; Pailhès, S; Claesson, T; Lipscombe, O J; Hayden, S M; Patthey, L; Tjernberg, O; Mesot, J
2013-01-01
High-temperature superconductivity emerges from an un-conventional metallic state. This has stimulated strong efforts to understand exactly how Fermi liquids breakdown and evolve into an un-conventional metal. A fundamental question is how Fermi liquid quasiparticle excitations break down in momentum space. Here we show, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, that the Fermi liquid quasiparticle excitations of the overdoped superconducting cuprate La1.77Sr0.23CuO4 is highly anisotropic in momentum space. The quasiparticle scattering and residue behave differently along the Fermi surface and hence the Kadowaki-Wood's relation is not obeyed. This kind of Fermi liquid breakdown may apply to a wide range of strongly correlated metal systems where spin fluctuations are present.
Continuum model for dipolar coupled planar lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Miguel D.; Pogorelov, Yuri G. E-mail: ypogorel@fc.up.pt
2003-03-01
In an effective continuum approach alike the phenomenological Landau theory, we study low energy excitations in a square lattice of dipolar coupled magnetic moments {mu}, over continuously degenerate microvortex (MV) ground states defined by an arbitrary angle 0<{theta}<{pi}/2. We consider two vector order parameters: the MV vector v={mu} (cos {theta}, sin {theta}) and the ferromagnetic (FM) vector f=((1)/(2)) ({partial_derivative}{sub y}v{sub x}, -{partial_derivative}{sub x}v{sub y}). The excitation energy density {approx}f{sup 2} leads to a non-linear Euler equation. It allows, besides common linear waves of small amplitude, also non-linear excitations with unlimited (but slow) variation of {theta}(r). For plane wave excitations {theta}(r)={theta}(n{center_dot}r) propagating along n=(cos phi (cursive,open) Greek, sin phi (cursive,open) Greek), exact integrals of Euler equation are found. The density of excitation states turns anisotropic in {theta}, conforming to the enhanced occurrence of MV-like states with {theta} close to 0 or {pi}/2 in our Monte Carlo simulations of this system at low excitation energies.
Homogenization of a Cauchy continuum towards a micromorphic continuum
Hütter, Geralf
2017-02-01
The micromorphic theory of Eringen and Mindlin, including special cases like strain gradient theory or Cosserat theory, is widely used to model size effects and localization phenomena. The heuristic construction of such theories based on thermodynamic considerations is well-established. However, the identification of corresponding constitutive laws and of the large number of respective constitutive parameters limits the practical application of such theories. In the present contribution, a closed procedure for the homogenization of a Cauchy continuum at the microscale towards a fully micromorphic continuum is derived including explicit definitions of all involved generalized macroscopic stress and deformation measures. The boundary value problem to be solved on the microscale is formulated either for using static or kinematic boundary conditions. The procedure is demonstrated with an example.
Scattering of Quark-Quasiparticles in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mannarelli, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rapp, R. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3366 (United States)
2006-08-07
Employing a Brueckner-type many-body approach, based on a driving potential extracted from lattice QCD, we study light quark properties in a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) at moderate temperatures, T{approx}1-2T{sub c}. The quark-antiquark T-matrix is calculated self-consistently with pertinent quark self-energies. While the repulsive octet channel induces quasiparticle masses of up to 150 MeV, the attractive color-singlet part exhibits resonance structures which lead to quasiparticle widths of {approx}200MeV.
Measurement of quasiparticle transport in aluminum films using tungsten transition-edge sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yen, J. J., E-mail: jeffyen@stanford.edu; Shank, B.; Cabrera, B.; Moffatt, R.; Redl, P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Young, B. A.; Tortorici, E. C. [Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California 95053 (United States); Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kreikebaum, J. M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California 95053 (United States)
2014-10-20
We report on experimental studies of phonon sensors which utilize quasiparticle diffusion in thin aluminum films connected to tungsten transition-edge-sensors (TESs) operated at 35 mK. We show that basic TES physics and a simple physical model of the overlap region between the W and Al films in our devices enables us to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed pulse shapes from x-rays absorbed in the Al films. We further estimate quasiparticle loss in Al films using a simple diffusion equation approach. These studies allow the design of phonon sensors with improved performance.
Measurement Of Quasiparticle Transport In Aluminum Films Using Tungsten Transition-Edge Sensors
Yen, J J; Young, B A; Cabrera, B; Brink, P L; Cherry, M; Kreikebaum, J M; Moffatt, R; Redl, P; Tomada, A; Tortorici, E C
2014-01-01
We report new experimental studies to understand the physics of phonon sensors which utilize quasiparticle diffusion in thin aluminum films into tungsten transition-edge-sensors (TESs) operated at 35 mK. We show that basic TES physics and a simple physical model of the overlap region between the W and Al films in our devices enables us to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed pulse shapes from x-rays absorbed in the Al films. We further estimate quasiparticle loss in Al films using a simple diffusion equation approach.
An expedition to continuum theory
Müller, Wolfgang H
2014-01-01
This book introduces field theory as required in solid and fluid mechanics as well as in electromagnetism. It also presents the necessary mathematical framework, namely tensor algebra and tensor calculus, by using an inductive approach, which makes it particularly suitable for beginners. In general, the book can be used in undergraduate classes on continuum theory and, more specifically, in courses on continuum mechanics, for students of physics and engineering alike. The benefits for the readers consist of providing a sound basis of the subject as a whole and of training their ability for solving specific problems in a rational manner. For this purpose the general laws of nature in terms of the balances for mass, momentum, and energy are applied and combined with constitutive relations, which are material specific. Various examples and homework problems illustrate how to use the theory in daily practice. Numerous mini-biographies have been added to the mathematical text for diversion and amusement.
Mathematical Modeling in Continuum Mechanics
Temam, Roger; Miranville, Alain
2005-06-01
Temam and Miranville present core topics within the general themes of fluid and solid mechanics. The brisk style allows the text to cover a wide range of topics including viscous flow, magnetohydrodynamics, atmospheric flows, shock equations, turbulence, nonlinear solid mechanics, solitons, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This second edition will be a unique resource for those studying continuum mechanics at the advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate level whether in engineering, mathematics, physics or the applied sciences. Exercises and hints for solutions have been added to the majority of chapters, and the final part on solid mechanics has been substantially expanded. These additions have now made it appropriate for use as a textbook, but it also remains an ideal reference book for students and anyone interested in continuum mechanics.
Continuum representations of cellular solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neilsen, M.K.
1993-09-01
Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.
Generalized Continuum: from Voigt to the Modeling of Quasi-Brittle Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamile Salim Fuina
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This article discusses the use of the generalized continuum theories to incorporate the effects of the microstructure in the nonlinear finite element analysis of quasi-brittle materials and, thus, to solve mesh dependency problems. A description of the problem called numerically induced strain localization, often found in Finite Element Method material non-linear analysis, is presented. A brief historic about the Generalized Continuum Mechanics based models is presented, since the initial work of Voigt (1887 until the more recent studies. By analyzing these models, it is observed that the Cosserat and microstretch approaches are particular cases of a general formulation that describes the micromorphic continuum. After reporting attempts to incorporate the material microstructure in Classical Continuum Mechanics based models, the article shows the recent tendency of doing it according to assumptions of the Generalized Continuum Mechanics. Finally, it presents numerical results which enable to characterize this tendency as a promising way to solve the problem.
Observation of chirality transition of quasiparticles at stacking solitons in trilayer graphene
Yin, Long-Jing; Wang, Wen-Xiao; Zhang, Yu; Ou, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Hao-Ting; Shen, Cai-Yun; He, Lin
2017-02-01
Trilayer graphene (TLG) exhibits rich, alternative electronic properties and extraordinary quantum Hall phenomena owing to enhanced electronic interactions and tunable chirality of its quasiparticles. Here, we report direct observation of chirality transition of quasiparticles at stacking solitons of TLG via spatial-resolved Landau level spectroscopy. The one-dimensional stacking solitons with width of the order of 10 nm separate adjacent Bernal-stacked TLG and rhombohedral-stacked TLG. By using high-field tunneling spectra from scanning tunneling microscopy, we measured Landau quantization in both the Bernal-stacked TLG and the rhombohedral-stacked TLG and, importantly, we observed evolution of quasiparticles between the chiral degree l =1 and 2 and l =3 across the stacking domain-wall solitons. Our experiment indicates that such a chirality transition occurs smoothly, accompanying the transition of the stacking orders of TLG, around the domain-wall solitons. This result demonstrates the important relationship between the crystallographic stacking order and the chirality of quasiparticles in graphene systems.
Quasi-particle interference of heavy fermions in resonant x-ray scattering
Gyenis, András; da Silva Neto, Eduardo H.; Sutarto, Ronny; Schierle, Enrico; He, Feizhou; Weschke, Eugen; Kavai, Mariam; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Thompson, Joe D.; Bauer, Eric D.; Fisk, Zachary; Damascelli, Andrea; Yazdani, Ali; Aynajian, Pegor
2016-01-01
Resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) has recently become an increasingly important tool for the study of ordering phenomena in correlated electron systems. Yet, the interpretation of RXS experiments remains theoretically challenging because of the complexity of the RXS cross section. Central to this debate is the recent proposal that impurity-induced Friedel oscillations, akin to quasi-particle interference signals observed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), can lead to scattering peaks in RXS experiments. The possibility that quasi-particle properties can be probed in RXS measurements opens up a new avenue to study the bulk band structure of materials with the orbital and element selectivity provided by RXS. We test these ideas by combining RXS and STM measurements of the heavy fermion compound CeMIn5 (M = Co, Rh). Temperature- and doping-dependent RXS measurements at the Ce-M4 edge show a broad scattering enhancement that correlates with the appearance of heavy f-electron bands in these compounds. The scattering enhancement is consistent with the measured quasi-particle interference signal in the STM measurements, indicating that the quasi-particle interference can be probed through the momentum distribution of RXS signals. Overall, our experiments demonstrate new opportunities for studies of correlated electronic systems using the RXS technique.
Quasiparticle-injection effect in YBa2Cu3Ox-based planar structures
Boguslavskij, Yu.M.; Joosse, K.; Roesthuis, F.J.G.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Rogalla, H.
1994-01-01
The supercurrent IS of a YBCO bridge can be modulated by the quasiparticle-injection current IG from YBCO/Au or YBCO/PBCO/Au junctions. The behavior of these structures is determined by two effects: 1) summation of the currents IS and IG in the YBCO bridge; 2) nonequilibrium suppression of the super
GW correlation effects on plutonium quasiparticle energies: Changes in crystal-field splitting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chantis, A.N.; Albers, R.C.; Svane, Axel;
2009-01-01
We present results for the electronic structure of plutonium by using a recently developed quasiparticle self-consistent GW method (QSGW). We consider a paramagnetic solution without spin-orbit interaction as a function of volume for the face-centred cubic (fcc) unit cell. We span unit-cell volumes...
Decay spectroscopy of 160Sm: The lightest four-quasiparticle K isomer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Patel
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The decay of a new four-quasiparticle isomeric state in 160Sm has been observed using γ-ray spectroscopy at the RIBF, RIKEN. The four-quasiparticle state is assigned a 2π⊗2ν π52−[532], π52+[413], ν52−[523], ν72+[633] configuration. The half-life of this (11+ state is measured to be 1.8(4 μs. The (11+ isomer decays into a rotational band structure, based on a (6− ν52−[523]⊗ν72+[633] bandhead, consistent with the gK−gR values. This decays to a (5− two-proton quasiparticle state, which in turn decays to the ground state band. Potential energy surface and blocked-BCS calculations were performed in the deformed midshell region around 160Sm. They reveal a significant influence from β6 deformation and that 160Sm is the best candidate for the lightest four-quasiparticle K isomer to exist in this region. The relationship between reduced hindrance and isomer excitation energy for E1 transitions from multiquasiparticle states is considered with the new data from 160Sm. The E1 data are found to agree with the existing relationship for E2 transitions.
Quasiparticle properties of a coupled quantum-wire electron-phonon system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hwang, E. H.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Sarma, S. Das
1996-01-01
We study leading-order many-body effects of longitudinal-optical phonons on electronic properties of one-dimensional quantum-wire systems. We calculate the quasiparticle properties of a weakly polar one-dimensional electron gas in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron-electron interac...
Quasiparticle Tunneling in the Fractional Quantum Hall effect at filling fraction ν=5/2
Radu, Iuliana P.
2009-03-01
In a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), in the fractional quantum Hall regime, the quasiparticles are predicted to have fractional charge and statistics, as well as modified Coulomb interactions. The state at filling fraction ν=5/2 is predicted by some theories to have non-abelian statistics, a property that might be exploited for topological quantum computing. However, alternative models with abelian properties have been proposed as well. Weak quasiparticle tunneling between counter-propagating edges is one of the methods that can be used to learn about the properties of the state and potentially distinguish between models describing it. We employ an electrostatically defined quantum point contact (QPC) fabricated on a high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG to create a constriction where quasiparticles can tunnel between counter-propagating edges. We study the temperature and dc bias dependence of the tunneling conductance, while preserving the same filling fraction in the constriction and the bulk of the sample. The data show scaling of the bias-dependent tunneling over a range of temperatures, in agreement with the theory of weak quasiparticle tunneling, and we extract values for the effective charge and interaction parameter of the quasiparticles. The ranges of values obtained are consistent with those predicted by certain models describing the 5/2 state, indicating as more probable a non-abelian state. This work was done in collaboration with J. B. Miller, C. M. Marcus, M. A. Kastner, L. N. Pfeiffer and K. W. West. This work was supported in part by the Army Research Office (W911NF-05-1-0062), the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center program of NSF (PHY-0117795), NSF (DMR-0701386), the Center for Materials Science and Engineering program of NSF (DMR-0213282) at MIT, the Microsoft Corporation Project Q, and the Center for Nanoscale Systems at Harvard University.
Non-classical solutions of a continuum model for rock descriptions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mikhail A.Guzev
2014-01-01
The strain-gradient and non-Euclidean continuum theories are employed for construction of non-classical solutions of continuum models. The linear approximation of both models’ results in identical structures in terms of their kinematic and stress characteristics. The solutions obtained in this study exhibit a critical behaviour with respect to the external loading parameter. The conclusions are obtained based on an investigation of the solution for the scalar curvature in the non-Euclidean continuum theory. The proposed analysis enables us to use different theoretical approaches for description of rock critical behaviour under different loading conditions.
Flat super-continuum generation based on normal dispersion nonlinear photonic crystal fibre
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chow, K.K.; Takushima, Y.; Lin, C.
2006-01-01
Flat super-continuum generation spanning over the whole telecommunication band using a passively modelocked fibre laser source at 1550 nm together with a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photoinc crystal fibre is demonstrated. Since the pulses propagate in the normal dispersion regime of the fibre...... only, linear frequency chirp is induced by self-phase modulation which leads to a flat super-continuum. By launching the compressed 170 fs modelocked pulses with an average power of 10 mW into the fibre, super-continuum over 185 nm with less than 5 dB fluctuation is obtained from the all...
Continuum modeling of myxobacteria clustering
Harvey, Cameron W.; Alber, Mark; Tsimring, Lev S.; Aranson, Igor S.
2013-03-01
In this paper we develop a continuum theory of clustering in ensembles of self-propelled inelastically colliding rods with applications to collective dynamics of common gliding bacteria Myxococcus xanthus. A multi-phase hydrodynamic model that couples densities of oriented and isotropic phases is described. This model is used for the analysis of an instability that leads to spontaneous formation of directionally moving dense clusters within initially dilute isotropic ‘gas’ of myxobacteria. Numerical simulations of this model confirm the existence of stationary dense moving clusters and also elucidate the properties of their collisions. The results are shown to be in a qualitative agreement with experiments.
Wannier-Stark ladder in the linear absorption of a random system with scale-free disorder
Diaz, E.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Malyshev, V.A.
2006-01-01
We study numerically the linear optical response of a quasiparticle moving on a one-dimensional disordered lattice in the presence of a linear bias. The random site potential is assumed to be long-range correlated with a power-law spectral density S(k)similar to 1/k(alpha), alpha > 0. This type of c
Projected shell model analysis of multi-quasiparticle high-K isomers in sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf
Zhou Xian Rong; Sun Yang; Long Gui Lu
2002-01-01
Multi-quasiparticle high-K states in sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf are studied in the framework of the projected shell model. The calculation reproduces well the observed ground-state band as well as most of the two- and four-quasiparticle rotational bands. Some as yet unobserved high-K isomeric states in sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf are predicted. Possible reasons for the existing discrepancies between calculation and experiment are discussed. It is suggested that the projected shell model may be a useful method for studying multi-quasiparticle high-K isomers and the K-mixing phenomenon in heavy deformed nuclei
A continuum three-zone model for swarms.
Miller, Jennifer M; Kolpas, Allison; Juchem Neto, Joao Plinio; Rossi, Louis F
2012-03-01
We present a progression of three distinct three-zone, continuum models for swarm behavior based on social interactions with neighbors in order to explain simple coherent structures in popular biological models of aggregations. In continuum models, individuals are replaced with density and velocity functions. Individual behavior is modeled with convolutions acting within three interaction zones corresponding to repulsion, orientation, and attraction, respectively. We begin with a variable-speed first-order model in which the velocity depends directly on the interactions. Next, we present a variable-speed second-order model. Finally, we present a constant-speed second-order model that is coordinated with popular individual-based models. For all three models, linear stability analysis shows that the growth or decay of perturbations in an infinite, uniform swarm depends on the strength of attraction relative to repulsion and orientation. We verify that the continuum models predict the behavior of a swarm of individuals by comparing the linear stability results with an individual-based model that uses the same social interaction kernels. In some unstable regimes, we observe that the uniform state will evolve toward a radially symmetric attractor with a variable density. In other unstable regimes, we observe an incoherent swarming state.
Records Continuum: An Emerging Recordkeeping Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi-Shiou Lin
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces Records Continuum, a recordkeeping theory emerging from the Australian archives and records management studies which gained international recognition in the 1990s. This paper first describes the background of the theory development. It goes on to explicate the theses of continuum theorists including the Records Continuum Diagram developed by Frank Upward. Finally, it offers some critiques on the theoretical propositions and discusses their implications on records and archival practices. [Article content in Chinese
Photon-dressed quasiparticle states in 1D and 2D materials: a many-body Floquet approach
Manghi, Franca; Puviani, Matteo
We studiy the interplay between electron-electron interactions and non-equilibrium conditions associated to time-dependent external fields. Exploring phases of quantum matter away from equilibrium may give access to regimes inaccessible under equilibrium conditions. What makes this field particularly interesting is the possibility to engineer new phases of matter by an external tunable control. We have developed a scheme that allows to treat photo-induced phenomena in the presence of electron-electron many body interactions, where both the nonlinear effects of the external field and the electron-electron correlation are treated simultaneously and in a non-perturbative way. The Floquet approach is used to include the effects of the external time periodic field, and the Cluster Perturbation Theory to describe interacting electrons in a lattice. They are merged in a Floquet-Green function method that allows to calculate photon dressed quasiparticle excitation. For 1D systems we show that an unconventional Mott insulator-to-metal transition occurs for given characteristics of the applied field (intensity and frequency). The method has also been applied to the 2D honeycomb lattice (graphene), where in the presence of realistic values of electron-electron interaction, we show that linearly polarized light may give rise to non-dissipative edge states associated to a non-trivial topological behavior.
ON THE CONTINUUM MODELING OF CARBON NANOTUBES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张鹏; 黄永刚; Philippe H.Geubelle; 黄克智
2002-01-01
We have recently proposed a nanoscale continuum theory for carbonnanotubes. The theory links continuum analysis with atomistic modeling by incor-porating interatomic potentials and atomic structures of carbon nanotubes directlyinto the constitutive law. Here we address two main issues involved in setting upthe nanoscale continuum theory for carbon nanotubes, namely the multi-body in-teratomic potentials and the lack of centrosymmetry in the nanotube structure. Weexplain the key ideas behind these issues in establishing a nanoscale continuum theoryin terms of interatomic potentials and atomic structures.
Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Grimes
2008-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.
Wave propagation in equivalent continuums representing truss lattice materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Messner, Mark C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barham, Matthew I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumar, Mukul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barton, Nathan R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-07-29
Stiffness scales linearly with density in stretch-dominated lattice meta-materials offering the possibility of very light yet very stiff structures. Current additive manufacturing techniques can assemble structures consisting of these lattice materials, but the design of such structures will require accurate, efficient simulation techniques. Equivalent continuum models have several advantages over discrete truss models of stretch dominated lattices, including computational efficiency and ease of model construction. However, the development an equivalent model suitable for representing the dynamic response of a periodic truss is complicated by microinertial effects. This paper derives a dynamic equivalent continuum model for periodic truss structures and verifies it against detailed finite element simulations. The model must incorporate microinertial effects to accurately reproduce long-wavelength characteristics of the response such as anisotropic elastic soundspeeds. The formulation presented here also improves upon previous work by preserving equilibrium at truss joints for affine lattice deformation and by improving numerical stability by eliminating vertices in the effective yield surface.
Cui, Ji-Wei; Chen, Fang-Qi; Sun, Yang; Wu, Cheng-Li; Gao, Zao-Chun
2014-01-01
The Heavy Shell Model (HSM) (Y. Sun and C.-L. Wu, Phys. Rev. C 68, 024315 (2003)) was proposed to take the advantages of two existing models, the projected shell model (PSM) and the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). To construct HSM, one extends the PSM by adding collective D-pairs into the intrinsic basis. The HSM is expected to describe simultaneously low-lying collective and quasi-particle excitations in deformed nuclei, and still keeps the model space tractable even for the heaviest systems. As the first numerical realization of the HSM, we study systematically the band structures for some deformed actinide nuclei, with a model space including up to 4-quasiparticle and 1-D-pair configurations. The calculated energy levels for the ground- state bands, the collective bands such as {\\beta} - and {\\gamma} -bands, and some quasiparticle bands agree well with known experimental data. Some low-lying quasiparticle bands are predicted, awaiting experimental confirmation.
Comparing quasiparticle GW+DMFT and LDA+DMFT for the test bed material SrVO3
Taranto, C.; Kaltak, M.; Parragh, N.; Sangiovanni, G.; Kresse, G.; Toschi, A.; Held, K.
2013-10-01
We have implemented the quasiparticle GW+dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) approach in the Vienna ab initio simulation package. To this end, a quasiparticle Hermitization of the G0W0 self-energy a lá Kotani-Schilfgaarde is employed, and the interaction values are obtained from the locally unscreened random phase approximation (RPA) using a projection onto Wannier orbitals. We compare quasiparticle GW+DMFT and local density approximation (LDA)+DMFT against each other and against experiment for SrVO3. We observe a partial compensation of stronger electronic correlations due to the reduced GW bandwidth and weaker correlations due to a larger screening of the RPA interaction, so that the obtained spectra are quite similar and agree well with experiment. Noteworthy, the quasiparticle GW+DMFT better reproduces the position of the lower Hubbard side band.
Shape vibrations and quasiparticle excitations in the lowest 0+ excited state of the Erbium isotopes
Chen, Fang-Qi
2016-01-01
The ground and first excited 0+ states of the {156-172}Er isotopes are analyzed in the framework of the generator coordinate method. The shape parameter beta is used to generate wave functions with different deformations which together with the two-quasiparticle states built on them provide a set of states. An angular momentum and particle number projection of the latter spawn the basis states of the generator coordinate method. With this ansatz and using the separable pairing plus quadrupole interaction we obtain a good agreement with the experimental spectra and E2 transition rates up to moderate spin values. The structure of the wave functions suggests that the first excited 0+ states in the soft Er isotopes are dominated by shape fluctuations, while in the well deformed Er isotopes the two-quasiparticle states are more relevant. In between both degrees of freedom are necessary .
Multi-quasiparticle {gamma}-band structure in neutron-deficient Ce and Nd isotopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheikh, J.A. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Bhat, G.H. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Palit, R.; Naik, Z. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, 400 005 (India); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: sunyang@sjtu.edu.cn
2009-06-01
The newly developed multi-quasiparticle triaxial projected shell model approach is employed to study the high-spin band structures in neutron-deficient even-even Ce- and Nd-isotopes. It is observed that {gamma}-bands are built on each intrinsic configuration of the triaxial mean-field deformation. Due to the fact that a triaxial configuration is a superposition of several K-states, the projection from these states results in several low-lying bands originating from the same intrinsic configuration. This generalizes the well-known concept of the surface {gamma}-oscillation in deformed nuclei based on the ground-state to {gamma}-bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations. This new feature provides an alternative explanation on the observation of two I=10 aligning states in {sup 134}Ce and both exhibiting a neutron character.
Multi-Quasiparticle Gamma-Band Structure in Neutron-Deficient Ce and Nd Isotopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheikh, Javid [ORNL; Bhat, G. H. [University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India; Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India; Naik, Z. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India; Sun, Y. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai
2009-01-01
The newly developed multi-quasiparticle triaxial projected shell-model approach is employed to study the high-spin band structures in neutron-deficient even-even Ce and Nd isotopes. It is observed that gamma bands are built on each intrinsic configuration of the triaxial mean-field deformation. Due to the fact that a triaxial configuration is a superposition of several K states, the projection from these states results in several low-lying bands originating from the same intrinsic configuration. This generalizes the well-known concept of the surface gamma oscillation in deformed nuclei based on the ground state to gamma bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations. This new feature provides an alternative explanation on the observation of two I=10 aligning states in ^{134}Ce and both exhibiting a neutron character.
Inflationary quasiparticle creation and thermalization dynamics in coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Posazhennikova, Anna; Kroha, Johann
2016-01-01
A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, non-equilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanche-like QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our set-up occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.
A quasi-particle description of $(2+1)$- flavor lattice QCD equation of state
Chandra, Vinod
2011-01-01
A quasi-particle model has been employed to describe the $(2+1)$-flavor lattice QCD equation of state with physical quark masses. The interaction part of the equation of state has been mapped to the effective fugacities of otherwise non-interacting quasi-gluons and quasi-quarks. The mapping is found to be exact for the equation of state. The model leads to non-trivial dispersion relations for quasi-partons. The dispersion relations, effective quasi-particle number densities, and trace anomaly have been investigated employing the model. A Virial expansion for the EOS has further been obtained to investigate the role of interactions in quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Finally, Debye screening in QGP has been studied employing the model.
Constraints on the quasiparticle density of states in high-T{sub c} superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cren, T.; Roditchev, D.; Sacks, W.; Klein, J. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Groupe de Physique des Solides
2000-10-15
In this letter we present new tunneling data on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films by low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Unusual peak-dip-hump features, previously reported in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}, are also found in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. To analyse these common signatures, we propose a new heuristic model in which, in addition to the d-wave symmetry, the gap function is energy dependent. A simple expression for the quasiparticle density of states is derived, giving an excellent agreement with the experiment. The dynamics of the quasiparticle states and the energy scales involved in the superconducting transition are discussed. (orig.)
Baselmans, J. J. A.; Yates, S. J. C.
2009-12-01
To achieve the high sensitivity requirements of future space based sub-mm spectroscopy missions is highly challenging. Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors are a promising candidate since they can theoretically achieve the performance required. However, they have yet to be shown to reach this performance. We will show that this is due in part to stray light saturating the device's sensitivity in aluminium KIDs in our experimental setup. We discuss a set of experiments that show that thermal radiation from the 3 K stage of our cooler is limiting the quasiparticle lifetime in our aluminium KIDs. Furthermore we discuss a new filtering method based upon coaxial cable filters to reduce this effect. Using the best filtering achievable we have measured a quasiparticle lifetime of 2.8 msec in a 100 nm thick Al KID.
Resolving the quasiparticle scattering paradox in superconducting LiFeAs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hess, Christian; Sykora, Steffen; Haenke, Torben; Schlegel, Ronny; Baumann, Danny; Zabolotnyy, Volodymyr; Harnagea, Luminita; Wurmehl, Sabine [IFW Dresden (Germany); Brink, Jeroen van den; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, TU Dresden (Germany)
2013-07-01
Several angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies reveal a poorly nested Fermi surface of LiFeAs, far away from a spin density wave instability, and clear-cut superconducting gap anisotropies. On the other hand a very different, more nested Fermi surface and dissimilar gap anisotropies have been obtained from quasiparticle interference (QPI) data, which were interpreted as arising from intraband scattering within hole-like bands. Here we show that this ARPES-QPI paradox is completely resolved by interband scattering between the hole-like bands. The resolution follows from an excellent agreement between experimental quasiparticle scattering data and T-matrix QPI calculations (based on experimental band structure data), which allows disentangling interband and intraband scattering processes.
Quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor.
Wakamura, T; Akaike, H; Omori, Y; Niimi, Y; Takahashi, S; Fujimaki, A; Maekawa, S; Otani, Y
2015-07-01
In some materials the competition between superconductivity and magnetism brings about a variety of unique phenomena such as the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetism in heavy-fermion superconductors or spin-triplet supercurrent in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions. Recent observations of spin-charge separation in a lateral spin valve with a superconductor evidence that these remarkable properties are applicable to spintronics, although there are still few works exploring this possibility. Here, we report the experimental observation of the quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor, NbN. This compound exhibits the inverse spin Hall (ISH) effect even below the superconducting transition temperature. Surprisingly, the ISH signal increases by more than 2,000 times compared with that in the normal state with a decrease of the injected spin current. The effect disappears when the distance between the voltage probes becomes larger than the charge imbalance length, corroborating that the huge ISH signals measured are mediated by quasiparticles.
Steele, A
2000-01-01
this thesis data from phonon experiments are used to directly determine values for the parameters of an STJ such as the quasiparticle loss and tunnel rates in its electrodes. It is also shown how the input energy, in the form of phonons capable of breaking Cooper pairs, and the corresponding charge output from the device can be determined. These values are then compared with those obtained from x-ray absorption data. This thesis is concerned with the use of nanosecond phonon pulses to study quasiparticle behaviour in the electrodes of high-quality niobium superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs). This work is part of a collaboration with the Astrophysics Research and Development Division of the European Space Agency (ESA) at ESTEC. STJs are being widely investigated as photon detectors over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. They potentially offer excellent energy resolution, time response and photon counting capabilities. The primary aim of this research was to use phonon pulses to investigate qua...
Coexisting wobbling and quasiparticle excitations in the triaxial potential well of {sup 163}Lu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, D.R.; Hagemann, G.B.; Herskind, B.; Sletten, G.; Wilson, J.N. [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hamamoto, I. [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Mathematical Physics, LTH, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Oedegaard, S.W. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, PB 1048 Blindern, N-0316, Oslo (Norway); Spohr, K. [Department of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Paisley (United Kingdom); Huebel, H.; Bringel, P.; Neusser, A.; Schoenwasser, G.; Singh, A.K. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115, Bonn (Germany); Ma, W.C.; Amro, H. [Mississippi State University, MS 39762, Mississippi State (United States); Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Benzoni, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Maj, A. [Niewodniczanski Insitute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Petrache, C.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Lo Bianco, G.; Bednarczyk, P.; Curien, D.
