WorldWideScience

Sample records for continuum limit iii

  1. Renormalization group and continuum limit of quantum cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimboras, Zoltan [Quantum Information Theory Group, ISI, Torino (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    We develop a renormalization group formalism for quantum cellular automata (reminiscent of the algebraic renormalization group of Buchholz and Verch). Using this formalism, we can define the continuum limit for certain automata. As a particular example, we show that the continuum limit of the so-called ''Glider Clifford cellular automaton'' is the 1+1 dimensional relativistic QFT of free Majorana fermions.

  2. Simulation of mixing-limited reactions using a continuum approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Jack M.

    2017-06-01

    The limiting of reaction rates in porous media due to the imperfect mixing of reactants is a well studied phenomenon. It has been observed on both the field and laboratory scale and studied using a range of numerical techniques including continuum approaches and Lagrangian particle tracking methods. A new method is presented here for the simulation of mixing-limited reactions using continuum methods, based on the idea of separating each reactant into a mixed and an unmixed fraction, of which only the mixed fraction can react. The method is shown to be capable of producing mixing-limited reaction rates associated with one-, two-, and three-dimensional systems, and of producing outputs well fitted to the experimental data presented in Gramling et al. (2002) .

  3. An extreme [O III] emitter at z = 3.2: a low metallicity Lyman continuum source

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, S.; Vanzella, E.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Siana, B.; Grazian, A.; Suh, H.; Balestra, I.; Vignali, C.; Verhamme, A.; Zamorani, G.; Mignoli, M.; Hasinger, G.; Comastri, A.; Pentericci, L.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Gilli, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Cosmic reionization is an important process occurring in the early epochs of the Universe. However, because of observational limitations due to the opacity of the intergalactic medium to Lyman continuum photons, the nature of ionizing sources is still not well constrained. While high-redshift star-forming galaxies are thought to be the main contributors to the ionizing background at z> 6, it is impossible to directly detect their ionizing emission. Therefore, looking at intermediate redshift analogues (z ~ 2-4) can provide useful hints about cosmic reionization. Methods: We investigate the physical properties of one of the best Lyman continuum emitter candidate at z = 3.212 found in the GOODS-S/CANDELS field with photometric coverage from the U to the MIPS 24 μm band and VIMOS/VLT and MOSFIRE/Keck spectroscopy. These observations allow us to derive physical properties such as stellar mass, star formation rate, age of the stellar population, dust attenuation, metallicity, and ionization parameter, and to determine how these parameters are related to the Lyman continuum emission. Results: Investigation of the UV spectrum confirms a direct spectroscopic detection of the Lyman continuum emission with S/N> 5. Non-zero Lyα flux at the systemic redshift and high Lyman-α escape fraction (fesc(Lyα) ≥ 0.78) suggest a low H I column density. The weak C and Si low-ionization absorption lines are also consistent with a low covering fraction along the line of sight. The subsolar abundances are consistent with a young and extreme starburst. The [O III]λλ4959,5007+Hβ equivalent width (EW) is one of the largest reported for a galaxy at z> 3 (EW( [ O III ] λλ4959,5007 + Hβ) ≃ 1600 Å, rest-frame; 6700 Å observed-frame) and the near-infrared spectrum shows that this is mainly due to an extremely strong [O III] emission. The large observed [O III]/[O II] ratio (>10) and high ionization parameter are consistent with prediction from photoionization models in the

  4. Continuum-limit scaling of overlap fermions as valence quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2009-10-15

    We present the results of a mixed action approach, employing dynamical twisted mass fermions in the sea sector and overlap valence fermions, with the aim of testing the continuum limit scaling behaviour of physical quantities, taking the pion decay constant as an example. To render the computations practical, we impose for this purpose a fixed finite volume with lattice size L{approx}1.3 fm. We also briefly review the techniques we have used to deal with overlap fermions. (orig.)

  5. Search for a continuum limit of the PMS phase

    CERN Document Server

    Ayyar, Venkitesh

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of a simple four-fermion model with staggered fermions in 3D have shown the existence of an exotic quantum critical point, where one may be able to define a continuum limit of the Paramagnetic Strong Phase (or the PMS phase). We believe the existence of the critical point suggests a new mechanism for generating fermion masses. In this work we begin the search for this quantum critical point in 4D by extending the 3D model to 4D. Unlike in 3D, now we do find evidence for an intermediate spontaneously broken phase (FM phase) and are able compute the phase boundaries accurately. In terms of the bare coupling, the width of the intermediate region appears to be quite small.

  6. Continuum damage modeling through theoretical and experimental pressure limit formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Majid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a mathematical modeling to represent the damage of thermoplastic pipes. On the one hand, we adapted the theories of the rupture pressure to fit the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE case. Indeed, the theories for calculating the rupture pressure are multiple, designed originally for steels and alloys. For polymer materials, we have found that these theories can be adapted using a coefficient related to the nature of the studied material. The HDPE is characterized by two important values of pressure, deduced from the ductile form of the internal pressures evolution until burst. For this reason, we have designed an alpha coefficient taking into account these two pressures and giving a good approximation of the evolution of the experimental burst pressures through the theoretically corrected ones, using Faupel㒒s pressure formula. Then, we can deduce the evolution of the theoretical damage using the calculated pressures. On the other hand, two other mathematical models were undertaken. The first one has given rise to an adaptive model referring to an expression of the pressure as a function of the life fraction, the characteristic pressures and the critical life fraction. The second model represents a continuum damage model incorporating the pressure equations as a function of the life fraction and based on the burst pressure�s static damage model. These models represent important tools for industrials to assess the failure of thermoplastic pipes and proceed quick checks

  7. [Arterial hypertension: an expanding pathogenic continuum and therapeutic limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, E P

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the role of the immune system, endoplasmic network stress, metabolic dysregulation, and epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, as well as the limited possibilities of therapy with existing antihypertensive agents.

  8. Growth limit of carbon onions – A continuum mechanical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todt, Melanie; Bitsche, Robert; Hartmann, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    of carbon onions and, thus, can be a reason for the limited size of such particles. The loss of stability is mainly evoked by van der Waals interactions between misfitting neighboring layers leading to self-equilibrating stress states in the layers due to mutual accommodation. The influence of the curvature...... induced surface energy and its consequential stress state is investigated and found to be rather negligible. Furthermore, it is shown that the nonlinear character of the van der Waals interactions has to be considered to obtain maximum layer numbers comparable to experimental observations. The proposed...

  9. Universality and the approach to the continuum limit in lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    De Divitiis, G M; Guagnelli, M; Lüscher, Martin; Petronzio, Roberto; Sommer, Rainer; Weisz, P; Wolff, U; de Divitiis, G; Frezzotti, R; Guagnelli, M; Luescher, M; Petronzio, R; Sommer, R; Weisz, P; Wolff, U

    1995-01-01

    The universality of the continuum limit and the applicability of renormalized perturbation theory are tested in the SU(2) lattice gauge theory by computing two different non-perturbatively defined running couplings over a large range of energies. The lattice data (which were generated on the powerful APE computers at Rome II and DESY) are extrapolated to the continuum limit by simulating sequences of lattices with decreasing spacings. Our results confirm the expected universality at all energies to a precision of a few percent. We find, however, that perturbation theory must be used with care when matching different renormalized couplings at high energies.

  10. Universality and the approach to the continuum limit in lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Divitiis, Giulia; Frezzotti, Roberto; Guagnelli, Marco; Lüscher, Martin; Petronzio, Roberto; Sommer, Rainer; Weisz, Peter; Wolff, Ulli

    1995-02-01

    The universality of the continuum limit and the applicability of renormalized perturbation theory are tested in the SU(2) lattice gauge theory by computing two different non-perturbatively defined running couplings over a large range of energies. The lattice data (which were generated on the powerful APE computers at Rome II and DESY) are extrapolated to the continuum limit by simulating sequences of lattices with decreasing spacings. Our results confirm the expected universality at all energies to a precision of a few percent. We find, however, that perturbation theory must be used with care when matching different renormalized couplings at high energies.

  11. Strategic health communication across the continuum of breast cancer care in limited-resource countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L; Sivaram, Rama

    2008-10-15

    Strategic health communication is a critical component of healthcare that should be implemented across the continuum of care. Recognizing the importance of communication strategies and incorporating such strategies into healthcare policies, programs, and interventions is essential to the effective delivery of breast cancer care. The authors reviewed relevant literature and suggested practical evidence-based strategies for effective communication interventions across the continuum of care for breast cancer patients, including early detection, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, palliative care, and end-of-life care. Examples were provided from limited-resource nations to support health communication recommendations. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  12. Continuum limit of overlap valence quarks on a twisted mass sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Herdoiza, Gregorio [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Jansen, Karl [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC

    2010-12-15

    We study a lattice QCD mixed action with overlap valence quarks on two flavours of Wilson maximally twisted mass sea quarks. Employing three different matching conditions to relate both actions to each other, we investigate the continuum limit by using three values of the lattice spacing ranging from a{approx}0.05 fm to 0.08 fm. A particular emphasis is put on the effect on physical observables of the topological zero modes appearing in the valence overlap operator. We estimate the region of parameter space where the contribution from these zero modes is sufficiently small such that their effects can be safely controlled and a restoration of unitarity of the mixed action in the continuum limit is reached. (orig.)

  13. Continuum Limit of a Mesoscopic Model with Elasticity of Step Motion on Vicinal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Jian-Guo; Lu, Jianfeng

    2017-06-01

    This work considers the rigorous derivation of continuum models of step motion starting from a mesoscopic Burton-Cabrera-Frank-type model following the Xiang's work (Xiang in SIAM J Appl Math 63(1):241-258, 2002). We prove that as the lattice parameter goes to zero, for a finite time interval, a modified discrete model converges to the strong solution of the limiting PDE with first-order convergence rate.

  14. Comments on "Searching for a continuum limit in CDT quantum gravity"

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperman, Joshua H

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the search for a continuum limit of causal dynamical triangulations, Ambjorn, Coumbe, Gizbert-Studnicki, and Jurkiewicz recently reported measurements of the lattice spacing as a function of the bare couplings. Although these authors' methods are technically sound, the conclusions that they draw from their analyses rest crucially on certain unstated assumptions. I elucidate these assumptions, and I argue that our current understanding of causal dynamical triangulations does not entail their justification.

  15. Comments on "Searching for a continuum limit in CDT quantum gravity"

    OpenAIRE

    Cooperman, Joshua H.

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the search for a continuum limit of causal dynamical triangulations, Ambjorn, Coumbe, Gizbert-Studnicki, and Jurkiewicz recently reported measurements of the lattice spacing as a function of the bare couplings. Although these authors' methods are technically sound, the conclusions that they draw from their analyses rest crucially on certain unstated assumptions. I elucidate these assumptions, and I argue that our current understanding of causal dynamical triangulations does not ...

  16. Continuum limit of gl(M vertical stroke N) spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candu, Constantin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2011-03-15

    We study the spectrum of an integrable antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian of the gl(M vertical stroke N) spin chain of alternating fundamental and dual representations. After extensive numerical analysis, we identify the vacuum and low lying excitations and with this knowledge perform the continuum limit, while keeping a finite gap. All antiferromagnetic gl(n+N vertical stroke N) spin chains with n>0 and N{ne}0 are shown to possess in the continuum limit 2n-2 multiplets of massive particles which scatter with gl(n) Gross-Neveu like S-matrices, namely their eigenvalues do not depend on N. We argue that the continuum theory is the gl(M vertical stroke N) Gross-Neveu model, that is the massive deformation of the gl(M vertical stroke N){sub 1} Wess-Zumino-Witten model. As we can see ion the example of gl(2m vertical stroke 1) spin chains, the full particle spectrum is much richer. Our analysis suggests that for a complete characterization of the latter it is not enough to restrict to large volume calculations, as we do in this work. (orig.)

  17. Restoration of rotational symmetry in the continuum limit of lattice field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Zohreh; Savage, Martin J.

    2012-09-01

    We explore how rotational invariance is systematically recovered from calculations on hyper-cubic lattices through the use of smeared lattice operators that smoothly evolve into continuum operators with definite angular momentum as the lattice-spacing is reduced. Perturbative calculations of the angular momentum violation associated with such operators at tree level and at one loop are presented in λϕ4 theory and QCD. Contributions from these operators that violate rotational invariance occur at tree-level, with coefficients that are suppressed by O(a2) in the continuum limit. Quantum loops do not modify this behavior in λϕ4, nor in QCD if the gauge-fields are smeared over a comparable spatial region. Consequently, the use of this type of operator should, in principle, allow for Lattice QCD calculations of the higher moments of the hadron structure functions.

  18. Chaos and the continuum limit in the gravitational N-body problem. II. Nonintegrable potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Ioannis V; Kandrup, Henry E

    2002-06-01

    This paper continues a numerical investigation of the statistical properties of "frozen-N orbits," i.e., orbits evolved in frozen, time-independent N-body realizations of smooth density distributions rho corresponding to both integrable and nonintegrable potentials, allowing for 10(2.5)focus is on distinguishing between, and quantifying, the effects of graininess on initial conditions corresponding, in the continuum limit, to regular and chaotic orbits. Ordinary Lyapunov exponents chi do not provide a useful diagnostic for distinguishing between regular and chaotic behavior. Frozen-N orbits corresponding in the continuum limit to both regular and chaotic characteristics have large positive chi even though, for large N, the "regular" frozen-N orbits closely resemble regular characteristics in the smooth potential. Alternatively, viewed macroscopically, both regular and "chaotic" frozen-N orbits diverge as a power law in time from smooth orbits with the same initial condition. However, convergence towards the continuum limit is much slower for chaotic orbits. For regular orbits, the time scale associated with this divergence t(G) approximately N(1/2)t(D), with t(D) a characteristic dynamical, or crossing, time; for chaotic orbits t(G) approximately (ln N)t(D). For N>10(3)-10(4), clear distinctions exist between the phase mixing of initially localized ensembles, which, in the continuum limit, exhibit regular versus chaotic behavior. Regular ensembles evolved in a frozen-N density distribution diverge as a power law in time, albeit more rapidly than ensembles evolved in the smooth distribution. Chaotic ensembles diverge in a fashion that is roughly exponential, albeit at a larger rate than that associated with the exponential divergence of the same ensemble evolved in smooth rho. For both regular and chaotic ensembles, finite-N effects are well mimicked, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by energy-conserving white noise with amplitude eta proportional, variant 1/N

  19. Possibilities and limitations of "lesbian continuum": the case of a protestant church in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    "Lesbian existence" is still invisible in Japanese society, although Japan is portrayed as being "tolerant" toward homosexuality. However, there is strong activism that tries to make lesbians visible. An example is Christian women's activism against homophobic discourses in the United Church of Christ in Japan (UCCJ/Kyodan) which is a denomination of Protestant Churches in Japan. This case helps us analyse the positionality of lesbians in the discourses of Christianity in a non-Christian society, Japan. Introduced to English-speaking audiences for the first time, this case shows clearly that the forces which produce the exclusion of lesbians and gays do not only have a religious origin but also a social background. This particular religious-social context sets the gay men as the object of discrimination but brings forth resistance activism by women-lesbians, bisexuals, and heterosexuals. Such women's activism against homophobia is analyzed as an example of the "lesbian continuum" (Adrienne Rich) and the possibilities and limitations of the continuum are explored. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_10.

  20. Finite-representation approximation of lattice gauge theories at the continuum limit with tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Boye; Montangero, Simone; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank; Van Acoleyen, Karel

    2017-05-01

    It has been established that matrix product states can be used to compute the ground state and single-particle excitations and their properties of lattice gauge theories at the continuum limit. However, by construction, in this formalism the Hilbert space of the gauge fields is truncated to a finite number of irreducible representations of the gauge group. We investigate quantitatively the influence of the truncation of the infinite number of representations in the Schwinger model, one-flavor QED2 , with a uniform electric background field. We compute the two-site reduced density matrix of the ground state and the weight of each of the representations. We find that this weight decays exponentially with the quadratic Casimir invariant of the representation which justifies the approach of truncating the Hilbert space of the gauge fields. Finally, we compute the single-particle spectrum of the model as a function of the electric background field.

  1. Investigation of electron mobility and saturation velocity limits in gallium nitride using uniaxial dielectric continuum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K.; Stroscio, M. A.; Bayram, C.

    2017-06-01

    Here we introduce a uniaxial dielectric continuum model with temperature-dependent phonon mode frequencies to study temperature- and orientation-dependent polar-optical-phonon limited electron mobility and saturation velocity in uniaxial semiconductors. The formalism for calculating electron scattering rates, momentum relaxation rates, and rate of energy change as a function of the electron kinetic energy and incident electron angle with respect to the c-axis are presented and evaluated numerically. Electron-longitudinal-optical-phonon interactions are shown to depend weakly on the electron incident angle, whereas the electron-transverse-optical-phonon interactions around the emission threshold energy are observed to depend strongest on the electron incident angle when varied from π/4 to π/2 (with respect to the c-axis). We provide electron mobility and saturation velocity limits in different GaN crystal orientations as a function of temperature and electron concentration. At room temperature and for an electron density of 5 × 1018 cm-3, electron mobility limit of ˜3200 cm2/V s and electron saturation velocity limit of 3.15 × 107 cm/s are calculated. Both GaN electron mobility and saturation velocity are observed to be governed by the longitudinal-optical-phonon interaction, and their directional anisotropy is shown to vary less than 5% as the electron incident angle with respect to the c-axis is varied from 0 to π/2. Overall, we develop a theoretical formalism for calculating anisotropic properties of uniaxial wurtzite semiconductors.

  2. Trap effects and the continuum limit of the Hubbard model in the presence of a harmonic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Davide

    2017-09-01

    We discuss how to perform the continuum limit of the d -dimensional Hubbard model in the presence of a harmonic confining potential at zero temperature and fixed particle number. While for d ≥3 the system can be mapped into a noninteracting two-component Fermi gas in a harmonic trap, for d =1 and 2 the two-body interaction is described by a Dirac δ . We show that the properties of this continuum limit can be put in one-to-one correspondence with those obtained by applying the trap-size scaling formalism to the confined Hubbard model in the so called dilute regime (fixed number of particles and weak confinement). The correspondence for d <3 has been tested, in the case of two particles with opposite spin, by comparing numerical exact-diagonalization results of the lattice system with those obtained in the continuum limit.

  3. The continuum heterogeneous biofilm model with multiple limiting substrate Monod kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzo, Elio Emilio; Wuertz, Stefan; Rajal, Veronica B

    2014-11-01

    We describe a novel procedure to estimate the net growth rate of biofilms on multiple substrates. The approach is based on diffusion-reaction mass balances for chemical species in a continuum biofilm model with reaction kinetics corresponding to a Double-Monod expression. This analytical model considers a heterogeneous biofilm with variable distributions of biofilm density, activity, and effective diffusivity as a function of depth. We present the procedure to estimate the effectiveness factor analytically and compare the outcome with values obtained by the application of a rigorous numerical computational method using several theoretical examples and a test case. A comparison of the profiles of the effectiveness factor as a function of the Thiele modulus, φ, revealed that the activity of a homogeneous biofilm could be as much as 42% higher than that of a heterogeneous biofilm, under the given conditions. The maximum relative error between numerical and estimated effectiveness factor was 2.03% at φ near 0.7 (corresponding to a normalized Thiele modulus φ* = 1). For φ  1.4, the relative error was less than 0.5%. A biofilm containing aerobic ammonium oxidizers was chosen as a test case to illustrate the model's capability. We assumed a continuum heterogeneous biofilm model where the effective diffusivities of oxygen and ammonium change with biofilm position. Calculations were performed for two scenarios; Case I had low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and Case II had high DO concentrations, with a concentration at the biofilm-fluid interface of 10 g O2 /m(3) . For Case II, ammonium was the limiting substrate for a biofilm surface concentration, CNs , ≤13.84 g of N/m(3) . At these concentrations ammonium was limiting inside the biofilm, and oxygen was fully penetrating. Conversely, for CNs  > 13.84 g of N/m(3) , oxygen became the limiting substrate inside the biofilm and ammonium was fully penetrating. Finally, a generalized procedure to

  4. Phase structure of 3D Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature: Large-N and continuum limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisenko, O., E-mail: oleg@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Chelnokov, V., E-mail: chelnokov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Gravina, M., E-mail: gravina@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Papa, A., E-mail: papa@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We study numerically three-dimensional Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature, for N=5,6,8,12,13 and 20 on lattices with temporal extension N{sub t}=2,4,8. For each model, we locate phase transition points and determine critical indices. We propose also the scaling of critical points with N. The data obtained enable us to verify the scaling near the continuum limit for the Z(N) models at finite temperatures.

  5. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. III. Optical Continuum Emission and Broadband Time Delays in NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausnaugh, M. M.; Denney, K. D.; Barth, A.J.; Bentz, M.C.; Bottorff, M.C.; Carini, M.T.; Croxall, K. V.; Rosa, G. De; Goad, M.R.; Gehrels, Cornelis; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present ground-based optical photometric monitoring data for NGC 5548, part of an extended multiwavelength reverberation mapping campaign. The light curves have nearly daily cadence from 2014 January to July in ninefilters (BVRI and ugriz). Combined with ultraviolet data from the Hubble Space Telescope and Swift, we confirm significant time delays between the continuum bands as a function of wavelength, extending the wavelength coverage from 1158 Angstrom to the z band (approximately 9160 angstrom). We find that the lags at wavelengths longer than the V band are equal to or greater than the lags of high-ionization-state emission lines (such as He pi lambdal1640 and lambda 4686), suggesting that the continuum-emitting source is of a physical size comparable to the inner broad-line region (BLR). The trend of lag with wavelength is broadly consistent with the prediction for continuum reprocessing by an accretion disk with (tau varies as lambda(exp 4/3)). However, the lags also imply a disk radius that is 3 times larger than the prediction from standardthin-disk theory, assuming that the bolometric luminosity is 10 percent of the Eddington luminosity (L 0.1L(sub Edd)).Using optical spectra from the Large Binocular Telescope, we estimate the bias of the interband continuum lagsdue to BLR emission observed in the filters. We find that the bias for filters with high levels of BLR contamination(20 percent) can be important for the shortest continuum lags and likely has a significant impact on the u and U bandsowing to Balmer continuum emission.

  6. A No-Go Theorem for the Continuum Limit of a Periodic Quantum Spin Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vaughan F. R.

    2017-07-01

    We show that the Hilbert space formed from a block spin renormalization construction of a cyclic quantum spin chain (based on the Temperley-Lieb algebra) does not support a chiral conformal field theory whose Hamiltonian generates translation on the circle as a continuous limit of the rotations on the lattice.

  7. Limiting Factors for Microbial Fe(III)-Reduction In a Landfill Leachate Polluted Aquifer (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Aquifer sediment samples from two locations within the anaerobic leachate plume of a municipal landfill were compared with respect to microbiology (especially Fe(III)-reduction) and geochemistry. The samples close to the landfill were characterized by low contents of Fe(III), whereas samples from...... to the composition of PLFA. Very little, if any, Fe(III)-reduction was observed close to the landfill, but all the more distant samples showed evident microbially mediated Fe(III)-reduction. After amendment with both acetate and Fe(III), all the samples showed a potential for Fe(III)-reduction, and the in situ Fe(III)-reduction...... seemed to be limited by the lack of Fe(III)-availability. It was suggested, that Fe(III)-reducing populations might be facultative, surviving by use of other electron-acceptors than Fe(III), when Fe(II1) is not available for reduction....

  8. General phase spaces: from discrete variables to rotor and continuum limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Victor V.; Pascazio, Saverio; Devoret, Michel H.

    2017-12-01

    We provide a basic introduction to discrete-variable, rotor, and continuous-variable quantum phase spaces, explaining how the latter two can be understood as limiting cases of the first. We extend the limit-taking procedures used to travel between phase spaces to a general class of Hamiltonians (including many local stabilizer codes) and provide six examples: the Harper equation, the Baxter parafermionic spin chain, the Rabi model, the Kitaev toric code, the Haah cubic code (which we generalize to qudits), and the Kitaev honeycomb model. We obtain continuous-variable generalizations of all models, some of which are novel. The Baxter model is mapped to a chain of coupled oscillators and the Rabi model to the optomechanical radiation pressure Hamiltonian. The procedures also yield rotor versions of all models, five of which are novel many-body extensions of the almost Mathieu equation. The toric and cubic codes are mapped to lattice models of rotors, with the toric code case related to U(1) lattice gauge theory.

  9. The continuum limit of causal fermion systems from Planck scale structures to macroscopic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Finster, Felix

    2016-01-01

    This monograph introduces the basic concepts of the theory of causal fermion systems, a recent approach to the description of fundamental physics. The theory yields quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases and is therefore a candidate for a unified physical theory. From the mathematical perspective, causal fermion systems provide a general framework for describing and analyzing non-smooth geometries and "quantum geometries". The dynamics is described by a novel variational principle, called the causal action principle. In addition to the basics, the book provides all the necessary mathematical background and explains how the causal action principle gives rise to the interactions of the standard model plus gravity on the level of second-quantized fermionic fields coupled to classical bosonic fields. The focus is on getting a mathematically sound connection between causal fermion systems and physical systems in Minkowski space. The book is intended for graduate students e...

  10. Continuum limit of hyperon vector coupling f1(0 ) from 2 +1 flavor domain wall QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shoichi

    2017-10-01

    We determine the hyperon vector couplings f1(0 ) for Σ-→n l-νl¯ and Ξ0→Σ+l-νl¯ semileptonic decays in the continuum limit with (2 +1 )-flavors of dynamical domain-wall fermions, using the Iwasaki gauge action at two different lattice spacings of a =0.114 (2 ) and 0.086(2) fm. A theoretical estimation of flavor SU(3)-breaking effect on the vector coupling is required to extract Vu s from the experimental rate of hyperon beta decays. We obtain the vector couplings f1(0 ) for Σ →N and Ξ →Σ beta-decays with an accuracy of less than one percent. We then find that lattice results of f1(0 ) combined with the best estimate of |Vu s| with imposing Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity are slightly deviated from the experimental result of |Vu sf1(0 )| for the Σ →N beta-decay. This discrepancy can be attributed to an assumption made in the experimental analysis on |Vu sf1(0 )|, where the induced second-class form factor g2 is set to be zero regardless of broken SU(3) symmetry. We report on this matter and then estimate the possible value of g2(0 ), which is evaluated from the experimental decay rate with our lattice result of f1(0 ) under the first-row CKM-unitarity condition.

  11. ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy. III. Dust continuum characterization of an evolutionary sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, C.; Urquhart, J. S.; Csengeri, T.; Leurini, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Giannetti, A.; Wienen, M.; Pillai, T.; Kauffmann, J.; Menten, K. M.; Schuller, F.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Massive-star formation and the processes involved are still poorly understood. The ATLASGAL survey provides an ideal basis for detailed studies of large numbers of massive-star forming clumps covering the whole range of evolutionary stages. The ATLASGAL Top100 is a sample of clumps selected by their infrared and radio properties to be representative for the whole range of evolutionary stages. Aims: The ATLASGAL Top100 sources are the focus of a number of detailed follow-up studies that will be presented in a series of papers. In the present work we use the dust continuum emission to constrain the physical properties of this sample and identify trends as a function of source evolution. Methods: We determine flux densities from mid-infrared to submillimeter wavelength (8-870 μm) images and use these values to fit their spectral energy distributions and determine their dust temperature and flux. Combining these with recent distances from the literature including maser parallax measurements we determine clump masses, luminosities and column densities. Results: We define four distinct source classes from the available continuum data and arrange these into an evolutionary sequence. This begins with sources found to be dark at 70 μm, followed by 24 μm weak sources with an embedded 70 μm source, continues through mid-infrared bright sources and ends with infrared bright sources associated with radio emission (i.e., H ii regions). We find trends for increasing temperature, luminosity, and column density with the proposed evolution sequence, confirming that this sample is representative of different evolutionary stages of massive star formation. Our sources span temperatures from approximately 11 to 41 K, with bolometric luminosities in the range 57 L⊙-3.8 × 106L⊙. The highest masses reach 4.3 × 104M⊙ and peak column densities up to 1.1 × 1024 cm-1, and therefore have the potential to form the most massive O-type stars. We show that at least 93 sources

  12. The periodic sℓ(2|1) alternating spin chain and its continuum limit as a bulk logarithmic conformal field theory at c = 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainutdinov, A. M.; Read, N.; Saleur, H.; Vasseur, R.

    2015-05-01

    The periodic sℓ(2|1) alternating spin chain encodes (some of) the properties of hulls of percolation clusters, and is described in the continuum limit by a logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT) at central charge c = 0. This theory corresponds to the strong coupling regime of a sigma model on the complex projective superspace CP 1|1 = U(2|1) /(U(1) × U(1|1)), and the spectrum of critical exponents can be obtained exactly. In this paper we push the analysis further, and determine the main representation theoretic (logarithmic) features of this continuum limit by extending to the periodic case the approach of [1] [N. Read and H. Saleur, Nucl. Phys. B 777 (2007) 316]. We first focus on determining the representation theory of the finite size spin chain with respect to the algebra of local energy densities provided by a representation of the affine Temperley-Lieb algebra at fugacity one. We then analyze how these algebraic properties carry over to the continuum limit to deduce the structure of the space of states as a representation over the product of left and right Virasoro algebras. Our main result is the full structure of the vacuum module of the theory, which exhibits Jordan cells of arbitrary rank for the Hamiltonian.

  13. The periodic sl(2|1) alternating spin chain and its continuum limit as a bulk Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory at c=0

    OpenAIRE

    Gainutdinov, A.; Read, N.; Saleur, H.; Vasseur, R.

    2014-01-01

    The periodic sl(2|1) alternating spin chain encodes (some of) the properties of hulls of percolation clusters, and is described in the continuum limit by a logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT) at central charge c=0. This theory corresponds to the strong coupling regime of a sigma model on the complex projective superspace $\\mathbb{CP}^{1|1} = \\mathrm{U}(2|1) / (\\mathrm{U}(1) \\times \\mathrm{U}(1|1))$, and the spectrum of critical exponents can be obtained exactly. In this paper we push th...

  14. New HST Observations of the Halo Gas of NGC 3067: Limits on the Extragalactic Ionizing Background at Low Redshift and the Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Tumlinson, Jason; Giroux, Mark L.; Shull, J. Michael; Stocke, John T.

    1999-01-01

    We present UV spectroscopy from HST/GHRS and reanalyze existing H_alpha images of the quasar/galaxy pair 3C 232/NGC 3067 and of the halo gas associated with NGC 3067. The spectra permit measurement of, or limits on, the column densities of Fe I, Fe II, Mg I, and Mg II in the absorbing cloud. Two distinct models of the extragalactic radiation field are considered: (1) the ionizing spectrum is dominated by a power-law extragalactic continuum, and (2) the power-law spectrum contains a Lyman brea...

  15. Continuum Nanofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S; Dyre, Jeppe C; Daivis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the fundamental continuum theory governing momentum transport in isotropic nanofluidic systems. The theory is an extension of the classical Navier-Stokes equation, and includes coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom as well as nonlocal response...... functions that incorporate spatial correlations. The continuum theory is compared with molecular dynamics simulation data for both relaxation processes and fluid flows, showing excellent agreement on the nanometer length scale. We also present practical tools to estimate when the extended theory should...

  16. Continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, A J M

    2004-01-01

    The mechanics of fluids and the mechanics of solids represent the two major areas of physics and applied mathematics that meet in continuum mechanics, a field that forms the foundation of civil and mechanical engineering. This unified approach to the teaching of fluid and solid mechanics focuses on the general mechanical principles that apply to all materials. Students who have familiarized themselves with the basic principles can go on to specialize in any of the different branches of continuum mechanics. This text opens with introductory chapters on matrix algebra, vectors and Cartesian ten

  17. Diameter limitation in growth of III-Sb-containing nanowire heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Martin; Borg, B Mattias; Johansson, Jonas; Dick, Kimberly A

    2013-04-23

    The nanowire geometry offers significant advantages for exploiting the potential of III-Sb materials. Strain due to lattice mismatch is efficiently accommodated, and carrier confinement effects can be utilized in tunneling and quantum devices for which the III-Sb materials are of particular interest. It has however proven difficult to grow thin (below a few tens of nanometers), epitaxial III-Sb nanowires, as commonly no growth is observed below some critical diameter. Here we explore the processes limiting the diameter of III-Sb nanowires in a model system, in order to develop procedures to control this effect. The InAs-GaSb heterostructure system was chosen due to its great potential for tunneling devices in future low-power electronics. We find that with increasing growth temperature or precursor partial pressures, the critical diameter for GaSb growth on InAs decreases. To explain this trend we propose a model where the Gibbs-Thomson effect limits the Sb supersaturation in the catalyst particle. This understanding enabled us to further reduce the nanowire diameter down to 32 nm for GaSb grown on 21 nm InAs stems. Finally, we show that growth conditions must be carefully optimized for these small diameters, since radial growth increases for increased precursor partial pressures beyond the critical values required for nucleation.

  18. Constraining external reverse shock physics of gamma-ray bursts from ROTSE-III limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Hong; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Wei, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Wei-Kang; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2018-02-01

    Assuming that early optical emission is dominated by external reverse shock (RS) in the standard model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we intend to constrain RS models with an initial Lorentz factor Γ0 of the outflows based on the ROTSE-III observations. We consider two cases of RS behaviour: relativistic shock and non-relativistic shock. For a homogeneous interstellar medium (ISM) and the wind circum-burst environment, constraints can be achieved by the fact that the peak flux Fν at the RS crossing time should be lower than the observed upper limit Fν, limit. We consider the different spectral regimes in which the observed optical frequency νopt may locate, which are divided by the orders for the minimum synchrotron frequency νm and the cooling frequency νc. Considering the homogeneous and wind environments around GRBs, we find that the relativistic RS case can be constrained by the (upper and lower) limits of Γ0 in a large range from about hundreds to thousands for 36 GRBs reported by ROTSE-III. Constraints on the non-relativistic RS case are achieved with limits of Γ0 ranging from ∼30 to ∼350 for 26 bursts. The lower limits of Γ0 achieved for the relativistic RS model are disfavored based on the previously discovered correlation between the initial Lorentz factor Γ0 and the isotropic gamma-ray energy Eγ, iso released in the prompt phase.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride Terrain...

  20. Transparent conducting oxide clad limited area epitaxy semipolar III-nitride laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Myzaferi, A.

    2016-08-11

    The bottom cladding design of semipolar III-nitride laser diodes is limited by stress relaxation via misfit dislocations that form via the glide of pre-existing threading dislocations (TDs), whereas the top cladding is limited by the growth time and temperature of the p-type layers. These design limitations have individually been addressed by using limited area epitaxy (LAE) to block TD glide in n-type AlGaN bottom cladding layers and by using transparent conducting oxide (TCO) top cladding layers to reduce the growth time and temperature of the p-type layers. In addition, a TCO-based top cladding should have significantly lower resistivity than a conventional p-type (Al)GaN top cladding. In this work, LAE and indium-tin-oxide cladding layers are used simultaneously in a (202⎯⎯1) III-nitride laser structure. Lasing was achieved at 446 nm with a threshold current density of 8.5 kA/cm2 and a threshold voltage of 8.4 V.

  1. Treatment of Gustilo grade III leg fractures by external fixation associated with limited internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-qiang; Zheng, Hong-yu; Wang, Bing; Huang, He; He, Fei; Zhao, Xue-ling

    2010-04-01

    To explore the clinical effects of external fixation associated with limited internal fixation on treatment of Gustilo grade III leg fractures. From July 2006 to December 2008, 40 cases of Gustilo grade III leg fractures were emergently treated in our unit with external fixation frames. Soft tissue injuries were grouped according to the Gustilo classification as IIIA in 17 cases, IIIB in 13 cases, and IIIC in 10 cases. All the patients were debrided within 8 hours, and then fracture reposition was preformed to reestablish the leg alignment. Limited internal fixation with plates and screws were performed on all the Gustilo IIIA cases and 10 Gustilo IIIB cases at the first operation. But all the Gustilo IIIC cases and 3 Gustilo IIIB cases who had severe soft tissue injuries and bone loss only received Vacuum-sealing drainage (VSD). Broad-spectrum antibiotics were regularly used and VSD must be especially maintained easy and smooth for one week or more after operation. Limited internal fixation and transplanted free skin flaps or adjacent musculocutaneous flaps were not used to close wounds until the conditions of the wounds had been improved. The first operations were completed within 90-210 minutes (170 minutes on average). The blood transfusions were from 400 ml to 1500 ml (those used for anti-shock preoperatively not included). All the 40 patients in this study were followed up for 6-28 months, 20.5 months on average. The lower limb function was evaluated according to the comprehensive evaluation standards of leg function one year after operation and the results of 28 cases were excellent, 9 were good and 3 were poor. External fixation associated with limited internal fixation to treat Gustilo grade III leg fractures can get satisfactory early clinical therapeutic effects.

  2. Limiting speed and dynamic instability of crack propagation in a phase-field model of mode III brittle fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karma, Alain; Lobkovsky, Alexander

    2003-03-01

    We present the results of numerical simulations of a continuum phase-field model of mode III brittle fracture that incorporates self-consistently both macroscopic linear elasticity and nonlinear bond-breaking inside a microscopic process zone. This model reproduces basic features of the dynamic instability of fast moving cracks. Simulations in a strip geometry with constant displacement at the edges reveal the existence of three distinct dynamical regimes with increasing load: (i) straight steady-state crack propagation without tip oscillations, (ii) straight propagation with tip oscillations of increasing degree of complexity, and (iii) tip-splitting leading to crack branching. The onset speed of branching is shown to be independent of the characteristic time of energy dissipation inside the process zone in the inertia-dominated regime where this time is comparable or shorter than the time for waves to cross this zone. In contrast, this onset speed depends on the ratio of a microscopic capillary length proportional to the surface energy and the process zone size, with the trend that tougher cracks branch at a larger speed. We test the validity of the standard continuum theory of brittle fracture, which assumes that the stored elastic energy is consumed entirely inside the process zone and that the crack speed is uniquely determined by the macroscopic energy flow rate to the tip.

  3. Continuum robots and underactuated grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Giri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the capabilities of continuum (continuous backbone robot structures in the performance of under-actuated grasping. Continuum robots offer the potential of robust grasps over a wide variety of object classes, due to their ability to adapt their shape to interact with the environment via non-local continuum contact conditions. Furthermore, this capability can be achieved with simple, low degree of freedom hardware. However, there are practical issues which currently limit the application of continuum robots to grasping. We discuss these issues and illustrate via an experimental continuum grasping case study.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  4. Continuum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This small book on the properties of continuously distributed matter covers a huge field. It sets out the governing principles of continuum physics and illustrates them by carefully chosen examples. These examples comprise structural mechanics and elasticity, fluid media, electricity and optics, thermoelectricity, fluctuation phenomena and more, from Archimedes' principle via Brownian motion to white dwarfs. Metamaterials, pattern formation by reaction-diffusion and surface plasmon polaritons are dealt with as well as classical topics such as Stokes' formula, beam bending and buckling, crystal optics and electro- and magnetooptic effects, dielectric waveguides, Ohm's law, surface acoustic waves, to mention just some.   The set of balance equations for content, flow and production of particles, mass, charge, momentum, energy and entropy is augmented by material, or constitutive equations. They describe entire classes of materials, such as viscid fluids and gases, elastic media, dielectrics or electrical con...

  5. Upper limits on the mass and luminosity of Population III-dominated galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2017-05-01

    We here derive upper limits on the mass and luminosity of Population III (POPIII) dominated proto-galaxies based on the collapse of primordial gas under the effect of angular momentum loss via Lyα radiation drag and the gas accretion on to a galactic centre. Our model predicts that POPIII-dominated galaxies at z ˜ 7 are hosted by haloes with Mh ˜ 1.5 × 108-1.1 × 109 M⊙, that they have Lyα luminosities of LLyα ˜ 3.0 × 1042-2.1 × 1043 erg s- 1, stellar mass of Mstar ˜ 0.8 × 105-2.5 × 106 M⊙ and outflowing gas with velocities Vout ˜ 40 km s- 1 due to Lyα radiation pressure. We show that the POPIII galaxy candidate CR7 violates the derived limits on stellar mass and Lyα luminosity and thus is unlikely to be a POPIII galaxy. POPIII-dominated galaxies at z ˜ 7 have He ii line emission that is ˜1-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of Lyα, they have high Lyα equivalent width of ≳ 300 Å and should be found close to bright star-forming galaxies. The He ii 1640 Å line is in comfortable reach of next generation telescopes, like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) or Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT).

  6. Energetic Limitations on Microbial Respiration of Organic Compounds using Aqueous Fe(III) Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, H.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter constitutes up to 75% of the terrestrial carbon stock. Microorganisms mediate the breakdown of organic compounds and the return of carbon to the atmosphere, predominantly through respiration. Microbial respiration requires an electron acceptor and an electron donor such as small fatty acids, organic acids, alcohols, sugars, and other molecules that differ in oxidation state of carbon. Carbon redox state affects how much energy is required to oxidize a molecule through respiration. Therefore, different organic compounds should offer a spectrum of energies to respiring microorganisms. However, microbial respiration has traditionally focused on the availability and reduction potential of electron acceptors, ignoring the organic electron donor. We found through incubation experiments that the organic compound serving as electron donor determined how rapidly Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 respires organic substrate and the extent of reduction of the electron acceptor. We simulated a range of energetically favorable to unfavorable electron acceptors using organic chelators bound to Fe(III) with equilibrium stability constants ranging from log(K) of 11.5 to 25.0 for the 1:1 complex, where more stable complexes are less favorable for microbial respiration. Organic substrates varied in nominal oxidation state of carbon from +2 to -2. The most energetically favorable substrate, lactate, promoted up to 30x more rapid increase in percent Fe(II) compared to less favorable substrates such as formate. This increased respiration on lactate was more substantial with less stable Fe(III)-chelate complexes. Intriguingly, this pattern contradicts respiration rate predicted by nominal oxidation state of carbon. Our results suggest that organic substrates will be consumed so long as the energetic toll corresponding to the electron donor half reaction is counterbalanced by the energy available from the electron accepting half reaction. We propose using the chemical

  7. Analysis of diffusion limitation in the alkylation of benzene over H-ZSM-5 by combining quantum chemical calculations, molecular simulations, and a continuum approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, N.; Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.; Bell, A.T.; Keil, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    A continuum model based on the Maxwell−Stefan (M-S) equations in combination with the ideal adsorbed solution theory has been used to analyze the influence of adsorption thermodynamics and intraparticle diffusional transport on the overall kinetics of benzene alkylation with ethene over H-ZSM-5. The

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart III of... - HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources [see § 63.1297(d)(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true HAP ABA Formulation Limitations Matrix for New Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart III of Part 63—HAP ABA Formulation Limitations...

  9. HST-COS OBSERVATIONS OF AGNs. III. SPECTRAL CONSTRAINTS IN THE LYMAN CONTINUUM FROM COMPOSITE COS/G140L DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, Evan M.; Shull, J. Michael; Danforth, Charles W. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Stevans, Matthew L., E-mail: evan.tilton@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu, E-mail: stevans@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are important diagnostics of both accretion disk physics and their contribution to the metagalactic ionizing UV background. Though the mean AGN spectrum is well characterized with composite spectra at wavelengths greater than 912 Å, the shorter-wavelength extreme-UV (EUV) remains poorly studied. In this third paper in a series on the spectra of AGNs, we combine 11 new spectra taken with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope with archival spectra to characterize the typical EUV spectral slope of AGNs from λ{sub rest} ∼ 850 Å down to λ{sub rest} ∼ 425 Å. Parameterizing this slope as a power law, we obtain F{sub ν} ∝ ν{sup −0.72±0.26}, but we also discuss the limitations and systematic uncertainties of this model. We identify broad emission features in this spectral region, including emission due to ions of O, Ne, Mg, and other species, and we limit the intrinsic He i 504 Å photoelectric absorption edge opacity to τ{sub He} {sub i} < 0.047.

  10. Steady-state heat and particle removal with the actively cooled Phase III outboard pump limiter in Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, R.; Koski, J.; Lutz, T.; McGrath; Miller, J.; Watkins, J.; Guilhem, D.; Chappuis, P.; Cordier, J.; Loarer, T.

    1995-04-01

    Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL) is a modular actively-cooled mid-plane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation. During its initial operation in 1993, the OPL successfully removed about 1 MW of power during ohmicly heated shots of up to 10 s duration and reached (steady state) thermal equilibrium. The particle pumping of the Phase III OPL was found to be about 50% greater than the Phase II OPL which had a radial distance between the last closed flux surface and the entrace of the pumping throat of 3.5 cm compared with only 2.5 cm for the Phase III OPL. This paper gives examples of power distribution over the limiter from IR measurements of surface temperature and from extensively calorimetry (34 thermocouples and 10 flow meters) and compares the distributions with values predicted by a 3D model (HF3D) with a detailed magnetic configuration (e.g., includes field ripple).

  11. The priorities of an enlightened monarch: the limitations of the military-fiscal state under Charles III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Torres Sánchez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the features of the Spanish Military-Fiscal State of Charles III. We have compared the Spanish state with Britain in order to revise Barbier and Klein´s thesis about how the military priorities of Charles III restricted the modernization of his state and caused the monarchy´s fall into debt and bankruptcy. The British case demonstrates how its own success was based on the establishment of a Military-Fiscal State and the constant military activity driven by an aggressive mercantile policy. We conclude that the Military-Fiscal State in Charles III´s Spain was not as well-developed as that of contemporary Great Britain. Spain devoted fewer resources to war, maintained a minimum military activity, and the mobilisation of resources lacked the flexibility found in Britain´s case. All this, along with a profound distrust in the use of public debt as the main way to fund war, meant that Charles III´s state did not become a real “war machine” as did George III´s state. In this article we propose that the weakness of Charles III lay in his limited interest in the development of a true Military-Fiscal State.

  12. Learning-Walk Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Peter Dallas

    2010-01-01

    The continuum of learning walks can be viewed in stages with various dimensions including frequency, participants, purpose and the presence of an instructional framework within which the instructional practice is viewed. Steps in the continuum progress as the learning walks are conducted more frequently. One way to ensure this is accomplished is…

  13. Characteristics of Limited English Proficient Hispanic Students Served in Programs for the Speech and Language Handicapped: Implications for Policy, Practice and Research. Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alba A.; And Others

    This document is Part III of a research study examining special education service delivery for limited English proficient (LEP) Hispanic students who have been placed in programs for the learning-disabled, speech handicapped, and mentally retarded. The objectives of Part III of this study were: (1) identify the characteristics of Hispanic students…

  14. Homogenization of a Cauchy continuum towards a micromorphic continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütter, Geralf

    2017-02-01

    The micromorphic theory of Eringen and Mindlin, including special cases like strain gradient theory or Cosserat theory, is widely used to model size effects and localization phenomena. The heuristic construction of such theories based on thermodynamic considerations is well-established. However, the identification of corresponding constitutive laws and of the large number of respective constitutive parameters limits the practical application of such theories. In the present contribution, a closed procedure for the homogenization of a Cauchy continuum at the microscale towards a fully micromorphic continuum is derived including explicit definitions of all involved generalized macroscopic stress and deformation measures. The boundary value problem to be solved on the microscale is formulated either for using static or kinematic boundary conditions. The procedure is demonstrated with an example.

  15. A line confusion-limited millimeter survey of Orion KL. III. Sulfur oxide species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, G. B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Palau, A.; Marcelino, N.; Bell, T. A.

    2013-08-01

    Context. We present a study of the sulfur-bearing species detected in a line confusion-limited survey towards Orion KL performed with the IRAM 30-m telescope in the frequency range 80-281 GHz. Aims: This study is part of an analysis of the line survey divided into families of molecules. Our aim is to derive accurate physical conditions, as well as molecular abundances, in the different components of Orion KL from observed SO and SO2 lines. Methods: As a starting point, we assumed local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions obtain rotational temperatures. We then used a radiative transfer model, assuming either LVG or LTE excitation to derive column densities of these molecules in the different components of Orion KL. Results: We have detected 68 lines of SO, 34SO, 33SO, and S18O and 653 lines of SO2, 34SO2, 33SO2, SO18O, and SO2ν2 = 1. We provide column densities for all of them and also upper limits for the column densities of S17O, 36SO, 34S18O, SO17O, and 34SO2ν2 = 1 and for several undetected sulfur-bearing species. In addition, we present 2' × 2' maps around Orion IRc2 of SO2 transitions with energies from 19 to 131 K and also maps with four transitions of SO, 34SO, and 34SO2. We observe an elongation of the gas along the NE-SW direction. An unexpected emission peak appears at 20.5 km s-1 in most lines of SO and SO2. A study of the spatial distribution of this emission feature shows that it is a new component of a few arcseconds (~5″) in diameter, which lies ~4″ west of IRc2. We suggest the emission from this feature is related to shocks associated to the BN object. Conclusions: The highest column densities for SO and SO2 are found in the high-velocity plateau (a region dominated by shocks) and in the hot core. These values are up to three orders of magnitude higher than the results for the ridge components. We also find high column densities for their isotopologues in both components. Therefore, we conclude that SO and SO2 are good tracers, not

  16. Notes on continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Eduardo W V

    2013-01-01

    This publication is aimed at students, teachers, and researchers of Continuum Mechanics and focused extensively on stating and developing Initial Boundary Value equations used to solve physical problems. With respect to notation, the tensorial, indicial and Voigt notations have been used indiscriminately.   The book is divided into twelve chapters with the following topics: Tensors, Continuum Kinematics, Stress, The Objectivity of Tensors, The Fundamental Equations of Continuum Mechanics, An Introduction to Constitutive Equations, Linear Elasticity, Hyperelasticity, Plasticity (small and large deformations), Thermoelasticity (small and large deformations), Damage Mechanics (small and large deformations), and An Introduction to Fluids. Moreover, the text is supplemented with over 280 figures, over 100 solved problems, and 130 references.

  17. Laparoscopic left liver sectoriectomy of Caroli's disease limited to segment II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rovera, Francesca; Di Giuseppe, Matteo

    2009-02-27

    Caroli's disease is defined as a abnormal dilatation of the intra-hepatica bile ducts: Its incidence is extremely low (1 in 1,000,000 population) and in most of the cases the whole liver is interested and liver transplantation is the treatment of choice. In case of dilatation limited to the left or right lobe, liver resection can be performed. For many year the standard approach for liver resection has been a formal laparotomy by means of a large incision of abdomen that is characterized by significant post-operatie morbidity. More recently, minimally invasive, laparoscopic approach has been proposed as possible surgical technique for liver resection both for benign and malignant diseases. The main benefits of the minimally invasive approach is represented by a significant reduction of the surgical trauma that allows a faster recovery a less post-operative complications. This video shows a case of Caroli s disease occured in a 58 years old male admitted at the gastroenterology department for sudden onset of abdominal pain associated with fever (> 38 C degrees), nausea and shivering. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated a significant dilatation of intra-hepatic left sited bile ducts with no evidences of gallbladder or common bile duct stones. Such findings were confirmed abdominal high resolution computer tomography. Laparoscopic left sectoriectomy was planned. Five trocars and 30 degrees optic was used, exploration of the abdominal cavity showed no adhesions or evidences of other diseases. In order to control blood inflow to the liver, vascular clamp was placed on the hepatic pedicle (Pringle s manouvre), Parenchymal division is carried out with a combined use of 5 mm bipolar forceps and 5 mm ultrasonic dissector. A severely dilated left hepatic duct was isolated and divided using a 45 mm endoscopic vascular stapler. Liver dissection was continued up to isolation of the main left portal branch that was then divided with a further cartridge of 45 mm vascular stapler

  18. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ∼ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Hayes, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Scarlata, Claudia; Mehta, Vihang [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Henry, Alaina; Hathi, Nimish; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Haardt, Francesco [DiSAT, Università dellInsubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ∼ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O ii] nebular emission ( N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O iii]/[O ii]. We measure 1 σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O ii] emitters, f {sub esc} ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O iii]/[O ii] > 5 ELGs, f {sub esc} ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f {sub esc} ∼ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ∼ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  19. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ˜ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Henry, Alaina; Hayes, Matthew; Mehta, Vihang; Hathi, Nimish; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Haardt, Francesco; Siana, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ˜ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O II] nebular emission (N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O III]/[O II]. We measure 1σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O II] emitters, f esc ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O III]/[O II] > 5 ELGs, f esc ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f esc ˜ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ˜ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  20. Computational Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shabana, Ahmed A

    2011-01-01

    This text presents the theory of continuum mechanics using computational methods. Ideal for students and researchers, the second edition features a new chapter on computational geometry and finite element analysis.

