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Sample records for continuously variable frequency

  1. Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin, E-mail: yongmin@sxu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.

  2. Continuous-variable quantum computing in optical time-frequency modes using quantum memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Peter C; Kolthammer, W Steven; Nunn, Joshua; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2014-09-26

    We develop a scheme for time-frequency encoded continuous-variable cluster-state quantum computing using quantum memories. In particular, we propose a method to produce, manipulate, and measure two-dimensional cluster states in a single spatial mode by exploiting the intrinsic time-frequency selectivity of Raman quantum memories. Time-frequency encoding enables the scheme to be extremely compact, requiring a number of memories that are a linear function of only the number of different frequencies in which the computational state is encoded, independent of its temporal duration. We therefore show that quantum memories can be a powerful component for scalable photonic quantum information processing architectures.

  3. Experimental generation of frequency-tunable entangled optical beams with continuous variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihui Yan; Yana Shang; Xiaojun Jia; Changde Xie

    2011-01-01

    Frequency tunable continuous variable (CV) entangled optical beams are experimentally demonstrated from a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator working above the threshold. The measured correlation variances of amplitude and phase quadratures are 3.2 and 1.5 dB, respectively, below the corresponding shot noise level (SNL) in the tuning range of 580 GHz (2.25 nm). The frequency tuning is realized by simply controlling the temperature of the nonlinear crystal.%@@ Frequency tunable continuous variable (CV) entangled optical beams are experimentally demonstrated from a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator working above the threshold.The measured correlation variances of amplitude and phase quadratures are 3.2 and 1.5 dB, respectively, below the corresponding shot noise level (SNL) in the tuning range of 580 GHz (2.25 nm).The frequency tuning is realized by simply controlling the temperature of the nonlinear crystal.

  4. Weaving quantum optical frequency combs into continuous-variable hypercubic cluster states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Chen, Moran; Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Pfister, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Cluster states with higher-dimensional lattices that cannot be physically embedded in three-dimensional space have important theoretical interest in quantum computation and quantum simulation of topologically ordered condensed-matter systems. We present a simple, scalable, top-down method of entangling the quantum optical frequency comb into hypercubic-lattice continuous-variable cluster states of a size of about 104 quantum field modes, using existing technology. A hypercubic lattice of dimension D (linear, square, cubic, hypercubic, etc.) requires but D optical parametric oscillators with bichromatic pumps whose frequency splittings alone determine the lattice dimensionality and the number of copies of the state.

  5. Design and FPGA Implementation of Variable Cutoff Frequency Filter based on Continuously Variable Fractional Delay Structure and Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedh Dhabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and FPGA implementation of interpolated continuously variable fractional delay structure based filter (ICVFD filter with fine control over the cutoff frequency. In the ICVFD filter, each unit delay of the prototype lowpass filter is replaced by a continuously variable fractional delay (CVFD element proposed in this paper. The CVFD element requires the same number of multiplications as that of the second-order fractional delay structure used in the existing fractional delay structure based variable filter (FDS based filter, however it provides fractional delays corresponding to the higher-order fractional delay structures. Hence, the proposed ICVFD filter provides wider cutoff frequency range compared to the FDS based filter. The ICVFD filter is also capable of providing variable bandpass and highpass responses. We use two-stage approach for the FPGA implementation of the ICVFD filter. First, we use pipelining stages to shorten the critical path and improve the operating frequency. Then, we make use of specific hardware resource, i.e. RAM-based Shift Register (SRL to further improve the operating frequency and resource usage.

  6. Continuous Transmission Frequency Modulation Detection under Variable Sonar-Target Speed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As a ranging sensor, a continuous transmission frequency modulation (CTFM sonar with its ability for range finding and range profile formation works effectively under stationary conditions. When a relative velocity exists between the target and the sonar, the echo signal is Doppler-shifted. This situation causes the output of the sensor to deviate from the actual target range, thus limiting its applications to stationary conditions only. This work presents an approach for correcting such a deviation. By analyzing the Doppler effect during the propagation process, the sensor output can be corrected by a Doppler factor. To obtain this factor, a conventional CTFM system is slightly modified by adding a single tone signal with a frequency that locates out-of-sweep range of the transmitted signal. The Doppler factor can be extracted from the echo. Both verification experiments and performance tests are carried out. Results indicate the validity of the proposed approach. Moreover, ranging precision under different processing setups is discussed. For adjacent multiple targets, the discrimination ability is influenced by displacement and velocity. A discrimination boundary is provided through an analysis.

  7. Continuous transmission frequency modulation detection under variable sonar-target speed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Jun

    2013-03-13

    As a ranging sensor, a continuous transmission frequency modulation (CTFM) sonar with its ability for range finding and range profile formation works effectively under stationary conditions. When a relative velocity exists between the target and the sonar, the echo signal is Doppler-shifted. This situation causes the output of the sensor to deviate from the actual target range, thus limiting its applications to stationary conditions only. This work presents an approach for correcting such a deviation. By analyzing the Doppler effect during the propagation process, the sensor output can be corrected by a Doppler factor. To obtain this factor, a conventional CTFM system is slightly modified by adding a single tone signal with a frequency that locates out-of-sweep range of the transmitted signal. The Doppler factor can be extracted from the echo. Both verification experiments and performance tests are carried out. Results indicate the validity of the proposed approach. Moreover, ranging precision under different processing setups is discussed. For adjacent multiple targets, the discrimination ability is influenced by displacement and velocity. A discrimination boundary is provided through an analysis.

  8. Analysis of Heart Rate Variability During Breath-Holding Using Fast and Continuous Calculation Method of Frequency and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    Many reports show that dominant frequency of high frequency component(HF:0.15∼0.4Hz) of heart rate time series is synchronized with the respiratory frequency. In this paper, we proposed the method for estimating the condition of respiration continuously using dominant frequency and power of HF (HFP) of heart rate time series. Dominant frequency and HFP is calculated from the interval of the neighboring two extreme points and the subtraction of the neighboring two extremals.In the experimental results, high frequency components did not disappear completely during breath-holding. This fact is different from the previous study. Subjects were classified into two groups. In one group, dominant frequency of the HF is significant increased during breath-holding compared with normal breathing. In the other group, this phenomenon was not observed. On the other hand, HFP of total subjects significantly decreased during breath-holding compared with normal breathing. Correct rate during breath-holding and error rate during rest and recovery are calculated using HFP. In the results, average and S. D. of correct rate during breath-holding were 65.0±26.3%. Correct rate of 18 subjects was 80.0±14.1% and correct rate of other 8 subjects was 31.5±11.9%. Our method is expected to apply to the development of the respiratory monitor which can measure respiratory condition with non-restricted in continuously.

  9. One-way quantum computing with arbitrarily large time-frequency continuous-variable cluster states from a single optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rafael N.; Wang, Pei; Sridhar, Niranjan; Chen, Moran; Pfister, Olivier; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2016-09-01

    One-way quantum computing is experimentally appealing because it requires only local measurements on an entangled resource called a cluster state. Record-size, but nonuniversal, continuous-variable cluster states were recently demonstrated separately in the time and frequency domains. We propose to combine these approaches into a scalable architecture in which a single optical parametric oscillator and simple interferometer entangle up to (3 ×103 frequencies) × (unlimited number of temporal modes) into a computationally universal continuous-variable cluster state. We introduce a generalized measurement protocol to enable improved computational performance on this entanglement resource.

  10. Variable-Frequency Ultrasonic Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ZK60 Alloy during Large Diameter Semi-Continuous Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingrui Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional fixed-frequency ultrasonic technology and a variable-frequency ultrasonic technology were applied to refine the as-cast microstructure and improve the mechanical properties of a ZK60 (Mg–Zn–Zr alloy during large diameter semi-continuous casting. The acoustic field propagation was obtained by numerical simulation. The microstructure of the as-cast samples was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The variable-frequency ultrasonic technology shows its outstanding ability in grain refinement compared with traditional fixed-ultrasonic technology. The variable-frequency acoustic field promoted the formation of small α-Mg globular grains and changed the distribution and morphology of β-phases throughout the castings. Ultimate tensile strength and elongation are increased to 280 MPa and 8.9%, respectively, which are 19.1% and 45.9% higher than the values obtained from billets without ultrasonic treatment and are 11.6% and 18.7% higher than fixed-frequency ultrasound treated billets. Different refinement efficiencies appear in different districts of billets attributed to the sound attenuation in melt. The variable-frequency acoustic field improves the refinement effect by enhancing cavitation-enhanced heterogeneous nucleation and dendrite fragmentation effects.

  11. Unconditional Continuous Variable Dense Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which unconditional dense coding can be achieved using continuous variable entanglement. We consider the effect of entanglement impurity and detector efficiency and discuss experimental verification. We conclude that the requirements for a strong demonstration are not as stringent as previously thought and are within the reach of present technology.

  12. A variable frequency semiconductor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosikhiro, F.; Khiromoto, S.

    1984-03-27

    A variable frequency, power stabilized semiconductor laser is patented. This laser includes, in addition to an active layer, a photoconducting channel layer and a layer made from a material manifesting a Pockels effect. A voltage is injected between these two layers to vary the emission frequency. The laser pumping voltage is stabilized.

  13. Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.

  14. Continuously-Variable Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Irvin M.

    1989-01-01

    Easily fabricated device increases precision in reading graphical data. Continuously-variable vernier scale (CV VS) designed to provide greater accuracy to scientists and technologists in reading numerical values from graphical data. Placed on graph and used to interpolate coordinate value of point on curve or plotted point on figure within division on each coordinate axis. Requires neither measurement of line segments where projection of point intersects division nor calculation to quantify projected value. Very flexible device constructed with any kind of scale. Very easy to use, requiring no special equipment of any kind, and saves considerable amount of time if numerous points to be evaluated.

  15. Continuous-variable quantum games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hui; Du Jiangfeng; Massar, Serge

    2002-12-30

    We investigate the quantization of games in which the players can access to a continuous set of classical strategies, making use of continuous-variable quantum systems. For the particular case of the Cournot's duopoly, we find that, even though the two players both act as 'selfishly' in the quantum game as they do in the classical game, they are found to virtually cooperate due to the quantum entanglement between them. We also find that the original Einstein-Podolksy-Rosen state contributes to the best profits that the two firms could ever attain. Moreover, we propose a practical experimental setup for the implementation of such quantum games.

  16. Let Continuous Outcome Variables Remain Continuous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complementary log-log is an alternative to logistic model. In many areas of research, the outcome data are continuous. We aim to provide a procedure that allows the researcher to estimate the coefficients of the complementary log-log model without dichotomizing and without loss of information. We show that the sample size required for a specific power of the proposed approach is substantially smaller than the dichotomizing method. We find that estimators derived from proposed method are consistently more efficient than dichotomizing method. To illustrate the use of proposed method, we employ the data arising from the NHSI.

  17. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-10-29

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  18. Continuous Variable Quantum Communication and Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Dong, Ruifang; Jezek, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    We use squeezed states of light to implement a robust continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme and an optical Hadamard gate based on coherent state qubits.......We use squeezed states of light to implement a robust continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme and an optical Hadamard gate based on coherent state qubits....

  19. Continuous-variable quantum homomorphic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Shang, Tao; Liu, Jian-wei

    2017-10-01

    Quantum cryptography is believed to be unconditionally secure because its security is ensured by physical laws rather than computational complexity. According to spectrum characteristic, quantum information can be classified into two categories, namely discrete variables and continuous variables. Continuous-variable quantum protocols have gained much attention for their ability to transmit more information with lower cost. To verify the identities of different data sources in a quantum network, we propose a continuous-variable quantum homomorphic signature scheme. It is based on continuous-variable entanglement swapping and provides additive and subtractive homomorphism. Security analysis shows the proposed scheme is secure against replay, forgery and repudiation. Even under nonideal conditions, it supports effective verification within a certain verification threshold.

  20. Continuously-Variable Series-Elastic Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Luke M.; Herr, Hugh M.

    2013-01-01

    Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator for legged locomotion. The CV-SEA implements a continuously-variable transmission (CVT) between a motor and series elastic element. The CVT reduces the torque seen at the motor and allows the motor to operate in speed regimes of higher efficiency, while the series-elastic el...

  1. Bell inequalities with continuous angular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Borges, Carolina V S; Keller, Arne

    2011-01-01

    We consider bipartite quantum systems characterized by a continuous angular variable \\theta \\in [-\\pi, \\pi[, representing, for instance, the position of a particle on a circle. We show how to reveal non-locality on this type of system using inequalities similar to CHSH ones, originally derived for bipartite spin 1/2 like systems. Such inequalities involve correlated measurement of continuous angular functions and are equivalent to the continuous superposition of CHSH inequalities acting on bidimensional subspaces of the infinite dimensional Hilbert space. As an example, we discuss in detail one application of our results, and we derive inequalities based on orientation correlation measurements. The introduced Bell-type inequalities open the perspective of new and simpler experiments to test non locality on a variety of quantum systems described by continuous variables.

  2. Quantum teleportation criteria for continuous variables

    CERN Document Server

    Grangier, P; Grangier, Philippe; Grosshans, Frederic

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the criteria presently used for evaluating the efficiency of quantum teleportation schemes for continuous variables. It is argued that the fidelity criterion used so far has some severe drawbacks, and that a fidelity value larger than 2/3 is actually required for successful quantum teleportation. This value has never been reached experimentally so far.

  3. Continuous history variable for programmable quantum processors

    CERN Document Server

    Vlasov, Alexander Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this brief note is discussed application of continuous quantum history ("trash") variable for simplification of scheme of programmable quantum processor. Similar scheme may be tested also in other models of the theory of quantum algorithms and complexity, because provides modification of a standard operation: quantum function evaluation.

  4. Continuous Variables Quantum Information in Noisy Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano

    safe from the detrimental effects of noise and losses. In the present work we investigate continuous variables Gaussian quantum information in noisy environments, studying the effects of various noise sources in the cases of a quantum metrological task, an error correction scheme and discord...

  5. Continuous-variable quantum erasure correcting code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Sabuncu, Metin; Huck, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a continuous variable quantum erasure-correcting code, which protects coherent states of light against complete erasure. The scheme encodes two coherent states into a bi-party entangled state, and the resulting 4-mode code is conveyed through 4 independent channels...

  6. Continuously variable transmissions: theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachley, Norman H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Frank, Andrew A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1979-08-01

    The five basic principles that can be used in the design of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for motor vehicles are examined and compared. These include: hydrostatic, traction drive (V-belt and rolling contact), overrunning clutch, electric, and multispeed gearbox with slipping clutch. Appendix A discusses commercially available CVTs suitable for motor vehicles, and Appendix B describes research and development programs for CVTs.

  7. Squeezing and Entanglement in Continuous Variable Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yun-Jie; GUO Guang-Can

    2004-01-01

    Based on total variance of a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type operators, the generalized EPR entangled states in continuous variable systems are defined. We show that such entangled states must correspond to two-mode squeezing states whether these states are Gaussian or not and whether they are pure or not. With help of the relation between the total variance and the entanglement, the degree of such entanglement is also defined. Through analysing some specific cases, we see that this method is very convenient and easy in practical applications. In addition, an entangled state with no squeezing is studied, which reveals that there certainly exists something unknown about entanglement in continuous variable systems.

  8. Continuously variable transmission for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, P.

    1996-12-01

    Variable speed is seen as offering clear advantages for wind turbine operation. However, the provision of variable speed incurs additional cost, and the main issue is which, if any, of many alternative variable speed systems offer net cost benefit to the wind turbine. Numerous electrical variable-speed systems have been studied in previous work for the DTI. One mechanical system, the torque limiting gearbox (TLG) concept has also been investigated in a DTI funded project. It compares with a recently developed electrical option, the Vestas ``Opti-Slip`` system and is probably cost-effective. The work described by Bossanyi appears to be the basis of the Vestas Opti-Slip system. These systems are far too limited in speed range to affect noise or energy capture. An innovative system developed by Leyland-DAF for the automobile market, and now licensed to Ford and Toyota by Torotrak Ltd, a company of the British Technology Group (BTG), offers a continuously variable transmission (CVT) of a purely mechanical nature, hydraulically controlled to regulate drive torque as demanded. The Torotrak CVT concept offers wide range variable speed with all the associated advantages. (author)

  9. Continuous Variable Solution for Byzantine Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Neigovzen, R; Neigovzen, Rodion; Sanpera, Anna

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that the Byzantine Agreement Problem (BAP) in its weaker version with detectable broadcast, can be solved using continuous variables Gaussian states with Gaussian operations. The protocol uses genuine tripartite symmetric entanglement, but differs from protocols proposed for qutrits or qubits. Contrary to the quantum key distribution (QKD) which is possible with all Gaussian states, for the BAP entanglement is needed, but not all tripartite entangled symmetric states can be used to solve the problem.

  10. Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-06-01

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding.

  11. Continuous-variable quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.; Silberhorn, C.

    2010-01-01

    Observables of quantum systems can possess either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the conti......Observables of quantum systems can possess either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses...... the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous-variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments...... in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum information system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single-photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection...

  12. Continuous metal plasmonic frequency selective surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfa; Ou, Jun-Yu; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Chen, Yifang; Macdonald, Kevin F; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2011-11-07

    In the microwave part of the spectrum, where losses are minimal, metal films regularly patterned (perforated) on the sub-wavelength scale achieve spectral selectivity by balancing the transmission and reflection characteristics of the surface. Here we show for optical frequencies, where joule losses are important, that periodic structuring of a metal film without violation of continuity (i.e. without perforation) is sufficient to achieve substantial modification of reflectivity. By engineering the geometry of the structure imposed on a surface one can dramatically change the perceived color of the metal without employing any form of chemical modification, thin-film coating or diffraction effects. This novel frequency selective effect is underpinned by plasmonic Joule losses in the constituent elements of the patterns (dubbed 'intaglio' and 'bas relief' metamaterials to distinguish indented and raised structures respectively) and is specific to the optical part of the spectrum. It has the advantage of maintaining the integrity of metal surfaces and is well suited to high-throughput fabrication via techniques such as nano-imprint.

  13. Continuously-variable series-elastic actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Luke; Herr, Hugh

    2013-06-01

    Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator for legged locomotion. The CV-SEA implements a continuously-variable transmission (CVT) between a motor and series elastic element. The CVT reduces the torque seen at the motor and allows the motor to operate in speed regimes of higher efficiency, while the series-elastic element efficiently stores and releases mechanical energy, reducing motor work requirements for actuator applications where an elastic response is sought. An energy efficient control strategy for the CV-SEA was developed using a Monte-Carlo minimization method that randomly generates transmission profiles and converges on those that minimize the electrical energy consumption of the motor. The CV-SEA is compared to a standard SEA and an infinitely variable series elastic actuator (IV-SEA). Simulations suggest that a CV-SEA will require less energy that an SEA or IV-SEA when used in a knee prosthesis during level-ground walking.

  14. Teleportation-based continuous variable quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, F. S.; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2017-03-01

    We present a continuous variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme based on the CV quantum teleportation of coherent states that yields a raw secret key made up of discrete variables for both Alice and Bob. This protocol preserves the efficient detection schemes of current CV technology (no single-photon detection techniques) and, at the same time, has efficient error correction and privacy amplification schemes due to the binary modulation of the key. We show that for a certain type of incoherent attack, it is secure for almost any value of the transmittance of the optical line used by Alice to share entangled two-mode squeezed states with Bob (no 3 dB or 50% loss limitation characteristic of beam splitting attacks). The present CVQKD protocol works deterministically (no postselection needed) with efficient direct reconciliation techniques (no reverse reconciliation) in order to generate a secure key and beyond the 50% loss case at the incoherent attack level.