2004-02-01
High-spin states of the nucleus {sup 163}Lu have been populated through the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 139}La({sup 29}Si,5n) with a beam energy of 157 MeV. In addition to the two lowest excited triaxial strongly deformed (TSD) bands, recently interpreted as one- and two-phonon wobbling excitations, a third excited TSD band has been firmly established decaying to the yrast TSD band. The assignment of this band as a three-quasiparticle band shows together with the normal deformed (ND) level scheme the presence not only of shape coexistence between ND and TSD structures, but also an interplay of wobbling and quasiparticle excitations in the triaxial strongly deformed potential well of {sup 163}Lu. (orig.)
Gauge dependence of the fermion quasiparticle poles in hot gauge theories
Wang, Shang-Yung
2004-09-01
The gauge dependence of the complex fermion quasiparticle poles corresponding to soft collective excitations is studied in hot gauge theories at one-loop order and next-to-leading order in the high-temperature expansion, with a view towards going beyond the leading order hard thermal loops and resummations thereof. We find that for collective excitations of momenta k˜eT the dispersion relations are gauge independent, but the corresponding damping rates are gauge dependent. For k≪eT and in the k→0 limit, both the dispersion relations and the damping rates are found to be gauge dependent. The gauge dependence of the position of the complex quasiparticle poles signals the need for resummation. Possible cancellation of the leading gauge dependence at two-loop order in the case of QED is briefly discussed.
Quantum criticality of D-wave quasiparticles and superconducting phase fluctuations.
Vafek, Oskar; Tesanović, Zlatko
2003-12-05
We present finite temperature (T) extension of the (2+1)-dimensional QED (QED3) theory of under-doped cuprates. The theory describes nodal quasiparticles whose interactions with quantum proliferated hc/2e vortex-antivortex pairs are represented by an emergent U(1) gauge field. Finite T introduces a scale beyond which the spatial fluctuations of vorticity are suppressed. As a result, the spin susceptibility of the pseudogap state is bounded by T2 at low T and crosses over to approximately T at higher T, while the low-T specific heat scales as T2, reflecting the thermodynamics of QED3. The Wilson ratio vanishes as T-->0; the pseudogap state is a "thermal (semi)metal" but a "spin-charge dielectric." This non-Fermi liquid behavior originates from two general principles: spin correlations induced by "gauge" interactions of quasiparticles and fluctuating vortices and the "relativistic" scaling of the T=0 fixed point.
Calculations of quasi-particle spectra of semiconductors under pressure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Niels Egede; Svane, Axel; Cardona, M.;
2011-01-01
-gap materials QSGW overestimates the gaps by 0.3–0.8 eV, an error which is ascribed to the omission of ‘‘vertex corrections.’’ This is confirmed by calculations of excitonic effects, by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The LDA error in predicting the binding energy of the Cu-3d states is examined...... and the QSGW and LDA+U approximations are compared. For PbX the spinorbit coupling is included, and it is shown that although LDA gives a reasonable magnitude of the gap at L, only QSGW predicts the correct order of the L+6 and L-6 states and thus the correct sign (negative) of the gap pressure coefficient....... The pressure-induced gap closure leads to linear (Dirac-type) band dispersions around the L point....
Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Stone, A. Douglas; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin
2016-09-01
Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are waves that remain localized even though they coexist with a continuous spectrum of radiating waves that can carry energy away. Their very existence defies conventional wisdom. Although BICs were first proposed in quantum mechanics, they are a general wave phenomenon and have since been identified in electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves in air, water waves and elastic waves in solids. These states have been studied in a wide range of material systems, such as piezoelectric materials, dielectric photonic crystals, optical waveguides and fibres, quantum dots, graphene and topological insulators. In this Review, we describe recent developments in this field with an emphasis on the physical mechanisms that lead to BICs across seemingly very different materials and types of waves. We also discuss experimental realizations, existing applications and directions for future work.
Quasi-particle properties in a quasi-two-dimensional electron liquid
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R Asgari; B Tanatar
2008-02-01
We consider the quasi-particle properties such as the effective mass and spin susceptibility of quasi-two-dimensional electron systems. The finite quantum well width effects are incorporated into the local-field factors that describe the charge and spin correlations. We employ the Fermi-hypernetted chain formalism in conjunction with fluctuation-dissipation theorem to obtain the local-field factors. Our results are in good agreement with recent experiments.
Abrahams, Elihu; Wölfle, Peter
2012-02-28
We use the recently developed critical quasiparticle theory to derive the scaling behavior associated with a quantum critical point in a correlated metal. This is applied to the magnetic-field induced quantum critical point observed in YbRh(2)Si(2), for which we also derive the critical behavior of the specific heat, resistivity, thermopower, magnetization and susceptibility, the Grüneisen coefficient, and the thermal expansion coefficient. The theory accounts very well for the available experimental results.
Quasi-particles and effective mean field in strongly interacting matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levai, P. [MTA KFKI RMKI, POB 49., Budapest 114, 1525 (Hungary); Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Ko, C.M. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)
2010-03-01
We introduce a quasi-particle model of strongly interacting quark-gluon matter and explore the possible connection to an effective field theoretical description consisting of a scalar sigma field by introducing a dynamically generated mass, M(sigma), and a self-consistently determined interaction term, B(sigma). We display a possible connection between the two types of effective description, using the Friedberg-Lee model.
Quasi-particles and effective mean field in strongly interacting matter
Lévai, P.; Ko, C. M.
2010-03-01
We introduce a quasi-particle model of strongly interacting quark-gluon matter and explore the possible connection to an effective field theoretical description consisting of a scalar σ field by introducing a dynamically generated mass, M(σ), and a self-consistently determined interaction term, B(σ). We display a possible connection between the two types of effective description, using the Friedberg-Lee model.
Observation of a $\\gamma$-band based on two-quasiparticle configuration in $^{70}$Ge
Raju, M Kumar; Muralithar, S; Singh, R P; Bhat, G H; Sheikh, J A; Tandel, S K; Sugathan, P; Reddy, T Seshi; Rao, B V Thirumala; Bhowmik, R K
2016-01-01
The structure of $^{70}$Ge has been studied through in-beam gamma ray spectroscopy. A new band structure is identified that leads to forking of the ground-state band into two excited bands. Band structures have been investigated using the microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. The observed forking is demonstrated to result from almost simultaneous band crossing of the two neutron aligned and the \\gamma-band built on this two-quasiparticle configuration with the ground-state band.
Equation of State of the Quark Gluon Plasma within the Quasi-particle Approach
Begun, Viktor V; Mogilevsky, Oleg A
2010-01-01
We propose simple analytical form of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) equation of state (EoS) based on a quasi-particle approach. This new EoS satisfies all qualitative features observed in the lattice QCD calculations and gives a good quantitative description of the lattice results in SU(3) gluodynamics. The suggested EoS opens up new possibilities for hydrodynamic and kinetic phenomenological applications in the studies of the QGP.
Quasiparticle Description of the QCD Plasma, Comparison with Lattice Results at Finite T and Mu
Szabó, K K
2003-01-01
We compare our 2+1 flavor, staggered QCD lattice results with a quasiparticle picture. We determine the pressure, the energy density, the baryon density, the speed of sound and the thermal masses as a function of T and $\\mu_B$. For the available thermodynamic quantities the difference is a few percent between the results of the two approaches. We also give the phase diagram on the $\\mu_B$--T plane and estimate the critical chemical potential at vanishing temperature.
Four-Quasiparticle High-K States in Neutron-Deficient Lead and Polonium Nuclei
Shi, Yue; Xu, Furong
2012-06-01
Configuration-constrained potential energy surface calculations have been performed to investigate four-quasiparticle high-K configurations in neutron-deficient lead and polonium isotopes. A good agreement between the calculations and the experimental data has been found for the excitation energy of the observed Kπ = 19- state in 188Pb. Several lowly excited high-K states are predicted, and the large oblate deformation and low energy indicate high-K isomerism in these nuclei.
Calculating beta decay in the deformed self-consistent quasiparticle random phase approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engel, Jonathan, E-mail: engelj@physics.unc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Mustonen, M. T., E-mail: mika.mustonen@yale.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06052 (United States)
2016-06-21
We discuss a recent global calculation of beta-decay rates in the self-consistent Skyrme quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), with axially symmetric nuclear deformation treated explicitly. The calculation makes makes use of the finite-amplitude method, first proposed by Nakatsukasa and collaborators, to reduce computation time. The results are comparable in quality to those of several other global QRPA calculations. The QRPA may have reached the limit of its accuracy.
Lange, Philipp; Tsyplyatyev, Oleksandr; Kopietz, Peter
2017-08-01
We study the effect of critical pairing fluctuations on the electronic properties in the normal state of a clean superconductor in three dimensions. Using a functional renormalization group approach to take the non-Gaussian nature of critical fluctuations into account, we show microscopically that in the BCS regime, where the inverse coherence length is much smaller than the Fermi wave vector, critical pairing fluctuations give rise to a nonanalytic contribution to the quasiparticle damping of order Tc√{Gi}ln(80 /Gi) , where the Ginzburg-Levanyuk number Gi is a dimensionless measure for the width of the critical region. As a consequence, there is a temperature window above Tc where the quasiparticle damping due to critical pairing fluctuations can be larger than the usual T2 Fermi liquid damping due to noncritical scattering processes. On the other hand, in the strong coupling regime where Gi is of order unity, we find within the Gaussian approximation that the quasiparticle damping due to critical pairing fluctuations is proportional to the temperature. Moreover, we show that in the vicinity of the critical temperature Tc the electronic density of states exhibits a fluctuation-induced pseudogap. We also use functional renormalization group methods to derive and classify various types of higher-order scattering processes induced by the pairing interaction in Fermi systems close to the superconducting instability.
Fermionic q-deformation and its connection to thermal effective mass of a quasiparticle
Algin, Abdullah; Senay, Mustafa
2016-04-01
A fermionic deformation scheme is applied to a study on the low-temperature quantum statistical behavior of a quasifermion gas model with intermediate statistics. Such a model does not satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle, and its quantum statistical properties are based on a formalism of the fermionic q-calculus. For low temperatures, several thermostatistical functions of the model such as the chemical potential, the heat capacity, and the entropy are derived by means of a function of the model deformation parameter q. The effect of fermionic q-deformation on the low-temperature thermostatistical properties of the model are discussed in detail. Our results show that the present deformed (quasi)fermion model provides remarkable connections of the model deformation parameter q, first, with the thermal effective mass of a quasiparticle, and second, with the temperature parameter. Hence, it turns out that the model deformation parameter q has also a role controlling the strength of effective quasiparticle interactions in the model. Finally, we conclude that this work can be useful for understanding the details of interaction mechanism of fermions such as quasiparticle states emergent in the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Xu, N.; Autès, G.; Matt, C. E.; Lv, B. Q.; Yao, M. Y.; Bisti, F.; Strocov, V. N.; Gawryluk, D.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Plumb, N. C.; Radovic, M.; Qian, T.; Yazyev, O. V.; Mesot, J.; Ding, H.; Shi, M.
2017-03-01
The Weyl semimetal phase is a recently discovered topological quantum state of matter characterized by the presence of topologically protected degeneracies near the Fermi level. These degeneracies are the source of exotic phenomena, including the realization of chiral Weyl fermions as quasiparticles in the bulk and the formation of Fermi arc states on the surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that these two key signatures show distinct evolutions with the bulk band topology by performing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, supported by first-principles calculations, on transition-metal monophosphides. While Weyl fermion quasiparticles exist only when the chemical potential is located between two saddle points of the Weyl cone features, the Fermi arc states extend in a larger energy scale and are robust across the bulk Lifshitz transitions associated with the recombination of two nontrivial Fermi surfaces enclosing one Weyl point into a single trivial Fermi surface enclosing two Weyl points of opposite chirality. Therefore, in some systems (e.g., NbP), topological Fermi arc states are preserved even if Weyl fermion quasiparticles are absent in the bulk. Our findings not only provide insight into the relationship between the exotic physical phenomena and the intrinsic bulk band topology in Weyl semimetals, but also resolve the apparent puzzle of the different magnetotransport properties observed in TaAs, TaP, and NbP, where the Fermi arc states are similar.
Robin, Caroline; Litvinova, Elena
2016-07-01
A new theoretical approach to spin-isospin excitations in open-shell nuclei is presented. The developed method is based on the relativistic meson-exchange nuclear Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics and extends the response theory for superfluid nuclear systems beyond relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in the proton-neutron channel (pn-RQRPA). The coupling between quasiparticle degrees of freedom and collective vibrations (phonons) introduces a time-dependent effective interaction, in addition to the exchange of pion and ρ -meson taken into account without retardation. The time-dependent contributions are treated in the resonant time-blocking approximation, in analogy to the previously developed relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the neutral (non-isospin-flip) channel. The new method is called proton-neutron RQTBA (pn-RQTBA) and is applied to the Gamow-Teller resonance in a chain of neutron-rich nickel isotopes 68-78Ni . A strong fragmentation of the resonance along with quenching of the strength, as compared to pn-RQRPA, is obtained. Based on the calculated strength distribution, beta-decay half-lives of the considered isotopes are computed and compared to pn-RQRPA half-lives and to experimental data. It is shown that a considerable improvement of the half-life description is obtained in pn-RQTBA because of the spreading effects, which bring the lifetimes to a very good quantitative agreement with data.
Quasi-particles ultrafastly releasing kink bosons to form Fermi arcs in a cuprate superconductor.
Ishida, Y; Saitoh, T; Mochiku, T; Nakane, T; Hirata, K; Shin, S
2016-01-01
In a conventional framework, superconductivity is lost at a critical temperature (Tc) because, at higher temperatures, gluing bosons can no longer bind two electrons into a Cooper pair. In high-Tc cuprates, it is still unknown how superconductivity vanishes at Tc. We provide evidence that the so-called ≲ 70-meV kink bosons that dress the quasi-particle excitations are playing a key role in the loss of superconductivity in a cuprate. We irradiated a 170-fs laser pulse on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) and monitored the responses of the superconducting gap and dressed quasi-particles by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observe an ultrafast loss of superconducting gap near the d-wave node, or light-induced Fermi arcs, which is accompanied by spectral broadenings and weight redistributions occurring within the kink binding energy. We discuss that the underlying mechanism of the spectral broadening that induce the Fermi arc is the undressing of quasi-particles from the kink bosons. The loss mechanism is beyond the conventional framework, and can accept the unconventional phenomena such as the signatures of Cooper pairs remaining at temperatures above Tc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Tacon, M.; Sacuto, A. [Paris-7 Univ., Lab. Mat riaux et Ph nom nes Quantiques (UMR 7162 CNRS), 75 (France); Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, ESPCI, 75 - Paris (France); Georges, A. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Kotliar, G. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Rutgers Univ., Serin Physics Lab. (United States); Gallais, Y. [Columbia Univ. New York, Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics, NY (United States); Colson, D.; Forget, A. [CEA Saclay, Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2006-07-01
The superconducting state of under-doped cuprates is often described in terms of a single energy scale, associated with the maximum of the (d-wave) gap. Here, we report on electronic Raman scattering results, which show that the gap function in the under-doped regime is characterized by two energy scales, depending on doping in opposite manners. Their ratios to the maximum critical temperature are found to be universal in cuprates. Our experimental results also reveal two different quasiparticle dynamics in the under-doped superconducting state, associated with two regions of momentum space: nodal regions near the zeros of the gap and anti-nodal regions. While anti-nodal quasiparticles quickly loose coherence as doping is reduced, coherent nodal quasiparticles persist down to low doping levels. A theoretical analysis using a new sum-rule allows us to relate the low-frequency-dependence of the Raman response to the temperature-dependence of the superfluid density, both controlled by nodal excitations. (authors)
Xu, N; Autès, G; Matt, C E; Lv, B Q; Yao, M Y; Bisti, F; Strocov, V N; Gawryluk, D; Pomjakushina, E; Conder, K; Plumb, N C; Radovic, M; Qian, T; Yazyev, O V; Mesot, J; Ding, H; Shi, M
2017-03-10
The Weyl semimetal phase is a recently discovered topological quantum state of matter characterized by the presence of topologically protected degeneracies near the Fermi level. These degeneracies are the source of exotic phenomena, including the realization of chiral Weyl fermions as quasiparticles in the bulk and the formation of Fermi arc states on the surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that these two key signatures show distinct evolutions with the bulk band topology by performing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, supported by first-principles calculations, on transition-metal monophosphides. While Weyl fermion quasiparticles exist only when the chemical potential is located between two saddle points of the Weyl cone features, the Fermi arc states extend in a larger energy scale and are robust across the bulk Lifshitz transitions associated with the recombination of two nontrivial Fermi surfaces enclosing one Weyl point into a single trivial Fermi surface enclosing two Weyl points of opposite chirality. Therefore, in some systems (e.g., NbP), topological Fermi arc states are preserved even if Weyl fermion quasiparticles are absent in the bulk. Our findings not only provide insight into the relationship between the exotic physical phenomena and the intrinsic bulk band topology in Weyl semimetals, but also resolve the apparent puzzle of the different magnetotransport properties observed in TaAs, TaP, and NbP, where the Fermi arc states are similar.
The interacting quasiparticle-phonon picture and odd-even nuclei. Overview and perspectives
Mishev, S.; Voronov, V. V.
2016-11-01
The role of the nucleon correlations in the ground states of even-even nuclei on the properties of low-lying states in odd-even spherical and transitional nuclei is studied. We reason about this subject using the language of the quasiparticle-phonon model which we extend to take account of the existence of quasiparticle⊗phonon configurations in the wave functions of the ground states of the even-even cores. Of paramount importance to the structure of the low-lying states happens to be the quasiparticle-phonon interaction in the ground states which we evaluated using both the standard and the extended random phase approximations. Numerical calculations for nuclei in the barium and cadmium regions are performed using pairing and quadrupole-quadrupole interaction modes which have the dominant impact on the lowest-lying states' structure. It is found that states with same angular momentum and parity become closer in energy as compared to the predictions of models disregarding the backward amplitudes, which turns out to be in accord with the experimental data. In addition we found that the interaction between the last quasiparticle and the ground-state phonon admixtures produces configurations which contribute significantly to the magnetic dipolemoment of odd- A nuclei. It also reveals a potential for reproducing their experimental values which proves impossible if this interaction is neglected.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campuzano, J.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (USA). Dept. of Physics); Jennings, G.; Veal, B.W.; Benedek, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Arko, A.J.; List, R.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))
1991-06-01
High resolution (20 MeV) angle-resolved photoemission measurements on single-crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.9} were analyzed to obtain band dispersion and quasiparticle lifetimes. The mass enhancement is 1.2 for a Cu-O plane band mass and 1.0 for the Pd{Pi} chain band. Fitting measured energy distribution curves to a model spectrum that includes self-energy corrections, we find that the imaginary part of the self-energy varies quadratically in the immediate vicinity of E{sub F}, and becomes linear above {approximately}20 MeV. 15 refs., 6 figs.
Physics of the continuum of borromean nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaagen, J.S.; Rogde, T. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Danilin, B.V. [RRC The Kurchatov Inst., Kurchatov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, S.N. [JINR, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation); Thompson, I.J. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Zhukov, M.V. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); RNBT Collaboration
1998-06-01
The continuum states of two-neutron halo nuclei are calculated in the method of hyperspherical harmonics. Using DWIA theory appropriate for dilute halo matter we have probed the structure of the low-lying {sup 6}He continuum via calculations of charge-exchange and inelastic scattering. (orig.)
RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅰ)-MICROPOLAR CONTINUA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴天民
2003-01-01
Based on the restudies of existing polar continuum theories rather completesystems of basic balance laws and equations for micropolar continuum theory are presented.In these new systems not only the additional angular momentum, surface moment and bodymoment produced by the linear momentum, surface force and body force, respectively, butalso the additional velocity produced by the angular velocity are considered. The newcoupled balance laws of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy arereestablished. From them the new coupled local and nonlocal balance equatiors arenaturally derived. Via contrast it can be clearly seen that the new results are believed to berather general and complete.
Deconvolution closure for mesoscopic continuum models of particle systems
Panchenko, Alexander; Cooper, Kevin
2011-01-01
The paper introduces a general framework for derivation of continuum equations governing meso-scale dynamics of large particle systems. The balance equations for spatial averages such as density, linear momentum, and energy were previously derived by a number of authors. These equations are not in closed form because the stress and the heat flux cannot be evaluated without the knowledge of particle positions and velocities. We propose a closure method for approximating fluxes in terms of other meso-scale averages. The main idea is to rewrite the non-linear averages as linear convolutions that relate micro- and meso-scale dynamical functions. The convolutions can be approximately inverted using regularization methods developed for solving ill-posed problems. This yields closed form constitutive equations that can be evaluated without solving the underlying ODEs. We test the method numerically on Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains with two different potentials: the classical Lennard-Jones, and the purely repulsive potenti...
Coupled 3D discrete-continuum numerical modeling of pile penetration in sand
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian ZHOU; Qi-wei JIAN; Jiao ZHANG; Jian-jun GUO
2012-01-01
A coupled discrete-continuum simulation incorporating a 3D aspect and non-circular particles was performed to analyze soil-pile interactions during pile penetration in sand.A self-developed non-circular particle numerical simulation program was used which considered sand near the pile as interacted particles using a discrete element method; the sand away from the pile was simulated as a continuous medium exhibiting linear elastic behaviors.The domain analyzed was divided into two zones.Contact forces at the interface between the two zones were obtained from a discrete zone and applied to the continuum boundaries as nodal forces,while the interface velocities were obtained from the continuum zone and applied to the discrete boundaries.We show that the coupled discrete-continuum simulation can give a microscopic description of the pile penetration process without losing the discrete nature of the zone concerned,and may significantly improve computational efticiency.
A Note on Automatic Kernel Carpentry for Atomistic Support of Continuum Stress
Ulz, Manfred H
2015-01-01
Research within the field of multiscale modelling seeks, amongst other questions, to reconcile atomistic scale interactions with thermodynamical quantities (such as stress) on the continuum scale. The estimation of stress at a continuum point on the atomistic scale requires a pre-defined kernel function. This kernel function derives the stress at a continuum point by averaging the contribution from atoms within a region surrounding the continuum point. Commonly the kernel weight assignment is isotropic: an identical weight is assigned to atoms at the same spatial distance, which is tantamount to a local constant regression model. In this paper we employ a local linear regression model and leverage the mechanism of automatic kernel carpentry to allow for spatial averaging adaptive to the local distribution of atoms. As a result, different weights may be assigned to atoms at the same spatial distance. This is of interest for determining atomistic stress at stacking faults, interfaces or surfaces. It is shown in...
Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Haijun Huang; Tieqiao Tang; Ziyou Gao
2006-01-01
In this paper,we study the continuum modeling of traffic dynamics for two-lane freeways.A new dynamics model is proposed, which contains the speed gradient-based momentum equations derived from a car-following theory suited to two-lane traffic flow.The conditions for securing the linear stability of the new model are presented.Numerical tests are carried out and some nonequilibrium phenomena are observed, such as small disturbance instability,stop-andgo waves,local clusters and phase transition.
Continuum Lowering -- A New Perspective
Crowley, B J B
2013-01-01
What is meant by continuum lowering and ionisation potential depression (IPD) in a Coulomb system depends very much upon what question is being asked and whether it relates to equilibrium (equation-of-state) phenomena or non-equilibrium dynamical processes like photoionisation. It is shown that these scenarios are characterised by different values of the IPD. In the former, the ionisation potential of an atom embedded in matter is the difference in the free energy of the many-body system between states of thermodynamic equilibrium differing by the ionisation state of just one atom. Typically, this energy is less than that required to ionise the same atom in vacuo. Probably, the best known example of the IPD determined this way is that given by Stewart and Pyatt (SP). However, it is a common misconception that this formula should apply to the energy of a photon causing photoionisation - a local adiabatic process that occurs on timescales far too short to allow the final state to come into equilibrium, and addi...
Area Regge calculus and continuum limit
Khatsymovsky, V M
2002-01-01
Encountered in the literature generalisations of general relativity to independent area variables are considered, the discrete (generalised Regge calculus) and continuum ones. The generalised Regge calculus can be either with purely area variables or, as we suggest, with area tensor-connection variables. Just for the latter, in particular, we prove that in analogy with corresponding statement in ordinary Regge calculus (by Feinberg, Friedberg, Lee and Ren), passing to the (appropriately defined) continuum limit yields the generalised continuum area tensor-connection general relativity.
Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies
Eringen, A Cemal
1975-01-01
Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gildeberto S. Cardoso
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study of linear control systems based on exact feedback linearization and approximate feedback linearization. As exact feedback linearization is applied, a linear controller can perform the control objectives. The approximate feedback linearization is required when a nonlinear system presents a noninvolutive property. It uses a Taylor series expansion in order to compute a nonlinear transformation of coordinates to satisfy the involutivity conditions.
Classical GR as a topological theory with linear constraints
Gielen, Steffen
2010-01-01
We investigate a formulation of continuum 4d gravity in terms of a constrained topological (BF) theory, in the spirit of the Plebanski formulation, but involving only linear constraints, of the type used recently in the spin foam approach to quantum gravity. We identify both the continuum version of the linear simplicity constraints used in the quantum discrete context and a linear version of the quadratic volume constraints that are necessary to complete the reduction from the topological theory to gravity. We illustrate and discuss also the discrete counterpart of the same continuum linear constraints. Moreover, we show under which additional conditions the discrete volume constraints follow from the simplicity constraints, thus playing the role of secondary constraints. Our analysis clarifies how the discrete constructions of spin foam models are related to a continuum theory with an action principle that is equivalent to general relativity.
Electron Bubbles in Superfluid (3) 3 He-A: Exploring the Quasiparticle-Ion Interaction
Shevtsov, Oleksii; Sauls, J. A.
2017-06-01
When an electron is forced into liquid ^3He, it forms an "electron bubble", a heavy ion with radius, R˜eq 1.5 nm, and mass, M˜eq 100 m_3, where m_3 is the mass of a ^3He atom. These negative ions have proven to be powerful local probes of the physical properties of the host quantum fluid, especially the excitation spectra of the superfluid phases. We recently developed a theory for Bogoliubov quasiparticles scattering off electron bubbles embedded in a chiral superfluid that provides a detailed understanding of the spectrum of Weyl Fermions bound to the negative ion, as well as a theory for the forces on moving electron bubbles in superfluid ^3He-A (Shevtsov and Sauls in Phys Rev B 94:064511, 2016). This theory is shown to provide quantitative agreement with measurements reported by the RIKEN group (Ikegami et al. in Science 341(6141):59, 2013) for the drag force and anomalous Hall effect of moving electron bubbles in superfluid ^3He-A. In this report, we discuss the sensitivity of the forces on the moving ion to the effective interaction between normal-state quasiparticles and the ion. We consider models for the quasiparticle-ion (QP-ion) interaction, including the hard-sphere potential, constrained random-phase-shifts, and interactions with short-range repulsion and intermediate-range attraction. Our results show that the transverse force responsible for the anomalous Hall effect is particularly sensitive to the structure of the QP-ion potential and that strong short-range repulsion, captured by the hard-sphere potential, provides an accurate model for computing the forces acting on the moving electron bubble in superfluid 3He-A.
Electron Bubbles in Superfluid ^3 He-A: Exploring the Quasiparticle-Ion Interaction
Shevtsov, Oleksii; Sauls, J. A.
2016-11-01
When an electron is forced into liquid ^3 He, it forms an "electron bubble", a heavy ion with radius, R˜eq 1.5 nm, and mass, M˜eq 100 m_3 , where m_3 is the mass of a ^3 He atom. These negative ions have proven to be powerful local probes of the physical properties of the host quantum fluid, especially the excitation spectra of the superfluid phases. We recently developed a theory for Bogoliubov quasiparticles scattering off electron bubbles embedded in a chiral superfluid that provides a detailed understanding of the spectrum of Weyl Fermions bound to the negative ion, as well as a theory for the forces on moving electron bubbles in superfluid ^3 He-A (Shevtsov and Sauls in Phys Rev B 94:064511, 2016). This theory is shown to provide quantitative agreement with measurements reported by the RIKEN group (Ikegami et al. in Science 341(6141):59, 2013) for the drag force and anomalous Hall effect of moving electron bubbles in superfluid ^3 He-A. In this report, we discuss the sensitivity of the forces on the moving ion to the effective interaction between normal-state quasiparticles and the ion. We consider models for the quasiparticle-ion (QP-ion) interaction, including the hard-sphere potential, constrained random-phase-shifts, and interactions with short-range repulsion and intermediate-range attraction. Our results show that the transverse force responsible for the anomalous Hall effect is particularly sensitive to the structure of the QP-ion potential and that strong short-range repulsion, captured by the hard-sphere potential, provides an accurate model for computing the forces acting on the moving electron bubble in superfluid 3 He-A.
Geometric continuum mechanics and induced beam theories
R Eugster, Simon
2015-01-01
This research monograph discusses novel approaches to geometric continuum mechanics and introduces beams as constraint continuous bodies. In the coordinate free and metric independent geometric formulation of continuum mechanics as well as for beam theories, the principle of virtual work serves as the fundamental principle of mechanics. Based on the perception of analytical mechanics that forces of a mechanical system are defined as dual quantities to the kinematical description, the virtual work approach is a systematic way to treat arbitrary mechanical systems. Whereas this methodology is very convenient to formulate induced beam theories, it is essential in geometric continuum mechanics when the assumptions on the physical space are relaxed and the space is modeled as a smooth manifold. The book addresses researcher and graduate students in engineering and mathematics interested in recent developments of a geometric formulation of continuum mechanics and a hierarchical development of induced beam theories.
Quasiparticle picture of black holes and the entropy--area relation
Iizuka, N; Lifschytz, G; Lowe, D A; Iizuka, Norihiro; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.
2003-01-01
We propose an effective description of 0-brane black holes, in which the black hole is modeled as a gas of non-interacting quasi-particles in the dual quantum mechanics. This simple model is shown to account for many of the static thermodynamic properties of the black hole. It also accounts for dynamical properties, such as the rate at which energy gets thermalized by the black hole. We use the model to show that the entropy of the quantum mechanics is proportional to the black hole horizon area in Planck units.
Atomic-Scale Visualization of Quasiparticle Interference on a Type-II Weyl Semimetal Surface
Zheng, Hao; Bian, Guang; Chang, Guoqing; Lu, Hong; Xu, Su-Yang; Wang, Guangqiang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zhang, Songtian; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Song, Fengqi; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Yao, Nan; Bansil, Arun; Jia, Shuang; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid
2016-12-01
We combine quasiparticle interference simulation (theory) and atomic resolution scanning tunneling spectromicroscopy (experiment) to visualize the interference patterns on a type-II Weyl semimetal Mox W1 -xTe2 for the first time. Our simulation based on first-principles band topology theoretically reveals the surface electron scattering behavior. We identify the topological Fermi arc states and reveal the scattering properties of the surface states in Mo0.66 W0.34 Te2 . In addition, our result reveals an experimental signature of the topology via the interconnectivity of bulk and surface states, which is essential for understanding the unusual nature of this material.