  1. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  2. The continuum in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liotta, R.J. [Royal Inst. of Tech. Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Solid State Electronics

    1995-11-01

    The Green function formalism is used to extend the standard (shell-model) treatment of bound states to processes that occur in the continuum part of nuclear spectra. The Berggren and Mittag-Leffler expansions are introduced and analysed. Applications to single-particle and particle-hole resonances are performed. Giant resonances are studied within the framework of the continuum RPA. In all cases it is found that the expansions agree well with the exact calculation. The mechanisms that induce the clustering of nucleons in nuclei are analysed and the corresponding decay processes are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  3. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, W Michael; Rubin, David

    1996-01-01

    Introduction to Continuum Mechanics is a recently updated and revised text which is perfect for either introductory courses in an undergraduate engineering curriculum or for a beginning graduate course.Continuum Mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation, and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, a

  4. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  5. Analogies between continuum dislocation theory, continuum mechanics and fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, C. B.; Ihlemann, J.

    2017-03-01

    Continuum Dislocation Theory (CDT) relates gradients of plastic deformation in crystals with the presence of geometrically necessary dislocations. Interestingly, CDT shows striking analogies to other branches of continuum mechanics. The present contribution demonstrates this on two essential kinematical quantities which reflect tensorial dislocation properties: the (resultant) Burgers vector and the dislocation density tensor. First, the limiting process for the (resultant) Burgers vector from an integral to a local quantity is performed analogously to the limiting process from the force vector to the traction vector. By evaluating the balance of forces on a tetrahedral volume element, Cauchy found his famous formula relating traction vector and stress tensor. It is shown how this procedure may be adopted to a continuously dislocated tetrahedron. Here, the conservation of Burger’s vector implicates the introduction of the dislocation density tensor. Second, analogies between the plastic flow of a continuously dislocated solid and the liquid flow of a fluid are highlighted: the resultant Burgers vector of a dislocation ensemble plays a similar role as the (resultant) circulation of a vortex tube. Moreover, both vortices within flowing fluids and dislocations within deforming solids induce discontinuities in the velocity field and the plastic distortion field, respectively. Beyond the analogies, some peculiar properties of the dislocation density tensor are presented as well.

  6. The MUPPLE competence continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, Joanna; Wild, Fridolin; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus; Hofer, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Wild, J., Wild, F., Kalz, M., Specht, M., & Hofer, M. (2009). The MUPPLE competence continuum. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning Envrionments (MUPPLE'09). Workshop in conjunction with 4th European Conference on Technology

  7. Numerical continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kukudzhanov, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on computational methods in continuum thermomechanics. The text is based on the author's lectures, which ensures a didactical and coherent buildup.The main emphasis is put on the presentation of ideas and qualitative considerations, illustrated by specific examples and applications. Conditions and explanations that are essential for the practical application of methods are discussed thoroughly.

  8. The Continuum of Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, A. G.; Garrison, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The distinction between "apophatic" and "cataphatic" listening is defined and analyzed. "Apophatic" listening is more or less devoid of cognitivist claims, whereas "cataphatic" listening involves cognition and questioning. Many of the papers in this volume are discussed along the continuum determined by these two types of listening.…

  9. The continuum disordered pinning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravenna, Francesco; Sun, Rongfeng; Zygouras, Nikos

    Any renewal processes on [Formula: see text] with a polynomial tail, with exponent [Formula: see text], has a non-trivial scaling limit, known as the [Formula: see text]-stable regenerative set. In this paper we consider Gibbs transformations of such renewal processes in an i.i.d. random environment, called disordered pinning models. We show that for [Formula: see text] these models have a universal scaling limit, which we call the continuum disordered pinning model (CDPM). This is a random closed subset of [Formula: see text] in a white noise random environment, with subtle features:Any fixed a.s. property of the [Formula: see text]-stable regenerative set (e.g., its Hausdorff dimension) is also an a.s. property of the CDPM, for almost every realization of the environment.Nonetheless, the law of the CDPM is singular with respect to the law of the [Formula: see text]-stable regenerative set, for almost every realization of the environment. The existence of a disordered continuum model, such as the CDPM, is a manifestation of disorder relevance for pinning models with [Formula: see text].

  10. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  11. Continuum mechanics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Mase, G Thomas; Mase, George E

    2009-01-01

    Continuum TheoryContinuum MechanicsStarting OverNotationEssential MathematicsScalars, Vectors and Cartesian TensorsTensor Algebra in Symbolic Notation - Summation ConventionIndicial NotationMatrices and DeterminantsTransformations of Cartesian TensorsPrincipal Values and Principal DirectionsTensor Fields, Tensor CalculusIntegral Theorems of Gauss and StokesStress PrinciplesBody and Surface Forces, Mass DensityCauchy Stress PrincipleThe Stress TensorForce and Moment Equilibrium; Stress Tensor SymmetryStress Transformation LawsPrincipal Stresses; Principal Stress DirectionsMaximum and Minimum Stress ValuesMohr's Circles For Stress Plane StressDeviator and Spherical Stress StatesOctahedral Shear StressKinematics of Deformation and MotionParticles, Configurations, Deformations and MotionMaterial and Spatial CoordinatesLangrangian and Eulerian DescriptionsThe Displacement FieldThe Material DerivativeDeformation Gradients, Finite Strain TensorsInfinitesimal Deformation TheoryCompatibility EquationsStretch RatiosRot...

  12. Points-Based Safe Path Planning of Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g., working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot's movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.

  13. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, David; Lai, W Michael

    1994-01-01

    Continuum mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, and the book contains an abundance of illustrative examples and problems, many with solutions. Through the addition of more advanced material (solution of classical elasticity problems, constitutive e

  14. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53—Illustration...

  15. Hybrid continuum-atomistic approach to model electrokinetics in nanofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amani, Ehsan, E-mail: eamani@aut.ac.ir; Movahed, Saeid, E-mail: smovahed@aut.ac.ir

    2016-06-07

    In this study, for the first time, a hybrid continuum-atomistic based model is proposed for electrokinetics, electroosmosis and electrophoresis, through nanochannels. Although continuum based methods are accurate enough to model fluid flow and electric potential in nanofluidics (in dimensions larger than 4 nm), ionic concentration is too low in nanochannels for the continuum assumption to be valid. On the other hand, the non-continuum based approaches are too time-consuming and therefore is limited to simple geometries, in practice. Here, to propose an efficient hybrid continuum-atomistic method of modelling the electrokinetics in nanochannels; the fluid flow and electric potential are computed based on continuum hypothesis coupled with an atomistic Lagrangian approach for the ionic transport. The results of the model are compared to and validated by the results of the molecular dynamics technique for a couple of case studies. Then, the influences of bulk ionic concentration, external electric field, size of nanochannel, and surface electric charge on the electrokinetic flow and ionic mass transfer are investigated, carefully. The hybrid continuum-atomistic method is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and investigate more details of the electrokinetics in nanofluidics. - Highlights: • A hybrid continuum-atomistic model is proposed for electrokinetics in nanochannels. • The model is validated by molecular dynamics. • This is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and physics.

  16. Using Compost, Zeolite and Calcium Oxide to Limit the Effect of Chromium (III and (VI on the Content of Trace Elements in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to determine the influence of Cr(III and Cr(VI in doses of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg Cr.kg−1 of soil as well as compost, zeolite and CaO additives on the content of heavy metals in the spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera and yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.. The contents of heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Ni, Cu in plants, were determined using the method of spectrophotometry. All of the investigated element contents in the tested plants differed significantly in the case of applying amendments to the soil, as well as increasing concentrations of Cr(III and Cr(VI. In the series without additives in soils containing Cr(III and Cr(VI, rapeseed was characterized by a higher average content of Cr than yellow lupine. Compost most noticeably limited the negative effect of chromium. Cr(VI modified the contents of trace elements in the tested plants more significantly than Cr(III.

  17. On continuum driven winds from rotating stars

    OpenAIRE

    Shacham, Tomer; Shaviv, Nir J.

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics of continuum driven winds from rotating stars, and develop an approximate analytical model. We then discuss the evolution of stellar angular momentum, and show that just above the Eddington limit, the winds are sufficiently concentrated towards the poles to spin up the star. A twin-lobe structure of the ejected nebula is seen to be a generic consequence of critical rotation. We find that if the pressure in such stars is sufficiently dominated by radiation, an equatorial ...

  18. Quantum heat engine with continuum working medium

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S.; Wang, H.; Sun, Y. D.; Yi, X. X.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new quantum heat engine, in which the working medium is a quantum system with a discrete level and a continuum. Net work done by this engine is calculated and discussed. The results show that this quantum heat engine behaves like the two-level quantum heat engine in both the high-temperature and the low-temperature limits, but it operates differently in temperatures between them. The efficiency of this quantum heat engine is also presented and discussed.

  19. Coupling discrete and continuum concentration particle models for multiscale and hybrid molecular-continuum simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsev, Nikolai D.; Leal, L. Gary; Shell, M. Scott

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid molecular-continuum simulation techniques afford a number of advantages for problems in the rapidly burgeoning area of nanoscale engineering and technology, though they are typically quite complex to implement and limited to single-component fluid systems. We describe an approach for modeling multicomponent hydrodynamic problems spanning multiple length scales when using particle-based descriptions for both the finely resolved (e.g., molecular dynamics) and coarse-grained (e.g., continuum) subregions within an overall simulation domain. This technique is based on the multiscale methodology previously developed for mesoscale binary fluids [N. D. Petsev, L. G. Leal, and M. S. Shell, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084115 (2016)], simulated using a particle-based continuum method known as smoothed dissipative particle dynamics. An important application of this approach is the ability to perform coupled molecular dynamics (MD) and continuum modeling of molecularly miscible binary mixtures. In order to validate this technique, we investigate multicomponent hybrid MD-continuum simulations at equilibrium, as well as non-equilibrium cases featuring concentration gradients.

  20. Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.

  1. Riverine phytoplankton shifting along a lentic-lotic continuum under hydrological, physiochemical conditions and species dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yueming; Wu, Naicheng; Guse, Björn; Fohrer, Nicola

    2017-10-21

    The importance of phytoplankton-based bio-assessment has been recently recognized in lowland rivers which are affected by multi-environmental factors. However, some basic questions remain unclear to date, such as: (i) spatial and temporal variations of phytoplankton, (ii) the impact of upstream lakes on downstream community, (iii) the main drivers for species composition or (iv) the regional biodiversity along a lentic-lotic continuum. To answer these questions, we collected and analyzed the fluvial phytoplankton communities along a lentic-lotic continuum from a German lowland catchment, where a well-established ecohydrological modeling predicted long-term discharges at each sampling site. Our results revealed very high spatial and temporal variations of phytoplankton community. The changes of a lake on downstream phytoplankton assemblages were significant, especially the nearest reach after the lake. However, these influences varied along with seasons and limited in a relatively short distance to the lake. Redundancy analysis and Mantel tests showed that phytoplankton composition and dissimilarities along the lentic-lotic continuum attributed more to local hydrological and physicochemical variables than species dispersal, which confirmed the suitability of lowland phytoplankton-based bioassessment. In addition, our findings highlighted the importance of flow regime in shaping phytoplankton community composition and regional beta diversities. This study emphasized the necessity to include the hydrological variables and their relationship with phytoplankton community in future bio-monitoring investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs: Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Aurelien, E-mail: adavid@soraa.com; Hurni, Christophe A.; Young, Nathan G.; Craven, Michael D. [Soraa Inc., 6500 Kaiser Dr., Fremont, California 94555 (United States)

    2016-08-22

    The current-voltage characteristic and ideality factor of III-Nitride quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on bulk GaN substrates are investigated. At operating temperature, these electrical properties exhibit a simple behavior. A model in which only active-region recombinations have a contribution to the LED current is found to account for experimental results. The limit of LED electrical efficiency is discussed based on the model and on thermodynamic arguments, and implications for electroluminescent cooling are examined.

  3. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, F.

    2014-03-11

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. Hybrid continuum-atomistic approach to model electrokinetics in nanofluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Ehsan; Movahed, Saeid

    2016-06-07

    In this study, for the first time, a hybrid continuum-atomistic based model is proposed for electrokinetics, electroosmosis and electrophoresis, through nanochannels. Although continuum based methods are accurate enough to model fluid flow and electric potential in nanofluidics (in dimensions larger than 4 nm), ionic concentration is too low in nanochannels for the continuum assumption to be valid. On the other hand, the non-continuum based approaches are too time-consuming and therefore is limited to simple geometries, in practice. Here, to propose an efficient hybrid continuum-atomistic method of modelling the electrokinetics in nanochannels; the fluid flow and electric potential are computed based on continuum hypothesis coupled with an atomistic Lagrangian approach for the ionic transport. The results of the model are compared to and validated by the results of the molecular dynamics technique for a couple of case studies. Then, the influences of bulk ionic concentration, external electric field, size of nanochannel, and surface electric charge on the electrokinetic flow and ionic mass transfer are investigated, carefully. The hybrid continuum-atomistic method is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and investigate more details of the electrokinetics in nanofluidics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuum of Care (COC) Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs is to reduce the incidence of homelessness in CoC communities by assisting homeless...

  6. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  7. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  8. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tatsuya; Widder, Joachim; van Dijk, Lisanne V; Takegawa, Hideki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki; Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru; Saito, Anneyuko I; Sasai, Keisuke; Van't Veld, Aart A; Langendijk, Johannes A; Korevaar, Erik W

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Three-field IMPT plans were created using a minimax robust optimization technique for 10 NSCLC patients. The plans accounted for 5- or 7-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties. The robustness of the IMPT nominal plans was evaluated considering (1) isotropic 5-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties; (2) breathing motion; (3) interplay effects; and (4) a combination of items 1 and 2. The plans were calculated using 4-dimensional and average intensity projection computed tomography images. The target coverage (TC, volume receiving 95% of prescribed dose) and homogeneity index (D2 - D98, where D2 and D98 are the least doses received by 2% and 98% of the volume) for the internal clinical target volume, and dose indexes for lung, esophagus, heart and spinal cord were compared with that of clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. The TC and homogeneity index for all plans were within clinical limits when considering the breathing motion and interplay effects independently. The setup and range uncertainties had a larger effect when considering their combined effect. The TC decreased to 98% for robust 7-mm evaluations for all patients. The organ at risk dose parameters did not significantly vary between the respective robust 5-mm and robust 7-mm evaluations for the 4 error types. Compared with the volumetric modulated arc therapy plans, the IMPT plans showed better target homogeneity and mean lung and heart dose parameters reduced by about 40% and 60%, respectively. In robustly optimized IMPT for stage III NSCLC, the setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects have limited impact on target coverage, dose homogeneity, and organ-at-risk dose parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Lagrangian continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward

    2007-12-01

    Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The Lagrangian continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.

  10. Submillimeter Continuum Observations of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this proposal was to study the submillimeter continuum emission from comets. The study was based mainly on the exploitation of the world's leading submillimeter telescope, the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) on Mauna Kea. Submillimeter wavelengths provide a unique view of cometary physics for one main reason. The cometary size distribution is such that the scattering cross-section is dominated by small dust grains, while the mass is dominated by the largest particles. Submillimeter continuum radiation samples cometary particles much larger than those sampled by more common observations at shorter (optical and infrared) wavelengths and therefore provides a nearly direct measure of the cometary dust mass.

  11. The geometry of continuum regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations.

  12. Comprehensive analysis of published phase I/II clinical trials between 1990-2010 in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma confirms limited outcomes and need for translational investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Maldegem Annemiek M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade primary bone sarcomas are rare cancers that affect mostly children and young adults. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the most common histological subtypes in this age group, with current multimodality treatment strategies achieving 55-70% overall survival. As there remains an urgent need to develop new therapeutic interventions, we have reviewed published phase I/II trials that have been reported for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma in the last twenty years. Results We conducted a literature search for clinical trials between 1990 and 2010, either for trials enrolling bone sarcoma patients as part of a general sarcoma indication or trials specifically in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. We identified 42 clinical trials that fulfilled our search criteria for general sarcoma that enrolled these patient groups, and eight and twenty specific trials for Ewing and osteosarcoma patients, respectively. For the phase I trials which enrolled different tumour types our results were incomplete, because the sarcoma patients were not mentioned in the PubMed abstract. A total of 3,736 sarcoma patients were included in these trials over this period, 1,114 for osteosarcoma and 1,263 for Ewing sarcoma. As a proportion of the worldwide disease burden over this period, these numbers reflect a very small percentage of the potential patient recruitment, approximately 0.6% for Ewing sarcoma and 0.2% for osteosarcoma. However, these data show an increase in recent activity overall and suggest there is still much room for improvement in the current trial development structures. Conclusion Lack of resources and commercial investment will inevitably limit opportunity to develop sufficiently rapid improvements in clinical outcomes. International collaboration exists in many well founded co-operative groups for phase III trials, but progress may be more effective if there were also more investment of molecular and translational research into

  13. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tatsuya [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Widder, Joachim; Dijk, Lisanne V. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Takegawa, Hideki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kansai Medical University Hirakata Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Anneyuko I. [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sasai, Keisuke [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Veld, Aart A. van' t; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Korevaar, Erik W., E-mail: e.w.korevaar@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Three-field IMPT plans were created using a minimax robust optimization technique for 10 NSCLC patients. The plans accounted for 5- or 7-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties. The robustness of the IMPT nominal plans was evaluated considering (1) isotropic 5-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties; (2) breathing motion; (3) interplay effects; and (4) a combination of items 1 and 2. The plans were calculated using 4-dimensional and average intensity projection computed tomography images. The target coverage (TC, volume receiving 95% of prescribed dose) and homogeneity index (D{sub 2} − D{sub 98}, where D{sub 2} and D{sub 98} are the least doses received by 2% and 98% of the volume) for the internal clinical target volume, and dose indexes for lung, esophagus, heart and spinal cord were compared with that of clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. Results: The TC and homogeneity index for all plans were within clinical limits when considering the breathing motion and interplay effects independently. The setup and range uncertainties had a larger effect when considering their combined effect. The TC decreased to <98% (clinical threshold) in 3 of 10 patients for robust 5-mm evaluations. However, the TC remained >98% for robust 7-mm evaluations for all patients. The organ at risk dose parameters did not significantly vary between the respective robust 5-mm and robust 7-mm evaluations for the 4 error types. Compared with the volumetric modulated arc therapy plans, the IMPT plans showed better target homogeneity and mean lung and heart dose parameters reduced by about 40% and 60%, respectively. Conclusions: In robustly optimized IMPT for stage III NSCLC, the setup and range

  14. Solitary waves in a two-dimensional nonlinear Dirac equation: from discrete to continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Maraver, J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Aceves, A. B.; Saxena, Avadh

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, we explore a nonlinear Dirac equation motivated as the continuum limit of a binary waveguide array model. We approach the problem both from a near-continuum perspective as well as from a highly discrete one. Starting from the former, we see that the continuum Dirac solitons can be continued for all values of the discretization (coupling) parameter, down to the uncoupled (so-called anti-continuum) limit where they result in a 9-site configuration. We also consider configurations with 1- or 2-sites at the anti-continuum limit and continue them to large couplings, finding that they also persist. For all the obtained solutions, we examine not only the existence, but also the spectral stability through a linearization analysis and finally consider prototypical examples of the dynamics for a selected number of cases for which the solutions are found to be unstable.

  15. Embodiment design of soft continuum robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjie Kang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary project where mechatronic engineers worked alongside biologists to develop a soft robotic arm that captures key features of octopus anatomy and neurophysiology. The concept of embodiment (the dynamic coupling between sensory-motor control, anatomy, materials and environment that allows for the animal to achieve adaptive behaviours is used as a starting point for the design process but tempered by current engineering technologies and approaches. In this article, the embodied design requirements are first discussed from a robotic viewpoint by taking into account real-life engineering limitations; then, the motor control schemes inspired by octopus nervous system are investigated. Finally, the mechanical and control design of a prototype is presented that appropriately blends bio-inspiration and engineering limitations. Simulated and experimental results show that the developed continuum robotic arm is able to reproduce octopus-like motions for bending, reaching and grasping.

  16. Limits on the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross sections from the first science run of the ZEPLIN-III experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedenko, V N; Araújo, H M; Barnes, E J; Bewick, A; Cashmore, R; Chepel, V; Currie, A; Davidge, D; Dawson, J; Durkin, T; Edwards, B; Ghag, C; Horn, M; Howard, A S; Hughes, A J; Jones, W G; Joshi, M; Kalmus, G E; Kovalenko, A G; Lindote, A; Liubarsky, I; Lopes, M I; Lüscher, R; Lyons, K; Majewski, P; Murphy, A St J; Neves, F; da Cunha, J Pinto; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Scovell, P R; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Stekhanov, V N; Sumner, T J; Thorne, C; Walker, R J

    2009-10-09

    We present new experimental constraints on the WIMP-nucleon spin-dependent elastic cross sections using data from the first science run of ZEPLIN-III, a two-phase xenon experiment searching for galactic dark matter weakly interacting massive particles based at the Boulby mine. Analysis of approximately 450 kg x days fiducial exposure allow us to place a 90%-confidence upper limit on the pure WIMP-neutron cross section of sigma(n)=1.9x10(-2) pb at 55 GeV/c(2) WIMP mass. Recent calculations of the nuclear spin structure based on the Bonn charge-dependent nucleon-nucleon potential were used for the odd-neutron isotopes 129Xe and 131Xe. These indicate that the sensitivity of xenon targets to the spin-dependent WIMP-proton interaction could be much lower than implied by previous calculations, whereas the WIMP-neutron sensitivity is impaired only by a factor of approximately 2.

  17. Fractional Quantum Field Theory: From Lattice to Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to formulate fractional field theories on unbounded lattice space-time is suggested. A fractional-order analog of the lattice quantum field theories is considered. Lattice analogs of the fractional-order 4-dimensional differential operators are proposed. We prove that continuum limit of the suggested lattice field theory gives a fractional field theory for the continuum 4-dimensional space-time. The fractional field equations, which are derived from equations for lattice space-time with long-range properties of power-law type, contain the Riesz type derivatives on noninteger orders with respect to space-time coordinates.

  18. An expedition to continuum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Wolfgang H

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces field theory as required in solid and fluid mechanics as well as in electromagnetism. It also presents the necessary mathematical framework, namely tensor algebra and tensor calculus, by using an inductive approach, which makes it particularly suitable for beginners. In general, the book can be used in undergraduate classes on continuum theory and, more specifically, in courses on continuum mechanics, for students of physics and engineering alike. The benefits for the readers consist of providing a sound basis of the subject as a whole and of training their ability for solving specific problems in a rational manner.  For this purpose the general laws of nature in terms of the balances for mass, momentum, and energy are applied and combined with constitutive relations, which are material specific. Various examples and homework problems illustrate how to use the theory in daily practice. Numerous mini-biographies have been added to the mathematical text for diversion and amusement.

  19. Finsler-Geometric Continuum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    in time at which a deformable solid body is considered undeformed, following the usual conven- tion of continuum physics.19 A differential manifold M...coordinates and their indices, which are denoted via lowercase rather than capital fonts. A differential manifold m of spatial dimension 3 is identified with a...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 primary author’s email: <johnclay@cims.nyu.edu>. Concepts from Finsler differential geometry are applied toward a

  20. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  1. Atomic size effects in continuum modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsch, C.; Kang, M.; Caflisch, R. E.

    2001-08-01

    Continuum modeling of many physical systems typically assumes that the spatial extent of an atom is small compared to the quantities of interest and can therefore be neglected. We show that this is valid only asymptotically. For many applications of practical interest, the spatial extent of a discrete atom cannot be neglected. We have developed a model for the description of epitaxial growth based on the levelset method, and find that we can accurately predict quantities such as the island densities, if we implement boundary conditions in a region with atomic width, rather than just on a line without any spatial extent. Only in the limit of very large islands and island spacings can this be neglected.

  2. Continuum mechanics of electromagnetic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, GA

    1988-01-01

    This volume is a rigorous cross-disciplinary theoretical treatment of electromechanical and magnetomechanical interactions in elastic solids. Using the modern style of continuum thermomechanics (but without excessive formalism) it starts from basic principles of mechanics and electromagnetism, and goes on to unify these two fields in a common framework. It treats linear and nonlinear static and dynamic problems in a variety of elastic solids such as piezoelectrics, electricity conductors, ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, ionic crystals and ceramics. Chapters 1-3 are introductory, describing the e

  3. Nonlocal models in continuum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Phan-Thien, N. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-09-01

    The recent appearance of nonlocal methods is examined in the light of traditional continuum mechanics. A comparison of nonlocal approaches in the fields of solid and fluid mechanics reveals that no consistent definition of a nonlocal theory has been used. We suggest a definition based on the violation of the principle of local action in continuum mechanics. From the consideration of the implications of a nonlocal theory based on this definition, we conclude that constitutive relations with nonlocal terms can confuse the traditional separation of the roles between conservation laws and constitutive relations. The diversity of motivations for the nonlocal approaches are presented, resulting primarily from deficiencies in numerical solutions to practical problems. To illustrate these concepts, the history of nonlocal terms in the field of viscoelastic fluids is reviewed. A specific example of a viscoelastic constitutive relation that contains a stress diffusion term is applied to a simple shear flow and found not to be a physical description of any known fluid. We conclude by listing questions that should be asked of nonlocal approaches.

  4. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  5. 77 FR 45367 - Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application; Continuum of Care Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... strategic planning activities, performance, homeless populations, and data collection methods. This... Assistance application which collects data about the CoC's strategic planning activities, performance... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application; Continuum of Care Application...

  6. Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoutidis, Ioannis

    2009-10-01

    Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)

  7. The Co-creation Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ind, Nicholas; Iglesias, Oriol; Markovic, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Co-creation can open up a brand to the outside world and help it to generate relevant innovations. However, there is scarce empirical evidence as to how managers actually use co-creation to connect with customers and other stakeholders and build enduring innovation-oriented relationships with them....... To better understand this, as well as the assumptions of managers and the barriers they encounter in realizing the potential of co-creation, the authors have conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with managers that have led co-creation initiatives for 20 brands. This research finds diverse views of co-creation...... - from tactical market research tool to strategic collaborative innovation method, and shows that brands can be positioned along a continuum between these two polarities. This article also presents the implications for those that want to seize the potential of co-creation....

  8. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inoue, Tatsuya; Widder, Joachim; van Dijk, Lisanne V; Takegawa, Hideki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki; Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru; Saito, Anneyuko I; Sasai, Keisuke; Van't Veld, Aart A; Langendijk, Johannes A; Korevaar, Erik W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Three-field IMPT plans

  9. Physics of the continuum of borromean nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaagen, J.S.; Rogde, T. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Danilin, B.V. [RRC The Kurchatov Inst., Kurchatov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, S.N. [JINR, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation); Thompson, I.J. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Zhukov, M.V. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); RNBT Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    The continuum states of two-neutron halo nuclei are calculated in the method of hyperspherical harmonics. Using DWIA theory appropriate for dilute halo matter we have probed the structure of the low-lying {sup 6}He continuum via calculations of charge-exchange and inelastic scattering. (orig.)

  10. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part 53...

  11. Continuum limit of discrete Sommerfeld problems on square lattice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A low-frequency approximation of the discrete Sommerfeld diffraction problems, involving the scattering of a time harmonic lattice wave incident on square lattice by a discrete Dirichlet or a discrete Neumann half-plane, is investigated. It is established that the exact solution of the discrete model converges to the solution of ...

  12. Continuum limit of discrete Sommerfeld problems on square lattice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASANT LAL SHARMA

    the Wiener–Hopf type has several advantages [9]; for instance, see the work of Copson [10], who originally .... applications of which have a rich history in mechanics of crystals [21, 33–35]. 1.1 Outline. A short description .... to allow an application of relevant operator-theoretical results, Eqs. (8a) and (8b) can be expressed as.

  13. Continuum Lowering -- A New Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, B J B

    2013-01-01

    What is meant by continuum lowering and ionisation potential depression (IPD) in a Coulomb system depends very much upon what question is being asked and whether it relates to equilibrium (equation-of-state) phenomena or non-equilibrium dynamical processes like photoionisation. It is shown that these scenarios are characterised by different values of the IPD. In the former, the ionisation potential of an atom embedded in matter is the difference in the free energy of the many-body system between states of thermodynamic equilibrium differing by the ionisation state of just one atom. Typically, this energy is less than that required to ionise the same atom in vacuo. Probably, the best known example of the IPD determined this way is that given by Stewart and Pyatt (SP). However, it is a common misconception that this formula should apply to the energy of a photon causing photoionisation - a local adiabatic process that occurs on timescales far too short to allow the final state to come into equilibrium, and addi...

  14. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  15. Fractional Diffusion Equations for Lattice and Continuum: Grünwald-Letnikov Differences and Derivatives Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-01-01

    Fractional diffusion equations for three-dimensional lattice models based on fractional-order differences of the Grünwald-Letnikov type are suggested. These lattice fractional diffusion equations contain difference operators that describe long-range jumps from one lattice site to another. In continuum limit, the suggested lattice diffusion equations with noninteger order differences give the diffusion equations with the Grünwald-Letnikov fractional derivatives for continuum. We propose a cons...

  16. Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1975-01-01

    Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k

  17. Continuum Kinetic and Multi-Fluid Simulations of Classical Sheaths

    CERN Document Server

    Cagas, Petr; Juno, James; Srinivasan, Bhuvana

    2016-01-01

    The kinetic study of plasma sheaths is critical, among other things, to understand the deposition of heat on walls, the effect of sputtering, and contamination of the plasma with detrimental impurities. The plasma sheath also provides a boundary condition and can often have a significant global impact on the bulk plasma. In this paper, kinetic studies of classical sheaths are performed with the continuum code, Gkeyll, that directly solves the Vlasov-Poisson/Maxwell equations. The code uses a novel version of the finite-element discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme that conserves energy in the continuous-time limit. The electrostatic field is computed using the Poisson equation. Ionization and scattering collisions are included, however, surface effects are neglected. The aim of this work is to introduce the continuum-kinetic method and compare its results to those obtained from an already established finite-volume multi-fluid model also implemented in Gkeyll. Novel boundary conditions on the fluids allow the she...

  18. Geometric continuum mechanics and induced beam theories

    CERN Document Server

    R Eugster, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This research monograph discusses novel approaches to geometric continuum mechanics and introduces beams as constraint continuous bodies. In the coordinate free and metric independent geometric formulation of continuum mechanics as well as for beam theories, the principle of virtual work serves as the fundamental principle of mechanics. Based on the perception of analytical mechanics that forces of a mechanical system are defined as dual quantities to the kinematical description, the virtual work approach is a systematic way to treat arbitrary mechanical systems. Whereas this methodology is very convenient to formulate induced beam theories, it is essential in geometric continuum mechanics when the assumptions on the physical space are relaxed and the space is modeled as a smooth manifold. The book addresses researcher and graduate students in engineering and mathematics interested in recent developments of a geometric formulation of continuum mechanics and a hierarchical development of induced beam theories.

  19. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    OpenAIRE

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2008-01-01

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of a mesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discrete particles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granular materials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealing inhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cage breaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM) simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granular element" can indeed ...

  20. Expression, limited proteolysis and preliminary crystallographic analysis of IpaD, a component of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Steven [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Roversi, Pietro [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Espina, Marianela [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas (United States); Deane, Janet E. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Birket, Susan; Picking, William D. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas (United States); Blocker, Ariel [Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Picking, Wendy L. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas (United States); Lea, Susan M., E-mail: susan.lea@path.ox.ac.uk [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-01

    IpaD, the putative needle-tip protein of the S. flexneri type III secretion system, has been crystallized in a variety of crystal forms using in-drop proteolysis. Native and selenomethionine-labelled data collection and preliminary analyses are reported. IpaD, the putative needle-tip protein of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system, has been overexpressed and purified. Crystals were grown of the native protein in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.9, b = 100.7, c = 112.0 Å, and data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. Analysis of the native Patterson map revealed a peak at 50% of the origin on the Harker section v = 0.5, suggesting twofold non-crystallographic symmetry parallel to the b crystallographic axis. As attempts to derivatize or grow selenomethionine-labelled protein crystals failed, in-drop proteolysis was used to produce new crystal forms. A trace amount of subtilisin Carlsberg was added to IpaD before sparse-matrix screening, resulting in the production of several new crystal forms. This approach produced SeMet-labelled crystals and diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å resolution. The SeMet crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 139.4, b = 45.0, c = 99.5 Å, β = 107.9°. An anomalous difference Patterson map revealed peaks on the Harker section v = 0, while the self-rotation function indicates the presence of a twofold noncrystallographic symmetry axis, which is consistent with two molecules per asymmetric unit.

  1. Water Continuum Absorption in the Infrared and Millimeter Spectral Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiancheng

    1990-01-01

    The absorption coefficient due to the water continuum is calculated both in the high-frequency (infrared) wing and in the low-frequency (millimeter) wing of the pure rotational band. The statistical theory proposed by Rosenkranz to calculate the continuum absorption in the high-frequency wing is reviewed and extended. In this review, we discuss specifically the validity and the limitation of the approximations made by Rosenkranz. We then discuss several extensions to his theory, including increasing the number of rotational states used to calculate the band-average relaxation parameter, correcting the normalization factor, and eliminating the "boxcar approximation." These improvements allow us to eliminate some inconsistencies in the original formulation of Rosenkranz while obtaining substantially the same final results. As a consequence, we confirm his conclusions about the origin, magnitude, and temperature-dependence of the water continuum absorption in the high-frequency wing of the pure rotational band. A new theory is developed to calculate the continuum in the low-frequency wing, i.e., in the millimeter spectral region. This theory is based on a generalization of Fano's theory in which the spectral density is calculated for a system consisting of a pair of water molecules. The internal states are written in terms of the line space of the system, and the resolvent operator is obtained using the Lanczos algorithm. For the interaction between two water molecules, we include only the leading dipole-dipole anisotropic potential and model the isotropic interaction by a Lennard-Jones potential. Using reasonable values for the two Lennard-Jones potential parameters, and the known rotational constants and permanent dipole moment of a water molecule, we calculate the absorption coefficient for frequencies up to 450 GHz for temperatures between 282 and 315 K. Without any free parameters, the present results are in good agreement with an empirical model for the water

  2. Prioritizing partners across the continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Mary Beth; Lawrence, Susan; Jordan, M Kim; Davies, William J; Weiss, Michael J; Deitrick, Lynn; Salas-Lopez, Debbie

    2012-11-01

    With the advent of accountable care organizations, bundled payments, value-based purchasing, and penalties for preventable hospital readmission, tight connections and collaboration across the care continuum will become critical to achieve successful patient outcomes and to reduce the cost of care delivery. Lehigh Valley Health Network (LVHN), the largest provider of health services in eastern Pennsylvania, set out on a journey to build collaborative relationships with skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in their eastern Pennsylvania community. LVHN desired SNF partners with mutual interests in improving quality of care and lowering costs of delivery where possible. Recognizing that not all SNFs are alike, LVHN developed a Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool to assess and prioritize skilled nursing facilities in an effort to determine those that would make the best collaborators. SNFs were reviewed based on their volume of mutual patients, quality of care delivery, and their perceived willingness to align with LVHN. Six variables were used to assess these facilities, including (1) patient discharge destination volume by SNF; (2) 30-day all-cause readmission rate to an LVHN hospital; (3) Medicare's Nursing Home Compare 5-Star Overall Rating; (4) the health network affiliation of the SNF's medical director; (5) the level of LVHN-employed or -affiliated physician presence at the SNF; and (6) the SNF's current participation in LVHN-sponsored programs and meetings. Through use of the Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool, it was discovered that roughly 70% of LVHN patients who required skilled nursing care following their inpatient stay received care at 1 of 20 SNFs. Of these, 5 facilities performed well on the 6-variable assessment, deeming them the "Tier 1 Facilities" to initially focus collaborative efforts. LVHN has strategically deployed physician resources and has increased physician presence at these "Tier 1 SNFs." These facilities have also gained remote

  3. Distribution of resonance widths and dynamics of continuum coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celardo, G L; Auerbach, N; Izrailev, F M; Zelevinsky, V G

    2011-01-28

    We analyze the statistics of resonance widths in a many-body Fermi system with open decay channels. Depending on the strength of continuum coupling, such a system reveals growing deviations from the standard chi-square (Porter-Thomas) width distribution. The deviations emerge from the process of increasing interaction of intrinsic states through common decay channels; in the limit of perfect coupling this process leads to the superradiance phase transition. The width distribution depends also on the intrinsic dynamics (chaotic versus regular). The results presented here are important for understanding the recent experimental data concerning the width distribution for neutron resonances in nuclei.

  4. Hyperbolic conservation laws in continuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, Constantine M

    2016-01-01

    This is a masterly exposition and an encyclopedic presentation of the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. It illustrates the essential role of continuum thermodynamics in providing motivation and direction for the development of the mathematical theory while also serving as the principal source of applications. The reader is expected to have a certain mathematical sophistication and to be familiar with (at least) the rudiments of analysis and the qualitative theory of partial differential equations, whereas prior exposure to continuum physics is not required. The target group of readers would consist of (a) experts in the mathematical theory of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws who wish to learn about the connection with classical physics; (b) specialists in continuum mechanics who may need analytical tools; (c) experts in numerical analysis who wish to learn the underlying mathematical theory; and (d) analysts and graduate students who seek introduction to the theory of hyperbolic systems of conser...

  5. Stiffness Control of Surgical Continuum Manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E

    2011-04-01

    This paper introduces the first stiffness controller for continuum robots. The control law is based on an accurate approximation of a continuum robot's coupled kinematic and static force model. To implement a desired tip stiffness, the controller drives the actuators to positions corresponding to a deflected robot configuration that produces the required tip force for the measured tip position. This approach provides several important advantages. First, it enables the use of robot deflection sensing as a means to both sense and control tip forces. Second, it enables stiffness control to be implemented by modification of existing continuum robot position controllers. The proposed controller is demonstrated experimentally in the context of a concentric tube robot. Results show that the stiffness controller achieves the desired stiffness in steady state, provides good dynamic performance, and exhibits stability during contact transitions.

  6. Kinematics and the implementation of an elephant's trunk manipulator and other continuum style robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Michael W.; Walker, Ian D.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, robot manipulators have been a simple arrangement of a small number of serially connected links and actuated joints. Though these manipulators prove to be very effective for many tasks, they are not without their limitations, due mainly to their lack of maneuverability or total degrees of freedom. Continuum style (i.e., continuous "back-bone") robots, on the other hand, exhibit a wide range of maneuverability, and can have a large number of degrees of freedom. The motion of continuum style robots is generated through the bending of the robot over a given section; unlike traditional robots where the motion occurs in discrete locations, i.e., joints. The motion of continuum manipulators is often compared to that of biological manipulators such as trunks and tentacles. These continuum style robots can achieve motions that could only be obtainable by a conventionally designed robot with many more degrees of freedom. In this paper we present a detailed formulation and explanation of a novel kinematic model for continuum style robots. The design, construction, and implementation of our continuum style robot called the elephant trunk manipulator is presented. Experimental results are then provided to verify the legitimacy of our model when applied to our physical manipulator. We also provide a set of obstacle avoidance experiments that help to exhibit the practical implementation of both our manipulator and our kinematic model. c2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Cyclical Approach to Continuum Modeling: A Conceptual Model of Diabetic Foot Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Carvour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available “Cascade” or “continuum” models have been developed for a number of diseases and conditions. These models define the desired, successive steps in care for that disease or condition and depict the proportion of the population that has completed each step. These models may be used to compare care across subgroups or populations and to identify and evaluate interventions intended to improve outcomes on the population level. Previous cascade or continuum models have been limited by several factors. These models are best suited to processes with stepwise outcomes—such as screening, diagnosis, and treatment—with a single defined outcome (e.g., treatment or cure for each member of the population. However, continuum modeling is not well developed for complex processes with non-sequential or recurring steps or those without singular outcomes. As shown here using the example of diabetic foot care, the concept of continuum modeling may be re-envisioned with a cyclical approach. Cyclical continuum modeling may permit incorporation of non-sequential and recurring steps into a single continuum, while recognizing the presence of multiple desirable outcomes within the population. Cyclical models may simultaneously represent the distribution of clinical severity and clinical resource use across a population, thereby extending the benefits of traditional continuum models to complex processes for which population-based monitoring is desired. The models may also support communication with other stakeholders in the process of care, including health care providers and patients.

  8. Continuum mechanics concise theory and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, P

    1998-01-01

    Written in response to the dearth of practical and meaningful textbooks in the field of fundamental continuum mechanics, this comprehensive treatment offers students and instructors an immensely useful tool. Its 115 solved problems and exercises not only provide essential practice but also systematically advance the understanding of vector and tensor theory, basic kinematics, balance laws, field equations, jump conditions, and constitutive equations.Readers follow clear, formally precise steps through the central ideas of classical and modern continuum mechanics, expressed in a common, effici

  9. A Universal Continuum of Weight aleph

    CERN Document Server

    Dow, A; Dow, Alan; Hart, Klaas Pieter

    2001-01-01

    We prove that every continuum of weight aleph_1 is a continuous image of the Cech-Stone-remainder R^* of the real line. It follows that under CH the remainder of the half line [0,infty) is universal among the continua of weight c. We complement this result by showing that 1) under MA every continuum of weight less than c is a continuous image of R^* 2) in the Cohen model the long segment of length omega_2+1 is not a continuous image of R^*, and 3) PFA implies that I_u is not a continuous image of R^*, whenever u is a c-saturated ultrafilter.

  10. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. III. A LIMIT ON THE PROPER MOTION OF THE 'CORE' OF THE QUASAR 3C 454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Ransom, R. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lederman, J. I. [Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Petrov, L. [Astrogeo Center, 7312 Sportsman Drive, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We made very long baseline interferometry observations at 8.4 GHz between 1997 and 2005 to estimate the coordinates of the 'core' component of the superluminal quasar, 3C 454.3, the ultimate reference point in the distant universe for the NASA/Stanford Gyroscope Relativity Mission, Gravity Probe B (GP-B). These coordinates are determined relative to those of the brightness peaks of two other compact extragalactic sources, B2250+194 and B2252+172, nearby on the sky, and within a celestial reference frame (CRF), defined by a large suite of compact extragalactic radio sources, and nearly identical to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2). We find that B2250+194 and B2252+172 are stationary relative to each other, and also in the CRF, to within 1{sigma} upper limits of 15 and 30 {mu}as yr{sup -1} in {alpha} and {delta}, respectively. The core of 3C 454.3 appears to jitter in its position along the jet direction over {approx}0.2 mas, likely due to activity close to the putative supermassive black hole nearby, but on average is stationary in the CRF within 1{sigma} upper limits on its proper motion of 39 {mu}as yr{sup -1} (1.0c) and 30 {mu}as yr{sup -1} (0.8c) in {alpha} and {delta}, respectively, for the period 2002-2005. Our corresponding limit over the longer interval, 1998-2005, of more importance to GP-B, is 46 and 56 {mu}as yr{sup -1} in {alpha} and {delta}, respectively. Some of 3C 454.3's jet components show significantly superluminal motion with speeds of up to {approx}200 {mu}as yr{sup -1} or 5c in the CRF. The core of 3C 454.3 thus provides for GP-B a sufficiently stable reference in the distant universe.

  11. Development of Advanced Continuum Models that Incorporate Nanomechanical Deformation into Engineering Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; McDowell, David L.; Mayeur, Jason R.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Gao, Huajian

    2008-09-01

    Materials with characteristic structures at nanoscale sizes exhibit significantly different mechani-cal responses from those predicted by conventional, macroscopic continuum theory. For example,nanocrystalline metals display an inverse Hall-Petch effect whereby the strength of the materialdecreases with decreasing grain size. The origin of this effect is believed to be a change in defor-mation mechanisms from dislocation motion across grains and pileup at grain boundaries at mi-croscopic grain sizes to rotation of grains and deformation within grain boundary interface regionsfor nanostructured materials. These rotational defects are represented by the mathematical conceptof disclinations. The ability to capture these effects within continuum theory, thereby connectingnanoscale materials phenomena and macroscale behavior, has eluded the research community.The goal of our project was to develop a consistent theory to model both the evolution ofdisclinations and their kinetics. Additionally, we sought to develop approaches to extract contin-uum mechanical information from nanoscale structure to verify any developed continuum theorythat includes dislocation and disclination behavior. These approaches yield engineering-scale ex-pressions to quantify elastic and inelastic deformation in all varieties of materials, even those thatpossess highly directional bonding within their molecular structures such as liquid crystals, cova-lent ceramics, polymers and biological materials. This level of accuracy is critical for engineeringdesign and thermo-mechanical analysis is performed in micro- and nanosystems. The researchproposed here innovates on how these nanoscale deformation mechanisms should be incorporatedinto a continuum mechanical formulation, and provides the foundation upon which to develop ameans for predicting the performance of advanced engineering materials.4 AcknowledgmentThe authors acknowledge helpful discussions with Farid F. Abraham, Youping Chen, Terry J

  12. Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raccanelli, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present forecasts for constraints on cosmological models that can be obtained using the forthcoming radio continuum surveys: the wide surveys with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for radio astronomy, theAustralian SquareKilometreArray Pathfinder...

  13. Continuum percolation of isotropically oriented circular cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, D.; Adler, P. M.

    2009-05-01

    The continuum percolation of circular cylinders has been studied for various values of the aspect ratio b' . The percolation threshold is shown to have a maximum for b'≈2 when the cylinder length is equal to its diameter. Other quantities such as the average intersection volume and the porosity also possess a maximum for this value.

  14. Questioning the continuum: specialization in rock climbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean Nelb; Rudy M. Schuster

    2008-01-01

    Recreation specialization was originally conceived as a behavioral continuum ranging from general to more particular behaviors within an activity. It was assumed that an individual progressed from one subactivity to another in a hierarchical order. In recent years the practicality of such ordering has come under doubt; it may be possible to specialize in individual...

  15. Continuum balances from extended Hamiltonian dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusteri, Giulio G; Podio-Guidugli, Paolo; Fried, Eliot

    2017-06-14

    The classical procedure devised by Irving and Kirkwood in 1950 and completed slightly later by Noll produces counterparts of the basic balance laws of standard continuum mechanics starting from an ordinary Hamiltonian description of the dynamics of a system of material points. Post-1980 molecular dynamics simulations of the time evolution of such systems use extended Hamiltonians such as those introduced by Andersen, Nosé, and Parrinello and Rahman. The additional terms present in these extensions affect the statistical properties of the system so as to capture certain target phenomenologies that would otherwise be beyond reach. We here propose a physically consistent application of the Irving-Kirkwood-Noll procedure to the extended Hamiltonian systems of material points. Our procedure produces balance equations at the continuum level featuring non-standard terms because the presence of auxiliary degrees of freedom gives rise to additional fluxes and sources that influence the thermodynamic and transport properties of the continuum model. Being aware of the additional contributions may prove crucial when designing multiscale computational schemes in which information is exchanged between the atomistic and continuum levels.

  16. Whole Language in Perspective: A Teacher's Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K. Eleanor

    Whole language represents only one of many good concepts about teaching reading to children, but it is not for everybody. Because whole language is a philosophy rather than a specific method, educational practitioners can incorporate different aspects of this philosophy to different degrees. If teachers think of a continuum of theoretical bases…

  17. Design of an environmentally interactive continuum manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.L.; Matsuura, D.; Takeda, Y; Herder, J.L.; Chang, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Continuum manipulators are high degree of freedom structures that can use their increased degrees of freedom to navigate through an environment with obstacles. This type of manipulator is underactuated, which make them promising for adapting to their environments. However, current research is mainly

  18. Continuum Modeling in the Physical Sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groesen, van E.; Molenaar, J.

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical modeling—the ability to apply mathematical concepts and techniques to real-life systems—has expanded considerably over the last decades, making it impossible to cover all of its aspects in one course or textbook. Continuum Modeling in the Physical Sciences provides an extensive

  19. Parental Involvement to Parental Engagement: A Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Janet; Montgomery, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Based on the literature of the field, this article traces a continuum between parental involvement with schools, and parental engagement with children's learning. The article seeks to shed light on an area of confusion; previous research has shown that different stakeholder groups understand "parental engagement" in different ways.…

  20. Moteurs piézo-électriques à onde progressive : III. Limites de validité des modèles 2-D et perspectives actuelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A.; Cusin, P.; Minotti, P.; Le Moal, P.

    1996-10-01

    The main objective of this third paper, devoted to the mechanical modeling of traveling wave type ultrasonic motors, aims at the validation of both softwares: C.U.B.I.C. (Contact Unilatéral entre structures Bicouches et Indenteurs Continus) and C.A.S.I.M.M.I.R.E. (Conception Assistée par la SImulation Mécanique des MIcromoteurs REsonnants) previously developed in order to optimize future piezomotors with a high efficiency. The comparisons between the theoretical loading characteristics communicated to the driving shaft and the experimental data, which have been measured on a specific test bench, show the accuracy and the relevance of the algorithms based on a mechanical description of the stator/rotor interface. Moreover it appears that our approach may lead to the theoretical calculation of the optimal axial preload applied to the driving shaft. Nevertheless, some validity limits of mechanical models aiming at the optimization of the axial preload are pointed out, especially when the pressure exerted at the stator/rotor interface is increased in order to obtain high torques. The last part of the paper emphasizes the role played by the radial component of the motor, and shows that the 3-D mechanical modeling of the interface should be an efficient way for the optimal design of very high torque piezomotors. Ce troisième article, consacré à la modélisation mécanique des moteurs piézo-électriques à onde progressive, a pour objectif principal la validation des deux logiciels précédemment développés au laboratoire dans le but d'optimiser le rendement des futurs piézomoteurs : C.U.B.I.C. (Contact Unilatéral entre structures Bicouches et Indenteurs Continus) et C.A.S.I.M.M.I.R.E. (Conception Assistée par la SImulation Mécanique des MIcromoteurs REsonnants). La corrélation entre les caractéristiques mécaniques théoriques et expérimentales coomuniquées à l'arbre moteur met en évidence la précision et la pertinence des algorithmes basés sur l

  1. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  2. Beyond the continuum: a multi-dimensional phase space for neutral-niche community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latombe, Guillaume; Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A

    2015-12-22

    Neutral and niche processes are generally considered to interact in natural communities along a continuum, exhibiting community patterns bounded by pure neutral and pure niche processes. The continuum concept uses niche separation, an attribute of the community, to test the hypothesis that communities are bounded by pure niche or pure neutral conditions. It does not accommodate interactions via feedback between processes and the environment. By contrast, we introduce the Community Assembly Phase Space (CAPS), a multi-dimensional space that uses community processes (such as dispersal and niche selection) to define the limiting neutral and niche conditions and to test the continuum hypothesis. We compare the outputs of modelled communities in a heterogeneous landscape, assembled by pure neutral, pure niche and composite processes. Differences in patterns under different combinations of processes in CAPS reveal hidden complexity in neutral-niche community dynamics. The neutral-niche continuum only holds for strong dispersal limitation and niche separation. For weaker dispersal limitation and niche separation, neutral and niche processes amplify each other via feedback with the environment. This generates patterns that lie well beyond those predicted by a continuum. Inferences drawn from patterns about community assembly processes can therefore be misguided when based on the continuum perspective. CAPS also demonstrates the complementary information value of different patterns for inferring community processes and captures the complexity of community assembly. It provides a general tool for studying the processes structuring communities and can be applied to address a range of questions in community and metacommunity ecology. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Stress-free states of continuum dislocation fields: Rotations, grain boundaries, and the Nye dislocation density tensor

    OpenAIRE

    Limkumnerd, Surachate; Sethna, James P.