  15. Witnessing Continuous Variable Entanglement with Discrete Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Schneeloch, James; Howland, Gregory A; Broadbent, Curtis J; Howell, John C

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous variable (CV) systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details of the measurement apparatus. We use this inequality to witness entanglement between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC). We examine the asymmetry between parties in this inequality, and show that this asymmetry can be used to reduce the technical requirements of experimental setups intended to witness entanglement. Furthermore, we develop a more stringent steering inequality that is symmetric between parties, and use it to witness symmetric EPR steering.

  16. Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some non-classicality indicators in phase space, and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wavepackets. (review article)

  17. Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, A; Illuminati, F; De Siena, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some nonclassicality indicators in phase space and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wave packets.

  18. Quantum repeaters using continuous-variable teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Josephine; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum optical states are fragile and can become corrupted when passed through a lossy communication channel. Unlike for classical signals, optical amplifiers cannot be used to recover quantum signals. Quantum repeaters have been proposed as a way of reducing errors and hence increasing the range of quantum communications. Current protocols target specific discrete encodings, for example quantum bits encoded on the polarization of single photons. We introduce a more general approach that can reduce the effect of loss on any quantum optical encoding, including those based on continuous variables such as the field amplitudes. We show that in principle the protocol incurs a resource cost that scales polynomially with distance. We analyze the simplest implementation and find that while its range is limited it can still achieve useful improvements in the distance over which quantum entanglement of field amplitudes can be distributed.

  19. Coherent Communication with Continuous Quantum Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wilde, M M; Krovi, H; Brun, Todd A.; Krovi, Hari; Wilde, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical communication and quantum communication. The cobit channel produces coherent versions of the teleportation and superdense coding protocols. We extend the cobit channel to the continuous variables of quantum optics. We provide a general definition of the ``coherent nat'' (conat) channel when only finite-squeezing resources are available. Coherent teleportation provides sufficient conditions and coherent superdense coding provides necessary conditions for a channel to be a finite-squeezing approximation to an ideal conat channel. We illustrate several protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel. Finally, we address the reversibility of coherent teleportation and coherent superdense coding with only finite-squeezing resources.

  20. Asymmetric EPR entanglement in continuous variable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Katherine; Armstrong, Seiji; Morizur, Jean-Francois; Lam, Ping Koy; Bachor, Hans-Albert

    2012-01-01

    Continuous variable entanglement can be produced in nonlinear systems or via interference of squeezed states. In many of optical systems, such as parametric down conversion or interference of optical squeezed states, production of two perfectly symmetric subsystems is usually used for demonstrating the existence of entanglement. This symmetry simplifies the description of the concept of entanglement. However, asymmetry in entanglement may arise naturally in a real experiment, or be intentionally introduced in a given quantum information protocol. These asymmetries can emerge from having the output beams experience different losses and environmental contamination, or from the availability of non-identical input quantum states in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we present a visualisation of entanglement using quadrature amplitude plots of the twin beams. We quantitatively discuss the strength of asymmetric entanglement using EPR and inseparability criteria and theoretically show that the optimal...

  1. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  2. FPGA implementation of high-frequency multiple PWM for variable voltage variable frequency controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boumaaraf, Abdelâali, E-mail: aboumaaraf@yahoo.fr [Université Abbès Laghrour, Laboratoire des capteurs, Instrumentations et procédés (LCIP), Khenchela (Algeria); University of Farhat Abbas Setif1, Sétif, 19000 (Algeria); Mohamadi, Tayeb [University of Farhat Abbas Setif1, Sétif, 19000 (Algeria); Gourmat, Laïd [Université Abbès Laghrour, Khenchela, 40000 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we present the FPGA implementation of the multiple pulse width modulation (MPWM) signal generation with repetition of data segments, applied to the variable frequency variable voltage systems and specially at to the photovoltaic water pumping system, in order to generate a signal command very easily between 10 Hz to 60 Hz with a small frequency and reduce the cost of the control system.

  3. Low-power variable frequency PFC converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yani; Yang Yintang; Zhu Zhangming, E-mail: yanili@mail.xidian.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Based on the SinoMOS 1 {mu}m 40 V CMOS process, a novel power factor contention (PFC) converter with a low-power variable frequency function is presented. The circuit introduces a multi-vector error amplifier and a programmable oscillator to achieve frequency modulation, which provides a rapid dynamic response and precise output voltage clamping with low power in the entire load. According to the external load variation, the system can modulate the circuit operating frequency linearly, thereby ensuring that the PFC converter can work in frequency conversion-mode. Measured results show that the normal operating frequency of the PFC converter is 5-6 kHz, the start-up current is 36 {mu}A, the stable operating current is only 2.43 mA, the efficiency is 97.3%, the power factor (PF) is 0.988, THD is 3.8%, the load adjust rate is 3%, and the linear adjust rate is less than 1%. Both theoretical and practical results reveal that the power consumption of the whole supply system is reduced efficiently, especially when the load varies. The active die area of the PFC converter chip is 1.61 x 1.52 mm{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. A variable passive low-frequency absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric R.; Gade, Anders Christian

    2005-04-01

    Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They can host classical music concerts, rock concerts and spoken word performances in a matter of a short period. These different performance types require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both the performers and the audience. A recommended reverberation time for classical music may be in the range of 1.5-2 s for empty halls, where rock music sounds best with a reverberation time around 0.8-1 s. Modern rhythmic music often contains high levels of sound energy in the low frequency bands but still requires a high definition for good sound quality. Ideally, the absorption of the hall should be adjustable in all frequency bands in order to provide good sound quality for all types of performances. The mid and high frequency absorption is easily regulated, but adjusting the low-frequency absorption has typically been too expensive or requires too much space to be practical for multi-purpose halls. Measurements were made on a variable low-frequency absorber to develop a practical solution to the dilemma. The paper will present the results of the measurements as well as a possible design.

  5. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Richards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on time scales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through existing parameterizations in coarser climate models.

  6. Spacetime replication of continuous variable quantum information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Salton, Grant; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of relativity requires that no information travel faster than light, whereas the unitarity of quantum mechanics ensures that quantum information cannot be cloned. These conditions provide the basic constraints that appear in information replication tasks, which formalize aspects of the behavior of information in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, we provide continuous variable (CV) strategies for spacetime quantum information replication that are directly amenable to optical or mechanical implementation. We use a new class of homologically constructed CV quantum error correcting codes to provide efficient solutions for the general case of information replication. As compared to schemes encoding qubits, our CV solution requires half as many shares per encoded system. We also provide an optimized five-mode strategy for replicating quantum information in a particular configuration of four spacetime regions designed not to be reducible to previously performed experiments. For this optimized strategy, we provide detailed encoding and decoding procedures using standard optical apparatus and calculate the recovery fidelity when finite squeezing is used. As such we provide a scheme for experimentally realizing quantum information replication using quantum optics.

  7. A variable passive low-frequency absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders

    2005-01-01

    typically been too expensive or requires too much space to be practical for multi-purpose halls. Measurements were made on a variable low-frequency absorber to develop a practical solution to the dilemma. The paper will present the results of the measurements as well as a possible design.......Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They can host classical music concerts, rock concerts and spoken word performances in a matter of a short period. These different performance types require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both...

  8. Entanglement Rate for Gaussian Continuous Variable Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    on a time– frequency grid . The use of a wave packet basis on a time– frequency grid in the context of quantumnoise is reviewd in [35]. 5 New J. Phys. 18...additive, itmakes sense to add up tEN m, for all the small frequency intervals intowhich the emission of the source has been decomposed. We have checked...time- grid ( t=t nn ) and a frequency - grid (w dw= mm ), where t p dw= 2 . In frequency space, these basis functions are defined as w dw = wF 1 e , 16m n

  9. Seismic behavior of variable frequency pendulum isolator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. R. Panchal; R. S. Jangid

    2008-01-01

    Earthquake performance of a flexible one-story building isolated with a variable frequency pendulum isolator(VFPI) under near-fault and far-field ground motions is investigated. The frictional forces mobilized at the interface of theVFPI are assumed to be velocity dependent. The interaction between frictional forces of the VFPI in two horizontal directionsis duly considered and coupled differential equations of motion of the isolated system in the incremental form are solvediteratively. The response of the system with bi-directional interaction is compared with those without interaction. In addition,the effects of velocity dependence on the response of the isolated system are also investigated. Moreover, a parametricstudy is carried out to critically examine the influence of important parameters on bi-directional interaction effects of thefrictional forces of the VFPI. These parameters are: the superstructure time period, frequency variation factor (FVF) andfriction coefficient of the VFPI. From the above investigations, it is observed that the dependence of the friction coefficienton relative velocity of the system does not have a noticeable effect on the peak response of the system isolated with VFPI, andthat the bi-directional interaction of frictional forces of the VFPI is important and if neglected, isolator displacements will beunderestimated and the superstructure acceleration and base shear will be overestimated.

  10. Single-quadrature continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    Most continuous-variable quantum key distribution schemes are based on the Gaussian modulation of coherent states followed by continuous quadrature detection using homodyne detectors. In all previous schemes, the Gaussian modulation has been carried out in conjugate quadratures thus requiring two...... commercialization of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, provided that the low noise requirement can be achieved....

  11. Bell violation for unknown continuous-variable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, X.-F.; Broadbent, C. J.; Eberly, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new Bell test for two-particle entangled systems that engages an unbounded continuous variable. The continuous variable state is allowed to be arbitrary and inaccessible to direct measurements. A systematic method is introduced to perform the required measurements indirectly. Our results provide new perspectives on both the study of local realistic theory for continuous-variable systems and on the non-local control theory of quantum information.

  12. Benford's Law and Continuous Dependent Random Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Thealexa; Miller, Steven J; Ronan, Ryan; Strauch, Frederick W

    2011-01-01

    Many systems exhibit a digit bias. For example, the first digit base 10 of the Fibonacci numbers, or of $2^n$, equals 1 not 10% or 11% of the time, as one would expect if all digits were equally likely, but about 30% of the time. This phenomenon, known as Benford's Law, has many applications, ranging from detecting tax fraud for the IRS to analyzing round-off errors in computer science. The central question is determining which data sets follow Benford's law. Inspired by natural processes such as particle decay, our work examines models for the decomposition of conserved quantities. We prove that in many instances the distribution of lengths of the resulting pieces converges to Benford behavior as the number of divisions grow. The main difficulty is that the resulting random variables are dependent, which we handle by a careful analysis of the dependencies and tools from Fourier analysis to obtain quantified convergence rates.

  13. Concurrent remote entanglement with continuous variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalys-Geller, E.; Narla, A.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Silveri, M.; Sliwa, K. M.; Mundhada, S. O.; Girvin, S. M.; Devoret, M. H.

    A necessary ingredient for large scale quantum information processing is the ability to entangle distant qubits on demand. In the field of superconducting quantum information, this process can be achieved by entangling stationary superconducting qubits with flying coherent states of microwave light, which are then co-amplified by a Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC). The JPC also serves as a which-path information eraser, causing the probabilistic continuous measurement process to concurrently entangle the qubits. We discuss the sensitivity of the experiment to the loss of quantum information during the flight of the coherent states, as well as strategies to improve which-path information erasure and reduce information loss to the degree required for entanglement generation. Work supported by ARO, AFOSR, NSF, and YINQE.

  14. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley turbine'' (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the turbine'' corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the turbine'' belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  15. Continuous variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Dong, Ruifang; Heersink, Joel

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate distillation of continuous variable entangled light that has undergone non-Gaussian attenuation loss. The continuous variable entanglement is generated with optical fibers and sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time. By employing simple...

  16. A novel concept for a translational continuously variable transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresscher, Douwe; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Continuously Variable Transmissions have the potential to change robotics. When used in a drive train in combination with a spring, they could significantly reduce energy consumption. However, so far these advantages have been shown in theory only. To exploit the concept of a Continuously Variable

  17. Quantum Encryption Protocol Based on Continuous Variable EPR Correlations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guang-Qiang; ZENG Gui-Hua

    2006-01-01

    A quantum encryption protocol based on Gaussian-modulated continuous variable EPR correlations is proposed. The security is guaranteed by continuous variable EPR entanglement correlations produced by nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). For general beam splitter eavesdropping strategy, the mutual information Ⅰ(α, ε)between Alice and Eve is calculated by employing Shannon information theory. Finally the security analysis is presented.

  18. Consistent Algorithm for Multi-value Constraint with Continuous Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Mature algorithms for the Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) of binary constraint with discrete variables have already been obtained for the application. For the instance of multi-value constraint with continuous variables, the approach will be quite different and the difficulty of settling will aggrandize a lot. This paper presents the algorithm for realizing global consistency of continuous variable. And this algorithm can be applied to multi-value constraint.

  19. Continuous variable tangle, monogamy inequality, and entanglement sharing in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); CNISM and CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy); and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno (Italy); Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2006-01-15

    For continuous-variable (CV) systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the CV tangle (contangle), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex-roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three-mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric N-mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary N. For three-mode pure states, we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous CV analogues of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits: in CV systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed.

  20. Frequency Structure of Heart Rate Variability

    OpenAIRE

    MUKHIN, V.

    2008-01-01

    Factor structure of heart rate periodogram has been detected with factor analysis. The results showed that there are at least four periodical phenomena of HRV. Two of them have not been discovered and physiologically explained yet. Their frequency ranges are 0.21 to 0.31 1/beat with the peak at 0.26 1/beat and 0.25 to 0.5 1/beat with the peak 0.35 1/beat. Despite of differences of the peak frequencies the frequency rages of the factors are overlapped. Therefore, power of spectral density with...

  1. Analysis of natural frequency variability of a brake component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, A.; Lisowski, W.; Pichler, L.; Stachowski, A.; Uhl, T.

    2012-10-01

    The manufacture of automotive disc brake calipers is subjected to many inherent variabilities resulting in product variability. In particular, the dispersion of natural frequency values is a primary issue in the context of vehicle comfort. This paper aims to quantify natural frequency variability and search for its causes. Extensive experimental tests and numerical simulations, described in the paper, point out the fundamental role of mold wear and assembling process in this variability.

  2. Continuous variable teleportation of single photon states (Proceedings version)

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Furusawa, Akira

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the changes to a single photon state caused by the non-maximal entanglement in continuous variable quantum teleportation. It is shown that the teleportation measurement introduces field coherence in the output.

  3. Development of Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnes, Jim, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Dykman, John

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the current status of the joint NASA/Boeing collaboration on the development of a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap system for use in wing shaping control for cruise drag reduction.

  4. Continuous measurement of heart rate variability following carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-16

    Jul 16, 2010 ... Studies using HRV analysis during positive-pressure ... Keywords: heart rate variability; positive pressure pneumoperitoneum; continuous monitoring. Abstract .... entropy predicts arterial blood pressure fluctuation during the.

  5. Efficient entanglement criteria for discrete, continuous, and hybrid variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Manuel; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto

    2016-08-01

    We develop a method to construct entanglement criteria for arbitrary multipartite systems of discrete or continuous variables and hybrid combinations of both. While any set of local operators generates a sufficient condition for entanglement of arbitrary quantum states, a suitable set leads to a necessary and sufficient criterion for pure states. The criteria are readily implementable with existing technology and reveal entanglement that remains undetected by the respective state-of-the-art methods for discrete and continuous variables.

  6. Hybrid discrete- and continuous-variable quantum information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; van Loock, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research in quantum information processing has followed two different directions: the use of discrete variables (qubits) and that of high-dimensional, continuous-variable Gaussian states (coherent and squeezed states). Recently, these two approaches have been converging in potentially more powerful...

  7. Long distance quantum key distribution with continuous variables

    CERN Document Server

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We present a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol combining a continuous but slightly non-Gaussian modulation together with a efficient reverse reconciliation scheme. At the price of requiring an heterodyne detection, this protocol outperforms all known practical protocols. In particular, longer distances can be achieved, even taking into account finite size effects.

  8. Time-frequency representation of musical rhythm by continuous wavelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, L.M.; Honing, H.

    2008-01-01

    A method is described that exhaustively represents the periodicities created by a musical rhythm. The continuous wavelet transform is used to decompose an interval representation of a musical rhythm into a hierarchy of short-term frequencies. This reveals the temporal relationships between events ov

  9. Transporting continuous quantum variables of individual light pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Yujiro; Zhang, Yun; Hirano, Takuya

    2011-01-17

    We experimentally demonstrate transporting continuous quantum variables of individual light pulses at telecommunication wavelengths by using continuous-variable Bell measurements and post-processing displacement techniques. Time-domain pulsed homodyne detectors are used in the Bell measurements and the quantum variables of input light are transported pulse-by-pulse. Fidelity of F = 0.57±0.03 is experimentally achieved with the aid of entanglement, which is higher than the bound (F(c) = 0.5) of the classical case in the absence of entanglement.

  10. High frequency sampling of a continuous-time ARMA process

    CERN Document Server

    Brockwell, Peter J; Klüppelberg, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Continuous-time autoregressive moving average (CARMA) processes have recently been used widely in the modeling of non-uniformly spaced data and as a tool for dealing with high-frequency data of the form $Y_{n\\Delta}, n=0,1,2,...$, where $\\Delta$ is small and positive. Such data occur in many fields of application, particularly in finance and the study of turbulence. This paper is concerned with the characteristics of the process $(Y_{n\\Delta})_{n\\in\\bbz}$, when $\\Delta$ is small and the underlying continuous-time process $(Y_t)_{t\\in\\bbr}$ is a specified CARMA process.

  11. Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Quantum key distribution enables two remote parties to grow a shared key, which they can use for unconditionally secure communication over a certain distance. The maximal distance depends on the loss and the excess noise of the connecting quantum channel. Several quantum key distribution schemes...... based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...... entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising...

  12. Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-09-01

    Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.

  13. Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B

    2016-09-02

    Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.

  14. Testing quantum contextuality of continuous-variable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Gerard; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Paternostro, Mauro

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the violation of noncontextuality by a class of continuous-variable states, including variations of entangled coherent states and a two-mode continuous superposition of coherent states. We generalize the Kochen-Specker (KS) inequality discussed by Cabello [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.210401 101, 210401 (2008)] by using effective bidimensional observables implemented through physical operations acting on continuous-variable states, in a way similar to an approach to the falsification of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities put forward recently. We test for state-independent violation of KS inequalities under variable degrees of state entanglement and mixedness. We then demonstrate theoretically the violation of a KS inequality for any two-mode state by using pseudospin observables and a generalized quasiprobability function.

  15. Neuromagnetic responses to frequency modulation of a continuous tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, R; Mäkelä, J P

    1986-01-01

    Neuromagnetic responses to frequency modulation of a continuous tone were studied in nine subjects. The latencies of the transient responses increased and the amplitudes decreased with decreasing speed of modulation. The equivalent dipoles for modulation of a 1,000 Hz tone were slightly but statistically significantly anterior to the dipoles activated by modulation of a 500 Hz tone. The generation mechanisms of N100m are discussed.

  16. Polarization decoherence differential frequency-modulated continuous-wave gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Zheng, Gang; Han, Liwei; Luo, Jianhua; Teng, Fei; Wang, Bing; Song, Ping; Gao, Kun; Hou, Zhiqing

    2014-12-01

    A polarization decoherence differential frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) gyroscope is presented. The impact of coherent polarization crosstalk noise on the differential FMCW gyro is analyzed. In order to suppress coherent polarization crosstalk noise, a novel method was proposed to produce two incoherent orthogonal polarization narrow band beams from laser diode. In this way, the random drift has been reduced about one order.