Isoscalar Giant Resonances of 120Sn in the Quasiparticle Relativistic Random Phase Approximation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Li-Gang; MA Zhong-Yu
2004-01-01
@@ The quasiparticle relativistic random phase approximation (QRRPA) is formulated based on the relativistic mean field ground state in the response function formalism. The pairing correlations are taken into account in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer approximation with a constant pairing gap. The numerical calculations are performed in the case of various isoscalar giant resonances of nucleus 120Sn with parameter set NL3. The calculated results show that the QRRPA approach could satisfactorily reproduce the experimental data of the energies of low-lying states.
Vortices and quasiparticles near the superconductor-insulator transition in thin films.
Galitski, Victor M; Refael, G; Fisher, Matthew P A; Senthil, T
2005-08-12
We study the low temperature behavior of an amorphous superconducting film driven normal by a perpendicular magnetic-field (B). For this purpose we introduce a new two-fluid formulation consisting of fermionized field-induced vortices and electrically neutralized Bogoliubov quasiparticles (spinons) interacting via a long-ranged statistical interaction. This approach allows us to access a novel non-Fermi-liquid phase, which naturally interpolates between the low B superconductor and the high B normal metal. We discuss the properties of the resulting "vortex metal" phase.
Light quasiparticles dominate electronic transport in molecular crystal field-effect transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Z. Q.; Podzorov, V.; Sai, N.; Martin, Michael C.; Gershenson, M. E.; Di Ventra, M.; Basov, D. N.
2007-03-01
We report on an infrared spectroscopy study of mobile holes in the accumulation layer of organic field-effect transistors based on rubrene single crystals. Our data indicate that both transport and infrared properties of these transistors at room temperature are governed by light quasiparticles in molecular orbital bands with the effective masses m[small star, filled]comparable to free electron mass. Furthermore, the m[small star, filled]values inferred from our experiments are in agreement with those determined from band structure calculations. These findings reveal no evidence for prominent polaronic effects, which is at variance with the common beliefs of polaron formation in molecular solids.
Nodal quasi-particles of the high-Tc superconductors as carriers of heat
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Behnia
2006-09-01
Full Text Available In the quest for understanding correlated electrons, high-temperature superconductivity remains a formidable challenge and a source of insight. This paper briefly recalls the central achievement by the study of heat transport at low temperatures. At very low temperatures, nodal quasi-particles of the d-wave superconducting gap become the main carriers of heat. Their thermal conductivity is unaffected by disorder and reflects the fine structure of the superconducting gap. This finding had led to new openings in the exploration of other unconventional superconductors
Quasiparticle band structure for the Hubbard systems: Application to. alpha. -CeAl sub 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F. (Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain (ES)); Balle, S. (Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca, Spain (ES)); Salvador, R. (Control Data Corporation, TALLAHASSEE, FL (USA) Supercomputer Computations Research Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4052 (USA))
1990-04-01
A self-energy formalism for determining the quasiparticle band structure of the Hubbard systems is deduced. The self-energy is obtained from the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction whose bare value is the correlation energy {ital U}. A method for integrating the Schroedingerlike equation with the self-energy operator is given. The method is applied to the cubic Laves phase of {alpha}-CeAl{sub 2} because it is a clear Hubbard system with a very complex electronic structure and, moreover, this system provides us with sufficient experimental data for testing our method.
Quasiparticle GW calculations for solids, molecules, and two-dimensional materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüser, Falco; Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2013-01-01
We present a plane-wave implementation of the GW approximation within the projector augmented wave method code GPAW. The computed band gaps of ten bulk semiconductors and insulators deviate on average by 0.2eV (~5%) from the experimental values, the only exception being ZnO where the calculated...... band gap is around 1eV too low. Similar relative deviations are found for the ionization potentials of a test set of 32 small molecules. The importance of substrate screening for a correct description of quasiparticle energies and Fermi velocities in supported two-dimensional (2D) materials...
Decay patterns of multi-quasiparticle bands—a model independent test of chiral symmetry
Lawrie, E. A.
2017-09-01
Nuclear chiral systems exhibit chiral symmetry bands, built on left-handed and right-handed angular momentum nucleon configurations. The experimental search for such chiral systems revealed a number of suitable candidates, however an unambiguous identification of nuclear chiral symmetry is still outstanding. In this work it is shown that the decay patterns of chiral bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations are different from those involving different single-particle configurations. It is suggested to use the observed decay patterns of chiral candidates as a new model-independent test of chiral symmetry.
Quasiclassical calculation of the quasiparticle thermal conductivity in a mixed state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adachi, Hiroto [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)]. E-mail: adachi@mp.okayama-u.ac.jp; Miranovic, Predrag [Department of Physics, University of Montenegro, Podgorica 81000 (Serbia); Ichioka, Masanori [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Machida, Kazushige [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)
2007-03-15
We report the result of calculation of the quasiparticle thermal conductivity {kappa}{sub xx}({nabla}T orthogonal B) in the vortex state of a two-dimensional superconductor. We compute {kappa}{sub xx} for both s-wave and d-wave superconductors, taking account of the spatial dependence of normal Green's function g, which is neglected in the previous studies using the Brandt-Pesch-Tewordt (BPT) method. Our results indicate that {kappa}{sub xx} based on the BPT method is slightly underestimated due to its incoherent spatial averaging procedure.
Ab initio quasiparticle energies in 2H, 4H, and 6H SiC
Ummels, R. T. M.; Bobbert, P. A.; van Haeringen, W.
1998-09-01
Ab initio quasiparticle energies are calculated for the 2H, 4H, and 6H polytypes of SiC within the GW approximation for the self-energy. The starting point is a calculation within the pseudopotential local-density approximation framework. The calculated fundamental gaps of 3.15, 3.35, and 3.24 eV for 2H, 4H, and 6H SiC, respectively, show very good agreement with experimental data. The energy dependence of the screened interaction is modeled by a plasmon pole model from which the plasmon band structures are obtained.
Infinite-randomness fixed points for chains of non-Abelian quasiparticles.
Bonesteel, N E; Yang, Kun
2007-10-05
One-dimensional chains of non-Abelian quasiparticles described by SU(2)k Chern-Simons-Witten theory can enter random singlet phases analogous to that of a random chain of ordinary spin-1/2 particles (corresponding to k-->infinity). For k=2 this phase provides a random singlet description of the infinite-randomness fixed point of the critical transverse field Ising model. The entanglement entropy of a region of size L in these phases scales as S(L) approximately lnd/3 log(2)L for large L, where d is the quantum dimension of the particles.
Resilient quasiparticles in Ruthenates: transport properties within LDA+DMFT method
Deng, Xiaoyu; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel
2015-03-01
Many Rutheniums are strongly correlated metals with Fermi Liquid behavior found only a small temperature scale. Non-Fermi signatures appear in both their resistivity and optical conductivity. We study the transport properties of a set of Ruthenates within first principle methods in combination with dynamical mean field theory and find reasonable agreement with experimental findings. The non-Fermi-liquid features are attributed to the temperature dependence of resilient quasiparticles, which survives above the Fermi liquid temperature scale and exhibits a strong temperature dependence in their effective mass enhancement and scattering rate.
Dynamical Structure of Nuclear Excitation in Continuum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Chun-Lei; ZHANG Huan-Qiao; ZHANG Xi-Zhen
2005-01-01
@@ Dynamical structures of collective excitation in continuum are studied by calculating the isoscalar and isovector strength as well as transition density of nuclei near the drip-line such as 28O and 34Ca. It is found that for some excited states in continuum the proton and neutron transition density calculated from isoscalar and isovector excitation at some given energies may be different, which will affect the calculation of the polarization for nuclei with N ≠ Z.
Shilov, Georgi E
1977-01-01
Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agarwalla Arun
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Linear psoriasis, inflammatory linear varrucous epidermal naevus (ILVEN. Lichen straitus, linear lichen planus and invasion of epidermal naevi by psoriasis have clinical and histopathological overlap. We report two young male patients of true linear psoriasis without classical lesions elsewhere which were proved histopathologically. Seasonal variation and good response to topical antipsoriatic treatment supported the diagnosis.
The Radio Continuum-Star Formation Rate Relation in WSRT SINGS Galaxies
Heesen, Volker; Brinks, Elias; Leroy, Adam K.; Heald, George; Braun, Robert; Bigiel, Frank; Beck, Rainer
We present a study of the spatially resolved radio continuum-star formation rate (RC-SFR) relation using state-of-the-art star formation tracers in a sample of 17 THINGS galaxies. We use SFR surface density (ΣSFR) maps created by a linear combination of GALEX far-UV (FUV) and Spitzer 24 μm maps. We
GUBA, EGON G.
THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATING EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH INTO IMPROVED EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE IS DEFINED IN A FOUR-PHASE LINEAR TAXONOMY OF RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, DIFFUSION, AND ADOPTION. A SCHEMA DEVELOPING THESE PHASES OF THE CHANGE CONTINUUM DEFINES SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES, CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION, AND RELATION TO CHANGE. RESEARCH ACTIVITY IS LIMITED TO…
The Radio Continuum-Star Formation Rate Relation in WSRT SINGS Galaxies
Heesen, Volker; Brinks, Elias; Leroy, Adam K.; Heald, George; Braun, Robert; Bigiel, Frank; Beck, Rainer
2014-01-01
We present a study of the spatially resolved radio continuum-star formation rate (RC-SFR) relation using state-of-the-art star formation tracers in a sample of 17 THINGS galaxies. We use SFR surface density (ΣSFR) maps created by a linear combination of GALEX far-UV (FUV) and Spitzer 24 μm maps. We
Cassini observation of Jovian anomalous continuum radiation
Ye, Sheng-Yi; Gurnett, D. A.; Menietti, J. D.; Kurth, W. S.; Fischer, G.; Schippers, P.; Hospodarsky, G. B.
2012-04-01
Jovian anomalous continuum is a narrowband electromagnetic radiation near 10 kHz that can escape from Jupiter's magnetosphere to interplanetary space. One possible source mechanism is the magnetosheath re-radiation of the Jovian low frequency radio emissions such as the quasiperiodic (QP) radio emissions, broadband kilometric radiation (bKOM) and non-thermal continuum. Jovian anomalous continuum was consistently observed by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument from 2000 to 2004, right before the Saturn orbit insertion, which means the radiation can be detected as far as 8 AU away from Jupiter. An analysis of intensity versus radial distance shows that the Jovian anomalous continuum has a line source rather than a point source, consistent with the theory that the emission is radiated by the whole length of the magnetotail. The emissions are modulated at the system III period of Jupiter and are unpolarized. Since the lower cutoff frequency of the anomalous continuum is related to the plasma frequency in the magnetosheath of Jupiter, which is a function of solar wind density, the recurrent variations of the lower cutoff frequency can be used as a remote diagnostic of the solar wind condition at Jupiter. We propose that the frequency dispersion, a unique characteristic of the anomalous continuum, is likely a comprehensive effect of both the slow group velocity near the local plasma frequency and the refraction/scattering of the waves by density structures as they propagate in the magnetosheath.
The HIV treatment cascade and care continuum: updates, goals, and recommendations for the future.
Kay, Emma Sophia; Batey, D Scott; Mugavero, Michael J
2016-01-01
The HIV care continuum is a framework that models the dynamic stages of HIV care. The continuum consists of five main steps, which, at the population level, are depicted cross-sectionally as the HIV treatment cascade. These steps include diagnosis, linkage to care (LTC), retention in care (RiC), adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and viral suppression. Although the HIV treatment cascade is represented as a linear, unidirectional framework, persons living with HIV (PLWH) often experience the care continuum in a less streamlined fashion, skip steps altogether, or even exit the continuum for a period of time and regress to an earlier stage. The proportion of PLWH decreases at each successive step of the cascade, beginning with an estimated 86% who are diagnosed and dropping dramatically to approximately 30% of PLWH who are virally suppressed in the United States (US). In this current issues review, we describe each step in the cascade, discuss targeted interventions that address weak points in the continuum, review domestic and international policies that help shape and direct HIV care strategies, and conclude with recommendations and future directions for HIV providers and policymakers. While we primarily examine issues related to domestic HIV care in the US, we also discuss international applications of the continuum in order to provide broader context.
Internal modes of discrete solitons near the anti-continuum limit of the dNLS equation
Pelinovsky, Dmitry
2010-01-01
Discrete solitons of the discrete nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (dNLS) equation become compactly supported in the anti-continuum limit of the zero coupling between lattice sites. Eigenvalues of the linearization of the dNLS equation at the discrete soliton determine its spectral and linearized stability. All unstable eigenvalues of the discrete solitons near the anti-continuum limit were characterized earlier for this model. Here we analyze the resolvent operator and prove that it is uniformly bounded in the neighborhood of the continuous spectrum if the discrete soliton is simply connected in the anti-continuum limit. This result rules out existence of internal modes (neutrally stable eigenvalues of the discrete spectrum) of such discrete solitons near the anti-continuum limit.
Tkach, N V; Zegrya, G G
2002-01-01
The theoretical investigation of the spectrum of electrons, holes, and excitons in the superlattice of cylindrical quantum dots with weakest coupling of quasiparticles between vertical layers of quantum dots is carried out. The calculations are fulfilled by the example of cylindrical quantum dots of beta-HgS introduced into beta-CdS as the superlattice. It is shown that electron and hole in such system form quasi-two-dimensional energy minibands, but excitons are described by the Sugano-Shinada model. The dependence of quasiparticle spectra on geometric parameters of the superlattice with cylindrical quantum dots is studied. It is shown that the position of minibands of all quasiparticles is very sensitive to variation of the quantum dot height
The rate of quasiparticle recombination probes the onset of coherence in cuprate superconductors.
Hinton, J P; Thewalt, E; Alpichshev, Z; Mahmood, F; Koralek, J D; Chan, M K; Veit, M J; Dorow, C J; Barišić, N; Kemper, A F; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Liang, Ruixing; Gedik, N; Greven, M; Lanzara, A; Orenstein, J
2016-04-13
In the underdoped copper-oxides, high-temperature superconductivity condenses from a nonconventional metallic "pseudogap" phase that exhibits a variety of non-Fermi liquid properties. Recently, it has become clear that a charge density wave (CDW) phase exists within the pseudogap regime. This CDW coexists and competes with superconductivity (SC) below the transition temperature Tc, suggesting that these two orders are intimately related. Here we show that the condensation of the superfluid from this unconventional precursor is reflected in deviations from the predictions of BSC theory regarding the recombination rate of quasiparticles. We report a detailed investigation of the quasiparticle (QP) recombination lifetime, τqp, as a function of temperature and magnetic field in underdoped HgBa2CuO(4+δ) (Hg-1201) and YBa2Cu3O(6+x) (YBCO) single crystals by ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity. We find that τqp(T) exhibits a local maximum in a small temperature window near Tc that is prominent in underdoped samples with coexisting charge order and vanishes with application of a small magnetic field. We explain this unusual, non-BCS behavior by positing that Tc marks a transition from phase-fluctuating SC/CDW composite order above to a SC/CDW condensate below. Our results suggest that the superfluid in underdoped cuprates is a condensate of coherently-mixed particle-particle and particle-hole pairs.
Phases of QCD, thermal quasiparticles, and dilepton radiation from a fireball
Renk, Thorsten; Schneider, Roland; Weise, Wolfram
2002-07-01
We calculate dilepton production rates from a fireball adapted to the kinematical conditions realized in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of beam energies. The freeze-out state of the fireball is fixed by hadronic observables. We use this information combined with the initial geometry of the collision region to follow the space-time evolution of the fireball. Assuming entropy conservation, its bulk thermodynamic properties can then be uniquely obtained once the equation of state (EOS) is specified. The high-temperature quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase is modeled by a nonperturbative quasiparticle model that incorporates a phenomenological confinement description, adapted to lattice QCD results. For the hadronic phase, we interpolate the EOS into the region where a resonance gas approach seems applicable, keeping track of a possible overpopulation of the pion phase space. In this way, the fireball evolution is specified without reference to dilepton data, thus eliminating it as an adjustable parameter in the rate calculations. Dilepton emission in the QGP phase is then calculated within the quasiparticle model. In the hadronic phase, both temperature and finite baryon density effects on the photon spectral function are incorporated. Existing dilepton data from CERES at 158 and 40 A GeV Pb-Au collisions are well described, and a prediction for the PHENIX setup at RHIC for (s)=200A GeV is given.
Beyond the Quasi-Particle picture in Nuclear Matter calculations using Green's function techniques
Köhler, H S
2006-01-01
Widths of low-lying states in nuclei are of the order of 30 MeV. These large widths are a consequence of the strong interactions leading to a strongly correlated many body system at the typical densities of nuclear matter. Nevertheless "traditional" Brueckner calculations treat these states as quasiparticles i.e. with spectral functions of zero widths. The width is related to the imaginary part of the selfenergy and is included selfconsistently in an extension of the Brueckner theory using T-matrix and Green's function techniques. A more general formulation applicable also to non-equilibrium systems is contained in the Kadanoff-Baym (KB) equations while still maintaining the basic many-body techniques of Bruecknet theory. In the present work the two-time KB-equations are time-stepped along the imaginary time-axis to calculate the binding energy of nuclear matter as a function of density, including the spectral widths self-consistently. These zero temperature calculations are compared with quasi-particle calcu...
The rate of quasiparticle recombination probes the onset of coherence in cuprate superconductors
Hinton, J. P.; Thewalt, E.; Alpichshev, Z.; Mahmood, F.; Koralek, J. D.; Chan, M. K.; Veit, M. J.; Dorow, C. J.; Barišić, N.; Kemper, A. F.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, Ruixing; Gedik, N.; Greven, M.; Lanzara, A.; Orenstein, J.
2016-04-01
In the underdoped copper-oxides, high-temperature superconductivity condenses from a nonconventional metallic ”pseudogap” phase that exhibits a variety of non-Fermi liquid properties. Recently, it has become clear that a charge density wave (CDW) phase exists within the pseudogap regime. This CDW coexists and competes with superconductivity (SC) below the transition temperature Tc, suggesting that these two orders are intimately related. Here we show that the condensation of the superfluid from this unconventional precursor is reflected in deviations from the predictions of BSC theory regarding the recombination rate of quasiparticles. We report a detailed investigation of the quasiparticle (QP) recombination lifetime, τqp, as a function of temperature and magnetic field in underdoped HgBa2CuO4+δ (Hg-1201) and YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) single crystals by ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity. We find that τqp(T ) exhibits a local maximum in a small temperature window near Tc that is prominent in underdoped samples with coexisting charge order and vanishes with application of a small magnetic field. We explain this unusual, non-BCS behavior by positing that Tc marks a transition from phase-fluctuating SC/CDW composite order above to a SC/CDW condensate below. Our results suggest that the superfluid in underdoped cuprates is a condensate of coherently-mixed particle-particle and particle-hole pairs.
Dilepton production by dynamical quasiparticles in the strongly interacting quark gluon plasma
Linnyk, O
2010-01-01
The dilepton production by the constituents of the strongly interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP) is addressed. In order to make quantitative predictions at realistically low plasma temperatures (O(T_c)), experimentally relevant low dilepton mass (O(1 GeV)) and strong coupling (alphaS=0.5-1), we take into account not only the higher order pQCD reaction mechanisms, but also the non-perturbative spectral functions (off-shellness) and self-energies of the quarks, anti-quarks and gluons thus going beyond the leading twist. For this purpose, our calculations utilize parametrizations of the non-perturbative propagators for quarks and gluons provided by the dynamical quasi-particle model (DQPM) matched to reproduce lattice data. The DQPM describes QCD properties in terms of single-particle Green's functions (in the sense of a two-particle irreducible approach) and leads to the notion of the constituents of the sQGP being effective quasiparticles, which are massive and have broad spectral functions (due to large inte...
Nodal quasiparticle lifetime in the superconducting state of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta)
Corson; Orenstein; Oh; O'Donnell; Eckstein
2000-09-18
We have measured the complex conductivity sigma of a Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) thin film between 0.2 and 0.8 THz. We find sigma in the superconducting state to be well described as the sum of contributions from quasiparticles, condensate, and order parameter fluctuations which draw 30% of the spectral weight from the condensate. An analysis based on this decomposition yields a quasiparticle scattering rate on the order of k(B)T/Planck's over 2pi for temperatures below T(c).
Karabinos, Michael Joseph
2015-01-01
This dissertation tests the universal suitability of the records continuum model by using two cases from the decolonization of Southeast Asia. The continuum model is a new model of records visualization invented in the 1990s that sees records as free to move throughout four ‘dimensions’ rather than
Karabinos, Michael Joseph
2015-01-01
This dissertation tests the universal suitability of the records continuum model by using two cases from the decolonization of Southeast Asia. The continuum model is a new model of records visualization invented in the 1990s that sees records as free to move throughout four ‘dimensions’ rather than
Microscopic theory of linear and nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steiner, Johannes
2008-12-09
This Thesis presents a fully microscopic theory to describe terahertz (THz)-induced processes in optically-excited semiconductors. The formation process of excitons and other quasi-particles after optical excitation has been studied in great detail for a variety of conditions. Here, the formation process is not modelled but a realistic initial many-body state is assumed. In particular, the linear THz response is reviewed and it is demonstrated that correlated quasi-particles such as excitons and plasmons can be unambiguously detected via THz spectroscopy. The focus of the investigations, however, is on situations where the optically-excited many-body state is excited by intense THz fields. While weak pulses detect the many-body state, strong THz pulses control and manipulate the quasi-particles in a way that is not accessible via conventional techniques. The nonlinear THz dynamics of exciton populations is especially interesting because similarities and differences to optics with atomic systems can be studied. (orig.)
Improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems
Qiao, Yu
2015-01-01
Modeling of biomolecular systems plays an essential role in understanding biological processes, such as ionic flow across channels, protein modification or interaction, and cell signaling. The continuum model described by the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB)/Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations has made great contributions towards simulation of these processes. However, the model has shortcomings in its commonly used form and cannot capture (or cannot accurately capture) some important physical properties of biological systems. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the continuum model to account for discrete particle interactions and to make progress in numerical methods to provide accurate and efficient simulation. This review will summarize recent main improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems, with focus on the size-modified models, the coupling of the classical density functional theory and PNP equations, the coupling of polar and nonpolar interactions, and numerical progress.
Stiffness Control of Surgical Continuum Manipulators
Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E.
2013-01-01
This paper introduces the first stiffness controller for continuum robots. The control law is based on an accurate approximation of a continuum robot’s coupled kinematic and static force model. To implement a desired tip stiffness, the controller drives the actuators to positions corresponding to a deflected robot configuration that produces the required tip force for the measured tip position. This approach provides several important advantages. First, it enables the use of robot deflection sensing as a means to both sense and control tip forces. Second, it enables stiffness control to be implemented by modification of existing continuum robot position controllers. The proposed controller is demonstrated experimentally in the context of a concentric tube robot. Results show that the stiffness controller achieves the desired stiffness in steady state, provides good dynamic performance, and exhibits stability during contact transitions. PMID:24273466
Defining and testing a granular continuum element
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.
2007-12-03
Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.
Hyperbolic conservation laws in continuum physics
Dafermos, Constantine M
2016-01-01
This is a masterly exposition and an encyclopedic presentation of the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. It illustrates the essential role of continuum thermodynamics in providing motivation and direction for the development of the mathematical theory while also serving as the principal source of applications. The reader is expected to have a certain mathematical sophistication and to be familiar with (at least) the rudiments of analysis and the qualitative theory of partial differential equations, whereas prior exposure to continuum physics is not required. The target group of readers would consist of (a) experts in the mathematical theory of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws who wish to learn about the connection with classical physics; (b) specialists in continuum mechanics who may need analytical tools; (c) experts in numerical analysis who wish to learn the underlying mathematical theory; and (d) analysts and graduate students who seek introduction to the theory of hyperbolic systems of conser...
Discrete and continuum modelling of soil cutting
Coetzee, C. J.
2014-12-01
Both continuum and discrete methods are used to investigate the soil cutting process. The Discrete Element Method ( dem) is used for the discrete modelling and the Material-Point Method ( mpm) is used for continuum modelling. M pmis a so-called particle method or meshless finite element method. Standard finite element methods have difficulty in modelling the entire cutting process due to large displacements and deformation of the mesh. The use of meshless methods overcomes this problem. M pm can model large deformations, frictional contact at the soil-tool interface, and dynamic effects (inertia forces). In granular materials the discreteness of the system is often important and rotational degrees of freedom are active, which might require enhanced theoretical approaches like polar continua. In polar continuum theories, the material points are considered to possess orientations. A material point has three degrees-of-freedom for rigid rotations, in addition to the three classic translational degrees-of-freedom. The Cosserat continuum is the most transparent and straightforward extension of the nonpolar (classic) continuum. Two-dimensional dem and mpm (polar and nonpolar) simulations of the cutting problem are compared to experiments. The drag force and flow patterns are compared using cohesionless corn grains as material. The corn macro (continuum) and micro ( dem) properties were obtained from shear and oedometer tests. Results show that the dilatancy angle plays a significant role in the flow of material but has less of an influence on the draft force. Nonpolar mpm is the most accurate in predicting blade forces, blade-soil interface stresses and the position and orientation of shear bands. Polar mpm fails in predicting the orientation of the shear band, but is less sensitive to mesh size and mesh orientation compared to nonpolar mpm. dem simulations show less material dilation than observed during experiments.
Introduction to linear elasticity
Gould, Phillip L
2013-01-01
Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also: Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...
Continuum secondary structure captures protein flexibility
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anderson, C.A.F.; Palmer, A.G.; Brunak, Søren;
2002-01-01
The DSSP program assigns protein secondary structure to one of eight states. This discrete assignment cannot describe the continuum of thermal fluctuations. Hence, a continuous assignment is proposed. Technically, the continuum results from averaging over ten discrete DSSP assignments...... protein structure analysis, comparison, and prediction....... with different hydrogen bond thresholds. The final continuous assignment for a single NMR model successfully reflected the structural variations observed between all NMR models in the ensemble. The structural variations between NMR models were verified to correlate with thermal motion; these variations were...
Transfer to the continuum and Breakup reactions
Moro, A M
2006-01-01
A standard approach for the calculation of breakup reactions of exotic nuclei into two fragments is to consider inelastic excitations into the single particle continuum of the projectile. Alternatively one can also consider the transfer to the continuum of a system composed of the light fragment and the target. In this work we make a comparative study of the two approaches, underline the different inputs, and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Our test cases consist of the breakup of $^{11}$Be on a proton target at intermediate energies, and the breakup of $^8$B on $^{58}$Ni at energies around the Coulomb barrier.
AN EQUIVALENT CONTINUUM METHOD OF LATTICE STRUCTURES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fan Hualin; Yang Wei
2006-01-01
An equivalent continuum method is developed to analyze the effective stiffness of three-dimensional stretching dominated lattice materials. The strength and three-dimensional plastic yield surfaces are calculated for the equivalent continuum. A yielding model is formulated and compared with the results of other models. The bedding-in effect is considered to include the compliance of the lattice joints. The predicted stiffness and strength are in good agreement with the experimental data, validating the present model in the prediction of the mechanical properties of stretching dominated lattice structures.
Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Raccanelli
2012-08-01
Full Text Available –819 (2012) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20634.x Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys Alvise Raccanelli,1� Gong-Bo Zhao,1 David J. Bacon,1 Matt J. Jarvis,2,3 Will J. Percival,1 Ray P. Norris,4 Huub Ro¨ttgering,5 Filipe B. Abdalla... of Universe – radio continuum: galaxies. 1 IN T RO D U C T I O N Radio surveys for cosmology are entering a new phase with the construction of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for radio �E-mail: alvise.raccanelli@port.ac.uk astronomy (Ro¨ttgering 2003...
Continuum mechanics concise theory and problems
Chadwick, P
1998-01-01
Written in response to the dearth of practical and meaningful textbooks in the field of fundamental continuum mechanics, this comprehensive treatment offers students and instructors an immensely useful tool. Its 115 solved problems and exercises not only provide essential practice but also systematically advance the understanding of vector and tensor theory, basic kinematics, balance laws, field equations, jump conditions, and constitutive equations.Readers follow clear, formally precise steps through the central ideas of classical and modern continuum mechanics, expressed in a common, effici
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Rashba, E I
2009-01-01
be accompanied with a dramatic change in its spin polarization, up to a total spin flip. This phenomenon is typical of quasiparticles residing away from the Brillouin-zone center and described by higher rank spinors and results in exotic patterns in the angular distribution of photoelectrons....
Quasiparticle injection effects in YBa2Cu3Ox-based planar structures at high operating temperatures
Boguslavskij, Yu.M.; Joosse, K.; Sivakov, A.G.; Roesthuis, F.J.G.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Rogalla, H.
1994-01-01
The modulation of the supercurrent Is of a YBCO bridge by the quasiparticle-injection current IG from the YBCO/Au or YBCO/PBCO/Au junctions at temperatures of 60¿85 K is determined by two effects: (1) summation of the currents IS and IG in the YBCO bridge, and (2) nonequilibrium suppression of IS by
Quasi-Particle Degrees of Freedom versus the Perfect Fluid as Descriptors of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Levy, L A Linden; Rosen, C; Steinberg, P
2007-01-01
Approaches for understanding the hydrodynamic flow of the hot and dense medium created in the collisions of relativistic heavy ions are discussed, focusing on their implications for scenarios where quasi-particles are assumed to carry the thermodynamic degrees of freedom. Well-defined quasi-particle degrees of freedom are in principle inconsistent with inviscid hydrodynamics, which implies a vanishing mean free path. However, quasi-particles may play a role as the density of the medium decreases. It is thus an open question whether the freeze-out of the fluid stage proceeds directly into hadrons, or via a fleeting intermediate state with effectively-free constituent quarks, which may well be identified with QCD quasi-particle degrees of freedom. The empirical observation of the ``$n_q$'' scaling of elliptic flow \\cite{Adare:2006ti} (the universality of $v_2/n_q$ as a function of $(m_{T}-m)/n_q$, where $n_q$ is the number of constituent quarks in the hadron) is scrutinized in detail. It is found that, at all t...
Jaya, Selvaraj Mathi
2017-06-01
A non-equilibrium Green's function formulation to study the spin transfer torque (STT) in non-collinear magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) exhibiting quasiparticle bands is developed. The formulation can be used to study the magnetoresistance and spin current too. The formulation is used to study the STT in model tunnel junctions exhibiting multiple layers and quasiparticle bands. The many body interaction that gives rise to quasiparticle bands is assumed to be a s - f exchange interaction at the electrode regions of the MTJ. The quasiparticle bands are obtained using a many body procedure and the single particle band structure is obtained using the tight binding model. The bias dependence of the STT as well as the influence of band occupancy and s - f exchange coupling strength on the STT are studied. We find from our studies that the band occupancy plays a significant role in deciding the STT and the s - f interaction strength too influences the STT significantly. Anomalous behavior in both the parallel and perpendicular components of the STT is obtained from our studies. Our results obtained for certain values of the band occupation are found to show the trend observed from the experimental measurements of STT.