    2006-01-01

    We derive general relations between grain boundaries, rotational deformations, and stress-free states for the mesoscale continuum Nye dislocation density tensor. Dislocations generally are associated with long-range stress fields. We provide the general form for dislocation density fields whose stress fields vanish. We explain that a grain boundary (a dislocation wall satisfying Frank's formula) has vanishing stress in the continuum limit. We show that the general stress-free state can be wri...

  4. The geometrical language of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of modern differential geometry within the framework of continuum mechanics. It is divided into three parts of roughly equal length. The book opens with a motivational chapter to impress upon the reader that differential geometry is indeed the natural language of continuum mechanics or, better still, that the latter is a prime example of the application and materialization of the former. In the second part, the fundamental notions of differential geometry are presented with rigor using a writing style that is as informal as possible. Differentiable manifolds, tangent bundles, exterior derivatives, Lie derivatives, and Lie groups are illustrated in terms of their mechanical interpretations. The third part includes the theory of fiber bundles, G-structures, and groupoids, which are applicable to bodies with internal structure and to the description of material inhomogeneity. The abstract notions of differential geometry are thus illuminated by practical and intuitivel...

  5. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  6. Continuum RPA calculation of escape widths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertse, T. (Inst. of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)); Curutchet, P.; Liotta, R.J. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)); Bang, J. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)); Giai, N. van (Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France))

    1991-07-25

    Particle-hole partial decay widths are calculated within the continuum RPA exactly, i.e. without any further approximation, in a square well plus Coulomb potential and using a separable residual interaction. The results are compared with the ones obtained by making pole expansions of the single-particle Green functions (Berggren and Mittag-Leffler). It is found that the Berggren and Mittag-Leffler expansions give results in good agreement with the 'exact' ones. (orig.).

  7. Sensitivity filtering from a continuum mechanics perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    In topology optimization filtering is a popular approach for preventing numerical instabilities. This short note shows that the well-known sensitivity filtering technique, that prevents checkerboards and ensures mesh-independent designs in density-based topology optimization, is equivalent to min...... to minimizing compliance for nonlocal elasticity problems known from continuum mechanics. Hence, the note resolves the long-standing quest for finding an explanation and physical motivation for the sensitivity filter....

  8. Continuum mechanics the birthplace of mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Myron B

    2015-01-01

    Continuum mechanics is a standard course in many graduate programs in engineering and applied mathematics as it provides the foundations for the various differential equations and mathematical models that are encountered in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, and heat transfer.  This book successfully makes the topic more accessible to advanced undergraduate mathematics majors by aligning the mathematical notation and language with related courses in multivariable calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations; making connections with other areas of applied mathematics where parial differe

  9. On the Continuum of Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Lana Lee Munro

    2007-01-01

    Theorists and researchers have long debated as to whether the differences between subthreshold levels of eating disturbances and diagnosable eating disorders are a difference of degree (the continuum hypothesis) or a difference of kind (the discontinuity hypothesis). The present study investigated the relationship between level of eating disordered behaviour and the psychopathology associated with, and thought by some to be prodromal factors in, the development of clinically diagnosable eatin...

  10. Coupling of nonlocal and local continuum models by the Arlequinapproach

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2011-08-09

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply the Arlequin framework to couple nonlocal and local continuum mechanical models. A mechanically-based model of nonlocal elasticity, which involves both contact and long-range forces, is used for the \\'fine scale\\' description in which nonlocal interactions are considered to have non-negligible effects. Classical continuum mechanics only involving local contact forces is introduced for the rest of the structure where these nonlocal effects can be neglected. Both models overlap in a coupling subdomain called the \\'gluing area\\' in which the total energy is separated into nonlocal and local contributions by complementary weight functions. A weak compatibility is ensured between kinematics of both models using Lagrange multipliers over the gluing area. The discrete formulation of this specific Arlequin coupling framework is derived and fully described. The validity and limits of the technique are demonstrated through two-dimensional numerical applications and results are compared against those of the fully nonlocal elasticity method. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Transitioning a unidirectional composite computer model from mesoscale to continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chocron Sidney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic impact on composites has been a challenging problem as seen in the abundant literature about the subject. Continuum models usually cannot properly predict deflection history on the back of the target while at the same time giving reasonable ballistic limits. According to the authors the main reason is that, while continuum models are very good at reproducing the elastic characteristics of the laminate, the models do not capture the behaviour of the “failed” material. A “failed” composite can still be very effective in stopping a projectile, because it can behave very similar to a dry woven fabric. The failure aspect is much easier to capture realistically with a mesoscale model. These models explicitly contain yarns and matrix allowing the matrix to fail while the yarns stay intact and continue to offer resistance to the projectile. This paper summarizes the work performed by the authors on the computationally expensive mesoscale models and, using them as benchmark computations, describes the first steps towards obtaining more computationally effective models that still keep the right physics of the impact.

  12. Morphing continuum theory for turbulence: Theory, computation, and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James

    2017-10-01

    A high order morphing continuum theory (MCT) is introduced to model highly compressible turbulence. The theory is formulated under the rigorous framework of rational continuum mechanics. A set of linear constitutive equations and balance laws are deduced and presented from the Coleman-Noll procedure and Onsager's reciprocal relations. The governing equations are then arranged in conservation form and solved through the finite volume method with a second-order Lax-Friedrichs scheme for shock preservation. A numerical example of transonic flow over a three-dimensional bump is presented using MCT and the finite volume method. The comparison shows that MCT-based direct numerical simulation (DNS) provides a better prediction than Navier-Stokes (NS)-based DNS with less than 10% of the mesh number when compared with experiments. A MCT-based and frame-indifferent Q criterion is also derived to show the coherent eddy structure of the downstream turbulence in the numerical example. It should be emphasized that unlike the NS-based Q criterion, the MCT-based Q criterion is objective without the limitation of Galilean invariance.

  13. The thermal infrared continuum in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Lyndsay; Simoes, Paulo; Kerr, Graham Stewart; Hudson, Hugh S.; Gimenez de Castro, C. Guillermo; Penn, Matthew J.

    2017-08-01

    Observations of the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array have now started, and the thermal infrared will regularly be accessible from the NSF’s Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope. Motivated by the prospect of these new observations, and by recent flare detections in the mid infrared, we set out here to model and understand the source of the infrared continuum in flares, and to explore its diagnostic capability for the physical conditions in the flare atmosphere. We use the 1D radiation hydrodynamics code RADYN to calculate mid-infrared continuum emission from model atmospheres undergoing sudden deposition of energy by non-thermal electrons. We identify and characterise the main continuum thermal emission processes relevant to flare intensity enhancement in the mid- to far-infrared (2-200 micron) spectral range as free-free emission on neutrals and ions. We find that the infrared intensity evolution tracks the energy input to within a second, albeit with a lingering intensity enhancement, and provides a very direct indication of the evolution of the atmospheric ionization. The prediction of highly impulsive emission means that, on these timescales, the atmospheric hydrodynamics need not be considered in analysing the mid-IR signatures.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann algorithm for continuum multicomponent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I.; Hollis, A. P.; Care, C. M.

    2007-08-01

    We present a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation for continuum fluid mechanics, paying particular attention to the component segregation part of the underlying algorithm. In the principal result of this paper, the dynamics of a component index, or phase field, is obtained for a segregation method after U. D’Ortona [Phys. Rev. E 51, 3718 (1995)], due to Latva-Kokko and Rothman [Phys. Rev. E 71 056702 (2005)]. The said dynamics accord with a simulation designed to address multicomponent flow in the continuum approximation and underwrite improved simulation performance in two main ways: (i) by reducing the interfacial microcurrent activity considerably and (ii) by facilitating simulational access to regimes of flow with a low capillary number and drop Reynolds number [I. Halliday, R. Law, C. M. Care, and A. Hollis, Phys. Rev. E 73, 056708 (2006)]. The component segregation method studied, used in conjunction with Lishchuk’s method [S. V. Lishchuk, C. M. Care, and I. Halliday, Phys. Rev. E 67, 036701 (2003)], produces an interface, which is distributed in terms of its component index; however, the hydrodynamic boundary conditions which emerge are shown to support the notion of a sharp, unstructured, continuum interface.

  15. Geometrical foundations of continuum mechanics an application to first- and second-order elasticity and elasto-plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Steinmann, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates the deep roots of the geometrically nonlinear kinematics of generalized continuum mechanics in differential geometry. Besides applications to first- order elasticity and elasto-plasticity an appreciation thereof is particularly illuminating for generalized models of continuum mechanics such as second-order (gradient-type) elasticity and elasto-plasticity.   After a motivation that arises from considering geometrically linear first- and second- order crystal plasticity in Part I several concepts from differential geometry, relevant for what follows, such as connection, parallel transport, torsion, curvature, and metric for holonomic and anholonomic coordinate transformations are reiterated in Part II. Then, in Part III, the kinematics of geometrically nonlinear continuum mechanics are considered. There various concepts of differential geometry, in particular aspects related to compatibility, are generically applied to the kinematics of first- and second- order geometrically nonlinear con...

  16. A 3D steady-state model of a tendon-driven continuum soft manipulator inspired by the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, F; Cianchetti, M; Giorelli, M; Arienti, A; Laschi, C

    2012-06-01

    Control and modelling of continuum robots are challenging tasks for robotic researchers. Most works on modelling are limited to piecewise constant curvature. In many cases they neglect to model the actuators or avoid a continuum approach. In particular, in the latter case this leads to a complex model hardly implemented. In this work, a geometrically exact steady-state model of a tendon-driven manipulator inspired by the octopus arm is presented. It takes a continuum approach, fast enough to be implemented in the control law, and includes a model of the actuation system. The model was experimentally validated and the results are reported. In conclusion, the model presented can be used as a tool for mechanical design of continuum tendon-driven manipulators, for planning control strategies or as internal model in an embedded system.

  17. Turning the Ideal into Reality: Student Perspectives on "Blueprint III's" Implications for Graduate Education in Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Amanda Smith; Proctor, Sherrie L.

    2009-01-01

    "School Psychology: A Blueprint for Training and Practice III" ("Blueprint III"; Ysseldyke et al., 2006) represents a model for future school psychology instruction and practice. This model illustrates how, along a continuum of skill development from "novice" to "expert," school psychologists can develop professional competencies that support…

  18. Harnessing the Interaction Continuum for Subtle Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herranz, Manuel; Olivera, Fernando; Haya, Pablo; Alamán, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    People interact with each other in many levels of attention, intention and meaning. This Interaction Continuum is used daily to deal with different contexts, adapting the interaction to communication needs and available resources. Nevertheless, computer-supported interaction has mainly focused on the most direct, explicit and intrusive types of human to human Interaction such as phone calls, emails, or video conferences. This paper presents the results of exploring and exploiting the potentials of undemanding interaction mechanisms, paying special attention to subtle communication and background interaction. As we argue the benefits of this type of interaction for people with special needs, we present a theoretical framework to define it and propose a proof of concept based on Augmented Objects and a color codification mechanism. Finally, we evaluate and analyze the strengths and limitations of such approach with people with cognitive disabilities. PMID:23012573

  19. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  20. Set theory and the continuum hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. The independence of the continuum hypothesis is the focus of this study by Paul J. Cohen. It presents not only an accessible technical explanation of the author's landmark proof but also a fine introduction to mathematical logic. An emeritus professor of mathematics at Stanford University, Dr. Cohen won two of the most prestigious awards in mathematics: in 1964, he was awarded the American Mathematical Society's Bôcher Prize for analysis; and in 1966, he received the Fields Medal for Logic.

  1. Continuum modeling an approach through practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Muntean, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This book develops continuum modeling skills and approaches the topic from three sides: (1) derivation of global integral laws together with the associated local differential equations, (2) design of constitutive laws and (3) modeling boundary processes. The focus of this presentation lies on many practical examples covering aspects such as coupled flow, diffusion and reaction in porous media or microwave heating of a pizza, as well as traffic issues in bacterial colonies and energy harvesting from geothermal wells. The target audience comprises primarily graduate students in pure and applied mathematics as well as working practitioners in engineering who are faced by nonstandard rheological topics like those typically arising in the food industry.

  2. Histidine in Continuum Electrostatics Protonation State Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Vernon; Stuchebruckhov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    A modification to the standard continuum electrostatics approach to calculate protein pKas which allows for the decoupling of histidine tautomers within a two state model is presented. Histidine with four intrinsically coupled protonation states cannot be easily incorporated into a two state formalism because the interaction between the two protonatable sites of the imidazole ring is not purely electrostatic. The presented treatment, based on a single approximation of the interrelation between histidine’s charge states, allows for a natural separation of the two protonatable sites associated with the imidazole ring as well as the inclusion of all protonation states within the calculation. PMID:22072521

  3. Lyman Continuum Leakage in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitherer, Claus; Hernandez, Svea; Lee, Janice; Oey, Sally

    2015-08-01

    Star-forming galaxies are viable candidates for providing the ionizing photon supply accounting for the reionization of the early universe. However, direct determination of the fraction of ionizing photons that can escape the optically thick galaxy ISM is challenging. I will discuss Lyman continuum observations of a sample of massive young star clusters in local galaxies which take advantage of a new capability of HST's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. The derived photon leakages are compared to values found at high redshift and discussed in the context of cosmological models.

  4. Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.

    2000-12-05

    A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.

  5. Achieving linear scaling in computational cost for a fully polarizable MM/continuum embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprasecca, Stefano; Jurinovich, Sandro; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Lipparini, Filippo

    2015-02-10

    In this paper, we present a new, efficient implementation of a fully polarizable QM/MM/continuum model based on an induced-dipoles polarizable force field and on the Conductor-like Screening Model as a polarizable continuum in combination with a self-consistent field QM method. The paper focuses on the implementation of the MM/continuum embedding, where the two polarizable methods are fully coupled to take into account their mutual polarization. With respect to previous implementations, we achieve for the first time a linear scaling with respect to both the computational cost and the memory requirements without limitations on the molecular cavity shape. This is achieved thanks to the use of the recently developed ddCOSMO model for the continuum and the Fast Multipole Method for the force field, together with an efficient iterative procedure. Therefore, it becomes possible to include in the classical layer as much as several tens of thousands of atoms with a limited computational effort.

  6. Self-limiting CVD of a passivating SiOx control layer on InGaAs(001)-(2x4) with the prevention of III-V oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Mary; Wolf, Steven; Chagarov, Evgueni; Kent, Tyler; Park, Jun Hong; Holmes, Russell; Alvarez, Daniel; Droopad, Ravi; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2017-06-01

    A thin passivating SiOx control layer has been deposited via self-limiting CVD on the InGaAs(001)-(2x4) surface by first depositing 2 monolayers of silicon with -Clx termination using Si2Cl6,and then subsequently oxidizing the silicon seed layer by employing anhydrous HOOH(g) at a substrate temperature of 350 °C. After HOOH(g)) dosing, XPS spectra show a higher binding energy shoulder peak on Si2p indicative of SiOx bonding, while an unshifted Si 2p component remains, and In 3d, Ga 2p, and As 2p peaks show no higher binding energy components consistent with the prevention of III-V oxidation. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements show after SiOx deposition on the InGaAs(001)-(2x4) surface, the bandgap broadens towards that of SiO2, with the electronic structure free of states in the bandgap leaving the surface ready for subsequent gate oxide ALD. Density functional theory calculations support the experimental STS data following TMA dosing, which shows TMA nucleates directly on the SiOx/InGaAs(001) surface and leaves an electrically passive interface with the bandgap free of defect states and the surface ready for high-K gate oxide nucleation.

  7. Continuum model for chiral induced spin selectivity in helical molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Ernesto [Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, 21827, Caracas 1020 A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); González-Arraga, Luis A. [IMDEA Nanoscience, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Finkelstein-Shapiro, Daniel; Mujica, Vladimiro [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Berche, Bertrand [Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, 21827, Caracas 1020 A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2015-05-21

    A minimal model is exactly solved for electron spin transport on a helix. Electron transport is assumed to be supported by well oriented p{sub z} type orbitals on base molecules forming a staircase of definite chirality. In a tight binding interpretation, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) opens up an effective π{sub z} − π{sub z} coupling via interbase p{sub x,y} − p{sub z} hopping, introducing spin coupled transport. The resulting continuum model spectrum shows two Kramers doublet transport channels with a gap proportional to the SOC. Each doubly degenerate channel satisfies time reversal symmetry; nevertheless, a bias chooses a transport direction and thus selects for spin orientation. The model predicts (i) which spin orientation is selected depending on chirality and bias, (ii) changes in spin preference as a function of input Fermi level and (iii) back-scattering suppression protected by the SO gap. We compute the spin current with a definite helicity and find it to be proportional to the torsion of the chiral structure and the non-adiabatic Aharonov-Anandan phase. To describe room temperature transport, we assume that the total transmission is the result of a product of coherent steps.

  8. The continuum model of selection in human tumors: general paradigm or niche product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedham, Simon; Tomlinson, Ian

    2012-07-01

    Berger and colleagues recently proposed a continuum model of how somatic mutations cause tumors to grow, thus supplementing the established binary models, such as oncogene activation and "two hits" at tumor suppressor loci. In the basic continuum model, decreases or increases in gene function, short of full inactivation or activation, impact linearly on cancer development. An extension, called the fail-safe model, envisaged an optimum level of gene derangement for tumor growth, but proposed that the cell gained protection from tumorigenesis because additional mutations caused excessive derangement. Most of the evidence in support of the continuum model came from Pten mutant mice rather than humans. In this article, we assess the validity and applicability of the continuum and fail-safe models. We suggest that the latter is of limited use: In part, it restates the existing "just right" of optimum intermediate gene derangement in tumorigenesis, and in part it is inherently implausible that a cell should avoid becoming cancerous only when it is some way down the road to that state. In contrast, the basic continuum model is a very useful addition to the other genetic models of tumorigenesis, especially in certain scenarios. Fittingly for a quantitative model, we propose that the continuum model is most likely to apply where multiple, cancer-promoting mutations have relatively small, additive effects, either through the well-established case of additive germline predisposition alleles or in a largely hypothetical situation where cancers may have acquired several somatic "mini-driver" mutations, each with weaker effects than classical tumor suppressors or fully activated oncogenes. ©2012 AACR.

  9. Non-coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J., E-mail: tanausu@iac.es, E-mail: rsainz@iac.es, E-mail: jtb@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-03-20

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering at neutral hydrogen and Thomson scattering at free electrons. Often a depolarization of the continuum results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non-coherent continuum scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non-coherence of the continuum scattering may modify the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns significantly, even yielding polarization signals above the continuum level in intrinsically unpolarizable lines.

  10. Continuum deformation of multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rastgoftar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents new algorithms for formation control of multi-agent systems (MAS) based on principles of continuum mechanics. Beginning with an overview of traditional methods, the author then introduces an innovative new approach whereby agents of an MAS are considered as particles in a continuum evolving in ℝn whose desired configuration is required to satisfy an admissible deformation function. The necessary theory and its validation on a mobile-agent-based swarm test bed are considered for two primary tasks: homogeneous transformation of the MAS and deployment of a random distribution of agents on a desired configuration. The framework for this model is based on homogeneous transformations for the evolution of an MAS under no inter-agent communication, local inter-agent communication, and intelligent perception by agents. Different communication protocols for MAS evolution, the robustness of tracking of a desired motion by an MAS evolving in ℝn, and the effect of communication delays in an MAS...

  11. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  12. VLT/MUSE illuminates possible channels for Lyman continuum escape in the halo of SBS 0335-52E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenz, E. C.; Hayes, M.; Papaderos, P.; Cannon, J. M.; Bik, A.; Melinder, J.; Östlin, G.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the discovery of ionised gas filaments in the circum-galactic halo of the extremely metal-poor compact starburst SBS 0335-052E in a 1.5 h integration with the MUSE integral-field spectrograph. We detect these features in Hα and [O iii] emission down to a limiting surface-brightness of 5 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. The filaments have projected diameters of 2.1 kpc and extend more than 9 kpc to the north and north-west from the main stellar body. We also detect extended nebular He ii λ4686 emission that brightens towards the north-west at the rim of a starburst driven super-shell. We also present a velocity field of the ionised gas. The filaments appear to connect seamlessly in velocity space to the kinematical disturbances caused by the shell. Similar to high-z star-forming galaxies, the ionised gas in this galaxy is dispersion dominated. We argue that the filaments were created via feedback from the starburst and that these ionised structures in the halo may act as escape channels for Lyman continuum radiation in this gas-rich system. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 096.B-0690.

  13. Broadly continuously tunable slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers based on a continuum-to-continuum active region design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Bo; Zeng, Yong Quan; Liang, Guozhen; Hu, Xiao Nan; Rodriguez, Etienne [OPTIMUS, Centre for OptoElectronics and Biophotonics, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Tao, Jin [OPTIMUS, Centre for OptoElectronics and Biophotonics, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); CDPT, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Wang, Qi Jie, E-mail: qjwang@ntu.edu.sg [OPTIMUS, Centre for OptoElectronics and Biophotonics, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CDPT, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-09-14

    We report our progress in the development of broadly tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers based on a continuum-to-continuum active region design. The electroluminescence spectrum of the continuum-to-continuum active region design has a full width at half maximum of 440 cm{sup −1} at center wavelength ∼10 μm at room temperature (300 K). Devices using the optimized slot waveguide structure and the continuum-to-continuum design can be tuned continuously with a lasing emission over 42 cm{sup −1}, from 9.74 to 10.16 μm, at room temperature by using only current tuning scheme, together with a side mode suppression ratio of above 15 dB within the whole tuning range.

  14. Continuum kinetic and multi-fluid simulations of classical sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagas, P.; Hakim, A.; Juno, J.; Srinivasan, B.

    2017-02-01

    The kinetic study of plasma sheaths is critical, among other things, to understand the deposition of heat on walls, the effect of sputtering, and contamination of the plasma with detrimental impurities. The plasma sheath also provides a boundary condition and can often have a significant global impact on the bulk plasma. In this paper, kinetic studies of classical sheaths are performed with the continuum kinetic code, Gkeyll, which directly solves the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The code uses a novel version of the finite-element discontinuous Galerkin scheme that conserves energy in the continuous-time limit. The fields are computed using Maxwell equations. Ionization and scattering collisions are included; however, surface effects are neglected. The aim of this work is to introduce the continuum kinetic method and compare its results with those obtained from an already established finite-volume multi-fluid model also implemented in Gkeyll. Novel boundary conditions on the fluids allow the sheath to form without specifying wall fluxes, so the fluids and fields adjust self-consistently at the wall. The work presented here demonstrates that the kinetic and fluid results are in agreement for the momentum flux, showing that in certain regimes, a multi-fluid model can be a useful approximation for simulating the plasma boundary. There are differences in the electrostatic potential between the fluid and kinetic results. Further, the direct solutions of the distribution function presented here highlight the non-Maxwellian distribution of electrons in the sheath, emphasizing the need for a kinetic model. The densities, velocities, and the potential show a good agreement between the kinetic and fluid results. However, kinetic physics is highlighted through higher moments such as parallel and perpendicular temperatures which provide significant differences from the fluid results in which the temperature is assumed to be isotropic. Besides decompression cooling, the heat flux

  15. Radio Continuum Surveys with Square Kilometre Array Pathfinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Afonso, J.; Bacon, D.; Beck, Rainer; Bell, Martin; Beswick, R. J.; Best, Philip; Bhatnagar, Sanjay; Bonafede, Annalisa; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Budavári, Tamás; Cassano, Rossella; Condon, J. J.; Cress, Catherine; Dabbech, Arwa; Feain, I.; Fender, Rob; Ferrari, Chiara; Gaensler, B. M.; Giovannini, G.; Haverkorn, Marijke; Heald, George; Van der Heyden, Kurt; Hopkins, A. M.; Jarvis, M.; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Kothes, Roland; Van Langevelde, Huib; Lazio, Joseph; Mao, Minnie Y.; Martínez-Sansigre, Alejo; Mary, David; Mcalpine, Kim; Middelberg, E.; Murphy, Eric; Padovani, P.; Paragi, Zsolt; Prandoni, I.; Raccanelli, A.; Rigby, Emma; Roseboom, I. G.; Röttgering, H.; Sabater, Jose; Salvato, Mara; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Schilizzi, Richard; Seymour, N.; Smith, Dan J. B.; Umana, Grazia; Zhao, G.-B.; Zinn, Peter-Christian

    2013-03-01

    In the lead-up to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, several next-generation radio telescopes and upgrades are already being built around the world. These include APERTIF (The Netherlands), ASKAP (Australia), e-MERLIN (UK), VLA (USA), e-EVN (based in Europe), LOFAR (The Netherlands), MeerKAT (South Africa), and the Murchison Widefield Array. Each of these new instruments has different strengths, and coordination of surveys between them can help maximise the science from each of them. A radio continuum survey is being planned on each of them with the primary science objective of understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies over cosmic time, and the cosmological parameters and large-scale structures which drive it. In pursuit of this objective, the different teams are developing a variety of new techniques, and refining existing ones. To achieve these exciting scientific goals, many technical challenges must be addressed by the survey instruments. Given the limited resources of the global radio-astronomical community, it is essential that we pool our skills and knowledge. We do not have sufficient resources to enjoy the luxury of re-inventing wheels. We face significant challenges in calibration, imaging, source extraction and measurement, classification and cross-identification, redshift determination, stacking, and data-intensive research. As these instruments extend the observational parameters, we will face further unexpected challenges in calibration, imaging, and interpretation. If we are to realise the full scientific potential of these expensive instruments, it is essential that we devote enough resources and careful study to understanding the instrumental effects and how they will affect the data. We have established an SKA Radio Continuum Survey working group, whose prime role is to maximise science from these instruments by ensuring we share resources and expertise across the projects. Here we describe these projects, their science goals

  16. Lasing action from photonic bound states in continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodigala, Ashok; Lepetit, Thomas; Gu, Qing; Bahari, Babak; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Kanté, Boubacar

    2017-01-01

    In 1929, only three years after the advent of quantum mechanics, von Neumann and Wigner showed that Schrödinger’s equation can have bound states above the continuum threshold. These peculiar states, called bound states in the continuum (BICs), manifest themselves as resonances that do not decay. For several decades afterwards the idea lay dormant, regarded primarily as a mathematical curiosity. In 1977, Herrick and Stillinger revived interest in BICs when they suggested that BICs could be observed in semiconductor superlattices. BICs arise naturally from Feshbach’s quantum mechanical theory of resonances, as explained by Friedrich and Wintgen, and are thus more physical than initially realized. Recently, it was realized that BICs are intrinsically a wave phenomenon and are thus not restricted to the realm of quantum mechanics. They have since been shown to occur in many different fields of wave physics including acoustics, microwaves and nanophotonics. However, experimental observations of BICs have been limited to passive systems and the realization of BIC lasers has remained elusive. Here we report, at room temperature, lasing action from an optically pumped BIC cavity. Our results show that the lasing wavelength of the fabricated BIC cavities, each made of an array of cylindrical nanoresonators suspended in air, scales with the radii of the nanoresonators according to the theoretical prediction for the BIC mode. Moreover, lasing action from the designed BIC cavity persists even after scaling down the array to as few as 8-by-8 nanoresonators. BIC lasers open up new avenues in the study of light-matter interaction because they are intrinsically connected to topological charges and represent natural vector beam sources (that is, there are several possible beam shapes), which are highly sought after in the fields of optical trapping, biological sensing and quantum information.

  17. Modeling the elastic energy of alloys: Potential pitfalls of continuum treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Arvind; Ratsch, Christian; Smereka, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Some issues that arise when modeling elastic energy for binary alloys are discussed within the context of a Keating model and density-functional calculations. The Keating model is a simplified atomistic formulation based on modeling elastic interactions of a binary alloy with harmonic springs whose equilibrium length is species dependent. It is demonstrated that the continuum limit for the strain field are the usual equations of linear elasticity for alloys and that they correctly capture the coarse-grained behavior of the displacement field. In addition, it is established that Euler-Lagrange equation of the continuum limit of the elastic energy will yield the same strain field equation. This is the same energy functional that is often used to model elastic effects in binary alloys. However, a direct calculation of the elastic energy atomistic model reveals that the continuum expression for the elastic energy is both qualitatively and quantitatively incorrect. This is because it does not take atomistic scale compositional nonuniformity into account. Importantly, this result also shows that finely mixed alloys tend to have more elastic energy than segregated systems, which is the exact opposite of predictions made by some continuum theories. It is also shown that for strained thin films the traditionally used effective misfit for alloys systematically underestimate the strain energy. In some models, this drawback is handled by including an elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing, which is characterized in terms of the continuum concentration. The direct calculation of the atomistic model reveals that this approach suffers serious difficulties. It is demonstrated that elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing is nonisotropic and scale dependent. It is also shown that such effects are present in density-functional theory calculations for the Si-Ge system. This work demonstrates that it is critical to include the microscopic arrangements in any elastic

  18. Continuum Source Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with a Photodiode Array Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Reshan Armedious

    The designed continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer consists of a 300W xenon arc lamp (ILC Technology), a flame (Perkin-Elmer) or graphite furnace (Perkin-Elmer, Model HGA 2200) atomizer, a 1.33M focal length high resolution monochromator with 3600 gr/mm grating (McPherson, Model 209), and a 2048-element self scanning linear photodiode array detector (Princeton Instruments, Model PDA-2048). Detector operation, data acquisition and processing was done by using a 66MHz 486 DX/2 personal computer (Gateway 2000). In stage one, the system was optimized for flame atomization. The optimum lamp current, entrance slit width and height were found to be 10A, 20 mum, and 4 mm respectively. The resulted spectral band-pass of the monochromator/PDA combination is on the order of the average atomic absorption profile half-width (0.003 -0.004 nm). The flame parameters such as observation height, air/fuel ratio, and solution uptake rate were optimized along with the detector parameters such as exposure and accumulation for the lowest possible detection limit. The system has clearly demonstrated its multi-element detection capabilities. The calculated detection limits for the present system with an air-acetylene flame is approximately one order of magnitude lower than previously reported CSAAS detection limits, and are on the same order of magnitude as those commonly observed with single element hollow cathode lamp systems. In stage two, flame atomizer was replaced by a graphite furnace atomizer. When compared to the static signal given out by flame atomizer, the graphite furnace produces transient signals. Fast response time of the PDA is well within the time scale of the transient signals produce in graphite furnace and the multi-wavelength detection allows the background correction to be performed by visual inspection. The detection limits calculated for the present system are significantly lower than those previously reported for multi-element CSAAS systems, and are on

  19. A continuum theory of edge dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, V. L.

    2017-09-01

    Continuum theory of dislocation aims to describe the behavior of large ensembles of dislocations. This task is far from completion, and, most likely, does not have a ;universal solution;, which is applicable to any dislocation ensemble. In this regards it is important to have guiding lines set by benchmark cases, where the transition from a discrete set of dislocations to a continuum description is made rigorously. Two such cases have been considered recently: equilibrium of dislocation walls and screw dislocations in beams. In this paper one more case is studied, equilibrium of a large set of 2D edge dislocations placed randomly in a 2D bounded region. The major characteristic of interest is energy of dislocation ensemble, because it determines the structure of continuum equations. The homogenized energy functional is obtained for the periodic dislocation ensembles with a random contents of the periodic cell. Parameters of the periodic structure can change slowly on distances of order of the size of periodic cells. The energy functional is obtained by the variational-asymptotic method. Equilibrium positions are local minima of energy. It is confirmed the earlier assertion that energy density of the system is the sum of elastic energy of averaged elastic strains and microstructure energy, which is elastic energy of the neutralized dislocation system, i.e. the dislocation system placed in a constant dislocation density field making the averaged dislocation density zero. The computation of energy is reduced to solution of a variational cell problem. This problem is solved analytically. The solution is used to investigate stability of simple dislocation arrays, i.e. arrays with one dislocation in the periodic cell. The relations obtained yield two outcomes: First, there is a state parameter of the system, dislocation polarization; averaged stresses affect only dislocation polarization and cannot change other characteristics of the system. Second, the structure of

  20. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care Continuum in China: 1985-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ye; Dou, Zhihui; Guo, Wei; Mao, Yurong; Zhang, Fujie; McGoogan, Jennifer M; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Decai; Wu, Yasong; Liu, Zhongfu; Wu, Zunyou

    2017-12-05

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care continuum attrition is a major global public health challenge. Few studies have examined this problem in resource-limited settings. We aimed to assess cumulative, current, and historical achievement along China's HIV continuum of care. A nationwide, serial cross-sectional study of all individuals with HIV infection diagnosed in China between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2015 was conducted using data from China's HIV/AIDS information systems. Biennial estimates of the number of persons living with HIV were also used. We defined 7 steps in HIV care continuum as infected (estimated), diagnosed, linked, retained, enrolled, receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and virally suppressed. Cumulative, 30-year performance, and biennial performance during the most recent 10 years were examined. A total of 573529 persons diagnosed with HIV infection were included. Cumulatively, 94% were linked, 88% were retained, 73% were enrolled, 67% were receiving ART, and 44% were suppressed. Greatest attrition was observed for adolescents, minorities, and those who reported injecting drug use as their route of infection. Improvement was observed from 2005 to 2015. As of the end of 2015, 68% among those infected were diagnosed, 67% among diagnosed were receiving ART, and 65% among those receiving ART were virally suppressed. After adjusting for those without viral load testing, the proportion suppressed increased to 89%. Despite dramatic improvements, China faces serious challenges in achieving the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 targets, because of substantial attrition along its continuum of HIV care.

  1. Variational continuum multiphase poroelasticity theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Serpieri, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This book collects the theoretical derivation of a recently presented general variational macroscopic continuum theory of multiphase poroelasticity (VMTPM), together with its applications to consolidation and stress partitioning problems of interest in several applicative engineering contexts, such as in geomechanics and biomechanics. The theory is derived based on a purely-variational deduction, rooted in the least-Action principle, by considering a minimal set of kinematic descriptors. The treatment herein considered keeps a specific focus on the derivation of most general medium-independent governing equations. It is shown that VMTPM recovers paradigms of consolidated use in multiphase poroelasticity such as Terzaghi's stress partitioning principle and Biot's equations for wave propagation. In particular, the variational treatment permits the derivation of a general medium-independent stress partitioning law, and the proposed variational theory predicts that the external stress, the fluid pressure, and the...

  2. Continuum Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Fausnaugh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We show recent detections of inter-band continuum lags in three AGN (NGC 5548, NGC 2617, and MCG+08-11-011, which provide new constraints on the temperature profiles and absolute sizes of the accretion disks. We find lags larger than would be predicted for standard geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disks by factors of 2.3–3.3. For NGC 5548, the data span UV through optical/near-IR wavelengths, and we are able to discern a steeper temperature profile than the T ~ R−3/4 expected for a standard thin disk. Using a physical model, we are also able to estimate the inclinations of the disks for two objects. These results are similar to those found from gravitational microlensing of strongly lensed quasars, and provide a complementary approach for investigating the accretion disk structure in local, low luminosity AGN.

  3. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  4. Continuum Damage Mechanics A Continuum Mechanics Approach to the Analysis of Damage and Fracture

    CERN Document Server

    Murakami, Sumio

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in engineering and technology have brought about serious and enlarged demands for reliability, safety and economy in wide range of fields such as aeronautics, nuclear engineering, civil and structural engineering, automotive and production industry.  This, in turn, has caused more interest in continuum damage mechanics and its engineering applications.   This book aims to give a concise overview of the current state of damage mechanics, and then to show the fascinating possibility of this promising branch of mechanics, and to provide researchers, engineers and graduate students with an intelligible and self-contained textbook.   The book consists of two parts and an appendix.  Part I  is concerned with the foundation of continuum damage mechanics.  Basic concepts of material damage and the mechanical representation of damage state of various kinds are described in Chapters 1 and 2.  In Chapters 3-5, irreversible thermodynamics, thermodynamic constitutive theory and its application ...

  5. The urban watershed continuum: evolving spatial and temporal dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujay S. Kaushal; Kenneth T. Belt

    2012-01-01

    Urban ecosystems are constantly evolving, and they are expected to change in both space and time with active management or degradation. An urban watershed continuum framework recognizes a continuum of engineered and natural hydrologic flowpaths that expands hydrologic networks in ways that are seldom considered. It recognizes that the nature of hydrologic connectivity...

  6. Continuum Thinking and the Contexts of Personal Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvila, Isto; Eriksen, Jon; Häusner, Eva-Maria; Jansson, Ina-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent personal information management literature has underlined the significance of the contextuality of personal information and its use. The present article discusses the applicability of the records continuum model and its generalisation, continuum thinking, as a theoretical framework for explicating the overlap and evolution of…

  7. Continuum of Counseling Goals: A Framework for Differentiating Counseling Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Presents counseling goals in a developmental continuum similar in concept to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Discusses ego development goals, socialization goals, developmental goals, self-esteem goals, and self-realization goals and describes characteristics and implications of the continuum. (JAC)

  8. Teaching Continuum Mechanics in a Mechanical Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a graduate course, continuum mechanics, which is designed for and taught to graduate students in a Mechanical Engineering (ME) program. The significance of continuum mechanics in engineering education is demonstrated and the course structure is described. Methods used in teaching this course such as topics, class…

  9. Determining decision thresholds and evaluating indicators when conservation status is measured as a continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, B M; Cooper, A B

    2014-12-01

    Categorization of the status of populations, species, and ecosystems underpins most conservation activities. Status is often based on how a system's current indicator value (e.g., change in abundance) relates to some threshold of conservation concern. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves can be used to quantify the statistical reliability of indicators of conservation status and evaluate trade-offs between correct (true positive) and incorrect (false positive) classifications across a range of decision thresholds. However, ROC curves assume a discrete, binary relationship between an indicator and the conservation status it is meant to track, which is a simplification of the more realistic continuum of conservation status, and may limit the applicability of ROC curves in conservation science. We describe a modified ROC curve that treats conservation status as a continuum rather than a discrete state. We explored the influence of this continuum and typical sources of variation in abundance that can lead to classification errors (i.e., random variation and measurement error) on the true and false positive rates corresponding to varying decision thresholds and the reliability of change in abundance as an indicator of conservation status, respectively. We applied our modified ROC approach to an indicator of endangerment in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) (i.e., percent decline in geometric mean abundance) and an indicator of marine ecosystem structure and function (i.e., detritivore biomass). Failure to treat conservation status as a continuum when choosing thresholds for indicators resulted in the misidentification of trade-offs between true and false positive rates and the overestimation of an indicator's reliability. We argue for treating conservation status as a continuum when ROC curves are used to evaluate decision thresholds in indicators for the assessment of conservation status. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation-quantified continuum generation in an all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber for broadband coherent optical sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Sharma, Utkarsh; Siegel, Martin; Kopf, Daniel; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We quantitatively predict the observed continuum-like spectral broadening in a 90-mm weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber pumped by 1041-nm 229-fs 76-MHz pulses from a solid-state Yb:KYW laser. The well-characterized continuum pulses span a bandwidth of up to 300 nm around the laser wavelength, allowing high spectral power density pulse shaping useful for various coherent control applications. We also identify the nonlinear polarization effect that limits the bandwidth of these continuum pulses, and therefore report the path toward a series of attractive alternative broadband coherent optical sources. PMID:21197060

  11. Strauss (1969) revisited: a psychosis continuum in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, J; Hanssen, M; Bijl, R V; Ravelli, A

    2000-09-29

    Although dichotomously defined for clinical purposes, psychosis may exist as a continuous phenotype in nature. A random sample of 7076 men and women aged 18-64years were interviewed by trained lay interviewers with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Those with evidence of psychosis according to the CIDI were additionally interviewed by psychiatrists. For the 17 CIDI core psychosis items, we compared a psychiatrist's rating of hallucinations and/or delusions (Clinical Psychosis; sample prevalence 4.2%) with three other possible positive CIDI ratings of the same items: (i) symptom present, but not clinically relevant (NCR Symptom; sample prevalence 12.9%); (ii) symptom present, but the result of drugs or somatic disorder (Secondary Symptom; sample prevalence 0.6%); (iii) symptom appears present, but there is a plausible explanation (Plausible Symptom; sample prevalence 4.0%). Of the 1237 individuals with any type of positive psychosis rating (sample prevalence 17.5%), only 26 (2.1%) had a DSM-III-R diagnosis of non-affective psychosis. All the different types of psychosis ratings were strongly associated with the presence of psychiatrist-rated Clinical Psychosis (NCR Symptom: OR=3.4; 95% CI: 2.9-3.9; Secondary Symptom: OR=4.5; 95% CI: 2.7-7.7; Plausible Symptom: OR=5.8; 95% CI: 4.7-7.1). Associations with lower age, single marital status, urban dwelling, lower level of education, lower quality of life, depressive symptoms and blunting of affect did not differ qualitatively as a function of type of rating of the psychotic symptom, were similar in individuals with and without any CIDI lifetime diagnosis, and closely resembled those previously reported for schizophrenia. Presence of any rating of hallucinations was strongly associated with any rating of delusions (OR=6.7; 95% CI: 5.6-8.1), regardless of presence of any CIDI lifetime diagnosis. The observation by Strauss (1969. Hallucinations and delusions as points on continua function. Arch. Gen

  12. A High Signal-To-Noise Ultraviolet Spectrum of NGC 7469: New Support for Reprocessing of Continuum Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Gerard A.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Zheng, Wei

    2000-01-01

    From 1996 June 10 to 1996 July 29, the International AGN Watch monitored the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 using the International Ultraviolet Explorer, the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer, and a network of ground-based observatories. On 1996 June 18, in the midst of this intensive monitoring period, we obtained a high signal-to-noise snapshot of the UV spectrum from 1150 to 3300 A, using the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. This spectrum allows us to disentangle the UV continuum more accurately from the broad wings of the emission lines, to identify clean continuum windows free of contaminating emission and absorption, and to deblend line complexes such as Ly(alpha) + N V, C IV + He II + O III], Si III] + C III], and Mg II + Fe II. Using the FOS spectrum as a template, we have fitted and extracted line and continuum fluxes from the IUE monitoring data. The cleaner continuum extractions c o n h the discovery of time delays between the different UV continuum bands by Wanders et al. Our new measurements show delays increasing with wavelength for continuum bands centered at 1485, 1740, and 1825 A, relative to 1315 A with delays of 0.09, 0.28, and 0.36 days, respectively. Like many other Seyfert I galaxies, the UV spectrum of NGC 7469 shows intrinsic, blue-shifted absorption in Ly(alpha), N V, and C IV. Soft X-ray absorption is also visible in archival ASCA X-ray spectra. The strength of the UV absorption, however, is not compatible with a single-zone model in which the same material absorbs both the UV and X-ray light. Similar to other Seyfert galaxies, such as NGC 3516, the UV-absorbing gas in NGC 7469 has a lower ionization parameter and column density than the X-ray-absorbing material. While the UV and X-ray absorption does not arise in the same material, the frequent occurrence of both associated UV absorption and X-ray warm absorbers in the same galaxies suggests that the gas supply for each has a common origin.

  13. A robust, coupled approach for atomistic-continuum simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, Sylvie; Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wagner, Gregory John; Klein, Patrick A.; Jones, Reese E.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Hoyt, Jeffrey John (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kimmer, Christopher J.

    2004-09-01

    This report is a collection of documents written by the group members of the Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project titled 'A Robust, Coupled Approach to Atomistic-Continuum Simulation'. Presented in this document is the development of a formulation for performing quasistatic, coupled, atomistic-continuum simulation that includes cross terms in the equilibrium equations that arise due to kinematic coupling and corrections used for the calculation of system potential energy to account for continuum elements that overlap regions containing atomic bonds, evaluations of thermo-mechanical continuum quantities calculated within atomistic simulations including measures of stress, temperature and heat flux, calculation used to determine the appropriate spatial and time averaging necessary to enable these atomistically-defined expressions to have the same physical meaning as their continuum counterparts, and a formulation to quantify a continuum 'temperature field', the first step towards constructing a coupled atomistic-continuum approach capable of finite temperature and dynamic analyses.

  14. Equivalent-Continuum Modeling With Application to Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2002-01-01

    A method has been proposed for developing structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with equivalent-continuum models. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As important examples with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the design of nanotube-based devices, the modeling technique has been applied to determine the effective-continuum geometry and bending rigidity of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the chemical structure of graphene has been substituted with equivalent-truss and equivalent continuum models. As a result, an effective thickness of the continuum model has been determined. This effective thickness has been shown to be significantly larger than the interatomic spacing of graphite. The effective thickness has been shown to be significantly larger than the inter-planar spacing of graphite. The effective bending rigidity of the equivalent-continuum model of a graphene sheet was determined by equating the vibrational potential energy of the molecular model of a graphene sheet subjected to cylindrical bending with the strain energy of an equivalent continuum plate subjected to cylindrical bending.

  15. Multigrid treatment of implicit continuum diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisquez, Manaure; Zhu, Ben; Rogers, Barrett

    2017-10-01

    Implicit treatment of diffusive terms of various differential orders common in continuum mechanics modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics, is investigated with spectral and multigrid algorithms in non-periodic 2D domains. In doubly periodic time dependent problems these terms can be efficiently and implicitly handled by spectral methods, but in non-periodic systems solved with distributed memory parallel computing and 2D domain decomposition, this efficiency is lost for large numbers of processors. We built and present here a multigrid algorithm for these types of problems which outperforms a spectral solution that employs the highly optimized FFTW library. This multigrid algorithm is not only suitable for high performance computing but may also be able to efficiently treat implicit diffusion of arbitrary order by introducing auxiliary equations of lower order. We test these solvers for fourth and sixth order diffusion with idealized harmonic test functions as well as a turbulent 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulation. It is also shown that an anisotropic operator without cross-terms can improve model accuracy and speed, and we examine the impact that the various diffusion operators have on the energy, the enstrophy, and the qualitative aspect of a simulation. This work was supported by DOE-SC-0010508. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  16. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scott Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1 The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence; (2 logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3 a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  17. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone - And Some More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    Quite trivially, Continuum mechanics per se deals with the description of deformations of three-dimensional continua i.e. models whose properties are independent of scale in that the continuum does not possess a structure. Thus, continuum mechanics does not try to model the atomic structure...... of the involved materials- perhaps not even the crystalline or spongy, or lumpy structure- but offers a "smeared-out" version of the real world. Also, the desired description depends very much on the needs of the dicipline in question....

  18. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone - and Some More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    Quite trivially, Continuum mechanics per se deals with the description of deformations of three-dimensional continua i.e. models whose properties are independent of scale in that the continuum does not possess a structure. Thus, continuum mechanics does not try to model the atomic structure...... of the involved materials- perhaps not even the crystalline or spongy, or lumpy structure- but offers a "smeared-out" version of the real world. Also, the desired description depends very much on the needs of the discipline in question....

  19. Continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popadic, A.; Praprotnik, M.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are complemented with the Navier slip boundary condition with a slip length that is extracted from related molecular dynamics simulations. We find that several quantities of interest...... as computed by the present model are in good agreement with results from atomistic and atomistic-continuum simulations at a fraction of the cost. We simulate the flow past a single fullerene and an array of fullerenes and demonstrate that such nanoscale flows can be computed efficiently by continuum flow...

  20. SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part II. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, S.W.; Laursen, T.A.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes the key continuum mechanics concepts required for the systematic prescription and numerical solution of finite deformation solid mechanics problems. Topics surveyed include measures of deformation appropriate for media undergoing large deformations, stress measures appropriate for such problems, balance laws and their role in nonlinear continuum mechanics, the role of frame indifference in description of large deformation response, and the extension of these theories to encompass two dimensional idealizations, structural idealizations, and rigid body behavior. There are three companion reports that describe the problem formulation, constitutive modeling, and finite element technology for nonlinear continuum mechanics systems.

  1. Understanding Stoichiometric Controls in Nutrient Processing Along the River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Van Horn, D. J.; Covino, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Eutrophication is the second most common cause of water impairment across the U.S. Nutrient retention in streams is controlled by physical and biochemical processes, including biomass availability and stoichiometric limitations. Decoupling the interactions between hydrology, nutrient supply and biogeochemical processes remains challenging for the scientific community due to lack of mechanistic understanding. Consequently, more knowledge regarding optimal controls for nutrient retention is needed to implement better management and restoration practices. We conducted column experiments to investigate how stoichiometric limitations influence nutrient spiraling in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (which spans eight stream orders), in New Mexico, USA. In each stream order we incubated six columns packed with different sediments (i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (>2mm) and native sediments) from each site for three months. We performed two laboratory tracer experiments using columns of each substrate under identical flow conditions. In the first experiment we added a short-term pulse of reactive and conservative tracers (i.e. NaNO3 and NaBr). In the second experiment we added a short-term pulse of NaBr and nutrients following Redfield's ratio (106C:16N:1P). We estimated uptake kinetics using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) method and evaluated how ideal stoichiometric conditions controlled efficient nutrient retention along fluvial networks. Our results suggest that biological uptake of nitrate is limited by nitrogen in headwater streams and by phosphorus and carbon in larger stream orders.

  2. A modular particle continuum numerical method for hypersonic non-equilibrium gas flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzentruber, T. E.; Scalabrin, L. C.; Boyd, I. D.

    2007-07-01

    A modular particle-continuum (MPC) numerical method for steady-state flows is presented which solves the Navier-Stokes equations in regions of near-equilibrium and uses the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to simulate regions of non-equilibrium gas flow. Existing, state-of-the-art, DSMC and Navier-Stokes solvers are coupled together using a novel modular implementation which requires only a limited number of additional hybrid functions. Hybrid functions are used to adaptively position particle-continuum interfaces and update boundary conditions in each module at appropriate times. The MPC method is validated for 2D flow over a cylinder at various hypersonic Mach numbers where the global Knudsen number is 0.01. For the cases considered, the MPC method is verified to accurately reproduce DSMC flow field results as well as local particle velocity distributions up to 2.2 times faster than full DSMC simulations.

  3. Chronic pain assessment from bench to bedside: lessons along the translation continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bryan

    2016-12-01

    The first step to providing effective healthcare is accurate assessment and diagnosis. The importance of accurate assessment is particularly important for chronic pain, given its subjective and multidimensional nature. The purpose of the current review is to discuss the dilemma of chronic pain assessment within a translational framework. First, assessment issues specific to chronic pain will be introduced along the entire continuum of translational activities. Important barriers along the continuum include inconsistent measurement of pain, possibly inaccurate preclinical models, and other practical limitations such as time, cost, and training. Second, the review will highlight promising areas worth further consideration in research and practice to bridge some of the gaps that currently impede effective chronic pain assessment and care. Specifically, consideration will be given to observational, biological, and technology-driven measures of chronic pain.

  4. ON CONTINUUM-DRIVEN WINDS FROM ROTATING STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shacham, Tomer; Shaviv, Nir J. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2012-10-01

    We study the dynamics of continuum-driven winds from rotating stars and develop an approximate analytical model. We then discuss the evolution of stellar angular momentum, and show that just above the Eddington limit, the winds are sufficiently concentrated toward the poles to spin-up the star. A twin-lobe structure of the ejected nebula is seen to be a generic consequence of critical rotation. We find that if the pressure in such stars is sufficiently dominated by radiation, an equatorial ejection of mass will occur during eruptions. These results are then applied to {eta}-Carinae. We show that if it began its life with a high enough angular momentum, the present-day wind could have driven the star toward critical rotation, if it is the dominant mode of mass loss. We find that the shape and size of the Homunculus nebula, as given by our model, agree with recent observations. Moreover, the contraction expected due to the sudden increase in luminosity at the onset of the Great Eruption explains the equatorial 'skirt' as well.