  17. Present and Future Modes of Low Frequency Climate Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cane, Mark A.

    2014-02-20

    This project addressed area (1) of the FOA, “Interaction of Climate Change and Low Frequency Modes of Natural Climate Variability”. Our overarching objective is to detect, describe and understand the changes in low frequency variability between model simulations of the preindustrial climate and simulations of a doubled CO2 climate. The deliverables are a set of papers providing a dynamical characterization of interannual, decadal, and multidecadal variability in coupled models with attention to the changes in this low frequency variability between pre-industrial concentrations of greenhouse gases and a doubling of atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The principle mode of analysis, singular vector decomposition, is designed to advance our physical, mechanistic understanding. This study will include external natural variability due to solar and volcanic aerosol variations as well as variability internal to the climate system. An important byproduct is a set of analysis tools for estimating global singular vector structures from the archived output of model simulations.

  18. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Noisy Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    a theoretically proposed prepare-and-measure continuous-variable protocol and experimentally demonstrate the robustness of it against preparation noise stemming for instance from technical laser noise. Provided that direct reconciliation techniques are used in the post-processing we show that for small distances......Existing experimental implementations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution require shot-noise limited operation, achieved with shot-noise limited lasers. However, loosening this requirement on the laser source would allow for cheaper, potentially integrated systems. Here, we implement...

  19. Applications of hybrid measurements with discrete and continuous variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine

    The main topic of this thesis revolves around quantum measurement. We illustrate how two different views of quantum objects, the discrete-and continuous-variable views, can be combined to more effectively distinguish between orthogonal states. Such combined measurements are referred to as hybrid...

  20. On Association Measures for Continuous Variables and Correction for Chance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies correction for chance for association measures for continuous variables. The set of linear transformations of Pearson's product-moment correlation is used as the domain of the correction for chance function. Examples of measures in this set are Tucker's congruence coefficient, Job

  1. Quantum Correlations Relativity for Continuous-Variables Bipartite Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dugic, M; Jeknic-Dugic, J

    2011-01-01

    Based on the so-called Entanglement Relativity, we point out relativity of the more general non-classical (quantum) correlations for the continuous-variables bipartite systems. Our observation points out that quantum processing resources based on the non-classical correlations (non-zero quantum discord) are ubiquitous in such systems.

  2. Experimentally feasible quantum erasure-correcting code for continuous variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisset, J.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Cerf, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    We devise a scheme that protects quantum coherent states of light from probabilistic losses, thus achieving the first continuous-variable quantum erasure-correcting code. If the occurrence of erasures can be probed, then the decoder enables, in principle, a perfect recovery of the original light ...

  3. Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on purity measurements.

  4. Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-02-27

    We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on measurements of purity.

  5. Quantification and scaling of multipartite entanglement in continuous variable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical method to determine the multipartite entanglement between different partitions of multimode, fully or partially symmetric Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. We demonstrate the scaling of the multipartite entanglement with the number of modes and the experimental implementation of the method in terms of measurements of the global and marginal purities.

  6. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Noisy Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    Existing experimental implementations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution require shot-noise limited operation, achieved with shot-noise limited lasers. However, loosening this requirement on the laser source would allow for cheaper, potentially integrated systems. Here, we implement ...

  7. Continuous Variable Entanglement and Squeezing of Orbital Angular Momentum States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2009-01-01

    We report the first experimental characterization of the first-order continuous variable orbital angular momentum states. Using a spatially nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) we produce quadrature entanglement between the two first-order Laguerre-Gauss modes. The family of orbital...

  8. Continuous-variable quantum network coding for coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Li, Ke; Liu, Jian-wei

    2017-04-01

    As far as the spectral characteristic of quantum information is concerned, the existing quantum network coding schemes can be looked on as the discrete-variable quantum network coding schemes. Considering the practical advantage of continuous variables, in this paper, we explore two feasible continuous-variable quantum network coding (CVQNC) schemes. Basic operations and CVQNC schemes are both provided. The first scheme is based on Gaussian cloning and ADD/SUB operators and can transmit two coherent states across with a fidelity of 1/2, while the second scheme utilizes continuous-variable quantum teleportation and can transmit two coherent states perfectly. By encoding classical information on quantum states, quantum network coding schemes can be utilized to transmit classical information. Scheme analysis shows that compared with the discrete-variable paradigms, the proposed CVQNC schemes provide better network throughput from the viewpoint of classical information transmission. By modulating the amplitude and phase quadratures of coherent states with classical characters, the first scheme and the second scheme can transmit 4{log _2}N and 2{log _2}N bits of information by a single network use, respectively.

  9. Natural frequencies and damping estimation based on continuous wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yu; SUN He-yi; LI Hui-peng; TANG Wen-yan

    2008-01-01

    The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) based method was improved for estimating the natural fre-quencies and damping ratios of a structural system in this paper. The appropriate scale of CWT was selected by means of the least squares method to identify the systems with closely spaced modes. The important issues relat-ed to estimation accuracy such as mode separation and end effect, were also investigated. These issues were as-sociated with the parameter selection of wavelet function based on the fitting error of least squares. The efficien-cy of the method was confirmed by applying it to a simulated 3dof damped system with two close modes.

  10. Optical Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    This book introduces the optical frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interferometry - a new field of optics that is derived from radar. The study of optical FMCW interference not only updates our knowledge about the nature of light, but also creates an advanced technology for precision measurements. The principles, applications and signal processing of optical FMCW interference are systematically discussed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in both academia and industry. It is especially suited to professionals who are working in the field of measurement instruments.

  11. NONLINEAR NATURAL FREQUENCY OF SHALLOW CONICAL SHELLS WITH VARIABLE THICKNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-zhi; HAN Ming-jun; ZHAO Yong-gang; YEH Kai-yuan

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamical variation equation and compatible equation of the shallow conical shell with variable thickness are obtained by the theory of nonlinear dynamical variation equation and compatible equation of the circular thin plate with variable thickness. Assuming the thin film tension is composed of two items. The compatible equation is transformed into two independent equations. Selecting the maximum amplitude in the center of the shallow conical shells with variable thickness as the perturbation parameter,the variation equation and the differential equation are transformed into linear expression by theory of perturbation variation method. The nonlinear natural frequency of shallow conical shells with circular bottom and variable thickness under the fixed boundary conditions is solved. In the first approximate equation, the linear natural frequency of shallow conical shells with variable thickness is obtained. In the third approximate equation, the nonlinear uatural frequency of it is obtained. The figures of the characteristic curves of the natural frequency varying with stationary loads, large amplitude, and variable thickness coefficient are plotted. A valuable reference is given for dynamic engineering.

  12. Reverse reconciliation protocols for quantum cryptography with continuous variables

    CERN Document Server

    Grosshans, F; Grosshans, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    We introduce new quantum key distribution protocols using quantum continuous variables, that are secure against individual attacks for any transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob. In particular, it is not required that this transmission is larger than 50 %. Though squeezing or entanglement may be helpful, they are not required, and there is no need for quantum memories or entanglement purification. These protocols can thus be implemented using coherent states and homodyne detection, and they may be more efficient than usual protocols using quantum discrete variables.

  13. Continual and automatic recording method for fault data of variable-frequency drive sets%变频传动装置故障数据连续自动记录方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 毛伟; 王云波; 岳淳

    2014-01-01

    Based on the single triggering mode of trace function for Simatic drive sets,we implement continual and automatic recording of fault data from Simatic drive sets by using Raspberry Pi comput-er as the kernel controller. We also implement the continuous re-triggering mechanism in an efficient and controlled way by using the built-in free function block and the optimal USS telegram structure to automatically configure the trigger condition. The efficient and controlled transmission of data is a-chieved through the ethernet FTP service. Functions such as multiple formats for fault recording files and history data combination are provided. This method gives lots of data support for fault analysis,lo-cation and check,and thus reduces production loss due to Simatic drive sets' fault.%基于西门子变频传动装置故障数据触发记录模式,采用树莓派单板机作为核心控制器,实现了装置故障数据连续自动记录功能。利用传动装置内置的自由功能块,采用USS协议最优报文结构实现触发条件的自动配置,实现了高效、可控的连续重复触发机制。通过以太网FTP服务程序完成了数据的有效、可控传输,并且提供多种数据文件格式以及历史数据合并功能。该方法为变频器传动装置故障信息分析、定位和排查,提供了更多的数据支持,减少了变频传动装置故障停机导致的减产。

  14. Continuous-variable quantum cryptography with untrusted relays

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano; Spedalieri, Gaetana; Weedbrook, Christian; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2013-01-01

    We extend the field of continuous-variable quantum cryptography to a more robust formulation which can be applied to untrusted networks. We consider two remote parties connected to an untrusted relay by insecure quantum links. To generate correlations, they transmit coherent states to the relay where a continuous-variable Bell detection is performed. Despite the possibility that the working mechanism of the relay could be fully corrupted and the links subject to optimal coherent attacks, the parties are still able to extract a secret key. Furthermore, our analysis shows that very long distances and high rates can be reached when the relay is proximal to one of the parties, configuration typical of a mobile device connecting to a public access point. Thus, using the cheapest possible quantum resources, we show the possibility of long-distance high-rate quantum key distribution in network topologies where direct links are missing between two end-users and intermediate relays cannot be trusted.

  15. Quantum simulation of quantum field theory using continuous variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kevin; Pooser, Raphael; Siopsis, George; Weedbrook, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The year 1982 is often credited as the year that theoretical quantum computing was started with a keynote speech by Richard Feynman, who proposed a universal quantum simulator, the idea being that if you had such a machine you could in principle "imitate any quantum system, including the physical world." With that in mind, we present an algorithm for a continuous-variable quantum computing architecture which gives an exponential speedup over the best-known classical methods. Specifically, this relates to efficiently calculating the scattering amplitudes in scalar bosonic quantum field theory, a problem that is believed to be hard using a classical computer. Building on this, we give an experimental implementation based on continuous-variable states that is feasible with today's technology.

  16. Extremal entanglement and mixedness in continuous variable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Illuminati, F

    2004-01-01

    We investigate extremal entanglement for Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. We introduce generalized entropies based on p-norms to quantify mixedness, and give their explicit expression in terms of symplectic spectra. We compare the hierarchies of mixedness provided by such measures with the one provided by the purity for n-mode states. We then review the argument proving the existence of both maximally and minimally entangled two--mode states at given global and marginal purities (with the entanglement quantified by the logarithmic negativity). Exploiting these results, we extend such an analysis to generalized entropies, fully characterizing maximally and minimally entangled states for given global and local generalized entropies. The privileged role of the purity in quantifying the mixedness of continuous variable systems is stressed and a proposal to estimate entanglement by purity measurements is finally reviewed.

  17. Continuous variable quantum information: Gaussian states and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, Gerardo; Lee, Antony R

    2014-01-01

    The study of Gaussian states has arisen to a privileged position in continuous variable quantum information in recent years. This is due to vehemently pursued experimental realisations and a magnificently elegant mathematical framework. In this article, we provide a brief, and hopefully didactic, exposition of Gaussian state quantum information and its contemporary uses, including sometimes omitted crucial details. After introducing the subject material and outlining the essential toolbox of continuous variable systems, we define the basic notions needed to understand Gaussian states and Gaussian operations. In particular, emphasis is placed on the mathematical structure combining notions of algebra and symplectic geometry fundamental to a complete understanding of Gaussian informatics. Furthermore, we discuss the quantification of different forms of correlations (including entanglement and quantum discord) for Gaussian states, paying special attention to recently developed measures. The manuscript is conclud...

  18. Design of a continuously variable Mach-number nozzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭善广; 王振国; 赵玉新

    2015-01-01

    A design method was developed to specify the profile of the continuously variable Mach-number nozzle for the supersonic wind tunnel. The controllable contour design technique was applied to obtaining the original nozzle profile, while other Mach- numbers were derived from the transformation of the original profile. A design scheme, covering a Mach-number range of 3.0continuously variable Mach-number flow during a wind tunnel running.

  19. Experimental Realization of Continuous-Variable Quantum Error Correction Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    Quantum information processing relies on the robust and faithful transmission, storage and manipulation of quantum information. However, since different decoherent processes are inherent to any realistic implementation, the future of quantum information systems strongly relies on the ability to d...... to detect and perform error code correction and noise filtration. We present two different schemes to eliminate erasure errors and channel excess noise in continuous-variable quantum channels....

  20. Multimode uncertainty relations and separability of continuous variable states

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, A

    2006-01-01

    A multimode uncertainty relation (generalising the Robertson-Schroedinger relation) is derived as a necessary constraint on the second moments of n pairs of canonical operators. In turn, necessary conditions for the separability of multimode continuous variable states under (m+n)-mode bipartitions are derived from the uncertainty relation. These conditions are proven to be necessary and sufficient for (1+n)-mode Gaussian states and for (m+n)-mode bisymmetric Gaussian states.

  1. Security analysis of continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jun; He Guang-Qiang; Zeng Gui-Hua

    2007-01-01

    In this paper security of the quantum key distribution scheme using correlations of continuous variable Einstein- Podolsky- Rosen (EPR) pairs is investigated. A new approach for calculating the secret information rate △I is proposed by using the Shannon information theory. Employing an available parameter F which is associated with the entanglement of the EPR pairs, one can detect easily the eavesdropping. Results show that the proposed scheme is secure against individual beam splitter attack strategy with a proper squeeze parameter.

  2. Classicality from zero discord for continuous-variables bipartite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arsenijevic, M; Dugic, M

    2012-01-01

    Quantum information resources quantified by non-zero discord are ubiquitous for the continuous-variables bipartite systems. Complementary to this, we investigate the zero-discord-defined classicality for the different structures (decompositions into subsystems) of such systems. We point out complexity and subtlety of the task and we construct a model-structure closely resembling the classical systems not supporting quantum information processing.

  3. Automated identification of neural correlates of continuous variables.

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, I; Hwang, F.; Kirke, A.; Malik, A.; Weaver, J.; Williams, D; Miranda, E; Nasuto, SJ

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The electroencephalogram (EEG) may be described by a large number of different feature types and automated feature selection methods are needed in order to reliably identify features which correlate with continuous independent variables. NEW METHOD: A method is presented for the automated identification of features that differentiate two or more groups in neurological datasets based upon a spectral decomposition of the feature set. Furthermore, the method is able to identify featu...

  4. Continuous-variable quantum secret sharing by optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, T; Tyc, Tomas; Sanders, Barry C.

    2001-01-01

    We develop the theory of continuous-variable quantum secret sharing and propose its interferometric realization using passive and active optical elements. In the ideal case of infinite squeezing, a fidelity ${\\cal F}$ of unity can be achieved with respect to reconstructing the quantum secret. We quantify the reduction in fidelity for the (2,3) threshold scheme due to finite squeezing and establish the condition for verifying that genuine quantum secret sharing has occurred.

  5. Quantification and scaling of multipartite entanglement in continuous variable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-11-26

    We present a theoretical method to determine the multipartite entanglement between different partitions of multimode, fully or partially symmetric Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For such states, we determine the exact expression of the logarithmic negativity and show that it coincides with that of equivalent two-mode Gaussian states. Exploiting this reduction, we demonstrate the scaling of the multipartite entanglement with the number of modes and its reliable experimental estimate by direct measurements of the global and local purities.

  6. Multipartite Entanglement and its Polygamy in Continuous Variable Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    We introduce an infinite-dimensional generalization of the tangle that quantifies the distributed entanglement of multimode Gaussian states. We show that the genuine $1 \\times 1 \\times ... \\times 1$ multiparty entanglement between an arbitrary number of modes exhibits a simple iterative structure in terms of bipartite $1 \\times N$ entanglements between different partitions of the modes. We demonstrate that the conjectured monogamy of entanglement fails in continuous variable systems, even in the simplest three-mode instance.

  7. Continuous-variable quantum identity authentication based on quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongxin; Huang, Peng; Bao, Wansu; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-06-01

    A continuous-variable quantum identity authentication protocol, which is based on quantum teleportation, is presented by employing two-mode squeezed vacuum state and coherent state. The proposed protocol can verify user's identity efficiently with a new defined fidelity parameter. Update of authentication key can also be implemented in our protocol. Moreover, the analysis shows its feasibility and security under the general Gaussian-cloner attack on authentication key, which is guaranteed by quantum entanglement, insertion of decoy state and random displacement.

  8. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Kiukas, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.kiukas@aber.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Penglais, Aberystwyth, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  9. Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

  10. Automated identification of neural correlates of continuous variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-03-15

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) may be described by a large number of different feature types and automated feature selection methods are needed in order to reliably identify features which correlate with continuous independent variables. A method is presented for the automated identification of features that differentiate two or more groups in neurological datasets based upon a spectral decomposition of the feature set. Furthermore, the method is able to identify features that relate to continuous independent variables. The proposed method is first evaluated on synthetic EEG datasets and observed to reliably identify the correct features. The method is then applied to EEG recorded during a music listening task and is observed to automatically identify neural correlates of music tempo changes similar to neural correlates identified in a previous study. Finally, the method is applied to identify neural correlates of music-induced affective states. The identified neural correlates reside primarily over the frontal cortex and are consistent with widely reported neural correlates of emotions. The proposed method is compared to the state-of-the-art methods of canonical correlation analysis and common spatial patterns, in order to identify features differentiating synthetic event-related potentials of different amplitudes and is observed to exhibit greater performance as the number of unique groups in the dataset increases. The proposed method is able to identify neural correlates of continuous variables in EEG datasets and is shown to outperform canonical correlation analysis and common spatial patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Power Split Based Dual Hemispherical Continuously Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe Dresscher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a new continuously variable transmission concept: the Dual-Hemi Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT. It is designed to have properties we believe are required to apply continuously variable transmissions in robotics to their full potential. These properties are a transformation range that includes both positive and negative ratios, back-drivability under all conditions, kinematically decoupled reconfiguration, high efficiency of the transmission, and a reconfiguration mechanism requiring little work for changing the transmission ratio. The design of the Dual-Hemi CVT and a prototype realisation are discussed in detail. We show that the Dual-Hemi CVT has the aforementioned desired properties. Experiments show that the efficiency of the CVT is above 90% for a large part of the range of operation of the CVT. Significant stiction in the transmission, combined with a relatively low bandwidth for changing the transmission ratio, may cause problems when applying the DH-CVT as part of an actuator in a control loop.

  12. Exploration of continuous variability in collections of 3D shapes

    KAUST Repository

    Ovsjanikov, Maks

    2011-07-01

    As large public repositories of 3D shapes continue to grow, the amount of shape variability in such collections also increases, both in terms of the number of different classes of shapes, as well as the geometric variability of shapes within each class. While this gives users more choice for shape selection, it can be difficult to explore large collections and understand the range of variations amongst the shapes. Exploration is particularly challenging for public shape repositories, which are often only loosely tagged and contain neither point-based nor part-based correspondences. In this paper, we present a method for discovering and exploring continuous variability in a collection of 3D shapes without correspondences. Our method is based on a novel navigation interface that allows users to explore a collection of related shapes by deforming a base template shape through a set of intuitive deformation controls. We also help the user to select the most meaningful deformations using a novel technique for learning shape variability in terms of deformations of the template. Our technique assumes that the set of shapes lies near a low-dimensional manifold in a certain descriptor space, which allows us to avoid establishing correspondences between shapes, while being rotation and scaling invariant. We present results on several shape collections taken directly from public repositories. © 2011 ACM.

  13. High Frequency State-Variable Biquadratic Active Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dostal

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The state-variable (KHN active RC biquadratic filters with good performance in high frequency range , flexibility of outputs (LP, HP, BP, low sensitivities in novel current and hybrid modes, using current conveyors, transimpedance, trans-admittance and current operational amplifiers, are given in this paper.