Inelastic quasiparticle lifetimes of the Shockley surface state band on Ni(111)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, Kai-Felix [Ohio University, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics and Astronomy Department, Athens, OH (United States); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Hla, Saw-Wai [Ohio University, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics and Astronomy Department, Athens, OH (United States); Samango GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)
2010-03-15
We present a study of the low-energy quasiparticle lifetimes of the Shockley surface state on the Ni(111) surface with scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. By measuring the coherence length of the decaying standing wave pattern at straight step edges electron and hole lifetimes have been determined. The values of the lifetime measured on this ferromagnetic surface show to be considerable smaller than the values obtained from noble metal surfaces. This is explained by differences in the electron density of states at the Fermi energy but has to include substantial spin-flip scattering. Furthermore hole lifetimes appear to be larger than electron lifetimes with the same excitation energy. Although only results for the majority spin component are presented, a spin-dependent selfenergy is expected. (orig.)
Nodal Quasiparticle Meltdown in Ultra-High Resolution Pump-Probe Angle-Resolved Photoemission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graf, Jeff; Jozwiak, Chris; Smallwood, Chris L.; Eisaki, H.; Kaindl, Robert A.; Lee, Dung-Hai; Lanzara, Alessandra
2011-06-03
High-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors are characterized by a strong momentum-dependent anisotropy between the low energy excitations along the Brillouin zone diagonal (nodal direction) and those along the Brillouin zone face (antinodal direction). Most obvious is the d-wave superconducting gap, with the largest magnitude found in the antinodal direction and no gap in the nodal direction. Additionally, while antin- odal quasiparticle excitations appear only below T{sub c}, superconductivity is thought to be indifferent to nodal excitations as they are regarded robust and insensitive to T{sub c}. Here we reveal an unexpected tie between nodal quasiparticles and superconductivity using high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission on optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} . We observe a suppression of the nodal quasiparticle spectral weight following pump laser excitation and measure its recovery dynamics. This suppression is dramatically enhanced in the superconducting state. These results reduce the nodal-antinodal dichotomy and challenge the conventional view of nodal excitation neutrality in superconductivity. The electronic structures of high-Tc cuprates are strongly momentum-dependent. This is one reason why the momentum-resolved technique of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been a central tool in the field of high-temperature superconductivity. For example, coherent low energy excitations with momenta near the Brillouin zone face, or antinodal quasiparticles (QPs), are only observed below T{sub c} and have been linked to superfluid density. They have therefore been the primary focus of ARPES studies. In contrast, nodal QPs, with momenta along the Brillouin zone diagonal, have received less attention and are usually regarded as largely immune to the superconducting transition because they seem insensitive to perturbations such as disorder, doping, isotope exchange, charge ordering, and temperature. Clearly
Nakanishi-Ohno, Yoshinori; Haze, Masahiro; Yoshida, Yasuo; Hukushima, Koji; Hasegawa, Yukio; Okada, Masato
2016-09-01
We applied a method of compressed sensing to the observation of quasi-particle interference (QPI) by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy to improve efficiency and save measurement time. To solve an ill-posed problem owing to the scarcity of data, the compressed sensing utilizes the sparseness of QPI patterns in momentum space. We examined the performance of a sparsity-inducing algorithm called least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and demonstrated that LASSO enables us to recover a double-circle QPI pattern of the Ag(111) surface from a dataset whose size is less than that necessary for the conventional Fourier transformation method. In addition, the smallest number of data required for the recovery is discussed on the basis of cross validation.
Low quasiparticle coherence temperature in the one-band Hubbard model: A slave-boson approach
Mezio, Alejandro; McKenzie, Ross H.
2017-07-01
We use the Kotliar-Ruckenstein slave-boson formalism to study the temperature dependence of paramagnetic phases of the one-band Hubbard model for a variety of band structures. We calculate the Fermi liquid quasiparticle spectral weight Z and identify the temperature at which it decreases significantly to a crossover to a bad metal region. Near the Mott metal-insulator transition, this coherence temperature Tcoh is much lower than the Fermi temperature of the uncorrelated Fermi gas, as is observed in a broad range of strongly correlated electron materials. After a proper rescaling of temperature and interaction, we find a universal behavior that is independent of the band structure of the system. We obtain the temperature-interaction phase diagram as function of doping, and we compare the temperature dependence of the double occupancy, entropy, and charge compressibility with previous results obtained with dynamical mean-field theory. We analyze the stability of the method by calculating the charge compressibility.
{beta}-decay rates of r-process nuclei in the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niksic, T.; Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Science, Physics Dept.; Paar, N. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Ring, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department
2004-12-08
The fully consistent relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (PN-RQRPA) is employed in the calculation of {beta}-decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei in the N{approx}50 and N{approx}82 regions. A new density-dependent effective interaction, with an enhanced value of the nucleon effective mass, is used in relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov calculation of nuclear ground states and in the particle-hole channel of the PN-RQRPA. The finite range Gogny D1S interaction is employed in the T=1 pairing channel, and the model also includes a proton-neutron particle-particle interaction. The theoretical half-lives reproduce the experimental data for the Fe, Zn, Cd, and Te isotopic chains, but overestimate the lifetimes of Ni isotopes and predict a stable {sup 132}Sn. (orig.)
Phases of QCD, Thermal Quasiparticles and Dilepton Radiation from a Fireball
Renk, T; Weise, W
2002-01-01
We calculate dilepton production rates from a fireball adapted to the kinematical conditions realized in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions over a broad range of beam energies. The freeze-out state of the fireball is fixed by hadronic observables. We use this information combined with the initial geometry of the collision region to follow the space-time evolution of the fireball. Assuming entropy conservation, its bulk thermodynamic properties can then be uniquely obtained once the equation of state (EoS) is specified. The high-temperature (QGP) phase is modelled by a non-perturbative quasiparticle model that incorporates a phenomenological confinement description, adapted to lattice QCD results. For the hadronic phase, we interpolate the EoS into the region where a resonance gas approach seems applicable, keeping track of a possible overpopulation of the pion phase space. In this way, the fireball evolution is specified without reference to dilepton data, thus eliminating it as an adjustable parameter in...
Kamble, Bhaskar; Akbari, Alireza; Eremin, Ilya
2016-04-01
We employ a five-orbital tight-binding model to develop the mean-field solution for various possible spin density wave states in the iron-chalcogenides. The quasiparticle interference (QPI) technique is applied to detect signatures of these states due to scatterings arising from non-magnetic impurities. Apart from the experimentally observed double-striped structure with ordering vector (π/2,π/2) , the QPI method is investigated for the extended-stripe as well as the orthogonal double-stripe phase. We discuss QPI as a possible tool to detect and classify various magnetic structures with different electronic structure reconstruction within the framework of the \\text{Fe}1+y\\text{Te} compound.
(3 +1 )D Quasiparticle Anisotropic Hydrodynamics for Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions
Alqahtani, Mubarak; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael
2017-07-01
We present the first comparisons of experimental data with phenomenological results from (3 +1 )D quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydroQP). We compare particle spectra, average transverse momentum, and elliptic flow. The dynamical equations used for the hydrodynamic stage utilize aHydroQP, which naturally includes both shear and bulk viscous effects. The (3 +1 )D aHydroQP evolution obtained is self-consistently converted to hadrons using anisotropic Cooper-Frye freeze-out. Hadron production and decays are modeled using a customized version of therminator 2. In this first study, we utilized smooth Glauber-type initial conditions and a single effective freeze-out temperature TFO=130 MeV with all hadronic species in full chemical equilibrium. With this rather simple setup, we find a very good description of many heavy-ion observables.
Karzig, Torsten; Knapp, Christina; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Bonderson, Parsa; Hastings, Matthew B.; Nayak, Chetan; Alicea, Jason; Flensberg, Karsten; Plugge, Stephan; Oreg, Yuval; Marcus, Charles M.; Freedman, Michael H.
2017-06-01
We present designs for scalable quantum computers composed of qubits encoded in aggregates of four or more Majorana zero modes, realized at the ends of topological superconducting wire segments that are assembled into superconducting islands with significant charging energy. Quantum information can be manipulated according to a measurement-only protocol, which is facilitated by tunable couplings between Majorana zero modes and nearby semiconductor quantum dots. Our proposed architecture designs have the following principal virtues: (1) the magnetic field can be aligned in the direction of all of the topological superconducting wires since they are all parallel; (2) topological T junctions are not used, obviating possible difficulties in their fabrication and utilization; (3) quasiparticle poisoning is abated by the charging energy; (4) Clifford operations are executed by a relatively standard measurement: detection of corrections to quantum dot energy, charge, or differential capacitance induced by quantum fluctuations; (5) it is compatible with strategies for producing good approximate magic states.
Nodal Quasiparticle Meltdown in Ultra-High Resolution Pump-Probe Angle-Resolved Photoemission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graf, Jeff; Jozwiak, Chris; Smallwood, Chris L.; Eisaki, H.; Kaindl, Robert A.; Lee, Dung-Hai; Lanzara, Alessandra
2011-06-03
High-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors are characterized by a strong momentum-dependent anisotropy between the low energy excitations along the Brillouin zone diagonal (nodal direction) and those along the Brillouin zone face (antinodal direction). Most obvious is the d-wave superconducting gap, with the largest magnitude found in the antinodal direction and no gap in the nodal direction. Additionally, while antin- odal quasiparticle excitations appear only below T{sub c}, superconductivity is thought to be indifferent to nodal excitations as they are regarded robust and insensitive to T{sub c}. Here we reveal an unexpected tie between nodal quasiparticles and superconductivity using high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission on optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} . We observe a suppression of the nodal quasiparticle spectral weight following pump laser excitation and measure its recovery dynamics. This suppression is dramatically enhanced in the superconducting state. These results reduce the nodal-antinodal dichotomy and challenge the conventional view of nodal excitation neutrality in superconductivity. The electronic structures of high-Tc cuprates are strongly momentum-dependent. This is one reason why the momentum-resolved technique of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been a central tool in the field of high-temperature superconductivity. For example, coherent low energy excitations with momenta near the Brillouin zone face, or antinodal quasiparticles (QPs), are only observed below T{sub c} and have been linked to superfluid density. They have therefore been the primary focus of ARPES studies. In contrast, nodal QPs, with momenta along the Brillouin zone diagonal, have received less attention and are usually regarded as largely immune to the superconducting transition because they seem insensitive to perturbations such as disorder, doping, isotope exchange, charge ordering, and temperature. Clearly
Tunneling of quasiparticles in the normal-insulator-superconductor-insulator-normal geometry
Hidaka, Mutsuo; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Sone, Jun'ichi
1993-12-01
The probability of quasiparticle transmission going through a normal-insulator- superconductor-insulator-normal (NISIN) geometry is theoretically calculated using Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to investigate the feasibility of electron devices utilizing this geometry. This new calculation is able to include a current carried by Cooper pairs by employing hole injections from the outlet which destroy Cooper pairs at the outlet super- conductor-insulator boundary. Resonant tunneling phenomena occur even if the electron kinetic energy is less than the superconducting energy gap and electron tunneling probabilities are greatly modified by the resonance. When the unevenness of the superconductor (S) width thickness is large compared with the electron wavelength in the S layer, the resonance is smeared out in averaged tunneling probabilities. Then the tunneling probabilities can be controlled by the electron kinetic energy. Applications of the NISIN geometry for superconducting transistors are also discussed.
Interpretation of Scanning Tunneling Quasiparticle Interference and Impurity States in Cuprates
Kreisel, A.; Choubey, Peayush; Berlijn, T.; Ku, W.; Andersen, B. M.; Hirschfeld, P. J.
2015-05-01
We apply a recently developed method combining first principles based Wannier functions with solutions to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to the problem of interpreting STM data in cuprate superconductors. We show that the observed images of Zn on the surface of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 can only be understood by accounting for the tails of the Cu Wannier functions, which include significant weight on apical O sites in neighboring unit cells. This calculation thus puts earlier crude "filter" theories on a microscopic foundation and solves a long-standing puzzle. We then study quasiparticle interference phenomena induced by out-of-plane weak potential scatterers, and show how patterns long observed in cuprates can be understood in terms of the interference of Wannier functions above the surface. Our results show excellent agreement with experiment and enable a better understanding of novel phenomena in the cuprates via STM imaging.
Nolting, W.; Borgiel, W.; Borstel, G.
1988-05-01
We present a method for calculating the temperature dependence of the electronic quasiparticle density of states (QDOS) of a ferromagnetic rare-earth insulator like EuO. Special attention is devoted to how the ``localized'' ferromagnetism manifests itself in x-ray photoemission and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectra. Our study includes the first six conduction bands of EuO (the first five are Eu 5d like, the sixth is mainly of Eu 6s character) as well as the rather flat 4f levels. The starting point is an extended d-f exchange model, the main parts of which are an exchange interaction between 4f moments and conduction electrons, a Coulomb repulsion between highly correlated 4f electrons, and a hybridization of 4f with conduction-band states. We use an exact T=0 relationship between spin-up quasiparticle energies and one-electron Bloch energies ɛm(k) for an optimal determination of the latter by performing a self-consistent, spin-polarized band-structure calculation based on density-functional theory. For finite temperatures the model is approximately solved by a many-body procedure. The QDOS exhibits a striking temperature dependence mainly due to the d-f exchange. Two 4f-like peaks appear in the spin-polarized QDOS, the low-energy one being occupied, the high-energy one being empty. The temperature dependence of the localized ferromagnetism appears in the QDOS as a temperature-dependent shift of spectral weight between the low- and the high-energy peak.
Microwave determination of the quasiparticle scattering time in YBa2Cu3O6.95
Bonn, D. A.; Liang, Ruixing; Riseman, T. M.; Baar, D. J.; Morgan, D. C.; Zhang, Kuan; Dosanjh, P.; Duty, T. L.; Macfarlane, A.; Morris, G. D.; Brewer, J. H.; Hardy, W. N.; Kallin, C.; Berlinsky, A. J.
1993-05-01
We report microwave surface resistance (Rs) measurements on two very-high-quality YBa2Cu3O6.95 crystals which exhibit extremely low residual loss at 1.2 K (2-6 μΩ at 2 GHz), a broad, reproducible peak at around 38 K, and a rapid increase in loss, by 4 orders of magnitude, between 80 and 93 K. These data provide one ingredient in the determination of the temperature dependence of the real part of the microwave conductivity, σ1(T), and of the quasiparticle scattering time. The other necessary ingredient is an accurate knowledge of the magnitude and temperature dependence of the London penetration depth, λ(T). This is derived from published data, from microwave data of Anlage, Langley, and co-workers and from, high-quality μSR data. We infer, from a careful analysis of all available data, that λ2(0)/λ2(T) is well approximated by the simple function 1-t2, where t=T/Tc, and that the low-temperature data are incompatible with the existence of an s-wave, BCS-like gap. Combining the Rs and λ(T) data, we find that σ1(T), has a broad peak around 32 K with a value about 20 times that at Tc. Using a generalized two-fluid model, we extract the temperature dependence of the quasiparticle scattering rate which follows an exponential law, exp(T/T0), where T0~=12 K, for T between 15 and 84 K. Such a temperature dependence has previously been observed in measurements of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate. Both the uncertainties in our analysis and the implications for the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity are discussed.
Continuum and line emission of flares on red dwarf stars: origin of the blue continuum radiation
Morchenko, E S
2016-01-01
There are two types of models that explain the appearance of the blue continuum radiation during the impulsive phase of stellar flares. Grinin and Sobolev (Astrophysics, vol. 13, 348, 1977) argue that this component of the optical continuum is formed in "the transition layer between the chromosphere and the photosphere". Katsova et al. (Astrophysics, vol. 17, 156, 1981) have "raised" the source of the white-light continuum up to the dense region in the perturbed chromosphere. In the present contribution (the main paper was submitted to journal "Astrophysics"), we show that the statement by Katsova et al. is erroneous.
Radiation from charges in the continuum limit
Ianconescu, Reuven
2012-01-01
It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, e.g. a circular loop, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how the radiation vanishes when one goes to the continuum DC limit.
Radio continuum from FU Orionis stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez, L.F.; Hartmann, L.W.; Chavira, E. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Puebla (Mexico))
1990-12-01
Using the very large array a sensitive search is conducted for 3.6-cm continuum emission toward four FU Orionis objects: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, and Elias 1-12. V1057 Cyg and Elias 1-12 at the level of about 0.1 mJy is detected. The association of radio continuum emission with these FU Ori objects strengthens a possible relation between FU Ori stars and objects like L 1551 IRS 5 and Z CMa that are also sources of radio continuum emission and have been proposed as post-FU Ori objects. Whether the radio continuum emission is caused by free-free emission from ionized ejecta or if it is optically thin emission from a dusty disk is discussed. It was determined that, in the archives of the Tonantzintla Observatory, a plate taken in 1957 does not show Elias 1-12. This result significantly narrows the time range for the epoch of the outburst of this source to between 1957 and 1965. 38 refs.
A continuum mechanical gradient theory with applications to fluid mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silber, G.; Alizadeh, M.; Benderoth, G. [Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Lab. fuer Materialwissenschaften; Trostel, R
1998-11-01
A gradient theory of grade two based on an axiomatic conception of a nonlocal continuum theory for materials of grade n is presented. The total stress tensor of rank two in the equation of linear momentum contains two higher stress tensors of rank two and three. In the case of isotropic materials both the tensor of rank two and three are tensor-valued functions of the second order strain rate tensor and its first gradient so that the equation of motion is of order four. The necessary boundary conditions for real boundaries are generated by using so-called porosity tensors. This theory is applied to two experiments. To a velocity profile of a turbulent Couette flow of water and a Poiseuille flow of a blood like suspension. On the basis of these experimental data the material and porosity coefficients are identified by numerical algorithms like evolution strategies. (orig.) 23 refs.
Observations of Microwave Continuum Emission from Air Shower Plasmas
Gorham, P W; Varner, G S; Beatty, J J; Connolly, A; Chen, P; Conde, M E; Gai, W; Hast, C; Hebert, C L; Miki, C; Konecny, R; Kowalski, J; Ng, J; Power, J G; Reil, K; Saltzberg, D; Stokes, B T; Walz, D
2007-01-01
We investigate a possible new technique for microwave measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) extensive air showers which relies on detection of expected continuum radiation in the microwave range, caused by free-electron collisions with neutrals in the tenuous plasma left after the passage of the shower. We performed an initial experiment at the AWA (Argonne Wakefield Accelerator) laboratory in 2003 and measured broadband microwave emission from air ionized via high energy electrons and photons. A follow-up experiment at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) in summer of 2004 confirmed the major features of the previous AWA observations with better precision and made additional measurements relevant to the calorimetric capabilities of the method. Prompted by these results we built a prototype detector using satellite television technology, and have made measurements indicating possible detection of cosmic ray extensive air showers. The method, if confirmed by experiments now in progress, cou...
Do Large Abelian Monopole Loops Survive the Continuum Limit?
Grady, M
1999-01-01
An analysis of the monopole loop length distribution is performed in Wilson-action SU(2) lattice gauge theory. A pure power law in the inverse length is found, at least for loops of length, $l$, less than the linear lattice size $N$. This power shows a definite $\\beta$ dependence, passing 5 around $\\beta =2.9$, and appears to have very little finite lattice size dependence. It is shown that when this power exceeds 5, no loops any finite fraction of the lattice size will survive the infinite lattice limit. This is true for any reasonable size distribution for loops larger than N. The apparent lack of finite size dependence in this quantity would seem to indicate that abelian monopole loops large enough to cause confinement do not survive the continuum limit. Indeed they are absent for all $\\beta > 2.9$.
A microstructure continuum approach to electromagneto-elastic conductors
Romeo, Maurizio
2016-11-01
A micromorphic continuum model of a deformable electromagnetic conductor is established introducing microdensities of bound and free charges. The conductive part of electric current consists of contributions due to free charges and microdeformation. Beside the conservation of charge, we derive suitable evolution equations for electric multipoles which are exploited to obtain the macroscopic form of Maxwell's equations. A constitutive model for electromagneto-elastic conductors is considered which allows for a natural characterization of perfect conductors independently on the form of the constitutive equation for the conduction current. A generalized Ohm's law is also derived for not ideal conductors which accounts for relaxation effects. The consequences of the linearized Ohm's law on the classic magnetic transport equation are shown.
Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces
Suraishkumar, G K
2014-01-01
This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...
The report documents a series of seminars at Rome Air Development Center with the content equivalent to an intense course in Linear Systems . Material...is slanted toward the practicing engineer and introduces some of the fundamental concepts and techniques for analyzing linear systems . Techniques for
Bezák, V
2003-02-01
The Waxman-Peck theory of population genetics is discussed in regard of soil bacteria. Each bacterium is understood as a carrier of a phenotypic parameter p. The central objective is the calculation of the probability density with respect to p, Phi(p,t;p(0)), of the carriers living at time t>0, provided that initially at t(0)=0, all bacteria carried the phenotypic parameter p(0)=0. The theory involves two small parameters: the mutation probability mu and a parameter gamma involved in a function w(p) defining the fitness of the bacteria to survive the generation time tau and give birth to an offspring. The mutation from a state p to a state q is defined by a Gaussian with a dispersion sigma(2)(m). The author focuses our attention on a function phi(p,t) which determines uniquely the function Phi(p,t;p(0)) and satisfies a linear equation (Waxman's equation). The Green function of this equation is mathematically identical with the one-particle Bloch density matrix, where mu characterizes the order of magnitude of the potential energy. (In the x representation, the potential energy is proportional to the inverted Gaussian with the dispersion sigma(2)(m)). The author solves Waxman's equation in the standard style of a perturbation theory and discusses how the solution depends on the choice of the fitness function w(p). In a sense, the function c(p)=1-w(p)/w(0) is analogous to the dispersion function E(p) of fictitious quasiparticles. In contrast to Waxman's approximation, where c(p) was taken as a quadratic function, c(p) approximately gammap(2), the author exemplifies the problem with another function, c(p)=gamma[1-exp(-ap(2))], where gamma is small but a may be large. The author shows that the use of this function in the theory of the population genetics is the same as the use of a nonparabolic dispersion law E=E(p) in the density-matrix theory. With a general function c(p), the distribution function Phi(p,t;0) is composed of a delta-function component, N
Stoll, R R
1968-01-01
Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand
Sun, Haitao
2016-05-16
We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a non-empirical, optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional with the polarizable continuum model, is applied to a series of eight representative molecular semiconductor crystals. We show that it provides ionization energies, electron affinities, and transport gaps in very good agreement with experimental values as well as with the results of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation at a fraction of the computational costs. Hence, this approach represents an easily applicable and computationally efficient tool to estimate the gas-to-crystal-phase shifts of the frontier-orbital quasiparticle energies in organic electronic materials.
Continuum of Collaboration: Little Steps for Little Feet
Powell, Gwynn M.
2013-01-01
This mini-article outlines a continuum of collaboration for faculty within a department of the same discipline. The goal of illustrating this continuum is showcase different stages of collaboration so that faculty members can assess where they are as a collective and consider steps to collaborate more. The separate points along a continuum of…
Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone - And Some More
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Byskov, Esben
Quite trivially, Continuum mechanics per se deals with the description of deformations of three-dimensional continua i.e. models whose properties are independent of scale in that the continuum does not possess a structure. Thus, continuum mechanics does not try to model the atomic structure...
Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone - and Some More
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Byskov, Esben
Quite trivially, Continuum mechanics per se deals with the description of deformations of three-dimensional continua i.e. models whose properties are independent of scale in that the continuum does not possess a structure. Thus, continuum mechanics does not try to model the atomic structure of th...
Design Modified Fuzzy PD Gravity Controller with Application to Continuum Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mansour Bazregar
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Refer to this research, a position modified parallel error-based fuzzy Proportional Derivative (PD gravity controller is proposed for continuum robot manipulator. The main problem of the pure conventional nonlinear controller was equivalent dynamic formulation in uncertain systems. The main challenge of linear controllers is linearization techniques and the quality of performance. The nonlinear equivalent dynamic problem in uncertain system is solved by applied fuzzy logic theory to modified PD gravity. To estimate the continuum robot manipulator system’s dynamic, proportional plus modified derivative with 7 rules Mamdani inference system is design and applied to modified PD gravity methodology. The proportional coefficient of controller is tuned by new methodology in limitation uncertainties. The results demonstrate that the proposed controller is a partly model-free controllers which works well in certain and partly uncertain system.
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
Solow, Daniel
2014-01-01
This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.
Berberian, Sterling K
2014-01-01
Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.
Liesen, Jörg
2015-01-01
This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...
The geometrical language of continuum mechanics
Epstein, Marcelo
2010-01-01
This book presents the fundamental concepts of modern differential geometry within the framework of continuum mechanics. It is divided into three parts of roughly equal length. The book opens with a motivational chapter to impress upon the reader that differential geometry is indeed the natural language of continuum mechanics or, better still, that the latter is a prime example of the application and materialization of the former. In the second part, the fundamental notions of differential geometry are presented with rigor using a writing style that is as informal as possible. Differentiable manifolds, tangent bundles, exterior derivatives, Lie derivatives, and Lie groups are illustrated in terms of their mechanical interpretations. The third part includes the theory of fiber bundles, G-structures, and groupoids, which are applicable to bodies with internal structure and to the description of material inhomogeneity. The abstract notions of differential geometry are thus illuminated by practical and intuitivel...
Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis
Spill, F.
2014-03-11
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Development of a continuum robot for colonoscopy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Haiyan; Li Mantian; Wang Pengfei; Feng Yuan; Sun Lining
2009-01-01
A novel continuum robot for colonoscopy is presented. The aim is to develop a robot for colonoscopy which can provide the same functions as conventional colonoscope, but much less pain and discomfort for patient. In contrast to traditional rigid-link robot, the robot features a continuous backbone with no joints. The continuum robot is 300 mm in total length and 12 mm in diameter that is less than the average diameter of human colon (20 mm). The robot has a total of 4 DOF (degrees of freedom) and is actuated remotely by 6 hybrid step motors through super-elastic NiTi wires. Its shape can be changed with high dexterity, therefore ensuring its adaptability to the tortuous shape of human colon. The mechanical structure, kinematics and DSP-based control system are discussed; prototype experiments are carried out to validate the kinematics model and to show the motion performances.
Computer Simulations on a Multidimensional Continuum:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Girault, Isabelle; Pfeffer, Melanie; Chiocarriello, Augusto
2016-01-01
Computer simulations exist on a multidimensional continuum with other educational technologies including static animations, serious games, and virtual worlds. The act of defining simulations is context dependent. In our context of science education, we define simulations as algorithmic, dynamic...... with emphasis on simulations’ algorithmic, dynamic, and simple features. Defined as models, simulations can be computational or conceptual in nature and may reflect hypothetical or real events; such distinctions are addressed. Examples of programs that demonstrate the features of simulations emphasized in our...
Sensitivity filtering from a continuum mechanics perspective
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt
2012-01-01
In topology optimization filtering is a popular approach for preventing numerical instabilities. This short note shows that the well-known sensitivity filtering technique, that prevents checkerboards and ensures mesh-independent designs in density-based topology optimization, is equivalent to min...... to minimizing compliance for nonlocal elasticity problems known from continuum mechanics. Hence, the note resolves the long-standing quest for finding an explanation and physical motivation for the sensitivity filter....
Radio continuum jet in NGC 7479
Laine, Seppo; Beck, Rainer
2008-01-01
The barred galaxy NGC 7479 hosts a remarkable jet-like radio continuum feature: bright, 12-kpc long in projection, and hosting an aligned magnetic field. The degree of polarization is 6%-8% along the jet, and remarkably constant, which is consistent with helical field models. The radio brightness of the jet suggests strong interaction with the ISM and hence a location near the disk plane. We observed NGC 7479 at four wavelengths with the VLA and Effelsberg radio telescopes. The equipartition ...
Continuation through Singularity of Continuum Multiphase Algorithms
2013-03-01
of dissipative particle dynamics ( DPD ). Several accomplishments are worth mentioning. A many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) code...prohibitively high cost. In this project, the mesoscopic Dissipative Particle Dynamics ( DPD ) approach is adopted to bridge the molecular and continuum...scales. The interfacial dynamics is accounted for using a variant of DPD called Many-body DPD described below. 1.2.1 Background of MDPD The
On Friedrichs Model with Two Continuum States
Xiao, Zhiguang
2016-01-01
The Friedrichs model with one discrete state coupled to more than one continuum is studied. The exact eigenstates for the full Hamiltonian can be solved explicitly. The discrete state is found to generate more than one virtual state pole or more than one pair of resonance poles in different Riemann sheets in different situations. The form factors could also generate new states on different sheets. All these states can appear in the generalized completeness relation.
Ferrighi, Lara; Frediani, Luca; Fossgaard, Eirik; Ruud, Kenneth
2006-10-01
We present a parallel implementation of the integral equation formalism of the polarizable continuum model for Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations of energies and linear, quadratic, and cubic response functions. The contributions to the free energy of the solute due to the polarizable continuum have been implemented using a master-slave approach with load balancing to ensure good scalability also on parallel machines with a slow interconnect. We demonstrate the good scaling behavior of the code through calculations of Hartree-Fock energies and linear, quadratic, and cubic response function for a modest-sized sample molecule. We also explore the behavior of the parallelization of the integral equation formulation of the polarizable continuum model code when used in conjunction with a recent scheme for the storage of two-electron integrals in the memory of the different slaves in order to achieve superlinear scaling in the parallel calculations.
Cosmology with SKA Radio Continuum Surveys
Jarvis, Matt J; Blake, Chris; Brown, Michael L; Lindsay, Sam N; Raccanelli, Alvise; Santos, Mario; Schwarz, Dominik
2015-01-01
Radio continuum surveys have, in the past, been of restricted use in cosmology. Most studies have concentrated on cross-correlations with the cosmic microwave background to detect the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, due to the large sky areas that can be surveyed. As we move into the SKA era, radio continuum surveys will have sufficient source density and sky area to play a major role in cosmology on the largest scales. In this chapter we summarise the experiments that can be carried out with the SKA as it is built up through the coming decade. We show that the SKA can play a unique role in constraining the non-Gaussianity parameter to \\sigma(f_NL) ~ 1, and provide a unique handle on the systematics that inhibit weak lensing surveys. The SKA will also provide the necessary data to test the isotropy of the Universe at redshifts of order unity and thus evaluate the robustness of the cosmological principle.Thus, SKA continuum surveys will turn radio observations into a central probe of cosmological research in th...
DISCRETE AND CONTINUUM MODELLING OF GRANULAR FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H. P. Zhu; Y. H. WU; A. B. Yu
2005-01-01
This paper analyses three popular methods simulating granular flow at different time and length scales:discrete element method (DEM), averaging method and viscous, elastic-plastic continuum model. The theoretical models of these methods and their applications to hopper flows are discussed. It is shown that DEM is an effective method to study the fundamentals of granular flow at a particle or microscopic scale. By use of the continuum approach, granular flow can also be described at a continuum or macroscopic scale. Macroscopic quantities such as velocity and stress can be obtained by use of such computational method as FEM. However, this approach depends on the constitutive relationship of materials and ignores the effect of microscopic structure of granular flow. The combined approach of DEM and averaging method can overcome this problem. The approach takes into account the discrete nature of granular materials and does not require any global assumption and thus allows a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of granular flow. However, it is difficult to adapt this approach to process modelling because of the limited number of particles which can be handled with the present computational capacity, and the difficulty in handling non-spherical particles.Further work is needed to develop an appropriate approach to overcome these problems.
Improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems
Yu, Qiao; Ben-Zhuo, Lu
2016-01-01
Modeling of biomolecular systems plays an essential role in understanding biological processes, such as ionic flow across channels, protein modification or interaction, and cell signaling. The continuum model described by the Poisson- Boltzmann (PB)/Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations has made great contributions towards simulation of these processes. However, the model has shortcomings in its commonly used form and cannot capture (or cannot accurately capture) some important physical properties of the biological systems. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the continuum model to account for discrete particle interactions and to make progress in numerical methods to provide accurate and efficient simulations. This review will summarize recent main improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems, with focus on the size-modified models, the coupling of the classical density functional theory and the PNP equations, the coupling of polar and nonpolar interactions, and numerical progress. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91230106) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences Program for Cross & Cooperative Team of the Science & Technology Innovation.
Quantifying Distributions of Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction
Cen, Renyue
2015-01-01
Simulations have indicated that most of the escaped Lyman continuum photons escape through a minority of solid angles with near complete transparency, with the remaining majority of the solid angles largely opaque, resulting in a very broad and skewed probability distribution function (PDF) of the escape fraction when viewed at different angles. Thus, the escape fraction of Lyman continuum photons of a galaxy observed along a line of sight merely represents the properties of the interstellar medium along that line of sight, which may be an ill-representation of true escape fraction of the galaxy averaged over its full sky. Here we study how Lyman continuum photons escape from galaxies at $z=4-6$, utilizing high-resolution large-scale cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We compute the PDF of the mean escape fraction ($\\left$) averaged over mock observational samples, as a function of the sample size, compared to the true mean (had you an infinite sample size). We find that, when the sample size is...
Bipotential continuum models for granular mechanics
Goddard, Joe
2014-03-01
Most currently popular continuum models for granular media are special cases of a generalized Maxwell fluid model, which describes the evolution of stress and internal variables such as granular particle fraction and fabric,in terms of imposed strain rate. It is shown how such models can be obtained from two scalar potentials, a standard elastic free energy and a ``dissipation potential'' given rigorously by the mathematical theory of Edelen. This allows for a relatively easy derivation of properly invariant continuum models for granular media and fluid-particle suspensions within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The resulting continuum models encompass all the prominent regimes of granular flow, ranging from the quasi-static to rapidly sheared, and are readily extended to include higher-gradient or Cosserat effects. Models involving stress diffusion, such as that proposed recently by Kamrin and Koval (PRL 108 178301), provide an alternative approach that is mentioned in passing. This paper provides a brief overview of a forthcoming review articles by the speaker (The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics, and Appl. Mech. Rev.,in the press, 2013).
Plane Poiseuille flow: Near continuum results for a rigid sphere gas
Loyalka, S. K.; Hickey, K. A.
1989-10-01
In Poiseuille flow between two parallel plates, the bulk flow is characterized by the Burnett distribution. We report explicit results for this distribution by solving numerically the relevant integral equations for a rigid sphere gas in the context of the linearized Boltzmann equation. Then, we use this distribution together with the Chapman-Enskog distribution to obtain asymptotic results (near-continuum) for mass and heat fluxes corresponding to planar thermal transpiration and mechanocaloric effects.
Tiwari, Mukesh
In this thesis, we investigate some topics of transport in classical and quantum systems. The classical system under study is related to friction at the nanoscale. The first model we consider is that of a dimer moving on a 1-dimensional periodic substrate; we study the role of an internal channel of dissipation on the effective damping experienced by the dimer during its motion. With the view that understanding of the processes at the microscopic scale can shed some light on the origin of frictional forces, we undertake a systematic study of the scattering of a free particle by a harmonic oscillator. This study starts from a Hamiltonian description of the system, without any phenomenological damping. The dissipation in this system results from an exchange of energy between the particle and the oscillator when they are in close proximity. This classical scattering problem becomes chaotic as a result of exchange of energy. We present, in detail, a study of the chaotic scattering process for an initially static oscillator. In the case of an initially excited oscillator, extraction of information about the chaotic set requires the construction of Smale horseshoe on an appropriate Poincare surface of section. A discussion on the construction of this chaotic invariant set is also provided in this thesis. Interacting quasiparticle-boson systems form an important part of condensed matter physics. Various approximation schemes are often employed in the study of these systems. In order to understand the response of a quasi-particle to externally applied electric fields, we study in the second part of this thesis, the 2-site quantum dimer under the semiclassical approximation. The role of initial phases and effects of resonance between phonon frequency and the frequency due to the Stark splitting of states is investigated. This thesis also contains discussions regarding the frequency response of both degenerate and nondegenerate adiabatic semiclassical models and self
Dzhioev, Alan A.; Vdovin, A. I.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Wambach, J.; Stoyanov, Ch.
2016-07-01
The thermal quasiparticle random-phase approximation is combined with the Skyrme energy density functional method (Skyrme-TQRPA) to study the response of a hot nucleus to an external perturbation. For the sample nuclei 56Fe and 82Ge, the Skyrme-TQRPA is applied to analyze thermal effects on the strength function of charge-neutral Gamow-Teller transitions, which dominate neutrino-nucleus reactions at Eν≲20 MeV. For the relevant supernova temperatures we calculate the cross sections for inelastic neutrino scattering. We also apply the method to examine the rate of neutrino-antineutrino pair emission by hot nuclei. The cross sections and rates are compared with those obtained earlier from the TQRPA calculations based on the phenomenological quasiparticle-phonon model Hamiltonian. For inelastic neutrino scattering on 56Fe we also compare the Skyrme-TQRPA results to those obtained earlier from a hybrid approach that combines shell-model and RPA calculations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.V. Tkach
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Using the Feynman-Pines diagram technique, the energy spectrum of localized quasi-particles interacting with polarization phonons is calculated and analyzed in the wide range of energies at the finite temperature of the system. It is established that the general model of the system, besides the bound states known from the simplified model with an additional condition for the operator of quasi-particles number, contains the new bound states even for the systems with weak coupling. The contribution of multi-phonon processes into the formation of renormalized spectrum of the system is analyzed. The reasons of the appearance, behaviour and disappearance of separate pairs of bound states depending on the coupling constant and temperature are revealed.
Quasiparticle Scattering off Defects and Possible Bound States in Charge-Ordered YBa2 Cu3 Oy
Zhou, R.; Hirata, M.; Wu, T.; Vinograd, I.; Mayaffre, H.; Krämer, S.; Horvatić, M.; Berthier, C.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W. N.; Bonn, D. A.; Julien, M.-H.
2017-01-01
We report the NMR observation of a skewed distribution of 17O Knight shifts when a magnetic field quenches superconductivity and induces long-range charge-density-wave (CDW) order in YBa2Cu3Oy . This distribution is explained by an inhomogeneous pattern of the local density of states N (EF) arising from quasiparticle scattering off, yet unidentified, defects in the CDW state. We argue that the effect is most likely related to the formation of quasiparticle bound states, as is known to occur, under specific circumstances, in some metals and superconductors (but not in the CDW state, in general, except for very few cases in 1D materials). These observations should provide insight into the microscopic nature of the CDW, especially regarding the reconstructed band structure and the sensitivity to disorder.
Ataide, C. A.; Pelá, R. R.; Marques, M.; Teles, L. K.; Furthmüller, J.; Bechstedt, F.
2017-01-01
We investigate ZnO, CdO, and MgO oxides crystallizing in rocksalt, wurtzite, and zincblende structures. Whereas in MgO calculations, the conventional LDA-1/2 method is employed through a self-energy potential (VS), the shallow d bands in ZnO and CdO are treated through an increased amplitude (A ) of VS to modulate the self-energy of the d states to place them in the quasiparticle position. The LDA+A -1/2 scheme is applied to calculate band structures and electronic density of states of ZnO and CdO. We compare the results with those of more sophisticated quasiparticle calculations and experiments. We demonstrate that this new LDA+A -1/2 method reaches accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art methods, opening a door to study more complex systems containing shallow core electrons to the prize of LDA studies.
De Gregorio, G.; Knapp, F.; Lo Iudice, N.; Vesely, P.
2016-04-01
A Bogoliubov quasiparticle formulation of an equation-of-motion phonon method, suited for open-shell nuclei, is derived. Like its particle-hole version, it consists of deriving a set of equations of motions whose iterative solution generates an orthonormal basis of n -phonon states (n =0 ,1 ,2 ,... ), built of quasiparticle Tamm-Dancoff phonons, which simplifies the solution of the eigenvalue problem. The method is applied to the open-shell neutron-rich O20 for illustrative purposes. A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov canonical basis, derived from an intrinsic two-body optimized chiral Hamiltonian, is used to derive and solve the eigenvalue equations in a space encompassing a truncated two-phonon basis. The spurious admixtures induced by the violation of the particle number and the center-of-mass motion are eliminated to a large extent by a Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure. The calculation takes into account the Pauli principle, is self-consistent, and is parameter free except for the energy cutoff used to truncate the two-phonon basis, which induces an increasing depression of the ground state through its strong coupling to the quasiparticle vacuum. Such a cutoff is fixed so as to reproduce the first 1- level. The two-phonon states are shown to enhance the level density of the low-energy spectrum, consistently with the data, and to induce a fragmentation of the E 1 strength which, while accounting for the very low E 1 transitions, is not sufficient to reproduce the experimental cross section in the intermediate energy region. This and other discrepancies suggest the need of including the three-phonon states. These are also expected to offset the action of the two phonons on the quasiparticle vacuum and, therefore, free the calculation from any parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlottmann, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, MC 4350-309 Keene Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)]. E-mail: schlottm@martech.fsu.edu
2004-12-31
The nesting of the Fermi surfaces of an electron pocket and a hole pocket separated by a wave vector Q and the interaction between electrons gives rise to spin- and charge-density waves. The order can gradually be suppressed by mismatching the nesting and a quantum critical point is obtained as the critical temperature tends to zero. We calculate the quasi-particle damping close to the quantum critical point and discuss its consequences on the resistivity and Hall effect.
Continuum Foreground Polarization and Na I Absorption in Type Ia SNe
Zelaya, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Baade, D.; Höflich, P.; Maund, J.; Patat, F.; Quinn, J. R.; Reilly, E.; Wang, L.; Wheeler, J. C.; Förster, F.; González-Gaitán, S.
2017-02-01
We present a study of the continuum polarization over the 400–600 nm range of 19 SNe Ia obtained with FORS at the VLT. We separate them into those that show Na i D lines at the velocity of their hosts and those that do not. Continuum polarization of the sodium sample near maximum light displays a broad range of values, from extremely polarized cases like SN 2006X to almost unpolarized ones like SN 2011ae. The non-sodium sample shows, typically, smaller polarization values. The continuum polarization of the sodium sample in the 400–600 nm range is linear with wavelength and can be characterized by the mean polarization ({P}{mean}). Its values span a wide range and show a linear correlation with color, color excess, and extinction in the visual band. Larger dispersion correlations were found with the equivalent width of the Na i D and Ca ii H and K lines, and also a noisy relation between {P}{mean} and R V , the ratio of total to selective extinction. Redder SNe show stronger continuum polarization, with larger color excesses and extinctions. We also confirm that high continuum polarization is associated with small values of R V . The correlation between extinction and polarization—and polarization angles—suggest that the dominant fraction of dust polarization is imprinted in interstellar regions of the host galaxies. We show that Na i D lines from foreground matter in the SN host are usually associated with non-galactic ISM, challenging the typical assumptions in foreground interstellar polarization models. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programs 068.D-0571(A), 069.D-0438(A), 070.D-0111(A), 076.D-0178(A), 079.D-0090(A), 080.D-0108(A), 081.D-0558(A), 085.D-0731(A), and 086.D-0262(A). Also based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto (Spain).
Weak-coupling analysis of quasiparticle excitations in Sr2RuO4 along the Γ -M cut
Deisz, J. J.; Kidd, T. E.
2017-01-01
We examine normal-state quasiparticle excitations along the Γ -M cut in momentum space for the putative p -wave superconductor Sr2RuO4 on the basis of fluctuation exchange approximation calculations. We take as input first-principles derived parameters for the band structure and spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with data from photoemission experiments and provide insight into the underlying quasiparticle properties. We find that, despite the correlation-induced effective mass increase near the Fermi surface, the full β and γ bandwidths are, if anything, increased by correlations. Furthermore, for the γ band we find anomalous lifetime broadening and a significant temperature of variation of unoccupied state quasiparticle energies for temperatures between 25 and 100 K, both of which are accounted for by the momentum dependence of the electron self-energy. In addition to aiding our understanding of experimental data, these results point to the challenge of assigning appropriate Fermi-liquid parameters or momentum-independent self-energies for schemes that require such approximations in order to model Sr2RuO4 .
Olive, David J
2017-01-01
This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...
Sahai, Vivek
2013-01-01
Beginning with the basic concepts of vector spaces such as linear independence, basis and dimension, quotient space, linear transformation and duality with an exposition of the theory of linear operators on a finite dimensional vector space, this book includes the concept of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, triangulation and Jordan and rational canonical forms. Inner product spaces which cover finite dimensional spectral theory and an elementary theory of bilinear forms are also discussed. This new edition of the book incorporates the rich feedback of its readers. We have added new subject matter in the text to make the book more comprehensive. Many new examples have been discussed to illustrate the text. More exercises have been included. We have taken care to arrange the exercises in increasing order of difficulty. There is now a new section of hints for almost all exercises, except those which are straightforward, to enhance their importance for individual study and for classroom use.
Edwards, Harold M
1995-01-01
In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject
Crossing of large multi-quasiparticle magnetic rotation bands in $^{198}$Bi
Pai, H; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, C; Bhattacharyya, S; Bhattacharjee, T; Basu, S K; Kundu, S; Ghosh, T K; Banerjee, K; Rana, T K; Meena, J K; Bhowmik, R K; Singh, R P; Muralithar, S; Chanda, S; Garg, R; Maheshwari, B; Jain, A K
2014-01-01
High-spin states in the doubly-odd $^{198}$Bi nucleus have been studied by using the $^{185,187}$Re($^{16}$O, xn) reactions at the beam energy of 112.5 MeV. $\\gamma-\\gamma$ coincidence were measured by using the INGA array with 15 Compton suppressed clover HPGe detectors. The observed levels have been assigned definite spin-parity. The high spin structure is grouped into three bands (B1, B2 and B3), of which two (B1 and B2) exhibit the properties of magnetic rotation (MR). Tilted axis cranking calculations were carried out to explain the MR bands having large multi-quasiparticle configurations. The calculated results explain the bands B1 and B2 very nicely, confirming the shears mechanism and suggest a crossing of two MR bands in both the cases. The crossing is from 6-qp to 8-qp in band B1 and from 4-qp to 6-qp in band B2, a very rare finding. A semiclassical model has also been used to obtain the particle-hole interaction strengths for the bands B1 and B2, below the band crossing.
Mukherjee, Shantanu; Lee, Wei-Cheng
2015-12-01
The quasiparticle interferences (QPIs) of the featureless Mott insulators are investigated by a T -matrix formalism implemented with the dynamical mean field theory (T -DMFT). In the Mott insulating state, due to the singularity at zero frequency in the real part of the electron self-energy [Re Σ (ω )˜η /ω ] predicted by DMFT, where η can be considered as the "order parameter" for the Mott insulating state, QPIs are completely washed out at small bias voltages. However, a further analysis shows that Re Σ (ω ) serves as an energy-dependent chemical potential shift. As a result, the effective bias voltage seen by the system is e V'=e V -Re Σ (e V ) , which leads to a critical bias voltage e Vc˜√{η } satisfying e V'=0 if and only if η is nonzero. Consequently, the same QPI patterns produced by the noninteracting Fermi surfaces appear at this critical bias voltage e Vc in the Mott insulating state. We propose that this reentry of noninteracting QPI patterns at e Vc could serve as an experimental signature of the Mott insulating state, and the order parameter can be experimentally measured as η ˜(eVc) 2 .
Dissociation of heavy quarkonium in hot QCD medium in a quasi-particle model
Agotiya, Vineet K; Jamal, M Yousuf; Nilima, Indrani
2016-01-01
Following a recent work on the effective description of the equations of state for hot QCD obtained from a Hard thermal loop expression for the gluon self-energy, in terms of the quasi-gluons and quasi- quark/anti-quarks with respective effective fugacities, the dissociation process of heavy quarkonium in hot QCD medium has been investigated. This has been done by investigating the medium modification to a heavy quark potential. The medium modified potential has a quite different form (a long range Coulomb tail in addition to the usual Yukawa term) in contrast to the usual picture of Debye screening. The flavor dependence of the binding energies of the heavy quarkonia states and the dissociation temperature have been obtained by employing the debye mass for pure gluonic and full QCD case computed employing the quasi-particle picture. Thus estimated dissociation patterns of the charmonium and bottomonium states, considering Debye mass from different approaches in pure gluonic case and full QCD, have shown good...
Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilya D. Feranchuk
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron and it allows one to solve the following problems: i to express the ''primary'' charge $e_0$ and the mass $m_0$ of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of $e$ and $m$ of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii to consider $mu$-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio $m_mu/m$; iii to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass $m$; iv to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge $e ll 1$ corresponds to the strong coupling expansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge $e^{-1}_0 sim e$ when the interaction between the ''physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.
Quasiparticle state density on the surface of superconducting thin films of MgB{sub 2}
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Bobba, F [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR75-88 au CNRS, Universities Paris 6 et 7, Paris (France); Roditchev, D [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR75-88 au CNRS, Universities Paris 6 et 7, Paris (France); Lamy, R [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR75-88 au CNRS, Universities Paris 6 et 7, Paris (France); Choi, E-M [NCRICS, Department of Physics, Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H-J [NCRICS, Department of Physics, Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kang, W N [NCRICS, Department of Physics, Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Ferrando, V [Department of Physics, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Ferdeghini, C [Department of Physics, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Giubileo, F [Department of Physics, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Sacks, W [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR75-88 au CNRS, Universities Paris 6 et 7, Paris (France); Lee, S-I [NCRICS, Department of Physics, Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Klein, J [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR75-88 au CNRS, Universities Paris 6 et 7, Paris (France); Cucolo, A M [Department of Physics, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy)
2003-02-01
High-speed scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) was used at low temperature to study the quasiparticle excitation spectrum on the surface of c-axis-oriented superconducting thin films of MgB{sub 2}. The tunnelling spectra measured on as-grown films were compared with those acquired on chemically etched samples. In most cases the STS reveals only one small superconducting gap to be present in the tunnelling spectra, consistent with c-axis tunnelling and the particular electronic band structure of MgB{sub 2}. We found that the etching leads to the enhancement of the gap energy by 25% from 2.2 {+-} 0.3 meV to 2.8 {+-} 0.3 meV, and to the modification of the temperature dependence of the superconducting gap which, in both cases, has clearly a non-BCS shape. We argue that the modification of the electronic structure at the surface of the material due to the etching is responsible for these changes and discuss the possible origins of the effect.
Landau quantization and quasiparticle interference in the three-dimensional Dirac semimetal Cd3As2
Jeon, Sangjun; Zhou, Brian B.; Gyenis, Andras; Feldman, Benjamin E.; Kimchi, Itamar; Potter, Andrew C.; Gibson, Quinn D.; Cava, Robert J.; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Yazdani, Ali
2014-09-01
Condensed-matter systems provide a rich setting to realize Dirac and Majorana fermionic excitations as well as the possibility to manipulate them for potential applications. It has recently been proposed that chiral, massless particles known as Weyl fermions can emerge in certain bulk materials or in topological insulator multilayers and give rise to unusual transport properties, such as charge pumping driven by a chiral anomaly. A pair of Weyl fermions protected by crystalline symmetry effectively forming a massless Dirac fermion has been predicted to appear as low-energy excitations in a number of materials termed three-dimensional Dirac semimetals. Here we report scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements at sub-kelvin temperatures and high magnetic fields on the II-V semiconductor Cd3As2. We probe this system down to atomic length scales, and show that defects mostly influence the valence band, consistent with the observation of ultrahigh-mobility carriers in the conduction band. By combining Landau level spectroscopy and quasiparticle interference, we distinguish a large spin-splitting of the conduction band in a magnetic field and its extended Dirac-like dispersion above the expected regime. A model band structure consistent with our experimental findings suggests that for a magnetic field applied along the axis of the Dirac points, Weyl fermions are the low-energy excitations in Cd3As2.
Inverse correlation between quasiparticle mass and T c in a cuprate high-T c superconductor.
Putzke, Carsten; Malone, Liam; Badoux, Sven; Vignolle, Baptiste; Vignolles, David; Tabis, Wojciech; Walmsley, Philip; Bird, Matthew; Hussey, Nigel E; Proust, Cyril; Carrington, Antony
2016-03-01
Close to a zero-temperature transition between ordered and disordered electronic phases, quantum fluctuations can lead to a strong enhancement of electron mass and to the emergence of competing phases such as superconductivity. A correlation between the existence of such a quantum phase transition and superconductivity is quite well established in some heavy fermion and iron-based superconductors, and there have been suggestions that high-temperature superconductivity in copper-oxide materials (cuprates) may also be driven by the same mechanism. Close to optimal doping, where the superconducting transition temperature T c is maximal in cuprates, two different phases are known to compete with superconductivity: a poorly understood pseudogap phase and a charge-ordered phase. Recent experiments have shown a strong increase in quasiparticle mass m* in the cuprate YBa2Cu3O7-δ as optimal doping is approached, suggesting that quantum fluctuations of the charge-ordered phase may be responsible for the high-T c superconductivity. We have tested the robustness of this correlation between m* and T c by performing quantum oscillation studies on the stoichiometric compound YBa2Cu4O8 under hydrostatic pressure. In contrast to the results for YBa2Cu3O7-δ, we find that in YBa2Cu4O8, the mass decreases as T c increases under pressure. This inverse correlation between m* and T c suggests that quantum fluctuations of the charge order enhance m* but do not enhance T c.
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Lopez-Aguilar, F.; Costa-Quintana, J. (Dept. de Fisica, Grupo de Electromagnetismo, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E-08193 Barcelona (ES))
1992-07-10
In this paper, the authors give a method for obtaining the renormalized electronic structure of the Hubbard systems. The first step is the determination of the self-energy beyond the Hartree-Fock approximation. This self-energy is constructed from several dielectric response functions. The second step is the determination of the quasiparticle band structure calculation which is performed from an appropriate modification of the augmented plane wave method. The third step consists in the determination of the renormalized density of states deduced from the spectral functions. The analysis of the renormalized density of states of the strongly correlated systems leads to the conclusion that there exist three types of resonances in their electronic structures, the lower energy resonances (LER), the middle energy resonances (MER) and the upper energy resonances (UER). In addition, the authors analyze the conditions for which the Luttinger theorem is satisfied. All of these questions are determined in a characteristic example which allows to test the theoretical method.
Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2016-02-01
We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.
Fano resonance and the hidden order in URu2 Si 2 probed by quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy*
Park, W. K.; Greene, L. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Ronning, F.; Lu, X.; Sarrao, J. L.; Thompson, J. D.
2011-03-01
The nature of the hidden order transition occurring at 17.5 K in URu 2 Si 2 remains puzzling despite intensive investigations over the past two and half decades. Recent experimental and theoretical developments render it a timely subject to probe the hidden order state using quasiparticle tunneling and scattering techniques. We report on the Fano resonance in pure and Rh-doped URu 2 Si 2 single crystals using point-contact spectroscopy. The conductance spectra reproducibly reveal asymmetric double peak structures slightly off-centered around zero bias with the two peaks merging well above the hidden order transition temperature. An analysis using the Fano resonance model in a Kondo lattice [1] shows that the conductance peaks arise from the hybridization gap opening. Our estimated gap size agrees well with those reported from other measurements. We will present experimental results over a wide parameter space including temperature and doping dependences and discuss their underlying physics. M. Maltseva, M. Dzero, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 206402 (2009). * The work at UIUC is supported by the U.S. DOE under Award Nos. DE-FG02-07ER46453 and DE-AC02-98CH10886, and the work at LANL is carried out under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Office of Science.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tikhonov, E. V., E-mail: tikhonov@mig.phys.msu.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Uspenskii, Yu. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)
2015-06-15
A quasiparticle electronic spectrum belongs to the characteristics of nanoobjects that are most important for applications. The following methods of calculating the electronic spectrum are analyzed: the Kohn-Sham equations of the density functional theory (DFT), the hybrid functional method, the GW approximation, and the Lehmann approximation used in the spectral representation of one-electron Green’s function. The results of these approaches are compared with the data of photoemission measurements of benzene, PTCDA, and phthalocyanine (CuPc, H{sub 2}Pc, FePc, PtPc) molecules, which are typical representatives of organic molecular semiconductors (OMS). This comparison demonstrates that the Kohn-Sham equations of DFT incorrectly reproduce the electronic spectrum of OMS. The hybrid functional method correctly describes the spectrum of the valence and conduction bands; however, the HOMO-LUMO gap width is significantly underestimated. The correct gap width is obtained in both the GW approximation and the Lehmann approach, and the total energy in this approach can be calculated in the local density approximation of DFT.
Scuseria, Gustavo E; Henderson, Thomas M; Bulik, Ireneusz W
2013-09-14
We establish a formal connection between the particle-particle (pp) random phase approximation (RPA) and the ladder channel of the coupled cluster doubles (CCD) equations. The relationship between RPA and CCD is best understood within a Bogoliubov quasiparticle (qp) RPA formalism. This work is a follow-up to our previous formal proof on the connection between particle-hole (ph) RPA and ring-CCD. Whereas RPA is a quasibosonic approximation, CC theory is a "correct bosonization" in the sense that the wavefunction and Hilbert space are exactly fermionic, yet the amplitude equations can be interpreted as adding different quasibosonic RPA channels together. Coupled cluster theory achieves this goal by interacting the ph (ring) and pp (ladder) diagrams via a third channel that we here call "crossed-ring" whose presence allows for full fermionic antisymmetry. Additionally, coupled cluster incorporates what we call "mosaic" terms which can be absorbed into defining a new effective one-body Hamiltonian. The inclusion of these mosaic terms seems to be quite important. The pp-RPA and qp-RPA equations are textbook material in nuclear structure physics but are largely unknown in quantum chemistry, where particle number fluctuations and Bogoliubov determinants are rarely used. We believe that the ideas and connections discussed in this paper may help design improved ways of incorporating RPA correlation into density functionals based on a CC perspective.
Scuseria, Gustavo E; Bulik, Ireneusz W
2013-01-01
We establish a formal connection between the particle-particle (pp) random phase approximation (RPA) and the ladder channel of the coupled cluster doubles (CCD) equations. The relationship between RPA and CCD is best understood within a Bogoliubov quasiparticle (qp) RPA formalism. This work is a follow-up to our previous formal proof on the connection between particle-hole (ph) RPA and ring-CCD. Whereas RPA is a quasibosonic approximation, CC theory is a correct bosonization in the sense that the wavefunction and Hilbert space are exactly fermionic. Coupled cluster theory achieves this goal by interacting the ph (ring) and pp (ladder) diagrams via a third channel that we here call "crossed-ring" whose presence allows for full fermionic antisymmetry. Additionally, coupled cluster incorporates what we call "mosaic" terms which can be absorbed into defining a new effective one-body Hamiltonian. The inclusion of these mosaic terms seems to be quite important. The pp-RPA an d qp-RPA equations are textbook material...
Mechanical topological semimetals with massless quasiparticles and a finite Berry curvature
Wang, Guanglei; Xu, Hongya; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2017-06-01
A topological quantum phase requires a finite momentum-space Berry curvature which, conventionally, can arise through breaking the inversion or the time-reversal symmetry so as to generate nontrivial, topologically invariant quantities associated with the underlying energy band structure (e.g., a finite Chern number). For conventional graphene or graphenelike two-dimensional (2D) systems with gapless Dirac cones, the symmetry breaking will make the system insulating due to lifting of the degeneracy. To design materials that simultaneously possess the two seemingly contradicting properties (i.e., a semimetal phase with gapless bulk Dirac-like cones and a finite Berry curvature) is of interest. We propose a 2D mechanical dice lattice system that exhibits precisely such properties. As a result, an intrinsic valley Hall effect can arise without compromising the carrier mobility as the quasiparticles remain massless. We also find that, with confinement along the zigzag edges, two distinct types of gapless edge states with opposite edge polarizations can arise, one with a finite but the other with zero group velocity.
Allenby, Reg
1995-01-01
As the basis of equations (and therefore problem-solving), linear algebra is the most widely taught sub-division of pure mathematics. Dr Allenby has used his experience of teaching linear algebra to write a lively book on the subject that includes historical information about the founders of the subject as well as giving a basic introduction to the mathematics undergraduate. The whole text has been written in a connected way with ideas introduced as they occur naturally. As with the other books in the series, there are many worked examples.Solutions to the exercises are available onlin
A continuum theory of surface piezoelectricity for nanodielectrics
Pan, XiaHui; Yu, ShouWen; Feng, XiQiao
2011-04-01
In this paper, a phenomenological continuum theory of surface piezoelectricity accounting for the linear superficial interplay between electricity and elasticity is formulated primarily for elastic dielectric materials. This theory is inspired by the physical idea that once completely relaxed, an insulating free dielectric surface will sustain a nontrivial spontaneous surface polarization in the normal direction together with a tangential self-equilibrated residual surface stress field. Under external loadings, the surface Helmholtz free energy density is identified as the characteristic function of such surfaces, with the in-plane strain tensor of surface and the surface free charge density as the independent state variables. New boundary conditions governing the surface piezoelectricity are derived through the variational method. The resulting concepts of charge-dependent surface stress and deformation-dependent surface electric field reflect the linear electromechanical coupling behavior of nanodielectric surfaces. As an illustrative example, an infinite radially polarizable piezoelectric nanotube with both inner and outer surfaces grounded is investigated. The novel phenomenon of possible surface-induced polarity inversion is predicted for thin enough nanotubes.
Analysis of thermodiffusive cellular instabilities in continuum combustion fronts
Azizi, Hossein; Gurevich, Sebastian; Provatas, Nikolas
2017-01-01
We explore numerically the morphological patterns of thermodiffusive instabilities in combustion fronts with a continuum fuel source, within a range of Lewis numbers and ignition temperatures, focusing on the cellular regime. For this purpose, we generalize the recent model of Brailovsky et al. to include distinct process kinetics and reactant heterogeneity. The generalized model is derived analytically and validated with other established models in the limit of infinite Lewis number for zero-order and first-order kinetics. Cellular and dendritic instabilities are found at low Lewis numbers. These are studied using a dynamic adaptive mesh refinement technique that allows very large computational domains, thus allowing us to reduce finite-size effects that can affect or even preclude the emergence of these patterns. Our numerical linear stability analysis is consistent with the analytical results of Brailovsky et al. The distinct types of dynamics found in the vicinity of the critical Lewis number, ranging from steady-state cells to continued tip splitting and cell merging, are well described within the framework of thermodiffusive instabilities and are consistent with previous numerical studies. These types of dynamics are classified as "quasilinear" and characterized by low-amplitude cells that may be strongly affected by the mode selection mechanism and growth prescribed by the linear theory. Below this range of Lewis number, highly nonlinear effects become prominent and large-amplitude, complex cellular and seaweed dendritic morphologies emerge.
Continuous Shape Estimation of Continuum Robots Using X-ray Images.