  5. On Continuum-driven Winds from Rotating Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Tomer; Shaviv, Nir J.

    2012-10-01

    We study the dynamics of continuum-driven winds from rotating stars and develop an approximate analytical model. We then discuss the evolution of stellar angular momentum, and show that just above the Eddington limit, the winds are sufficiently concentrated toward the poles to spin-up the star. A twin-lobe structure of the ejected nebula is seen to be a generic consequence of critical rotation. We find that if the pressure in such stars is sufficiently dominated by radiation, an equatorial ejection of mass will occur during eruptions. These results are then applied to η-Carinae. We show that if it began its life with a high enough angular momentum, the present-day wind could have driven the star toward critical rotation, if it is the dominant mode of mass loss. We find that the shape and size of the Homunculus nebula, as given by our model, agree with recent observations. Moreover, the contraction expected due to the sudden increase in luminosity at the onset of the Great Eruption explains the equatorial "skirt" as well.

  6. Analysis of thermodiffusive cellular instabilities in continuum combustion fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Hossein; Gurevich, Sebastian; Provatas, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    We explore numerically the morphological patterns of thermodiffusive instabilities in combustion fronts with a continuum fuel source, within a range of Lewis numbers and ignition temperatures, focusing on the cellular regime. For this purpose, we generalize the recent model of Brailovsky et al. to include distinct process kinetics and reactant heterogeneity. The generalized model is derived analytically and validated with other established models in the limit of infinite Lewis number for zero-order and first-order kinetics. Cellular and dendritic instabilities are found at low Lewis numbers. These are studied using a dynamic adaptive mesh refinement technique that allows very large computational domains, thus allowing us to reduce finite-size effects that can affect or even preclude the emergence of these patterns. Our numerical linear stability analysis is consistent with the analytical results of Brailovsky et al. The distinct types of dynamics found in the vicinity of the critical Lewis number, ranging from steady-state cells to continued tip splitting and cell merging, are well described within the framework of thermodiffusive instabilities and are consistent with previous numerical studies. These types of dynamics are classified as "quasilinear" and characterized by low-amplitude cells that may be strongly affected by the mode selection mechanism and growth prescribed by the linear theory. Below this range of Lewis number, highly nonlinear effects become prominent and large-amplitude, complex cellular and seaweed dendritic morphologies emerge.

  7. Fracture in a higher-order elastic continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, M. X.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, K. C.

    2000-12-01

    We have obtained analytically the mode I and mode II full-field solutions for a semi-infinite crack in an infinite solid characterized by the higher-order elastic continuum theory. The theory is the limit of the strain gradient plasticity theory (Fleck, N.A., Hutchinson, J.W., 1997. Strain gradient plasticity. In: Hutchinson, J.W., Wu, T.Y. (Eds.), Advances in Applied Mechanics, vol. 33. Academic Press, New York, 295-361) with the plastic work hardening exponent n=1. It also represents the macroscopic behavior of cellular materials. The analytical solution shows the transition from remotely imposed classical K field to the asymptotic field near the crack tip over the internal material lengths associated with the stretch gradient and rotation gradient of deformation. It is established that the asymptotic crack tip fields have no domain of physical validity because the stress tractions have the incorrect sign within a zone on the order of internal material length l1 associated with the stretch gradient of deformation. This analytical full-field solution can be used as an important benchmark for the various finite elements developed for strain gradient plasticity.

  8. Microstructural and continuum evolution modeling of sintering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braginsky, Michael V.; Olevsky, Eugene A. (San Diego State University, San Diego, CA); Johnson, D. Lynn (Northwest University, Evanston, IL); Tikare, Veena; Garino, Terry J.; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2003-12-01

    All ceramics and powder metals, including the ceramics components that Sandia uses in critical weapons components such as PZT voltage bars and current stacks, multi-layer ceramic MET's, ahmindmolybdenum & alumina cermets, and ZnO varistors, are manufactured by sintering. Sintering is a critical, possibly the most important, processing step during manufacturing of ceramics. The microstructural evolution, the macroscopic shrinkage, and shape distortions during sintering will control the engineering performance of the resulting ceramic component. Yet, modeling and prediction of sintering behavior is in its infancy, lagging far behind the other manufacturing models, such as powder synthesis and powder compaction models, and behind models that predict engineering properties and reliability. In this project, we developed a model that was capable of simulating microstructural evolution during sintering, providing constitutive equations for macroscale simulation of shrinkage and distortion during sintering. And we developed macroscale sintering simulation capability in JAS3D. The mesoscale model can simulate microstructural evolution in a complex powder compact of hundreds or even thousands of particles of arbitrary shape and size by 1. curvature-driven grain growth, 2. pore migration and coalescence by surface diffusion, 3. vacancy formation, grain boundary diffusion and annihilation. This model was validated by comparing predictions of the simulation to analytical predictions for simple geometries. The model was then used to simulate sintering in complex powder compacts. Sintering stress and materials viscous module were obtained from the simulations. These constitutive equations were then used by macroscopic simulations for simulating shrinkage and shape changes in FEM simulations. The continuum theory of sintering embodied in the constitutive description of Skorohod and Olevsky was combined with results from microstructure evolution simulations to model shrinkage

  9. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals

  10. PREFACE: Continuum Models and Discrete Systems Symposia (CMDS-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2011-09-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Continuum Models and Discrete Systems (CMDS-12) (http://www.saha.ac.in/cmp/cmds.12/) took place at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kolkata from 21-25 February 2011. Previous CMDS symposia were held in Kielce (Poland, 1975), Mont Gabriel (Canada, 1977), Freudenstadt (Federal Republic of Germany, 1979), Stockholm (Sweden, 1981), Nottingham (United Kingdom, 1985), Dijon (France, 1989), Paderborn (Germany, 1992), Varna (Bulgaria, 1995), Istanbul (Turkey, 1998), Shoresh (Israel, 2003) and Paris (France, 2007). The broad interdisciplinary character, limited number of participants (not exceeding 100) and informal and friendly atmosphere of these meetings has made them a well-acknowledged place to make highly fruitful contacts and exchange ideas, methods and results. The purpose of CMDS is to bring together scientists with different backgrounds who work on continuum theories of discrete mechanical and thermodynamical systems in the fields of mathematics, theoretical and applied mechanics, physics, material science, and engineering. The spirit of the CMDS meetings is to stimulate extensive and active interdisciplinary research. The International Scientific Committee members of this conference were: David J Bergman (Chairman CMDS 10), Tel Aviv University, Israel; Bikas K Chakrabarti (Chairman CMDS 12), Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, India; Alex Hansen, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Hans Jürgen Herrmann, Institute for Building Materials, ETH, Switzerland; Esin Inan (Chairman CMDS 9), Istanbul Technical University, Turkey; Dominique Jeulin (Chairman CMDS 11), Ecole des Mines de Paris, France; Frank Juelicher, Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Germany; Hikaru Kawamura, University of Osaka, Japan; Graeme Milton, University of Utah, USA; Natalia Movchan, University of Liverpool, UK; and Ping Sheng, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong. At CMDS-12 the topics

  11. Mentorship: The Education-Research Continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correll, D

    2008-05-29

    Mentoring of science students stems naturally from the intertwined link between science education and science research. In fact, the mentoring relationship between a student and a scientist may be thought of analogically as a type of double helix forming the 'DNA' that defines the blueprint for the next generation of scientists. Although this analogy would not meet the rigorous tests commonly used for exploring the natural laws of the universe, the image depicted does capture how creating and sustaining the future science workforce benefits greatly from the continuum between education and research. The path science students pursue from their education careers to their research careers often involves training under an experienced and trusted advisor, i.e., a mentor. For many undergraduate science students, a summer research internship at a DOE National Laboratory is one of the many steps they will take in their Education-Research Continuum. Scientists who choose to be mentors share a commitment for both science education and science research. This commitment is especially evident within the research staff found throughout the Department of Energy's National Laboratories. Research-based internship opportunities within science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) exist at most, if not all, of the Laboratories. Such opportunities for students are helping to create the next generation of highly trained professionals devoted to the task of keeping America at the forefront of scientific innovation. 'The Journal of Undergraduate Research' (JUR) provides undergraduate interns the opportunity to publish their scientific innovation and to share their passion for education and research with fellow students and scientists. The theme of this issue of the JUR (Vol. 8, 2008) is 'Science for All'. Almost 20 years have passed since the American Association for the Advancement of Science published its 1989 report, 'Science for All

  12. Evaluation the Effectiveness of the US Navy Leadership Continuum Curricula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duncan-White, Delores

    1997-01-01

    .... A Leadership Continuum Survey Questionnaire was developed to identified and analyze the student's attitudes concerning the effectiveness of the knowledge and skills taught in the course and how these...

  13. Equivalent-Continuum Modeling of Nano-Structured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2001-01-01

    A method has been developed for modeling structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with an equivalent-continuum model. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As an important example with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the model has been applied to determine the effective continuum geometry of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the equivalent-continuum model has been developed with an effective thickness. This effective thickness has been shown to be similar to, but slightly smaller than, the interatomic spacing of graphite.

  14. Asymmetric continuum extreme processes in solids and fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Teisseyre, Roman

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with a class of basic deformations in asymmetric continuum theory. It describes molecular deformations and transport velocities in fluids, strain deformations in solids as well as the molecular transport, important in fracture processes.

  15. IUTAM-Symposium on The Generalized Cosserat Continuum and the Continuum Theory of Dislocations with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    1968-01-01

    5 The symposium was held in Freudenstadt from 28\\h to 31 \\ ofAugust st nd 1967 and in Stuttgart from 1 to 2 of September 1967. The proposal to hold this symposium originated with the German Society of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (GAMM) late in 1964 and was examined by a committee of IUTAM especially appointed for this purpose. The basis of this examination was a report in which the present situation in the field and the possible aims of the symposium were surveyed. Briefly, the aims of the symposium were stated to be 1. the unification of the various approaches developed in recent years with the aim of penetrating into the microscopic world of matter by means of continuum theories; 2. the bridging of the gap between microscopic (or atomic) research on mechanics on one hand, and the phenomenological (or continuum mechanical) approach on the other hand; 3. the physical interpretation and the relation to actual material behaviour of the quantities and laws introduced into the new theories, together with ap...

  16. Bursts and shocks in a continuum shell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Bohr, Tomas; Jensen, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    We study a burst event, i.e., the evolution of an initial condition having support only in a finite interval of k-space, in the continuum shell model due to Parisi. We show that the continuum equation without forcing or dissipation can be explicitly written in characteristic form and that the right...... and left moving parts can be solved exactly. When this is supplemented by the approximate shock condition it is possible to find the symptotic form of the burst....

  17. Progress in Using Continuum radiation for AXAF Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Austin, R. A.; Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Swartz, D. A.; Tennant, A. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zirnstein, G.; McDermott, W. C.; hide

    1998-01-01

    X-ray calibration of the AXAF observatory at MSFC's X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) made novel use of the x-ray continuum from a conventional electron-impact source. Taking advantage of the good spectral resolution of solid-state detectors, continuum measurements proved advantageous in calibrating the effective area of AXAF's High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) and in verifying its alignment to the XRCF's optical axis. Further verification of AXAF response models will be presented.

  18. Uses of continuum radiation in the AXAF calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Austin, R. A.; Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Swartz, D. A.; Tennant, A. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zirnstein, G.; McDermott, W. C.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray calibration of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) observatory at the MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) made novel use of the x-ray continuum from a conventional electron-impact source. Taking advantage of the good spectral resolution of solid-state detectors, continuum measurements proved advantageous in calibrating the effective area of AXAF's High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) and in verifying its alignment to the XRCF's optical axis.

  19. Assessing continuum postulates in simulations of granular flow

    OpenAIRE

    Rycroft, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of a mesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discrete particles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granular materials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealing inhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cage breaking. Here, we analyze large-scale three-dimensional Discrete-Element Method (DEM) simulations of different granular flows and show that an approximate "gra...

  20. Spectral Properties of AGN with Very Weak [O III] Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacevic, J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectral properties of a sample of 58 Active GalacticNuclei (AGN spectra, in which emission [O~III] $lambdalambda$4959, 5007 AA lines are weak or totally absent, are analyzed. In order to investigate thephysical reason for the [O~III] emission suppression, the spectral propertiesof the weak [O~III] spectra sample are compared with the same properties of asample of 269 spectra with the strong [O~III] lines. The spectra are obtainedfrom Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS Database. It is found that the objectswith the weak or absent [O~III] $lambdalambda$4959, 5007 AA linesgenerally have the high continuum luminosities (log($lambda$L$_{5100}$ $>$45, that they are very rare at smaller redshifts ($z <$ 0.3 and that theyusually have strong starburst influence. From the sample with weak or absent[O~III] lines, two boundary subgroups may be distinguished: the subgroup witha strong H$beta$ narrow component and subgroup with a very weak or negligibleH$beta$ narrow component. The physical causes for the [O~III] linessuppressing are probably different in these two subgroups: the [O~III] linesare absent in objects with strong narrow H$beta$ probably because of strongstarburst (SB activity, which produces high density of the gas, while in theobjects with the negligible narrow H$beta$, the reason for [O~III] and narrowH$beta$ suppression may be a low covering factor.

  1. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitran, Sorin, E-mail: mitran@unc.edu

    2013-07-01

    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

  2. Continuum Lowering and Fermi-Surface Rising in Strongly Coupled and Degenerate Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.

    2017-08-01

    Continuum lowering is a well known and important physics concept that describes the ionization potential depression (IPD) in plasmas caused by thermal- or pressure-induced ionization of outer-shell electrons. The existing IPD models are often used to characterize plasma conditions and to gauge opacity calculations. Recent precision measurements have revealed deficits in our understanding of continuum lowering in dense hot plasmas. However, these investigations have so far been limited to IPD in strongly coupled but nondegenerate plasmas. Here, we report a first-principles study of the K -edge shifting in both strongly coupled and fully degenerate carbon plasmas, with quantum molecular dynamics calculations based on the all-electron density-functional theory. The resulting K -edge shifting versus plasma density, as a probe to the continuum lowering and the Fermi-surface rising, is found to be significantly different from predictions of existing IPD models. In contrast, a simple model of "single-atom-in-box," developed in this work, accurately predicts K -edge locations as ab initio calculations provide.

  3. Characterization of double continuum formulations of transport through pore-scale information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, G.; Ceriotti, G.; Bijeljic, B.

    2016-12-01

    Information on pore-scale characteristics is becoming increasingly available at unprecedented levels of detail from modern visualization/data-acquisition techniques. These advancements are not completely matched by corresponding developments of operational procedures according to which we can engineer theoretical findings aiming at improving our ability to reduce the uncertainty associated with the outputs of continuum-scale models to be employed at large scales. We present here a modeling approach which rests on pore-scale information to achieve a complete characterization of a double continuum model of transport and fluid-fluid reactive processes. Our model makes full use of pore-scale velocity distributions to identify mobile and immobile regions. We do so on the basis of a pointwise (in the pore space) evaluation of the relative strength of advection and diffusion time scales, as rendered by spatially variable values of local Péclet numbers. After mobile and immobile regions are demarcated, we build a simplified unit cell which is employed as a representative proxy of the real porous domain. This model geometry is then employed to simplify the computation of the effective parameters embedded in the double continuum transport model, while retaining relevant information from the pore-scale characterization of the geometry and velocity field. We document results which illustrate the applicability of the methodology to predict transport of a passive tracer within two- and three-dimensional media upon comparison with direct pore-scale numerical simulation of transport in the same geometrical settings. We also show preliminary results about the extension of this model to fluid-fluid reactive transport processes. In this context, we focus on results obtained in two-dimensional porous systems. We discuss the impact of critical quantities required as input to our modeling approach to obtain continuum-scale outputs. We identify the key limitations of the proposed

  4. Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hougen, J.T. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

  5. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  6. A CONTINUUM HARD-SPHERE MODEL OF PROTEIN ADSORPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Craig; Clarke, Thomas; Hickman, James J

    2013-07-01

    Protein adsorption plays a significant role in biological phenomena such as cell-surface interactions and the coagulation of blood. Two-dimensional random sequential adsorption (RSA) models are widely used to model the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces. Continuum equations have been developed so that the results of RSA simulations can be used to predict the kinetics of adsorption. Recently, Brownian dynamics simulations have become popular for modeling protein adsorption. In this work a continuum model was developed to allow the results from a Brownian dynamics simulation to be used as the boundary condition in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Brownian dynamics simulations were used to model the diffusive transport of hard-sphere particles in a liquid and the adsorption of the particles onto a solid surface. The configuration of the adsorbed particles was analyzed to quantify the chemical potential near the surface, which was found to be a function of the distance from the surface and the fractional surface coverage. The near-surface chemical potential was used to derive a continuum model of adsorption that incorporates the results from the Brownian dynamics simulations. The equations of the continuum model were discretized and coupled to a CFD simulation of diffusive transport to the surface. The kinetics of adsorption predicted by the continuum model closely matched the results from the Brownian dynamics simulation. This new model allows the results from mesoscale simulations to be incorporated into micro- or macro-scale CFD transport simulations of protein adsorption in practical devices.

  7. A Framework for Health Communication Across the HIV Treatment Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lith, Lynn M.; Mallalieu, Elizabeth C.; Packman, Zoe R.; Myers, Emily; Ahanda, Kim Seifert; Harris, Emily; Gurman, Tilly; Figueroa, Maria-Elena

    2017-01-01

    Background: As test and treat rolls out, effective interventions are needed to address the determinants of outcomes across the HIV treatment continuum and ensure that people infected with HIV are promptly tested, initiate treatment early, adhere to treatment, and are virally suppressed. Communication approaches offer viable options for promoting relevant behaviors across the continuum. Conceptual Framework: This article introduces a conceptual framework, which can guide the development of effective health communication interventions and activities that aim to impact behaviors across the HIV treatment continuum in low- and medium-income countries. The framework includes HIV testing and counseling, linkage to care, retention in pre-antiretroviral therapy and antiretroviral therapy initiation in one single-stage linkage to care and treatment, and adherence for viral suppression. The determinants of behaviors vary across the continuum and include both facilitators and barriers with communication interventions designed to focus on specific determinants presented in the model. At each stage, relevant determinants occur at the various levels of the social–ecological model: intrapersonal, interpersonal, health services, community, and policy. Effective health communication interventions have mainly relied on mHealth, interpersonal communication through service providers and peers, community support groups, and treatment supporters. Discussion: The conceptual framework and evidence presented highlight areas across the continuum where health communication can significantly impact treatment outcomes to reach the 90-90-90 goals by strategically addressing key behavioral determinants. As test and treat rolls out, multifaceted health communication approaches will be critical. PMID:27930606

  8. Solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for gold determination in geological samples after preconcentration onto carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Ryszard; Mróz, Agnieszka; Dąbrowska, Marzena; Olszański, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    A novelty method for the determination of gold in geological samples by solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS HR CS GF AAS) after solid-phase extraction onto modified carbon nanotubes (CNT) was described. The methodology developed is based on solid phase extraction of Au(III) ions from digested samples to eliminate strong interference caused by iron compounds and problems related to inhomogeneities of the samples. The use of aqueous or solid standard for calibration was studied and the slope of calibration curve was the same for both of these modes. This statement indicates the possibility to perform the calibration of the method using aqueous standard solutions. Under optimum conditions the absolute detection limit for gold was equal to 2.24 · 10- 6 μg g- 1 while the adsorption capacity of modified carbon nanotubes was 264 mg g- 1. The proposed procedure was validated by the application of certified reference materials (CRMs) with different content of gold and different matrix, the results were in good agreement with certified values. The method was successfully applied for separation and determination of gold ions in complex geological samples, with precision generally better than 8%.

  9. Non-equilibrium stochastic dynamics in continuum: The free case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Kondratiev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of identification of a proper state-space for the stochastic dynamics of free particles in continuum, with their possible birth and death. In this dynamics, the motion of each separate particle is described by a fixed Markov process M on a Riemannian manifold X. The main problem arising here is a possible collapse of the system, in the sense that, though the initial configuration of particles is locally finite, there could exist a compact set in X such that, with probability one, infinitely many particles will arrive at this set at some time t>0. We assume that X has infinite volume and, for each α���1, we consider the set Θα of all infinite configurations in X for which the number of particles in a compact set is bounded by a constant times the α-th power of the volume of the set. We find quite general conditions on the process M which guarantee that the corresponding infinite particle process can start at each configuration from Θα, will never leave Θα, and has cadlag (or, even, continuous sample paths in the vague topology. We consider the following examples of applications of our results: Brownian motion on the configuration space, free Glauber dynamics on the configuration space (or a birth-and-death process in X, and free Kawasaki dynamics on the configuration space. We also show that if X=Rd, then for a wide class of starting distributions, the (non-equilibrium free Glauber dynamics is a scaling limit of (non-equilibrium free Kawasaki dynamics.

  10. Spatial distribution of far infrared emission in spiral galaxies I. Relation with radio continuum emission

    OpenAIRE

    Y. D. Mayya; Rengarajan, T. N.

    1997-01-01

    We use high resolution IRAS and 20 cm radio continuum (RC) images of a sample of 22 spiral galaxies to study the correlation between the far infra-red (FIR) and RC emissions within the galactic disks. A combination of exponential and gaussian profiles rather than a single exponential profile is found to be a better representation of the observed intensity profiles in the two bands. The gaussian component, which we show is not due to the effects of limited beam-resolution, contains more than 6...

  11. Spectral periodicity of the spinon continuum in quantum spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by the rapid experimental progress of quantum spin ice materials, we study the dynamical properties of pyrochlore spin ice in the U(1) spin liquid phases. In particular, we focus on the spinon excitations that appear at high energies and show up as an excitation continuum in the dynamic spin structure factor. The keen connection between the crystal symmetry fractionalization of the spinons and the spectral periodicity of the spinon continuum is emphasized and explicitly demonstrated. When the spinon experiences a background π flux and the spinon continuum exhibits an enhanced spectral periodicity with a folded Brillouin zone, this spectral property can then be used to detect the spin quantum number fractionalization and U(1) spin liquid. Our prediction can be immediately examined by inelastic neutron-scattering experiments among quantum spin ice materials with Kramers' doublets. Further application to the non-Kramers' doublets is discussed.

  12. Continuum mechanics using Mathematica fundamentals, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This textbook's methodological approach familiarizes readers with the mathematical tools required to correctly define and solve problems in continuum mechanics. Covering essential principles and fundamental applications, this second edition of Continuum Mechanics using Mathematica® provides a solid basis for a deeper study of more challenging and specialized problems related to nonlinear elasticity, polar continua, mixtures, piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, magneto-fluid mechanics, and state changes (see A. Romano, A. Marasco, Continuum Mechanics: Advanced Topics and Research Trends, Springer (Birkhäuser), 2010, ISBN 978-0-8176-4869-5). Key topics and features: * Concise presentation strikes a balance between fundamentals and applications * Requisite mathematical background carefully collected in two introductory chapters and one appendix * Recent developments highlighted through coverage of more significant applications to areas such as wave propagation, fluid mechanics, porous media, linear elasticity....

  13. Odd Systems in Deformed Relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov Theory in Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-Lu; Meng, Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2012-04-01

    In order to describe the exotic nuclear structure in unstable odd-A or odd-odd nuclei, the deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov theory in continuum is extended to incorporate the blocking effect due to the odd nucleon. For a microscopic and self-consistent description of pairing correlations, continuum, deformation, blocking effects, and the extended spatial density distribution in exotic nuclei, the deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov equations are solved in a Woods—Saxon basis in which the radial wave functions have a proper asymptotic behavior at large r. The formalism and numerical details are provided. The code is checked by comparing the results with those of spherical relativistic continuum Hartree Bogoliubov theory in the nucleus 19O. The prolate deformed nucleus 15C is studied by examining the neutron levels and density distributions.

  14. Dislocations in the Spacetime Continuum: Framework for Quantum Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millette P. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a framework for the physical description of physical processes at the quantum level based on dislocations in the spacetime continuum within STCED (Spacetime Continuum Elastodynamics. In this framework, photon and particle self- energies and interactions are mediated by the strain energy density of the dislocations, replacing the role played by virtual particles in QED. We postulate that the spacetime continuum has a granularity characterized by a length b 0 corresponding to the smallest STC elementary Burgers dislocation-displacement vector. Screw dislocations corre- sponding to transverse displacements are identified with photons, and edge dislocations corresponding to longitudinal displacements are identified with particles. Mixed dislo- cations give rise to wave-particle duality. The strain energy density of the dislocations are calculated and proposed to explain the QED problem of mass renormalization.

  15. ICMS Workshop on Differential Geometry and Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Grinfeld, Michael; Knops, R

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the exciting interface between differential geometry and continuum mechanics, now recognised as being of increasing technological significance. Topics discussed include isometric embeddings in differential geometry and the relation with microstructure in nonlinear elasticity, the use of manifolds in the description of microstructure in continuum mechanics, experimental measurement of microstructure, defects, dislocations, surface energies, and nematic liquid crystals. Compensated compactness in partial differential equations is also treated. The volume is intended for specialists and non-specialists in pure and applied geometry, continuum mechanics, theoretical physics, materials and engineering sciences, and partial differential equations. It will also be of interest to postdoctoral scientists and advanced postgraduate research students. These proceedings include revised written versions of the majority of papers presented by leading experts at the ICMS Edinburgh Workshop on Differential G...

  16. An advanced kinetic theory for morphing continuum with inner structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James

    2017-12-01

    Advanced kinetic theory with the Boltzmann-Curtiss equation provides a promising tool for polyatomic gas flows, especially for fluid flows containing inner structures, such as turbulence, polyatomic gas flows and others. Although a Hamiltonian-based distribution function was proposed for diatomic gas flow, a general distribution function for the generalized Boltzmann-Curtiss equations and polyatomic gas flow is still out of reach. With assistance from Boltzmann's entropy principle, a generalized Boltzmann-Curtiss distribution for polyatomic gas flow is introduced. The corresponding governing equations at equilibrium state are derived and compared with Eringen's morphing (micropolar) continuum theory derived under the framework of rational continuum thermomechanics. Although rational continuum thermomechanics has the advantages of mathematical rigor and simplicity, the presented statistical kinetic theory approach provides a clear physical picture for what the governing equations represent.

  17. Continuum Theory of Phase Separation Kinetics for Active Brownian Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhammar, Joakim; Tiribocchi, Adriano; Allen, Rosalind J.; Marenduzzo, Davide; Cates, Michael E.

    2013-10-01

    Active Brownian particles (ABPs), when subject to purely repulsive interactions, are known to undergo activity-induced phase separation broadly resembling an equilibrium (attraction-induced) gas-liquid coexistence. Here we present an accurate continuum theory for the dynamics of phase-separating ABPs, derived by direct coarse graining, capturing leading-order density gradient terms alongside an effective bulk free energy. Such gradient terms do not obey detailed balance; yet we find coarsening dynamics closely resembling that of equilibrium phase separation. Our continuum theory is numerically compared to large-scale direct simulations of ABPs and accurately accounts for domain growth kinetics, domain topologies, and coexistence densities.

  18. Resonantly Trapped Bound State in the Continuum Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Lepetit, Thomas; Kodigala, Ashok; Bahari, Babak; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Kanté, Boubacar

    2015-01-01

    Cavities play a fundamental role in wave phenomena from quantum mechanics to electromagnetism and dictate the spatiotemporal physics of lasers. In general, they are constructed by closing all "doors" through which waves can escape. We report, at room temperature, a bound state in the continuum laser that harnesses optical modes residing in the radiation continuum but nonetheless may possess arbitrarily high quality factors. These counterintuitive cavities are based on resonantly trapped symmetry-compatible modes that destructively interfere. Our experimental demonstration opens exciting avenues towards coherent sources with intriguing topological properties for optical trapping, biological imaging, and quantum communication.

  19. Shape Modeling of a Concentric-tube Continuum Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Shaoping; Xing, Charles Chuhao

    2012-01-01

    is modeled on the basis of energy approach for both the in-plane and out-plane cases. The torsional influences on the shape of the concentric-tube robots are considered. An experimental device was build for the model validation. The results of simulation and experiments are included and analyzed.......Concentric-tube continuum robots feature with simple and compact structures and have a great potential in medical applications. The paper is concerned with the shape modeling of a type of concentric-tube continuum robot built with a collection of super-elastic NiTiNol tubes. The mechanics...

  20. A Coupling Tool for Parallel Molecular Dynamics-Continuum Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    We present a tool for coupling Molecular Dynamics and continuum solvers. It is written in C++ and is meant to support the developers of hybrid molecular - continuum simulations in terms of both realisation of the respective coupling algorithm as well as parallel execution of the hybrid simulation. We describe the implementational concept of the tool and its parallel extensions. We particularly focus on the parallel execution of particle insertions into dense molecular systems and propose a respective parallel algorithm. Our implementations are validated for serial and parallel setups in two and three dimensions. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Resonance continuum coupling in high-permittivity dielectric metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Thomas; Akmansoy, Eric; Ganne, Jean-Pierre; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    A detailed investigation of resonance-continuum coupling is carried out both experimentally and theoretically in metamaterials based on high-permittivity dielectric subwavelength resonators. An original experimental scheme is designed at microwave frequencies, which mimics a periodic array of resonators. Fano resonances are discussed in the framework of temporal coupled mode theory for the cases where one or two resonator modes couples to the continuum. Fano lineshapes are unambiguously demonstrated experimentally for the single-mode case in agreement with theoretical modeling. Numerical evidence of resonance trapping is shown in the two-mode case when modes with the same symmetry coincide in frequency.

  2. The natural history of achalasia: Evidence of a continuum-"The evolutive pattern theory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Renato; Voltarel, Guerrino; Savarino, Edoardo; Capovilla, Giovanni; Pesenti, Elisa; Perazzolo, Anna; Nicoletti, Loredana; Costantini, Andrea; Merigliano, Stefano; Costantini, Mario

    2017-11-26

    It is currently unclear if the three manometric patterns of esophageal achalasia represent distinct entities or part of a disease continuum. The study's aims were: a) to test the hypothesis that the three patterns represent different stages in the evolution of achalasia; b) to investigate whether manometric patterns change after Laparoscopic-Heller-Dor (LHD). We assessed the patients diagnosed with achalasia who underwent LHD as their first treatment from 1992 to 2016. Their symptoms were scored using a detailed questionnaire for dysphagia, food-regurgitation, and chest pain. Barium-swallow, endoscopy, and esophageal-manometry were performed before and 6 months after surgery. The study population consisted of 511 patients (M:F=283:228). Patients' demographic and clinical data showed that those with pattern III had a shorter history of symptoms, a higher incidence of chest pain, and a less dilated gullet (p<0.001). All patients with a sigmoid-shaped mega-esophagus had pattern I achalasia. One patient with a diagnosis of pattern III achalasia developed pattern II at a follow-up manometry before surgery. At a median follow-up of 30 months (IQR 12-56), the outcome of surgery was positive in 479 patients (91.7%). All patients with pattern I preoperatively had the same pattern after LHD, whereas more than 50% of patients with pattern III before treatment showed pattern I or II after surgery. This study supports the hypothesis/theory that the different manometric patterns represent different stages in the evolution of the disease-where pattern III is the earliest stage, pattern II an intermediate stage, and pattern I the final stage. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Active noise control of a vibrating surface: Continuum and non-continuum investigations on vibroacoustic sound reduction by a secondary heat-flux source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manela, A.; Pogorelyuk, L.

    2015-12-01

    We study the effect of surface heating on sound radiation by a vibrating boundary. Focusing on a setup of an infinite planar wall interacting with a semi-infinite expanse of a gas, the system response to arbitrary (small-amplitude) vibro-thermal excitation is investigated. Starting with the case of sinusoidal actuations, the superposed effect of boundary heat-flux excitation at a common frequency ω is examined. The entire range of frequencies is considered, where, depending on the ratio between ω and gas kinetic collision frequency ωcoll, fundamentally different flow regimes follow. The two limit cases of ω ≪ωcoll (continuum-flow conditions) and ω ≫ωcoll (ballistic flow regime) are investigated analytically, based on continuum equations and collisionless Boltzmann equation, respectively. In between, an intermediate interval of frequencies ω ~ωcoll is analyzed numerically, based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. In search for optimal conditions for acoustic sound reduction, it is found that effective attenuation is obtained when boundary heat flux is applied at opposite phase to surface actuation. Amplitude-wise, conditions for minimization of the acoustic field vary between the limits: at low-frequency conditions, wave radiation extends over large distances from the wall, and optimal sound reduction is achieved when the ratio between wall-inserted thermal and kinetic energies |Eq/Ek|opt equals γ /(γ - 1) (with γ denoting the ratio between gas specific heat capacities). At high-frequency conditions, wall signal affects only a thin gas layer (of the order of the mean free path) in the vicinity of the boundary, and optimal attenuation is achieved when |Eq/Ek|opt = 1. The analysis is extended to consider the system response to non-periodic excitations, for the specific case of a delta-function input. Making use of the above collisionless- and continuum-limit analyses, early- and late-time system responses are computed. While conditions for

  4. STATCONT: Statistical continuum level determination method for line-rich sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Monge, A.; Schilke, P.; Ginsburg, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Schmiedeke, A.

    2017-04-01

    STATCONT determines the continuum emission level in line-rich spectral data by inspecting the intensity distribution of a given spectrum by using different statistical approaches. The sigma-clipping algorithm provides the most accurate continuum level determination, together with information on the uncertainty in its determination; this uncertainty is used to correct the final continuum emission level. In general, STATCONT obtains accuracies of products of the software are the continuum emission level, together with its uncertainty, and data cubes containing only spectral line emission, i.e. continuum-subtracted data cubes. STATCONT also includes the option to estimate the spectral index or variation of the continuum emission with frequency.

  5. Construction of a state evolution for Kawasaki dynamics in continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Christoph; Kondratiev, Yuri; Kutoviy, Oleksandr

    2013-06-01

    We consider conservative, non-equilibrium stochastic jump dynamics of interacting particles in continuum. These dynamics have a (grand canonical) Gibbs measure as invariant measure. The problem of existence of these dynamics is studied. The corresponding time evolution of correlation functions is constructed.

  6. A variational formulation of the polarizable continuum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Mennucci, Benedetta; Cancès, Eric; Caricato, Marco; Frisch, Michael J

    2010-07-07

    Continuum solvation models are widely used to accurately estimate solvent effects on energy, structural and spectroscopic properties of complex molecular systems. The polarizable continuum model (PCM) is one of the most versatile among the continuum models because of the variety of properties that can be computed and the diversity of methods that can be used to describe the solute from molecular mechanics (MM) to sophisticated quantum mechanical (QM) post-self-consistent field methods or even hybrid QM/MM methods. In this contribution, we present a new formulation of PCM in terms of a free energy functional whose variational parameters include the continuum polarization (represented by the apparent surface charges), the solute's atomic coordinates and-possibly-its electronic density. The problem of finding the optimized geometry of the (polarized) solute, with the corresponding self-consistent reaction field, is recast as the minimization of this free energy functional, simultaneously with respect to all its variables. The numerous potential applications of this variational formulation of PCM are discussed, including simultaneous optimization of solute's geometry and polarization charges and extended Lagrangian dynamics. In particular, we describe in details the simultaneous optimization procedure and we include several numerical examples.

  7. A variational formulation of the polarizable continuum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Mennucci, Benedetta; Cancès, Eric; Caricato, Marco; Frisch, Michael J.

    2010-07-01

    Continuum solvation models are widely used to accurately estimate solvent effects on energy, structural and spectroscopic properties of complex molecular systems. The polarizable continuum model (PCM) is one of the most versatile among the continuum models because of the variety of properties that can be computed and the diversity of methods that can be used to describe the solute from molecular mechanics (MM) to sophisticated quantum mechanical (QM) post-self-consistent field methods or even hybrid QM/MM methods. In this contribution, we present a new formulation of PCM in terms of a free energy functional whose variational parameters include the continuum polarization (represented by the apparent surface charges), the solute's atomic coordinates and—possibly—its electronic density. The problem of finding the optimized geometry of the (polarized) solute, with the corresponding self-consistent reaction field, is recast as the minimization of this free energy functional, simultaneously with respect to all its variables. The numerous potential applications of this variational formulation of PCM are discussed, including simultaneous optimization of solute's geometry and polarization charges and extended Lagrangian dynamics. In particular, we describe in details the simultaneous optimization procedure and we include several numerical examples.

  8. Predicting Eating Disorder Continuum Groups: Hardiness and College Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Boyd, Gail D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    This study examined relationships between hardiness, college adjustment (academic adjustment, social adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, institutional attachment) and eating disorder (ED) continuum categories in 122 female and 20 male college students. Students who exhibited a higher level of personal-emotional adjustment (PEA) to college…

  9. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  10. Ultrafine Cohesive Powders: From Interparticle Contacts to Continuum Behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tykhoniuk, Rostyslav; Tomas, Jürgen; Luding, Stefan; Kappl, Michael; Heim, Lars; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Continuum mechanical models and appropriate measuring methods to determine the material parameters are available to describe the flow behaviour of cohesive powders. These methods are successfully applied to design process equipment as silos. In addition, “microscopic” studies on the particle

  11. Scaling relation for determining the critical threshold for continuum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study continuum percolation of overlapping circular discs of two sizes. We propose a phenomenological scaling equation for the increase in the effective size of the larger discs due to the presence of the smaller discs. The critical percolation threshold as a function of the ratio of sizes of discs, for different values of the ...

  12. A New Conceptual Model for the Continuum of Land Rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akrofi

    Abstract. This paper presents a new conceptual model for the land rights continuum. In developing the argument for the proposed model, the theoretical assumptions of the former model are challenged and an understanding of land rights and tenure elements is explored. The evolutionary approach is rejected in order to ...

  13. Autism genes: the continuum that connects us all

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 3. Autism genes: the continuum that connects us all. RASHMI PARIHAR SUBRAMANIAM GANESH. RESEARCH COMMENTARY Volume 95 Issue 3 September 2016 pp 481-483. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Autism genes: the continuum that connects us all

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RASHMI PARIHAR

    retardation—the fragile X syndrome (FXS), mostly affect- ing the males as in the case of ASD (Lozano et al. 2014). Although, the FXS patients share many of autistic features, the FMRP locus appears to be involved only in a minor. Keywords. polygenic disorders; genetic risk-factors; continuum traits. Journal of Genetics, DOI ...

  15. Cellular Automata in Topology Optimization of Continuum Structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an optimization algorithm based on cellular automata (CA) is developed for topology optimization of continuum structures with shear and flexural behavior. The design domain is divided into small triangle elements and each cell is considered as a finite element. The stress analysis is performed by the Constant ...

  16. Levels of Mental Health Continuum and Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Nosratabadi, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Empirically, mental health and mental illness are not opposite ends of a single measurement continuum. In view of this fact, Keyes ("J Health Soc Behav," 43:207-202, 2002) operationalizes mental health as a syndrome of symptoms of both positive feelings (emotional well-being) and positive functioning (psychological and social well-being)…

  17. Invariant Gait Continuum Based on the Duty-Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to describe the continuum of human gait in an invariant manner. The gait description is based on the duty-factor which is adopted from the biomechanics literature. We generate a database of artificial silhouettes representing the three main types of gait, i...

  18. The continuum shell-model neutron states of Pb

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model states with the collective vibrational states from giant resonances. The particle-vibration coupling model can be applied to understand the spreading pattern of the shell-model states lying in continuum region. The single-particle states are ...

  19. Shouldering the blame for impingement: the rotator cuff continuum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this article was to summarise recent research on shoulder impingement and rotator cuff pathology. A continuum model of rotator cuff pathology is described, and the challenges of accurate clinical diagnosis, imaging and best management discussed. ..... aging and morphologic changes in the rotator cuff.

  20. Photon pairs: Quantum chromodynamics continuum and the Higgs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... ... predictions in the range of transverse momentum where the cross-section is the largest. Results are compared with data from the Fermilab Tevatron and predictions are made for the large hadron collider. The QCD continuum is shown to have a softer spectrum than the Higgs boson signal at the LHC.

  1. Photon pairs: Quantum chromodynamics continuum and the Higgs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is the largest. Results are compared with data from the Fermilab Tevatron and predictions are made for the large hadron collider. The QCD continuum is shown to have a softer spectrum than the Higgs boson signal at the LHC. Keywords. Higgs; photon pairs; quantum chromodynamics. PACS Nos 12.15.Ji; 12.38.Cy; 13.85.

  2. A 45-MHz continuum survey of the southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, H.; Aparici, J.; May, J.; Olmos, F.

    1997-08-01

    We present a survey of the 45-MHz continuum emission south of delta=+19.1°. The observations were made with a transit array having a beam 4.6° (\\alpha) \\times 2.4° (\\delta), full width at half maximum (FWHM). The results are given in sets of maps in galactic and equatorial coordinates (Epoch 1950).

  3. Ratings of Attention Problems in ADHD: A Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether ADHD should be classified in three distinct DSM-IV diagnostic subtypes or a continuum of attention problems, maternal ratings of attention on the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL, in Durch boys at age 7, 10, and 12 years, were fitted to class models, assuming either subtype or severity differences.

  4. Scaling relation for determining the critical threshold for continuum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study continuum percolation of overlapping circular discs of two sizes. We propose a phenomenological scaling equation for the increase in the effective size of the larger discs due to the presence of the smaller discs. The critical percolation threshold as a function of the ratio of sizes of discs, for different values ...

  5. Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Sayed, Karim El; Vadim, Lyssenko

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of ultrafast transient four-wave mixing (TFWM) of GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells for simultaneous excitation of exciton and continuum states. Recent TFWM experiments on semiconductors have shown unexpected results when b...

  6. Shouldering the blame for impingement: the rotator cuff continuum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... research on shoulder impingement and rotator cuff pathology. A continuum model of rotator cuff pathology is described, and the challenges of accurate clinical diagnosis, imaging and best management discussed. Keywords: shoulder impingement syndrome, subacromial impingement syndrome, rotator cuff, tendinopathy, ...

  7. The Continuum of Literacy in American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Ofelia

    1995-01-01

    Describes the O'odham language and oral tradition of the Tohono O'odham Indians of southern Arizona, relating it to the development of O'odham children's English literacy. Oral tradition and school literacy constitute opposite ends of a literacy continuum, in which English literacy is often isolated from and in conflict with O'odham literacy. (10…

  8. Autism genes: the continuum that connects us all

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such children also tend to show repetitive behaviours. (Boyd et al. 2013). The severity varies from being ... children born to older parents, and environmental factors are a few of the other risk factors (Matelski and Van ... genetic risk-factors; continuum traits. Journal of Genetics, DOI 10.1007/s12041-016-0688-0, Vol. 95, No.

  9. Framework to Assess Multiclass Continuum Traffic Flow Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this millennium, many models of multiclass continuum traffic flow have been proposed. A set of qualitative requirements is presented for this type of model, including nonincreasing density–speed relationships and anisotropy. The requirements are cast into a framework that

  10. Continuum of Medical Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohner, Charles W.; Hunter, Charles A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Over the past eight years the obstetric and gynecology specialty has applied a system model of instructional planning to the continuum of medical education. The systems model of needs identification, preassessment, instructional objectives, instructional materials, learning experiences; and evaluation techniques directly related to objectives was…

  11. Topology optimization in structural and continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewiński, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The book covers new developments in structural topology optimization. Basic features and limitations of Michell’s truss theory, its extension to a broader class of support conditions, generalizations of truss topology optimization, and Michell continua are reviewed. For elastic bodies, the layout problems in linear elasticity are discussed and the method of relaxation by homogenization is outlined. The classical problem of free material design is shown to be reducible to a locking material problem, even in the multiload case. For structures subjected to dynamic loads, it is explained how they can be designed so that the structural eigenfrequencies of vibration are as far away as possible from a prescribed external excitation frequency (or a band of excitation frequencies) in order to avoid resonance phenomena with high vibration and noise levels. For diffusive and convective transport processes and multiphysics problems, applications of the density method are discussed. In order to take uncertainty in mater...

  12. III-V semiconductor materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, R J

    1989-01-01

    The main emphasis of this volume is on III-V semiconductor epitaxial and bulk crystal growth techniques. Chapters are also included on material characterization and ion implantation. In order to put these growth techniques into perspective a thorough review of the physics and technology of III-V devices is presented. This is the first book of its kind to discuss the theory of the various crystal growth techniques in relation to their advantages and limitations for use in III-V semiconductor devices.

  13. The inquiry continuum: Science teaching practices and student performance on standardized tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernnigan, Laura Jane

    Few research studies have been conducted related to inquiry-based scientific teaching methodologies and NCLB-required state testing. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the strategies used by seventh-grade science teachers in Illinois and student scores on the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) to aid in determining best practices/strategies for teaching middle school science. The literature review defines scientific inquiry by placing teaching strategies on a continuum of scientific inquiry methodologies from No Inquiry (Direct Instruction) through Authentic Inquiry. Five major divisions of scientific inquiry: structured inquiry, guided inquiry, learning cycle inquiry, open inquiry, and authentic inquiry, have been identified and described. These five divisions contain eight sub-categories: demonstrations; simple or hands-on activities; discovery learning; variations of learning cycles; problem-based, event-based, and project-based; and student inquiry, science partnerships, and Schwab's enquiry. Quantitative data were collected from pre- and posttests and surveys given to the participants: five seventh grade science teachers in four Academic Excellence Award and Spotlight Award schools and their 531 students. Findings revealed that teachers reported higher inquiry scores for themselves than for their students; the two greatest reported factors limiting teachers' use of inquiry were not enough time and concern about discipline and large class size. Although the correlation between total inquiry and mean difference of pre- and posttest scores was not statistically significant, the survey instrument indicated how often teachers used inquiry in their classes, not the type of inquiry used. Implications arose from the findings that increase the methodology debate between direction instruction and inquiry-based teaching strategies; teachers are very knowledgeable about the Illinois state standards, and various inquiry-based methods

  14. Continuum of care for persons with common mental health disorders in Nunavik: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Lessard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changing Directions, Changing Lives, the Mental Health Strategy for Canada, prioritizes the development of coordinated continuums of care in mental health that will bridge the gap in services for Inuit populations. Objective: In order to target ways of improving the services provided in these contexts to individuals in Nunavik with depression or anxiety disorders, this research examines delays and disruptions in the continuum of care and clinical, individual and organizational characteristics possibly associated with their occurrences. Design: A total of 155 episodes of care involving a common mental disorder (CMD, incident or recurring, were documented using the clinical records of 79 frontline health and social services (FHSSs users, aged 14 years and older, living in a community in Nunavik. Each episode of care was divided into 7 stages: (a detection; (b assessment; (c intervention; (d planning the first follow-up visit; (e implementation of the first follow-up visit; (f planning a second follow-up visit; (g implementation of the second follow-up visit. Sequential analysis of these stages established delays for each one and helped identify when breaks occurred in the continuum of care. Logistic and linear regression analysis determined whether clinical, individual or organizational characteristics influenced the breaks and delays. Results: More than half (62% the episodes of care were interrupted before the second follow-up. These breaks mostly occurred when planning and completing the first follow-up visit. Episodes of care were more likely to end early when they involved anxiety disorders or symptoms, limited FHSS teams and individuals over 21 years of age. The median delay for the first follow-up visit (30 days exceeded guideline recommendations significantly (1–2 weeks. Conclusion: Clinical primary care approaches for CMDs in Nunavik are currently more reactive than preventive. This suggests that recovery services for those

  15. The First Interlaced Continuum Robot, Devised to Intrinsically Follow the Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byungjeon; Kojcev, Risto; Sinibaldi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Flexible probes that are safely deployed to hard-to-reach targets while avoiding critical structures are strategic in several high-impact application fields, including the biomedical sector and the sector of inspections at large. A critical problem for these tools is the best approach for deploying an entire tool body, not only its tip, on a sought trajectory. A probe that achieves this deployment is considered to follow the leader (or to achieve follow-the-leader deployment) because its body sections follow the track traced by its tip. Follow-the-leader deployment through cavities is complicated due to a lack of external supports. Currently, no definitive implementation for a probe that is intrinsically able to follow the leader, i.e., without relying on external supports, has been achieved. In this paper, we present a completely new device, namely the first interlaced continuum robot, devised to intrinsically follow the leader. We developed the interlaced configuration by pursuing a conceptual approach irrespective of application-specific constraints and assuming two flexible tools with controllable stiffness. We questioned the possibility of solving the previously mentioned deployment problem by harnessing probe symmetry during the design process. This study examines the entire development of the novel interlaced probe: model-based conceptual design, detailed design and prototyping, and preliminary experimental assessment. Our probe can build a track with a radius of curvature that is as small as twice the probe diameter, which enables it to outperform state-of-the-art tools that are aimed at follow-the-leader deployment. Despite the limitations that are inherently associated with its original character, this study provides a prototypical approach to the design of interlaced continuum systems and demonstrates the first interlaced continuum probe, which is intrinsically able to follow the leader.

  16. Visible and near-infrared intense luminescence from water-soluble lanthanide [Tb(III), Eu(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), Er(III)] complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quici, Silvio; Cavazzini, Marco; Marzanni, Giovanni; Accorsi, Gianluca; Armaroli, Nicola; Ventura, Barbara; Barigelletti, Francesco

    2005-02-07

    The synthesis of a new ligand (1) containing a single phenanthroline (phen) chromophore and a flexibly connected diethylenetriamine tetracarboxylic acid unit (DTTA) as a lanthanide (Ln) coordination site is reported [1 is 4-[(9-methyl-1,10-phenantrol-2-yl)methyl]-1,4,7-triazaheptane-1,1,7,7-tetraacetic acid]. From 1, an extended series of water-soluble Ln.1 complexes was obtained, where Ln is Eu(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), and Er(III). The stoichiometry for the association was found 1:1, with an association constant K(A) > or = 10(7) s(-1) as determined by employing luminescence spectroscopy. The luminescence and photophysical properties of the series of lanthanide complexes were investigated in both H2O and D2O solutions. High efficiencies for the sensitized emission, phi(se), in air-equilibrated water were observed for the Ln.1 complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) in the visible region (phi(se) = 0.24 and 0.15, respectively) and of Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), and Er(III) in the vis and/or near-infrared region [phi(se) = 2.5 x 10(-3), 5 x 10(-4), 3 x 10(-5), 2 x 10(-5), 2 x 10(-4), 4 x 10(-5), and (in D2O) 4 x 10(-5), respectively]. For Eu.1 and Tb.1, luminescence data for water and deuterated water allowed us to estimate that no solvent molecules (q) are bound to the ion centers (q = 0). Luminescence quenching by oxygen was investigated in selected cases.

  17. Reducing Readmissions after Pancreatectomy: Limiting Complications and Coordinating the Care Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pitt, Henry A; Nakeeb, Attila; Schmidt, C Max; Zyromski, Nicholas J; House, Michael G; Kilbane, E Molly; George-Minkner, Alisha N; Brand, Beth; Lillemoe, Keith D

    2015-09-01

    Recent analyses of gastrointestinal operations document that complications are a key driver of readmissions. Pancreatectomy is a high outlier with respect to readmission. This analysis sought to determine if a multifactorial approach could reduce readmissions after pancreatectomy. From 2007 to 2012, the number of patients readmitted by 30 days after pancreaticoduodenectomy, and distal and total pancreatectomy was measured. Steps to decrease readmissions were implemented independently at 1-year intervals; these efforts included strategies to reduce complications, creation of a Readmissions Team with a "discharge coach," increased use of home health, preferred relationships with post-acute care facilities, and the adoption of "Project RED" (Re-Engineered Discharge). The ACS NSQIP was used to track 30-day outcomes for all pancreatic resections. The University HealthSystem Consortium was used to determine length of stay index. Over 5 years, 1,163 patients underwent proximal (66%), distal (32%), or total pancreatectomy (2%). The observed 30-day mortality was 2.9% for the study period, and the length of stay index (observed/expected days) was 1.10. Neither varied significantly over time. However, 30-day morbidity decreased from 57% to 46%, and proportion of patients with 30-day all-cause readmissions decreased from 23.0% to 11.5% (p = 0.001). All-cause 30-day readmissions after pancreatectomy decreased without increasing length of stay. Efforts by surgeons to decrease complications and an increased emphasis on coordination of care may be useful for reducing readmissions. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. AND Dy(III)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL. ACTIVITIES OF Sm(III) AND Dy(III) COMPLEXES WITH SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM. 2-HYDROXY-1-NAPHTHALDEHYDE AND 2-AMINOBENZOIC ACID. 1Bashir, S.S. and Abdulhadi, A. 1Department of Chemistry, Rabi'u Musa Kwankwaso ...