  14. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schem

  15. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  16. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Quattrocchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS and GS extension (GSE is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  17. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with

  18. New nonlinear mechanisms of midlatitude atmospheric low-frequency variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A. E.; Vitolo, R.; Broer, H. W.; Simo, C.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamical mechanisms potentially involved in the so-called atmospheric low-frequency variability, occurring at midlatitudes in the Northern Hemisphere This phenomenon is characterised by recurrent non-propagating and temporally persistent flow patterns, with typical spatial an

  19. New nonlinear mechanisms of midlatitude atmospheric low-frequency variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A. E.; Vitolo, R.; Broer, H.W.; Simó, C.; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamical mechanisms potentially involved in the so-called atmospheric low-frequency variability, occurring at midlatitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. This phenomenon is characterised by recurrent non-propagating and temporally persistent flow patterns, with typical spatial a

  20. Frequency modulated continuous wave lidar performance model for target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bosq, Todd W.; Preece, Bradley L.

    2017-05-01

    The desire to provide the warfighter both ranging and reflected intensity information is increasing to meet expanding operational needs. LIDAR imaging systems can provide the user with intensity, range, and even velocity information of a scene. The ability to predict the performance of LIDAR systems is critical for the development of future designs without the need to conduct time consuming and costly field studies. Performance modeling of a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) LIDAR system is challenging due to the addition of the chirped laser source and waveform mixing. The FMCW LIDAR model is implemented in the NV-IPM framework using the custom component generation tool. This paper presents an overview of the FMCW Lidar, the customized LIDAR components, and a series of trade studies using the LIDAR model.

  1. Statistical Quadrature Evolution for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2016-05-01

    We propose a statistical quadrature evolution (SQE) method for multicarrier continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). A multicarrier CVQKD protocol utilizes Gaussian subcarrier quantum continuous variables (CV) for information transmission. The SQE framework provides a minimal error estimate of the quadratures of the CV quantum states from the discrete, measured noisy subcarrier variables. We define a method for the statistical modeling and processing of noisy Gaussian subcarrier quadratures. We introduce the terms statistical secret key rate and statistical private classical information, which quantities are derived purely by the statistical functions of our method. We prove the secret key rate formulas for a multiple access multicarrier CVQKD. The framework can be established in an arbitrary CVQKD protocol and measurement setting, and are implementable by standard low-complexity statistical functions, which is particularly convenient for an experimental CVQKD scenario. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund - OTKA K-112125, and by the COST Action MP1006.

  2. New Tests of Macroscopic Local Realism using Continuous Variable Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, M D

    2001-01-01

    We show that quantum mechanics predicts an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (EPR), and also a contradiction with local hidden variable theories, for photon number measurements which have limited resolving power, to the point of imposing an uncertainty in the photon number result which is macroscopic in absolute terms. We show how this can be interpreted as a failure of a new, very strong premise, called macroscopic local realism. We link this premise to the Schrodinger-cat paradox. Our proposed experiments ensure all fields incident on each measurement apparatus are macroscopic. We show that an alternative measurement scheme corresponds to balanced homodyne detection of quadrature phase amplitudes. The implication is that where either EPR correlations or failure of local realism is predicted for continuous variable (quadrature phase amplitude) measurements, one can perform a modified experiment which would lead to conclusions about the much stronger premise of macroscopic local realism.

  3. On-chip continuous-variable quantum entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masada, Genta; Furusawa, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Entanglement is an essential feature of quantum theory and the core of the majority of quantum information science and technologies. Quantum computing is one of the most important fruits of quantum entanglement and requires not only a bipartite entangled state but also more complicated multipartite entanglement. In previous experimental works to demonstrate various entanglement-based quantum information processing, light has been extensively used. Experiments utilizing such a complicated state need highly complex optical circuits to propagate optical beams and a high level of spatial interference between different light beams to generate quantum entanglement or to efficiently perform balanced homodyne measurement. Current experiments have been performed in conventional free-space optics with large numbers of optical components and a relatively large-sized optical setup. Therefore, they are limited in stability and scalability. Integrated photonics offer new tools and additional capabilities for manipulating light in quantum information technology. Owing to integrated waveguide circuits, it is possible to stabilize and miniaturize complex optical circuits and achieve high interference of light beams. The integrated circuits have been firstly developed for discrete-variable systems and then applied to continuous-variable systems. In this article, we review the currently developed scheme for generation and verification of continuous-variable quantum entanglement such as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen beams using a photonic chip where waveguide circuits are integrated. This includes balanced homodyne measurement of a squeezed state of light. As a simple example, we also review an experiment for generating discrete-variable quantum entanglement using integrated waveguide circuits.

  4. Maximal Violation of Bell Inequalities using Continuous Variables Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, J; Grosshans, F; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P; Hafezi, Mohammad; Grosshans, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    We propose a whole family of physical states that yield a violation of the Bell CHSH inequality arbitrarily close to its maximum value, when using quadrature phase homodyne detection. This result is based on a new binning process called root binning, that is used to transform the continuous variables measurements into binary results needed for the tests of quantum mechanics versus local realistic theories. A physical process in order to produce such states is also suggested. The use of high-efficiency spacelike separated homodyne detections with these states and this binning process would result in a conclusive loophole-free test of quantum mechanics.

  5. Requirement of optical coherence for continuous-variable quantum teleportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, T; Sanders, B C

    2001-08-13

    We show that the sender and the receiver each require coherent devices in order to achieve unconditional continuous variable quantum teleportation (CVQT), and this requirement cannot be achieved with conventional laser sources, linear optics, ideal photon detectors, and perfect Fock state sources. The appearance of successful CVQT in recent experiments is due to interpreting the measurement record fallaciously in terms of one preferred ensemble (or decomposition) of the correct density matrix describing the state. Our analysis is unrelated to technical problems such as laser phase drift or finite squeezing bandwidth.

  6. Continuous variable entanglement swapping in a thermal environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金明; 李剑; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    With the application of a Wigner function description of a two-mode squeezed state, we study a protocol of continuous variable entanglement swapping in a noisy quantum channel. Assuming that the two initial entangled states are coupled with the same environment, we analyse the quantum state emerging from the swapping and obtain the inseparable condition for the output correlation. It is found that there is more noise resulting from the entanglement swapping than from the direct transmission, no matter what values of displacement gain are chosen.

  7. Continuous-variable quantum computing on encrypted data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, Kevin; Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Schäfermeier, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform computations on encrypted data is a powerful tool for protecting a client's privacy, especially in today's era of cloud and distributed computing. In terms of privacy, the best solutions that classical techniques can achieve are unfortunately not unconditionally secure...... in the sense that they are dependent on a hacker's computational power. Here we theoretically investigate, and experimentally demonstrate with Gaussian displacement and squeezing operations, a quantum solution that achieves the security of a user's privacy using the practical technology of continuous variables...... in future cloud-based computing networks....

  8. Efficient sharing of a continuous-variable quantum secret

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, T; Sanders, B C; Tyc, Tomas; Rowe, David J.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2003-01-01

    We propose an efficient scheme for sharing a continuous variable quantum secret using passive optical interferometry and squeezers: this efficiency is achieved by showing that a maximum of two squeezers is required to replicate the secret state, and we obtain the cheapest configuration in terms of total squeezing cost. Squeezing is a cost for the dealer of the secret as well as for the receivers, and we quantify limitations to the fidelity of the replicated secret state in terms of the squeezing employed by the dealer.

  9. Continuous Variables (2,3) Threshold Quantum Secret Sharing Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Lance, A M; Bowen, W P; Tyc, T; Sanders, B C; Lam, P K

    2003-01-01

    We present two experimental schemes to perform continuous variable (2,3) threshold quantum secret sharing on the quadratures amplitudes of bright light beams. Both schemes require a pair of entangled light beams. The first scheme utilizes two phase sensitive optical amplifiers, whilst the second uses an electro-optic feedforward loop for the reconstruction of the secret. We examine the efficacy of quantum secret sharing in terms of fidelity, as well as the signal transfer coefficients and the conditional variances of the reconstructed output state. We show that both schemes in the ideal case yield perfect secret reconstruction.

  10. Continuous variable quantum communication with bright entangled optical beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chang-de; ZHANG Jing; PAN Qing; JIA Xiao-jun; PENG Kun-chi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we briefly introduce the basic concepts and protocols of continuous variable quantum communication,and then summarize the experimental researches accomplished by our group in this field.The main features of quantum communication systems used in our experiments are:(1) The bright entangled optical beams with the anticorrelated amplitude quadratures and the correlated phase quadratures that serve as the entanglement resources and (2) The Bell-state direct detection systems are utilized in the measurements of quantum entanglement and transmitted signals instead of the usually balanced homodyne detectors.

  11. Self-referenced continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Sarovar, Mohan; Camacho, Ryan

    2017-01-24

    Various technologies for continuous-variable quantum key distribution without transmitting a transmitter's local oscillator are described herein. A receiver on an optical transmission channel uses an oscillator signal generated by a light source at the receiver's location to perform interferometric detection on received signals. An optical reference pulse is sent by the transmitter on the transmission channel and the receiver computes a phase offset of the transmission based on quadrature measurements of the reference pulse. The receiver can then compensate for the phase offset between the transmitter's reference and the receiver's reference when measuring quadratures of received data pulses.

  12. Self-referenced continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Sarovar, Mohan; Camacho, Ryan

    2017-01-24

    Various technologies for continuous-variable quantum key distribution without transmitting a transmitter's local oscillator are described herein. A receiver on an optical transmission channel uses an oscillator signal generated by a light source at the receiver's location to perform interferometric detection on received signals. An optical reference pulse is sent by the transmitter on the transmission channel and the receiver computes a phase offset of the transmission based on quadrature measurements of the reference pulse. The receiver can then compensate for the phase offset between the transmitter's reference and the receiver's reference when measuring quadratures of received data pulses.

  13. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  14. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation in bosonic structured environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Guangqiang; Zhang Jingtao; Zhu Jun; Zeng Guihua [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-09-15

    The effects of dynamics of continuous-variable entanglement under the various kinds of environments on quantum teleportation are quantitatively investigated. Only under assumption of the weak system-reservoir interaction, the evolution of teleportation fidelity is analytically derived and is numerically plotted in terms of environment parameters including reservoir temperature and its spectral density, without Markovian and rotating wave approximations. We find that the fidelity of teleportation is a monotonically decreasing function for Markovian interaction in Ohmic-like environments, while it oscillates for non-Markovian ones. According to the dynamical laws of teleportation, teleportation with better performances can be implemented by selecting the appropriate time.

  15. Spectral density correction of a signal at frequency variable transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel NICOLAU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to determine analytical expression for the spectral density function of a signal, affected by a known frequency transformation, which do not modify the process energy. Such transformations of frequency variable can frequently appear on spectral density function of a signal, due to physical events (e.g. Doppler effect or mathematical considerations (e.g. changing the coordinate system. In this case, all components of the spectral density function are modified. The formulas are valid for every spectral component and can be used in signal processing, for model simulation or implementation of advanced algorithm. A case study is illustrated on wave spectrum correction.

  16. The continuous wave NQR spectrometer with equidistant frequency scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samila A. P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The phase binding frequency of marginal oscillator to frequency synthesizer which includes a phase detector, are used for linearization of the frequency sweep. For spectrum calibration the circuit is designed which forms «scale rule» of the frequency tags with an interval of 10 and 100 kHz.

  17. The continuous wave NQR spectrometer with equidistant frequency scale

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The phase binding frequency of marginal oscillator to frequency synthesizer which includes a phase detector, are used for linearization of the frequency sweep. For spectrum calibration the circuit is designed which forms «scale rule» of the frequency tags with an interval of 10 and 100 kHz.

  18. Analysis, Design and Application of Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Seelan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT offers a continuum of gear ratios between desired limits. This allows the engine to operate more time in the optimum range. In contrast, traditional automatic and manual transmissions have several fixed transmission ratios forcing the engine to operate outside the optimum range. The need for a transmission system and the working principle of CVT has been discussed in depth. An attempt has been made to understand the contribution of Hydraulic Actuators, which is an integral part of a CVT. Furthermore, the question of how and why a Torque Converter has effectively replaced a conventional clutch has been answered. The materials used, constructional aspects and stress analysis of the belt has been discussed in detail. A graphical comparison of fuel efficiency between a manual transmission and a CVT in different high end vehicles is included. Recent developments in clamping force control for the push belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT have resulted in increased efficiency in combination with improved robustness. Current control strategies attempt to prevent macro slip between elements and pulleys at all times for maximum robustness.

  19. Externally induced continuous variable entanglement in a correlated emission laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfa, Sintayehu [Physics Department, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)], E-mail: sint_tesfa@yahoo.com

    2008-07-28

    Analysis of the externally induced quantum features of the cavity radiation of the two-photon correlated emission laser is presented. It turns out that the pumping process induces atomic coherence accountable for observing entanglement in the cavity radiation as well as the nonclassical photon number correlation despite the arising vacuum fluctuations. Even though a significant continuous variable entanglement is obtained near threshold in the strong driving limit, increasing the amplitude of the driving radiation more than required for a fixed value of the linear gain coefficient is found to degrade the degree of entanglement. The two-mode squeezing of the superimposed radiation, entanglement of the cavity radiation and mean number of photon pairs increase with the rate at which the atoms are injected into the cavity, but the nonclassical photon number correlation decreases. Moreover, the mean photon number corresponding to the transition from the upper energy level to the intermediate is found to be greater than the transition from the intermediate to the lower. With conceivable practical challenges, it is in principle possible to generate an intense continuous variable entanglement and quantify it via photon count measurements.

  20. Eigenchannel decomposition for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, L.; Imre, S.

    2015-03-01

    We develop a singular layer transmission model for continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). In CVQKD, the transmit information is carried by continuous-variable (CV) quantum states, particularly by Gaussian random distributed position and momentum quadratures. The reliable transmission of the quadrature components over a noisy link is a cornerstone of CVQKD protocols. The proposed singular layer uses the singular value decomposition of the Gaussian quantum channel, which yields an additional degree of freedom for the phase space transmission. This additional degree of freedom can further be exploited in a multiple-access scenario. The singular layer defines the eigenchannels of the Gaussian physical link, which can be used for the simultaneous reliable transmission of multiple user data streams. We demonstrate the results through the adaptive multicarrier quadrature division-multiuser quadrature allocation (AMQD-MQA) CVQKD multiple-access scheme. We define the singular model of AMQD-MQA and characterize the properties of the eigenchannel interference. The singular layer transmission provides improved simultaneous transmission rates for the users with unconditional security in a multiple-access scenario, particularly in crucial low signal-to-noise ratio regimes.

  1. STUDY ON THE VIBRATION CHARACTERISTIC OF THE METAL PUSHING BELT CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The solid and finite element model of metal pushing type continuously variable transmission are established at speed ratio of i=0.5 and i=2.0.In order to solve the problem of the complicated of structure,the node-node rod discrete finite element model is put forward and the whole system is simplified and established.The natural frequency and mode shape of system are solved by iterative Lanczos-reduce method for sensitivity analysis in finite element model.The new method and the result can be used to improve the smoothness of the variable transmission system and to propose the theory for reducing noise at operation.

  2. LQR Controller for Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission in Reverse Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensler, Michel; Kawabe, Taketoshi; Joe, Shinichiro

    The system considered in this paper is a Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission (TCVT) system for cars. This system is unstable in reverse motion as some mechanical parts have been removed from the original one for cost reduction, and the gear ratio has to be regulated around its nominal value for car reverse motion. The control theory used here is the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) associated to a gain-scheduling technique, as the TCVT system is nonlinear according to the car speed. Moreover, as the LQR method requires the entire TCVT state vector and as the only available signal is the gear ratio, a full-order observer is designed. In order to take the other nonlinearities of the system into account, the observer is nonlinear: a diffeomorphism is then used for converting the variables provided by the nonlinear observer into the needed variables. In order to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the controller against the car speed and the torque shift disturbance phenomenon, several experiments with a test-bed and with an actual vehicle have been performed and showed the efficiency of the proposed controller.

  3. Multi-frequency Study of Intraday Variable Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cim`o, G; Krichbaum, T P; Beckert, T; Kraus, A L; Witzel, A; Zensus, J A; Cim\\`o, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Intraday variability (IDV) of compact extragalactic radio sources is a complex phenomenon and shows a wavelength dependent mixture of refractive interstellar scintillation (RISS) (dominant at long cm-wavelengths) and source-intrinsic effects (dominant at shorter wavelengths). Detailed investigations of individual sources and new high frequency observations suggest a source-intrinsic contribution to the IDV pattern at least in some sources. However, the sizes of intraday variable sources at cm-wavelength are typically smaller than the scattering size set by the ISM in our galaxy and scintillation must be present, too. We present new IDV observations in different regimes (from cm to sub-mm wavelengths) and show how such multi-frequency study can be used as powerful instrument to describe different aspects of IDV.

  4. Speed Control of Induction Motor by Using Variable Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Drive Pooja Shinde; Rupali Burungale

    2014-01-01

    The variable speed drive is focused on voltage amplitude control. However, its only control speed in constraint limits. The load on Induction Motor is not constant & vary as per load requirement. so speed must be change as per load. If the supply voltage decreased motor torque also decreases, for maintaining same torque, slip decreases hence speed falls and motor speed is directly proportional to supply frequency, hence to maintain a speed, the supply V/F ratio must be vary ac...

  5. Speed Control of Induction Motor by Using Variable Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drive Pooja Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The variable speed drive is focused on voltage amplitude control. However, its only control speed in constraint limits. The load on Induction Motor is not constant & vary as per load requirement. so speed must be change as per load. If the supply voltage decreased motor torque also decreases, for maintaining same torque, slip decreases hence speed falls and motor speed is directly proportional to supply frequency, hence to maintain a speed, the supply V/F ratio must be vary accordingly. But the speed is not vary proportion to application so it consume the rated power and it becomes economically disadvantages. To overcome above problem a new concept of Variable Frequency Drive (VFD is introduced. Adding a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD to a motor driven system can offer potential energy saving in a system in which the load vary with time. The primary function of VFD in application is to provide energy saving, speed reduction of 20% can save energy upto 50%.

  6. 一种新型临界模式控制的变频软开关全桥DC/DC变流器%A Novel Variable Frequency Soft Switching Full-bridge DC/DC Converter With Critical Continuous Mode Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟培培; 吴新科; 赵晨; 张军明; 钱照明

    2012-01-01

    储能电感位于原边的全桥DC/DC变流器(full bridgeconverter with primary side energy storage inductor,FB-PESI),采用传统的固定频率、移向控制(phase-shift,PS)方式时主要工作于断续导通模式(discontinuous conductionmode,DCM),不适合应用于宽范围电压输入的场合。为克服PSFB-PESI变流器的这一缺点,提出一种新型的采用变频(variable frequency,VF)控制策略的FB-PESI DC/DC变流器(VFFB-PESI)。该VFFB-PESI变流器不仅保留了PSFB-PESI变流器宽范围软开关、高效率、高功率密度的优点,还可始终工作于临界导通模式(critical continuous operation mode,CrCM),从而在宽输入电压范围内均可获得较高的变换效率。同时给出了针对该VFFB-PESI变流器的损耗分析方法和优化设计流程。通过制作的300 W、200~400 V输入、12 V输出样机实验,验证了理论分析的正确性。%The Full Bridge DC/DC converter with primary side energy storage inductor(FB-PESI) is not suitable for the applications with wide input voltage range because of its discontinuous conduction mode(DCM) with traditional constant switching frequency,phase-shift(PS) control strategy.This paper proposed a novel variable frequency(VF) PWM controlled FB-PESI DC/DC converter(VFFB-PESI),which not only reserved the advantages of PSFB-PESI converter,such as,wide soft-switching range,high frequency and high power density,but also can always operate in the critical continuous operation mode(CrCM),and obtain relatively high conversion efficiency over a wide input voltage range.The losses evaluation and optimal design procedure are also included.A 300 Watts prototype with 200~400 V input and 12 V output is built up.Experimental results verify the operating principle of the proposed converters.