Lobaton, Edgar J; Fu, Jinghua; Torres, Luis G; Alterovitz, Ron
2013-05-06
We present a new method for continuously and accurately estimating the shape of a continuum robot during a medical procedure using a small number of X-ray projection images (e.g., radiographs or fluoroscopy images). Continuum robots have curvilinear structure, enabling them to maneuver through constrained spaces by bending around obstacles. Accurately estimating the robot's shape continuously over time is crucial for the success of procedures that require avoidance of anatomical obstacles and sensitive tissues. Online shape estimation of a continuum robot is complicated by uncertainty in its kinematic model, movement of the robot during the procedure, noise in X-ray images, and the clinical need to minimize the number of X-ray images acquired. Our new method integrates kinematics models of the robot with data extracted from an optimally selected set of X-ray projection images. Our method represents the shape of the continuum robot over time as a deformable surface which can be described as a linear combination of time and space basis functions. We take advantage of probabilistic priors and numeric optimization to select optimal camera configurations, thus minimizing the expected shape estimation error. We evaluate our method using simulated concentric tube robot procedures and demonstrate that obtaining between 3 and 10 images from viewpoints selected by our method enables online shape estimation with errors significantly lower than using the kinematic model alone or using randomly spaced viewpoints.
Forced imbibition in natural porous media: comparison between experiments and continuum models.
Riaz, Amir; Tang, Guo-Qing; Tchelepi, Hamdi A; Kovscek, Anthony R
2007-03-01
A well-characterized set of large-scale laboratory experiments is presented, illustrating forced imbibition displacements in the presence of irreducible wetting phase saturation in a cylindrical, homogeneous Berea sandstone rock. Experiments are designed to operate in the regime of compact microscopic flows and large-scale viscous instability. The distribution of fluid phases during the flow process is visualized by high-resolution computed tomography imaging. Linear stability analysis and high-accuracy numerical simulations are employed to analyze the ability of macroscopic continuum equations to provide a consistent approximation of the displacement process. The validity of the equilibrium relative permeability functions, which form the basis for the continuum model, is fundamentally related to the stability of the displacement process. It is shown that not only is the stable flow regime modeled accurately by existing continuum models, but the onset of instability as well as the initial unstable modes are also determined with reasonable accuracy for unstable flows. However, the continuum model is found to be deficient in the case of fully developed unstable flows.
Interpreting angina: symptoms along a gender continuum
Crea-Arsenio, Mary; Shannon, Harry S; Velianou, James L; Giacomini, Mita
2016-01-01
Background ‘Typical’ angina is often used to describe symptoms common among men, while ‘atypical’ angina is used to describe symptoms common among women, despite a higher prevalence of angina among women. This discrepancy is a source of controversy in cardiac care among women. Objectives To redefine angina by (1) qualitatively comparing angina symptoms and experiences in women and men and (2) to propose a more meaningful construct of angina that integrates a more gender-centred approach. Methods Patients were recruited between July and December 2010 from a tertiary cardiac care centre and interviewed immediately prior to their first angiogram. Symptoms were explored through in-depth semi-structured interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed concurrently using a modified grounded theory approach. Angiographically significant disease was assessed at ≥70% stenosis of a major epicardial vessel. Results Among 31 total patients, 13 men and 14 women had angiograpically significant CAD. Patients describe angina symptoms according to 6 symptomatic subthemes that array along a ‘gender continuum’. Gender-specific symptoms are anchored at each end of the continuum. At the centre of the continuum, are a remarkably large number of symptoms commonly expressed by both men and women. Conclusions The ‘gender continuum’ offers new insights into angina experiences of angiography candidates. Notably, there is more overlap of shared experiences between men and women than conventionally thought. The gender continuum can help researchers and clinicians contextualise patient symptom reports, avoiding the conventional ‘typical’ versus ‘atypical’ distinction that can misrepresent gendered angina experiences. PMID:27158523
Dynamic renormalization group study of a generalized continuum model of crystalline surfaces.
Cuerno, Rodolfo; Moro, Esteban
2002-01-01
We apply the Nozières-Gallet dynamic renormalization group (RG) scheme to a continuum equilibrium model of a d-dimensional surface relaxing by linear surface tension and linear surface diffusion, and which is subject to a lattice potential favoring discrete values of the height variable. The model thus interpolates between the overdamped sine-Gordon model and a related continuum model of crystalline tensionless surfaces. The RG flow predicts the existence of an equilibrium roughening transition only for d=2 dimensional surfaces, between a flat low-temperature phase and a rough high-temperature phase in the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) universality class. The surface is always in the flat phase for any other substrate dimensions d>2. For any value of d, the linear surface diffusion mechanism is an irrelevant perturbation of the linear surface tension mechanism, but may induce long crossovers within which the scaling properties of the linear molecular-beam epitaxy equation are observed, thus increasing the value of the sine-Gordon roughening temperature. This phenomenon originates in the nonlinear lattice potential, and is seen to occur even in the absence of a bare surface tension term. An important consequence of this is that a crystalline tensionless surface is asymptotically described at high temperatures by the EW universality class.
Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary
Maugin, Gérard A
2017-01-01
This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.
Radiation from charges in the continuum limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)
2013-06-15
It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.
Continuum modeling an approach through practical examples
Muntean, Adrian
2015-01-01
This book develops continuum modeling skills and approaches the topic from three sides: (1) derivation of global integral laws together with the associated local differential equations, (2) design of constitutive laws and (3) modeling boundary processes. The focus of this presentation lies on many practical examples covering aspects such as coupled flow, diffusion and reaction in porous media or microwave heating of a pizza, as well as traffic issues in bacterial colonies and energy harvesting from geothermal wells. The target audience comprises primarily graduate students in pure and applied mathematics as well as working practitioners in engineering who are faced by nonstandard rheological topics like those typically arising in the food industry.
The Continuum is Countable: Infinity is Unique
Germain, Laurent
2008-01-01
Since the theory developed by Georg Cantor, mathematicians have taken a sharp interest in the sizes of infinite sets. We know that the set of integers is infinitely countable and that its cardinality is Aleph0. Cantor proved in 1891 with the diagonal argument that the set of real numbers is uncountable and that there cannot be any bijection between integers and real numbers. Cantor states in particular the Continuum Hypothesis. In this paper, I show that the cardinality of the set of real numbers is the same as the set of integers. I show also that there is only one dimension for infinite sets, Aleph.
Millimeter Continuum Observations Of Disk Solids
Andrews, Sean
2016-07-01
I will offer a condensed overview of some key issues in protoplanetary disk research that makes use interferometric measurements of the millimeter-wavelength continuum emitted by their solid particles. Several lines of evidence now qualitatively support theoretical models for the growth and migration of disk solids, but also advertise a quantitative tension with the traditional efficiency of that evolution. New observations of small-scale substructures in disks might both reconcile the conflict and shift our focus in the mechanics of planet formation.
Chiral symmetry breaking in continuum QCD
Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils
2015-03-01
We present a quantitative analysis of chiral symmetry breaking in two-flavor continuum QCD in the quenched limit. The theory is set up at perturbative momenta, where asymptotic freedom leads to precise results. The evolution of QCD towards the hadronic phase is achieved by means of dynamical hadronization in the nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach. We use a vertex expansion scheme based on gauge-invariant operators and discuss its convergence properties and the remaining systematic errors. In particular, we present results for the quark propagator, the full tensor structure and momentum dependence of the quark-gluon vertex, and the four-Fermi scatterings.
Set theory and the continuum hypothesis
Cohen, Paul J
2008-01-01
This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. The independence of the continuum hypothesis is the focus of this study by Paul J. Cohen. It presents not only an accessible technical explanation of the author's landmark proof but also a fine introduction to mathematical logic. An emeritus professor of mathematics at Stanford University, Dr. Cohen won two of the most prestigious awards in mathematics: in 1964, he was awarded the American Mathematical Society's Bôcher Prize for analysis; and in 1966, he received the Fields Medal for Logic.
From continuum mechanics to general relativity
Boehmer, Christian G
2014-01-01
Using ideas from continuum mechanics we construct a theory of gravity. We show that this theory is equivalent to Einstein's theory of general relativity; it is also a much faster way of reaching general relativity than the conventional route. Our approach is simple and natural: we form a very general model and then apply two physical assumptions supported by experimental evidence. This easily reduces our construction to a model equivalent to general relativity. Finally, we suggest a simple way of modifying our theory to investigate non-standard space-time symmetries.
CDENPROP: Transition matrix elements involving continuum states
Harvey, Alex G; Morales, Felipe; Smirnova, Olga
2014-01-01
Transition matrix elements between electronic states where one electron can be in the continuum are required for a wide range of applications of the molecular R-matrix method. These include photoionization, photorecombination and photodetachment; electron-molecule scattering and photon-induced processes in the presence of an external D.C. field, and time-dependent R-matrix approaches to study the effect of the exposure of molecules to strong laser fields. We present a new algorithm, implemented as a module (CDENPROP) in the UKRmol electron-molecule scattering code suite.
Karloff, Howard
1991-01-01
To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...
Mid-IR super-continuum generation
Islam, Mohammed N.; Xia, Chenan; Freeman, Mike J.; Mauricio, Jeremiah; Zakel, Andy; Ke, Kevin; Xu, Zhao; Terry, Fred L., Jr.
2009-02-01
A Mid-InfraRed FIber Laser (MIRFIL) has been developed that generates super-continuum covering the spectral range from 0.8 to 4.5 microns with a time-averaged power as high as 10.5W. The MIRFIL is an all-fiber integrated laser with no moving parts and no mode-locked lasers that uses commercial off-the-shelf parts and leverages the mature telecom/fiber optics platform. The MIRFIL power can be easily scaled by changing the repetition rate and modifying the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Some of the applications using the super-continuum laser will be described in defense, homeland security and healthcare. For example, the MIRFIL is being applied to a catheter-based medical diagnostic system to detect vulnerable plaque, which is responsible for most heart attacks resulting from hardening-of-the-arteries or atherosclerosis. More generally, the MIRFIL can be a platform for selective ablation of lipids without damaging normal protein or smooth muscle tissue.
Multiple Temperature Model for Near Continuum Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
XU, Kun; Liu, Hongwei [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Jiang, Jianzheng [Chinese Academy ofSciences, Beijing (China)
2007-09-15
In the near continuum flow regime, the flow may have different translational temperatures in different directions. It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flow fields, the predictions from continuum formulation, such as the Navier-Stokes equations, lose accuracy. These inaccuracies may be partially due to the single temperature assumption in the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, based on the gas-kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation, a multitranslational temperature model is proposed and used in the flow calculations. In order to fix all three translational temperatures, two constraints are additionally proposed to model the energy exchange in different directions. Based on the multiple temperature assumption, the Navier-Stokes relation between the stress and strain is replaced by the temperature relaxation term, and the Navier-Stokes assumption is recovered only in the limiting case when the flow is close to the equilibrium with the same temperature in different directions. In order to validate the current model, both the Couette and Poiseuille flows are studied in the transition flow regime.
Evolution of the Pleistocene Climate Continuum
Meyers, S. R.; Hinnov, L. A.
2008-12-01
Orbital-climate theory provides a powerful deterministic framework for the analysis of Pleistocene climate change, and has become a cornerstone of modern Paleoclimatology. The stochastic component of Pleistocene climate has received considerably less attention, although some studies have argued for the dominance of stochastic climate processes. Undoubtedly, a complete understanding of the controls on Pleistocene climate change necessitates an assessment of both deterministic and stochastic processes, as well as potential linkages between the two. In this study, we investigate changes in the dominance of deterministic versus stochastic climate processes associated with evolution of the Pleistocene climate system. Achievement of this objective requires: (1) careful selection and analysis of paleoclimate data series, to isolate true climate noise from other proxy noise sources (e.g., proxy fidelity, time-scale distortion, diagenesis, analytical error), and (2) application of quantitative methods capable of separating deterministic periodic signals (the spectral "lines") from the stochastic component of climate (the spectral "continuum"). This study focuses on an analysis of published benthic foraminifera oxygen isotopic records using a number of techniques rooted in Thomson's multi-taper method, which is specifically designed to separate deterministic "line" energy from stochastic "continuum" energy. Our analysis indicates large, and sometimes abrupt, changes in the relative dominance of stochastic versus deterministic energy. These changes in energy distribution parallel the evolution of the Pleistocene climate system. This analysis also demonstrates linkages between stochastic and deterministic climate processes, and yields insight into the mechanisms of Pleistocene climate change.
Continuum deformation of multi-agent systems
Rastgoftar, Hossein
2016-01-01
This monograph presents new algorithms for formation control of multi-agent systems (MAS) based on principles of continuum mechanics. Beginning with an overview of traditional methods, the author then introduces an innovative new approach whereby agents of an MAS are considered as particles in a continuum evolving in ℝn whose desired configuration is required to satisfy an admissible deformation function. The necessary theory and its validation on a mobile-agent-based swarm test bed are considered for two primary tasks: homogeneous transformation of the MAS and deployment of a random distribution of agents on a desired configuration. The framework for this model is based on homogeneous transformations for the evolution of an MAS under no inter-agent communication, local inter-agent communication, and intelligent perception by agents. Different communication protocols for MAS evolution, the robustness of tracking of a desired motion by an MAS evolving in ℝn, and the effect of communication delays in an MAS...
Design Gradient Descent Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Continuum Robots
Farzin Piltan; Shahnaz Tayebi Haghighi
2012-01-01
In this research, a new approach for gradient descent optimal sliding mode controller for continuum robots is proposed. Based on the new dynamic models developed, a novel technique for nonlinear control of continuum manipulators to be employed in various situations has also been proposed and developed. A section of a continuum arm is modeled using lumped model elements (masses, springs and dampers) and control by nonlinear methodology (sliding mode method) and optimization the sliding surface...
Modeling the elastic energy of alloys: Potential pitfalls of continuum treatments
Baskaran, Arvind; Ratsch, Christian; Smereka, Peter
2015-12-01
Some issues that arise when modeling elastic energy for binary alloys are discussed within the context of a Keating model and density-functional calculations. The Keating model is a simplified atomistic formulation based on modeling elastic interactions of a binary alloy with harmonic springs whose equilibrium length is species dependent. It is demonstrated that the continuum limit for the strain field are the usual equations of linear elasticity for alloys and that they correctly capture the coarse-grained behavior of the displacement field. In addition, it is established that Euler-Lagrange equation of the continuum limit of the elastic energy will yield the same strain field equation. This is the same energy functional that is often used to model elastic effects in binary alloys. However, a direct calculation of the elastic energy atomistic model reveals that the continuum expression for the elastic energy is both qualitatively and quantitatively incorrect. This is because it does not take atomistic scale compositional nonuniformity into account. Importantly, this result also shows that finely mixed alloys tend to have more elastic energy than segregated systems, which is the exact opposite of predictions made by some continuum theories. It is also shown that for strained thin films the traditionally used effective misfit for alloys systematically underestimate the strain energy. In some models, this drawback is handled by including an elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing, which is characterized in terms of the continuum concentration. The direct calculation of the atomistic model reveals that this approach suffers serious difficulties. It is demonstrated that elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing is nonisotropic and scale dependent. It is also shown that such effects are present in density-functional theory calculations for the Si-Ge system. This work demonstrates that it is critical to include the microscopic arrangements in any elastic
Bourlès, Henri
2013-01-01
Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe
Effect of continuum damage mechanics on spring back prediction in metal forming processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nayebi, Ali; Shahabi, Mehdi [Shiraz University, Shiraz, Mollasadra (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-05-15
The influence of considering the variations in material properties was investigated through continuum damage mechanics according to the Lemaitre isotropic unified damage law to predict the bending force and spring back in V-bending sheet metal forming processes, with emphasis on Finite element (FE) simulation considerations. The material constants of the damage model were calibrated through a uniaxial tensile test with an appropriate and convenient repeating strategy. Holloman’s isotropic and Ziegler’s linear kinematic hardening laws were employed to describe the behavior of a hardening material. To specify the ideal FE conditions for simulating spring back, the effect of the various numerical considerations during FE simulation was investigated and compared with the experimental outcome. Results indicate that considering continuum damage mechanics decreased the predicted bending force and improved the accuracy of spring back prediction.
Impact of electron–vibron interaction on the bound states in the continuum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Álvarez, C. [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez-Adame, F., E-mail: adame@fis.ucm.es [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Orellana, P.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Casilla 110 V, Valparaíso (Chile); Díaz, E. [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2015-06-12
We investigate the nonequilibrium transport properties of a coupled quantum dot system connected in parallel to two leads, including electron–vibron interaction. It is known that in the absence of interaction the system supports a bound state in the continuum. This state is revealed as a Fano antiresonance in the transmission when the energy levels of the dots are detuned. Using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, we find that the occurrence of the Fano antiresonance arises even if the electron–vibration interaction is taken into account. We also examine the impact of the coupling to the leads in the linear response of the system. We conclude that the existence of bound states in the continuum in coupled quantum dot systems is a robust phenomenon, opening the possibility of its observation in experiments.
A continuum theory of edge dislocations
Berdichevsky, V. L.
2017-09-01
Continuum theory of dislocation aims to describe the behavior of large ensembles of dislocations. This task is far from completion, and, most likely, does not have a ;universal solution;, which is applicable to any dislocation ensemble. In this regards it is important to have guiding lines set by benchmark cases, where the transition from a discrete set of dislocations to a continuum description is made rigorously. Two such cases have been considered recently: equilibrium of dislocation walls and screw dislocations in beams. In this paper one more case is studied, equilibrium of a large set of 2D edge dislocations placed randomly in a 2D bounded region. The major characteristic of interest is energy of dislocation ensemble, because it determines the structure of continuum equations. The homogenized energy functional is obtained for the periodic dislocation ensembles with a random contents of the periodic cell. Parameters of the periodic structure can change slowly on distances of order of the size of periodic cells. The energy functional is obtained by the variational-asymptotic method. Equilibrium positions are local minima of energy. It is confirmed the earlier assertion that energy density of the system is the sum of elastic energy of averaged elastic strains and microstructure energy, which is elastic energy of the neutralized dislocation system, i.e. the dislocation system placed in a constant dislocation density field making the averaged dislocation density zero. The computation of energy is reduced to solution of a variational cell problem. This problem is solved analytically. The solution is used to investigate stability of simple dislocation arrays, i.e. arrays with one dislocation in the periodic cell. The relations obtained yield two outcomes: First, there is a state parameter of the system, dislocation polarization; averaged stresses affect only dislocation polarization and cannot change other characteristics of the system. Second, the structure of
An extended continuum model accounting for the driver's timid and aggressive attributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia [Faculty of Maritime and Transportation, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Jiangsu Province Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Urban Traffic Technologies, Nanjing 210096 (China); National Traffic Management Engineering and Technology Research Centre Ningbo University Sub-centre, Ningbo 315211 (China); Wang, Jufeng, E-mail: wjf@nit.zju.edu.cn [Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100 (China)
2017-04-18
Considering the driver's timid and aggressive behaviors simultaneously, a new continuum model is put forwarded in this paper. By applying the linear stability theory, we presented the analysis of new model's linear stability. Through nonlinear analysis, the KdV–Burgers equation is derived to describe density wave near the neutral stability line. Numerical results verify that aggressive driving is better than timid act because the aggressive driver will adjust his speed timely according to the leading car's speed. The key improvement of this new model is that the timid driving deteriorates traffic stability while the aggressive driving will enhance traffic stability. The relationship of energy consumption between the aggressive and timid driving is also studied. Numerical results show that aggressive driver behavior can not only suppress the traffic congestion but also reduce the energy consumption. - Highlights: • A new continuum model is developed with the consideration of the driver's timid and aggressive behaviors simultaneously. • Applying the linear stability theory, the new model's linear stability is obtained. • Through nonlinear analysis, the KdV–Burgers equation is derived. • The energy consumption for this model is studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashkan Ghanbari
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigate the evolution of the super continuum generation (SCG through the triangular photonic crystal fiber (PCF at 1310nm by using both full-vector multi pole method (M.P.M and novel concrete algorithms: Symmetric Split-step Fourier (SSF and fourth order Runge Kutta(RK4 which is an accurate method to solve the general nonlinear Schrodinger equation (GNLSE. We propose an ideal solid-core PCF structure featuring a minimum anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD, small higher order dispersions (HODs and enhanced nonlinearity for appropriate super continuum generation with low input pulse energies over discrete distances of the PCF. We also investigate the impact of the linear and nonlinear effects on the super continuum spectra in detail and compare the results with different status.
Steinmann, Paul
2015-01-01
This book illustrates the deep roots of the geometrically nonlinear kinematics of generalized continuum mechanics in differential geometry. Besides applications to first- order elasticity and elasto-plasticity an appreciation thereof is particularly illuminating for generalized models of continuum mechanics such as second-order (gradient-type) elasticity and elasto-plasticity. After a motivation that arises from considering geometrically linear first- and second- order crystal plasticity in Part I several concepts from differential geometry, relevant for what follows, such as connection, parallel transport, torsion, curvature, and metric for holonomic and anholonomic coordinate transformations are reiterated in Part II. Then, in Part III, the kinematics of geometrically nonlinear continuum mechanics are considered. There various concepts of differential geometry, in particular aspects related to compatibility, are generically applied to the kinematics of first- and second- order geometrically nonlinear con...
Papakonstantinou, P; Roth, R
2015-01-01
We study theoretically the electric dipole transitions of even Ni isotopes at low energies, using the self-consistent quasi-particle random-phase approximation (RPA) with the D1S Gogny interaction and a continuum-RPA model with the SLy4 Skyrme force. We analyze isoscalar states, isovector states, and the dipole polarizability. We define a reference value for the polarizability, to remove a trivial dependence on the mass number. We compare our results with data and other calculations, with a focus on collective states, shell effects, and threshold transitions. Our results support the presence of a strong isoscalar transition, with little or moderate E1 strength, as a universal feature of ordinary nuclei. In moderately neutron-rich Ni isotopes, namely 68Ni and neighboring isotopes, this transition is found bimodal due to couplings with surface neutrons. An adequate treatment of the continuum states appears essential for describing suprathreshold E1 strength, especially beyond 68Ni. Very exotic isotopes (N>50) a...
Embodiment design of soft continuum robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rongjie Kang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary project where mechatronic engineers worked alongside biologists to develop a soft robotic arm that captures key features of octopus anatomy and neurophysiology. The concept of embodiment (the dynamic coupling between sensory-motor control, anatomy, materials and environment that allows for the animal to achieve adaptive behaviours is used as a starting point for the design process but tempered by current engineering technologies and approaches. In this article, the embodied design requirements are first discussed from a robotic viewpoint by taking into account real-life engineering limitations; then, the motor control schemes inspired by octopus nervous system are investigated. Finally, the mechanical and control design of a prototype is presented that appropriately blends bio-inspiration and engineering limitations. Simulated and experimental results show that the developed continuum robotic arm is able to reproduce octopus-like motions for bending, reaching and grasping.
Nucleon and Delta structure in continuum QCD
Cloet, Ian
2014-03-01
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the only known example in nature of a fundamental quantum field theory that is innately non-perturbative. Solving QCD will have profound implications for our understanding of the natural world, for example, it will explain how light quarks and massless gluons bind together to form the observed mesons and baryons; hence explaining the origin of more than 98% of the mass in the visible universe. Given the challenges posed by QCD, it is insufficient to study hadron ground-states alone if one seeks a solution; in this regard the delta plays a special role as the lightest baryon resonance. I will discuss recent progress using continuum QCD approaches to the study of nucleon and delta properties, with a focus on insights gained by the calculation (and measurement) of their electromagnetic form factors.
Variational continuum multiphase poroelasticity theory and applications
Serpieri, Roberto
2017-01-01
This book collects the theoretical derivation of a recently presented general variational macroscopic continuum theory of multiphase poroelasticity (VMTPM), together with its applications to consolidation and stress partitioning problems of interest in several applicative engineering contexts, such as in geomechanics and biomechanics. The theory is derived based on a purely-variational deduction, rooted in the least-Action principle, by considering a minimal set of kinematic descriptors. The treatment herein considered keeps a specific focus on the derivation of most general medium-independent governing equations. It is shown that VMTPM recovers paradigms of consolidated use in multiphase poroelasticity such as Terzaghi's stress partitioning principle and Biot's equations for wave propagation. In particular, the variational treatment permits the derivation of a general medium-independent stress partitioning law, and the proposed variational theory predicts that the external stress, the fluid pressure, and the...
A CONTINUUM DAMAGE MODEL OF AGING CONCRETE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Zhenyang; Xie Huicai; Xu Tao; Yu Jie; Cai Changan
2001-01-01
There is up to now no constitutive model in the current theories of CDM that could give a description for the degradation of aging concrete. The two internal state variables β and ω are introduced in this paper. β is called cohesion variable as an additional kinematic parameter, reflecting the cohesion state among material particles. ω is called damage factor for micro-defects such as voids.Then a damage model and a series of constitutive equations are developed on Continuum Mechanics.The model proposed could give a valid description for the whole-course-degradation of aging concrete due tochemical and mechanical actions. Finally, the validity of the model is evaluated by an example and experimental results.
Continuum mechanics, stresses, currents and electrodynamics.
Segev, Reuven
2016-04-28
The Eulerian approach to continuum mechanics does not make use of a body manifold. Rather, all fields considered are defined on the space, or the space-time, manifolds. Sections of some vector bundle represent generalized velocities which need not be associated with the motion of material points. Using the theories of de Rham currents and generalized sections of vector bundles, we formulate a weak theory of forces and stresses represented by vector-valued currents. Considering generalized velocities represented by differential forms and interpreting such a form as a generalized potential field, we present a weak formulation of pre-metric, p-form electrodynamics as a natural example of the foregoing theory. Finally, it is shown that the assumptions leading to p-form electrodynamics may be replaced by the condition that the force functional is continuous with respect to the flat topology of forms.
Radio Continuum Sources Associated with AB Aur
Rodríguez, L F; Ho, P T P; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis; Ho, Paul T. P.
2006-01-01
We present high angular resolution, high-sensitivity Very Large Array observations at 3.6 cm of the Herbig Ae star AB Aur. This star is of interest since its circumstellar disk exhibits characteristics that have been attributed to the presence of an undetected low mass companion or giant gas planet. Our image confirms the continuum emission known to exist in association with the star, and detects a faint protuberance that extends about $0\\rlap.{''}3$ to its SE. Previous theoretical considerations and observational results are consistent with the presence of a companion to AB Aur with the separation and position angle derived from our radio data. We also determine the proper motion of AB Aur by comparing our new observations with data taken about 17 years ago and find values consistent with those found by Hipparcos.
Continuum-kinetic approach to sheath simulations
Cagas, Petr; Hakim, Ammar; Srinivasan, Bhuvana
2016-10-01
Simulations of sheaths are performed using a novel continuum-kinetic model with collisions including ionization/recombination. A discontinuous Galerkin method is used to directly solve the Boltzmann-Poisson system to obtain a particle distribution function. Direct discretization of the distribution function has advantages of being noise-free compared to particle-in-cell methods. The distribution function, which is available at each node of the configuration space, can be readily used to calculate the collision integrals in order to get ionization and recombination operators. Analytical models are used to obtain the cross-sections as a function of energy. Results will be presented incorporating surface physics with a classical sheath in Hall thruster-relevant geometry. This work was sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant Number FA9550-15-1-0193.
Exercise therapy across the lung cancer continuum.
Jones, Lee W; Eves, Neil D; Waner, Emily; Joy, Anil A
2009-07-01
A lung cancer diagnosis and associated therapeutic management are associated with unique and varying degrees of adverse physical/functional impairments that dramatically reduce patients' ability to tolerate exercise. Poor exercise capacity predisposes to increased susceptibility to other common age-related diseases, poor quality of life, and likely premature death. This article reviews the literature investigating the role of exercise as an adjunct therapy across the lung cancer continuum (ie, prevention to palliation). The current evidence suggests that exercise training is a safe and feasible adjunct therapy for patients with operable lung cancer both before and after pulmonary resection. Among patients with inoperable disease, feasibility and safety studies of carefully prescribed exercise training are warranted. Preliminary evidence in this area suggests that exercise therapy may be an important consideration in multidisciplinary management of patients diagnosed with lung cancer.
Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, Jeppe
This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... introduces the modern notation used in textbooks and in research today. It further gives an introduction to three-dimensional continuum mechanics of elastic bodies and the related principles of virtual work. The ideas to give the students a basic understanding of the stresses and strains, the equilibrium...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵力; 李建新; 龚昌德; 赵柏儒
2002-01-01
In a self-consistent mean-field treatment of the two-dimensional t - t＇ - J model, we theoretically examine thecoupling of in-plane quasi-particles to the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in high-Tc superconductors, whichrenormalizes the fermionic self-energy. We reproduce the characteristic peak,lip-hump structure observed notonly in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, but also in superconductor-insulator-normal metal junctionsand scanning tunnelling microscopy experiments. We consider the evolution of this structure with doping. Itis shown that this kind of coupling can account for many anomalous properties of high-Tc superconductors insuperconducting states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adagideli, Inanc; Goldbart, Paul M.; Shnirman, Alexander; Yazdani, Ali
1999-12-27
Low-energy quasiparticle states, arising from scattering by single-particle potentials in d -wave superconductors, are addressed. Via a natural extension of the Andreev approximation, the idea that sign variations in the superconducting pair potential lead to such states is extended beyond its original setting of boundary scattering to the broader context of scattering by general single-particle potentials, such as those due to impurities. The index-theoretic origin of these states is exhibited via a simple connection with Witten's supersymmetric quantum-mechanical model. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.
Quasiparticles in the superconducting state of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta)
Kaminski; Mesot; Fretwell; Campuzano; Norman; Randeria; Ding; Sato; Takahashi; Mochiku; Kadowaki; Hoechst
2000-02-21
Recent improvements in momentum resolution lead to qualitatively new angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results on the spectra of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) (Bi2212) along the (pi,pi) direction, where there is a node in the superconducting gap. We now see the intrinsic line shape, which indicates the presence of true quasiparticles at all Fermi momenta in the superconducting state, and lack thereof in the normal state. The region of momentum space probed here is relevant for charge transport, motivating a comparison of our results to conductivity measurements by infrared reflectivity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
We investigate the energy spectrum of ground state and quasi-particle excitation spectrum of hard-core bosons, which behave very much like spinless noninteracting fermions, in optical lattices by means of the perturbation expansion and Bogoliubov approach. The results show that the energy spectrum has a single band structure, and the energy is lower near zero momentum; the excitation spectrum gives corresponding energy gap, and the system is in Mott-insulating state at Tonks limit. The analytic result of energy spectrum is in good agreement with that calculated in terms of Green's function at strong correlation limit.