  19. Shell model with several particles in the continuum: application to the two-proton decay; Modele en couches avec plusieurs particules dans le continuum: description de la radioactivite deux protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotureau, J

    2005-02-15

    The recent experimental results concerning nuclei at the limit of stability close to the drip-lines and in particular the two-proton emitters require a development of new methodologies to reliably calculate and understand properties of those exotic physical systems. In this work we have extended the Shell Model Embedded in the Continuum (SMEC) in order to describe the coupling with two particles in the scattering continuum. We have obtained a microscopic description of the two-proton emission that takes into account the antisymmetrization of the total wavefunction, the configuration mixing and the three-body asymptotics. We have studied the decay of the 1{sub 2}{sup -} state in {sup 18}Ne in two limiting cases: (i) a sequential emission of two protons through the correlated continuum of {sup 17}F and (ii) emission of {sup 2}He cluster that disintegrates because of the final state interaction (diproton emission). Independently of the choice of the effective interaction we have observed that the two-proton emission of the 1{sub 2}{sup -} in {sup 18}Ne is mainly a sequential process; the ratio between the widths of the diproton emission and the sequential decay does not exceed 8% in any case. (author)

  20. Phonons around a soliton in a continuum model of t-(CH)x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Y.; Terai, A.; Wada, Y.

    1986-05-01

    The eigenvalue problem for phonons around a soliton in a continuum model of trans-polyacetylene t-(CH)x, the so-called TLM model (Takayama et al, 1980), is reinvestigated using a kernel which satisfies the correct boundary condition. The three localized modes are reproduced, two with even parity and one with odd parity. The phase-shift analysis of the extended modes confirms their existence if the one-dimensional version of Levinson's theorem is applicable to the present problem. It is found that the phase shifts of even and odd modes differ from each other in the long-wavelength limit. The conclusion of Ito et al. (1984), that the scattering of phonons by the soliton is reflectionless, has to be modified in this limit, where phonons suffer reflection from the soliton.

  1. Discrete and continuum links to a nonlinear coupled transport problem of interacting populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, M. H.; Muntean, A.; Richardson, O. M.

    2017-07-01

    We are interested in exploring interacting particle systems that can be seen as microscopic models for a particular structure of coupled transport flux arising when different populations are jointly evolving. The scenarios we have in mind are inspired by the dynamics of pedestrian flows in open spaces and are intimately connected to cross-diffusion and thermo-diffusion problems holding a variational structure. The tools we use include a suitable structure of the relative entropy controlling TV-norms, the construction of Lyapunov functionals and particular closed-form solutions to nonlinear transport equations, a hydrodynamics limiting procedure due to Philipowski, as well as the construction of numerical approximates to both the continuum limit problem in 2D and to the original interacting particle systems.

  2. Automatic Identification of LAMOST Spectra with Continuum Problem Based on High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingjing; Pan, Jingchang; Meng, Fanlong

    2017-10-01

    Continuum problem is a phenomenon that the continuum of spectra get off their actual continuum even break off due to interstellar extinction and flux calibration, and it will have negative impact on the subsequent process such as spectral line extraction and so on. Based on this problem and fully considering of the continuum features of the stellar spectra, a method of automatic detection and recognition of the continuum problem in the stellar spectra based on High Performance Computing (HPC) is proposed, which will improve work efficiency greatly compared with the traditional human eyes examination under the condition of maintaining high accuracy. Continuum template matching is used to identify the continuum problem spectra in this paper. The first step goes to fit continuum of the test stellar spectra and the template spectra, then the flux differences of the two continuum we fitted before at every point of wavelength in the continuum spectra will be calculated based on full spectra matching to analyze the features of its distribution. The features we count are average (called β) value and standard deviation (called δ). The percentage of points distributed in rangeβ±ɑ*δwill be detected to confirm that if there is continuum problem. Experiments was taken to identify the continuum problem spectra on HPC, which demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the method, and this has important reference value to resolve similar massive spectra data processing problems in the future.

  3. Derivation of Electromagnetism from the Elastodynamics of the Spacetime Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millette P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We derive Electromagnetism from the Elastodynamics of the Spacetime Continuum based on the identification of the theory’s antisymmetric rotation tensor with the elec- tromagnetic field-strength tensor. The theory provides a physical explanation of the electromagnetic potential, which arises from transverse ( shearing displacements of the spacetime continuum, in contrast to mass which arises from longitudinal (dilatational displacements. In addition, the theory provides a physical explanation of the current density four-vector, as the 4-gradient of the volume dilatation of the spacetime con- tinuum. The Lorentz condition is obtained directly from the theory. In addition, we obtain a generalization of Electromagnetism for the situation where a volume force is present, in the general non-macroscopic case. Maxwell’s equations are found to remain unchanged, but the current density has an additional term proportional to the volume force.

  4. Antieigenvalue analysis for continuum mechanics, economics, and number theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafson Karl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available My recent book Antieigenvalue Analysis, World-Scientific, 2012, presented the theory of antieigenvalues from its inception in 1966 up to 2010, and its applications within those forty-five years to Numerical Analysis, Wavelets, Statistics, Quantum Mechanics, Finance, and Optimization. Here I am able to offer three further areas of application: Continuum Mechanics, Economics, and Number Theory. In particular, the critical angle of repose in a continuum model of granular materials is shown to be exactly my matrix maximum turning angle of the stress tensor of the material. The important Sharpe ratio of the Capital Asset Pricing Model is now seen in terms of my antieigenvalue theory. Euclid’s Formula for Pythagorean triples becomes a special case of my operator trigonometry.

  5. Continuum-mediated dark matter–baryon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Andrey; Sajjad, Aqil

    2016-01-01

    Many models of dark matter scattering with baryons may be treated either as a simple contact interaction or as the exchange of a light mediator particle. We study an alternative, in which a continuum of light mediator states may be exchanged. This could arise, for instance, from coupling to a sector which is approximately conformal at the relevant momentum transfer scale. In the non-relativistic effective theory of dark matter-baryon scattering, which is useful for parametrizing direct detection signals, the effect of such continuum mediators is to multiply the amplitude by a function of the momentum transfer q, which in the simplest case is just a power law. We develop the basic framework and study two examples: the case where the mediator is a scalar operator coupling to the Higgs portal (which turns out to be highly constrained) and the case of an antisymmetric tensor operator ${\\cal O}_{\\mu \

  6. Wave propagation in equivalent continuums representing truss lattice materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, Mark C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barham, Matthew I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumar, Mukul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barton, Nathan R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Stiffness scales linearly with density in stretch-dominated lattice meta-materials offering the possibility of very light yet very stiff structures. Current additive manufacturing techniques can assemble structures consisting of these lattice materials, but the design of such structures will require accurate, efficient simulation techniques. Equivalent continuum models have several advantages over discrete truss models of stretch dominated lattices, including computational efficiency and ease of model construction. However, the development an equivalent model suitable for representing the dynamic response of a periodic truss is complicated by microinertial effects. This paper derives a dynamic equivalent continuum model for periodic truss structures and verifies it against detailed finite element simulations. The model must incorporate microinertial effects to accurately reproduce long-wavelength characteristics of the response such as anisotropic elastic soundspeeds. The formulation presented here also improves upon previous work by preserving equilibrium at truss joints for affine lattice deformation and by improving numerical stability by eliminating vertices in the effective yield surface.

  7. Topology and layout optimization of discrete and continuum structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendsoe, Martin P.; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    The basic features of the ground structure method for truss structure an continuum problems are described. Problems with a large number of potential structural elements are considered using the compliance of the structure as the objective function. The design problem is the minimization of compliance for a given structural weight, and the design variables for truss problems are the cross-sectional areas of the individual truss members, while for continuum problems they are the variable densities of material in each of the elements of the FEM discretization. It is shown how homogenization theory can be applied to provide a relation between material density and the effective material properties of a periodic medium with a known microstructure of material and voids.

  8. Continuum mechanics through the twentieth century a concise historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gerard A

    2013-01-01

    This overview of the development of continuum mechanics throughout the twentieth century is unique and ambitious. Utilizing a historical perspective, it combines an exposition on the technical progress made in the field and a marked interest in the role played by remarkable individuals and scientific schools and institutions on a rapidly evolving social background. It underlines the newly raised technical questions and their answers, and the ongoing reflections on the bases of continuum mechanics associated, or in competition, with other branches of the physical sciences, including thermodynamics. The emphasis is placed on the development of a more realistic modeling of deformable solids and the exploitation of new mathematical tools. The book presents a balanced appraisal of advances made in various parts of the world. The author contributes his technical expertise, personal recollections, and international experience to this general overview, which is very informative albeit concise.

  9. PCE: web tools to compute protein continuum electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miteva, Maria A.; Tufféry, Pierre; Villoutreix, Bruno O.

    2005-01-01

    PCE (protein continuum electrostatics) is an online service for protein electrostatic computations presently based on the MEAD (macroscopic electrostatics with atomic detail) package initially developed by D. Bashford [(2004) Front Biosci., 9, 1082–1099]. This computer method uses a macroscopic electrostatic model for the calculation of protein electrostatic properties, such as pKa values of titratable groups and electrostatic potentials. The MEAD package generates electrostatic energies via finite difference solution to the Poisson–Boltzmann equation. Users submit a PDB file and PCE returns potentials and pKa values as well as color (static or animated) figures displaying electrostatic potentials mapped on the molecular surface. This service is intended to facilitate electrostatics analyses of proteins and thereby broaden the accessibility to continuum electrostatics to the biological community. PCE can be accessed at . PMID:15980492

  10. The Glymphatic-Lymphatic Continuum: Opportunities for Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitscherich, Kyle; Smith, Kyle; Cuoco, Joshua A; Ruvolo, Kathryn E; Mancini, Jayme D; Leheste, Joerg R; Torres, German

    2016-03-01

    The brain has long been thought to lack a lymphatic drainage system. Recent studies, however, show the presence of a brain-wide paravascular system appropriately named the glymphatic system based on its similarity to the lymphatic system in function and its dependence on astroglial water flux. Besides the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid, the glymphatic system also facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes such as amyloid-β and tau from the brain. As cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid are cleared through the glymphatic system, eventually draining into the lymphatic vessels of the neck, this continuous fluid circuit offers a paradigm shift in osteopathic manipulative medicine. For instance, manipulation of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum could be used to promote experimental initiatives for nonpharmacologic, noninvasive management of neurologic disorders. In the present review, the authors describe what is known about the glymphatic system and identify several osteopathic experimental strategies rooted in a mechanistic understanding of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum.

  11. The continuum of spreading depolarizations in acute cortical lesion development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Shuttleworth, C William; Kirov, Sergei A

    2017-01-01

    A modern understanding of how cerebral cortical lesions develop after acute brain injury is based on Aristides Leão's historic discoveries of spreading depression and asphyxial/anoxic depolarization. Treated as separate entities for decades, we now appreciate that these events define a continuum....... The causal role of these waves in lesion development has been proven by real-time monitoring of electrophysiology, blood flow, and cytotoxic edema. The spreading depolarization continuum further applies to other models of acute cortical lesions, suggesting that it is a universal principle of cortical lesion...... development. These pathophysiologic concepts establish a working hypothesis for translation to human disease, where complex patterns of depolarizations are observed in acute brain injury and appear to mediate and signal ongoing secondary damage....

  12. Phase-Field Model of Mode III Dynamic Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karma, Alain; Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert

    2001-07-01

    We introduce a phenomenological continuum model for the mode III dynamic fracture that is based on the phase-field methodology used extensively to model interfacial pattern formation. We couple a scalar field, which distinguishes between ``broken'' and ``unbroken'' states of the system, to the displacement field in a way that consistently includes both macroscopic elasticity and a simple rotationally invariant short-scale description of breaking. We report two-dimensional simulations that yield steady-state crack motion in a strip geometry above the Griffith threshold.

  13. Modèle en couches avec plusieurs particules dans le continuum : description de la radioactivité deux protons

    OpenAIRE

    Rotureau, J.

    2005-01-01

    Les observations expérimentales récentes concernant les noyaux aux limites de la stabilité et en particulier les systèmes émetteurs de deux protons nécessitent le développement de nouvelles méthodologies pour comprendre les propriétés de ces noyaux exotiques. Dans ce travail nous avons étendu le formalisme du modèle en couches avec couplages aux états du continuum (SMEC) de façon à pouvoir considérer le couplage avec deux particules dans le continuum. Nous avons ainsi obtenu une description m...

  14. Broad-band properties of the CfA Seyfert galaxies. III - Ultraviolet variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R. A.; Pike, G. F.; Krolik, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 657 archived IUE spectra are used to study the UV variability properties of six members of the CfA Seyfert I galaxy sample. All show strong evidence for continuum and line variations and a tendency for less luminous objects to be more strongly variable. Most objects show a clear correlation at zero lag between UV spectral index and luminosity, evidence that the variable component is an accretion disk around a black hole which is systematically smaller in less luminous sources. No correlation is seen between the continuum luminosity and equivalent width of the C IV, Mg II, and semiforbidden C III emission lines when the entire sample is examined, but a clear anticorrelation is present when only repeated observations of individual objects are considered. This is due to a combination of light-travel time effects in the broad-line region and the nonlinear responses of lines to continuum fluctuations.

  15. Finsler-Geometric Continuum Dynamics and Shock Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    conformal transformation . The dynamic theory is applied to describe shock loading of ceramic crystals of boron carbide, accounting for inelastic mechanisms...and to a lesser extent, by increasing the energy barrier for phase transformation . 15. SUBJECT TERMS continuum mechanics, differential geometry...of Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park , MD 20742, USA J. D. Clayton Impact Physics, US ARL, Aberdeen, MD 21005-5066, USA can vary

  16. Bound States in the Continuum in Nuclear and Hadron Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lenske, H; Cao, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The population of bound states in the continuum and their spectral properties are studied on the nuclear and hadronic scale. The theoretical approach is presented and realizations in nuclear and charmonium spectroscopy are dis- cussed. The universality of the underlying dynamical principles is pointed out. Applications to nuclear systems at the neutron dripline and for charmonium spectroscopy by $e^- e^+ \\to D\\bar{D}$ production are discussed.

  17. Nitrogen-induced absorption of oxygen in the Herzberg continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardanand, MR.

    1977-01-01

    Total absorption of O2 induced by collisions with N2 has been measured at room temperature in the Hersberg continuum using a one meter normal incidence grating monochromator. The enhanced absorption is ascribed to the formation of O2-O2 and O2-N2 dimers. The interaction constants for these dimers are determined and utilized to investigate their effect on the absorption of solar radiation in the stratosphere.

  18. Advanced methods of continuum mechanics for materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Aßmus, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of contributions on advanced approaches of continuum mechanics, which were written to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Holm Altenbach. The contributions are on topics related to the theoretical foundations for the analysis of rods, shells and three-dimensional solids, formulation of constitutive models for advanced materials, as well as development of new approaches to the modeling of damage and fractures.

  19. Continuum Damage Mechanics Models for the Analysis of Progressive Failure in Open-Hole Tension Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyonchan; Li, Yingyong; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a state-of-the-art continuum damage mechanics model for interlaminar damage, coupled with a cohesive zone model for delamination is examined for failure prediction of quasi-isotropic open-hole tension laminates. Limitations of continuum representations of intra-ply damage and the effect of mesh orientation on the analysis predictions are discussed. It is shown that accurate prediction of matrix crack paths and stress redistribution after cracking requires a mesh aligned with the fiber orientation. Based on these results, an aligned mesh is proposed for analysis of the open-hole tension specimens consisting of different meshes within the individual plies, such that the element edges are aligned with the ply fiber direction. The modeling approach is assessed by comparison of analysis predictions to experimental data for specimen configurations in which failure is dominated by complex interactions between matrix cracks and delaminations. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms observed in the tests are well predicted. In addition, the modeling approach is demonstrated to predict proper trends in the effect of scaling on strength and failure mechanisms of quasi-isotropic open-hole tension laminates.

  20. Polarizable molecular dynamics in a polarizable continuum solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Lagardère, Louis; Raynaud, Christophe; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Mennucci, Benedetta; Schnieders, Michael; Ren, Pengyu; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip

    2015-02-10

    We present, for the first time, scalable polarizable molecular dynamics (MD) simulations within a polarizable continuum solvent with molecular shape cavities and exact solution of the mutual polarization. The key ingredients are a very efficient algorithm for solving the equations associated with the polarizable continuum, in particular, the domain decomposition Conductor-like Screening Model (ddCOSMO), which involves a rigorous coupling of the continuum with the polarizable force field achieved through a robust variational formulation and an effective strategy to solve the coupled equations. The coupling of ddCOSMO with nonvariational force fields, including AMOEBA, is also addressed. The MD simulations are feasible, for real-life systems, on standard cluster nodes; a scalable parallel implementation allows for further acceleration in the context of a newly developed module in Tinker, named Tinker-HP. NVE simulations are stable, and long-term energy conservation can be achieved. This paper is focused on the methodological developments, the analysis of the algorithm, and the stability of the simulations; a proof-of-concept application is also presented to attest to the possibilities of this newly developed technique.

  1. Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiev, O; Antoun, T

    2009-12-11

    This study presents discrete and continuum simulations of shock wave propagating through jointed media. The simulations were performed using the Lagrangian hydrocode GEODYN-L with joints treated explicitly using an advanced contact algorithm. They studied both isotropic and anisotropic joint representations. For an isotropically jointed geologic medium, the results show that the properties of the joints can be combined with the properties of the intact rock to develop an equivalent continuum model suitable for analyzing wave propagation through the jointed medium. For an anisotropically jointed geologic medium, they found it difficult to develop an equivalent continuum (EC) model that matches the response derived from mesoscopic simulation. They also performed simulations of wave propagation through jointed media. Two appraoches are suggested for modeling the rock mass. In one approach, jointed are modeled explicitly in a Lagrangian framework with appropriate contact algorithms used to track motion along the interfaces. In the other approach, the effect of joints is taken into account using a constitutive model derived from mesoscopic simulations.

  2. Formation of the thermal infrared continuum in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Paulo J. A.; Kerr, Graham S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hudson, Hugh S.; Giménez de Castro, C. Guillermo; Penn, Matt

    2017-09-01

    Aims: Observations of the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array have now started, and the thermal infrared will regularly be accessible from the NSF's Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope. Motivated by the prospect of these new data, and by recent flare observations in the mid infrared, we set out here to model and understand the source of the infrared continuum in flares, and to explore its diagnostic capability for the physical conditions in the flare atmosphere. Methods: We use the one-dimensional (1D) radiation hydrodynamics code RADYN to calculate mid-infrared continuum emission from model atmospheres undergoing sudden deposition of energy by non-thermal electrons. Results: We identify and characterise the main continuum thermal emission processes relevant to flare intensity enhancement in the mid- to far-infrared (2-200 μm) spectral range as free-free emission on neutrals and ions. We find that the infrared intensity evolution tracks the energy input to within a second, albeit with a lingering intensity enhancement, and provides a very direct indication of the evolution of the atmospheric ionisation. The prediction of highly impulsive emission means that, on these timescales, the atmospheric hydrodynamics need not be considered in analysing the mid-IR signatures.

  3. A Continuum Poisson-Boltzmann Model for Membrane Channel Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Diao, Jianxiong; Greene, D'Artagnan; Wang, Junmei; Luo, Ray

    2017-07-11

    Membrane proteins constitute a large portion of the human proteome and perform a variety of important functions as membrane receptors, transport proteins, enzymes, signaling proteins, and more. Computational studies of membrane proteins are usually much more complicated than those of globular proteins. Here, we propose a new continuum model for Poisson-Boltzmann calculations of membrane channel proteins. Major improvements over the existing continuum slab model are as follows: (1) The location and thickness of the slab model are fine-tuned based on explicit-solvent MD simulations. (2) The highly different accessibilities in the membrane and water regions are addressed with a two-step, two-probe grid-labeling procedure. (3) The water pores/channels are automatically identified. The new continuum membrane model is optimized (by adjusting the membrane probe, as well as the slab thickness and center) to best reproduce the distributions of buried water molecules in the membrane region as sampled in explicit water simulations. Our optimization also shows that the widely adopted water probe of 1.4 Å for globular proteins is a very reasonable default value for membrane protein simulations. It gives the best compromise in reproducing the explicit water distributions in membrane channel proteins, at least in the water accessible pore/channel regions. Finally, we validate the new membrane model by carrying out binding affinity calculations for a potassium channel, and we observe good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Resilience among patients across the cancer continuum: diverse perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Yi, Jean C; Martinez-Gutierrez, Javiera; Reding, Kerryn W; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2014-02-01

    Each phase of the cancer experience profoundly affects patients' lives. Much of the literature has focused on negative consequences of cancer; however, the study of resilience may enable providers to promote more positive psychosocial outcomes before, during, and after the cancer experience. The current review describes the ways in which elements of resilience have been defined and studied at each phase of the cancer continuum. Extensive literature searches were conducted to find studies assessing resilience during one or more stages of the adult cancer continuum. For all phases of the cancer continuum, resilience descriptions included preexisting or baseline characteristics, such as demographics and personal attributes (e.g., optimism, social support), mechanisms of adaptation, such as coping and medical experiences (e.g., positive provider communication), as well as psychosocial outcomes, such as growth and quality of life. Promoting resilience is a critical element of patient psychosocial care. Nurses may enable resilience by recognizing and promoting certain baseline characteristics and optimizing mechanisms of adaptation.

  5. Phase I/II study of induction chemotherapy using carboplatin plus irinotecan and sequential thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) for elderly patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC): TORG 0604.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misumi, Yuki; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Jiichiro; Masuda, Noriyuki; Ishii, Mari; Shimokawa, Tsuneo; Hosomi, Yukio; Okuma, Yusuke; Nagamata, Makoto; Ogura, Takashi; Kato, Terufumi; Sata, Masafumi; Otani, Sakiko; Takakura, Akira; Minato, Koichi; Miura, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Takuma; Takata, Saori; Naoki, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Koshiro

    2017-05-26

    The role of irinotecan for elderly patients with LD-SCLC has been unclear, and the timing of TRT combined with chemotherapy has not been fully evaluated. Patients aged > 70 years with untreated, measurable, LD-SCLC, performance status (PS) 0-2, and adequate organ function were eligible. Treatment consisted of induction with carboplatin on day 1 and irinotecan on days 1 and 8, every 21 days for 4 cycles, and sequential TRT (54Gy in 27 fractions). Carboplatin doses were based on AUC of 4 and 5 (levels 1 and 2, respectively), with a fixed irinotecan dose (50 mg/m2). Primary objective of the phase II study was overall responce rate. Forty-three patients were enrolled and forty-one were finally analyzed (median age: 75 years [range 70-86 years); males 31; PS 0/1/2, n = 22/18/1]. Two patients were excluded because of protocol violation (ascertained to be extensive disease). Twelve patients were accrued at phase I and the number of patients with carboplatin dose-limiting toxicities at levels-1 (n = 6) and -2 (n = 6) were 1(grade 3 hypertension) and 2 (grade 4 thrombocytopenia), respectively. The phase II trial was expanded to 29 additional patients receiving the level 1 carboplatin dose, total of 35 patients. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was 4 (range 1-4), and the median radiation dose was 54Gy (range 36-60). Toxicities were generally mild. There were 4 complete and 27 partial responses (response rate 88.6%). With a median follow-up of 52 months, the median progression-free and overall survival times of phase II were 11.2 and 27.1 months, respectively. Induction chemotherapy of carboplatin plus irinotecan and sequential TRT was well tolerated and effective for elderly patients with LD-SCLC. Additional confirmatory studies are warranted. Trial registration number: UMIN000007352 Name of registry: UMIN. Date of registration: 1/Dec/2006. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 6/Feb/2007. Clinical trial registration date: 1/Feb/2006

  6. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2017.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  7. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-01-01

    .... This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors...

  8. Analysis of Thermo-Diffusive Cellular Instabilities in Continuum Combustion Fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Azizi, Hossein; Provatas, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    We explore numerically the morphological patterns of thermo-diffusive instabilities in combustion fronts with a continuum fuel source, within a range of Lewis numbers and ignition temperatures, focusing on the cellular regime. For this purpose, we generalize the model of Brailovsky et al. to include distinct process kinetics and reactant heterogeneity. The generalized model is derived analytically and validated with other established models in the limit of infinite Lewis number for zero-order and first-order kinetics. Cellular and dendritic instabilities are found at low Lewis numbers thanks to a dynamic adaptive mesh refinement technique that reduces finite size effects, which can affect or even preclude the emergence of these patterns. This technique also allows achieving very large computational domains, enabling the study of system-size effects. Our numerical linear stability analysis is consistent with the analytical results of Brailovsky et al. The distinct types of dynamics found in the vicinity of the...

  9. Gibbs free energy and integrability of continuum models for granular media at equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsakelis, C.

    2015-05-01

    In this letter, we address the problem of the integrability of a continuum model for granular media at equilibrium. By the means of a formal integrability analysis, we show that the equilibrium limit of such models can be cast into a gradient equation with zero right-hand side. In turn, this implies that the model of interest is inherently Frobenius integrable, in the absence of additional compatibility conditions. Moreover, the quantity inside the gradient is identified with the granular material's Gibbs free energy. Consequently, the integrability for the model at hand is equivalent to setting the Gibbs free energy of the granular material constant throughout the domain. In other words, integrability is equivalent to the definition of equilibrium employed in statistical physics.

  10. The hypothesis of a continuum in suicidality: a discussion on its validity and practical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Sveticic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a progression in suicide phenomena, from death wishes to suicide attempts and completed suicides, is quite old and widely present in literature. This model of interpreting suicidality has great relevance in preventative approaches, since it gives the opportunity of intercepting suicidal trajectories at several different stages. However, this may not be the case for many situations, and the hypothesis of a continuum can be true only in a limited number of cases, probably embedded with a specific psychopathological scenario (e.g. depression and with a frequency that should not permit generalisations. This paper reviews the available evidence about the existence and validity of this construct, and discusses its practical implications.

  11. Fracture-Based Mesh Size Requirements for Matrix Cracks in Continuum Damage Mechanics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Frank A.; Davila, Carlos G.; Mabson, Gerald E.; Ramnath, Madhavadas; Hyder, Imran

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the ability of progressive damage analysis (PDA) finite element (FE) models to predict transverse matrix cracks in unidirectional composites. The results of the analyses are compared to closed-form linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) solutions. Matrix cracks in fiber-reinforced composite materials subjected to mode I and mode II loading are studied using continuum damage mechanics and zero-thickness cohesive zone modeling approaches. The FE models used in this study are built parametrically so as to investigate several model input variables and the limits associated with matching the upper-bound LEFM solutions. Specifically, the sensitivity of the PDA FE model results to changes in strength and element size are investigated.

  12. Complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferenc, W.; Bernat, M.; Sarzyński, J.; Głuchowska, H.

    2010-01-01

    The complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) have been synthesized as polycrystalline hydrated solids, and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, magnetic studies and also by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric measurements. The analysed complexes have the following colours: violet for Nd(III), white for Gd(III) and cream for Ho(III) compounds. The carboxylate groups bind as bidentate chelating (Ho) or bridging ligands (Nd, Gd). On heating to 1173K ...

  13. Understanding the effects of socioeconomic status along the breast cancer continuum in Australian women: a systematic review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Greg; Hendrie, Gilly A; Hendrie, Delia

    2017-10-16

    Globally, the provision of equitable outcomes for women with breast cancer is a priority for governments. However, there is growing evidence that a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient exists in outcomes across the breast cancer continuum - namely incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survival and mortality. This systematic review describes this evidence and, because of the importance of place in defining SES, findings are limited to the Australian experience. An on-line search of PubMed and the Web of Science identified 44 studies published since 1995 which examined the influence of SES along the continuum. The critique of studies included the study design, the types and scales of SES variable measured, and the results in terms of direction and significance of the relationships found. To aid in the interpretation of results, the findings were discussed in the context of a systems dynamic feedback diagram. We found 67 findings which reported 107 relationships between SES within outcomes along the continuum. Results suggest no differences in the participation in screening by SES. Higher incidence was reported in women with higher SES whereas a negative association was reported between SES and diagnosis. Associations with treatment choice were specific to the treatment choice undertaken. Some evidence was found towards greater survival for women with higher SES, however, the evidence for a SES relationship with mortality was less conclusive. In a universal health system such as that in Australia, evidence of an SES gradient exists, however, the strength and direction of this relationship varies along the continuum. This is a complex relationship and the heterogeneity in study design, the SES indicator selected and its representative scale further complicates our understanding of its influence. More complex multilevel studies are needed to better understand these relationships, the interactions between predictors and to reduce biases introduced by methodological issues.

  14. Continuum and Discrete Initial-Boundary Value Problems and Einstein's Field Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Sarbach

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many evolution problems in physics are described by partial differential equations on an infinite domain; therefore, one is interested in the solutions to such problems for a given initial dataset. A prominent example is the binary black-hole problem within Einstein's theory of gravitation, in which one computes the gravitational radiation emitted from the inspiral of the two black holes, merger and ringdown. Powerful mathematical tools can be used to establish qualitative statements about the solutions, such as their existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence on the initial data, or their asymptotic behavior over large time scales. However, one is often interested in computing the solution itself, and unless the partial differential equation is very simple, or the initial data possesses a high degree of symmetry, this computation requires approximation by numerical discretization. When solving such discrete problems on a machine, one is faced with a finite limit to computational resources, which leads to the replacement of the infinite continuum domain with a finite computer grid. This, in turn, leads to a discrete initial-boundary value problem. The hope is to recover, with high accuracy, the exact solution in the limit where the grid spacing converges to zero with the boundary being pushed to infinity. The goal of this article is to review some of the theory necessary to understand the continuum and discrete initial boundary-value problems arising from hyperbolic partial differential equations and to discuss its applications to numerical relativity; in particular, we present well-posed initial and initial-boundary value formulations of Einstein's equations, and we discuss multi-domain high-order finite difference and spectral methods to solve them.

  15. Bacterial Biogeography across the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, Mary; Yager, Patricia L.; Moran, Mary Ann; Coles, Victoria J.; Fortunato, Caroline S.; Krusche, Alex V.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Payet, Jérôme P.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Satinsky, Brandon M.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Crump, Byron C.

    2017-05-23

    Spatial and temporal patterns in microbial biodiversity across the Amazon river-ocean continuum were investigated along ~675 km of the lower Amazon River mainstem, in the Tapajos River tributary, and in the plume and coastal ocean during low and high river discharge using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in whole water and size-fractionated samples (0.2-2.0 μm and >2.0 μm). River communities varied among tributaries, but mainstem communities were spatially homogeneous and tracked seasonal changes in river discharge and co-varying factors. Co-occurrence network analysis identified strongly interconnected river assemblages during high (May) and low (December) discharge periods, and weakly interconnected transitional assemblages in September, suggesting that this system supports two seasonal microbial communities linked to river discharge. In contrast, plume communities showed little seasonal differences and instead varied spatially tracking salinity. However, salinity explained only a small fraction of community variability, and plume communities in blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages were strikingly different than those in other high salinity plume samples. This suggests that while salinity physically structures plumes through buoyancy and mixing, the composition of plume-specific communities is controlled by other factors including nutrients, phytoplankton community composition, and dissolved organic matter chemistry. Co-occurrence networks identified interconnected assemblages associated with the highly productive low salinity nearshore region, diatom-diazotroph blooms, and the plume edge region, and weakly interconnected assemblages in high salinity regions. This suggests that the plume supports a transitional community influenced by immigration of ocean bacteria from the plume edge, and by species sorting as these communities adapt to local environmental conditions. Few studies have explored patterns of microbial diversity in tropical rivers and

  16. Block versus continuum deformation in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G.; Oppenheimer, D.; Amelung, F.

    1994-01-01

    The relative role of block versus continuum deformation of continental lithosphere is a current subject of debate. Continuous deformation is suggested by distributed seismicity at continental plate margins and by cumulative seismic moment sums which yield slip estimates that are less than estimates from plate motion studies. In contrast, block models are favored by geologic studies of displacement in places like Asia. A problem in this debate is a lack of data from which unequivocal conclusions may be reached. In this paper we apply the techniques of study used in regions such as the Alpine-Himalayan belt to an area with a wealth of instrumental data-the Western United States. By comparing plate rates to seismic moment release rates and assuming a typical seismogenic layer thickness of 15 km it appears that since 1850 about 60% of the Pacific-North America motion across the plate boundary in California and Nevada has occurred seismically and 40% aseismically. The San Francisco Bay area shows similar partitioning between seismic and aseismic deformation, and it can be shown that within the seismogenic depth range aseismic deformation is concentrated near the surface and at depth. In some cases this deformation can be located on creeping surface faults, but elsewhere it is spread over a several kilometer wide zone adjacent to the fault. These superficial creeping deformation zones may be responsible for the palaeomagnetic rotations that have been ascribed elsewhere to the surface expression of continuum deformation in the lithosphere. Our results support the dominant role of non-continuum deformation processes with the implication that deformation localization by strain softening must occur in the lower crust and probably the upper mantle. Our conclusions apply only to the regions where the data are good, and even within the Western United States (i.e., the Basin and Range) deformation styles remain poorly resolved. Nonetheless, we maintain that block motion is the

  17. Complexation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides with hydrophilic N-donor ligands for Am(III)/Cm(III) and An(III)/Ln(III) separation; Komplexierung von trivalenten Actiniden und Lanthaniden mit hydrophilen N-Donorliganden zur Am(III)/Cm(III)- bzw. An(III)/Ln(III)-Trennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Christoph

    2017-07-24

    the hydration, resulting in more negative reaction enthalpies of the complexation in acidic media. Utilizing absorption spectroscopy, the formation of the [Am(SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP){sub 2}]{sup 5-} complex was quantified. The conditional stability constant of this complex is by Δlogβ{sub 2} = 0.2 larger than of the analogous Cm(III) complex. This is in excellent agreement with the separation factor derived from solvent extraction (SF{sub Cm(III)/Am(III)} = 1.6). Solvent extraction studies were performed in the SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP/TODGA system (N,N,N{sup '},N{sup '}-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide) at varied nitric acid concentration, SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP concentration and temperature, demonstrating the separation of Am(III) from Cm(III) and the light Ln(III) with separation factors of SF{sub Cm(III)/Am(III)} = 2.6-3.0 and SF{sub Eu(III)/Am(III)} up to 1100. Furthermore, the selectivity of the SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP/TODGA system is not affected by Eu(III) concentrations of 2 - 15 mmol/L or by hydrolysis after contact with nitric acid for several weeks. Radiolytic degradation occuring at α doses > 10 kGy, however, limits the recycling of SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP. In case of SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTPhen (tetrasodium 3,3{sup '},3'',3{sup '''}-((1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-diyl)bis (1,2,4-triazine-3,5,6-triyl)tetrabenzenesulfonate) the coordinating nitrogen atoms of the pyridine moieties of SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP are fixed in cis position by the phenantroline moiety. This results in increased complex stability for lipophilic derivatives. However, TRLFS studies on SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTPhen and SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP in aqueous solution at pH 3 showed that the preorganization has no significant impact on the stability of the formed complexes. Due to the lower pK{sub a} of SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTPhen the logβ{sub 2} values in acidic media are higher than for SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP. The selectivity of the complexing agent, however, remains unaltered. The Cm(III) and Eu(III) 1:1 complexes formed with

  18. Topology Optimization of Continuum Structures with Local Stress Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duysinx, Pierre; Bendsøe, Martin P

    1997-01-01

    materials. Then, an empirical model is proposed for the power law materials (also called SIMP materials). In a second part, solution aspects of topology problems are considered. To deal with the so-called 'singularity' phenomenon of stress constraints in topology design, an $\\epsilon$ constraint relaxation......We introduce an extension of current technologies for topology optimization of continuum structures which allows for treating local stress criteria. We first consider relevant stress criteria for porous composite materials, initially by studying the stress states of the so-called rank~2 layered...

  19. Extragalactic radio continuum surveys and the transformation of radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2017-10-01

    Next-generation radio surveys are about to transform radio astronomy by discovering and studying tens of millions of previously unknown radio sources. These surveys will provide fresh insights for understanding the evolution of galaxies, measuring the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate, and rivalling traditional techniques in the measurement of fundamental cosmological parameters. By observing a new volume of observational parameter space, they are also likely to discover unexpected phenomena. This Review traces the evolution of extragalactic radio continuum surveys from the earliest days of radio astronomy to the present, and identifies the challenges that must be overcome to achieve this transformational change.

  20. Computed bound and continuum electronic states of the nitrogen molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennyson Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissociative recombination (DR of N2+ is important for processes occurring in our atmosphere. However, it is not particularly well characterised, experimentally for the vibrational ground state and, theoretically for the v ≥ 4. We use the R-matrix method to compute potential energy curves for both the bound Rydberg states of nitrogen and for quasi-bound states lying in the continuum. Use of a fine mesh of internuclear separations allows the details of avoided crossings to be determined. The prospects for using the curves as the input for DR calculations is discussed.

  1. Continuum excitations in neutron-rich Oxygen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumann, T.; Boretzky, K.; Cortina, D.; Cub, J.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Hellstroem, M.; Holzmann, R.; Ilievski, S.; Iwasa, N.; Kaspar, M.; Kleinboehl, A.; Leifels, Y.; Muenzenberg, G.; Rejmund, M.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schlegel, C.; Suemmerer, K.; Wan, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, T.; Boretzky, K.; Dostal, W.; Eberlein, B.; Kratz, J.V. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Leistenschneider, A.; Elze, T.W.; Gruenschloss, A.; Stroth, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany); Cub, J.; Simon, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Holeczek, J. [Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Slaski, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kulessa, R.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W. [Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagellonski, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Reiter, P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Electromagnetic and nuclear excitations of the neutron-rich Oxygen isotopes ranging from A=17 to A=22 are studied experimentally in reactions at energies around 600 MeV/u. By measuring the four-momenta of all decay products the excitation energy is determined. From the differential cross sections for electromagnetic excitation, the E1-strength distributions can be deduced. For {sup 18,20,22}O, low-lying dipole strength is observed, exhausting about 5{percent} of the energy weighted TRK sumrule for energies up to 5 MeV above the continuum threshold. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Continuum effects in neutron-drip-line oxygen isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Fossez, K.; Rotureau, J.; Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2017-01-01

    The binding-energy pattern along the neutron-rich oxygen chain, governed by an interplay between shell effects and many-body correlations impacted by strong couplings to one- and two-neutron continuum, make these isotopes a unique testing ground for nuclear models. In this work, we investigate ground states and low-lying excited states of $^{23-28}$O using the complex-energy Gamow Shell Model and Density Matrix Renormalization Group method with a finite-range two-body interaction optimized to...

  3. Numerical simulation of asphalt mixtures fracture using continuum models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowski, Cezary; Górski, Jarosław; Stienss, Marcin; Smakosz, Łukasz

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers numerical models of fracture processes of semi-circular asphalt mixture specimens subjected to three-point bending. Parameter calibration of the asphalt mixture constitutive models requires advanced, complex experimental test procedures. The highly non-homogeneous material is numerically modelled by a quasi-continuum model. The computational parameters are averaged data of the components, i.e. asphalt, aggregate and the air voids composing the material. The model directly captures random nature of material parameters and aggregate distribution in specimens. Initial results of the analysis are presented here.

  4. Predicted continuum spectra of type II supernovae - LTE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviv, G.; Wehrse, R.; Wagoner, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The continuum spectral energy distribution of the flux emerging from type II supernovae is calculated from quasi-static radiative transfer through a power-law density gradient, assuming radiative equilibrium and LTE. It is found that the Balmer jump disappears at high effective temperatures and low densities, while the spectrum resembles that of a dilute blackbody but is flatter with a sharper cutoff at the short-wavelength end. A significant UV excess is found in all models calculated. The calculation should be considered exploratory because of significant effects which are anticipated to arise from departure from LTE.

  5. Z Camelopardalis - Outburst P Cygni profiles and quiescent continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, P.; Mateo, M.

    1986-01-01

    The first orbital study of the C IV P Cygni profile in the dwarf nova Z Cam, a system of intermediate inclination. A modulation of the absorption equivalent width is apparent, with phases suggesting an effect from the mass-transfer stream. Over the outburst cycle, the strength of the P Cygni absorption and emission components is greater after outburst than during the standstill configuration, while the terminal velocities and central absorption wavelengths are similar. The continuum flux distributions during the decline from outburst and during quiescence are discussed.

  6. Ipertensione arteriosa, continuum cardiovascolare e ruolo clinico dei sartanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Destro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular and cardiorenal continuum comprises the transition from cardiovascular risk factors to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, to chronic congestive heart failure, and-stage renal disease or premature death. RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is involved in all steps along this pathway. Data from clinical studies involving valsartan and other ARBs provide evidence of the reduction of risk of cardiovascular events, and end-organ damage in the heart, kidneys and brain. This paper summarizes the status on research of ARBs based on clinical trials and regulatory approval.

  7. NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration, Continuum Magazine: Issue 4 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    Continuum Magazine showcases NREL's latest and most impactful clean energy innovations. This issue, 'NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration' explores the discipline of energy systems integration, in particular the role of the laboratory's new, one-of-a-kind Energy System Integration Facility. NREL scientists, engineers, and analysts deeply understand the fundamental science and technologies underpinning major energy producing and consuming systems, as well as the transmission infrastructure and communications and data networks required to integrate energy systems at all scales.

  8. A 3D Orthotropic Elastic Continuum Damage Material Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, Shawn Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, Arthur A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage is implemented for polymer matrix composite lamina. Damage evolves based on a quadratic homogeneous function of thermodynamic forces in the orthotropic planes. A small strain formulation is used to assess damage. In order to account for large deformations, a Kirchhoff material formulation is implemented and coded for numerical simulation in Sandia’s Sierra Finite Element code suite. The theoretical formulation is described in detail. An example of material parameter determination is given and an example is presented.

  9. From cells to tissue: A continuum model of epithelial mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Shuji; Marcq, Philippe; Sugimura, Kaoru

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional continuum model of epithelial tissue mechanics was formulated using cellular-level mechanical ingredients and cell morphogenetic processes, including cellular shape changes and cellular rearrangements. This model incorporates stress and deformation tensors, which can be compared with experimental data. Focusing on the interplay between cell shape changes and cell rearrangements, we elucidated dynamical behavior underlying passive relaxation, active contraction-elongation, and tissue shear flow, including a mechanism for contraction-elongation, whereby tissue flows perpendicularly to the axis of cell elongation. This study provides an integrated scheme for the understanding of the orchestration of morphogenetic processes in individual cells to achieve epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

  10. From discrete elements to continuum fields: Extension to bidisperse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak R.; Thornton, Anthony R.; Weinhart, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Micro-macro transition methods can be used to, both, calibrate and validate continuum models from discrete data obtained via experiments or simulations. These methods generate continuum fields such as density, momentum, stress, etc., from discrete data, i.e. positions, velocity, orientations and forces of individual elements. Performing this micro-macro transition step is especially challenging for non-uniform or dynamic situations. Here, we present a general method of performing this transition, but for simplicity we will restrict our attention to two-component scenarios. The mapping technique, presented here, is an extension to the micro-macro transition method, called coarse-graining, for unsteady two-component flows and can be easily extended to multi-component systems without any loss of generality. This novel method is advantageous; because, by construction the obtained macroscopic fields are consistent with the continuum equations of mass, momentum and energy balance. Additionally, boundary interaction forces can be taken into account in a self-consistent way and thus allow for the construction of continuous stress fields even within one element radius of the boundaries. Similarly, stress and drag forces can also be determined for individual constituents of a multi-component mixture, which is critical for several continuum applications, e.g. mixture theory-based segregation models. Moreover, the method does not require ensemble-averaging and thus can be efficiently exploited to investigate static, steady and time-dependent flows. The method presented in this paper is valid for any discrete data, e.g. particle simulations, molecular dynamics, experimental data, etc.; however, for the purpose of illustration we consider data generated from discrete particle simulations of bidisperse granular mixtures flowing over rough inclined channels. We show how to practically use our coarse-graining extension for both steady and unsteady flows using our open-source coarse

  11. Geometry of the Shannon mutual information in continuum QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, David R.; Oxman, Luis E.

    2017-06-01

    We analyze geometric terms and scaling properties of the Shannon mutual information in the continuum. This is done for a free massless scalar field theory in d -dimensions, in a coherent state reduced with respect to a general differentiable manifold. As a by-product, we find an expression for the reduced probability density of finding a certain field on a ball. We will also introduce and compute the Fisher information that this probability carries about the location of the observation region. This is an interesting information measure that refers to points in physical space, although in relativistic quantum field theory they are labels and not fluctuating quantum observables.

  12. Lessons in redesigning a quality program across the continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Diane Storer; Church, Lauri; Heywood, Terry; Hills, John F; McCarthy, Sarah; Serway, Cindy

    2003-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente North East Bay service area redesigned its quality program beginning in 1995, to better mirror how care was provided across the continuum. The old model had evolved over time, was based on departmental structure, and did not focus on all patient populations. The purpose of this article is to describe the redesign process, the quality model implemented, and future directions, with the hope that the lessons learned will provide other healthcare quality professionals some of the knowledge needed and, perhaps, the courage to "design" their quality programs.

  13. Affective Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder - Comorbidity or Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The association between bipolar disorder and borderline personality has been studied by several researchers. Comorbidity has been emphasized by some authors which observe a prognostic impairment of bipolar disorder because the delay of the diagnostic. Symptoms related with alcohol and drugs abuse, suicidary behaviour and impulsivity, often present in borderline patients, make the treatment difficult. Other authors consider these symptoms as being part of the bipolar disease, proposing a continuum between the two entities. In this case, borderline personality would be a mild form of an affective disorder. We will discuss different opinions and their cli- nical and therapeutic consequences.

  14. Hybrid molecular–continuum methods: From prototypes to coupling software

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2014-02-01

    In this contribution, we review software requirements in hybrid molecular-continuum simulations. For this purpose, we analyze a prototype implementation which combines two frameworks-the Molecular Dynamics framework MarDyn and the framework Peano for spatially adaptive mesh-based simulations-and point out particular challenges of a general coupling software. Based on this analysis, we discuss the software design of our recently published coupling tool. We explain details on its overall structure and show how the challenges that arise in respective couplings are resolved by the software. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Observations of the Solar Continuum Radio Emission at Decameter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhenko, Anatoliy I.; Mel'Nik, Valentin N.; Konovalenko, Alexander A.; Abranin, Edward P.; Dorovskyy, Vladimir V.; Vashchishin, Rostislav V.; Frantzusenko, Anatoly V.; Rucker, Helmut O.

    2010-01-01

    Results of study of the continuum radio emission of the Sun in the decameter range are presented. Observations were carried out with radio telescope URAN-2 in summer months in 2008-2009. Radio fluxes at frequencies 20 MHz and 25 MHz in frequency band 250 kHz were obtained during the time, when there were no active regions on the solar disk. Their average values for two years were 670 Jy and 850 Jy at frequencies 20 MHz and 25 MHz correspondingly. These fluxes are in agreement with high frequency values.

  16. The mental health continuum: from languishing to flourishing in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Corey L M

    2002-06-01

    This paper introduces and applies an operationalization of mental health as a syndrome of symptoms of positive feelings and positive functioning in life. Dimensions and scales of subjective well-being are reviewed and conceived of as mental health symptoms. A diagnosis of the presence of mental health, described as flourishing, and the absence of mental health, characterized as languishing, is applied to data from the 1995 Midlife in the United States study of adults between the ages of 25 and 74 (n = 3,032). Findings revealed that 17.2 percent fit the criteria for flourishing, 56.6 percent were moderately mentally healthy, 12.1 percent of adults fit the criteria for languishing, and 14.1 percent fit the criteria for DSM-III-R major depressive episode (12-month), of which 9.4 percent were not languishing and 4.7 percent were also languishing. The risk of a major depressive episode was two times more likely among languishing than moderately mentally healthy adults, and nearly six times greater among languishing than flourishing adults. Multivariate analyses revealed that languishing and depression were associated with significant psychosocial impairment in terms of perceived emotional health, limitations of activities of daily living, and workdays lost or cutback. Flourishing and moderate mental health were associated with superior profiles of psychosocial functioning. The descriptive epidemiology revealed that males, older adults, more educated individuals, and married adults were more likely to be mentally healthy. Implications for the conception of mental health and the treatment and prevention of mental illness are discussed.

  17. Lutetium(III cyclotetraphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïcha Mbarek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, tetralutetium(III tris(cyclotetraphosphate, Lu4(P4O123, were obtained by solid-state reaction. The cubic structure is isotypic with its AlIII and ScIII analogues and is built up from four-membered (P4O124− phosphate ring anions (overline{4} symmetry, isolated from each other and further linked through isolated LuO6 octahedra (.3. symmetry via corner sharing. Each LuO6 octahedron is linked to six (P4O124− rings, while each (P4O124− ring is linked to eight LuO6 octahedra.

  18. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  19. III-V microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nougier, JP

    1991-01-01

    As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p

  20. Treatment planning in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Grant T

    2004-01-01

    In Class III malocclusion, the overjet is reduced and may be reversed, with one or more incisor teeth in lingual crossbite. In the early mixed dentition, and in older patients with mild skeletal discrepancies, orthodontic treatment usually involves proclining the maxilliary anterior teeth into positive overjet. When the permanent dentition has established, orthodontic therapy is usually aimed at compensating for the underlying mild-moderate Class III skeletal discrepancy by proclining and retroclining the maxillary and mandibular incisors, respectively. In contrast, adolescent and non-growing patients with severe Class III skeletal discrepancies require a combination of orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery to correct the underlying skeletal pattern. Adolescent patients with moderately severe skeletal discrepancies require careful treatment planning because they are often at the limits of orthodontic compensation, and further mandibular growth may prevent a stable Class I occlusion from being maintained with growth. In this situation, treatment should be limited to aligning the maxillary arch, accepting that orthognathic surgery will be required to correct the underlying Class III skeletal discrepancy when skeletal growth has been completed. This article will inform dental professionals about the aetiology, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of patients with Class III malocclusions. Specifically, the types of orthodontic treatment that can be completed at the various stages of dental development and skeletal growth will be discussed.

  1. A continuum damage model for delaminations in laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z.; Reid, S. R.; Li, S.

    2003-02-01

    Delamination, a typical mode of interfacial damage in laminated composites, has been considered in the context of continuum damage mechanics in this paper. Interfaces where delaminations could occur are introduced between the constituent layers. A simple but appropriate continuum damage representation is proposed. A single scalar damage parameter is employed and the degradation of the interface stiffness is established. Use has been made of the concept of a damage surface to derive the damage evolution law. The damage surface is constructed so that it combines the conventional stress-based and fracture-mechanics-based failure criteria which take account of mode interaction in mixed-mode delamination problems. The damage surface shrinks as damage develops and leads to a softening interfacial constitutive law. By adjusting the shrinkage rate of the damage surface, various interfacial constitutive laws found in the literature can be reproduced. An incremental interfacial constitutive law is also derived for use in damage analysis of laminated composites, which is a non-linear problem in nature. Numerical predictions for problems involving a DCB specimen under pure mode I delamination and mixed-mode delamination in a split beam are in good agreement with available experimental data or analytical solutions. The model has also been applied to the prediction of the failure strength of overlap ply-blocking specimens. The results have been compared with available experimental and alternative theoretical ones and discussed fully.