  7. Biasing vector network analyzers using variable frequency and amplitude signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, J. E.; Zagorodnii, V.; Hutchison, A.; Celinski, Z.

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of a test setup designed to provide a variable frequency biasing signal to a vector network analyzer (VNA). The test setup is currently used for the testing of liquid crystal (LC) based devices in the microwave region. The use of an AC bias for LC based devices minimizes the negative effects associated with ionic impurities in the media encountered with DC biasing. The test setup utilizes bias tees on the VNA test station to inject the bias signal. The square wave biasing signal is variable from 0.5 to 36.0 V peak-to-peak (VPP) with a frequency range of DC to 10 kHz. The test setup protects the VNA from transient processes, voltage spikes, and high-frequency leakage. Additionally, the signals to the VNA are fused to ½ amp and clipped to a maximum of 36 VPP based on bias tee limitations. This setup allows us to measure S-parameters as a function of both the voltage and the frequency of the applied bias signal.

  8. Pitch link loads reduction of variable speed rotors by variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Dong

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the pitch link loads of variable speed rotors, variable tuning frequency fluid-lastic isolators are proposed. This isolator utilizes the variation of centrifugal force due to the change of rotor speed to change the tuning port area ratio, which can change the tuning frequency of the isolator. A rotor model including the model of fluidlastic isolator is coupled with a fuselage model to predict the steady responses of the rotor system in forward flight. The aeroelastic analyses indicate that distinct performance improvement in pitch link load control can be achieved by the utilization of variable frequency isolators compared with the constant tuning frequency isolators. The 4/rev (per revolution) pitch link load is observed to be reduced by 87.6%compared with the increase of 56.3%by the constant frequency isolator, when the rotor speed is reduced by 16.7%. The isolation ability at different rotor speeds in different flight states is investigated. To achieve overall load reduction within the whole range of rotor speed, the strategy of the variation of tuning frequency is adjusted. The results indicate that the 4/rev pitch link load within the whole rotor speed range is decreased.

  9. Pitch link loads reduction of variable speed rotors by variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the pitch link loads of variable speed rotors, variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators are proposed. This isolator utilizes the variation of centrifugal force due to the change of rotor speed to change the tuning port area ratio, which can change the tuning frequency of the isolator. A rotor model including the model of fluidlastic isolator is coupled with a fuselage model to predict the steady responses of the rotor system in forward flight. The aeroelastic analyses indicate that distinct performance improvement in pitch link load control can be achieved by the utilization of variable frequency isolators compared with the constant tuning frequency isolators. The 4/rev (per revolution pitch link load is observed to be reduced by 87.6% compared with the increase of 56.3% by the constant frequency isolator, when the rotor speed is reduced by 16.7%. The isolation ability at different rotor speeds in different flight states is investigated. To achieve overall load reduction within the whole range of rotor speed, the strategy of the variation of tuning frequency is adjusted. The results indicate that the 4/rev pitch link load within the whole rotor speed range is decreased.

  10. Ultracompact Generation of Continuous-Variable Cluster States

    CERN Document Server

    Menicucci, N C; Pfister, O; Zaidi, H; Flammia, Steven T.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Pfister, Olivier; Zaidi, Hussain

    2007-01-01

    We show that any continuous-variable (CV) cluster state with a bipartite graph -- a class that includes computationally universal graphs -- can be generated with a single multimode squeezing Hamiltonian acting on the vacuum. Any such Hamiltonian can, in principle, be implemented optically using a single optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on a multiply phasematched nonlinear crystal pumped by an O(N^2)-mode field. This is in contrast to the equally resource-efficient scheme proposed in quant-ph/0610119, which requires N single-mode OPOs plus a network of O(N^2) beam splitters. The method proposed here is an essential step toward the efficient experimental creation of large-scale CV cluster states. As an illustration, we detail the experimental creation of a four-mode square CV cluster state from a single OPO.

  11. Notes on a Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Hirano, Takuya; Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Namiki, Ryo

    2017-09-01

    We develop a physical model to describe the signal transmission for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme and investigate its security against a couple of eavesdropping attacks assuming that the eavesdropper's power is partly restricted owing to today's technological limitations. We consider an eavesdropper performing quantum optical homodyne measurement on the signal obtained by a type of beamsplitting attack. We also consider the case in which the eavesdropper Eve is unable to access a quantum memory and she performs heterodyne measurement on her signal without performing a delayed measurement. Our formulation includes a model in which the receiver's loss and noise are unaccessible by the eavesdropper. This setup enables us to investigate the condition that Eve uses a practical fiber differently from the usual beamsplitting attack where she can deploy a lossless transmission channel. The secret key rates are calculated in both the direct and reverse reconciliation scenarios.

  12. Optimized tomography of continuous variable systems using excitation counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Heeres, Reinier W.; Reinhold, Philip; Jiang, Luyao; Liu, Yi-Kai; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Jiang, Liang

    2016-11-01

    We propose a systematic procedure to optimize quantum state tomography protocols for continuous variable systems based on excitation counting preceded by a displacement operation. Compared with conventional tomography based on Husimi or Wigner function measurement, the excitation counting approach can significantly reduce the number of measurement settings. We investigate both informational completeness and robustness, and provide a bound of reconstruction error involving the condition number of the sensing map. We also identify the measurement settings that optimize this error bound, and demonstrate that the improved reconstruction robustness can lead to an order-of-magnitude reduction of estimation error with given resources. This optimization procedure is general and can incorporate prior information of the unknown state to further simplify the protocol.

  13. High-efficiency reconciliation for continuous variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zengliang; Yang, Shenshen; Li, Yongmin

    2017-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is the most mature application of quantum information technology. Information reconciliation is a crucial step in QKD and significantly affects the final secret key rates shared between two legitimate parties. We analyze and compare various construction methods of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and design high-performance irregular LDPC codes with a block length of 106. Starting from these good codes and exploiting the slice reconciliation technique based on multilevel coding and multistage decoding, we realize high-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation with efficiency higher than 95% for signal-to-noise ratios above 1. Our demonstrated method can be readily applied in continuous variable QKD.

  14. Entanglement in continuous variable systems: Recent advances and current perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures, and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization, and the scaling o...

  15. Optimal use of multipartite entanglement for continuous variable teleportation

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    In this work we point out how the continuous variable teleportation protocol takes advantage of the quadrature entanglement in different ways, depending on the preparation of the entangled state. For a given amount of the entanglement resource, we describe the best production scheme for a two-mode Gaussian state, which enables quantum teleportation with optimal fidelity. We extend this study to multiparty entangled Gaussian states and define an operative measure of multipartite entanglement related to the optimal fidelity in a quantum teleportation network experiment. This optimal fidelity is shown to be equivalent to the entanglement of formation for the standard two-user protocol, and to the multipartite localizable entanglement for the multiuser protocol.

  16. Entanglement, Purity, and Information Entropies in Continuous Variable Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    Quantum entanglement of pure states of a bipartite system is defined as the amount of local or marginal ({\\em i.e.}referring to the subsystems) entropy. For mixed states this identification vanishes, since the global loss of information about the state makes it impossible to distinguish between quantum and classical correlations. Here we show how the joint knowledge of the global and marginal degrees of information of a quantum state, quantified by the purities or in general by information entropies, provides an accurate characterization of its entanglement. In particular, for Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, we classify the entanglement of two--mode states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness, comparing the different roles played by the purity and the generalized $p-$entropies in quantifying the mixedness and bounding the entanglement. We prove the existence of strict upper and lower bounds on the entanglement and the existence of extremally (maximally and minimally) entang...

  17. Reverse reconciliation for continuous variable quantum key distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An efficient and practical post-processing technique based on reverse reconciliation for continuous variable quantum key distribution is proposed and simulated with low-density parity check (LDPC) codes. MultiLevel Coding/ MultiStage Decoding, which fully utilizes optimization technique such as vector quantization and iterative decoding and the optimal channel coding most close to the Shannon limit, was used to realize efficient reverse reconciliation algorithm. Simulation results showed that the proposed method can improve the secure key distribution rate to 2.2 kb/s and the coding efficiency to 0.89 over 20 km in single-mode optical fiber. Moreover, there still is room for much improvement.

  18. An overview on research developments of toroidal continuously variable transmissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As environmental protection agencies enact new regulations for automotive fuel economy and emission, the toroidal continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) keep on contribute to the advent of system technologies for better fuel consumption of automobiles with internal combustion engines (ICE). Toroidal CVTs use infinitely adjustable drive ratios instead of stepped gears to achieve optimal performance. Toroidal CVTs are one of the earliest patents to the automotive world but their torque capacities and reliability have limitations in the past. New developments and implementations in the control strategies, and several key technologies have led to development of more robust toroidal CVTs, which enables more extensive automotive application of toroidal CTVs. This paper concerns with the current development, upcoming and progress set in the context of the past development and the traditional problems associated with toroidal CVTs.

  19. Optimal continuous-variable teleportation under energy constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehak; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2017-05-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the crucial protocols in quantum information processing. It is important to accomplish an efficient teleportation under practical conditions, aiming at a higher fidelity desirably using fewer resources. The continuous-variable (CV) version of quantum teleportation was first proposed using a Gaussian state as a quantum resource, while other attempts were also made to improve performance by applying non-Gaussian operations. We investigate the CV teleportation to find its ultimate fidelity under energy constraint identifying an optimal quantum state. For this purpose, we present a formalism to evaluate teleportation fidelity as an expectation value of an operator. Using this formalism, we prove that the optimal state must be a form of photon-number entangled states. We further show that Gaussian states are near optimal, while non-Gaussian states make a slight improvement and therefore are rigorously optimal, particularly in the low-energy regime.

  20. Continuous-variable quantum computing on encrypted data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kevin; Jacobsen, Christian S.; Schäfermeier, Clemens; Gehring, Tobias; Weedbrook, Christian; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to perform computations on encrypted data is a powerful tool for protecting a client's privacy, especially in today's era of cloud and distributed computing. In terms of privacy, the best solutions that classical techniques can achieve are unfortunately not unconditionally secure in the sense that they are dependent on a hacker's computational power. Here we theoretically investigate, and experimentally demonstrate with Gaussian displacement and squeezing operations, a quantum solution that achieves the security of a user's privacy using the practical technology of continuous variables. We demonstrate losses of up to 10 km both ways between the client and the server and show that security can still be achieved. Our approach offers a number of practical benefits (from a quantum perspective) that could one day allow the potential widespread adoption of this quantum technology in future cloud-based computing networks.

  1. Atmospheric Channel Characteristics for Quantum Communication with Continuous Polarization Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Heim, Bettina; Bartley, Tim; Sabuncu, Metin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Sych, Denis; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the properties of an atmospheric channel for free space quantum communication with continuous polarization variables. In our prepare-and-measure setup, coherent polarization states are transmitted through an atmospheric quantum channel of 100m length on the roof of our institute's building. The signal states are measured by homodyne detection with the help of a local oscillator (LO) which propagates in the same spatial mode as the signal, orthogonally polarized to it. Thus the interference of signal and LO is excellent and atmospheric fluctuations are autocompensated. The LO also acts as spatial and spectral filter, which allows for unrestrained daylight operation. Important characteristics for our system are atmospheric channel influences that could cause polarization, intensity and position excess noise. Therefore we study these influences in detail. Our results indicate that the channel is suitable for our quantum communication system in most weather conditions.

  2. Design studies of continuously variable transmissions for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. J.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Fischer, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed on four continuously variable transmission (CVT) concepts for use with a flywheel equipped electric vehicle of 1700 kg gross weight. Requirements of the CVT's were a maximum torque of 450 N-m (330 lb-ft), a maximum output power of 75 kW (100 hp), and a flywheel speed range of 28,000 to 14,000 rpm. Efficiency, size, weight, cost, reliability, maintainability, and controls were evaluated for each of the four concepts which included a steel V-belt type, a flat rubber belt type, a toroidal traction type, and a cone roller traction type. All CVT's exhibited relatively high calculated efficiencies (68 percent to 97 percent) over a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. Estimated weight and size of these transmissions were comparable to or less than equivalent automatic transmission. The design of each concept was carried through the design layout stage.

  3. Low frequency component in systolic arterial pressure variability in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Luca; Corino, Valentina; Belletti, Sebastiano; Terranova, Paolo; Lombardi, Federico

    2009-12-03

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia characterized by irregular ventricular response. During AF, beat-to-beat variability of arterial pressure (AP) is increased because of continuous changes in filling time, stroke volume and contractility. Only a few studies have analyzed short-term AP variability during AF but they were mainly focused on the effects of respiration. We therefore analyzed short-term systolic (S), diastolic (D) and mean (M) AP variability by autoregressive method and an FFT-based spectral estimation (Welch periodogram) in 26 patients with persistent AF before and after restoration of sinus rhythm by electrical cardioversion. A low frequency (LF) component (central frequency 0.07+/-0.02 Hz, mean+/-standard deviation) of SAP variability was observed in 23 out of 26 patients during AF. Frequency analysis of DAP and MAP also showed a LF component with a central frequency of 0.08+/-0.03 Hz (20 patients) and 0.07+/-0.03 Hz (25 patients), respectively. After recovery of sinus rhythm, we found significant reduction in mean SAP, DAP and MAP variability in all frequency bands. Squared coherence between SAP and heart rate variability after recovery of sinus rhythm revealed a weak and strong coupling within, respectively, LF and HF frequency bands. These data indicate that in patients with AF, in spite of an absence of rhythmical oscillation in RR interval time series, it is possible to observe a LF component in SAP, DAP and MAP variability signals. These 0.1 Hz fluctuations reflect the influence of the sympathetic fibres acting on the cardiovascular system.

  4. Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Continuous-Variable Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Huang, Dazu; Shi, Jinjing

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the revealing features of the continuous-variable (CV) quantum cryptography, we suggest an arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocol with CV coherent states. It involves three participants, i.e., the signer Alice, the verifier Bob and the arbitrator Charlie who is trustworthy by Alice and Bob. Three phases initializing phase, signing phase and verifying phase are included in our protocol. The security of the signature scheme is guaranteed by the generation of the shared keys via the CV-based quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) and the implementation process of the CV-based quantum teleportation as well. Security analysis demonstrates that the signature can be neither forged by anyone nor disavowed by the receiver and signer. Moreover, the authenticity and integrality of the transmitted messages can be ensured. The paper shows that a potential high-speed quantum signature scheme with high detection efficiency and repetition rate can be realized when compared to the discrete-variable (DV) quantum signature scheme attributing to the well characteristics of CV-QKD.

  5. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  6. Treating heavy slop oil with variable frequency microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, G.; Scoular, R.J.; Soveran, D. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine a new variable frequency microwave treatment for slop oils and sludges of heavy crude oil from the Elk Point region in the Lloydminster area. Slop oil is a field produced mixture of oil, water and solids. It consists of a high-solids content and is very stable. Traditionally, these oily wastes were treated with ineffective demulsifying agents and disposal. Microwave treatment of slop oils offers an on-site treatment method that could significantly reduce the disposal volumes of oily wastes. Lambda Technologies has developed a new technology using variable frequency microwaves. When radiation between 5800 and 7000 MHz was applied to the slop oil, it did not break up. The oil-solids detachment improved by up to 29 per cent. The frequency centred on 6400 MHz was found to be most effective. It was concluded that an economical in-situ microwave treatment system could help operators to significantly decrease volumes of oil wastes, thereby reducing disposal costs. 11 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Detecting the harmonics of oscillations with time-variable frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, L. W.; Stefanovska, A.; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2011-01-01

    A method is introduced for the spectral analysis of complex noisy signals containing several frequency components. It enables components that are independent to be distinguished from the harmonics of nonsinusoidal oscillatory processes of lower frequency. The method is based on mutual information and surrogate testing combined with the wavelet transform, and it is applicable to relatively short time series containing frequencies that are time variable. Where the fundamental frequency and harmonics of a process can be identified, the characteristic shape of the corresponding oscillation can be determined, enabling adaptive filtering to remove other components and nonoscillatory noise from the signal. Thus the total bandwidth of the signal can be correctly partitioned and the power associated with each component then can be quantified more accurately. The method is first demonstrated on numerical examples. It is then used to identify the higher harmonics of oscillations in human skin blood flow, both spontaneous and associated with periodic iontophoresis of a vasodilatory agent. The method should be equally relevant to all situations where signals of comparable complexity are encountered, including applications in astrophysics, engineering, and electrical circuits, as well as in other areas of physiology and biology.

  8. An Improved Variable-Frequency Drive Based on Current Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei He

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Variable frequency devices are widely used in many power systems. A current tracking based VFD is proposed in this paper. The output current is firstly fed back and compared with a standard sine wave, the difference of them is then used for a PI regulator to control the PWM signal, so as to change the output current accordingly to make it approach the standard sine wave. Simulation and experiments results show that the current tracking VFD not only has a fast dynamic response, high current tracking precision, current limiting ability, but also has small distortion of the output sine wave current and low loss of the motor.    

  9. INTERMITTENT VERSUS CONTINUOUS INCREMENTAL FIELD TESTS: ARE MAXIMAL VARIABLES INTERCHANGEABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorival J. Carminatti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR and the Vameval test (T-VAM, characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat, volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE at peak test velocities (PV. No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1 and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm. During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm. However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04 (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s with a low correlation (r = 0.41. The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs.

  10. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.

  11. Monogamy relation in multipartite continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-12-01

    Quantum teleportation (QT) is a fundamentally remarkable communication protocol that also finds many important applications for quantum informatics. Given a quantum entangled resource, it is crucial to know to what extent one can accomplish the QT. This is usually assessed in terms of output fidelity, which can also be regarded as an operational measure of entanglement. In the case of multipartite communication when each communicator possesses a part of an N -partite entangled state, not all pairs of communicators can achieve a high fidelity due to the monogamy property of quantum entanglement. We here investigate how such a monogamy relation arises in multipartite continuous-variable (CV) teleportation, particularly when using a Gaussian entangled state. We show a strict monogamy relation, i.e., a sender cannot achieve a fidelity higher than optimal cloning limit with more than one receiver. While this seems rather natural owing to the no-cloning theorem, a strict monogamy relation still holds even if the sender is allowed to individually manipulate the reduced state in collaboration with each receiver to improve fidelity. The local operations are further extended to non-Gaussian operations such as photon subtraction and addition, and we demonstrate that the Gaussian cloning bound cannot be beaten by more than one pair of communicators. Furthermore, we investigate a quantitative form of monogamy relation in terms of teleportation capability, for which we show that a faithful monogamy inequality does not exist.

  12. Quantum memory for entangled continuous-variable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K.; Wasilewski, W.; Krauter, H.; Fernholz, T.; Nielsen, B. M.; Owari, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Serafini, A.; Wolf, M. M.; Polzik, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    A quantum memory for light is a key element for the realization of future quantum information networks. Requirements for a good quantum memory are versatility (allowing a wide range of inputs) and preservation of quantum information in a way unattainable with any classical memory device. Here we demonstrate such a quantum memory for continuous-variable entangled states, which play a fundamental role in quantum information processing. We store an extensive alphabet of two-mode 6.0dB squeezed states obtained by varying the orientation of squeezing and the displacement of the states. The two components of the entangled state are stored in two room-temperature cells separated by 0.5m, one for each mode, with a memory time of 1ms. The true quantum character of the memory is rigorously proved by showing that the experimental memory fidelity 0.52+/-0.02 significantly exceeds the benchmark of 0.45 for the best possible classical memory for a range of displacements.