Schlier, Björn; Scheunemann, Jakob; Lincoln, Tania M
2016-07-30
Growing evidence supports a continuum model of psychosis, with mild psychotic symptoms being frequently experienced by the general population. Moreover, believing in the continuum model correlates with less stigmatization of schizophrenia. This study explores whether continuum beliefs are a valid construct and develops a continuum beliefs scale. First, expert-generated items were reduced to a candidate scale (study 1, n=95). One-dimensionality was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (study 2, n=363). Convergent validity was tested with a previous continuum beliefs scale, essentialist beliefs, and stigmatization (study 2), while self-reported psychotic experiences (i.e. frequency and conviction) served to test discriminant validity (study 3, n=229). A nine item questionnaire that assesses continuum beliefs about schizophrenia symptoms showed acceptable to good psychometric values, high correlations with a previous continuum beliefs scale and small correlations with essentialist beliefs, stereotypes, and desired social distance. No correlations with psychotic experiences were found. Thus, continuum beliefs can be considered a valid construct. The construed CBQ-R asks about symptoms rather than the abstract category "schizophrenia", which may increase understandability of the scale. Validation confirms previous studies and highlights the difference between continuum beliefs and personal psychotic experiences.
6d holographic anomaly match as a continuum limit
Cremonesi, Stefano
2015-01-01
An infinite class of analytic AdS_7 x S^3 solutions has recently been found. The S^3 is distorted into a "crescent roll" shape by the presence of D8-branes. These solutions are conjectured to be dual to a class of "linear quivers", with a large number of gauge groups coupled to (bi-)fundamental matter and tensor fields. In this paper we perform a precise quantitative check of this correspondence, showing that the a Weyl anomalies computed in field theory and gravity agree. In the holographic limit, where the number of gauge groups is large, the field theory result is a quadratic form in the gauge group ranks involving the inverse of the A_N Cartan matrix C. The agreement can be understood as a continuum limit, using the fact that C is a lattice analogue of a second derivative. The discrete data of the field theory, summarized by two partitions, become in this limit the continuous functions in the geometry. Conversely, the geometry of the internal space gets discretized at the quantum level to the discrete dat...
Burnett-Cattaneo continuum theory for shock waves.
Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel; Ravelo, Ramon
2011-02-01
We model strong shock-wave propagation, both in the ideal gas and in the dense Lennard-Jones fluid, using a refinement of earlier work, which accounts for the cold compression in the early stages of the shock rise by a nonlinear, Burnett-like, strain-rate dependence of the thermal conductivity, and relaxation of kinetic-temperature components on the hot, compressed side of the shock front. The relaxation of the disequilibrium among the three components of the kinetic temperature, namely, the difference between the component in the direction of a planar shock wave and those in the transverse directions, particularly in the region near the shock front, is accomplished at a much more quantitative level by a rigorous application of the Cattaneo-Maxwell relaxation equation to a reference solution, namely, the steady shock-wave solution of linear Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory, along with the nonlinear Burnett heat-flux term. Our new continuum theory is in nearly quantitative agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations under strong shock-wave conditions, using relaxation parameters obtained from the reference solution.
Perspective on Continuum Modeling of Mesoscale/ Macroscale Phenomena
Bammann, D. J.
The attempt to model or predict the inelastic response or permanent deformation and failure observed in metals dates back over 180 years. Various descriptions of the post elastic response of metals have been proposed from the fields of physics, materials science (metallurgy), engineering, mechanics, and applied mathematics. The communication between these fields has improved and many of the modeling efforts today involve concepts from most or all of these fields. Early engineering description of post yield response treated the material as perfectly plastic — the material continues to deform with zero additional increase in load. These models became the basis of the mathematical theory of plasticity and were extended to account for hardening, unloading, and directional hardening. In contradistinction, rheological models treated the finite deformation of a solid similar to the deformation of a viscous fluid. In many cases of large deformation, rheological models have provided both adequate and accurate information about the deformed shape of a metal during many manufacturing processes. The treatment of geometric defects in solid bodies initiated within the mathematical theory of elasticity, the dislocation, introduced as an incompatible "cut" in a continuum body. This resulted in a very large body of literature devoted to the linear elastic study of dislocations, dislocation structures, and their interactions, and has provided essential information in the understanding of the "state" of a deformed material.
Linearizing neutrino evolution equations including neutrino-antineutrino pairing correlations
Väänänen, D
2013-01-01
We linearize the neutrino mean-field evolution equations describing the neutrino propagation in a background of matter and of neutrinos, using techniques from many-body microscopic approaches. The procedure leads to an eigenvalue equation that allows to identify instabilities in the evolution, associated with a change of the curvature of the neutrino energy-density surface. Our result includes all contributions from the neutrino Hamiltonian and is generalizable to linearize the equations of motion at an arbitrary point of the evolution. We then consider the extended equations that comprise the normal mean field as well as the abnormal mean field that is associated with neutrino-antineutrino pairing correlations. We first re-derive the extended neutrino Hamiltonian and show that such a Hamiltonian can be diagonalized by introducing a generalized Bogoliubov transformation with quasi-particle operators that mix neutrinos and antineutrinos. We give the eigenvalue equations that determine the energies of the quasi...
Continuum Damage Mechanics A Continuum Mechanics Approach to the Analysis of Damage and Fracture
Murakami, Sumio
2012-01-01
Recent developments in engineering and technology have brought about serious and enlarged demands for reliability, safety and economy in wide range of fields such as aeronautics, nuclear engineering, civil and structural engineering, automotive and production industry. This, in turn, has caused more interest in continuum damage mechanics and its engineering applications. This book aims to give a concise overview of the current state of damage mechanics, and then to show the fascinating possibility of this promising branch of mechanics, and to provide researchers, engineers and graduate students with an intelligible and self-contained textbook. The book consists of two parts and an appendix. Part I is concerned with the foundation of continuum damage mechanics. Basic concepts of material damage and the mechanical representation of damage state of various kinds are described in Chapters 1 and 2. In Chapters 3-5, irreversible thermodynamics, thermodynamic constitutive theory and its application ...
Quasiparticle properties of the quarks of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
Cao, Nan-Wei; Shakin, C. M.; Sun, Wei-Dong
1992-12-01
In spite of the apparent limitations of the model, in recent years there have been many applications of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the study of hadron structure and in the study of the behavior of nuclear matter at finite temperature and density. A number of researchers have studied a generalized SU(3) version of the NJL model. For example, Vogl, Lutz, Klimt, and Weise [Nucl. Phys. A516 469 (1990)] have performed extensive calculations that include a calculation of a scalar form factor of a constituent quark, Fs(q2), and a calculation of a quark sigma term σq. (In their work, the latter quantity is related to the nucleon sigma term σN as in a constituent quark model: σN=3σq.) These calculations are made in what may be termed a sigma-dominance approximation. In the work reported here, we review the important role played by the nucleon sigma term in understanding the behavior of the quark condensate in the presence of matter. We make use of the original SU(2) version of the NJL model to study how various quark properties are modified when we take into account the dressing of the constituent quarks by the pion, the Goldstone boson of the model. We calculate the quark self-energy arising from emission and absorption of a pion and also show how the calculation of the scalar form factor of the quark and σq are modified due to the coupling of the quark to the pion. The correction terms considered here serve to reduce the value of σq by a small amount relative to the value obtained in the simplest version of the sigma dominance model. For example, for a Euclidean momentum cutoff, Λ=1050 MeV, the uncorrected result is σN=54.6 MeV. That value is then reduced to σN=51.5 MeV, if the corrections due to the pion ``dressing'' are included. It is also found that the residue at the quasiparticle pole of the quark propagator Z is about 0.86 when the coupling to the pion field is taken into account.
Zhang, Zhen-Hua
2016-01-01
The high-spin rotational properties of two-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd ${}^{166}$Ta are analyzed using the cranked shell model with pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The experimental moments of inertia and alignments and their variations with the rotational frequency $\\hbar\\omega$ are reproduced very well by the particle-number conserving calculations, which provides a reliable support to the configuration assignments in previous works for these bands. The backbendings in these two-quasiparticle bands are analyzed by the calculated occupation probabilities and the contributions of each orbital to the total angular momentum alignments. The moments of inertia and alignments for the Gallagher-Moszkowski partners of these observed two-quasiparticle rotational bands are also predicted.
Continuum Random Phase Approximation with finite-range interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Co' , Giampaolo [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. De Giorgi' ' , Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); De Donno, Viviana [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. De Giorgi' ' , Lecce (Italy); Anguiano, Marta; Lallena, Antonio M. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Granada (Spain)
2016-05-15
We rewrite the Random Phase Approximation secular equations in a form which allows the treatment of the continuum part of the single-particle spectrum without approximations. Within this formalism finite-range interactions can be used without restrictions. We present some results, obtained with Gogny interactions, where the role of the continuum is relevant. (orig.)
Continuum of Counseling Goals: A Framework for Differentiating Counseling Strategies.
Bruce, Paul
1984-01-01
Presents counseling goals in a developmental continuum similar in concept to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Discusses ego development goals, socialization goals, developmental goals, self-esteem goals, and self-realization goals and describes characteristics and implications of the continuum. (JAC)
Bursts and shocks in a continuum shell model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Bohr, Tomas; Jensen, M.H.
1998-01-01
We study a burst event, i.e., the evolution of an initial condition having support only in a finite interval of k-space, in the continuum shell model due to Parisi. We show that the continuum equation without forcing or dissipation can be explicitly written in characteristic form and that the rig...
Continuum Thinking and the Contexts of Personal Information Management
Huvila, Isto; Eriksen, Jon; Häusner, Eva-Maria; Jansson, Ina-Maria
2014-01-01
Introduction: Recent personal information management literature has underlined the significance of the contextuality of personal information and its use. The present article discusses the applicability of the records continuum model and its generalisation, continuum thinking, as a theoretical framework for explicating the overlap and evolution of…
Points-Based Safe Path Planning of Continuum Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khuram Shahzad
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g., working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot's movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.
The logic of Kant’s temporal continuum
Pinosio, R.
2017-01-01
In this thesis I provide an account of the philosophical foundations and mathematical structure of Kant's temporal continuum. I mainly focus on the development of a formalization of Kant's temporal continuum as it appears in the Critique of Pure Reason and in other works from Kant's critical period,
Searching for a Continuum Limit in CDT Quantum Gravity
Ambjorn, Jan; Gizbert-Studnicki, Jakub; Jurkiewicz, Jerzy
2016-01-01
We search for a continuum limit in the causal dynamical triangulation (CDT) approach to quantum gravity by determining the change in lattice spacing using two independent methods. The two methods yield similar results that may indicate how to tune the relevant couplings in the theory in order to take a continuum limit.
Hybrid continuum-atomistic approach to model electrokinetics in nanofluidics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amani, Ehsan, E-mail: eamani@aut.ac.ir; Movahed, Saeid, E-mail: smovahed@aut.ac.ir
2016-06-07
In this study, for the first time, a hybrid continuum-atomistic based model is proposed for electrokinetics, electroosmosis and electrophoresis, through nanochannels. Although continuum based methods are accurate enough to model fluid flow and electric potential in nanofluidics (in dimensions larger than 4 nm), ionic concentration is too low in nanochannels for the continuum assumption to be valid. On the other hand, the non-continuum based approaches are too time-consuming and therefore is limited to simple geometries, in practice. Here, to propose an efficient hybrid continuum-atomistic method of modelling the electrokinetics in nanochannels; the fluid flow and electric potential are computed based on continuum hypothesis coupled with an atomistic Lagrangian approach for the ionic transport. The results of the model are compared to and validated by the results of the molecular dynamics technique for a couple of case studies. Then, the influences of bulk ionic concentration, external electric field, size of nanochannel, and surface electric charge on the electrokinetic flow and ionic mass transfer are investigated, carefully. The hybrid continuum-atomistic method is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and investigate more details of the electrokinetics in nanofluidics. - Highlights: • A hybrid continuum-atomistic model is proposed for electrokinetics in nanochannels. • The model is validated by molecular dynamics. • This is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and physics.
Rotational bands in the continuum illustrated by 8Be results
Garrido, E.; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.
2013-08-01
We use the α-α cluster model to describe the properties of 8Be. The rotational energy sequence of the (0+,2+,4+) resonances are reproduced with the complex energy scaling technique for Ali-Bodmer and Buck potentials. However, both static and transition probabilities are far from the rotational values. We trace this observation to the prominent continuum properties of the 2+ and 4+ resonances. They resemble free continuum solutions although still exhibit strong collective rotational character. We compare with cluster models and discuss concepts of rotations in the continuum in connection with such central quantities as transition probabilities, inelastic cross sections, and resonance widths. We compute the 6+ and 8+ S-matrix poles and discuss properties of this possible continuation of the band beyond the known 4+ state. Regularization of diverging quantities is discussed to extract observable continuum properties. We formulate the division of electromagnetic transition probabilities into interfering contributions from resonance-resonance, continuum-resonance, resonance-continuum, and continuum-continuum transitions.
Continuum of Counseling Goals: A Framework for Differentiating Counseling Strategies.
Bruce, Paul
1984-01-01
Presents counseling goals in a developmental continuum similar in concept to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Discusses ego development goals, socialization goals, developmental goals, self-esteem goals, and self-realization goals and describes characteristics and implications of the continuum. (JAC)
Teaching Continuum Mechanics in a Mechanical Engineering Program
Liu, Yucheng
2011-01-01
This paper introduces a graduate course, continuum mechanics, which is designed for and taught to graduate students in a Mechanical Engineering (ME) program. The significance of continuum mechanics in engineering education is demonstrated and the course structure is described. Methods used in teaching this course such as topics, class…
The Elastic Continuum Limit of the Tight Binding Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Weinan E; Jianfeng LU
2007-01-01
The authors consider the simplest quantum mechanics model of solids, the tight binding model, and prove that in the continuum limit, the energy of tight binding model converges to that of the continuum elasticity model obtained using Cauchy-Born rule. Thet echnique in this paper is based mainly on spectral perturbation theory for large matrices.
Points-based Safe Path Planning of Continuum Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khuram Shahzad
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g.,working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot’s movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.
Teaching Continuum Mechanics in a Mechanical Engineering Program
Liu, Yucheng
2011-01-01
This paper introduces a graduate course, continuum mechanics, which is designed for and taught to graduate students in a Mechanical Engineering (ME) program. The significance of continuum mechanics in engineering education is demonstrated and the course structure is described. Methods used in teaching this course such as topics, class…
Q-balls of Quasi-particles in a (2,0)-theory model of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Ganor, Ori J; Moore, Nathan; Sun, Hao-Yu; Tan, H S; Torres-Chicon, Nesty R
2014-01-01
A toy model of the fractional quantum Hall effect appears as part of the low-energy description of the Coulomb branch of the $A_1$ (2,0)-theory formulated on $(S^1\\times R^2)/Z_k$, where the generator of $Z_k$ acts as a combination of translation on $S^1$ and rotation by $2\\pi/k$ on $R^2$. At low-energy the configuration is described in terms of a 4+1D Super-Yang-Mills theory on a cone ($R^2/Z_k$) with additional 2+1D degrees of freedom at the tip of the cone that include fractionally charged particles. These fractionally charged quasi-particles are BPS strings of the (2,0)-theory wrapped on short cycles. We analyze the large $k$ limit, where a smooth cigar-geometry provides an alternative description. In this framework a W-boson can be modeled as a bound state of $k$ quasi-particles. The W-boson becomes a Q-ball, and it can be described as a soliton solution of Bogomolnyi monopole equations on a certain auxiliary curved space. We show that axisymmetric solutions of these equations correspond to singular maps...
Fasano, Y.; Maggio-Aprile, I.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Karpinski, J.; Fischer, Ø.
2010-10-01
We probe the local quasiparticles density of states in micron-sized SmFeAsO1-xFx single crystals by means of scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Spectral features resemble those of cuprates, particularly a dip-hump-like structure developed at energies larger than the gap that can be ascribed to the coupling of quasiparticles to a collective mode, quite likely a resonant spin mode. The energy of the collective mode revealed in our study decreases when the pairing strength increases. Our findings support spin-fluctuation-mediated pairing in pnictides.
Rippert, Edward D.; Ketterson, John B.; Chen, Jun; Song, Shenian; Lomatch, Susanne; Maglic, Stevan R.; Thomas, Christopher; Cheida, M. A.; Ulmer, Melville P.
1992-01-01
An engineered structure is proposed that can alleviate quasi-particle recombination losses via the existence of a phononic band gap that overlaps the 2-Delta energy of phonons produced during recombination of quasi-particles. Attention is given to a 1D Kronig-Penny model for phonons normally incident to the layers of a multilayered superconducting tunnel junction as an idealized example. A device with a high density of Bragg resonances is identified as desirable; both Nb/Si and NbN/SiN superlattices have been produced, with the latter having generally superior performance.
Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Berendsen, Annette J.
Objective: Communication between professionals is essential because it contributes to an optimal continuum of care. Whether patients experience adequate continuum of care is uncertain. To address this, a questionnaire was developed to elucidate this care process from a patients' perspective. In this
The Aqueous Solvation of Water A Comparison of Continuum Methods with Molecular Dynamics
Rick, S W; Rick, Steven W.
1994-01-01
The calculation of the solvation properties of a single water molecule in liquid water is carried out in two ways. In the first, the water molecule is placed in a cavity and the solvent is treated as a dielectric continuum. This model is analyzed by numerically solving the Poisson equation using the DelPhi program. The resulting solvation properties depend sensitively on the shape and size of the cavity. In the second method, the solvent and solute molecules are treated explicitly in molecular dynamics simulations using Ewald boundary conditions. We find a 2 kcal/mole difference in solvation free energies predicted by these two methods when standard cavity radii are used. In addition, dielectric continuum theory assumes that the solvent reacts solely by realigning its electric moments linearly with the strength of the solute's electric field; the results of the molecular simulation show important non-linear effects. Non-linear solvent effects are generally of two types: dielectric saturation, due to solvent-s...
A morphing approach to couple state-based peridynamics with classical continuum mechanics
Han, Fei
2016-01-04
A local/nonlocal coupling technique called the morphing method is developed to couple classical continuum mechanics with state-based peridynamics. State-based peridynamics, which enables the description of cracks that appear and propagate spontaneously, is applied to the key domain of a structure, where damage and fracture are considered to have non-negligible effects. In the rest of the structure, classical continuum mechanics is used to reduce computational costs and to simultaneously satisfy solution accuracy and boundary conditions. Both models are glued by the proposed morphing method in the transition region. The morphing method creates a balance between the stiffness tensors of classical continuum mechanics and the weighted coefficients of state-based peridynamics through the equivalent energy density of both models. Linearization of state-based peridynamics is derived by Taylor approximations based on vector operations. The discrete formulation of coupled models is also described. Two-dimensional numerical examples illustrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed technique. It is shown that the morphing method, originally developed for bond-based peridynamics, can be successfully extended to state-based peridynamics through the original developments presented here.
Attari Moghaddam, Alireza; Kharaghani, Abdolreza; Tsotsas, Evangelos; Prat, Marc
2017-02-01
We study the velocity field in the liquid phase during the drying of a porous medium in the capillarity-dominated regime with evaporation from the top surface. A simple mass balance in the continuum framework leads to a linear variation of the filtration velocity across the sample. By contrast, the instantaneous slice-averaged velocity field determined from pore network simulations leads to step velocity profiles. The vertical velocity profile is almost constant near the evaporative top surface and zero close to the bottom of the sample. The relative extent of the two regions with constant velocity is dictated by the position of the most unstable meniscus. It is shown that the continuum and pore network results can be reconciled by averaging the velocity field obtained from the pore network simulations over time. This opens up interesting prospects regarding the transport of dissolved species during drying. Also, the study reveals the existence of an edge effect, which is not taken into account in the classical continuum models of drying.
Static analysis of ultra-thin beams based on a semi-continuum model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng Li; Zhi-Jun Zheng; Ji-Lin Yu; C.W.Lim
2011-01-01
A linear semi-continuum model with discrete atomic layers in the thickness direction was developed to investigate the bending behaviors of ultra-thin beams with nanoscale thickness.The theoretical results show that the deflection of an ultra-thin beam may be enhanced or reduced due to different relaxation coefficients.If the relaxation coefficient is greater/less than one,the deflection of micro/nano-scale structures is enhanced/reduced in comparison with macro-scale structures.So,two opposite types of size-dependent behaviors are observed and they are mainly caused by the relaxation coefficients.Comparisons with the classical continuum model,exact nonlocal stress model and finite element model (FEM) verify the validity of the present semi-continuum model.In particular,an explanation is proposed in the debate whether the bending stiffness of a micro/nano-scale beam should be greater or weaker as compared with the macro-scale structures.The characteristics of bending stiffness are proved to be associated with the relaxation coefficients.
Bonthuis, Douwe Jan; Netz, Roland R
2013-10-03
Standard continuum theory fails to predict several key experimental results of electrostatic and electrokinetic measurements at aqueous electrolyte interfaces. In order to extend the continuum theory to include the effects of molecular solvent structure, we generalize the equations for electrokinetic transport to incorporate a space dependent dielectric profile, viscosity profile, and non-electrostatic interaction potential. All necessary profiles are extracted from atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that the MD results for the ion-specific distribution of counterions at charged hydrophilic and hydrophobic interfaces are accurately reproduced using the dielectric profile of pure water and a non-electrostatic repulsion in an extended Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The distributions of Na(+) at both surface types and Cl(-) at hydrophilic surfaces can be modeled using linear dielectric response theory, whereas for Cl(-) at hydrophobic surfaces it is necessary to apply nonlinear response theory. The extended Poisson-Boltzmann equation reproduces the experimental values of the double-layer capacitance for many different carbon-based surfaces. In conjunction with a generalized hydrodynamic theory that accounts for a space dependent viscosity, the model captures the experimentally observed saturation of the electrokinetic mobility as a function of the bare surface charge density and the so-called anomalous double-layer conductivity. The two-scale approach employed here-MD simulations and continuum theory-constitutes a successful modeling scheme, providing basic insight into the molecular origins of the static and kinetic properties of charged surfaces, and allowing quantitative modeling at low computational cost.
Effect of nonlinearity in hybrid kinetic Monte Carlo-continuum models.
Balter, Ariel; Lin, Guang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M
2012-01-01
Recently there has been interest in developing efficient ways to model heterogeneous surface reactions with hybrid computational models that couple a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model for a surface to a finite-difference model for bulk diffusion in a continuous domain. We consider two representative problems that validate a hybrid method and show that this method captures the combined effects of nonlinearity and stochasticity. We first validate a simple deposition-dissolution model with a linear rate showing that the KMC-continuum hybrid agrees with both a fully deterministic model and its analytical solution. We then study a deposition-dissolution model including competitive adsorption, which leads to a nonlinear rate, and show that in this case the KMC-continuum hybrid and fully deterministic simulations do not agree. However, we are able to identify the difference as a natural result of the stochasticity coming from the KMC surface process. Because KMC captures inherent fluctuations, we consider it to be more realistic than a purely deterministic model. Therefore, we consider the KMC-continuum hybrid to be more representative of a real system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Chi-Jen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2013-01-01
In this thesis, we analyze both the spatiotemporal behavior of: (A) non-linear “reaction” models utilizing (discrete) reaction-diffusion equations; and (B) spatial transport problems on surfaces and in nanopores utilizing the relevant (continuum) diffusion or Fokker-Planck equations. Thus, there are some common themes in these studies, as they all involve partial differential equations or their discrete analogues which incorporate a description of diffusion-type processes. However, there are also some qualitative differences, as shall be discussed below.
Ferrighi, Lara; Frediani, Luca; Ruud, Kenneth
2010-01-01
The theory and an implementation of the solvent contribution to the cubic response function for the polarizable continuum model for multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions is presented. The excited-state polarizability of benzene, para-nitroaniline, and nitrobenzene has been obtained from the double residue of the cubic response function calculated in the presence of an acetonitrile and dioxane solvent. The calculated excited-state polarizabilities are compared to results obtained from the linear response function of the explicitly optimized excited states.
Binary jumps in continuum. II. Non-equilibrium process and a Vlasov-type scaling limit
Finkelshtein, Dmitri; Kutoviy, Oleksandr; Lytvynov, Eugene
2011-01-01
Let $\\Gamma$ denote the space of all locally finite subsets (configurations) in $\\mathbb R^d$. A stochastic dynamics of binary jumps in continuum is a Markov process on $\\Gamma$ in which pairs of particles simultaneously hop over $\\mathbb R^d$. We discuss a non-equilibrium dynamics of binary jumps. We prove the existence of an evolution of correlation functions on a finite time interval. We also show that a Vlasov-type mesoscopic scaling for such a dynamics leads to a generalized Boltzmann non-linear equation for the particle density.
Continuum regularization of quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bern, Z.
1986-04-01
Possible nonperturbative continuum regularization schemes for quantum field theory are discussed which are based upon the Langevin equation of Parisi and Wu. Breit, Gupta and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the ''fifth-time'' of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, two difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. One problem is that the superficial quadratic divergences force a bottomless action for the noise. Another difficulty is that stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing is incompatible with Zwanziger's gauge fixing, which is the only known nonperturbaive covariant gauge fixing for nonabelian gauge theories. Finally, a successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest. Hopefully, the scheme will lend itself to nonperturbative analysis. 44 refs., 16 figs.
Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Scott Smith
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1 The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence; (2 logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3 a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.
A continuum damage model for piezoelectric materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yiming Fu; Xianqiao Wang
2008-01-01
In this paper, a constitutive model is proposed for piezoelectric material solids containing distributed cracks.The model is formulated in a framework of continuum damage mechanics using second rank tensors as internal variables. The Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric mate-rials with damage is then expressed as a polynomial including the transformed strains, the electric field vector and the ten-sorial damage variables by using the integrity bases restricted by the initial orthotropic symmetry of the material. By using the Talreja's tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of the piezoelectric mate-rial, the constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials with damage are derived. The model is applied to a special case of piezoelectric plate with transverse matrix cracks. With theKirchhoff hypothesis of plate, the free vibration equationsof the piezoelectric rectangular plate considering damage isestablished. By using Galerkin method, the equations are sol-ved. Numerical results show the effect of the damage on the free vibration of the piezoelectric plate under the close-circuit condition, and the present results are compared with those of the three-dimensional theory.
Detection of radio continuum emission from Procyon
Drake, Stephen A.; Simon, Theodore; Brown, Alexander
1993-01-01
We have detected the F5 IV-V star Procyon as a weak and variable 3.6 cm radio continuum source using the VLA. The inferred radio luminosity is similar to, though some-what higher than, the X-band luminosity of the active and flaring sun. The 33 micro-Jy flux density level at which we detected Procyon on four of five occasions is close to the 36 micro-Jy radio flux density expected from a model in which the radio emission consists of two components: optically thick 'stellar disk' emission with a 3.6 cm brightness temperature of 20,000 K that is 50 percent larger than the solar value, and optically thin coronal emission with an emission measure the same as that indicated by Einstein and EXOSAT X-ray flux measurements in 1981 and 1983. The maximum mass-loss rate of a warm stellar wind is less than 2 x 10 exp -11 solar mass/yr. An elevated flux density of 115 micro-Jy observed on a single occasion provides circumstantial evidence for the existence of highly localized magnetic fields on the surface of Procyon.
Radio Continuum Jet in NGC 7479
Laine, Seppo
2007-01-01
The barred galaxy NGC 7479 hosts a remarkable jet-like radio continuum feature: bright, 12-kpc long in projection, and hosting an aligned magnetic field. The degree of polarization is 6%-8% along the jet, and remarkably constant, which is consistent with helical field models. The radio brightness of the jet suggests strong interaction with the ISM and hence a location near the disk plane. We observed NGC 7479 at four wavelengths with the VLA and Effelsberg radio telescopes. The equipartition strength is 35-40 micro-G for the total and >10 micro-G for the ordered magnetic field in the jet. The jet acts as a bright, polarized background. Faraday rotation between 3.5 and 6 cm and depolarization between 6 and 22 cm can be explained by magneto-ionic gas in front of the jet, with thermal electron densities of ~0.06 cm**(-3) in the bar and ~0.03 cm**(-3) outside the bar. The regular magnetic field along the bar points toward the nucleus on both sides. The regular field in the disk reveals multiple reversals, probabl...
The Infrared Continuum Spectrum of VY CMa
Harwit, M; Decin, L; Waelkens, C; Feuchtgruber, H; Melnick, G J; Harwit, Martin; Malfait, Koen; Decin, Leen; Waelkens, Christoffel; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Melnick, Gary J.
2001-01-01
We combine spectra of VY CMa obtained with the short- and long-wavelength spectrometers, SWS and LWS, on the Infrared Space Observatory to provide a first detailed continuum spectrum of this highly luminous star. The circumstellar dust cloud through which the star is observed is partially self-absorbing, which makes for complex computational modeling. We review previous work and comment on the range of uncertainties about the physical traits and mineralogical composition of the modeled disk. We show that these uncertainties significantly affect the modeling of the outflow and the estimated mass loss. In particular, we demonstrate that a variety of quite diverse models can produce good fits to the observed spectrum. If the outflow is steady, and the radiative repulsion on the dust cloud dominates the star's gravitational attraction, we show that the total dust mass-loss rate is $\\sim 4\\times 10^{-6}M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, assuming that the star is at a distance of 1.5 kpc. Several indications, however, suggest t...
Optical continuum generation on a silicon chip
Jalali, Bahram; Boyraz, Ozdal; Koonath, Prakash; Raghunathan, Varun; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Dimitropoulos, Dimitri
2005-08-01
Although the Raman effect is nearly two orders of magnitude stronger than the electronic Kerr nonlinearity in silicon, under pulsed operation regime where the pulse width is shorter than the phonon response time, Raman effect is suppressed and Kerr nonlinearity dominates. Continuum generation, made possible by the non-resonant Kerr nonlinearity, offers a technologically and economically appealing path to WDM communication at the inter-chip or intra-chip levels. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, a 2 fold spectral broadening is obtained by launching ~4ps optical pulses with 2.2GW/cm2 peak power into a conventional silicon waveguide. Theoretical calculations, that include the effect of two-photon-absorption, free carrier absorption and refractive index change indicate that up to >30 times spectral broadening is achievable in an optimized device. The broadening is due to self phase modulation and saturates due to two photon absorption. Additionally, we find that free carrier dynamics also contributes to the spectral broadening and cause the overall spectrum to be asymmetric with respect to the pump wavelength.
Second law violations, continuum mechanics, and permeability
Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin
2016-03-01
The violations of the second law are relevant as the length and/or time scales become very small. The second law then needs to be replaced by the fluctuation theorem and mathematically, the irreversible entropy is a submartingale. First, we discuss the consequences of these results for the axioms of continuum mechanics, arguing in favor of a framework relying on stochastic functionals of energy and entropy. We next determine a Lyapunov function for diffusion-type problems governed by stochastic rather than deterministic functionals of internal energy and entropy, where the random field coefficients of diffusion are not required to satisfy the positive definiteness everywhere. Next, a formulation of micropolar fluid mechanics is developed, accounting for the lack of symmetry of stress tensor on molecular scales. This framework is then applied to employed to show that spontaneous random fluctuations of the microrotation field will arise in Couette—and Poiseuille-type flows in the absence of random (turbulence-like) fluctuations of the classical velocity field. Finally, while the permeability is classically modeled by the Darcy law or its modifications, besides considering the violations of the second law, one also needs to account for the spatial randomness of the channel network, implying a modification of the hierarchy of scale-dependent bounds on the macroscopic property of the network.