  2. State stability analysis for the fermionic projector in the continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoch, Stefan Ludwig

    2008-07-01

    The principle of the fermionic projector in the continuum gives an indication that there might be a deeper reason why elementary particles only appear with a few definite masses. In this thesis the existence of approximately state-stable configurations is shown. In order to achieve that, we make use of a variational principle for the fermionic projector in the continuum which contains certain contributions supported on the light cone. In a certain sense, these extra terms contain the structure of the underlying discrete spacetime. Lorentz invariant distributions and their convolutions are studied. Some of these are well-defined because the convolution integrals have compactly supported integrands. Other convolutions can be regularized such that the property of being ill-defined only plays a role on the light cone. These results are used to analyze the variational principle and to give criteria for state stability, which can be numerically analyzed. Some plots are presented to allow a decision about state stability and to show how possible configurations could look like. (orig.)

  3. Fractal continuum model for tracer transport in a porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Hernández, E C; Coronado, M; Hernández-Coronado, H

    2013-12-01

    A model based on the fractal continuum approach is proposed to describe tracer transport in fractal porous media. The original approach has been extended to treat tracer transport and to include systems with radial and uniform flow, which are cases of interest in geoscience. The models involve advection due to the fluid motion in the fractal continuum and dispersion whose mathematical expression is taken from percolation theory. The resulting advective-dispersive equations are numerically solved for continuous and for pulse tracer injection. The tracer profile and the tracer breakthrough curve are evaluated and analyzed in terms of the fractal parameters. It has been found in this work that anomalous transport frequently appears, and a condition on the fractal parameter values to predict when sub- or superdiffusion might be expected has been obtained. The fingerprints of fractality on the tracer breakthrough curve in the explored parameter window consist of an early tracer breakthrough and long tail curves for the spherical and uniform flow cases, and symmetric short tailed curves for the radial flow case.

  4. A continuum of care model for postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Stacie E; Adams, Marci G; Miller, Suellen

    2007-01-01

    The leading cause of maternal mortality is hemorrhage, generally occurring in the postpartum period. Current levels of PPH-related morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings result from institutional, environmental, cultural and social barriers to providing skilled care and preventing, diagnosing and treating PPH. Conventional uterotonics to prevent PPH are typically not available or practical for use in low-resource settings. In such deliveries, most often taking place at home or in rural health centers, underestimation of blood loss leads to a delay in diagnosis. Deficiencies in communication and transportation infrastructure impede transfer to a higher level of care. Inability to stabilize a patient who is in hemorrhagic shock rapidly results in death. To address these individual factors, we propose a continuum of care model for PPH, including routine use of prophylactic misoprostol or other appropriate uterotonic, a standardized means of blood loss assessment, availability of a non-pneumatic anti-shock garment, and systemization of communication, transportation, and referral. Such a multifaceted, systematic, contextualized PPH continuum of care approach may have the greatest impact for saving women's lives. This model should be developed and tested to be region-specific.

  5. Health Communication and the HIV Continuum of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermund, Sten H; Mallalieu, Elizabeth C; Van Lith, Lynn M; Struthers, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Health communication is a broad term that applies to the fundamental need for practitioners, policy makers, patients, and community members to understand one another around health promotion and health care issues. Whether in a consultation between nurse and patient, a health clinic director's engagement with the health ministry, or a community campaign for encouraging HIV testing, all have critical health communication elements. When people's needs are not perceived by them to be addressed or clients/patients do not understand what is being communicated, they are unmotivated to engage. Health communication may be deployed at multiple levels to encourage positive behavior change and affect HIV treatment outcomes. As countries move to treatment for all as soon as possible after testing, health communication can help address significant losses at each stage of the HIV continuum of care, thereby contributing to achieving the 90-90-90 global treatment goals. This JAIDS supplement presents compelling studies that are anchored on the health communication exigencies in highly diverse HIV and AIDS contexts in low and middle income settings. Our special focus is health communication needs and challenges within the HIV continuum of care. We introduce the supplement with thumbnails summaries of the work presented by an experienced array of public health, behavioral, and clinical scientists.

  6. Evolving Human Alteration of the Carbon Cycle: the Watershed Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Newcomer Johnson, T.; Pennino, M. J.; Smith, R. M.; Beaulieu, J. J.; Belt, K.; Grese, M.; Blomquist, J.; Duan, S.; Findlay, S.; Likens, G.; Mayer, P. M.; Murthy, S.; Utz, R.; Yepsen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Watersheds experiencing land development are constantly evolving, and their biogeochemical signatures are expected to evolve across both space and time in drainage waters. We investigate how land development influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Eastern U.S. Along the watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and bioavailability of carbon; (2) carbon retention/release at the reach scale; and (3) ecosystem metabolism of carbon from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and frequency of carbon "pulses" in watersheds. Amounts and forms of carbon pulses in agricultural and urban watersheds respond similarly to climate variability due to headwater alteration and loss of ecosystem services to buffer runoff and temperature changes. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered organic carbon concentrations in tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay, and there have been increased bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. due to human activities. In summary, our analyses indicates that the form and reactivity of carbon have evolved over space and time along the watershed continuum with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.

  7. Variational principles of continuum mechanics. Vol. 2. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdichevsky, Victor L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The book reviews the two features of the variational approach: its use as a universal tool to describe physical phenomena and as a source for qualitative and quantitative methods of studying particular problems. Berdichevsky's work differs from other books on the subject in focusing mostly on the physical origin of variational principles as well as establishing their interrelations. For example, the Gibbs principles appear as a consequence of the Einstein formula for thermodynamic fluctuations rather than as the first principles of the theory of thermodynamic equilibrium. Mathematical issues are considered as long as they shed light on the physical outcomes and/or provide a useful technique for the direct study of variational problems. In addition, a thorough account of variational principles discovered in various branches of continuum mechanics is given. This book, the second volume, describes how the variational approach can be applied to constructing models of continuum media, such as the theory of elastic plates; shells and beams; shallow water theory; heterogeneous mixtures; granular materials; and turbulence. It goes on to apply the variational approach to asymptotical analysis of problems with small parameters, such as the derivation of the theory of elastic plates, shells and beams from three-dimensional elasticity theory; and the basics of homogenization theory. A theory of stochastic variational problems is considered in detail too, along with applications to the homogenization of continua with random microstructures. (orig.)

  8. Asteroid-comet continuum objects in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H

    2017-07-13

    In this review presented at the Royal Society meeting, 'Cometary science after Rosetta', I present an overview of studies of small solar system objects that exhibit properties of both asteroids and comets (with a focus on so-called active asteroids). Sometimes referred to as 'transition objects', these bodies are perhaps more appropriately described as 'continuum objects', to reflect the notion that rather than necessarily representing actual transitional evolutionary states between asteroids and comets, they simply belong to the general population of small solar system bodies that happen to exhibit a continuous range of observational, physical and dynamical properties. Continuum objects are intriguing because they possess many of the properties that make classical comets interesting to study (e.g. relatively primitive compositions, ejection of surface and subsurface material into space where it can be more easily studied, and orbital properties that allow us to sample material from distant parts of the solar system that would otherwise be inaccessible), while allowing us to study regions of the solar system that are not sampled by classical comets.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Microscopic and continuum descriptions of Janus motor fluid flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigh, Shang Yik; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Active media, whose constituents are able to move autonomously, display novel features that differ from those of equilibrium systems. In addition to naturally occurring active systems such as populations of swimming bacteria, active systems of synthetic self-propelled nanomotors have been developed. These synthetic systems are interesting because of their potential applications in a variety of fields. Janus particles, synthetic motors of spherical geometry with one hemisphere that catalyses the conversion of fuel to product and one non-catalytic hemisphere, can propel themselves in solution by self-diffusiophoresis. In this mechanism, the concentration gradient generated by the asymmetric catalytic activity leads to a force on the motor that induces fluid flows in the surrounding medium. These fluid flows are studied in detail through microscopic simulations of Janus motor motion and continuum theory. It is shown that continuum theory is able to capture many, but not all, features of the dynamics of the Janus motor and the velocity fields of the fluid. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling at the physics–chemistry–biology interface’. PMID:27698037

  10. Multi Texture Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Continuum Using Multispectral Imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Chaddad

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to characterize the continuum of colorectal cancer (CRC using multiple texture features extracted from multispectral optical microscopy images. Three types of pathological tissues (PT are considered: benign hyperplasia, intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma.In the proposed approach, the region of interest containing PT is first extracted from multispectral images using active contour segmentation. This region is then encoded using texture features based on the Laplacian-of-Gaussian (LoG filter, discrete wavelets (DW and gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM. To assess the significance of textural differences between PT types, a statistical analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test is performed. The usefulness of texture features is then evaluated quantitatively in terms of their ability to predict PT types using various classifier models.Preliminary results show significant texture differences between PT types, for all texture features (p-value < 0.01. Individually, GLCM texture features outperform LoG and DW features in terms of PT type prediction. However, a higher performance can be achieved by combining all texture features, resulting in a mean classification accuracy of 98.92%, sensitivity of 98.12%, and specificity of 99.67%.These results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of combining multiple texture features for characterizing the continuum of CRC and discriminating between pathological tissues in multispectral images.

  11. VCMM: a visual tool for continuum molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shiyang; Lu, Benzhuo

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the design and function of a visualization tool, VCMM, for visualizing and analyzing data, and interfacing solvers for generic continuum molecular modeling. In particular, an emphasis of the program is to treat the data set based on unstructured mesh as used in finite/boundary element simulations, which largely enhances the capabilities of current visualization tools in this area that only support structured mesh. VCMM is segmented into molecular, meshing and numerical modules. The capabilities of molecular module include molecular visualization and force field assignment. Meshing module contains mesh generation, analysis and visualization tools. Numerical module currently provides a few finite/boundary element solvers of continuum molecular modeling, and contains several common visualization tools for the numerical result such as line and plane interpolations, surface probing, volume rendering and stream rendering. Three modules can exchange data with each other and carry out a complete process of modeling. Interfaces are also designed in order to facilitate usage of other mesh generation tools and numerical solvers. We develop a technique to accelerate data retrieval and have combined many graphical techniques in visualization. VCMM is highly extensible, and users can obtain more powerful functions by introducing relevant plug-ins. VCMM can also be useful in other fields such as computational quantum chemistry, image processing, and material science. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Asteroid-comet continuum objects in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.

    2017-05-01

    In this review presented at the Royal Society meeting, `Cometary science after Rosetta', I present an overview of studies of small solar system objects that exhibit properties of both asteroids and comets (with a focus on so-called active asteroids). Sometimes referred to as `transition objects', these bodies are perhaps more appropriately described as `continuum objects', to reflect the notion that rather than necessarily representing actual transitional evolutionary states between asteroids and comets, they simply belong to the general population of small solar system bodies that happen to exhibit a continuous range of observational, physical and dynamical properties. Continuum objects are intriguing because they possess many of the properties that make classical comets interesting to study (e.g. relatively primitive compositions, ejection of surface and subsurface material into space where it can be more easily studied, and orbital properties that allow us to sample material from distant parts of the solar system that would otherwise be inaccessible), while allowing us to study regions of the solar system that are not sampled by classical comets. This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'.

  13. Microscopic and continuum descriptions of Janus motor fluid flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigh, Shang Yik; Huang, Mu-Jie; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond

    2016-11-01

    Active media, whose constituents are able to move autonomously, display novel features that differ from those of equilibrium systems. In addition to naturally occurring active systems such as populations of swimming bacteria, active systems of synthetic self-propelled nanomotors have been developed. These synthetic systems are interesting because of their potential applications in a variety of fields. Janus particles, synthetic motors of spherical geometry with one hemisphere that catalyses the conversion of fuel to product and one non-catalytic hemisphere, can propel themselves in solution by self-diffusiophoresis. In this mechanism, the concentration gradient generated by the asymmetric catalytic activity leads to a force on the motor that induces fluid flows in the surrounding medium. These fluid flows are studied in detail through microscopic simulations of Janus motor motion and continuum theory. It is shown that continuum theory is able to capture many, but not all, features of the dynamics of the Janus motor and the velocity fields of the fluid. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  14. A continuum model for dynamic analysis of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Segun

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic analysis of the International Space Station using MSC/NASTRAN had 1312 rod elements, 62 beam elements, 489 nodes and 1473 dynamic degrees of freedom. A realtime, man-in-the-loop simulation of such a model is impractical. This paper discusses the mathematical model for realtime dynamic simulation of the Space Station. Several key questions in structures and structural dynamics are addressed. First, to achieve a significant reduction in the number of dynamic degrees of freedom, a continuum equivalent representation of the Space Station truss structure which accounted for the unsymmetry of the basic configuration and resulted in the coupling of extensional and transverse deformation, is developed. Next, dynamic equations for the continuum equivalent of the Space Station truss structure are formulated using a matrix version of Kane's dynamical equations. Flexibility is accounted for by using a theory that accommodates extension, bending in two principal planes and shear displacement. Finally, constraint equations suitable for dynamic analysis of flexible bodies with closed loop configuration are developed and solution of the resulting system of equations is based on the zero eigenvalue theorem.

  15. Light vector mesons and the dielectron continuum in PHENIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Sarah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured the dielectron continuum and the ω and ϕ light vector mesons using hadronic and dielectron decay channels in √sNN = 200 GeV p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions. The ω and ϕ mesons experience no strong cold nuclear matter effects but in central heavy ion collisions their yields are suppressed at high pT, extending to intermediate pT for the ϕ. The comparison of the ω and ϕ suppression to the suppression of other hadrons suggests parton energy loss for high pT mesons and favors a recombination production mechanism for intermediate pT ϕ mesons. The dielectron continuum shows a low mass excess in central Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions while the p+p and d+Au spectra agree with their respective cocktails. The low mass excess consists of a high pT thermal virtual photon component and a much larger low pT component.

  16. Continuum of Renin-Independent Aldosteronism in Normotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrand, Rene; Guarda, Francisco J; Fardella, Carlos; Hundemer, Gregory; Brown, Jenifer; Williams, Gordon; Vaidya, Anand

    2017-05-01

    Primary aldosteronism is a severe form of autonomous aldosteronism. Milder forms of autonomous and renin-independent aldosteronism may be common, even in normotension. We characterized aldosterone secretion in 210 normotensives who had suppressed plasma renin activity (renin, and potassium handling were investigated. Severe autonomous aldosterone secretion that was consistent with confirmed primary aldosteronism was defined based on accepted criteria of an aldosterone excretion rate >12 μg/24 hours with urinary sodium excretion >200 mmol/24 hours. Across the population, there were strong and significant associations between higher aldosterone excretion rate and higher urinary potassium excretion, higher angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone, and lower plasma renin activity, suggesting a continuum of renin-independent aldosteronism and mineralocorticoid receptor activity. Autonomous aldosterone secretion that fulfilled confirmatory criteria for primary aldosteronism was detected in 29 participants (14%). Normotensives with evidence suggestive of confirmed primary aldosteronism had higher 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion rate (20.2±12.2 versus 6.2±2.9 μg/24 hours; Prenin ratio, blood pressure, or renal plasma flow between the 2 groups. These findings indicate a continuum of renin-independent aldosteronism and mineralocorticoid receptor activity in normotension that ranges from subtle to overtly dysregulated and autonomous. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether this spectrum of autonomous aldosterone secretion contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. [Continuum, the continuing education platform based on a competency matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Sangrador, C; Villaizán Pérez, C; González de Dios, J; Hijano Bandera, F; Málaga Guerrero, S

    2016-04-01

    Competency-Based Education is a learning method that has changed the traditional teaching-based focus to a learning-based one. Students are the centre of the process, in which they must learn to learn, solve problems, and adapt to changes in their environment. The goal is to provide learning based on knowledge, skills (know-how), attitude and behaviour. These sets of knowledge are called competencies. It is essential to have a reference of the required competencies in order to identify the need for them. Their acquisition is approached through teaching modules, in which one or more skills can be acquired. This teaching strategy has been adopted by Continuum, the distance learning platform of the Spanish Paediatric Association, which has developed a competency matrix based on the Global Paediatric Education Consortium training program. In this article, a review will be presented on the basics of Competency-Based Education and how it is applied in Continuum. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychostimulants and cognition: a continuum of behavioral and cognitive activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Suzanne; Sage, Jennifer R; Shuman, Tristan; Anagnostaras, Stephan G

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as cocaine have been used as performance enhancers throughout recorded history. Although psychostimulants are commonly prescribed to improve attention and cognition, a great deal of literature has described their ability to induce cognitive deficits, as well as addiction. How can a single drug class be known to produce both cognitive enhancement and impairment? Properties of the particular stimulant drug itself and individual differences between users have both been suggested to dictate the outcome of stimulant use. A more parsimonious alternative, which we endorse, is that dose is the critical determining factor in cognitive effects of stimulant drugs. Herein, we review several popular stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine), outlining their history of use, mechanism of action, and use and abuse today. One common graphic depiction of the cognitive effects of psychostimulants is an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve. Moderate arousal is beneficial to cognition, whereas too much activation leads to cognitive impairment. In parallel to this schematic, we propose a continuum of psychostimulant activation that covers the transition from one drug effect to another as stimulant intake is increased. Low doses of stimulants effect increased arousal, attention, and cognitive enhancement; moderate doses can lead to feelings of euphoria and power, as well as addiction and cognitive impairment; and very high doses lead to psychosis and circulatory collapse. This continuum helps account for the seemingly disparate effects of stimulant drugs, with the same drug being associated with cognitive enhancement and impairment.

  19. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Sarah L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The soil environment remains one of the most complex and poorly understood research frontiers in ecology. Soil organic matter (SOM), which spans a continuum from fresh detritus to highly processed, mineral-associated organic matter, is the foundation of sustainable terrestrial ecosystems. Heterogeneous SOM pools are fueled by inputs from living and dead plants, driven by the activity of micro- and mesofauna, and are shaped by a multitude of abiotic factors. The specialization required to measure unseen processes that occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has led to the partitioning of soil ecology research across several disciplines. In the organized oral session 'Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum' at the annual Ecological Society of America meeting in Albuquerque, NM, USA, we joined the call for greater communication and collaboration among ecologists who work at the root-soil interface (e.g. Coleman, 2008). Our goal was to bridge the gap between scientific disciplines and to synthesize disconnected pieces of knowledge from root-centric and soil-centric studies into an integrated understanding of belowground ecosystem processes. We focused this report around three compelling themes that arose from the session: (1) the influence of the rhizosphere on SOM cycling, (2) the role of soil heterotrophs in driving the transformation of root detritus to SOM, and (3) the controlling influence of the soil environment on SOM dynamics. We conclude with a discussion of new approaches for gathering data to bridge gaps in the root-SOM continuum and to inform the next generation of ecosystem models. Although leaf litter has often been considered to be the main source of organic inputs to soil, Ann Russell synthesized a convincing body of work demonstrating that roots, rather than surface residues, control the accumulation of SOM in a variety of ecosystems. Living roots, which are chemically diverse and highly dynamic, also influence a

  20. Los indivisibles para Aristóteles en De Anima III, 8 y Metaphysica IX, 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Morán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available What are the so called "indivisible" in Aristotle's thought? The indivisibles are the categories of being, enumerated on the books of: Topics I, 9; Categories II, 1; Metaphysics V, 7 and Physics III, 1. On one hand, the philosophy of nature's perspective (On the Soul III, 11, demonstrates an assertion, namely: the indivisible things are known in three aspects of knowledge: the continuum, form or eidos and privations. On the other hand, the metaphysics' perspective (Metaphysics XI, 9, proves that the indivisibles are the ultimate and unchanging objects of nature, that is, the unmovable motor, and the separate substances.

  1. Evolution of generalized couple-stress continuum theories: a critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjesfandiari, Ali R.; Dargush, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine different generalized couple-stress continuum mechanics theories, including couple stress, strain gradient and micropolar theories. First, we investigate the fundamental requirements in any consistent size-dependent couple stress continuum mechanics, for which satisfying basic rules of mathematics and mechanics are crucial to establish a consistent theory. As a result, we show that continuum couple stress theory must be based on the displacement field and its corresp...

  2. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family a...

  3. BANANAS III (ARTIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Cross-Retaliation, Justiciability, EC-Bananas III, Countermeasure. 1. Introduction. The World Trade Organisation (WTO) as an international legal personality regulates the World. Trading System to ensure smooth, free, fair and predictable flow of international trade. It is. “the only International Organisation dealing ...

  4. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    . 2 radicals ... Crystal structure of the complex was determined by X-ray diffraction and is reported elsewhere. 5. The complex is stable towards hydrolysis at least for 10 h as checked by its ..... served in Co(III) aquo-ammonia complexes where.

  5. Accurate Laser Measurements of the Water Vapor Self-Continuum Absorption in Four Near Infrared Atmospheric Windows. a Test of the MT_CKD Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campargue, Alain; Kassi, Samir; Mondelain, Didier; Romanini, Daniele; Lechevallier, Loïc; Vasilchenko, Semyon

    2017-06-01

    The semi empirical MT_CKD model of the absorption continuum of water vapor is widely used in atmospheric radiative transfer codes of the atmosphere of Earth and exoplanets but lacks of experimental validation in the atmospheric windows. Recent laboratory measurements by Fourier transform Spectroscopy have led to self-continuum cross-sections much larger than the MT_CKD values in the near infrared transparency windows. In the present work, we report on accurate water vapor absorption continuum measurements by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Optical-Feedback-Cavity Enhanced Laser Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) at selected spectral points of the transparency windows centered around 4.0, 2.1 and 1.25 μm. The temperature dependence of the absorption continuum at 4.38 μm and 3.32 μm is measured in the 23-39 °C range. The self-continuum water vapor absorption is derived either from the baseline variation of spectra recorded for a series of pressure values over a small spectral interval or from baseline monitoring at fixed laser frequency, during pressure ramps. In order to avoid possible bias approaching the water saturation pressure, the maximum pressure value was limited to about 16 Torr, corresponding to a 75% humidity rate. After subtraction of the local water monomer lines contribution, self-continuum cross-sections, C_{S}, were determined with a few % accuracy from the pressure squared dependence of the spectra base line level. Together with our previous CRDS and OF-CEAS measurements in the 2.1 and 1.6 μm windows, the derived water vapor self-continuum provides a unique set of water vapor self-continuum cross-sections for a test of the MT_CKD model in four transparency windows. Although showing some important deviations of the absolute values (up to a factor of 4 at the center of the 2.1 μm window), our accurate measurements validate the overall frequency dependence of the MT_CKD2.8 model.

  6. Discrete and continuum simulations of near-field ground motion from Source Physics Experiments (SPE) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.; Herbold, E. B.; Glenn, L. A.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    This work is focused on analysis of near-field measurements (up to 100 m from the source) recorded during Source Physics Experiments in a granitic formation. One of the main goals of these experiments is to investigate the possible mechanisms of shear wave generation in the nonlinear source region. SPE experiments revealed significant tangential motion (up to 30 % of the magnitude in the radial direction) at many locations. Furthermore, azimuthal variations in radial velocities were also observed which cannot be generated by a spherical source in isotropic materials. Understanding the nature of this non-radial motion is important for discriminating between the natural seismicity and underground explosions signatures. Possible mechanisms leading to such motion include, but not limited to, heterogeneities in the rock such as joints, faults and geologic layers as well as surface topography and vertical motion at the surface caused by material spall and gravity. We have performed a three dimensional computational studies considering all these effects. Both discrete and continuum methods have been employed to model heterogeneities. In the discrete method, the joints and faults were represented by cohesive contact elements. This enables us to examine various friction laws at the joints which include softening, dilatancy, water saturation and rate-dependent friction. Yet this approach requires the mesh to be aligned with joints, which may present technical difficulties in three dimensions when multiple non-persistent joints are present. In addition, the discrete method is more computationally expensive. The continuum approach assumes that the joints are stiff and the dilatancy and shear softening can be neglected. In this approach, the joints are modeled as weakness planes within the material, which are imbedded into and pass through many finite elements. The advantage of this approach is that it requires neither sophisticated meshing algorithms nor contact detection

  7. Limiting Skepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Symons, John

    2011-01-01

    Skeptics argue that the acquisition of knowledge is impossible given the standing possibility of error. We present the limiting convergence strategy for responding to skepticism and discuss the relationship between conceivable error and an agent’s knowledge in the limit. We argue that the skeptic...

  8. Spatial distribution of far-infrared emission in spiral galaxies. I. Relation with radio continuum emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayya, Y. D.; Rengarajan, T. N.

    1997-09-01

    We use high resolution IRAS and 20 cm radio continuum (RC) images of a sample of 22 spiral galaxies to study the correlation between the far infra-red (FIR) and RC emissions within the galactic disks. A combination of exponential and gaussian profiles rather than a single exponential profile is found to be a better representation of the observed intensity profiles in the two bands. The gaussian component, which we show is not due to the effects of limited beam-resolution, contains more than 60% of the total flux in majority of the galaxies. The dominance of the gaussian component suggests that the nuclear star forming regions and the bulge stars are more important contributors to the emission in the two bands, rather than the outer exponential stellar disks. The RC profile is flatter compared to the FIR profile, resulting in a decrease of their ratio, Q-Sixty, away from the center. However, the Q-sixty increases in the extreme outer parts, where the dispersion in the FIR and RC correlation is also higher than in the central regions. The global Q-sixty and its dispersion match those in the inner parts of the galaxies. These results imply that the observed tight correlation in the global quantities reflects processes in the inner regions only where OB stars and the associated Type II supernovae control the FIR and RC emission. In the outer parts heating of very small dust grains by the old disk stars provides a secondary component in the FIR emission, without associated RC emission. The edge-on galaxy NGC3079 shows extended FIR and RC emissions along its minor axis, probably associated with the nuclear starburst activity. keywords - star formation - far infrared emission -- radio continuum emission

  9. Divergence with gene flow across a speciation continuum of Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supple, Megan A; Papa, Riccardo; Hines, Heather M; McMillan, W Owen; Counterman, Brian A

    2015-09-24

    A key to understanding the origins of species is determining the evolutionary processes that drive the patterns of genomic divergence during speciation. New genomic technologies enable the study of high-resolution genomic patterns of divergence across natural speciation continua, where taxa pairs with different levels of reproductive isolation can be used as proxies for different stages of speciation. Empirical studies of these speciation continua can provide valuable insights into how genomes diverge during speciation. We examine variation across a handful of genomic regions in parapatric and allopatric populations of Heliconius butterflies with varying levels of reproductive isolation. Genome sequences were mapped to 2.2-Mb of the H. erato genome, including 1-Mb across the red color pattern locus and multiple regions unlinked to color pattern variation. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a speciation continuum of pairs of hybridizing races and incipient species in the Heliconius erato clade. Comparisons of hybridizing pairs of divergently colored races and incipient species reveal that genomic divergence increases with ecological and reproductive isolation, not only across the locus responsible for adaptive variation in red wing coloration, but also at genomic regions unlinked to color pattern. We observe high levels of divergence between the incipient species H. erato and H. himera, suggesting that divergence may accumulate early in the speciation process. Comparisons of genomic divergence between the incipient species and allopatric races suggest that limited gene flow cannot account for the observed high levels of divergence between the incipient species. Our results provide a reconstruction of the speciation continuum across the H. erato clade and provide insights into the processes that drive genomic divergence during speciation, establishing the H. erato clade as a powerful framework for the study of speciation.

  10. Electrochemical Solvent Reorganization Energies in the Framework of the Polarizable Continuum Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumya; Horvath, Samantha; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-05-13

    Electron transfer reactions at electrochemical interfaces play a critical role in a wide range of catalytic processes. A key parameter in the rate constant expressions for such processes is the reorganization energy, which reflects the energetic cost of the solute and solvent rearrangements upon electron transfer. In this paper, we present dielectric continuum methods for calculating the solvent reorganization energy for electrochemical processes. We develop a method for calculating the electrochemical solvent reorganization energies with molecular-shaped cavities within the framework of the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The electronic and inertial responses of the solvent are separated according to their respective time scales, and two limiting cases of the relation between the solute and solvent electrons are examined. The effects of the electrode are included with the integral equations formalism PCM (IEF-PCM), in which the molecule-solvent boundary is treated explicitly, but the effects of the electrode-solvent boundary are included through an external Green's function. This approach accounts for the effects of detailed molecular charge redistribution in a molecular-shaped cavity, as well as the electronic and inertial solvent responses and the effects of the electrode. The calculated total reorganization energies are in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements for a series of electrochemical systems. Inclusion of the effects of the electrode is found to be essential for obtaining even qualitatively accurate solvent reorganization energies. These approaches are applicable to a wide range of systems and can be extended to include other types of boundaries, such as a self-assembled monolayer or double layer separating the electrode and the molecule.

  11. An SMA Continuum Survey of Circumstellar Disks in the Serpens Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Charles J.; Ricci, Luca; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Qi, Chunhua

    2017-12-01

    We present observations with the Submillimeter Array of the continuum emission at λ =1.3 {mm} from 62 young stars surrounded by a protoplanetary disk in the Serpens star-forming region. The typical angular resolution for the survey in terms of beam size is 3\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5× 2\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5 with a median rms noise level of 1.6 mJy beam‑1. These data are used to infer the dust content in disks around low-mass stars (0.1{--}2.5 {M}ȯ ) at a median stellar age of 1–3 Myr. Thirteen sources were detected in the 1.3 mm dust continuum with inferred dust masses of ≈ 10{--}260 {M}\\oplus and an upper limit to the median dust mass of {5.1}-4.3+6.1 {M}\\oplus , derived using survival analysis. Comparing the protoplanetary disk population in Serpens to those of other nearby star-forming regions, we find that the populations of dust disks in Serpens and Taurus, which have a similar age, are statistically indistinguishable. This is potentially surprising as Serpens has a stellar surface density two orders of magnitude in excess of Taurus. Hence, we find no evidence that dust disks in Serpens have been dispersed as a result of more frequent and/or stronger tidal interactions due to its elevated stellar density. We also report that the fraction of Serpens disks with {M}{dust}≥slant 10 {M}\\oplus is less than 20%, which supports the notion that the formation of giant planets is likely inherently rare or has substantially progressed by a few Myr.

  12. Exploring the HIV continuum of care among young black MSM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hightow-Weidman

    Full Text Available HIV disproportionately impacts young, black men who have sex with men (YBMSM who experience disparities across the HIV care continuum. A more nuanced understanding of facilitators and barriers to engagement in care, missed visits, antiretroviral uptake, adherence and viral suppression could improve care and intervention design.A randomized controlled trial of an online intervention, healthMpowerment, enrolled 465 YBMSM (18-30 years; 193 identified as HIV-positive. Bivariable and multivariable analyses of baseline data explored predictors of: engagement in care, missed visits, antiretroviral uptake, self-reported adherence, and viral suppression.Mean age was 24.9 years; most identified as gay (71.0% and were receiving HIV care (89.1%. Among those in care, 52.1% reported no missed visits in the past 12 months, 41 (24.6% reported one missed visit, and 39 (23.4% reported two or more. Having insurance (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 4.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 15.8 and provider self-efficacy (POR 20.1; 95% CI: 6.1, 64.1 were associated with being in care. Those with a college degree (POR 9.1; 95% CI: 1.9, 45.2 and no recent marijuana (POR 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.6 or methamphetamine use (POR 5.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 28.5 were less likely to miss visits. Most (n = 153, 84.1% had been prescribed antiretroviral therapy. A majority of participants (70.8% reported ≥90% adherence; those with depressive symptoms had 4.7 times the odds of reporting adherence <90% (95% CI: 1.65, 13.37. Of participants who reported viral load testing in the past six months, 65% (n = 102 reported an undetectable viral load. Disclosure to sex partners was associated with viral suppression (POR 6.0; 95% CI: 1.6, 22.4.Multi-level facilitators and barriers to engagement across the continuum of care were identified in this sample of YBMSM. Understanding the distinct needs of YBMSM at each stage of the continuum and addressing them through tailored approaches is critical for long term success in care.

  13. Bacterial Biogeography across the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Doherty

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal patterns in microbial biodiversity across the Amazon river-ocean continuum were investigated along ∼675 km of the lower Amazon River mainstem, in the Tapajós River tributary, and in the plume and coastal ocean during low and high river discharge using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in whole water and size-fractionated samples (0.2–2.0 μm and >2.0 μm. River communities varied among tributaries, but mainstem communities were spatially homogeneous and tracked seasonal changes in river discharge and co-varying factors. Co-occurrence network analysis identified strongly interconnected river assemblages during high (May and low (December discharge periods, and weakly interconnected transitional assemblages in September, suggesting that this system supports two seasonal microbial communities linked to river discharge. In contrast, plume communities showed little seasonal differences and instead varied spatially tracking salinity. However, salinity explained only a small fraction of community variability, and plume communities in blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages were strikingly different than those in other high salinity plume samples. This suggests that while salinity physically structures plumes through buoyancy and mixing, the composition of plume-specific communities is controlled by other factors including nutrients, phytoplankton community composition, and dissolved organic matter chemistry. Co-occurrence networks identified interconnected assemblages associated with the highly productive low salinity near-shore region, diatom-diazotroph blooms, and the plume edge region, and weakly interconnected assemblages in high salinity regions. This suggests that the plume supports a transitional community influenced by immigration of ocean bacteria from the plume edge, and by species sorting as these communities adapt to local environmental conditions. Few studies have explored patterns of microbial diversity in

  14. Lattice Boltzmann equation method for multiple immiscible continuum fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, T. J.; Halliday, I.; Care, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper generalizes the two-component algorithm of Sec. , extending it, in Sec. , to describe N>2 mutually immiscible fluids in the isothermal continuum regime. Each fluid has an independent interfacial tension. While retaining all its computational advantages, we remove entirely the empiricism associated with contact behavior in our previous multiple immiscible fluid models [M. M. Dupin , Phys. Rev. E 73, 055701(R) (2006)10.1103/PhysRevE.73.055701; Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 13 (2006)10.1016/j.medengphy.2005.04.015] while solidifying the physical foundations. Moreover, the model relies upon a fluid-fluid segregation which is simpler, computationally faster, more free of artifacts (i.e., the interfacial microcurrent), and upon an interface-inducing force distribution which is analytic. The method is completely symmetric between any numbers of immiscible fluids and stable over a wide range of directly input interfacial tension. We present data on the steady-state properties of multiple interface model, which are in good agreement with theory [R. E. Johnson and S. S. Sadhal, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 17, 289 (1985)10.1146/annurev.fl.17.010185.001445], specifically on the shapes of multidrop systems. Section is an analysis of the kinetic and continuum-scale descriptions of the underlying two-component lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible fluids, extendable to more than two immiscible fluids. This extension requires (i) the use of a more local kinetic equation perturbation which is (ii) free from a reliance on measured interfacial curvature. It should be noted that viewed simply as a two-component method, the continuum algorithm is inferior to our previous methods, reported by Lishchuk [Phys. Rev. E 67, 036701 (2003)]10.1103/PhysRevE.76.036701 and Halliday [Phys. Rev. E 76, 026708 (2007)]10.1103/PhysRevE.76.026708. Greater stability and parameter range is achieved in multiple drop simulations by using the forced multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method developed

  15. The Potentials and Limitations of Contrastive Linguistic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banathy, Bela H.

    The potential value and limitations of contrastive linguistic analysis (CLA) in pedagogical application are examined in this article. Attempts to quantify learning tasks in the modes of difference and difficulty are illustrated by the use of four diagrams: (1) a method of computing actual learning tasks, (2) two contrastive continuums, (3) a…

  16. Lesbian Continuum As An Alternative Strategy In Negotiating Heteronormativity In Sarah Water’s Fingersmith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Hayuningtyas Erwanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to examine the portrayal of a lesbian continuum in Sarah Waters’ Fingersmith. To conduct the analysis, there are two research questions: first, how is the construction of lesbian continuum portrayed in the relationship between Susan Trinder and Maud Lilly and how does lesbian continuum become a strategy to negotiate compulsory heterosexuality. In doing the analysis, the theory of lesbian continuum which is proposed by Adrienne Rich will be used to elaborate the novel. This study is a qualitative research where the data are taken from the novel Fingersmith, library research, journals, and other relevant sources. To gain the comprehensive analysis, this study uses some methods which are: close reading, postulation the statements of the problems, data classification, and analysis using the lesbian continuum theory, supporting analysis through library research, books, and academic journals. This study finds that the characters of Susan Trinder and Maud Lilly can be identified as having a double life which constructs the lesbian continuum. Moreover, the lesbian continuum becomes a strategy to negotiate compulsory heterosexuality with denial and negotiation of women’s oppression. Abstrak: Artikel ini mengkaji representasi lesbian continuum dalam novel Sarah Waters yang berjudul Fingersmith. Dua pertanyaan utama penelitian ini adalah (1 bagaimana konstruksi lesbian continuum direpresentasikan dalam hubungan antara tokoh Susan Trinder dan Maud Lily dalam novel Fingersmith dan (2 bagaimana lesbian continuum menjadi strategi untuk menghadapi compulsory heterosexuality dalam novel Fingersmith. Teori lesbian continuum oleh Adrienne Rich akan menjadi teori utama untuk menjawab pertanyaan penelitian. Menggunakan teknik pembacaan novel dan analisis pustaka yang bersumber dari jurnal dan sumber lain yang mendukung. Untuk mendapatkan data yang komprehensip, metode yang dipakai adalah close reading, menjabarkan pertanyaan, klasifikasi

  17. Topology Optimization of Continuum Structures with Local Stress Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duysinx, Pierre; Bendsøe, Martin P

    1998-01-01

    We introduce an extension of current technologies for topology optimization of continuum structures which allows for treating local stress criteria. We first consider relevant stress criteria for porous composite materials, initially by studying the stress states of the so-called rank 2 layered...... materials. Then, on the basis of the theoretical study of the rank 2 microstructures, we propose an empirical model, that extends the power penalized stiffness model (also called SIMP for Solid Isotropic Microstructure with Penalization for intermediate densities). In a second part, solution aspects...... of topology problems are considered. To deal with the so-called 'singularity' phenomenon of stress constraints in topology design, an epsilon-constraint relaxation of the stress constraints is used. We describe the mathematical programming approach that is used to solve the numerical optimization problems...

  18. Perspective: Polarizable continuum models for quantum-mechanical descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2016-04-28

    Polarizable continuum solvation models are nowadays the most popular approach to describe solvent effects in the context of quantum mechanical calculations. Unexpectedly, despite their widespread use in all branches of quantum chemistry and beyond, important aspects of both their theoretical formulation and numerical implementation are still not completely understood. In particular, in this perspective we focus on the numerical issues of their implementation when applied to large systems and on the theoretical framework needed to treat time dependent problems and excited states or to deal with electronic correlation. Possible extensions beyond a purely electrostatic model and generalizations to environments beyond common solvents are also critically presented and discussed. Finally, some possible new theoretical approaches and numerical strategies are suggested to overcome the obstacles which still prevent a full exploitation of these models.

  19. Perspective: Polarizable continuum models for quantum-mechanical descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2016-04-01

    Polarizable continuum solvation models are nowadays the most popular approach to describe solvent effects in the context of quantum mechanical calculations. Unexpectedly, despite their widespread use in all branches of quantum chemistry and beyond, important aspects of both their theoretical formulation and numerical implementation are still not completely understood. In particular, in this perspective we focus on the numerical issues of their implementation when applied to large systems and on the theoretical framework needed to treat time dependent problems and excited states or to deal with electronic correlation. Possible extensions beyond a purely electrostatic model and generalizations to environments beyond common solvents are also critically presented and discussed. Finally, some possible new theoretical approaches and numerical strategies are suggested to overcome the obstacles which still prevent a full exploitation of these models.

  20. Prostate Cancer Disparities throughout the Cancer Control Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Dalton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that 238,590 U.S. men will develop PCa and 29,720 men will die from the disease in 2013. PCa exhibits the most profound racial disparities of all cancers with African American men having a 70% higher incidence rate and more than two times higher mortality rate than Caucasian men. Published research on PCa disparities focuses on singular outcomes such as incidence, mortality or quality of life. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the racial disparities found at each stage of the PCa Care Continuum which includes prevention, detection, treatments, and outcomes and survival. It focuses primarily on disparities among Caucasian (white and African American men.

  1. Kinematic Analysis of Continuum Robot Consisted of Driven Flexible Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhong Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic analysis of a continuum bionic robot with three flexible actuation rods. Since the motion of the end-effector is actuated by the deformation of the rods, the robot structure is with high elasticity and good compliance and the kinematic analysis of the robot requires special treatment. We propose a kinematic model based on the geometry with constant curvature. The analysis consists of two independent mappings: a general mapping for the kinematics of all robots and a specific mapping for this kind of robots. Both of those mappings are developed for the single section and for the multisections. We aim at providing a guide for kinematic analysis of the similar manipulators through this paper.

  2. Anisotropy-induced photonic bound states in the continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis-Bresco, Jordi; Artigas, David; Torner, Lluis

    2017-03-01

    Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are radiationless localized states embedded in the part of the parameter space that otherwise corresponds to radiative modes. Many decades after their original prediction and early observations in acoustic systems, such states have been demonstrated recently in photonic structures with engineered geometries. Here, we put forward a mechanism, based on waveguiding structures that contain anisotropic birefringent materials, that affords the existence of BICs with fundamentally new properties. In particular, anisotropy-induced BICs may exist in symmetric as well as in asymmetric geometries; they may form in tunable angular propagation directions; their polarization may be pure transverse electric, pure transverse magnetic or full vector with tunable polarization hybridity; and they may be the only possible bound states of properly designed structures, and thus appear as a discrete, isolated bound state embedded in a whole sea of radiative states.

  3. Wave propagation in nanostructures nonlocal continuum mechanics formulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Wave Propagation in Nanostructures describes the fundamental and advanced concepts of waves propagating in structures that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. The book is fundamentally based on non-local elasticity theory, which includes scale effects in the continuum model. The book predominantly addresses wave behavior in carbon nanotubes and graphene structures, although the methods of analysis provided in this text are equally applicable to other nanostructures. The book takes the reader from the fundamentals of wave propagation in nanotubes to more advanced topics such as rotating nanotubes, coupled nanotubes, and nanotubes with magnetic field and surface effects. The first few chapters cover the basics of wave propagation, different modeling schemes for nanostructures and introduce non-local elasticity theories, which form the building blocks for understanding the material provided in later chapters. A number of interesting examples are provided to illustrate the important features of wave behav...

  4. On the Derivation of Boundary Conditions for Continuum Dislocation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hochrainer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuum dislocation dynamics (CDD is a single crystal strain gradient plasticity theory based exclusively on the evolution of the dislocation state. Recently, we derived a constitutive theory for the average dislocation velocity in CDD in a phase field-type description for an infinite domain. In the current work, so-called rational thermodynamics is employed to obtain thermodynamically consistent boundary conditions for the dislocation density variables of CDD. We find that rational thermodynamics reproduces the bulk constitutive equations as obtained from irreversible thermodynamics. The boundary conditions we find display strong parallels to the microscopic traction conditions derived by Gurtin and Needleman (M.E. Gurtin and A. Needleman, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 53 (2005 1–31 for strain gradient theories based on the Kröner–Nye tensor.

  5. A 45-MHz continuum survey of the northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K.; Alvarez, H.; Aparici, J.; May, J.; Reich, P.

    We present a 45-MHz continuum survey in the declination range of +5 to +65 degrees in sets of maps in galactic and equatorial coordinates (epoch 1950). The observations were made at 46.5 MHz with a circular filled array of the Japanese Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar (MU Radar) located at Shigaraki, Japan. The radar array consists of 475 crossed 3-element Yagis arranged within a circle of 103 m diameter, with a the half-power beam width of 3.6 degrees. In order to calibrate the data from the MU radar we used the Chilean 45-MHz survey which was made with an array of size comparable with that of the MU radar. The data processing was performed at the Maipu Radio Observatory, University of Chile, and this process brought the data to 45 MHz. The final maps were obtained at the Max-Plank-Institut fur Radioastronomie, Germany, using of the NOD2 program package.

  6. Scissors strength in the quasi-continuum of actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttormsen M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The M1-scissors resonance has been measured for the first time in the quasi-continuum of actinides. The strength and position of the resonances in 231,232,233Th were determined by particle-γ coincidences using deuteron induced reactions on a 232Th target. The residual nuclei show a strong integrated strength of BM1 = 9 − 11 µn2 in the Eγ = 1.0 − 3.5 MeV region. The presence of the scissors resonance modifies significantly the (n,γ cross section, which has impact on fuel-cycle simulations of fast nuclear reactors and nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar environments.

  7. Recent developments in evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) for continuum structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong

    2010-06-01

    Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO) and its later version bi-directional ESO (BESO) have gained widespread popularity among researchers in structural optimization and practitioners in engineering and architecture. However, there have also been many critical comments on various aspects of ESO/BESO. To address those criticisms, we have carried out extensive work to improve the original ESO/BESO algorithms in recent years. This paper summarizes some of the latest developments in the BESO method for topology optimization of continuum structures. Numerical results show that the ESO/BESO solutions agree well with those of other well-established topology optimization methods. It indicates that the current BESO method has great potential to become a robust and efficient design tool for practical applications in engineering and architecture.

  8. Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...

  9. mHealth Education Applications Along the Cancer Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sharon Watkins; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    The majority of adults worldwide own a mobile phone, including those in under-resourced communities. Mobile health (mhealth) education technologies present a promising mechanism for improving cancer prevention, treatment, and follow-up. The purpose of this study was to summarize the literature related to mobile phone (mhealth) applications for patient education specific to cancer and identify current recommendations from randomized studies. In particular, we were interested in identifying mobile phone applications along the cancer continuum, from cancer prevention to survivorship. The authors identified 28 articles reporting on mobile applications for patients related to cancer. Articles were identified in all categories along the cancer continuum, including health professional involvement in application development. Of these, six involved direct patient education, and eight focused on improving patient/professional communication and patient self-management. However, only six of the studies were randomized interventions. The potential for mobile applications to help overcome the "health care gap" has not yet been realized in the studies from the USA that were reviewed for this paper. However, early recommendations are emerging that support the use of mHealth communications to change behaviors for cancer prevention, early detection, and symptom management and improved patient-provider communication. Recommendations include short messages, use of multiple modalities as patient characteristics dictate comfort with mHealth communication, and the inclusion of patients and health professionals to develop and test applications. Tailoring mHealth to particular cultures, languages, and ethnic groups may also represent a unique possibility to provide accessible information and education at minimal cost for under-resourced communities and individuals.

  10. Varieties of Voice-Hearing: Psychics and the Psychosis Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Albert R.; Kelley, Megan S.; Corlett, Philip R.

    2017-01-01

    Hearing voices that are not present is a prominent symptom of serious mental illness. However, these experiences may be common in the non-help-seeking population, leading some to propose the existence of a continuum of psychosis from health to disease. Thus far, research on this continuum has focused on what is impaired in help-seeking groups. Here we focus on protective factors in non-help-seeking voice-hearers. We introduce a new study population: clairaudient psychics who receive daily auditory messages. We conducted phenomenological interviews with these subjects, as well as with patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder who hear voices, people with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder who do not hear voices, and matched control subjects (without voices or a diagnosis). We found the hallucinatory experiences of psychic voice-hearers to be very similar to those of patients who were diagnosed. We employed techniques from forensic psychiatry to conclude that the psychics were not malingering. Critically, we found that this sample of non-help-seeking voice hearers were able to control the onset and offset of their voices, that they were less distressed by their voice-hearing experiences and that, the first time they admitted to voice-hearing, the reception by others was much more likely to be positive. Patients had much more negative voice-hearing experiences, were more likely to receive a negative reaction when sharing their voices with others for the first time, and this was subsequently more disruptive to their social relationships. We predict that this sub-population of healthy voice-hearers may have much to teach us about the neurobiology, cognitive psychology and ultimately the treatment of voices that are distressing. PMID:28053132

  11. Benchmarking Continuum Solvent Models for Keto-Enol Tautomerizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Billy W; McFarland, Stuart; Acevedo, Orlando

    2015-08-13

    Experimental free energies of tautomerization, ΔGT, were used to benchmark the gas-phase predictions of 17 different quantum mechanical methods and eight basis sets for seven keto-enol tautomer pairs dominated by their enolic form. The G4 method and M06/6-31+G(d,p) yielded the most accurate results, with mean absolute errors (MAE's) of 0.95 and 0.71 kcal/mol, respectively. Using these two theory levels, the solution-phase ΔGT values for 23 unique tautomer pairs composed of aliphatic ketones, β-dicarbonyls, and heterocycles were computed in multiple protic and aprotic solvents. The continuum solvation models, namely, polarizable continuum model (PCM), polarizable conductor calculation model (CPCM), and universal solvation model (SMD), gave relatively similar MAE's of ∼1.6-1.7 kcal/mol for G4 and ∼1.9-2.0 kcal/mol with M06/6-31+G(d,p). Partitioning the tautomer pairs into their respective molecular types, that is, aliphatic ketones, β-dicarbonyls, and heterocycles, and separating out the aqueous versus nonaqueous results finds G4/PCM utilizing the UA0 cavity to be the overall most accurate combination. Free energies of activation, ΔG(‡), for the base-catalyzed keto-enol interconversion of 2-nitrocyclohexanone were also computed using six bases and five solvents. The M06/6-31+G(d,p) reproduced the ΔG(‡) with MAE's of 1.5 and 1.8 kcal/mol using CPCM and SMD, respectively, for all combinations of base and solvent. That specific enolization was previously proposed to proceed via a concerted mechanism in less polar solvents but shift to a stepwise mechanism in more polar solvents. However, the current calculations suggest that the stepwise mechanism operates in all solvents.

  12. Examining the scale of the Behaviour Energy Efficiency Continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitner, John A. ' Skip' ; Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen; McKinney, Vanessa (ACEEE, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States))

    2009-07-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the 'human dimension' of energy use. As but one example, the second annual Behavior, Energy, and Climate Conference (co-convened by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, the Precourt Inst. for Energy Efficiency, and the California Inst. for Energy and Environment) exceeded capacity almost six weeks before the November 2008 conference date (see, for example, the conference website at http://www.BECCconference.org). At the same time, many analysts suggest that, yes, behaviour-oriented programs provide a nice way to help deploy smart technologies but that they are, essentially, boutique or niche strategies; they can only help round out a technology-based deployment effort. We suggest to the contrary; elements of the behaviour or human dimension may have a surprising scale which rivals a pure technology-based perspective in terms of expected efficiency gains. In this paper we highlight the potential impact of changed habits, lifestyles and technology-based behaviours in terms of potential energy savings within the United States for the residential sector. We explore the level of potential savings along what we call a Behaviour Energy Response Continuum. In other words, we explore the energy savings if different motivations and habits drove a different behaviour, and if different lifestyles similarly drove a different behaviour as they all, in turn, affect energy consumption. Preliminary research suggests that changed behaviours might reduce household use of energy by about 22 percent within the United States. In this paper we characterize the elements along this behaviour continuum, estimate the potential impact, and describe potential next steps in the needed research.

  13. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  14. Herschel/PACS Survey of Protoplanetary Disks in Taurus/Auriga—Observations of [O I] and [C II], and Far-infrared Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Vacca, William D.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Mathews, Geoffrey; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Barrado, David; Dent, William R. F.; Eiroa, Carlos; Grady, Carol; Kamp, Inga; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Ménard, Francois; Pinte, Christophe; Podio, Linda; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Roberge, Aki; Thi, Wing-Fai; Vicente, Silvia; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe ~120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 μm, [O I] 145 μm, [C II] 158 μm, OH, H2O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 μm. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 μm line and the 63 μm continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 μm is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 μm emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 μm to [O I] 145 μm are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 μm and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk.