  13. Squeezed State Effects on Continuous Variable Quantum Erasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Peter; Kasisomayajula, Vijay; Russo, Onofrio

    2008-03-01

    Experimental verification of complementarity using quantum erasing for the continuous variable (CV) infinite dimensional Hilbert space has been considered. [1] The complemetary pair is that of the canonically conjugate amplitude and phase quadratures of light. The amplitude quadrature is labeled to a squeezed meter signal by quantum nondemolition (QND) [2] entanglement coupling. [3] Knowledge of which eigenstate (WE) can be obtained by measuring this amplitude in the meter state, and can thereafter be `lost' by measuring the quadrature phase of the meter, thus restoring the quadrature phase of the signal beam in a process known as quantum erasure. [4] The coupling, i.e. the labeling of the signal state to the meter state, is implemented with a beam splitter coupled to the squeezed light meter beam. [4] We investigate the effects of using the unitary squeeze operator S(z)=exp.5ex1 -.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 (z*a^2 - za^+2) where z = re^i(squeezing angle) on selected coherent states under certain conditions. [5,6] [1] U. L. Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 100403 (2004). [2] V. B. Braginsky et al., Science 209, 547 (1980). [3] R. Bruckmeimer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 43 (1997). [4] P. Grangier et al., Nature 396, 537 (1998). [5] C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981). [6] D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. D. 1, 3217 (1970), D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. D. 4, 1925 (1971). .

  14. Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Systems: Terminology and Present Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of continuously variable transmission systems in many different areas such as aerospace, robotics, machinery and automotive industries as an alternative to conventional speed changers with constant ratio becomes widely.Especially in the automotive industry, these systems have been used increasingly, since they enable that internal combustion engines in vehicles run at optimal speeds, and consequently provide considerable fuel savings and therefore lower emission values and also they provide powerful acceleration and quiet working. CVT systems have several constructive variants such as belted, chained, balled, toroidal etc. In this paper, toroidal CVT systems based on elastohydrodynamic principles are concerned with, and fundamental works of last two decades in this field are reviewed. However, the relevant terminology and dynamics along with the control of these systems are briefly treated for better understanding of the literature mentioned. Attention is drawn to the lack of some significant issues in present research works, and potential future works are pointed out. This paper, to the authors’ knowledge, will be the first review on toroidal CVT systems in Turkish literature

  15. Quantum relay schemes for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Liao, Qin; Huang, Duan; Zeng, Guihua

    2017-04-01

    We propose several concatenated quantum relay continuous-variable quantum key distribution schemes based on the parametric amplifier (PA) and the beam splitter (BS). Instead of using only one BS in the traditional relay scheme, the proposed schemes provide two operations that involve both PA and BS, activating the beam splitting and recombining operations in turn. These schemes would benefit the system performance improvement by providing signal amplification and establishing quantum correlations. We show that the different effects of the relay schemes will cause different system performances because of the varied signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of output fields. The system's secret key rate will be increased when equipping with the PA-BS relay scheme, because the output fields of the PA are entangled with the correlated quantum noises while input fields of the BS are superimposed, subsequently leading to the quantum noise reduction of the total output fields of relay station, while the reversed BS-PA relay scheme has little advantage over the traditional counterpart that contains only one BS in relay data postprocessing because it will not cause any SNR improvement. Moreover, the reinforced PA-PA relay scheme results in a slight improvement due to the increased SNR. These quantum relay schemes can be performed through the beam splitting, the recombining operations, and the relay data postprocessing, such that it would be suitable for secret information exchange in complex networks with intermediate stations.

  16. Quantification of peripheral and central blood pressure variability using a time-frequency method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaki, Z; Butlin, M; Qasem, A; Avolio, A P; Kouchaki, Z; Butlin, M; Qasem, A; Avolio, A P; Kouchaki, Z; Avolio, A P; Butlin, M; Qasem, A

    2016-08-01

    Systolic blood pressure variability (BPV) is associated with cardiovascular events. As the beat-to-beat variation of blood pressure is due to interaction of several cardiovascular control systems operating with different response times, assessment of BPV by spectral analysis using the continuous measurement of arterial pressure in the finger is used to differentiate the contribution of these systems in regulating blood pressure. However, as baroreceptors are centrally located, this study considered applying a continuous aortic pressure signal estimated noninvasively from finger pressure for assessment of systolic BPV by a time-frequency method using Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT). The average ratio of low frequency and high frequency power band (LFPB/HFPB) was computed by time-frequency decomposition of peripheral systolic pressure (pSBP) and derived central aortic systolic blood pressure (cSBP) in 30 healthy subjects (25-62 years) as a marker of balance between cardiovascular control systems contributing in low and high frequency blood pressure variability. The results showed that the BPV assessed from finger pressure (pBPV) overestimated the BPV values compared to that assessed from central aortic pressure (cBPV) for identical cardiac cycles (P<;0.001), with the overestimation being greater at higher power.

  17. New nonlinear mechanisms of midlatitude atmospheric low-frequency variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, A. E.; Vitolo, R.; Broer, H. W.; Simó, C.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2010-05-01

    This paper studies the dynamical mechanisms potentially involved in the so-called atmospheric low-frequency variability, occurring at midlatitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. This phenomenon is characterised by recurrent non-propagating and temporally persistent flow patterns, with typical spatial and temporal scales of 6000-10 000 km and 10-50 days, respectively. We study a low-order model derived from the 2-layer shallow-water equations on a β-plane channel. The main ingredients of the low-order model are a zonal flow, a planetary scale wave, orography, and a baroclinic-like forcing. A systematic analysis of the dynamics of the low-order model is performed using techniques and concepts from dynamical systems theory. Orography height ( h0) and magnitude of zonal wind forcing ( U0) are used as control parameters to study the bifurcations of equilibria and periodic orbits. Along two curves of Hopf bifurcations an equilibrium loses stability ( U0≥12.5 m/s) and gives birth to two distinct families of periodic orbits. These periodic orbits bifurcate into strange attractors along three routes to chaos: period doubling cascades, breakdown of 2-tori by homo- and heteroclinic bifurcations, or intermittency ( U0≥14.5 m/s and h0≥800 m). The observed attractors exhibit spatial and temporal low-frequency patterns comparing well with those observed in the atmosphere. For h0≤800 m the periodic orbits have a period of about 10 days and patterns in the vorticity field propagate eastward. For h0≥800 m, the period is longer (30-60 days) and patterns in the vorticity field are non-propagating. The dynamics on the strange attractors are associated with low-frequency variability: the vorticity fields show weakening and strengthening of non-propagating planetary waves on time scales of 10-200 days. The spatio-temporal characteristics are “inherited” (by intermittency) from the two families of periodic orbits and are detected in a relatively large region of the parameter

  18. Generalized linear models for categorical and continuous limited dependent variables

    CERN Document Server

    Smithson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and OverviewThe Nature of Limited Dependent VariablesOverview of GLMsEstimation Methods and Model EvaluationOrganization of This BookDiscrete VariablesBinary VariablesLogistic RegressionThe Binomial GLMEstimation Methods and IssuesAnalyses in R and StataExercisesNominal Polytomous VariablesMultinomial Logit ModelConditional Logit and Choice ModelsMultinomial Processing Tree ModelsEstimation Methods and Model EvaluationAnalyses in R and StataExercisesOrdinal Categorical VariablesModeling Ordinal Variables: Common Practice versus Best PracticeOrdinal Model AlternativesCumulative Mod

  19. A power conditioning system with kinetic energy storage using a continuously variable gearbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddell, A.J.; Freris, L.L. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bleijs, J.A.M. [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom); Infield, D.G. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Integration of wind power into isolated networks and weak mains grids presents problems due to power fluctuations. Energy storage may be used to compensate for wind power fluctuations at the source. This paper discusses the requirements of an energy store, and describes details of a prototype system consisting of a flywheel, a mechanical continuously variable transmission (CVT), and a synchronous machine. The requirements for control of power, voltage, and frequency of the system are defined. Computer models and simulation are used to design suitable controllers, and optimise the dynamic response of the power conditioning system. The prototype system has been constructed and commissioned and results of initial tests are described. (Author)

  20. High Radio Frequency Properties and Variability of Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, M T; Geach, J E; Grainge, K J B; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Hovatta, T; Karim, A; McNamara, B R; Rumsey, C; Russell, H R; Salomé, P; Aller, H D; Aller, M F; Benford, D J; Fabian, A C; Readhead, A C S; Sadler, E M; Saunders, R D E

    2015-01-01

    We consider the high radio frequency (15 GHz - 353 GHz) properties and variability of 35 Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs). These are the most core-dominated sources drawn from a parent sample of more than 700 X-ray selected clusters, thus allowing us to relate our results to the general population. We find that >6.0% of our parent sample (>15.1% if only cool-core clusters are considered) contain a radio-source at 150 GHz of at least 3mJy (~1x10^23 W/Hz at our median redshift of z~0.13). Furthermore, >3.4% of the BCGs in our parent sample contain a peaked component (Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum, GPS) in their spectra that peaks above 2 GHz, increasing to >8.5% if only cool-core clusters are considered. We see little evidence for strong variability at 15 GHz on short (week-month) time-scales although we see variations greater than 20% at 150 GHz over 6-month times-frames for 4 of the 23 sources with multi-epoch observations. Much more prevalent is long-term (year-decade time-scale) variability, with average annua...

  1. Continuous short-wave (radio-frequency) diathermy.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Continuous shortwave diathermy is the technique of choice when uniform marked elevation of temperature is required in the deep tissues. This heating can be targeted accurately by using an appropriate applicator positioned correctly. SWD also allows superficial structures to be heated selectively, although for this the various methods of surface heating are usually preferable. Sub-acute or chronic conditions respond best to continuous shortwave diathermy which, when used properly, can be as ef...

  2. Directional Time-frequency Analysis via Continuous Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Forster, Birgitte; Massopust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Grafakos and Sansing [‘Gabor frames and directional time–frequency analysis’, Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal.25 (2008), 47–67] have shown how to obtain directionally sensitive time–frequency decompositions in L2(Rn) based on Gabor systems in L2(R). The key tool is the ‘ridge idea’, which lifts...... spaces. The first step allows us to apply the theory to several other classes of frames, for example wavelet frames and shift-invariant systems, and the second one significantly extends the class of examples and applications. We consider applications to the Meyer wavelet and complex B...

  3. Continuous cardiac output measurement - Aspects of Doppler frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. S.; Hechtman, H. B.

    1975-01-01

    From the suprasternal notch blood flow velocity in the aorta can be measured non-invasively by a Doppler probe. Integration over systole after frequency analysis gives a measure of stroke volume if a separate diameter observation is incorporated. Frequency analysis by a zero crossing counter or by a set of parallel phaselock loops was less effective than a set of bandpass filters. Observations on dogs, baboons and humans before and after exercise or surgery suggest the indications to be useful. Application to judging heart failure by the effect of introducing a volume load is indicated. Changes in output also are measured in freely moving subjects.

  4. Continuous operation of four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Oguri, Yusuke; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Hirano, Takuya; Kasai, Kenta; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2016-10-01

    We report on the development of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system that are based on discrete quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and homodyne detection of coherent states of light. We use a pulsed light source whose wavelength is 1550 nm and repetition rate is 10 MHz. The CV-QKD system can continuously generate secret key which is secure against entangling cloner attack. Key generation rate is 50 kbps when the quantum channel is a 10 km optical fiber. The CV-QKD system we have developed utilizes the four-state and post-selection protocol [T. Hirano, et al., Phys. Rev. A 68, 042331 (2003).]; Alice randomly sends one of four states {|+/-α⟩,|+/-𝑖α⟩}, and Bob randomly performs x- or p- measurement by homodyne detection. A commercially available balanced receiver is used to realize shot-noise-limited pulsed homodyne detection. GPU cards are used to accelerate the software-based post-processing. We use a non-binary LDPC code for error correction (reverse reconciliation) and the Toeplitz matrix multiplication for privacy amplification.

  5. Continuous short-wave (radio-frequency) diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goats, G C

    1989-06-01

    Continuous shortwave diathermy is the technique of choice when uniform marked elevation of temperature is required in the deep tissues. This heating can be targeted accurately by using an appropriate applicator positioned correctly. SWD also allows superficial structures to be heated selectively, although for this the various methods of surface heating are usually preferable. Sub-acute or chronic conditions respond best to continuous shortwave diathermy which, when used properly, can be as effective as ultrasound. Acute lesions are better treated with pulsed shortwave diathermy. Continuous shortwave diathermy can help to relieve pain and muscle spasm, resolve inflammatory states and reduce swelling, promote vasodilation, increase the compliance of connective tissue, increase joint range and decrease joint stiffness.

  6. Variable frequency iteration MPPT for resonant power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian; Bataresh, Issa; Chen, Lin

    2015-06-30

    A method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) uses an MPPT algorithm to determine a switching frequency for a resonant power converter, including initializing by setting an initial boundary frequency range that is divided into initial frequency sub-ranges bounded by initial frequencies including an initial center frequency and first and second initial bounding frequencies. A first iteration includes measuring initial powers at the initial frequencies to determine a maximum power initial frequency that is used to set a first reduced frequency search range centered or bounded by the maximum power initial frequency including at least a first additional bounding frequency. A second iteration includes calculating first and second center frequencies by averaging adjacent frequent values in the first reduced frequency search range and measuring second power values at the first and second center frequencies. The switching frequency is determined from measured power values including the second power values.

  7. Measuring amplitudes of harmonics and combination frequencies in variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, E. P.; Wysocki, D.; Kanbur, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    Discoveries of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variable stars with multiple modes of pulsation have increased tremendously in recent years. The Fourier spectra of these stars can be quite complicated due to the large number of combination frequencies that can exist between their modes. As a result, light- curve fits to these stars often suffer from undesirable ringing effects that arise from noisy observations and poor phase coverage. These non-physical overfitting artifacts also occur when fitting the harmonics of single-mode stars. Here we present a new method for fitting light curves that is much more robust against these effects. We prove that the amplitude measurement problem is very difficult (NP-hard) and provide a heuristic algorithm for solving it quickly and accurately.

  8. Measuring amplitudes of harmonics and combination frequencies in variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bellinger, Earl P; Kanbur, Shashi M

    2015-01-01

    Discoveries of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variable stars with multiple modes of pulsation have increased tremendously in recent years. The Fourier spectra of these stars can be quite complicated due to the large number of combination frequencies that can exist between their modes. As a result, light-curve fits to these stars often suffer from undesirable ringing effects that arise from noisy observations and poor phase coverage. These non-physical overfitting artifacts also occur when fitting the harmonics of single-mode stars as well. Here we present a new method for fitting light curves that is much more robust against these effects. We prove that the amplitude measurement problem is very difficult (NP-hard) and provide a heuristic algorithm for solving it quickly and accurately.

  9. The influence of the pressure force control signal on selected parameters of the vehicle continuously variable transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, A.; Graba, M.; Prażnowski, K.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of research on the effect of frequency control signal on the course selected operating parameters of the continuously variable transmission CVT. The study used a gear Fuji Hyper M6 with electro-hydraulic control system and proprietary software for control and data acquisition developed in LabView environment.

  10. Variable Voltage Source Inverter with controlled frequency spectrum based on Random Pulse Width Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farrukh Yaqub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for single phase variable voltage inverter based on Random Pulse Width Modulation. In Random Pulse Width Modulation based inverter, the frequency spectrum of the output current and voltage waveforms becomes continuous because of the randomization of the switching function of the devices controlling the output voltages. This paper establishes a theory that if the distributions of the random numbers generated by the random source are kept within certain limit with respect to the peak value of reference sinusoidal waveform, the frequency spectrum can be controlled. On the basis of the results, a novel drive using variable tap changing transformer (optional and adaptive random number generator, to control the ratio between the numbers generated by the random source and the reference waveform has been suggested that will guarantee a better power quality profile for a broad range of output voltages.

  11. Low Frequency Variability and the Eastern Mediterranean Teleconnection Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.

    2007-12-01

    The long time series analysis of the atmospheric circulation has revealed large scale correlations between the flow at remote locations. These fluctuations belong in the low frequency range of timescale and referred to as teleconnections patterns. They are located in particular places and appear as preferred modes of low-frequency natural variability of the atmospheric circulation with fixed oscillating nodes and antinodes, called poles. These teleconnection patterns describe standing waves oscillating with time scales of a month or longer. It has been recognized that the large scale eddies and their feedback onto the mean flow, the propagation of Rossby waves in the midlatitudes and the stratosphere-troposphere interaction play an important role in understanding low frequency general circulation and variability. In previous studies, the Eastern Mediterranean Teleconnection pattern (EMP) was found with its two poles located in North-eastern Europe and Eastern Mediterranean, and it was predominantly identified at the upper troposphere during winter. An index was defined, based on the exact position of the two poles of the pattern, to represent the strength of the teleconnection pattern and to discriminate its positive and negative phase. The objective of this study is to investigate the large scale dynamics related to the development of EMP. For this purpose, datasets of daily geopotential height, temperature and horizontal wind components at several isobaric levels are employed, as obtained from the NCEP/NCAR and from the ECMWF centres, for the calculation of transient eddy kinetic energy, E-vectors, Rossby wave source and potential vorticity. It was found that the role of the eddy driven mid-latitude jet is important. It is likely that the subtropical jet is passive and that the transient eddies remove much more momentum in the negative phase, when the storm- track comes charging into Europe. Rossby wave propagation seems to determine the differing wave

  12. The added value of lifestyle variables: the search continues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    People’s residential preferences are generally predicted on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics. Recently, however, it is argued that these variables no longer suffice and that they should be supplemented with lifestyle variables. The cur-rent study explores this assumption for a number

  13. Variables Influencing the Likelihood of Practice Change after Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrah, Shirley J.; Graham, Steven W.

    This study was conducted to identify the continuing education (CE) elements nurses believed were most likely to influence their nursing practice and to examine R. Cervero's (1982) comprehensive model of continuing professional education. A total of 344 registered nurses returned questionnaires about CE. Using a researcher-developed 37-item…

  14. High frequency chest compression effects heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Lee, Yong W; Warwick, Warren J

    2007-01-01

    High frequency chest compression (HFCC) supplies a sequence of air pulses through a jacket worn by a patient to remove excessive mucus for the treatment or prevention of lung disease patients. The air pulses produced from the pulse generator propagates over the thorax delivering the vibration and compression energy. A number of studies have demonstrated that the HFCC system increases the ability to clear mucus and improves lung function. Few studies have examined the change in instantaneous heart rate (iHR) and heart rate variability (HRV) during the HFCC therapy. The purpose of this study is to measure the change of HRV with four experimental protocols: (a) without HFCC, (b) during Inflated, (c)HFCC at 6Hz, and (d) HFCC at 21Hz. The nonlinearity and regularity of HRV was assessed by approximate entropy (ApEn), a method used to quantify the complexities and randomness. To compute the ApEn, we sectioned with a total of eight epochs and displayed the ApEn over the each epoch. Our results show significant differences in the both the iHR and HRV between the experimental protocols. The iHR was elevated at both the (c) 6Hz and (d) 21Hz condition from without HFCC (10%, 16%, respectively). We also found that the HFCC system tends to increase the HRV. Our study suggests that monitoring iHR and HRV are very important physiological indexes during HFCC therapy.