Continuum Edge Gyrokinetic Theory and Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, X Q; Xiong, Z; Dorr, M R; Hittinger, J A; Bodi, K; Candy, J; Cohen, B I; Cohen, R H; Colella, P; Kerbel, G D; Krasheninnikov, S; Nevins, W M; Qin, H; Rognlien, T D; Snyder, P B; Umansky, M V
2007-01-09
The following results are presented from the development and application of TEMPEST, a fully nonlinear (full-f) five dimensional (3d2v) gyrokinetic continuum edge-plasma code. (1) As a test of the interaction of collisions and parallel streaming, TEMPEST is compared with published analytic and numerical results for endloss of particles confined by combined electrostatic and magnetic wells. Good agreement is found over a wide range of collisionality, confining potential, and mirror ratio; and the required velocity space resolution is modest. (2) In a large-aspect-ratio circular geometry, excellent agreement is found for a neoclassical equilibrium with parallel ion flow in the banana regime with zero temperature gradient and radial electric field. (3) The four-dimensional (2d2v) version of the code produces the first self-consistent simulation results of collisionless damping of geodesic acoustic modes and zonal flow (Rosenbluth-Hinton residual) with Boltzmann electrons using a full-f code. The electric field is also found to agree with the standard neoclassical expression for steep density and ion temperature gradients in the banana regime. In divertor geometry, it is found that the endloss of particles and energy induces parallel flow stronger than the core neoclassical predictions in the SOL. (5) Our 5D gyrokinetic formulation yields a set of nonlinear electrostatic gyrokinetic equations that are for both neoclassical and turbulence simulations.
LINEAR SYSTEMS AND LINEAR INTERPOLATION I
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁立峰
2001-01-01
he linear interpolation of linear system on a family of linear systems is introduced and discussed. Some results and examples on singly generated systems on a finite dimensional vector space are given.
A robust, coupled approach for atomistic-continuum simulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aubry, Sylvie; Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wagner, Gregory John; Klein, Patrick A.; Jones, Reese E.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Hoyt, Jeffrey John (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kimmer, Christopher J.
2004-09-01
This report is a collection of documents written by the group members of the Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project titled 'A Robust, Coupled Approach to Atomistic-Continuum Simulation'. Presented in this document is the development of a formulation for performing quasistatic, coupled, atomistic-continuum simulation that includes cross terms in the equilibrium equations that arise due to kinematic coupling and corrections used for the calculation of system potential energy to account for continuum elements that overlap regions containing atomic bonds, evaluations of thermo-mechanical continuum quantities calculated within atomistic simulations including measures of stress, temperature and heat flux, calculation used to determine the appropriate spatial and time averaging necessary to enable these atomistically-defined expressions to have the same physical meaning as their continuum counterparts, and a formulation to quantify a continuum 'temperature field', the first step towards constructing a coupled atomistic-continuum approach capable of finite temperature and dynamic analyses.
Equivalent-Continuum Modeling With Application to Carbon Nanotubes
Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.
2002-01-01
A method has been proposed for developing structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with equivalent-continuum models. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As important examples with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the design of nanotube-based devices, the modeling technique has been applied to determine the effective-continuum geometry and bending rigidity of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the chemical structure of graphene has been substituted with equivalent-truss and equivalent continuum models. As a result, an effective thickness of the continuum model has been determined. This effective thickness has been shown to be significantly larger than the interatomic spacing of graphite. The effective thickness has been shown to be significantly larger than the inter-planar spacing of graphite. The effective bending rigidity of the equivalent-continuum model of a graphene sheet was determined by equating the vibrational potential energy of the molecular model of a graphene sheet subjected to cylindrical bending with the strain energy of an equivalent continuum plate subjected to cylindrical bending.
SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part II. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Attaway, S.W.; Laursen, T.A.; Zadoks, R.I.
1998-09-01
This report summarizes the key continuum mechanics concepts required for the systematic prescription and numerical solution of finite deformation solid mechanics problems. Topics surveyed include measures of deformation appropriate for media undergoing large deformations, stress measures appropriate for such problems, balance laws and their role in nonlinear continuum mechanics, the role of frame indifference in description of large deformation response, and the extension of these theories to encompass two dimensional idealizations, structural idealizations, and rigid body behavior. There are three companion reports that describe the problem formulation, constitutive modeling, and finite element technology for nonlinear continuum mechanics systems.
Continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules
Popadić, A.; Praprotnik, M.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Walther, J. H.
2015-09-01
We present continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are complemented with the Navier slip boundary condition with a slip length that is extracted from related molecular dynamics simulations. We find that several quantities of interest as computed by the present model are in good agreement with results from atomistic and atomistic-continuum simulations at a fraction of the cost. We simulate the flow past a single fullerene and an array of fullerenes and demonstrate that such nanoscale flows can be computed efficiently by continuum flow solvers, allowing for investigations into spatiotemporal scales inaccessible to atomistic simulations.
Some fundamental aspects of the continuumization problem in granular Media
Peters, John F.
The central problem of devising mathematical models of granular materials is how to define a granular medium as a continuum. This paper outlines the elements of a theory that could be incorporated in discrete models such as the Discrete-Element Method, without recourse to a continuum description. It is shown that familiar concepts from continuum mechanics such as stress and strain can be defined for interacting discrete quantities. Established concepts for constitutive equations can likewise be applied to discrete quantities. The key problem is how to define the constitutive response in terms of truncated strain measures that are a practical necessity for analysis of large granular systems.
On the solution of a pairing problem in the continuum
Mercenne, A; Dukelsky, J; Płoszajczak, M
2016-01-01
We present a generalized Richardson solution for fermions interacting with the pairing interaction in both discrete and continuum parts of the single particle (s.p.) spectrum. The pairing Hamiltonian is based on the rational Gaudin (RG) model which is formulated in the Berggren ensemble. We show that solutions of the generalized Richardson equations are exact in the two limiting situations: (i) in the pole approximation and (ii) in the s.p. continuum. If the s.p. spectrum contains both discrete and continuum parts, then the generalized Richardson equations provide accurate solutions for the Gamow Shell Model.
Semianalytic continuum spectra of Type 2 supernovae
Montes, Marcos J.; Wagoner, Robert V.
1995-01-01
We extend the approximate radiative transfer analysis of Hershkowitz, Linder, & Wagoner (1986) to a more general class of supernova model atmospheres, using a simple fit to the effective continuum opacity produced by lines (Wagoner, Perez, & Vasu 1991). At the low densities considered, the populations of the excited states of hydrogen are governed mainly by photoionization and recombination, and scattering dominates absorptive opacity. We match the asymptotic expressions for the spectral energy density J(sub nu) at the photosphere, whose location at each frequency is determined by a first-order calculation of the deviation of J(sub nu) from the Planck function B(sub nu). The emergent spectral luminosity then assumes the form L(sub nu) = 4 pi(squared)r(squared)(sub *) zeta(squared)B(sub nu)(T(sub p)), where T(sub p)(nu) is the photospheric temperature zeta is the dilution factor, and r(sub *) is a fiducial radius (ultimately taken to be the photospheric radius r(sub p)(nu)). The atmosphere is characterized by an effective temperature T(sub e) (varies as L(sup 1/4)r(sup -1/2)(sub *)) and hydrogen density n(sub H) = dependence of zeta on frequency nu and the parameters T(sub p), r(sub p), and alpha. The resulting understanding of the dependence of the spectral luminosity on observable parameters which characterize the relevant physical conditions will be of particular use in assessing the reliability of the expanding photosphere method of distance determination. This is particularly important at cosmological distances, where no information about the progenitor star will be available. This technique can also be applied to other low-density photosphere.
The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum
Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.
2005-01-01
In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svane, Axel; Christensen, Niels Egede; Cardona,, M.
2010-01-01
The electronic band structures of PbS, PbSe, and PbTe in the rocksalt structure are calculated with the quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) approach with spin-orbit coupling included. The semiconducting gaps and their deformation potentials as well as the effective masses are obtained. The GW...
Femtosecond Optical Detection of Quasiparticle Dynamics in Single-Crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Ning; WEI Yan-Feng; ZHAO Ji-Min; ZHAO Shi-Ping; YANG Qian-Sheng; ZHANG Zhi-Guo; FU Pan-Ming
2008-01-01
Quasiparticle dynamics of an optimally doped Bi2Sr2 CaCu2O8+δ single crystal is investigated by the femtosecond pump-probe technique. Temperature dependences of amplitude of the photoinduced differential reflectivity and the relaxation time show the evidence of strong phonon bottleneck. The experimental results are analysed by the Rothwarf-Taylor model.
1968-01-01
5 The symposium was held in Freudenstadt from 28\\h to 31 \\ ofAugust st nd 1967 and in Stuttgart from 1 to 2 of September 1967. The proposal to hold this symposium originated with the German Society of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (GAMM) late in 1964 and was examined by a committee of IUTAM especially appointed for this purpose. The basis of this examination was a report in which the present situation in the field and the possible aims of the symposium were surveyed. Briefly, the aims of the symposium were stated to be 1. the unification of the various approaches developed in recent years with the aim of penetrating into the microscopic world of matter by means of continuum theories; 2. the bridging of the gap between microscopic (or atomic) research on mechanics on one hand, and the phenomenological (or continuum mechanical) approach on the other hand; 3. the physical interpretation and the relation to actual material behaviour of the quantities and laws introduced into the new theories, together with ap...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴天民
2003-01-01
The purpose is to reestablish the balance laws of momentum, angular momentumand energy and to derive the corresponding local and nonlocal balance equations formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory. The desired results formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory are naturally obtained via directtransitions and reductions from the coupled conservation law of energy for micropolarcontinuum theory, respectively. The basic balance laws and equation s for micromorphiccontinuum mechanics and couple stress theory are constituted by combining these resultsderived here and the traditional conservation laws and equations of mass and microinertiaand the entropy inequality. The incomplete degrees of the former related continuum theoriesare clarified. Finally, some special cases are conveniently derived.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katskov, Dmitri, E-mail: katskovda@tut.ac.za
2015-03-01
The theory and practical problems of continuum source simultaneous multi-element electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SMET AAS) are discussed by the example of direct analysis of underground water. The experimental methodology is based on pulse vaporization of the sample in a fast heated graphite tube and measurement of transient absorption of continuum spectrum radiation from D{sub 2} and Xe lamps within 200–400 nm wavelengths range with a low resolution spectral instrument and linear charge-coupled device. The setup permits the acquisition of 200 spectra during 1 s atomization pulse. Respective data matrix absorbance vs wavelength/time is employed for the quantification of elements in the sample. The calculation algorithm developed includes broad band and continuum background correction, linearization of function absorbance vs. concentration of atomic vapor and integration of thus modified absorbance at the resonance lines of the elements to be determined. Practical application shows that the method can be employed for the direct simultaneous determination of about 20 elements above microgram per liter level within 3–5 orders of the magnitude concentration range. The investigated sources of measurement errors are mainly associated with the atomization and vapor transportation problems, which are aggravated for the simultaneous release of major and minor sample constituents. Respective corrections concerning the selection of analytical lines, optimal sampling volume, matrix modification and cleaning of the atomizer have been introduced in the SMET AAS analytical technology. Under the optimized experimental conditions the calibration curves in Log-Log coordinates for all the investigated analytes in the single or multi-element reference solutions are approximated by the first order equations. The use of these equations as permanent characteristics of the setup enables instant quantification of Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ni in the underground
Rotational bands in the continuum illustrated by $^{8}$Be results
Garrido, E; Fedorov, D V
2013-01-01
We use the two-alpha cluster model to describe the properties of $^{8}$Be. The rotational energy sequence of the $(0^+,2^+,4^+)$ resonances are reproduced with the complex energy scaling technique for Ali-Bodmer and Buck-potentials. However, both static and transition probabilities are far from the rotational values. We trace this observation to the prominent continuum properties of the $2^+$ and $4^+$ resonances. They resemble free continuum solutions although still exhibiting strong collective rotational character. We compare with cluster models and discuss concepts of rotations in the continuum in connection with central quantities as transition probabilities, inelastic cross sections and resonance widths. We compute the $6^+$ and $8^+$ $S$-matrix poles and discuss properties of this possible continuation of the band beyond the known $4^+$ state. Regularization of diverging quantities are discussed in order to extract observable continuum properties. We formulate division of electromagnetic transition prob...
Continuum discretized BCS approach for weakly bound nuclei
Lay, J A; Fortunato, L; Vitturi, A
2015-01-01
The Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) formalism is extended by including the single-particle continuum, thus enabling the analysis of an isotopic chain from stability up to the drip line. We propose a continuum discretized generalized BCS based on single-particle pseudostates (PS). These PS are generated from the diagonalization of the single-particle Hamiltonian within a Transformed Harmonic Oscillator (THO) basis. The consistency of the results versus the size of the basis is studied. The method is applied to neutron rich Oxygen and Carbon isotopes and compared with similar previous works and available experimental data. We make use of the flexibility of the proposed model in order to study the evolution of the occupation of the low-energy continuum when the system becomes weakly bound. We find a larger influence of the non-resonant continuum as long as the Fermi level approaches zero.
Links between annual, Milankovitch and continuum temperature variability.
Huybers, Peter; Curry, William
2006-05-18
Climate variability exists at all timescales-and climatic processes are intimately coupled, so that understanding variability at any one timescale requires some understanding of the whole. Records of the Earth's surface temperature illustrate this interdependence, having a continuum of variability following a power-law scaling. But although specific modes of interannual variability are relatively well understood, the general controls on continuum variability are uncertain and usually described as purely stochastic processes. Here we show that power-law relationships of surface temperature variability scale with annual and Milankovitch-period (23,000- and 41,000-year) cycles. The annual cycle corresponds to scaling at monthly to decadal periods, while millennial and longer periods are tied to the Milankovitch cycles. Thus the annual, Milankovitch and continuum temperature variability together represent the response to deterministic insolation forcing. The identification of a deterministic control on the continuum provides insight into the mechanisms governing interannual and longer-period climate variability.
Asymmetric continuum extreme processes in solids and fluids
Teisseyre, Roman
2014-01-01
This book deals with a class of basic deformations in asymmetric continuum theory. It describes molecular deformations and transport velocities in fluids, strain deformations in solids as well as the molecular transport, important in fracture processes.
Stricker, D; Mravlje, J; Berthod, C; Fittipaldi, R; Vecchione, A; Georges, A; van der Marel, D
2014-08-22
We report optical measurements demonstrating that the low-energy relaxation rate (1/τ) of the conduction electrons in Sr(2)RuO(4) obeys scaling relations for its frequency (ω) and temperature (T) dependence in accordance with Fermi-liquid theory. In the thermal relaxation regime, 1/τ ∝ (ħω)(2)+(pπk(B)T)(2) with p = 2, and ω/T scaling applies. Many-body electronic structure calculations using dynamical mean-field theory confirm the low-energy Fermi-liquid scaling and provide quantitative understanding of the deviations from Fermi-liquid behavior at higher energy and temperature. The excess optical spectral weight in this regime provides evidence for strongly dispersing "resilient" quasiparticle excitations above the Fermi energy.
Jang, Seung Woo; Kotani, Takao; Kino, Hiori; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Han, Myung Joon
2015-07-24
Despite decades of progress, an understanding of unconventional superconductivity still remains elusive. An important open question is about the material dependence of the superconducting properties. Using the quasiparticle self-consistent GW method, we re-examine the electronic structure of copper oxide high-Tc materials. We show that QSGW captures several important features, distinctive from the conventional LDA results. The energy level splitting between d(x(2)-y(2)) and d(3z(2)-r(2)) is significantly enlarged and the van Hove singularity point is lowered. The calculated results compare better than LDA with recent experimental results from resonant inelastic xray scattering and angle resolved photoemission experiments. This agreement with the experiments supports the previously suggested two-band theory for the material dependence of the superconducting transition temperature, Tc.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Yong-Chang; ZHAO Jie; AN Yu-Kai; LIU Ji-Wen
2009-01-01
The infrared reflectance spectrum up to 2500 cm-1 for heavily overdoped TI-2201 at 300 K has been analysed under the semiclassical approximation. In this approach, we use two independent sets of parameters to fit the reflectance: the momentum-dependent Fermi velocity vk and the momentum-dependent scattering rate τ-1 (εk). Unlike the case at optimal doping in which the transport properties are dominated by the nodal quasi-particles (QPs), both the lifetime and the Fermi velocity of the QPs in the antinodal region near the Fermi surface increase remarkably for the heavily overdoped samples. Our fitting results indicate that the antinodal QPs tend to dominate the transport properties in heavily overdoped bigb-Tc cuprates.
Sarriguren, P
2013-01-01
Electron-capture rates at different density and temperature conditions are evaluated for a set of pf-shell nuclei representative of the constituents in presupernova formations. The nuclear structure part of the problem is described within a quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock selfconsistent mean field with pairing correlations and residual interactions in particle-hole and particle-particle channels. The energy distributions of the Gamow-Teller strength are evaluated and compared to benchmark shell-model calculations and experimental data extracted from charge-exchange reactions. The model dependence of the weak rates are discussed and the various sensitivities to both density and temperature are analyzed.
Quasiparticle liquid in the highly overdoped Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta).
Yusof, Z M; Wells, B O; Valla, T; Fedorov, A V; Johnson, P D; Li, Q; Kendziora, C; Jian, Sha; Hinks, D G
2002-04-22
Results from the study of a highly overdoped (OD) Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) with a T(c) = 51 K using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy are presented. We observe a sharp peak in the spectra near ( pi,0) that persists well above T(c), a nodal self-energy which approaches that seen for the Mo(110) surface state, and a more k-independent line shape at the Fermi surface than the lower-doped cuprates. This allows for a realistic comparison of the lifetime values to the experimental resistivity measurements. These observations point to the validity of the quasiparticle picture for the OD even in the normal state.
Sharma, Anand; Bauer, Carsten; Rueckriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter
We use a nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach to calculate the renormalized quasiparticle velocity v (k) and the static dielectric function ɛ (k) of suspended graphene as function of an external momentum k. We fit our numerical result for v (k) to v (k) /vF = A + Bln (Λ0 / k) , where vF is the bare Fermi velocity, Λ0 is an ultraviolet cutoff, and A = 1 . 37 , B = 0 . 51 for the physically relevant value (e2 /vF = 2 . 2) of the coupling constant. In stark contrast to calculations based on the static random-phase approximation, we find that ɛ (k) approaches unity for k --> 0 . Our result for v (k) agrees very well with a recent measurement by Elias etal. [Nat. Phys. 7, 701 (2011)]. With in the same approximation, we also explore an alternative scheme in order to understand the true nature of the low energy (momentum) behavior in graphene.
Mayers, Matthew Z.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Reichman, David R.
2016-08-01
A cumulant-based G W approximation for the retarded one-particle Green's function is proposed, motivated by an exact relation between the improper Dyson self-energy and the cumulant generating function. Qualitative aspects of this method are explored within a simple one-electron independent phonon model, where it is seen that the method preserves the energy moment of the spectral weight while also reproducing the exact Green's function in the weak-coupling limit. For the three-dimensional electron gas, this method predicts multiple satellites at the bottom of the band, albeit with inaccurate peak spacing. However, its quasiparticle properties and correlation energies are more accurate than both previous cumulant methods and standard G0W0 . Our results point to features that may be exploited within the framework of cumulant-based methods and suggest promising directions for future exploration and improvements of cumulant-based G W approaches.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Spałek
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We use the concept of generalized (almost localized Fermi Liquid composed of nonstandard quasiparticles with spin-dependence effective masses and the effective field induced by electron correlations. This Fermi liquid is obtained within the so-called statistically-consistent Gutzwiller approximation (SGA proposed recently [cf. J. Jędrak et al., arXiv: 1008.0021] and describes electronic states of the correlated quantum liquid. Particular emphasis is put on real space pairing driven by the electronic correlations, the Fulde-Ferrell state of the heavy-fermion liquid, and the d-wave superconducting state of high temperature curate superconductors in the overdoped limit. The appropriate phase diagrams are discussed showing in particular the limits of stability of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS type of state.
Thermodynamics of phase formation and heavy quasiparticles in Sr{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rost, Andreas W.; Bruin, Jan A.N.; Tian, Demian; Mackenzie, Andrew P. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY169SS (United Kingdom); Grigera, Santiago A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY169SS (United Kingdom); Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos, UNLP-CONICET, La Plata 1900 (Argentina); Perry, Robin S. [SUPA, School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH93JZ (United Kingdom); Raghu, Sri [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas, 77005 (United States); Kivelson, Steve A. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 94305 (United States)
2012-07-01
The itinerant metamagnet Sr{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7} has motivated a wide range of experimental and theoretical work in recent years because of the discovery of an unusual low temperature phase which is forming in the vicinity of a proposed quantum critical point. A major challenge is the investigation of the thermodynamic properties of both this unusual phase and the fluctuations associated with the quantum critical point. Here we report on new specific heat measurements extending previous work to the wider phase diagram. Our results shed light on two important aspects of the system. First we discuss the entropic details of the formation of heavy quasiparticles as a function of temperature in this compound relevant for a wide class of materials. Secondly we present thermodynamic evidence for the anomalous low temperature phase forming directly out of the critical high temperature phase.
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...
A Continuum Description of Vibrated Sand
Eggers, J; Eggers, Jens; Riecke, Hermann
1999-01-01
The motion of a thin layer of granular material on a plate undergoing sinusoidal vibrations is considered. We develop equations of motion for the local thickness and the horizontal velocity of the layer, where the driving comes from the violent impact of the grains on the surface. A linear stability theory reveals a novel mechanism for the excitation of waves. Comparing both the stability diagram and the dispersion relation with experiment, we are able to check the consistency of our model.
A version of Hill's lemma for Cosserat continuum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xikui Li; Qipeng Liu
2009-01-01
On the basis of Hill's lemma for classical Cauchy continuum, a version of Hill's lemma for micro-macro homogenization modeling of heterogeneous Cosserat continuum is presented in the frame of average-field theory. The admissible boundary conditions required to prescribe on the representative volume element for the modeling are extracted and discussed to ensure the satisfaction of HillMandel energy condition and the first-order average field theory.
An extended Coleman-Noll procedure for generalized continuum theories
Hütter, Geralf
2016-11-01
Within rational continuum mechanics, the Coleman-Noll procedure is established to derive requirements to constitutive equations. Aiming in particular at generalized continuum theories, the present contribution demonstrates how this procedure can be extended to yield additionally the underlying balance equations of stress-type quantities. This is demonstrated for micromorphic and strain gradient media as well as for the microforce theory. The relation between the extended Coleman-Noll procedure and the method of virtual powers is pointed out.
Uses of Continuum Radiation in the AXAF Calibration
Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Austin, R. A.; Eisner, R. F.; ODell, S. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Swartz, D. A.; Tennant, A. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zirnstein, G.; McDermott, W. C.
1997-01-01
X-ray calibration of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) observatory at the MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) made novel use of the x-ray continuum from a conventional electron-impact source. Taking advantage of the good spectral resolution of solid-state detectors, continuum measurements proved advantageous in calibrating the effective area of AXAF's High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) and in verifying its alignment to the XRCF's optical axis.
Design Gradient Descent Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Continuum Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farzin Piltan
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this research, a new approach for gradient descent optimal sliding mode controller for continuum robots is proposed. Based on the new dynamic models developed, a novel technique for nonlinear control of continuum manipulators to be employed in various situations has also been proposed and developed. A section of a continuum arm is modeled using lumped model elements (masses, springs and dampers and control by nonlinear methodology (sliding mode method and optimization the sliding surface slope by gradient descent method. It is shown that this type of control methodology, although used to a certain model, can be used to conveniently control the dynamics of the arm with suitable tradeoff in accuracy of modeling. This relatively controller is more plausible to implement in an actual real-time when compared to other techniques of nonlinear controller methodology of continuum arms. Principles of sliding mode methodology is based on derive the sliding surface slope and nonlinear dynamic model and applied in the system. Based on the gradient descent optimization method, the sliding surface slope and gain updating factor has been developed in certain and partly uncertain continuum robots. This methodology is represented in certain and uncertain area whose only optimization for certain area and test this optimization for uncertainty. The new techniques proposed and methodologies adopted in this paper supported by MATLAB/SIMULINK results represent a significant contribution to the field of design an optimized nonlinear sliding mode controller for continuum robots.
Relativistic corrections and non-Gaussianity in radio continuum surveys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maartens, Roy [Physics Department, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Zhao, Gong-Bo; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Raccanelli, Alvise, E-mail: Roy.Maartens@port.ac.uk, E-mail: Gong-bo.Zhao@port.ac.uk, E-mail: David.Bacon@port.ac.uk, E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: alvise@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States)
2013-02-01
Forthcoming radio continuum surveys will cover large volumes of the observable Universe and will reach to high redshifts, making them potentially powerful probes of dark energy, modified gravity and non-Gaussianity. We consider the continuum surveys with LOFAR, WSRT and ASKAP, and examples of continuum surveys with the SKA. We extend recent work on these surveys by including redshift space distortions and lensing convergence in the radio source auto-correlation. In addition we compute the general relativistic (GR) corrections to the angular power spectrum. These GR corrections to the standard Newtonian analysis of the power spectrum become significant on scales near and beyond the Hubble scale at each redshift. We find that the GR corrections are at most percent-level in LOFAR, WODAN and EMU surveys, but they can produce O(10%) changes for high enough sensitivity SKA continuum surveys. The signal is however dominated by cosmic variance, and multiple-tracer techniques will be needed to overcome this problem. The GR corrections are suppressed in continuum surveys because of the integration over redshift — we expect that GR corrections will be enhanced for future SKA HI surveys in which the source redshifts will be known. We also provide predictions for the angular power spectra in the case where the primordial perturbations have local non-Gaussianity. We find that non-Gaussianity dominates over GR corrections, and rises above cosmic variance when f{sub NL}∼>5 for SKA continuum surveys.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melek Usal
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A continuum damage model is developed for the linear viscoelastic behavior of composites with microcracks consisting of an isotropic matrix reinforced by two arbitrarily independent and inextensible fiber families. Despite the fact that the matrix material is isotropic, the model in consideration bears the characteristic of directed media included in the transverse isotropy symmetry group solely due to its fibers distributions and the existence of microcracks. Using the basic laws of continuum damage mechanics and equations belonging to kinematics and deformation geometries of fibers, the constitutive functions have been obtained. It has been detected as a result of the thermodynamic constraints that the stress potential function is dependent on two symmetric tensors and two vectors, whereas the dissipative stress function is dependent on four symmetric tensors and two vectors. To determine arguments of the constitutive functionals, findings relating to the theory of invariants have been used as a method because of the fact that isotropy constraint is imposed on the material. As a result the linear constitutive equations of elastic stress, dissipative stress, and strain energy density release rate have been written in terms of material coordinate description. Using these expressions, total stress has been found.
Hérisson, Benjamin; Challamel, Noël; Picandet, Vincent; Perrot, Arnaud
2016-09-01
The static behavior of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) axial chain under distributed loading is examined. The FPU system examined in the paper is a nonlinear elastic lattice with linear and quadratic spring interaction. A dimensionless parameter controls the possible loss of convexity of the associated quadratic and cubic energy. Exact analytical solutions based on Hurwitz zeta functions are developed in presence of linear static loading. It is shown that this nonlinear lattice possesses scale effects and possible localization properties in the absence of energy convexity. A continuous approach is then developed to capture the main phenomena observed regarding the discrete axial problem. The associated continuum is built from a continualization procedure that is mainly based on the asymptotic expansion of the difference operators involved in the lattice problem. This associated continuum is an enriched gradient-based or nonlocal axial medium. A Taylor-based and a rational differential method are both considered in the continualization procedures to approximate the FPU lattice response. The Padé approximant used in the continualization procedure fits the response of the discrete system efficiently, even in the vicinity of the limit load when the non-convex FPU energy is examined. It is concluded that the FPU lattice system behaves as a nonlocal axial system in dynamic but also static loading.
Ultraviolet Continuum Color Variability of Luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSOs
Sakata, Yu; Minezaki, Takeo; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Koshida, Shintaro; Sameshima, Hiroaki
2011-01-01
We examine whether the spectral energy distribution of UV continuum emission of active galactic nuclei changes during flux variation. We used multi-epoch photometric data of QSOs in the Stripe 82 observed by the SDSS Legacy Survey and selected 10 bright QSOs observed with high photometric accuracies, in the redshift range of z = 1.0-2.4 where strong broad emission lines such as Ly\\alpha and CIV do not contaminate SDSS filters, to examine spectral variation of the UV continuum emission with broadband photometries. All target QSOs showed clear flux variations during the monitoring period 1998-2007, and the multi-epoch flux data in two different bands obtained on the same night showed a linear flux-to-flux relationship for all target QSOs. Assigning the flux in the longer wavelength to the x-axis in the flux-to-flux diagram, the x-intercept of the best-fit linear regression line was positive for most targets, which means that their colors in the observing bands become bluer as they become brighter. Then, the hos...
COMPUTING THE CONTINUUM POLARIZATION FROM THOMSON SCATTERING IN GASEOUS CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halonen, R. J.; Mackay, F. E.; Jones, C. E., E-mail: rhalonen@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)
2013-01-15
We investigate the computation of the intrinsic continuum linear polarization from electron scattering in optically thin and thick circumstellar disks of gas. We present the use of a non-LTE radiative transfer code, along with two different computational methods for obtaining the Stokes parameters, to reproduce the polarization levels that arise from disks of classical Be stars. Since the pioneering work of Poeckert and Marlborough, numerous improvements and refinements have been incorporated into computational radiative transfer models of classical Be stars. We present an assessment of the effect of several improvements on Poeckert and Marlborough's technique for calculating the polarization levels of the classical Be star {gamma} Cas. We find that improvements to the sampling of the disk density and the inclusion of a non-isothermal structure for the gas in the disk yield polarization levels that differ from the levels expected by Poeckert and Marlborough. Principally, the inclusion of the self-consistent calculation of the thermal structure of the disk has a significant impact on the resulting polarization. In addition, we assess the importance of the inclusion of multiple scattering calculations in predicting the continuum polarization in classical Be stars. We confirm that multiple scattering calculations are necessary for studying the linear polarization levels from optically thick gaseous disks around classical Be stars.
Non-continuum, anisotropic nanomechanics of random and aligned electrospun nanofiber matrices
Chery, Daphney; Han, Biao; Mauck, Robert; Shenoy, Vivek; Han, Lin
Polymer nanofiber assemblies are widely used in cell culture and tissue engineering, while their nanomechanical characteristics have received little attention. In this study, to understand their nanoscale structure-mechanics relations, nanofibers of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were fabricated via electrospinning, and tested via AFM-nanoindentation with a microspherical tip (R ~10 μm) in PBS. For the hydrophobic, less-swollen PCL, a novel, non-continuum linear F-D dependence was observed, instead of the typical Hertzian F-D3/2 behavior, which is usually expected for continuum materials. This linear trend is likely resulted from the tensile stretch of a few individual nanofibers as they were indented in the normal plane. In contrast, for the hydrophilic, highly swollen PVA, the observed typical Hertzian response indicates the dominance of localized deformation within each nanofiber, which had swollen to become hydrogels. Furthermore, for both matrices, aligned fibers showed significantly higher stiffness than random fibers. These results provide a fundamental basis on the nanomechanics of biomaterials for specialized applications in cell phenotype and tissue repair.