  15. Herschel - PACS Survey Of Protoplanetary Disks In Taurus - Auriga Observations Of [O I] And [C Ii], And Far-Infrared Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christian; Sandell, Goeran; Vacca, William D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Matthews, Geoffrey; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Barbado, David; Dent, William R. F.; Eiroa, Carlos; Grady, Carol; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe approx. 120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 micron, [O I] 145 micron, [C II] 158, micron OH, H2O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 micron. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 micron line and the 63 micron continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 micron is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 micron emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 micron to [O I] 145 micron are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 micron and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk.

  16. HERSCHEL/PACS SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN TAURUS/AURIGA—OBSERVATIONS OF [O I] AND [C II], AND FAR-INFRARED CONTINUUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Vacca, William D. [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Building N232, Rm. 146, P.O. Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Duchêne, Gaspard [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Mathews, Geoffrey [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Augereau, Jean-Charles; Ménard, Francois; Pinte, Christophe; Podio, Linda; Thi, Wing-Fai [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d' Astrophysique (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Barrado, David; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo [Centro de Astrobiología, Depto. Astrofísica (CSIC/INTA), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Dent, William R. F. [ALMA SCO, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Eiroa, Carlos; Meeus, Gwendolyn [Dep. de Física Teórica, Fac. de Ciencias, UAM Campus Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Grady, Carol; Roberge, Aki [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kamp, Inga; Vicente, Silvia [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy (IfA), University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe ∼120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 μm, [O I] 145 μm, [C II] 158 μm, OH, H{sub 2}O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 μm. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 μm line and the 63 μm continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 μm is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 μm emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 μm to [O I] 145 μm are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 μm and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk.

  17. Role of Fe(III) in preventing humic interference during As(III) detection on gold electrode: Spectroscopic and voltammetric evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhong-Gang [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Chen, Xing; Jia, Yong; Liu, Jin-Huai [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Huang, Xing-Jiu, E-mail: xingjiuhuang@iim.ac.cn [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Humic acids interfere with the voltammetric detection of As(III) on gold electrode through adsorption and possible complexation. • Addition of Fe(III) removes this interference and helps in the electroanalytical detection of As(III). • FTIR and XPS studies suggest that the formation of Fe(III)–HA complex prevents adsorption of HA on gold and limits As–HA complex formation. - Abstract: A drawback of As(III) detection using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) is that it is susceptible to interferences from various metals or organic compounds, especially in real sample water. This study attempts to understand the interference of co-existing of Fe(III) and humic acid (HA) molecules to the electrochemical detection of As(III) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical experiments include stripping of As(III) in the solutions containing HA with different concentrations, cyclic voltammetry in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the presence of HA or Fe(III) with/without addition of Fe(III) or HA, and stripping of As(III) in the presence of HA or Fe(III) with/without addition of Fe(III) or HA. FTIR and XPS are employed to confirm the affinity of HA to Fe(III) or As(III) in acidic condition.

  18. The RENAISSANCE (AIO-FLOT5) trial: effect of chemotherapy alone vs. chemotherapy followed by surgical resection on survival and quality of life in patients with limited-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction - a phase III trial of the German AIO/CAO-V/CAOGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Goetze, Thorsten O; Mueller, Daniel W; Vogel, Arndt; Winkler, Michael; Lorenzen, Sylvie; Novotny, Alexander; Pauligk, Claudia; Homann, Nils; Jungbluth, Thomas; Reissfelder, Christoph; Caca, Karel; Retter, Steffen; Horndasch, Eva; Gumpp, Julia; Bolling, Claus; Fuchs, Karl-Hermann; Blau, Wolfgang; Padberg, Winfried; Pohl, Michael; Wunsch, Andreas; Michl, Patrick; Mannes, Frank; Schwarzbach, Matthias; Schmalenberg, Harald; Hohaus, Michael; Scholz, Christian; Benckert, Christoph; Knorrenschild, Jorge Riera; Kanngießer, Veit; Zander, Thomas; Alakus, Hakan; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Roedel, Claus; Shah, Manish A; Sasako, Mitsuru; Lorenz, Dietmar; Izbicki, Jakob; Bechstein, Wolf O; Lang, Hauke; Moenig, Stefan P

    2017-12-28

    Historical data indicate that surgical resection may benefit select patients with metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer. However, randomized clinical trials are lacking. The current RENAISSANCE trial addresses the potential benefits of surgical intervention in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer with limited metastases. This is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, investigator-initiated phase III trial. Previously untreated patients with limited metastatic stage (retroperitoneal lymph node metastases only or a maximum of one incurable organ site that is potentially resectable or locally controllable with or without retroperitoneal lymph nodes) receive 4 cycles of FLOT chemotherapy alone or with trastuzumab if Her2+. Patients without disease progression after 4 cycles are randomized 1:1 to receive additional chemotherapy cycles or surgical resection of primary and metastases followed by subsequent chemotherapy. 271 patients are to be allocated to the trial, of which at least 176 patients will proceed to randomization. The primary endpoint is overall survival; main secondary endpoints are quality of life assessed by EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire, progression free survival and surgical morbidity and mortality. Recruitment has already started; currently (Feb 2017) 22 patients have been enrolled. If the RENAISSANCE concept proves to be effective, this could potentially lead to a new standard of therapy. On the contrary, if the outcome is negative, patients with gastric or GEJ cancer and metastases will no longer be considered candidates for surgical intervention. The article reports of a health care intervention on human participants and is registered on October 12, 2015 under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02578368 ; EudraCT: 2014-002665-30.

  19. A Mathematical Analysis of Atomistic-to-Continuum (AtC) Multiscale Coupling Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunzburger, Max

    2013-11-13

    We have worked on several projects aimed at improving the efficiency and understanding of multiscale methods, especially those applicable to problems involving atomistic-to-continuum coupling. Activities include blending methods for AtC coupling and efficient quasi-continuum methods for problems with long-range interactions.

  20. Three-dimensional Hybrid Continuum-Atomistic Simulations for Multiscale Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, S; Hornung, R; Garcia, A; Hadjiconstantinou, N

    2004-04-15

    We present an adaptive mesh and algorithmic refinement (AMAR) scheme for modeling multi-scale hydrodynamics. The AMAR approach extends standard conservative adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms by providing a robust flux-based method for coupling an atomistic fluid representation to a continuum model. The atomistic model is applied locally in regions where the continuum description is invalid or inaccurate, such as near strong flow gradients and at fluid interfaces, or when the continuum grid is refined to the molecular scale. The need for such ''hybrid'' methods arises from the fact that hydrodynamics modeled by continuum representations are often under-resolved or inaccurate while solutions generated using molecular resolution globally are not feasible. In the implementation described herein, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) provides an atomistic description of the flow and the compressible two-fluid Euler equations serve as our continuum-scale model. The AMR methodology provides local grid refinement while the algorithm refinement feature allows the transition to DSMC where needed. The continuum and atomistic representations are coupled by matching fluxes at the continuum-atomistic interfaces and by proper averaging and interpolation of data between scales. Our AMAR application code is implemented in C++ and is built upon the SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) framework developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SAMRAI provides the parallel adaptive gridding algorithm and enables the coupling between the continuum and atomistic methods.

  1. EFL Learners' Awareness of Metonymy-Metaphor Continuum in Figurative Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-chen; Lai, Huei-ling

    2012-01-01

    Most studies about figurative language learning focus on metaphor rather than metonymy; however, the interactions of metonymy and metaphor are so intricate that the boundary forms not a dichotomy but a continuum. Such a continuum and its influences on figurative language learning have not been studied in depth. The present study investigates EFL…

  2. Possibilities of modeling masonry as a composite softening material: Interface modeling and anisotropic continuum modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenço, P.B.; Rots, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Results of using recently developed material models for the analysis of masonry structures are shown. Both interface modeling, in which masonry components (units and joints) are represented, as continuum modeling, in which masonry is represented as a homogeneous continuum, are addressed. It is shown

  3. A continuum model for flow induced by metachronal coordination between beating cilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussong, J.; Breugem, W.P.; Westerweel, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this numerical study we investigate the flow induced by metachronal coordination between beating cilia arranged in a densely packed layer by means of a continuum model. The continuum approach allows us to treat the problem as two-dimensional as well as stationary, in a reference frame moving with

  4. Nursing Leadership and Care Coordination: Creating Excellence in Coordinating Care Across the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kathleen A

    2016-01-01

    Continuum Care is different today from in the past. It requires care coordination with an emphasis on relationships and new roles. Nurses and nurse leaders must be located at the epicenter of developing strategies to align resources with patients and family along all points of the continuum.

  5. Combined discrete particle and continuum model predicting solid-state fermentation in a drum fermentor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Briels, Willem J.; Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of mathematical models facilitates industrial (large-scale) application of solid-state fermentation (SSF). In this study, a two-phase model of a drum fermentor is developed that consists of a discrete particle model (solid phase) and a continuum model (gas phase). The continuum model

  6. Evidence against the continuum structure underlying motivation measures derived from self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemolli, Emanuela; Gagné, Marylène

    2014-06-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of motivation in which the different regulations are said to fall along a continuum of self-determination. The continuum has been used as a basis for using a relative autonomy index as a means to create motivational scores. Rasch analysis was used to verify the continuum structure of the Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and of the Academic Motivation Scale. We discuss the concept of continuum against SDT's conceptualization of motivation and argue against the use of the relative autonomy index on the grounds that evidence for a continuum structure underlying the regulations is weak and because the index is statistically problematic. We suggest exploiting the full richness of SDT's multidimensional conceptualization of motivation through the use of alternative scoring methods when investigating motivational dynamics across life domains.

  7. A constitutive model of soft tissue: From nanoscale collagen to tissue continuum

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Huang

    2009-04-08

    Soft collagenous tissue features many hierarchies of structure, starting from tropocollagen molecules that form fibrils, and proceeding to a bundle of fibrils that form fibers. Here we report the development of an atomistically informed continuum model of collagenous tissue. Results from full atomistic and molecular modeling are linked with a continuum theory of a fiber-reinforced composite, handshaking the fibril scale to the fiber and continuum scale in a hierarchical multi-scale simulation approach. Our model enables us to study the continuum-level response of the tissue as a function of cross-link density, making a link between nanoscale collagen features and material properties at larger tissue scales. The results illustrate a strong dependence of the continuum response as a function of nanoscopic structural features, providing evidence for the notion that the molecular basis for protein materials is important in defining their larger-scale mechanical properties. © 2009 Biomedical Engineering Society.

  8. Development of a discrete-continuum VDFST-CFP numerical model for simulating seawater intrusion to a coastal karst aquifer with a conduit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolong; Xu, Zexuan

    2017-04-01

    A hybrid discrete-continuum numerical model, Variable-Density Flow and Solute Transport - Conduit Flow Process (VDFST-CFP), is developed to simulate seawater intrusion to a coastal karst aquifer with a conduit network. The Darcy-Weisbach equation is applied to simulate the non-laminar groundwater flow in the conduit system that is conceptualized as pipes, while the Darcy equation is used for laminar groundwater flow in the continuum porous medium. Density-dependent groundwater flow with appropriate additional density terms in the conduit is analytically derived. The flow equations are coupled with transport equations, and numerically solved by the finite difference method with an implicit iteration procedure. Two synthetic benchmarks are developed to compare the VDFST-CFP model results with other numerical models, such as the variable-density SEAWAT, constant-density continuum MODFLOW/MT3DMS and constant-density discrete-continuum CFPv2/UMT3D models. The VDFST-CFP model compares reasonably well with the other model results in both conduit and porous medium domains, and well describes water and salt exchanges between the two systems. Under turbulent flow conditions within the conduit, the Darcy-Weisbach equation calculates the flow rate more accurately without the overestimation by the Darcy equation . Sensitivity analysis indicates that conduit diameter, friction factor, matrix hydraulic conductivity, and effective porosity are important parameters in the VDFST-CFP model. The pros and cons of the VDFST-CFP model are discussed, including the model assumptions and simplifications, limitations of the discrete-continuum modeling method, and the convergence criteria. In general, the newly developed VDFST-CFP model provides a new numerical modeling method for simulating seawater intrusion in a coastal karst aquifer with conduits.

  9. Contemporary solutions for managing Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathamuni Rengarajan Krishnaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with Class III malocclusions constitute a small percentage of the average orthodontic practice, providing them with optimal treatment is a daunting task. The treatment approach is dependent upon the growth status of the individual and the severity of the skeletal dysplasia. For growing individuals, facemask therapy to protract the maxilla is ineffective because of its dependence on dental anchorage to bring forth skeletal correction. Orthodontic camouflage in nongrowing mild skeletal Class III individuals is met with limited success because of the anatomical boundaries and the conventional biomechanics. Orthognathic surgery to correct the maxillomandibular relations is time-consuming, and the facial esthetics is compromised during the orthodontic decompensation period. Contemporary solutions to overcome these limitations are now viable with the use of temporary anchorage devices and by performing surgery prior to orthodontic decompensation. The rationale for employing these contemporary approaches will be discussed in this study with illustrative cases.

  10. A 1.4 deg2 blind survey for C II], C III] and C IV at z ˜ 0.7-1.5 - I. Nature, morphologies and equivalent widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroe, Andra; Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Calhau, João; Oteo, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    While traditionally associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN), the properties of the C II] (λ = 2326 Å), C III] (λ, λ = 1907, 1909 Å) and C IV (λ, λ = 1549, 1551 Å) emission lines are still uncertain as large, unbiased samples of sources are scarce. We present the first blind, statistical study of C II], C III] and C IV emitters at z ˜ 0.68, 1.05, 1.53, respectively, uniformly selected down to a flux limit of ˜4 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-1 through a narrow-band survey covering an area of ˜1.4 deg2 over COSMOS and UDS. We detect 16 C II], 35 C III] and 17 C IV emitters, whose nature we investigate using optical colours as well as Hubble Space Telescope (HST), X-ray, radio and far-infrared data. We find that z ˜ 0.7 C II] emitters are consistent with a mixture of blue (UV slope β = -2.0 ± 0.4) star-forming (SF) galaxies with discy HST structure and AGN with Seyfert-like morphologies. Bright C II] emitters have individual X-ray detections as well as high average black hole accretion rates (BHARs) of ˜0.1 M⊙ yr-1. C III] emitters at z ˜ 1.05 trace a general population of SF galaxies, with β = -0.8 ± 1.1, a variety of optical morphologies, including isolated and interacting galaxies and low BHAR (frame equivalent widths (EWs) that could be as large as 50-100 Å. AGN or spatial offsets between the UV continuum stellar disc and the line-emitting regions may explain the large EW. These bright C II], C III] and C IV emitters are ideal candidates for spectroscopic follow-up to fully unveil their nature.

  11. STATCONT: A statistical continuum level determination method for line-rich sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Ginsburg, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Schmiedeke, A.

    2018-01-01

    STATCONT is a python-based tool designed to determine the continuum emission level in spectral data, in particular for sources with a line-rich spectrum. The tool inspects the intensity distribution of a given spectrum and automatically determines the continuum level by using different statistical approaches. The different methods included in STATCONT are tested against synthetic data. We conclude that the sigma-clipping algorithm provides the most accurate continuum level determination, together with information on the uncertainty in its determination. This uncertainty can be used to correct the final continuum emission level, resulting in the here called `corrected sigma-clipping method' or c-SCM. The c-SCM has been tested against more than 750 different synthetic spectra reproducing typical conditions found towards astronomical sources. The continuum level is determined with a discrepancy of less than 1% in 50% of the cases, and less than 5% in 90% of the cases, provided at least 10% of the channels are line free. The main products of STATCONT are the continuum emission level, together with a conservative value of its uncertainty, and datacubes containing only spectral line emission, i.e., continuum-subtracted datacubes. STATCONT also includes the option to estimate the spectral index, when different files covering different frequency ranges are provided.

  12. Gamow-Teller strength in the continuum and quenching problem

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, H; Okamura, H; Nonaka, T; Ohnishi, T; Yako, K; Sekiguchi, K; Fujita, S; Satou, Y; Otsu, H; Uesaka, T; Ishida, S; Sakamoto, N; Greenfield, M B; Hatanaka, K

    1999-01-01

    Differential cross sections at theta sub l sub a sub b = 0.0 deg. - 12.3 deg. and a complete set of polarization transfer observables at theta sub l sub a sub b = 0.0 deg. are measured for the sup 9 sup 0 Zr(p, n) reaction at T sub p = 295 MeV. A multipole decomposition (MD) technique is applied to the cross sections to extract partial cross sections sigma sub L with L = 0, 1, 2, and 3 contributions. A significant amount of sigma sub L sub = sub 0 is found in the highly excited continuum region. After subtracting the estimated iso-vector spin-monopole strength from sigma sub L sub = sub 0 , the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength B(GT) is deduced to be S subbeta sub - = SIGMA B(GT) = 28 +- 1.6 +- 5.4. The total spin transfer SIGMA(0 deg. ) which is independent of the nuclear reaction mechanisms such as the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction or distortions is derived from the complete set of polarization transfer observables. It is close to unity up to 50 MeV excitation indicating the strong spin-flip character of t...

  13. Continuum damage modeling in ductile materials using level sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brauer, Alexia; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Ductile materials under high-velocity impact undergo large deformation and eventually damage. Damage alters the mechanical behavior of the materials and can lead to fracture and fragmentation. This work proposes a general Eulerian framework to model fracture and interfacial debonding in ductile materials. The current effort focuses on a plate impact problem, where a crack forms due to damage accumulation causing a discontinuity in the material. Damage accumulation is described by the continuum damage models. The level set approach is adopted for both tracking the sharp material interfaces and creating the crack. Results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data and two other commercial codes, CTH and EPIC. Also, damage is considered at the interfaces between two bonded materials, such as particles embedded in a matrix in a composite material. The progressive decohesion of the interfaces due to dynamic loading is simulated via a cohesive zone model. The result shows the ability of the code to handle the separation of the interfaces and create voids. This work has been funded from the AFRL-RW, Computational Mechanics Branch, Eglin AFB, Program Manager: Dr. Angela Diggs.

  14. Brain-computer interfaces in the continuum of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Andrea; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2007-12-01

    To summarize recent developments and look at important future aspects of brain-computer interfaces. Recent brain-computer interface studies are largely targeted at helping severely or even completely paralysed patients. The former are only able to communicate yes or no via a single muscle twitch, and the latter are totally nonresponsive. Such patients can control brain-computer interfaces and use them to select letters, words or items on a computer screen, for neuroprosthesis control or for surfing the Internet. This condition of motor paralysis, in which cognition and consciousness appear to be unaffected, is traditionally opposed to nonresponsiveness due to disorders of consciousness. Although these groups of patients may appear to be very alike, numerous transition states between them are demonstrated by recent studies. All nonresponsive patients can be regarded on a continuum of consciousness which may vary even within short time periods. As overt behaviour is lacking, cognitive functions in such patients can only be investigated using neurophysiological methods. We suggest that brain-computer interfaces may provide a new tool to investigate cognition in disorders of consciousness, and propose a hierarchical procedure entailing passive stimulation, active instructions, volitional paradigms, and brain-computer interface operation.

  15. Application of differential sensitivity theory to continuum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, P. J.; Henninger, R. J.; Harstad, E. N.

    A sensitivity technique used successfully in the early eighties, called Differential Sensitivity Theory (DST), is applied to a system of time-dependent continuum mechanics equations. DST uses adjoint techniques to determine exact sensitivity derivatives, i.e., if R is a calculational result of interest (response R) and alpha is a calculational input (parameter alpha(sub i) where the subscript is usually not indicated for convenience), then (partial derivative)R/(partial derivative)(alpha)(sub i) is defined as the sensitivity. The advantage of using DST over other sensitivity analysis techniques is mainly economic: for an n-parameter problem all n sensitivities can be obtained by integrating the solutions from only two calculations, a so-called forward (physical) calculation and its corresponding adjoint calculation. This work describes the derivation and solution of the appropriate set of adjoint and sensitivity equations for the ultimate purpose of computing sensitivities for high-rate two dimensional, multi-component, high deformation problems.

  16. Numerical Calculations Of Quantum Field Theories On The Continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Emirdag, P

    2002-01-01

    Source Galerkin technique is an alternative numerical method developed by Garcìa, Guralnik, and Lawson at Brown. It is not based on any statistical methods and has controllable errors. It also has the advantage that it can be used in a continuum formulation. This new method promises an increase in accuracy and speed of calculations. In this method, we treat field theory with the presence of external sources. The functional relations become a set of coupled differential equations for the generating functional Z. Source Galerkin is used to solve these equations for the Green's functions of the theory. According to this technique, the set of the residuals and the test functions are required to be orthogonal with respect to some inner product. The test functions that we are using are polynomials that consists of source terms and preserve the group symmetry of the problem. Symmetries of translation and reflection invariance are used in constructing the solution. A good choice of the test functions and t...

  17. Tracking Carbon along the Urban Watershed Continuum to Coastal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.

    2015-12-01

    Watersheds experiencing urbanization are constantly evolving in their structure and function, and their carbon cycle subsequently evolves across both space and time. We investigate how urbanization influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed using a variety of approaches such as stable isotopes, in situ water quality sensors, and remote sensing. Along the urban watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and reactivity of carbon, and (2) ecosystem metabolism and transformation of carbon sources from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as revealed by stable isotopes and in situ sensors. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered particulate carbon transport in coastal waters and the evolution of river sediment plumes as suggested by remote sensing data. Furthermore, there are increased long-term bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in streams and rivers, and we present new analytical approaches for studying river alkalinization due to human inputs and accelerated chemical weathering. In summary, urbanization alters carbon over space and time with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.

  18. Organic carbon cycling in landfills: Model for a continuum approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Lagerkvist, A. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Landfill Group

    1997-09-01

    Organic carbon cycling in landfills can be addressed through a continuum model where the end-points are conventional anaerobic digestion of organic waste (short-term analogue) and geologic burial of organic material (long-term analogue). Major variables influencing status include moisture state, temperature, organic carbon loading, nutrient status, and isolation from the surrounding environment. Bioreactor landfills which are engineered for rapid decomposition approach (but cannot fully attain) the anaerobic digester end-point and incur higher unit costs because of their high degree of environmental isolation and control. At the other extreme, uncontrolled land disposal of organic waste materials is similar to geologic burial where organic carbon may be aerobically recycled to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, anaerobically converted to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} during early diagenesis, or maintained as intermediate or recalcitrant forms into geologic time (> 1,000 years) for transformations via kerogen pathways. A family of improved landfill models are needed at several scales (molecular to landscape) which realistically address landfill processes and can be validated with field data.

  19. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, W M; Zanting, A; van Beukelen, P; de Grave, W; Baane, J A; Bustraan, J A; Engbers, R; Fick, Th E; Jacobs, J C G; Vervoorn, J M

    2009-05-01

    The quality of teachers in higher education is subject of increasing attention, as exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Because medical education takes a special position in higher education the Council of Deans of Medical Schools in The Netherlands installed a national task force to explore a method to weigh criteria for teacher qualifications of medical teachers. A framework was developed covering competencies of teachers throughout the medical education continuum and including medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine. The framework distinguishes 3 dimensions: (a) six domains of teaching (development - organization - execution - coaching - assessment - evaluation); (b) three levels in the organization at which teachers perform (micro, meso and macro level) and (c) competencies as integration of knowledge, skills and attitude and described as behaviour in specific context. The current framework is the result of several cycles of descriptions, feedback from the field and adaptations. It is meant as a guideline, leaving room for local detailing. The framework provides a common language that may be used not only by teachers and teacher trainers, but also by quality assurance committees, human resource managers and institutional boards.

  20. A continuum damage relation for hydrogen attack cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, M.W.D. van der; Giessen, E. van der [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. for Engineering Mechanics

    1997-07-01

    A continuum damage relation (CDR) is proposed to describe the failure process of hydrogen attack, i.e., grain boundary cavitation of steels under conditions of high temperature and high hydrogen pressure. The cavitation is caused by the chemical reaction of hydrogen with grain boundary carbides forming cavities filled with high pressure methane. The micromechanisms described are the grain boundary cavitation and the dislocation creep of the grains. The CDR is based on two extreme cavitation rate distribution modes. In the first mode, the cavitation rate along the facets is uniform, resulting in a hydrostatic dilatation while the creep deformations remain relatively small. In the second mode, cavitation proceeds predominantly on grain boundary facets transverse to the principal macroscopic stress. This part of the CDR builds on Tvergaard`s constitutive relation for intergranular creep rupture [Tvergaard, V., Acta Metallurgica, 1984, 32, 1977] where the facet cavitation is constrained by creep of the surrounding grains. The mode corresponding to the highest cavitation rate is the active mode. The two-dimensional version of the CDR is verified against detailed finite element analyses of hydrogen attack in planar polycrystalline aggregates. Finally, the generalization to a three-dimensional CDR is discussed.

  1. Verification of continuum drift kinetic equation solvers in NIMROD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y. [Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-4415 (United States); Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Belli, E. A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Lyons, B. C. [Program in Plasma Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Verification of continuum solutions to the electron and ion drift kinetic equations (DKEs) in NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is demonstrated through comparison with several neoclassical transport codes, most notably NEO [E. A. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 015015 (2012)]. The DKE solutions use NIMROD's spatial representation, 2D finite-elements in the poloidal plane and a 1D Fourier expansion in toroidal angle. For 2D velocity space, a novel 1D expansion in finite elements is applied for the pitch angle dependence and a collocation grid is used for the normalized speed coordinate. The full, linearized Coulomb collision operator is kept and shown to be important for obtaining quantitative results. Bootstrap currents, parallel ion flows, and radial particle and heat fluxes show quantitative agreement between NIMROD and NEO for a variety of tokamak equilibria. In addition, velocity space distribution function contours for ions and electrons show nearly identical detailed structure and agree quantitatively. A Θ-centered, implicit time discretization and a block-preconditioned, iterative linear algebra solver provide efficient electron and ion DKE solutions that ultimately will be used to obtain closures for NIMROD's evolving fluid model.

  2. Aggregation patterns from nonlocal interactions: Discrete stochastic and continuum modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Hackett-Jones, Emily J.

    2012-04-17

    Conservation equations governed by a nonlocal interaction potential generate aggregates from an initial uniform distribution of particles. We address the evolution and formation of these aggregating steady states when the interaction potential has both attractive and repulsive singularities. Currently, no existence theory for such potentials is available. We develop and compare two complementary solution methods, a continuous pseudoinverse method and a discrete stochastic lattice approach, and formally show a connection between the two. Interesting aggregation patterns involving multiple peaks for a simple doubly singular attractive-repulsive potential are determined. For a swarming Morse potential, characteristic slow-fast dynamics in the scaled inverse energy is observed in the evolution to steady state in both the continuous and discrete approaches. The discrete approach is found to be remarkably robust to modifications in movement rules, related to the potential function. The comparable evolution dynamics and steady states of the discrete model with the continuum model suggest that the discrete stochastic approach is a promising way of probing aggregation patterns arising from two- and three-dimensional nonlocal interaction conservation equations. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  3. Neoclassical Simulation of Tokamak Plasmas using Continuum Gyrokinetc Code TEMPEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X Q

    2007-11-09

    We present gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations of tokamak plasmas with self-consistent electric field for the first time using a fully nonlinear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST in a circular geometry. A set of gyrokinetic equations are discretized on a five dimensional computational grid in phase space. The present implementation is a Method of Lines approach where the phase-space derivatives are discretized with finite differences and implicit backwards differencing formulas are used to advance the system in time. The fully nonlinear Boltzmann model is used for electrons. The neoclassical electric field is obtained by solving gyrokinetic Poisson equation with self-consistent poloidal variation. With our 4D ({psi}, {theta}, {epsilon}, {mu}) version of the TEMPEST code we compute radial particle and heat flux, the Geodesic-Acoustic Mode (GAM), and the development of neoclassical electric field, which we compare with neoclassical theory with a Lorentz collision model. The present work provides a numerical scheme and a new capability for self-consistently studying important aspects of neoclassical transport and rotations in toroidal magnetic fusion devices.

  4. Beams on Elastic Foundation. The Simplified Continuum Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu-Bogdan Teodoru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The key aspect in the design of flexible structural elements in contact with bearing soils is the way in which soil reaction, referred to qualitatively as soil’s reactive pressure (p, is assumed or accounted for in analysis. A magnitude and distribution of p might be preliminary assumed, or some mathematical relationships could be incorporated into the analysis itself, so that p is calculated as part of the analysis. In order to eliminate the bearing soil reaction as a variable in the problem solution, the simplified continuum approach is presented. This idealization provides much more information on the stress and deformation within soil mass compared to ordinary Winkler model, and it has the important advantage of the elimination of the necessity to determine the values of the foundation parameters, arbitrarily, because these values can be computed from the material properties (deformation modulus, Es, Poisson ratio, νs and depth of influence zone, H, along the beam for the soil. A numerical investigatio proach is also presented.

  5. A SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM SURVEY OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chul [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho Seong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gwang-Ho, E-mail: jclee@kasi.re.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We conduct a 350 μ m dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05–0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S{sub 350μm} = 114–650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57–122 K and 22–35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3–34 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and 0.03%–2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  6. Gyrokinetic continuum simulations of turbulence in the Texas Helimak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, T. N.; Shi, E. L.; Hammett, G. W.; Hakim, A.; Taylor, E. I.

    2017-10-01

    We have used the Gkeyll code to perform 3x-2v full-f gyrokinetic continuum simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in the Texas Helimak. The Helimak is an open field-line experiment with magnetic curvature and shear. It is useful for validating numerical codes due to its extensive diagnostics and simple, helical geometry, which is similar to the scrape-off layer region of tokamaks. Interchange and drift-wave modes are the main turbulence mechanisms in the device, and potential biasing is applied to study the effect of velocity shear on turbulence reduction. With Gkeyll, we varied field-line pitch angle and simulated biased and unbiased cases to study different turbulent regimes and turbulence reduction. These are the first kinetic simulations of the Helimak and resulting plasma profiles agree fairly well with experimental data. This research demonstrates Gkeyll's progress towards 5D simulations of the SOL region of fusion devices. Supported by the U.S. DOE SCGSR program under contract DE-SC0014664, the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Psychiatric Management, Administration, and Leadership: a Continuum or Distinct Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Silver, Stuart; Buwalda, Victor J A; Khin, Eindra Khin; Petit, Jorge R; Mohyuddin, Farooq; Weinberg, Pamela; Merlino, Joseph P; Lekwauwa, Nena; Levin, Saul

    2017-10-06

    To clarify the relationship between the concepts of management, administration, and leadership in psychiatry. The authors provide a review of the conceptual evolution of administrative psychiatry and develop operational definitions of these three domains. Based upon their experiences, they discuss relevant core competencies and personal attributes. The authors found that the terms psychiatric management, psychiatric administration, and psychiatric leadership are often used interchangeably, yet they each have a different and distinct focus. Additionally, some in the field consider the concepts overlapping, existing on a continuum, while others draw distinct conceptual boundaries between these terms. Psychiatrists in leadership positions function in all three domains. While these are distinct concepts, the authors recommend that administrative psychiatrists integrate all three in their everyday work. The authors suggest the distinctions among these concepts should inform training and identify core competencies related to these distinctions. Mentoring should focus on the practical integration of the concepts of management, administration, and leadership in administrative psychiatry. The authors present a cohesive framework for future development of a curriculum for education and research.

  8. Limits on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Perego, D L

    2002-01-01

    A limit on the tau neutrino mass is obtained using all the $Z^{0} \\to \\tau^{+} \\tau^{-}$ data collected at LEP by the DELPHI detector between 1992 and 1995. In this analysis events in which one of the taus decays into one charged particle, while the second $\\tau$ decays into f{}ive charged pions (1-5 topology) have been used. The neutrino mass is determined from a bidimensional \\fit ~on the invariant mass $m^{*}_{5 \\pi}$ and on the energy $E_{5 \\pi}$ of the f{}ive $\\pi^{\\pm}$ system. The result found is $m_{\

  9. Biexcitonic bound and continuum states of homogeneously and inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, W.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the influence of excitonic localization on the corresponding biexcitonic states in GaAs quantum wells by spectrally resolved four-wave mixing. With increasing localization, the biexciton binding energy increases, while the biexciton continuum shifts to higher energies....... The localization leads to an inhomogeneous broadening of the biexciton binding energy and the biexciton continuum edge. Simultaneously, the oscillator strength of the biexciton continuum-edge is reduced. This is interpreted as a result of the different localization of biexcitonic and excitonic states by the random...

  10. Non-classical solutions of a continuum model for rock descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Guzev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The strain-gradient and non-Euclidean continuum theories are employed for construction of non-classical solutions of continuum models. The linear approximation of both models' results in identical structures in terms of their kinematic and stress characteristics. The solutions obtained in this study exhibit a critical behaviour with respect to the external loading parameter. The conclusions are obtained based on an investigation of the solution for the scalar curvature in the non-Euclidean continuum theory. The proposed analysis enables us to use different theoretical approaches for description of rock critical behaviour under different loading conditions.

  11. Size dependent surface energy of nanoplates: Molecular dynamics and nanoscale continuum theory correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidian, M.; Dehghani, A.; Talaei, M. S.; Rabczuk, T.

    2018-01-01

    A nanoscale gradient continuum theory along with molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate the size-dependent surface energy of nanoplates. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that upon nanoplate thickness reduction, the redistribution of surface energy density along thickness direction causes the decrease of the surface energy of nanoplate free surfaces. Via introducing a calibration benchmark, the length scale model parameter of the gradient continuum theory is methodically determined. The calibrated continuum theory is shown to well predict the size-dependent surface energy and the associated redistribution of surface energy density within nanoplates.

  12. Controlling multipolar radiation with symmetries for electromagnetic bound states in the continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Thomas; Kanté, Boubacar

    2014-12-01

    Interferences in open systems embedded in a continuum can lead to states that are bound within the continuum itself. An electromagnetic state that naturally decays becomes bound at a unique point in phase space. We demonstrate the striking occurrence of multiple such peculiar states in coupled deep subwavelength resonators. The bound states in the continuum originate from the control of multipolar radiation and their symmetries. The architectures investigated here, using all-dielectric resonators, constitute a flexible and readily achievable platform for applications requiring strong light-matter interaction and light localization.

  13. Accidental bound states in the continuum in an open Sinai billiard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipchuk, A.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 660080 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Sadreev, A.F., E-mail: almas@tnp.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-19

    The fundamental mechanism of the bound states in the continuum is the full destructive interference of two resonances when two eigenlevels of the closed system are crossing. There is, however, a wide class of quantum chaotic systems which display only avoided crossings of eigenlevels. As an example of such a system we consider the Sinai billiard coupled with two semi-infinite waveguides. We show that notwithstanding the absence of degeneracy bound states in the continuum occur due to accidental decoupling of the eigenstates of the billiard from the waveguides. - Highlights: • Bound states in the continuum in open chaotic billiards occur to accidental vanishing of coupling of eigenstate of billiard with waveguides.

  14. Oxymatrinium tetrachloridoferrate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong He

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C15H25N2O2[FeCl4], contains a tetrachloridoferrate(III anion and a oxymatrinium cation [oxymatrine is (4R,7aS,13aR,13bR,13cS-dodecahydro-1H,5H,10H-dipyrido[2,1-f:3′,2′,1′-ij][1,6]naphthyridin-10-one 4-oxide]. The conformation of oxymatrine is similar to that of matrine with one ring having a half-chair conformation, while the others have chair conformations. Chiral chains of cations along the c axis are formed by O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  15. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hamchaoui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO32], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m. adopting an octahedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m. exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octahedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO32]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO32]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4+ cations and the O atoms of the framework.

  16. Considerations before orthodontic camouflage treatment in skeletal class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Budhiawan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal Class III malocclusions are caused by maxillary deficiency, mandibular protrusion, or a combination of the two. This patient, in this case, may have a sunken in face, strong chin appearance. Most persons with Class III malocclusions, which is a dentofacial deformity, show combinations of skeletal and dentoalveolar components. Orthodontic therapy is usually aimed at compensating for the underlying mild-moderate skeletal Class III discrepancy and patients with severe skeletal Class III discrepancies require a combination of orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery to correct the underlying skeletal pattern. By considering many factors, the orthodontic treatment can be done on mild to severe skeletal Class III. These factors are facial profile, dental relationship and skeletal pattern. Those factors should be considered a starting point in making a treatment decision. They give the limitation of orthodontic treatment in terms of whether the occlusion could be corrected, or whether the deformity could be camouflage.

  17. Systems-level G protein-coupled receptor therapy across a neurodegenerative continuum by the GLP-1 receptor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eJanssens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With our increasing appreciation of the true complexity of diseases and pathophysiologies it is clear that this knowledge needs to inform the future development of pharmacotherapeutics. For many disorders the disease mechanism itself is a complex process spanning multiple signaling networks, tissues and organ systems. Identifying the precise nature and locations of the pathophysiology is crucial for the creation of systemically-effective drugs. Diseases once considered constrained to a limited range of organ systems, e.g. central neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD and Huntington’ disease (HD, the role of multiple central and peripheral organ systems in the etiology of such diseases is now widely accepted. With this knowledge, it is increasingly clear that these seemingly distinct neurodegenerative disorders (AD, PD and HD possess multiple pathophysiological similarities thereby demonstrating an inter-related continuum of disease-related molecular alterations. With this systems-level appreciation of neurodegenerative disease it is now imperative to consider that pharmacotherapeutics should be developed specifically to address the systemic imbalances that create the disorders. Identification of potential systems-level signaling axes may facilitate the generation of therapeutic agents with synergistic remedial activity across multiple tissues, organ systems and even diseases. Here we discuss the potentially therapeutic systems-level interaction of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 ligand-receptor axis with multiple aspects of the AD, PD and HD neurodegenerative continuum.

  18. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry - An analytical and diagnostic tool for trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welz, Bernhard [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40170-290 Salvador - BA (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis - SC (Brazil)], E-mail: w.bernardo@terra.com.br; Borges, Daniel L.G.; Lepri, Fabio G. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis - SC (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre - RS (Brazil); Heitmann, Uwe [ISAS - Institute for Analytical Sciences, Department of Interface Spectroscopy, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The literature about applications of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) with electrothermal atomization is reviewed. The historic development of HR-CS AAS is briefly summarized and the main advantages of this technique, mainly the 'visibility' of the spectral environment around the analytical line at high resolution and the unequaled simultaneous background correction are discussed. Simultaneous multielement CS AAS has been realized only in a very limited number of cases. The direct analysis of solid samples appears to have gained a lot from the special features of HR-CS AAS, and the examples from the literature suggest that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standards. Low-temperature losses of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins could be detected and avoided in the analysis of crude oil due to the superior background correction system. The visibility of the spectral environment around the analytical line revealed that the absorbance signal measured for phosphorus at the 213.6 nm non-resonance line without a modifier is mostly due to the PO molecule, and not to atomic phosphorus. The future possibility to apply high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption for the determination of non-metals is discussed.

  19. Continuum and line modelling of discs around young stars - I. 300000 disc models for HERSCHEL/GASPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitke, P.; Pinte, C.; Tilling, I.; Ménard, F.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W.-F.; Duchêne, G.; Augereau, J.-C.

    2010-06-01

    We have combined the thermo-chemical disc code ProDiMo with the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MCFOST to calculate a grid of ~300000 circumstellar disc models, systematically varying 11 stellar, disc and dust parameters including the total disc mass, several disc shape parameters and the dust-to-gas ratio. For each model, dust continuum and line radiative transfer calculations are carried out for 29 far-infrared, sub-mm and mm lines of [OI], [CII], 12CO and o/p-H2O under five inclinations. The grid allows us to study the influence of the input parameters on the observables, to make statistical predictions for different types of circumstellar discs and to find systematic trends and correlations between the parameters, the continuum fluxes and the line fluxes. The model grid, comprising the calculated disc temperature and chemical structures, the computed spectral energy distributions, line fluxes and profiles, will be used in particular for the data interpretation of the HERSCHEL open time-key program GASPS. The calculated line fluxes show a strong dependence on the assumed ultraviolet excess of the central star and on the disc flaring. The fraction of models predicting [OI] and [CII] fine-structure lines fluxes above HERSCHEL/PACS and SPICA/SAFARI detection limits is calculated as a function of disc mass. The possibility of deriving the disc gas mass from line observations is discussed.

  20. Insights to the schizophrenia continuum: A systematic review of saccadic eye movements in schizotypy and biological relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Jessica B; Rossell, Susan L; Phillipou, Andrea; Thomas, Elizabeth; Gurvich, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Myles, J.B., S. Rossell, A. Phillipou, Thomas, E and C. Gurvich. A systematic review of saccadic eye movements across the schizophrenia continuum: Characterisation, pathophysiology and genetic associations. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(1) XXX-XXX, 2015. One of the cognitive hallmarks of schizophrenia is impaired eye movements, particularly for the antisaccade task. Less saccade research has been conducted in relation to the broader schizophrenia continuum, that is, people with high schizotypy or first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia. This systematic review sought to identify, collate and appraise prosaccade, antisaccade and memory-guided saccade studies involving behavioural, neuroimaging and genetic data published between 1980 and September 2016 in individuals with high schizotypy and first-degree relatives. A systematic literature search was conducted, using Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed and SCOPUS databases. Of 913 references screened, 18 schizotypy, 29 family studies and two schizotypy and relatives articles studies were eligible for inclusion. Antisaccade error rate was the most consistent deficit found for high schizotypy. Relatives had intermediate antisaccade error rates between patients and healthy controls. Results from the limited genetic and neuroimaging studies echoed schizophrenia findings. Confounds were also identified. It was concluded that future research is required to refine the saccade endophenotype and to expand genetic and neuroimaging research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Racial discrimination: a continuum of violence exposure for children of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2009-06-01

    This article reviews and examines findings on the impact of racial discrimination on the development and functioning of children of color in the US. Based on current definitions of violence and child maltreatment, exposure to racial discrimination should be considered as a form of violence that can significantly impact child outcomes and limit the ability of parents and communities to provide support that promotes resiliency and optimal child development. In this article, a conceptual model of the effects of racial discrimination in children of color is presented. The model posits that exposure to racial discrimination may be a chronic source of trauma in the lives of many children of color that negatively influences mental and physical outcomes as well as parent and community support and functioning. Concurrent exposure to other forms of violence, including domestic, interpersonal and/or community violence, may exacerbate these effects. The impact of a potential continuum of violence exposure for children of color in the US and the need for future research and theoretical models on children's exposure to violence that attend to the impact of racial discrimination on child outcomes are discussed.

  2. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk: Across the Breast Cancer Prevention Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Wu, Hui Chen; Eng, Sybil; Santella, Regina M.

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic biomarkers, such as DNA methylation, can increase cancer risk through altering gene expression. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network has demonstrated breast cancer-specific DNA methylation signatures. DNA methylation signatures measured at the time of diagnosis may prove important for treatment options and in predicting disease-free and overall survival (tertiary prevention). DNA methylation measurement in cell free DNA may also be useful in improving early detection by measuring tumor DNA released into the blood (secondary prevention). Most evidence evaluating the use of DNA methylation markers in tertiary and secondary prevention efforts for breast cancer comes from studies that are cross-sectional or retrospective with limited corresponding epidemiologic data, raising concerns about temporality. Few prospective studies exist that are large enough to address whether DNA methylation markers add to the prediction of tertiary and secondary outcomes over and beyond standard clinical measures. Determining the role of epigenetic biomarkers in primary prevention can help in identifying modifiable pathways for targeting interventions and reducing disease incidence. The potential is great for DNA methylation markers to improve cancer outcomes across the prevention continuum. Large, prospective epidemiological studies will provide essential evidence of the overall utility of adding these markers to primary prevention efforts, screening, and clinical care. PMID:26987530

  3. [Determination of sulfur in plant using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-xi

    2009-05-01

    A method for the analysis of sulfur (S) in plant by molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide (CS) using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (CS AAS) with a fuel-rich air/acetylene flame has been devised. The strong CS absorption band was found around 258 nm. The half-widths of some absorption bands were of the order of picometers, the same as the common atomic absorption lines. The experimental procedure in this study provided optimized instrumental conditions (the ratio of acetylene to air, the burner height) and parameters, and researched the spectral interferences and chemical interferences. The influence of the organic solvents on the CS absorption signals and the different digestion procedures for the determination of sulfur were also investigated. The limit of detection achieved for sulfur was 14 mg x L(-1), using the CS wavelength of 257. 961 nm and a measurement time of 3 s. The accuracy and precision were verified by analysis of two plant standard reference materials. The major applications of this method have been used for the determination of sulfur in plant materials, such as leaves. Compared to the others, this method for the analysis of sulfur is rapid, easy and simple for sulfur determination in plant.

  4. The Subspace Voyager: Exploring High-Dimensional Data along a Continuum of Salient 3D Subspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Mueller, Klaus

    2018-02-01

    Analyzing high-dimensional data and finding hidden patterns is a difficult problem and has attracted numerous research efforts. Automated methods can be useful to some extent but bringing the data analyst into the loop via interactive visual tools can help the discovery process tremendously. An inherent problem in this effort is that humans lack the mental capacity to truly understand spaces exceeding three spatial dimensions. To keep within this limitation, we describe a framework that decomposes a high-dimensional data space into a continuum of generalized 3D subspaces. Analysts can then explore these 3D subspaces individually via the familiar trackball interface while using additional facilities to smoothly transition to adjacent subspaces for expanded space comprehension. Since the number of such subspaces suffers from combinatorial explosion, we provide a set of data-driven subspace selection and navigation tools which can guide users to interesting subspaces and views. A subspace trail map allows users to manage the explored subspaces, keep their bearings, and return to interesting subspaces and views. Both trackball and trail map are each embedded into a word cloud of attribute labels which aid in navigation. We demonstrate our system via several use cases in a diverse set of application areas-cluster analysis and refinement, information discovery, and supervised training of classifiers. We also report on a user study that evaluates the usability of the various interactions our system provides.

  5. JVLA 1.5 GHz Continuum Observation of CLASH Clusters. I. Radio Properties of the BCGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Heng; Tozzi, Paolo; van Weeren, Reinout; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Giovannini, Gabriele; Donahue, Megan; Balestra, Italo; Rosati, Piero; Aravena, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution (∼1″), 1.5 GHz continuum observations of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) of 13 CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble) clusters at 0.18Radio emission is clearly detected and characterized for 11 BCGs, while for two of them we obtain only upper limits to their radio flux (radio powers in the range from 2× {10}23 to ∼ {10}26 {{W}} {{Hz}}-1 and radio spectral indices {α }1.530 (defined as the slope between 1.5 and 30 GHz) distributed from ∼ -1 to ‑0.25 around the central value =-0.68. The radio emission from the BCGs is resolved in three cases (Abell 383, MACS J1931, and RX J2129), and unresolved or marginally resolved in the remaining eight cases observed with JVLA. In all the cases the BCGs are consistent with being powered by active galactic nuclei. The radio power shows a positive correlation with the BCG star formation rate, and a negative correlation with the central entropy of the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM) except in two cases (MACS J1206 and CL J1226). Finally, over the restricted range in radio power sampled by the CLASH BCGs, we observe a significant scatter between the radio power and the average mechanical power stored in the ICM cavities.

  6. Mortar Methods for Pore-to-Continuum Modeling of Flow and Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhoff, M.

    2014-12-01

    Pore-scale network modeling has become an effective method for accurate prediction and upscaling of macroscopic properties in porous media. Computational and imaging restrictions generally limit the network size to the order of 1.0 mm3 (few thousand pores). For extremely heterogeneous media these models are not large enough to capture the petrophysical properties of the entire medium and inaccurate results can be obtained when upscaling to the continuum scale. Moreover, the boundary conditions imposed are artificial; a pressure gradient is imposed in one dimension so the influence of flow behavior in the surrounding media is not included. Here we model flow and transport at the pore scale but develop hybrid multiscale techniques to bridge the pore and macro-scales. Novel domain decomposition methods are used for upscaling; finite element mortars are used as a mathematical tool to ensure interfacial pressures and fluxes are matched at the interfaces of the networks boundaries. The results compare favorably to the more computationally intensive (and impractical) approach of upscaling the media as a single model. Moreover, the results are much more accurate than traditional hierarchal upscaling methods. This upscaling technique has important implications for using pore-scale models directly in reservoir simulators in a multiscale setting.

  7. Prevalence of neurological conditions across the continuum of care based on interRAI assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although multiple studies have estimated the prevalence of neurological conditions in the general Canadian population, limited research exists regarding the proportion affected with these conditions in non-acute health care settings in Canada. Data from standardized clinical assessments based on the interRAI suite of instruments were used to estimate the prevalence of eight neurological conditions across the continuum of care including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Methods Cohorts of individuals receiving care in nursing homes (N=103,820), home care (N=91,021), complex continuing care (N=10,581), and psychiatric hospitals (N=23,119) in Canada were drawn based on their most recent interRAI assessment within each sector for a six-month period in 2010. These data were linked to the Discharge Abstract Database and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System data sets to develop five different case definition scenarios for estimating prevalence. Results The conditions with the highest estimated prevalences in these care settings in Canada were Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury. However, there were notable cross-sector differences in the prevalence of each condition, and regional variations. Prevalence estimates based on acute hospital administrative data alone were substantially lower for all conditions evaluated. Conclusions The proportion of persons with neurological conditions in non-acute health care settings in Canada is substantially higher than is generally reported for the general population. It is essential for these care settings to have the expertise and resources to respond effectively to the strengths, preferences, and needs of the growing population of persons with neurological conditions. The use of hospital or emergency department

  8. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  9. Phosphorus Dynamics along River Continuum during Typhoon Storm Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Fai Chow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on riverine phosphorus (P dynamics during typhoon storm events remains scarce in subtropical regions. Thus, this study investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of riverine phosphorus in a headwater catchment during three typhoon events. Continuous sampling (3 h intervals of stormwater samples and discharge data were conducted at five locations, which represent the upstream, transitional zone, and downstream areas of the main inflow river. The results revealed that the average event mean concentrations (EMCs for total dissolved phosphorus (TDP and particulate phosphorus (PP in the upstream catchment of Fei-Tsui reservoir were 15.66 μg/L and 11.94 μg/L, respectively. There was at least a 1.3-fold increase in flow-weighted concentrations of TDP and PP from the upper to lower reaches of the main stream. PP and TDP were transported either in clockwise or anticlockwise directions, depending on storm intensity and source. The transport of TDP was primarily regulated by the subsurface flow during the storm event. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP contributes more than 50% of the TDP load in moderate storms, while extreme storms supply a greater dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP load into the stream. TDP accounted for approximately 50% of TP load during typhoon storms. Mobilization of all P forms was observed from upstream to downstream of the river, except for DOP. A decrease of DOP load on passing downstream may reflect the change in phosphorus form along the river continuum. Peak discharge and antecedent dry days are correlated positively with P fluxes, indicating that river bank erosion and re-suspension of within-channel sediment are the dominant pathways of P during typhoon storm periods.

  10. The Novice-Expert Continuum in Astronomy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.

    2012-03-01

    The nature of expertise in astronomy was investigated across a broad spectrum of ages and experience in China and New Zealand. Five hypotheses (capable of quantification and statistical analysis) were used to probe types of expertise identified by previous researchers: (a) domain-specific knowledge-skill in the use of scientific vocabulary and language and recognising relationships between concepts in linguistic and schematic forms; (b) higher-order theory in terms of conceptual structure and enriched scientific knowledge and reasoning; with an expectation of cultural similarity. There were 993 participants in all, age 3-80 years, including 68 junior school pupils; 68 pre-school pupils; 112 middle-school students; 109 high-school students; 79 physics undergraduates; 60 parents; 136 pre-service primary teachers; 131 pre-service secondary teachers; 72 primary teachers; 78 secondary teachers; 50 amateur astronomers and astronomy educators; and 30 astronomers and physicists; with approximately equal numbers of each group in both cultures; and of boys and girls in the case of children. For them, the methodology utilised Piagetian interviews with three media (verbal language, drawing, play-dough modelling), and for adults a questionnaire inviting responses in writing and drawing was used. The data from each group were categorised into ordinal scales and then analysed by means of Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tests. The findings supported the hypotheses with evidence of all forms of expertise increasing with experience in both cultures (α level 0.05). The relative gains, overlaps and deficits in expertise across the novice-expert continuum are explored in detail.