  15. Investigation of Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulator/Demodulator Compatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    20 d,"mO Test Signal) 4 stp Ize Pratio -J-l Li] c4 u FnoR~e mx -,cli - td 32k/ I’.’: (2 .Bm’ et i~ l z s tep g ize Ratio MJismatc(_h Bd FREQUENCY ( HZJ ...1-b/s SZample Rate (-20 dBr,.O Test Signal) 77 Time Gonstant ’.’isrnatch * f7 - Mtche d Q .0025 0 .0 0. 9> 14J liot FREQUENCY ( HZJ Fipure 50 a . CVSD...APPENDIX rl Total t’,ar-onic i tor’i w’. -r -,,,t ,ntl Po’..’r PROGRAM DTHD(I PUT,OUTPUT,TAPES-INPUT.TAPE6-OUTPUT,PLOT) CT_---- -- - TD US. INPUT POER

  16. Environment-assisted quantum-information correction for continuous variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, R.; Leuchs, G.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum-information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this article we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous-varia...

  17. State-independent quantum contextuality for continuous variables

    CERN Document Server

    Plastino, Angel R

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that nature violates noncontextual inequalities regardless of the state of the physical system. So far, all these inequalities involve measurements of dichotomic observables. We show that state-independent quantum contextuality can also be observed in the correlations between measurements of observables with genuinely continuous spectra, highlighting the universal character of the effect.

  18. Hidden variable problem for a family of continuously many spin 1 measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzynski, Pawel; Soeda, Akihito; Bzdega, Bartlomiej; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2012-01-01

    We study a continuous set of spin 1 measurements and show that for a special family of measurements parametrized by a single variable $\\theta$ the possibility of hidden-variable description is a discontinuous property.

  19. Continuous variable quantum teleportation with a finite-basis entanglement resource

    CERN Document Server

    Kurzeja, S I J

    2002-01-01

    Entanglement is a crucial resource in quantum information theory. We investigate the use of different forms of entangled states in continuous variable quantum teleportation, specifically the use of a finite-basis entanglement resource. We also consider the continuous variable teleportation of finite-basis states, such as qubits, and present results that point to the possibility of an efficient conditional scheme for continuous variable teleportation of such states with near-unit fidelity using finite-basis entanglement.

  20. Single-frequency and tunable operation of a continuous intracavity-frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    My, Thu-Hien; Drag, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2008-07-01

    A widely tunable continuous intracavity-frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal is described. The idler radiation resonating in the cavity is frequency doubled by an intracavity BBO crystal. Pumped in the green, this system can provide up to 485 mW of single-frequency orange radiation. The system is continuously temperature tunable between 1170 and 1355 nm for the idler, 876 and 975 nm for the signal, and between 585 and 678 nm for the doubled idler. The free-running power and frequency stability of the system have been observed to be better than those for a single-mode dye laser.

  1. SOGI-FLL Based Adaptive Filter for DSTATCOM Under Variable Supply Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Vishal; Arya, Sabha Raj

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an adaptive filter based on second order generalized integrator-frequency locked loop (SOGI-FLL) for distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) operating under variable supply frequency with nonlinear load. It is observed that under variable supply frequency, the FLL provides an excellent frequency tracking performance. Necessary compensation can be provided by DSTATCOM at any frequency with the help of SOGI-FLL. The MATLAB simulink model of DSTATCOM is developed with SOGI-FLL based control algorithm and rectifier based nonlinear load. This three wire system is simulated in power factor correction and zero voltage regulation mode under variable supply frequency.

  2. SOGI-FLL Based Adaptive Filter for DSTATCOM Under Variable Supply Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Vishal; Arya, Sabha Raj

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an adaptive filter based on second order generalized integrator-frequency locked loop (SOGI-FLL) for distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) operating under variable supply frequency with nonlinear load. It is observed that under variable supply frequency, the FLL provides an excellent frequency tracking performance. Necessary compensation can be provided by DSTATCOM at any frequency with the help of SOGI-FLL. The MATLAB simulink model of DSTATCOM is developed with SOGI-FLL based control algorithm and rectifier based nonlinear load. This three wire system is simulated in power factor correction and zero voltage regulation mode under variable supply frequency.

  3. Dynamics of a pulsed continuous variable quantum memory

    CERN Document Server

    Dantan, A; Grangier, P; Pinard, M; Cviklinski, Jean; Dantan, Aurelien; Grangier, Philippe; Pinard, Michel

    2005-01-01

    We study the transfer dynamics of non-classical fluctuations of light to the ground-state collective spin components of an atomic ensemble during a pulsed quantum memory sequence, and evaluate the relevant physical quantities to be measured in order to characterize such a quantum memory. We show in particular that the fluctuations stored into the atoms are emitted in temporal modes which are always different than those of the readout pulse, but which can nevertheless be retrieved efficiently using a suitable temporal mode-matching technique. We give a simple toy model - a cavity with variable transmission - which accounts for the behavior of the atomic quantum memory.

  4. Continuously variable rating: a new, simple and logical procedure to evaluate original scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha e Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Impact Factors (IF are widely used surrogates to evaluate single articles, in spite of known shortcomings imposed by cite distribution skewness. We quantify this asymmetry and propose a simple computer-based procedure for evaluating individual articles. METHOD: (a Analysis of symmetry. Journals clustered around nine Impact Factor points were selected from the medical ‘‘Subject Categories’’ in Journal Citation Reports 2010. Citable items published in 2008 were retrieved and ranked by granted citations over the Jan/2008 - Jun/2011 period. Frequency distribution of cites, normalized cumulative cites and absolute cites/decile were determined for each journal cluster. (b Positive Predictive Value. Three arbitrarily established evaluation classes were generated: LOW (1.33.9. Positive Predictive Value for journal clusters within each class range was estimated. (c Continuously Variable Rating. An alternative evaluation procedure is proposed to allow the rating of individually published articles in comparison to all articles published in the same journal within the same year of publication. The general guiding lines for the construction of a totally dedicated software program are delineated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Skewness followed the Pareto Distribution for (1Continuously Variable Rating is shown to be a simple computer based procedure capable of accurately providing a valid rating for each article within the journal and time frame in which it was published.

  5. Variable frequency of pulse hydraulic fracturing for improving permeability in coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Quangui; Lin Baiquan; Zhai Cheng; Ni Guanhua; Peng Shen; Sun Chen; Cheng Yanying

    2013-01-01

    Variable frequency, a new pattern of pulse hydraulic fracturing, is presented for improving permeability in coal seam. A variable frequency pulse hydraulic fracturing testing system was built, the mould with triaxial loading was developed. Based on the monitor methods of pressure sensor and acoustic emission, the trials of two patterns of pulse hydraulic fracturing of single frequency and variable frequency were carried out, and at last fracturing mechanism was analyzed. The results show that the effect of variable frequency on fracture extension is better than that of single frequency based on the analysis of macro-scopic figures and AE. And the shortage of single frequency is somewhat remedied when the frequency is variable. Under variable frequency, the pressure process can be divided into three stages: low fre-quency band, pressure stability band and high frequency band, and rupture pressure of the sample is smaller than that of the condition of single frequency. Based on the Miner fatigue theory, the effect of different loading sequences on sample rupture is discussed and the results show that it is better to select the sequence of low frequency at first and then high frequency. Our achievements can give a basis for the improvement and optimization of the pulse hydraulic fracturing technology.

  6. Generation of multipartite continuous-variable entanglement via atomic spin wave: Heisenberg-Langevin approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihua; Shang, Jie; Xue, Bolin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Min

    2014-05-19

    We conduct theoretical studies on the effects of various parameters on generation of multipartite continuous-variable entanglement via atomic spin wave induced by the strong coupling and probe fields in the Λ-type electromagnetically induced transparency configuration in a realistic atomic ensemble by using the Heisenberg-Langevin formalism. It is shown that the increase of the atomic density and/or Rabi frequencies of the scattering fields, as well as the decrease of the coherence decay rate of the lower doublet would strengthen the degree of multipartite entanglement. This provides a clear evidence that the creation of multicolor multipartite entangled narrow-band fields to any desired number with a long correlation time can be achieved conveniently by using atomic spin wave in an atomic ensemble with large optical depth, which may find interesting applications in quantum information processing and quantum networks.

  7. Reduced models of extratropical low-frequency variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strounine, Kirill

    Low-frequency variability (LFV) of the atmosphere refers to its behavior on time scales of 10-100 days, longer than the life cycle of a mid-latitude cyclone but shorter than a season. This behavior is still poorly understood and hard to predict. It has been helpful in gaining understanding that might improve prediction to use various simplified models. The present study compares and contrasts various mode reduction strategies that help derive systematically such simplified models of LFV. Three major strategies have been applied to reduce a fairly realistic, high-dimensional, quasi-geostrophic, 3-level (QG3) atmospheric model to lower dimensions: (i) a purely empirical, multi-level regression procedure, which specifies the functional form of the reduced model and finds the model coefficients by multiple polynomial regression; (ii) an empirical-dynamical method, which retains only a few components in the projection of the full QG3 model equations onto a specified basis (the so-called bare truncation), and finds the linear deterministic and additive stochastic corrections empirically; and (iii) a dynamics-based technique, employing the stochastic mode reduction strategy of Majda et al. (2001; MTV). Subject to the assumption of significant time-scale separation in the physical system under consideration, MTV derives the form of the reduced model and finds its coefficients with minimal statistical fitting. The empirical-dynamical and dynamical reduced models were further improved by sequential parameter estimation and benchmarked against multi-level regression models; the extended Kalman filter (EKF) was used for the parameter estimation. In constructing the reduced models, the choice of basis functions is also important. We considered as basis functions a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). These EOFs were computed using (a) an energy norm; and (b) a potential-enstrophy norm. We also devised a method, using singular value decomposition of the full

  8. Daily meal frequency and associated variables in children and adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Fabiana A; Candiá, Samara M; Pequeno, Marina S; Sartorelli, Daniela S; Mendes, Larissa L; Oliveira, Renata M.S; Netto, Michele P; Cândido, Ana Paula C

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the frequency distribution of daily meals and its relation to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, anthropometric and biochemical factors in children and adolescents. Methods...

  9. Conjugate variables in continuous maximum-entropy inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2012-11-01

    For a continuous maximum-entropy distribution (obtained from an arbitrary number of simultaneous constraints), we derive a general relation connecting the Lagrange multipliers and the expectation values of certain particularly constructed functions of the states of the system. From this relation, an estimator for a given Lagrange multiplier can be constructed from derivatives of the corresponding constraining function. These estimators sometimes lead to the determination of the Lagrange multipliers by way of solving a linear system, and, in general, they provide another tool to widen the applicability of Jaynes's formalism. This general relation, especially well suited for computer simulation techniques, also provides some insight into the interpretation of the hypervirial relations known in statistical mechanics and the recently derived microcanonical dynamical temperature. We illustrate the usefulness of these new relations with several applications in statistics.

  10. Variable Coupling Scheme for High Frequency Electron Spin Resonance Resonators Using Asymmetric Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipikin, D S; Earle, K A; Freed, J H

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of a high frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer depends strongly on the structure used to couple the incident millimeter wave to the sample that generates the ESR signal. Subsequent coupling of the ESR signal to the detection arm of the spectrometer is also a crucial consideration for achieving high spectrometer sensitivity. In previous work, we found that a means for continuously varying the coupling was necessary for attaining high sensitivity reliably and reproducibly. We report here on a novel asymmetric mesh structure that achieves continuously variable coupling by rotating the mesh in its own plane about the millimeter wave transmission line optical axis. We quantify the performance of this device with nitroxide spin-label spectra in both a lossy aqueous solution and a low loss solid state system. These two systems have very different coupling requirements and are representative of the range of coupling achievable with this technique. Lossy systems in particular are a demanding test of the achievable sensitivity and allow us to assess the suitability of this approach for applying high frequency ESR to the study of biological systems at physiological conditions, for example. The variable coupling technique reported on here allows us to readily achieve a factor of ca. 7 improvement in signal to noise at 170 GHz and a factor of ca. 5 at 95 GHz over what has previously been reported for lossy samples.

  11. Large-scale derived flood frequency analysis based on continuous simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, Viet; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Guse, Björn; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing need for spatially consistent flood risk assessments at the regional scale (several 100.000 km2), in particular in the insurance industry and for national risk reduction strategies. However, most large-scale flood risk assessments are composed of smaller-scale assessments and show spatial inconsistencies. To overcome this deficit, a large-scale flood model composed of a weather generator and catchments models was developed reflecting the spatially inherent heterogeneity. The weather generator is a multisite and multivariate stochastic model capable of generating synthetic meteorological fields (precipitation, temperature, etc.) at daily resolution for the regional scale. These fields respect the observed autocorrelation, spatial correlation and co-variance between the variables. They are used as input into catchment models. A long-term simulation of this combined system enables to derive very long discharge series at many catchment locations serving as a basic for spatially consistent flood risk estimates at the regional scale. This combined model was set up and validated for major river catchments in Germany. The weather generator was trained by 53-year observation data at 528 stations covering not only the complete Germany but also parts of France, Switzerland, Czech Republic and Australia with the aggregated spatial scale of 443,931 km2. 10.000 years of daily meteorological fields for the study area were generated. Likewise, rainfall-runoff simulations with SWIM were performed for the entire Elbe, Rhine, Weser, Donau and Ems catchments. The validation results illustrate a good performance of the combined system, as the simulated flood magnitudes and frequencies agree well with the observed flood data. Based on continuous simulation this model chain is then used to estimate flood quantiles for the whole Germany including upstream headwater catchments in neighbouring countries. This continuous large scale approach overcomes the several

  12. Continuous multi-parameter heart rate variability analysis heralds onset of sepsis in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ahmad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of sepsis enables timely resuscitation and antibiotics and prevents subsequent morbidity and mortality. Clinical approaches relying on point-in-time analysis of vital signs or lab values are often insensitive, non-specific and late diagnostic markers of sepsis. Exploring otherwise hidden information within intervals-in-time, heart rate variability (HRV has been documented to be both altered in the presence of sepsis, and correlated with its severity. We hypothesized that by continuously tracking individual patient HRV over time in patients as they develop sepsis, we would demonstrate reduced HRV in association with the onset of sepsis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We monitored heart rate continuously in adult bone marrow transplant (BMT patients (n = 21 beginning a day before their BMT and continuing until recovery or withdrawal (12+/-4 days. We characterized HRV continuously over time with a panel of time, frequency, complexity, and scale-invariant domain techniques. We defined baseline HRV as mean variability for the first 24 h of monitoring and studied individual and population average percentage change (from baseline over time in diverse HRV metrics, in comparison with the time of clinical diagnosis and treatment of sepsis (defined as systemic inflammatory response syndrome along with clinically suspected infection requiring treatment. Of the 21 patients enrolled, 4 patients withdrew, leaving 17 patients who completed the study. Fourteen patients developed sepsis requiring antibiotic therapy, whereas 3 did not. On average, for 12 out of 14 infected patients, a significant (25% reduction prior to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of sepsis was observed in standard deviation, root mean square successive difference, sample and multiscale entropy, fast Fourier transform, detrended fluctuation analysis, and wavelet variability metrics. For infected patients (n = 14, wavelet HRV demonstrated a 25% drop from

  13. Effect of Electromagnetic Frequency on Microstructures of Continuous Casting Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic frequency and microstructures of continuous casting aluminum alloyswas studied. 7075 aluminum alloy ingot of 100 mm in diameter was produced by electromagnetic continuouscasting process, the microstructures of as-cast ingot was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equippedwith energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that electromagnetic frequency greatly influencedsegregation and microstructures of as-cast ingot, and product quality can be guaranteed by the application of aproper frequency. Electromagnetic frequency plays a significant role in solute redistribution; Iow frequency is moreefficient for promoting solution of alloying elements.

  14. Finite-frequency model reduction of continuous-time switched linear systems with average dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Da-Wei; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the model reduction problem of continuous-time switched linear systems with finite-frequency input signals. The objective of the paper is to propose a finite-frequency model reduction method for such systems. A finite-frequency ? performance index is first defined in frequency domain, and then a finite-frequency performance analysis condition is derived by Parseval's theorem. Combined with the average dwell time approach, sufficient conditions for the existence of exponentially stable reduced-order models are derived. An algorithm is proposed to construct the desired reduced-order models. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  15. Variable-Speed, Constant-Frequency Generation Of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Feedback of stator power and reactive volt-amperes determines rotor excitation. New method involves control circuit separating rotor excitation into generation of slip frequency and control of amplitude and phase. In control circuit, speed determines slip frequency, while stator power and reactive volt-amperes determine amplitude and phase of rotor current.

  16. Variable-Speed, Constant-Frequency Generation Of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Feedback of stator power and reactive volt-amperes determines rotor excitation. New method involves control circuit separating rotor excitation into generation of slip frequency and control of amplitude and phase. In control circuit, speed determines slip frequency, while stator power and reactive volt-amperes determine amplitude and phase of rotor current.

  17. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley ``turbine`` (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the ``turbine`` corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the ``turbine`` belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  18. Chaotic dynamics of frequency combs generated with continuously pumped nonlinear microresonators

    CERN Document Server

    Matsko, Andrey B; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Maleki, Lute

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the chaotic regime of optical frequency combs generated in nonlinear ring microresonators pumped with continuous wave light. We show that the chaotic regime reveals itself, in an apparently counter-intuitive way, by a flat top symmetric envelope of the frequency spectrum, when observed by means of an optical spectrum analyzer. The comb demodulated on a fast photodiode produces a noisy radio frequency signal with an spectral width significantly exceeding the linear bandwidth of the microresonator mode.

  19. Defending Continuous Variable Teleportation: Why a laser is a clock, not a quantum channel

    CERN Document Server

    Wiseman, H M

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued [T. Rudolph and B.C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 87}, 077903 (2001)] that continuous-variable quantum teleportation at optical frequencies has not been achieved because the source used (a laser) was not `truly coherent'. Van Enk, and Fuchs [Phys. Rev. Lett, {\\bf 88}, 027902 (2002)], while arguing against Rudolph and Sanders, also accept that an `absolute phase' is achievable, even if it has not been achieved yet. I will argue to the contrary that `true coherence' or `absolute phase' is always illusory, as the concept of absolute time (at least for frequencies beyond direct human experience) is meaningless. All we can ever do is to use an agreed time standard. In this context, a laser beam is fundamentally as good a `clock' as any other. I explain in detail why this claim is true, and defend my argument against various objections. In the process I discuss super-selection rules, quantum channels, and the ultimate limits to the performance of a laser as a clock. For this last topic I use so...

  20. A New Type of Continuously Variable Displacement Mechanism Used for Hydraulic Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; SHI Guang-lin; CHEN Zhao-neng

    2007-01-01

    A continuously variable displacement mechanism, which is composed of a hydraulic control valve with mechanical-positional feedback to camshaft, was designed for changing the displacement of traditional camshaft connecting-rod low speed high torque (LSHT) hydraulic motor continuously. The new type of continuously variable displacement mechanism is simple and easy to be made. The structure and principle of a continuously variable displacement mechanism was introduced. The mathematic model of the continuously variable displacement mechanism was set up and its static and dynamic characteristics were analyzed with the help of computer simulation. It can be seen that the cam ring on camshaft of the traditional LSHT hydraulic motor can stop at any position between minimum and maximum eccentricity, according to an input fluid pressure signal. And it can also stay anywhere stably through self-adjusting. Besides, it can work stabilized when load impact or oil leakage exists.

  1. Efficient Three-Party Quantum Dialogue Protocol Based on the Continuous Variable GHZ States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qi-Biao; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-07-01

    Based on the continuous variable GHZ entangled states, an efficient three-party quantum dialogue protocol is devised, where each legitimate communication party could simultaneously deduce the secret information of the other two parties with perfect efficiency. The security is guaranteed by the correlation of the continuous variable GHZ entangled states and the randomly selected decoy states. Furthermore, the three-party quantum dialogue protocol is directly generalized to an N-party quantum dialogue protocol by using the n-tuple continuous variable GHZ entangled states.