  11. Integrated Information Systems Across the Weather-Climate Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Higgins, W.; Nierenberg, C.; Trtanj, J.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for well-organized (integrated) end-to-end research-based information has been highlighted in several National Academy studies, in IPCC Reports (such as the SREX and Fifth Assessment) and by public and private constituents. Such information constitutes a significant component of the "environmental intelligence" needed to address myriad societal needs for early warning and resilience across the weather-climate continuum. The next generation of climate research in service to the nation requires an even more visible, authoritative and robust commitment to scientific integration in support of adaptive information systems that address emergent risks and inform longer-term resilience strategies. A proven mechanism for resourcing such requirements is to demonstrate vision, purpose, support, connection to constituencies, and prototypes of desired capabilities. In this presentation we will discuss efforts at NOAA, and elsewhere, that: Improve information on how changes in extremes in key phenomena such as drought, floods, and heat stress impact management decisions for resource planning and disaster risk reduction Develop regional integrated information systems to address these emergent challenges, that integrate observations, monitoring and prediction, impacts assessments and scenarios, preparedness and adaptation, and coordination and capacity-building. Such systems, as illustrated through efforts such as NIDIS, have strengthened the integration across the foundational research enterprise (through for instance, RISAs, Modeling Analysis Predictions and Projections) by increasing agility for responding to emergent risks. The recently- initiated Climate Services Information System, in support of the WMO Global Framework for Climate Services draws on the above models and will be introduced during the presentation.

  12. A double continuum hydrological model for glacier applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Fleurian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of glaciers and ice streams is strongly influenced by the presence of water at the interface between ice and bed. In this paper, a hydrological model evaluating the subglacial water pressure is developed with the final aim of estimating the sliding velocities of glaciers. The global model fully couples the subglacial hydrology and the ice dynamics through a water-dependent friction law. The hydrological part of the model follows a double continuum approach which relies on the use of porous layers to compute water heads in inefficient and efficient drainage systems. This method has the advantage of a relatively low computational cost that would allow its application to large ice bodies such as Greenland or Antarctica ice streams. The hydrological model has been implemented in the finite element code Elmer/Ice, which simultaneously computes the ice flow. Herein, we present an application to the Haut Glacier d'Arolla for which we have a large number of observations, making it well suited to the purpose of validating both the hydrology and ice flow model components. The selection of hydrological, under-determined parameters from a wide range of values is guided by comparison of the model results with available glacier observations. Once this selection has been performed, the coupling between subglacial hydrology and ice dynamics is undertaken throughout a melt season. Results indicate that this new modelling approach for subglacial hydrology is able to reproduce the broad temporal and spatial patterns of the observed subglacial hydrological system. Furthermore, the coupling with the ice dynamics shows good agreement with the observed spring speed-up.

  13. Beyond R & D: Market Impact, Continuum Magazine, Summer 2016 / Issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    This issue of NREL's Continuum Magazine covers the depth and breadth of the laboratory's work to bridge scientific discovery and market adoption by helping technologies move from research through development, demonstration, and deployment.

  14. Numerical Modelling and Damage Assessment of Rotary Wing Aircraft Cabin Door Using Continuum Damage Mechanics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyina, Gangadhara Rao T.; Rayavarapu, Vijaya Kumar; V. V., Subba Rao

    2017-02-01

    The prediction of ultimate strength remains the main challenge in the simulation of the mechanical response of composite structures. This paper examines continuum damage model to predict the strength and size effects for deformation and failure response of polymer composite laminates when subjected to complex state of stress. The paper also considers how the overall results of the exercise can be applied in design applications. The continuum damage model is described and the resulting prediction of size effects are compared against the standard benchmark solutions. The stress analysis for strength prediction of rotary wing aircraft cabin door is carried out. The goal of this study is to extend the proposed continuum damage model such that it can be accurately predict the failure around stress concentration regions. The finite element-based continuum damage mechanics model can be applied to the structures and components of arbitrary configurations where analytical solutions could not be developed.

  15. Gas-Kinetic Computational Algorithms for Hypersonic Flows in Continuum and Transitional Regimes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project explores two gas-kinetic computational algorithms for simulation of hypersonic flows in both continuum and transitional regimes. One is the...

  16. An online intervention using information on the mental health-mental illness continuum to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, G; Angermeyer, M C; Baumeister, S E; Stolzenburg, S; Link, B G; Phelan, J C

    2016-02-01

    A core component of stigma is being set apart as a distinct, dichotomously different kind of person. We examine whether information on a continuum from mental health to mental illness reduces stigma. Online survey experiment in a quota sample matching the German population for age, gender and region (n=1679). Participants randomly received information on either (1) a continuum, (2) a strict dichotomy of mental health and mental illness, or (3) no information. We elicited continuity beliefs and stigma toward a person with schizophrenia or depression. The continuum intervention decreased perceived difference by 0.19 standard deviations (SD, Pmental illness can be improved by providing information on a mental health-mental illness continuum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound states in the continuum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Mingda; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a sphere-graphene-slab structure so that the electromagnetic wave can be well confined in the graphene due to the formation of a bound state in a continuum (BIC) of radiation modes...

  18. Evaluation of Multimedia Authoring Instruction Based in a Behaviorist-Cognitive-Constructivist Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Annette C.

    1998-01-01

    This evaluative case study examines the learning experiences of graduate students studying effective multimedia authoring. Continuum-based instructional design, behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, collaboration, the role of a matrix, transfer of training, and qualitative and quantitative results are discussed. (LRW)

  19. Concurrent atomistic and continuum simulation of bi-crystal strontium titanate with tilt grain boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shengfeng; Chen, Youping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a concurrent atomistic–continuum (CAC) methodology for simulation of the grain boundary (GB) structures and their interaction with other defects in ionic materials. Simulation results show that the CAC simulation allows a smooth passage of cracks through the atomistic–continuum interface without the need for additional constitutive rules or special numerical treatment; both the atomic-scale structures and the energies of the four different [001] ti...

  20. Total joint arthroplasty: practice variation of physiotherapy across the continuum of care in Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C. Allyson; Martin, Ruben San; Westby, Marie D.; Lauren A. Beaupre

    2016-01-01

    Background Comprehensive and timely rehabilitation for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is needed to maximize recovery from this elective surgical procedure for hip and knee arthritis. Administrative data do not capture the variation of treatment for rehabilitation across the continuum of care for TJA, so we conducted a survey for physiotherapists to report practice for TJA across the continuum of care. The primary objective was to describe the reported practice of physiotherapy for TJA across ...

  1. White light continuum generation in sapphire using two-coloured femtosecond laser pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Čepėnas, Augustas

    2017-01-01

    A wide spectrum of laser radiation is useful for two reasons: wider spectrum allows generation of shorter laser pulses, meanwhile, in pump-probe spectroscopy it is prefered to cover the largest possible spectral range with the same source. This work explores white light continuum generation using two-colored (wavelength of 1030 nm and 515 nm) femtosecond laser pulses. Combining these two white light continuums should expand radiation spectrum. However, this research shows that white light con...

  2. Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.

  3. Linkages to Survival : : An Examination of the Reproductive and Maternal Health Continuum of Care

    OpenAIRE

    McDougal, Lotus Padma

    2014-01-01

    Background : Each year, an estimated 287,000 women and 3 million newborns in low and middle income countries die of largely preventable causes. Global organizations have adopted a continuum of care model to mitigate these deaths, in which health interventions are conceptualized as a continuous stream of services. This approach remains untested in practice, however. This research aims to explore utilization and linkages within the reproductive and maternal health continuum of care (RMH CoC), a...

  4. [Early treatment of Class III malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Michel; Philip, Camille; Salvadori, André

    2011-09-01

    Optimum treatment timing for orthodontic problems continues to be one of the more controversial topics in orthodontics. Especially regarding the correction of Class III malocclusion, there is little consensus as to proper timing or methods for correcting these problems. The orthopedic approach for growth modification is usually limited to children with growth remaining subjected to non hereditary pattern. If the skeletal malocclusion is within the range of an orthodontic treatment, fixed orthodontic appliances with dentoalveolar compensation mechanism can achieve a normal occlusion. Otherwise in patients with a severe skeletal discrepancy, it will be necessary to consider a combined surgical and orthodontic approach. The purpose of this study was to describe treatment planning according to the age and to the initial diagnosis. The management of skeletal Class III malocclusion is still a challenge to orthodontists especially because of relapse due to the late growth of the mandible. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2011.

  5. Kinematics optimization and static analysis of a modular continuum robot used for minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fei; Ju, Feng; Bai, Dong Ming; Chen, Bai

    2018-02-01

    For the outstanding compliance and dexterity of continuum robot, it is increasingly used in minimally invasive surgery. The wide workspace, high dexterity and strong payload capacity are essential to the continuum robot. In this article, we investigate the workspace of a cable-driven continuum robot that we proposed. The influence of section number on the workspace is discussed when robot is operated in narrow environment. Meanwhile, the structural parameters of this continuum robot are optimized to achieve better kinematic performance. Moreover, an indicator based on the dexterous solid angle for evaluating the dexterity of robot is introduced and the distal end dexterity is compared for the three-section continuum robot with different range of variables. Results imply that the wider range of variables achieve the better dexterity. Finally, the static model of robot based on the principle of virtual work is derived to analyze the relationship between the bending shape deformation and the driven force. The simulations and experiments for plane and spatial motions are conducted to validate the feasibility of model, respectively. Results of this article can contribute to the real-time control and movement and can be a design reference for cable-driven continuum robot.

  6. The utility of continuum simulations for direct current and microwave microplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaswamy, Venkattraman; Alamatsaz, Arghavan; Verma, Abhishek Kumer

    2017-10-01

    State-of-the-art microplasma devices have contributed to several challenges that require a fundamental understanding of the various mechanisms involved in order to achieve optimal operation for a given application. In this context, the role of computations cannot be stressed enough. Historically, the computational techniques used for simulating plasmas belong to two categories `` continuum/fluid and kinetic methods. The primary goal of the current work is to perform an exhaustive comparison of continuum and kinetic simulations for a range of operating conditions. Kinetic simulations using the particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC) method and continuum simulations using the full-momentum equation are performed at various operating conditions. It is shown that using the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) predicted by BOLSIG+ in continuum simulations of direct current microplasmas leads to a significant under-prediction of plasma densities. The discrepancy between kinetic and continuum simulations is attributed to the presence of hot electrons created as a result of secondary emission. On the other hand, continuum simulations performed for a microwave microplasma operating at 0.5 GHz showed excellent agreement with kinetic simulations.

  7. Dynamics Modeling of a Continuum Robotic Arm with a Contact Point in Planar Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dehghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grasping objects by continuum arms or fingers is a new field of interest in robotics. Continuum manipulators have the advantages of high adaptation and compatibility with respect to the object shape. However, due to their extremely nonlinear behavior and infinite degrees of freedom, continuum arms cannot be easily modeled. In fact, dynamics modeling of continuum robotic manipulators is state-of-the-art. Using the exact modeling approaches, such as theory of Cosserat rod, the resulting models are either too much time-taking for computation or numerically unstable. Thus, such models are not suitable for applications such as real-time control. However, based on realistic assumptions and using some approximations, these systems can be modeled with reasonable computational efforts. In this paper, a planar continuum robotic arm is modeled, considering its backbone as two circular arcs. In order to simulate finger grasping, the continuum arm experiences a point-force along its body. Finally, the results are validated using obtained experimental data.

  8. Benchmark continuum and kinetic simulations of argon microplasmas in the direct current and microwave regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Abhishek Kumar; Alamatsaz, Arghavan; Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2017-10-01

    This study presents benchmark comparisons between continuum and kinetic simulations of argon microplasmas operating in the direct current and microwave regimes. Kinetic simulations using the particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC) method and continuum simulations using the full-momentum equation for both ions and electrons are performed at various operating conditions in order to study the influence of product of pressure and gap size, pd (for a given gap size), influence of gap size (for a given value of pd) and operating frequency. It is shown that using the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) predicted by zero-dimensional Boltzmann solvers (such as BOLSIG+) in continuum simulations of direct current microplasmas leads to a significant under-prediction of plasma number densities with continuum simulations based on the Maxwellian EEDF performing better particularly for higher values of pd. The discrepancy between kinetic and continuum simulations is attributed to the presence of hot electrons created as a result of secondary emission and subsequent acceleration in the sheath. On the other hand, simulations performed for argon microwave microplasmas operating at 0.5 GHz, 0.8 GHz, 2 GHz and 4 GHz demonstrated that continuum simulations performed using the rate constants from BOLSIG+  showed excellent agreement with kinetic simulations for the plasma density profiles in spite of over-predicting the voltage/power required to achieve a given plasma density.

  9. Citrus tristeza virus: survival at the edge of the movement continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Folimonov, Alexey S; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O

    2008-07-01

    Systemic invasion of plants by viruses is thought to involve two processes: cell-to-cell movement between adjacent cells and long-distance movement that allows the virus to rapidly move through sieve elements and unload at the growing parts of the plant. There is a continuum of proportions of these processes that determines the degrees of systemic infection of different plants by different viruses. We examined the systemic distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in citrus species with a range of susceptibilities. By using a "pure" culture of CTV from a cDNA clone and green fluorescent protein-labeled virus we show that both cell-to-cell and long-distance movement are unusually limited, and the degree of limitation varies depending on the citrus host. In the more-susceptible hosts CTV infected only a small portion of phloem-associated cells, and moreover, the number of infection sites in less-susceptible citrus species was substantially decreased further, indicating that long-distance movement was reduced in those hosts. Analysis of infection foci in the two most differential citrus species, Citrus macrophylla and sour orange, revealed that in the more-susceptible host the infection foci were composed of a cluster of multiple cells, while in the less-susceptible host infection foci were usually single cells, suggesting that essentially no cell-to-cell movement occurred in the latter host. Thus, CTV in sour orange represents a pattern of systemic infection in which the virus appears to function with only the long-distance movement mechanism, yet is able to survive in nature.

  10. Follow-up FOCAS Spectroscopy for [O iii] Blobs at z 0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuma, Suraphong

    2014-01-01

    We propose FOCAS spectroscopy for our eight newly selected [O_iii] blobs at z~0.7, showing remarkably extended [O_iii] emission larger than 30 kpc down to 1.2x10^{-18} erg^{-1}cm^{-2} arcsec^{-2} in continuum-subtracted narrowband images. This extended oxygen nebulae beyond stellar component is thought to be hot metal-right gas outflowing from galaxies. However, without spectroscopy to verify gas motion of the system, we cannot certainly conclude that the extended feature of [O_iii] emission is caused by gas outflow. With FOCAS, we expect to observe Fe_ii, Mg_ii absorption lines and [O_ii}], Hbeta, and [O_iii] emission lines, which all fall into optical window at this redshift. We will 1) confirm the outflow of these blobs through Fe_ii and/or Mg_ii absorption lines, 2) constrain energy source of the outflow (AGN or stellar feedback) through line-ratio diagnostic diagram, and 3) for the first time investigate if the extended oxygen emission is just due to the photo-ionized outflowing gas or involving shock heating process through [O_ii]/[O_iii] ratios in extended regions. The last goal can only be accomplished with FOCAS optical spectroscopy, which can observe both [O_ii] and [O_iii] emission lines simultaneously.

  11. Severe Brain Injury in Massachusetts: Assessing the Continuum of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Laura; Katz, Gabrielle

    2015-12-10

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews). These services include post-acute rehabilitation, case management, and brain injury-specific community programming (CDC, 2014; BI Commission, 2011; Interviews). Governance and data for decision-making are also major gaps in the continuum of care for severe brain injury in MA (Interviews; NASHIA, 2005). The last two decades saw a surge in interest in the brain, with advances in neuroscience, diagnosis and measurement of brain injury, rehabilitation services, and brain theory (Boyle, 2001). Severe brain injury however is the new "hidden epidemic" in our society. For many, an injury to the brain is not a short-term event that can be "cured" but the beginning of a life-long disability (CDC, 2014; Langlois et al, 2006). Fortunately, even after a severe brain injury, when the right rehabilitation is provided at the right time, the "rest of life" journey can be a positive one for many (Marquez de la Plata, 2015; Langlois et al, 2006). Severe brain injury can lead to a "new normal" as patients regain skills, find new meaning and in life, and take on new family, volunteer, and work roles. Throughout this brief, the term "severe brain injury" refers to "severe acquired brain injury," or any injury to the brain that occurs after birth. This definition does not include

  12. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  13. Determination of serum aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: A comparison between Zeeman and continuum background correction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Pamela C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2007-03-01

    Excessive exposure to aluminum (Al) can produce serious health consequences in people with impaired renal function, especially those undergoing hemodialysis. Al can accumulate in the brain and in bone, causing dialysis-related encephalopathy and renal osteodystrophy. Thus, dialysis patients are routinely monitored for Al overload, through measurement of their serum Al. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is widely used for serum Al determination. Here, we assess the analytical performances of three ETAAS instruments, equipped with different background correction systems and heating arrangements, for the determination of serum Al. Specifically, we compare (1) a Perkin Elmer (PE) Model 3110 AAS, equipped with a longitudinally (end) heated graphite atomizer (HGA) and continuum-source (deuterium) background correction, with (2) a PE Model 4100ZL AAS equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) and longitudinal Zeeman background correction, and (3) a PE Model Z5100 AAS equipped with a HGA and transverse Zeeman background correction. We were able to transfer the method for serum Al previously established for the Z5100 and 4100ZL instruments to the 3110, with only minor modifications. As with the Zeeman instruments, matrix-matched calibration was not required for the 3110 and, thus, aqueous calibration standards were used. However, the 309.3-nm line was chosen for analysis on the 3110 due to failure of the continuum background correction system at the 396.2-nm line. A small, seemingly insignificant overcorrection error was observed in the background channel on the 3110 instrument at the 309.3-nm line. On the 4100ZL, signal oscillation was observed in the atomization profile. The sensitivity, or characteristic mass ( m0), for Al at the 309.3-nm line on the 3110 AAS was found to be 12.1 ± 0.6 pg, compared to 16.1 ± 0.7 pg for the Z5100, and 23.3 ± 1.3 pg for the 4100ZL at the 396.2-nm line. However, the instrumental detection limits (3

  14. High order ADER schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of Newtonian continuum mechanics coupled with electro-dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbser, Michael; Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy; Zanotti, Olindo

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new unified first order hyperbolic model of Newtonian continuum mechanics coupled with electro-dynamics. The model is able to describe the behavior of moving elasto-plastic dielectric solids as well as viscous and inviscid fluids in the presence of electro-magnetic fields. It is actually a very peculiar feature of the proposed PDE system that viscous fluids are treated just as a special case of elasto-plastic solids. This is achieved by introducing a strain relaxation mechanism in the evolution equations of the distortion matrix A, which in the case of purely elastic solids maps the current configuration to the reference configuration. The model also contains a hyperbolic formulation of heat conduction as well as a dissipative source term in the evolution equations for the electric field given by Ohm's law. Via formal asymptotic analysis we show that in the stiff limit, the governing first order hyperbolic PDE system with relaxation source terms tends asymptotically to the well-known viscous and resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. Furthermore, a rigorous derivation of the model from variational principles is presented, together with the transformation of the Euler-Lagrange differential equations associated with the underlying variational problem from Lagrangian coordinates to Eulerian coordinates in a fixed laboratory frame. The present paper hence extends the unified first order hyperbolic model of Newtonian continuum mechanics recently proposed in [110,42] to the more general case where the continuum is coupled with electro-magnetic fields. The governing PDE system is symmetric hyperbolic and satisfies the first and second principle of thermodynamics, hence it belongs to the so-called class of symmetric hyperbolic thermodynamically compatible systems (SHTC), which have been studied for the first time by Godunov in 1961 [61] and later in a series of papers by Godunov and Romenski [67,69,119]. An important feature of the

  15. Determination of serum aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: A comparison between Zeeman and continuum background correction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Pamela C. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Parsons, Patrick J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Lead Poisoning/Trace Elements Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States)], E-mail: patrick.parsons@wadsworth.org

    2007-03-15

    limits (3 SD) for Al were very similar: 3.0, 3.2, and 4.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} for the Z5100, 4100ZL, and 3110, respectively. Serum Al method detection limits (3 SD) were 9.8, 6.9, and 7.3 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. Accuracy was assessed using archived serum (and plasma) reference materials from various external quality assessment schemes (EQAS). Values found with all three instruments were within the acceptable EQAS ranges. The data indicate that relatively modest ETAAS instrumentation equipped with continuum background correction is adequate for routine serum Al monitoring.

  16. Determination of sulfur in food by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrzycka, Elżbieta; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata, E-mail: bgodlew@uwb.edu.pl

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, a fast, simple and sensitive analytical method for determination of sulfur in food and beverages by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry was developed. The determination was performed via molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide, CS. Different CS rotational lines (257.959 nm, 258.033 nm, 258.055 nm), number of pixels and types of standard solution of sulfur, namely: sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, sodium sulfide, DL-cysteine, and L-cystine, were studied in terms of sensitivity, repeatability of results as well as limit of detection and limit of quantification. The best results were obtained for measurements of absorption of the CS molecule at 258.055 nm at the wavelength range covering 3 pixels and DL-cysteine in 0.2 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} solution as a calibration standard. Under optimized conditions the limit of detection and the limit of quantification achieved for sulfur were 10.9 mg L{sup −1} and 36.4 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The repeatability of the results expressed as relative standard deviation was typically < 5%. The accuracy of the method was tested by analysis of digested biological certified reference materials (soya bean flour, corn flour and herbs) and recovery experiment for beverage samples with added known amount of sulfur standard. The recovery of analyte from such samples was in the range of 93–105% with the repeatability in the range of 4.1–5.0%. The developed method was applied for the determination of sulfur in milk (194 ± 10 mg kg{sup −1}), egg white (2188 ± 29 mg kg{sup −1}), mineral water (31.0 ± 0.9 mg L{sup −1}), white wine (260 ± 4 mg L{sup −1}) and red wine (82 ± 2 mg L{sup −1}), as well as in sample rich in ions, such as bitter mineral water (6900 ± 100 mg L{sup −1}). - Highlights: • HR-CS FMAS technique was used for sulfur measurement via molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide, CS. • Organic DL

  17. On the Nature of Off-limb Flare Continuum Sources Detected by SDO/HMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, P.; Kleint, L.; Kašparová, J.; Krucker, S.

    2017-09-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unique observations of off-limb flare emission. White-light continuum enhancements were detected in the “continuum” channel of the Fe 6173 Å line during the impulsive phase of the observed flares. In this paper we aim to determine which radiation mechanism is responsible for such enhancement being seen above the limb, at chromospheric heights around or below 1000 km. Using a simple analytical approach, we compare two candidate mechanisms, the hydrogen recombination continuum (Paschen) and the Thomson continuum due to scattering of disk radiation on flare electrons. Both mechanisms depend on the electron density, which is typically enhanced during the impulsive phase of a flare as the result of collisional ionization (both thermal and also non-thermal due to electron beams). We conclude that for electron densities higher than 1012 cm-3, the Paschen recombination continuum significantly dominates the Thomson scattering continuum and there is some contribution from the hydrogen free-free emission. This is further supported by detailed radiation-hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations of the flare chromosphere heated by the electron beams. We use the RHD code FLARIX to compute the temporal evolution of the flare-heating in a semi-circular loop. The synthesized continuum structure above the limb resembles the off-limb flare structures detected by HMI, namely their height above the limb, as well as the radiation intensity. These results are consistent with recent findings related to hydrogen Balmer continuum enhancements, which were clearly detected in disk flares by the IRIS near-ultraviolet spectrometer.

  18. The significance of turbulent flow representation in single-continuum models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, T.; Rehrl, C.; Shoemaker, W.B.; Geyer, T.; Birk, S.

    2011-01-01

    Karst aquifers exhibit highly conductive features caused from rock dissolution processes. Flow within these structures can become turbulent and therefore can be expressed by nonlinear gradient functions. One way to account for these effects is by coupling a continuum model with a conduit network. Alternatively, turbulent flow can be considered by adapting the hydraulic conductivity within the continuum model. Consequently, the significance of turbulent flow on the dynamic behavior of karst springs is investigated by an enhanced single-continuum model that results in conduit-type flow in continuum cells (CTFC). The single-continuum approach CTFC represents laminar and turbulent flow as well as more complex hybrid models that require additional programming and numerical efforts. A parameter study is conducted to investigate the effects of turbulent flow on the response of karst springs to recharge events using the new CTFC approach, existing hybrid models, and MODFLOW-2005. Results reflect the importance of representing (1) turbulent flow in karst conduits and (2) the exchange between conduits and continuum cells. More specifically, laminar models overestimate maximum spring discharge and underestimate hydraulic gradients within the conduit. It follows that aquifer properties inferred from spring hydrographs are potentially impaired by ignoring flow effects due to turbulence. The exchange factor used for hybrid models is necessary to account for the scale dependency between hydraulic properties of the matrix continuum and conduits. This functionality, which is not included in CTFC, can be mimicked by appropriate use of the Horizontal Flow Barrier package for MODFLOW. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Reductive reactivity of iron(III oxides in the east china sea sediments: characterization by selective extraction and kinetic dissolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Jin Chen

    Full Text Available Reactive Fe(III oxides in gravity-core sediments collected from the East China Sea inner shelf were quantified by using three selective extractions (acidic hydroxylamine, acidic oxalate, bicarbonate-citrate buffered sodium dithionite. Also the reactivity of Fe(III oxides in the sediments was characterized by kinetic dissolution using ascorbic acid as reductant at pH 3.0 and 7.5 in combination with the reactive continuum model. Three parameters derived from the kinetic method: m 0 (theoretical initial amount of ascorbate-reducible Fe(III oxides, k' (rate constant and γ (heterogeneity of reactivity, enable a quantitative characterization of Fe(III oxide reactivity in a standardized way. Amorphous Fe(III oxides quantified by acidic hydroxylamine extraction were quickly consumed in the uppermost layer during early diagenesis but were not depleted over the upper 100 cm depth. The total amounts of amorphous and poorly crystalline Fe(III oxides are highly available for efficient buffering of dissolved sulfide. As indicated by the m 0, k' and γ, the surface sediments always have the maximum content, reactivity and heterogeneity of reactive Fe(III oxides, while the three parameters simultaneously downcore decrease, much more quickly in the upper layer than at depth. Albeit being within a small range (within one order of magnitude of the initial rates among sediments at different depths, incongruent dissolution could result in huge discrepancies of the later dissolution rates due to differentiating heterogeneity, which cannot be revealed by selective extraction. A strong linear correlation of the m 0 at pH 3.0 with the dithionite-extractable Fe(III suggests that the m 0 may represent Fe(III oxide assemblages spanning amorphous and crystalline Fe(III oxides. Maximum microbially available Fe(III predicted by the m 0 at pH 7.5 may include both amorphous and a fraction of other less reactive Fe(III phases.

  20. Reductive reactivity of iron(III) oxides in the east china sea sediments: characterization by selective extraction and kinetic dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Jin; Zhu, Mao-Xu; Yang, Gui-Peng; Huang, Xiang-Li

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Fe(III) oxides in gravity-core sediments collected from the East China Sea inner shelf were quantified by using three selective extractions (acidic hydroxylamine, acidic oxalate, bicarbonate-citrate buffered sodium dithionite). Also the reactivity of Fe(III) oxides in the sediments was characterized by kinetic dissolution using ascorbic acid as reductant at pH 3.0 and 7.5 in combination with the reactive continuum model. Three parameters derived from the kinetic method: m 0 (theoretical initial amount of ascorbate-reducible Fe(III) oxides), k' (rate constant) and γ (heterogeneity of reactivity), enable a quantitative characterization of Fe(III) oxide reactivity in a standardized way. Amorphous Fe(III) oxides quantified by acidic hydroxylamine extraction were quickly consumed in the uppermost layer during early diagenesis but were not depleted over the upper 100 cm depth. The total amounts of amorphous and poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxides are highly available for efficient buffering of dissolved sulfide. As indicated by the m 0, k' and γ, the surface sediments always have the maximum content, reactivity and heterogeneity of reactive Fe(III) oxides, while the three parameters simultaneously downcore decrease, much more quickly in the upper layer than at depth. Albeit being within a small range (within one order of magnitude) of the initial rates among sediments at different depths, incongruent dissolution could result in huge discrepancies of the later dissolution rates due to differentiating heterogeneity, which cannot be revealed by selective extraction. A strong linear correlation of the m 0 at pH 3.0 with the dithionite-extractable Fe(III) suggests that the m 0 may represent Fe(III) oxide assemblages spanning amorphous and crystalline Fe(III) oxides. Maximum microbially available Fe(III) predicted by the m 0 at pH 7.5 may include both amorphous and a fraction of other less reactive Fe(III) phases.

  1. Lyman continuum leaking galaxies. Search strategies and local candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergvall, N.; Leitet, E.; Zackrisson, E.; Marquart, T.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Star-forming dwarf galaxies may have played an important role in the reionization of the Universe, provided that some fraction of their ionizing radiation were able to escape into the intergalactic medium. Local galaxies exhibiting such Lyman-continuum (LyC) leakage could potentially shed light on the escape mechanisms involved, but only two low-redshift cases of LyC leakage have been identified so far. Here, we argue that this meager harvest may be caused by unsuitable selection criteria. Candidates for LyC leakage are normally selected by indicators of starburst activity, one of which is a high equivalent width in Hα. Such a criterion will guarantee a high production of LyC photons but will also bias the selection in favour of a high column density in the neutral gas, effectively ruling out LyC escape. Aims: In this work we want to investigate whether the lack of local LyC emitters can be caused in part by biased selection criteria, and we present a novel method of selecting targets with high escape fractions. By applying these criteria, we assemble a sample of observation targets to study their basic properties. Methods: We introduce a new selection strategy here where the potential LyC leakers are selected by their blue colours and weak emission lines. The selection is based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We also take a closer look at the properties of 8 LyC leaking candidates at z ~ 0.03 which we have observed with ESO/NTT in broadband B and Hα. Results: We find that 7 of the 8 target galaxies are involved in interaction with neighbours or show signs of mergers. In 7 cases the young stellar population is clearly displaced relative to the main body of these galaxies, often directly bordering the halo region. In about half of our targets the absorption spectra show young post-starburst signatures. Comparing the scale lengths in Hα with those of the stellar continua shows that the scale lengths in Hα typically are 30% smaller

  2. One-dimensional lattice of oscillators coupled through power-law interactions : Continuum limit and dynamics of spatial Fourier modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, S.; Potters, M.G.; Ruffo, S.

    2012-01-01

    We study synchronization in a system of phase-only oscillators residing on the sites of a one-dimensional periodic lattice. The oscillators interact with a strength that decays as a power law of the separation along the lattice length and is normalized by a size-dependent constant. The exponent ? of

  3. Coupling Strategies Investigation of Hybrid Atomistic-Continuum Method Based on State Variable Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different configurations of coupling strategies influence greatly the accuracy and convergence of the simulation results in the hybrid atomistic-continuum method. This study aims to quantitatively investigate this effect and offer the guidance on how to choose the proper configuration of coupling strategies in the hybrid atomistic-continuum method. We first propose a hybrid molecular dynamics- (MD- continuum solver in LAMMPS and OpenFOAM that exchanges state variables between the atomistic region and the continuum region and evaluate different configurations of coupling strategies using the sudden start Couette flow, aiming to find the preferable configuration that delivers better accuracy and efficiency. The major findings are as follows: (1 the C→A region plays the most important role in the overlap region and the “4-layer-1” combination achieves the best precision with a fixed width of the overlap region; (2 the data exchanging operation only needs a few sampling points closer to the occasions of interactions and decreasing the coupling exchange operations can reduce the computational load with acceptable errors; (3 the nonperiodic boundary force model with a smoothing parameter of 0.1 and a finer parameter of 20 can not only achieve the minimum disturbance near the MD-continuum interface but also keep the simulation precision.

  4. Estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen content using continuum-removal spectroscopy analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongjun; Li, Minzan; Zheng, Lihua; Sun, Hong

    2012-11-01

    In quantitative analysis of spectral data, noises and background interference always degrades the accuracy of spectral feature extraction. Continuum-removal analysis enables the isolation of absorption features of interest, thus increasing the coefficients of determination and facilitating the identification of more sensible absorption features. The purpose of this study was to test continuum-removal methodology with Visual-NIR spectral data of tomato leaf. Through analyzing the correlation between continuum-removal spectrum and nitrogen content, 15 characteristics parameters reflected changing tendency of nitrogen content were chosen, which is at 335, 405, 500, 520, 540, 550, 560, 580, 620, 640, 683, 704, 720, 736 and 770 nm. Finally, the variance inflation analysis and stepwise regression method was used to develop the prediction model of the nitrogen content of tomato leaf. The result showed that the predicted model, which used the values of continuum-removal spectrum at 335 and 720nm as input variables, had high predictive ability, with R2 of 0.755. The root mean square errors of prediction using a leave-one-out cross validation method were 0.513. These results suggest that the continuum-removal spectroscopy analysis has better potential to diagnose tomato growth in greenhouse.

  5. Pairing in the BCS and LN approximations using continuum single particle level density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Id Betan, R.M., E-mail: idbetan@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física Rosario (CONICET-UNR), Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis, S2000EZP Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingeniería y Agrimensura (UNR), Av. Pellegrini 250, S2000BTP Rosario (Argentina); Instituto de Estudios Nucleares y Radiaciones Ionizantes (UNR), Riobamba y Berutti, S2000EKA Rosario (Argentina); Repetto, C.E. [Instituto de Física Rosario (CONICET-UNR), Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis, S2000EZP Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingeniería y Agrimensura (UNR), Av. Pellegrini 250, S2000BTP Rosario (Argentina)

    2017-04-15

    Understanding the properties of drip line nuclei requires to take into account the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy of the system. This paper has the purpose to show that the continuum single particle level density is a convenient way to consider the pairing correlation in the continuum. Isospin mean-field and isospin pairing strength are used to find the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) and Lipkin–Nogami (LN) approximate solutions of the pairing Hamiltonian. Several physical properties of the whole chain of the Tin isotope, as gap parameter, Fermi level, binding energy, and one- and two-neutron separation energies, were calculated and compared with other methods and with experimental data when they exist. It is shown that the use of the continuum single particle level density is an economical way to include explicitly the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy in large scale mass calculation. It is also shown that the computed properties are in good agreement with experimental data and with more sophisticated treatment of the pairing interaction.

  6. Nonlinear modeling of crystal system transition of black phosphorus using continuum-DFT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoodeh, AliReza; Farahmand, Hamed

    2017-11-13

    In this paper, nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus crystals is investigated in tandem with dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) analysis under uniaxial loading. According to the distinguished anisotropic behavior of black phosphorus due to its morphological anisotropy, a hyperelastic anisotropic (HA) model named continuum-DFT is established to predict nonlinear behavior of the material. In this respect, uniaxial tensile Cauchy stresses are employed on both the DFT-D and HA models along zig-zag direction. Simultaneously, the transition of crystal system is recognized in about 4.5 GPa of the applied uniaxial tensile stress on the DFT-D simulation in the nonlinear region. In order to develop the nonlinear continuum model, unknown constants are surveyed with optimized least square technique. In this regard, the continuum model is obtained to reproduce the Cauchy stress-stretch and density of strain energy-stretch results of the DFT-D simulation. Consequently, the modified HA model is introduced to characterize the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus. More importantly, the specific transition of crystal system is successfully predicted in the new modified continuum-DFT model. The results reveal that the modified continuum model is well defined to replicate the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Applications of Artificial Neural Networks in Structural Engineering with Emphasis on Continuum Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua

    1998-01-01

    The use of continuum models for the analysis of discrete built-up complex aerospace structures is an attractive idea especially at the conceptual and preliminary design stages. But the diversity of available continuum models and hard-to-use qualities of these models have prevented them from finding wide applications. In this regard, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN or NN) may have a great potential as these networks are universal approximators that can realize any continuous mapping, and can provide general mechanisms for building models from data whose input-output relationship can be highly nonlinear. The ultimate aim of the present work is to be able to build high fidelity continuum models for complex aerospace structures using the ANN. As a first step, the concepts and features of ANN are familiarized through the MATLAB NN Toolbox by simulating some representative mapping examples, including some problems in structural engineering. Then some further aspects and lessons learned about the NN training are discussed, including the performances of Feed-Forward and Radial Basis Function NN when dealing with noise-polluted data and the technique of cross-validation. Finally, as an example of using NN in continuum models, a lattice structure with repeating cells is represented by a continuum beam whose properties are provided by neural networks.

  8. The quantitative genetic architecture of the bold-shy continuum in zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Oswald

    Full Text Available In studies of consistent individual differences (personality along the bold-shy continuum, a pattern of behavioral correlations frequently emerges: individuals towards the bold end of the continuum are more likely to utilize risky habitat, approach potential predators, and feed under risky conditions. Here, we address the hypothesis that observed phenotypic correlations among component behaviors of the bold-shy continuum are a result of underlying genetic correlations (quantitative genetic architecture. We used a replicated three-generation pedigree of zebrafish (Danio rerio to study three putative components of the bold-shy continuum: horizontal position, swim level, and feeding latency. We detected significant narrow-sense heritabilities as well as significant genetic and phenotypic correlations among all three behaviors, such that fish selected for swimming at the front of the tank swam closer to the observer, swam higher in the water column, and fed more quickly than fish selected for swimming at the back of the tank. Further, the lines varied in their initial open field behavior (swim level and activity level. The quantitative genetic architecture of the bold-shy continuum indicates that the multivariate behavioral phenotype characteristic of a "bold" personality type may be a result of correlated evolution via underlying genetic correlations.

  9. Outcomes of Preexposure Prophylaxis Referrals From Public STI Clinics and Implications for the Preexposure Prophylaxis Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ramona; Modali, Laxmi; Lowther, Matthew; Glick, Nancy; Bell, Margo; Rowan, Sarah; Keglovitz, Kristin; Schneider, John

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake remains low in high-risk populations. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics reach PrEP-eligible persons and may be ideal settings to model PrEP implementation. Consenting PrEP-eligible patients identified at Chicago Department of Public Health STI Clinics were actively referred to PrEP partner sites between June 1, 2015, and May 31, 2016. Outcomes included successful contact by a partner site, linkage to a partner site, and receipt of a PrEP prescription. Bivariable and time to event analyses were conducted to determine significant associations of outcomes. One hundred thirty-seven patients were referred; 126 (92%) were men who have sex with men, and mean age was 29 years. Ninety-eight (72%) were contacted by a PrEP partner, 43 (31%) were linked, and 40 (29%) received a prescription. Individuals aged 25 years and older were more likely to link (odds ratio, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.41) and receive a PrEP prescription (odds ratio, 2.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-6.45) compared with individuals 24 years and younger. The average time between each step was greater for those 24 years and younger compared with those aged 25 years and older for all steps. Time to event analyses revealed that those aged 25 years and older were significantly more likely to receive a prescription compared to those aged 24 years and younger (hazard ratio, 3.62; 95% risk limits, 1.47-8.92). Preexposure prophylaxis active referrals from STI clinics to partner sites are feasible, though drop out was prominent in the initial steps of the continuum. Youth were less likely to link or receive prescriptions, indicating the need for tailored interventions for this vulnerable population.

  10. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  11. The residential continuum from home to nursing home: size, characteristics and unmet needs of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Vicki A; Spillman, Brenda C

    2014-11-01

    Older adults with care needs live in a variety of settings-from traditional community housing to nursing homes. This analysis provides new estimates of the size and characteristics of the older population across settings and examines unmet needs for assistance. Data are from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study (N = 8,077). Multinomial logistic regressions focus on people in settings other than nursing homes who are at risk for unmet needs, defined as receiving help or having difficulty with household, self-care, or mobility activities (N = 4,023). Of 38.1 million Medicare beneficiaries ages 65 and older, 5.5 million (15%) live in settings other than traditional housing: 2.5 million in retirement or senior housing communities, nearly 1 million in independent- and 1 million in assisted-living settings, and 1.1 million in nursing homes. The prevalence of assistance is higher and physical and cognitive capacity lower in each successive setting. Unmet needs are common in traditional community housing (31%), but most prevalent in retirement or senior housing (37%) and assisted living settings (42%). After controlling for differences in resident characteristics across settings, those in retirement or senior housing communities have a higher likelihood of unmet needs than those in traditional community housing, while those in independent or assisted living settings have a lower relative likelihood. Substantial numbers of older adults, many with care needs, live in a continuum of settings other than traditional community housing. Unmet needs are prevalent among older adults with limitations across all settings and warrant further investigation and monitoring. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A continuum of research projects to improve extraction of oil and proteins in oilseed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Martine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in the actual context of fossil sources rarefaction, global warming, and of increase of the world global population, is to promote the use of molecules derived from renewable sources such as plants. Among these molecules, lipids and proteins are targets of interest. Plant lipids from oilseeds are attractive substitutes to the use of fossil oil. Till the beginning of the 20th century, numerous products used in the daily life were derived from natural renewable products. For instance, plant oil was commonly used as fuel for vehicles and was entering in the composition of paintings, lubricants etc. Unfortunately, natural oils have been progressively replaced by cheaper fossil oil in the fabrication of these products. Nowadays, fossil oils are becoming increasingly expensive being a finite comodity. It is thus important to reduce our dependence from fossil oil and develop substitution industries. Oilseeds contain important amounts of proteins which are mainly used in feed. As several kilograms of plant protein are needed to obtain one kilogram of animal protein, the interest toward using plant protein in food is reinforced. The developments of the use of plant lipids, as well as proteins are a major stakes for the competitiveness of European agriculture and industry, as well as for sustainable development. Extraction of oil and proteins from rapeseed has a significant cost, in term of energy and solvent uses, and finally affects the ultimate quality of the products (protein digestibility. In order to quantitatively extract seed reserves under mild conditions, it will be necessary to limit the amount of energy needed, and avoid any use of solvents. Ideally, seeds should be processed in a bio refinery. In this paper, we will describe how oilseeds store their reserves, and roadblocks for improving actual oilseed extraction processes. A continuum of research projects aimed at answering targeted questions will be presented, with selected

  13. Monitoring the Continuum Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei with the SARA 0.9-m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, K. S.; Morrill, A. L.

    1995-12-01

    CCD images of seven active galactic nuclei were obtained during the period July 7-11 1995 with the 0.9-m telescope operated at Kitt Peak by the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA). Six of these objects (Mrk 335, Mrk 590, NGC 4151, NGC 5548, Mrk 817, and Mrk 509) are Seyfert galaxies; the seventh is the broad-line radio galaxy 3C-390.3. The objects were selected from the sample of eleven active galactic nuclei whose emission spectra are routinely monitored with the Ohio State University 1.8-m telescope in Flagstaff, Arizona. These observations mark the beginning of a continuing program to use the SARA observing facility to monitor the continuum emission from these eleven AGNs. Data from this program will be applied to efforts to place constraints on the sizes and geometries of the AGN broad-line regions by the method of reverberation mapping. The BVRI images were obtained with an Axiom 2048x2048 zero-defect CCD array. The observing run was hampered by frequent scattered clouds, limiting the accuracy with which magnitudes could be calibrated. However, the wide field (9.38x9.38 arcmin) of the CCD array encompasses several comparison stars in each object field, and permits differential photometry to be performed even under relatively poor sky conditions. Partial support of this work by the National Science Foundation, through the Research Experience for Undergraduates Program, and by the Valdosta State University Center on Faculty Development and Instructional Improvement, is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Celestine III and the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår pave Cølestin IIIs forhold til de nordiske kongeriger i perioden 1191-1198. Artiklen viser, at paven, som i forskningen traditionelt år har stået i skyggen af sin berømte, energiske og især: yngre efterfølger, Innocens III, har været på forkant med udviklingen i de nordiske rig...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III gamma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Mucolipidosis III gamma Mucolipidosis III gamma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Mucolipidosis III gamma is a slowly progressive disorder that affects many ...

  16. Measurement of J/psi production in continuum e(+)e(-) annihilations near square root of s = 10.6 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Palano, A; Chen, G P; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Reinertsen, P L; Stugu, B; Abbott, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Clark, A R; Fan, Q; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kluth, S; Kolomensky, Y G; Kral, J F; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Liu, T; Lynch, G; Meyer, A B; Momayezi, M; Oddone, P J; Perazzo, A; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Bright-Thomas, P G; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Kirk, A; Knowles, D J; O'Neale, S W; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Krug, J; Kunze, M; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Andress, J C; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; De Groot, N; Dyce, N; Foster, B; Mass, A; McFall, J D; Wallom, D; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Camanzi, B; Jolly, S; McKemey, A K; Tinslay, J; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Bukin, D A; Buzykaev, A R; Dubrovin, M S; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Salnikov, A A; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Y I; Telnov, V I; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Stoker, D P; Ahsan, A; Arisaka, K; Buchanan, C; Chun, S; Branson, J G; MacFarlane, D B; Prell, S; Rahatlou, S; Raven, G; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Yellin, S; Beringer, J; Dorfan, D E; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Johnson, R P; Kroeger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Sadrozinski, H; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Metzler, S; Oyang, J; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Weaver, M; Yang, S; Zhu, R Y; Devmal, S; Geld, T L; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P; Dima, M O; Fahey, S; Ford, W T; Gaede, F; Johnson, D R; Michael, A K; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Park, H; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Sen, S; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Wagner, D L; Blouw, J; Harton, J L; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dahlinger, G; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Behr, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; Roussot, E; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Khan, A; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Falbo, M; Borean, C; Bozzi, C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Musenich, R; Pallavicini, M; Parodi, R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Pia, M G; Priano, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Morii, M; Bartoldus, R; Dignan, T; Hamilton, R; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Fischer, P A; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Rosenberg, E I; Benkebil, M; Grosdidier, G; Hast, C; Höcker, A; Lacker, H M; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Valassi, A; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V; Fackler, O; Fujino, D; Lange, D J; Mugge, M; Shi, X; van Bibber, K; Wenaus, T J; Wright, D M; Wuest, C R; Carroll, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gunawardane, N J; Martin, R; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Smith, D; Azzopardi, D E; Back, J J; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Potter, R J; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Williams, M I; Cowan, G; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McGrath, P; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Scott, I; Vaitsas, G; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Boyd, J T; Forti, A C; Fullwood, J; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Savvas, N; Simopoulos, E T; Weatherall, J H; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Olsen, J; Roberts, D A; Schieck, J R; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Lin, C S; Moore, T B; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Wittlin, J; Brau, B; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Britton, D I; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Trischuk, J; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Booke, M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Martin, J P; Nief, J Y; Seitz, R; Taras, P; Zacek, V; Nicholson, H; Sutton, C S; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R; Gabriel, T A; Handler, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Colecchia, F; Dal Corso, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Michelon, G; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Torassa, E; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, C; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Le Diberder, F; Leruste, P; Lory, J; Roos, L; Stark, J; Versillé, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Speziali, V; Frank, E D; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J H; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Albert, J; Bula, C; Elmer, P; Lu, C; McDonald, K T; Miftakov, V; Schaffner, S F; Smith, A J; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Fratini, K; Lamanna, E; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Voena, C; Christ, S; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; De Domenico, G; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, C; Zito, M; Copty, N; Purohit, M V; Singh, H; Yumiceva, F X; Adam, I; Anthony, P L; Aston, D; Baird, K; Bloom, E; Boyarski, A M; Bulos, F; Calderini, G; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Coward, D H; Dorfan, J; Doser, M; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G L; Gowdy, S J; Grosso, P; Himel, T; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Manzin, G; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Mount, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Quinn, H; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Rochester, L S; Roodman, A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Serbo, V V; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Spanier, S M; Stahl, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Talby, M; Tanaka, H A; Trunov, A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weinstein, A J; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Cheng, C H; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Henderson, R; Bugg, W; Cohn, H; Hart, E; Weidemann, A W; Benninger, T; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Turcotte, M; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Di Girolamo, B; Gamba, D; Smol, A; Zanin, D; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Vaugin, G; Panvini, R S; Brown, C M; De Silva, A; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Charles, E; Dasu, S; Di Lodovico, F; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Liu, R; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Scott, I J; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Zobernig, H; Kordich, T M; Neal, H

    2001-10-15

    The production of J/psi mesons in continuum e(+)e(-) annihilations has been studied with the BABAR detector at energies near the Upsilon(4S) resonance. The mesons are distinguished from J/psi production in B decays through their center-of-mass momentum and energy. We measure the cross section e(+)e(-)-->J/psi X to be 2.52+/-0.21+/-0.21 pb. We set a 90% C.L. upper limit on the branching fraction for direct Upsilon(4S)-->J/psi X decays at 4.7 x 10(-4).

  17. Coarse-to-Fine Segmentation with Shape-Tailored Continuum Scale Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah

    2017-11-09

    We formulate an energy for segmentation that is designed to have preference for segmenting the coarse over fine structure of the image, without smoothing across boundaries of regions. The energy is formulated by integrating a continuum of scales from a scale space computed from the heat equation within regions. We show that the energy can be optimized without computing a continuum of scales, but instead from a single scale. This makes the method computationally efficient in comparison to energies using a discrete set of scales. We apply our method to texture and motion segmentation. Experiments on benchmark datasets show that a continuum of scales leads to better segmentation accuracy over discrete scales and other competing methods.

  18. Motion Compensation of Tendon-Sheath Driven Continuum Manipulator for Endoscopic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon-sheath actuation mechanism is widely used in surgical robot, especially in endoscopic surgery, due to its capable of providing remote force and action transmission through long and flexible channel. However, hysteresis, backlash, nonlinear friction are the drawbacks of this mechanism. Our surgical robot use continuum manipulator which is useful in endoscopic surgery, due to its flexible and simple structure. Unlike other literatures that focus on tendon-sheath compensation only, the continuum manipulator is also taken into application level analysis. A model based feedforward motion compensation for tendon-sheath driven continuum manipulator is presented. The model is validated by using optical tracking system to trace the distal end position. Experiment result shows that the proposed model reduces the position error less than 5%.

  19. Progress toward bridging from atomistic to continuum modeling to predict nuclear waste glass dissolution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapol, Peter (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Bourg, Ian (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Steefel, Carl I. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research performed for the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Subcontinuum and Upscaling Task. The work conducted focused on developing a roadmap to include molecular scale, mechanistic information in continuum-scale models of nuclear waste glass dissolution. This information is derived from molecular-scale modeling efforts that are validated through comparison with experimental data. In addition to developing a master plan to incorporate a subcontinuum mechanistic understanding of glass dissolution into continuum models, methods were developed to generate constitutive dissolution rate expressions from quantum calculations, force field models were selected to generate multicomponent glass structures and gel layers, classical molecular modeling was used to study diffusion through nanopores analogous to those in the interfacial gel layer, and a micro-continuum model (K{mu}C) was developed to study coupled diffusion and reaction at the glass-gel-solution interface.

  20. Numerical Study on Couette Flow in Nanostructured Channel using Molecular-continuum Hybrid Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjin; Jeong, Myunggeun; Ha, Man Yeong [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    A molecular-continuum hybrid method was developed to simulate microscale and nanoscale fluids where continuum fluidic cannot be used to predict Couette flow. Molecular dynamics simulation is used near the solid surface where the flow cannot be predicted by continuum fluidic, and Navier-Stokes equations are used in the other regions. Numerical simulation of Couette flow was performed using the hybrid method to investigate the effect of solid-liquid interaction and surface roughness in a nanochannel. It was found that the solid-liquid interaction and surface roughness influence the boundary condition. When the surface energy is low, slippage occurs near the solid surface, and the magnitude of slippage decreases with increase in surface energy. When the surface energy is high, a locking boundary condition is formed. The roughness disturbs slippage near the solid surface and promotes the locking boundary condition.