  2. Control and Simulation of Continuously Variable Transmission for Electric Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张豫南; 葛蕴珊; 马晓军; 臧克茂

    2004-01-01

    According to the study of electric transmission, the concept of the fore and the aft power chain is presented. The control method of continuously variable transmission is established in the aft chain of electric transmission based on brushless DC motor. A fuzzy controller is designed with continuous fuzzy variables and the simulation module of the aft power chain is proved by test. The fuzzy controller controls the process of continuously variable transmission steadily and the acceleration of vehicle is quick according to simulation results. The elementary performance exhibited in the simulation is a foundation for the further study of the electric transmission track vehicle.

  3. Decentralized & Adaptive Load-Frequency Control Scheme of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    In power systems with high penetration of Wind Power (WP), transferring a part of Load Frequency Control (LFC) burden to variable speed Wind Turbines (WTs) is inevitable. The conventional LFC schemes merely rely on frequency information and since frequency is a common variable throughout the netw......In power systems with high penetration of Wind Power (WP), transferring a part of Load Frequency Control (LFC) burden to variable speed Wind Turbines (WTs) is inevitable. The conventional LFC schemes merely rely on frequency information and since frequency is a common variable throughout...... the network, the contribution share of faraway and close WTs in the LFC plan is same, whereas there may be sufficient spinning reserve available in the local WTs close to the event location. This paper employs the initial voltage drop at the moment of perturbation to assess the proximity to the failure point...

  4. Regularization for Continuously Observed Ordinal Response Variables with Piecewise-Constant Functional Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    response variable taking on ordinal values 1 to C and a 1x vector of explanatory variables , , the proportional odds model is given by...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Regularization for Continuously Observed Ordinal Response Variables with Piecewise...response variable , quality of video provided by the Shadow to friendly ground units, was measured on an ordinal scale continuously over time. Functional

  5. Low Frequency Variability In Globally Integrated Tropical Cyclone Power Dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Sriver, Ryan; Huber, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Surface wind and temperature records from the European Centre for Medium- Range Weather Forecasts 40 Year Reanalysis (ERA-40) Project are used to estimate low-frequency variations in globally integrated tropical cyclone (TC) intensity from 1958 to 2001. For the first time, the annually integrated power dissipation (PD) is explicitly calculated on a global scale, and results show an upward trend in PD during much of the ERA-40 project period, although we argue this is at least partially due to...

  6. Daily meal frequency and associated variables in children and adolescents,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana A. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To investigate the frequency distribution of daily meals and its relation to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, anthropometric and biochemical factors in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 708 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. Data on personal information, socioeconomic status, physical activity and number of meals were obtained through semi-structured questionnaire and consumption by 24-h recall and food record. Weight and height measurements were also performed to calculate the body mass index. Finally, blood samples were collected for analysis of total cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and glucose levels. Descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney test, and Poisson regression were used in statistical analysis. Results: Meal frequency 2 (PR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.11-2.11; p = 0.010. Even in the age group of 10-14 years, <4 meals was related to higher prevalence of body mass index (PR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.02-1.74; p = 0.032 and low-density lipoprotein (PR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03-1.87; p = 0.030 higher after adjustments. Conclusion: Lower frequency of meals was related to lower income in children and adolescents, larger number of sons in the family, and increased values of body mass index and low-density lipoprotein.

  7. Distributed Optimization Design of Continuous-Time Multiagent Systems With Unknown-Frequency Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghu; Hong, Yiguang; Yi, Peng; Ji, Haibo; Kang, Yu

    2017-05-24

    In this paper, a distributed optimization problem is studied for continuous-time multiagent systems with unknown-frequency disturbances. A distributed gradient-based control is proposed for the agents to achieve the optimal consensus with estimating unknown frequencies and rejecting the bounded disturbance in the semi-global sense. Based on convex optimization analysis and adaptive internal model approach, the exact optimization solution can be obtained for the multiagent system disturbed by exogenous disturbances with uncertain parameters.

  8. A simple F-center laser spectrometer for continuous single frequency scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Lykke, Keith R.; Nesbitt, David J.

    1988-12-01

    We report a simple and novel scheme for continuous, single frequency scanning of a commercial F-center laser without any computer interfacing. The scheme utilizes galvo tuning of the cavity length with intracavity CaF 2 Brewster plates with servo loop control of the intracavity etalon. This permits continuous tuning of the F-center frequency over 0.8 cm -1 under complete manual control, as well as arbitrarily long, concatenated scans, and trivial interfacing to a data acquisition system. This scanning spectrometer operation is demonstrated on direct absorption of atomic bromine.

  9. Spatiotemporal variability of extreme temperature frequency and amplitude in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanjie; Gao, Zhiqiu; Pan, Zaitao; Li, Dan; Huang, Xinhui

    2017-03-01

    Temperature extremes in China are examined based on daily maximum and minimum temperatures from station observations and multiple global climate models. The magnitude and frequency of extremes are expressed in terms of return values and periods, respectively, estimated by the fitted Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution of annual extreme temperatures. The observations suggest that changes in temperature extremes considerably exceed changes in the respective climatological means during the past five decades, with greater amplitude of increases in cold extremes than in warm extremes. The frequency of warm (cold) extremes increases (decreases) over most areas, with an increasingly faster rate as the extremity level rises. Changes in warm extremes are more dependent on the varying shape of GEV distribution than the location shift, whereas changes in cold extremes are more closely associated with the location shift. The models simulate the overall pattern of temperature extremes during 1961-1981 reasonably well in China, but they show a smaller asymmetry between changes in warm and cold extremes primarily due to their underestimation of increases in cold extremes especially over southern China. Projections from a high emission scenario show the multi-model median change in warm and cold extremes by 2040 relative to 1971 will be 2.6 °C and 2.8 °C, respectively, with the strongest changes in cold extremes shifting southward. By 2040, warm extremes at the 1971 20-year return values would occur about every three years, while the 1971 cold extremes would occur once in > 500 years.

  10. Sample Size Determination: A Comparison of Attribute, Continuous Variable, and Cell Size Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Philip M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three methods of sample size determination, each having its use in investigation of social science problems: Attribute method; Continuous Variable method; Galtung's Cell Size method. Statistical generalization, benefits of cell size method (ease of use, trivariate analysis and trichotyomized variables), and choice of method are…

  11. Including high frequency variability in coastal ocean acidification projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Takeshita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic ocean acidification requires knowledge of present-day and future environmental conditions. Here, we present a simple model for upwelling margins that projects anthropogenic acidification trajectories by combining high-temporal resolution sensor data, hydrographic surveys for source water characterization, empirical relationships of the CO2 system, and the atmospheric CO2 record. This model characterizes CO2 variability on timescales ranging from hours (e.g. tidal to months (e.g. seasonal, bridging a critical knowledge gap in ocean acidification research. The amount of anthropogenic carbon in a given water mass is dependent on the age, therefore a density–age relationship was derived for the study region, and was combined with the 2013 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change CO2 emission scenarios to add density-dependent anthropogenic carbon to the sensor time series. The model was applied to time series from four autonomous pH sensors, each deployed in the surf zone, kelp forest, submarine canyon edge, and shelf break in the upper 100 m of the Southern California Bight. All habitats were within 5 km of one another, and exhibited unique, habitat-specific CO2 variability signatures and acidification trajectories, demonstrating the importance of making projections in the context of habitat-specific CO2 signatures. In general, both the mean and range of pCO2 increase in the future, with the greatest increases in both magnitude and range occurring in the deeper habitats due to reduced buffering capacity. On the other hand, the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr decreased in both magnitude and range. This approach can be applied to the entire California Current System, and upwelling margins in general, where sensor and complementary hydrographic data are available.

  12. Variable Temperature High-Frequency Response of Heterostructure Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Joy

    1992-01-01

    The development of high performance heterostructure transistors is essential for emerging opto-electronic integrated circuits (OEICs) and monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). Applications for OEICs and MMICs include the rapidly growing telecommunications and personal communications markets. The key to successful OEIC and MMIC chip sets is the development of high performance, cost-effective technologies. In this work, several different transistor structures are investigated to determine the potential for high speed performance and the physical mechanisms controlling the ultimate device operation. A cryogenic vacuum microwave measurement system has been developed to study the high speed operation of modulation doped field-effect transistors (MODFETs), doped channel metal insulator field-effect transistors (MISFETs), and metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). This study has concluded that the high field velocity and not the low field mobility is what controls high frequency operation of GaAs based field-effect transistors. Both Al_{rm x} Ga_{rm 1-x}As/GaAs and InP/In_{rm y}Ga _{rm 1-y}As heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBTs) have also been studied at reduced lattice temperatures to understand the role of diffusive transport in the Al_{rm x} Ga_{rm 1-x}As/GaAs HBT and nonequilibrium transport in the InP/In _{rm y}Ga_ {rm 1-y}As HBT. It is shown that drift/diffusion formulation must be modified to accurately estimate the base delay time in the conventional Al _{rm x}Ga_ {rm 1-x}As/GaAs HBT. The reduced lattice temperature operation of the InP/In_ {rm y}Ga_{rm 1-y}As HBT demonstrates extreme nonequilibrium transport in the neutral base and collector space charge region with current gain cut-off frequency exceeding 300 GHz, which is the fastest reported transistor to date. Finally, the MODFET has been investigated as a three-terminal negative differential resistance (NDR) transistor. The existence of real space transfer is confirmed by

  13. Continuous-time ΣΔ ADC with implicit variable gain amplifier for CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Bermak, Amine; Abbes, Amira; Benammar, Mohieddine Amor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a column-parallel continuous-time sigma delta (CTSD) ADC for mega-pixel resolution CMOS image sensor (CIS). The sigma delta modulator is implemented with a 2nd order resistor/capacitor-based loop filter. The first integrator uses a conventional operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), for the concern of a high power noise rejection. The second integrator is realized with a single-ended inverter-based amplifier, instead of a standard OTA. As a result, the power consumption is reduced, without sacrificing the noise performance. Moreover, the variable gain amplifier in the traditional column-parallel read-out circuit is merged into the front-end of the CTSD modulator. By programming the input resistance, the amplitude range of the input current can be tuned with 8 scales, which is equivalent to a traditional 2-bit preamplification function without consuming extra power and chip area. The test chip prototype is fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process and the measurement result shows an ADC power consumption lower than 63.5 μW under 1.4 V power supply and 50 MHz clock frequency.

  14. Detecting and estimating continuous-variable entanglement by local orthogonal observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjie; Yu, Sixia; Chen, Qing; Oh, C H

    2013-11-01

    Entanglement detection and estimation are fundamental problems in quantum information science. Compared with discrete-variable states, for which lots of efficient entanglement detection criteria and lower bounds of entanglement measures have been proposed, the continuous-variable entanglement is much less understood. Here we shall present a family of entanglement witnesses based on continuous-variable local orthogonal observables (CVLOOs) to detect and estimate entanglement of Gaussian and non-Gaussian states, especially for bound entangled states. By choosing an optimal set of CVLOOs, our entanglement witness is equivalent to the realignment criterion and can be used to detect bound entanglement of a class of 2+2 mode Gaussian states. Via our entanglement witness, lower bounds of two typical entanglement measures for arbitrary two-mode continuous-variable states are provided.

  15. Subspace identification for continuous-time errors-in-variables model from sampled data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping WU; Chun-jie YANG; Zhi-huan SONG

    2009-01-01

    We study the subspace identification for the continuous-time errors-in-variables model from sampled data. First, the filtering approach is applied to handle the time-derivative problem inherent in continuous-time identification. The generalized Poisson moment functional is focused. A total least squares equation based on this filtering approach is derived. Inspired by the idea of discrete-time subspace identification based on principal component analysis, we develop two algorithms to deliver consistent estimates for the continuous-time errors-in-variables model by introducing two different instrumental variables. Order determination and other instrumental variables are discussed. The usefulness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated through numerical simulation.

  16. Research and Design of Hydro-mechanical Continuously Variable Transmission for Tractors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liyou; ZHOU Zhili; ZHANG Mingzhu; LI Yan

    2006-01-01

    A new type continuous variable transmission device, a hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission (HMCVT) for agricultural tractors is developed, which is composed of a single planetary gear differential train, a hydraulic transmission system consisted of variable displacement pump and fixed displacement motor and a multi-gear fixed step radio transmission. Based on the analysis of types of hydrostatic mechanical transmission (HMT) and styles of hydraulic transmission, the general drive scheme for HMCVT is obtained. The method of selecting mechanical parameters and hydraulic units is explained, and the stepless speed regulation characteristic of HMCVT is analyzed. This paper also specializes the calculating method of transmission efficiency. It shows that tractors assembled with HMCVT can obtain a continuously variable speed and achieve high drive efficiency.

  17. Critical flicker frequency and continuous reaction times for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Enok Munk; Jepsen, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    -to-perform reproducible bedside methods: the critical flicker frequency (CFF) and continuous reaction times (CRT) tests. A CFF ... appropriately to a sensory stimulus. The choice of test depends on the information needed in the clinical and scientific care and study of the patients....

  18. Study on 660-nm quasi-continuous-wave intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang(王涛); Jianquan Yao(姚建铨); Baigang Zhang(张百钢); Guiyan Zang(臧贵艳); Peng Wang(王鹏); Yizhong Yu(于意仲)

    2003-01-01

    A quasi-continuous-wave intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser which operates at 660 nm is studied.By using a flat-flat laser cavity, 2 Kr-lamps, KTP crystal and an acousto-optically Q-switch, 2-W outputpower at 660 nm is obtained. The relationship between laser cavity length and output power is analyzed.

  19. Theories and experiments on the stiffening effect of high-frequency excitation for continuous elastic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2003-01-01

    One effect of strong mechanical high-frequency excitation may be to apparently "stiffen" a structure, a well-described phenomenon for discrete systems. The present study provides theoretical and experimental results on this effect for continuous elastic structures. A laboratory experiment is set ...

  20. Background frequencies for residue variability estimates: BLOSUM revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reš I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shannon entropy applied to columns of multiple sequence alignments as a score of residue conservation has proven one of the most fruitful ideas in bioinformatics. This straightforward and intuitively appealing measure clearly shows the regions of a protein under increased evolutionary pressure, highlighting their functional importance. The inability of the column entropy to differentiate between residue types, however, limits its resolution power. Results In this work we suggest generalizing Shannon's expression to a function with similar mathematical properties, that, at the same time, includes observed propensities of residue types to mutate to each other. To do that, we revisit the original construction of BLOSUM matrices, and re-interpret them as mutation probability matrices. These probabilities are then used as background frequencies in the revised residue conservation measure. Conclusion We show that joint entropy with BLOSUM-proportional probabilities as a reference distribution enables detection of protein functional sites comparable in quality to a time-costly maximum-likelihood evolution simulation method (rate4site, and offers greater resolution than the Shannon entropy alone, in particular in the cases when the available sequences are of narrow evolutionary scope.

  1. Relationships between tuna catch and variable frequency oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormaza-González, Franklin Isaac; Mora-Cervetto, Alejandra; María Bermúdez-Martínez, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Skipjack (Katsuwunus pelamis), yellow fin (Thunnus albacares) and albacore (Thunnus alulunga) tunas landed in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) countries and Ecuador were correlated to the Indexes Oceanic El Niño (ONI) and Multivariate Enso Index (MEI). The temporal series 1983-2012, and 1977-1999 (warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO), and 2000-2012 (cold PDO) were analyzed. Linear correlation showed that at least 11 % of the total landings were associated with the MEI, with a slightly negative gradient from cold to warm conditions. When non-linear regression (n = 6), the R2 was higher up to 0.304 (MEI, r = 0.551). The correlation shows high spread from -0.5 to +0.5 for both MEI/ONI; the highest landings occurred at 0.34-0.45; both indexes suggested that at extreme values 1.1 total landings tend to decrease. Landings were associated up to 21.9 % (MEI) in 2000-2012, 1983-1999 rendered lower R2 (EPO associated to oceanographic events of high and low frequencies could be used somehow as predictors of the high El Niño o La Niña. There is a clear evidence that tuna fish biomass are at higher levels when the PDO is on cold phase (2000-2030) and vice versa on warm phase (1980-1999). The analysis of the skipjack catch per unit effort (CPUE) on floating aggregating devices (FADs) suggests higher CPUE on FADs (around 20 mt set-1) when oceanographic indexes ONI/MEI are below -0.5. Findings of this work suggest that fishing and management of commercial fish must be analyzed under the light of oceanographic conditions.

  2. Dual-frequency injection-locked continuous-wave near-infrared laser

    CERN Document Server

    Gavara, Trivikramarao; Sasaki, Yusuke; Kawashima, Takuya; Hamano, Hiroaki; Yoshizaki, Ryo; Fujimura, Yuki; Yoshii, Kazumichi; Ohae, Chiaki; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    We report a dual-frequency injection-locked continuous-wave near-infrared laser. The entire system consists of a Ti:sapphire ring laser as a power oscillator, two independent diode-lasers employed as seed lasers, and a master cavity providing a frequency reference. Stable dual-frequency injection-locked oscillation is achieved with a maximum output power of 2.8 W. As fundamental performance features of this laser system, we show its single longitudinal/transverse mode characteristics and practical power stability. Furthermore, as advanced features, we demonstrate arbitrary selectivity of the two frequencies and flexible control of their relative powers by simply manipulating the seed lasers.

  3. The performance analysis and calculation for variable frequency speed control motors with the rotor structure optimized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jun-ci; LI Wei-li

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, the method to optimize the rotor structure in variable frequency speed control motors is introduced. The saturation and the skin effect are considered and 2D no-load and load electromagnetic field is calculated in finite elements for a variable frequency speed control motor before and after optimization. Finally,no-load current and operation performance before and after optimization are obtained and the two results are contrasted.

  4. Automatic control: the vertebral column of dogfish sharks behaves as a continuously variable transmission with smoothly shifting functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marianne E; Ewoldt, Randy H; Long, John H

    2016-09-15

    During swimming in dogfish sharks, Squalus acanthias, both the intervertebral joints and the vertebral centra undergo significant strain. To investigate this system, unique among vertebrates, we cyclically bent isolated segments of 10 vertebrae and nine joints. For the first time in the biomechanics of fish vertebral columns, we simultaneously characterized non-linear elasticity and viscosity throughout the bending oscillation, extending recently proposed techniques for large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) characterization to large-amplitude oscillatory bending (LAOB). The vertebral column segments behave as non-linear viscoelastic springs. Elastic properties dominate for all frequencies and curvatures tested, increasing as either variable increases. Non-linearities within a bending cycle are most in evidence at the highest frequency, 2.0 Hz, and curvature, 5 m(-1) Viscous bending properties are greatest at low frequencies and high curvatures, with non-linear effects occurring at all frequencies and curvatures. The range of mechanical behaviors includes that of springs and brakes, with smooth transitions between them that allow for continuously variable power transmission by the vertebral column to assist in the mechanics of undulatory propulsion.

  5. A fast continuation scheme for accurate tracing of nonlinear oscillator frequency response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Dunne, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    A new algorithm is proposed to combine the split-frequency harmonic balance method (SF-HBM) with arc-length continuation (ALC) for accurate tracing of the frequency response of oscillators with non-expansible nonlinearities. ALC is incorporated into the SF-HBM in a two-stage procedure: Stage I involves finding a reasonably accurate response frequency and solution using a relatively large number of low-frequency harmonics. This step is achieved using the SF-HBM in conjunction with ALC. Stage II uses the SF-HBM to obtain a very accurate solution at the frequency obtained in Stage I. To guarantee rapid path tracing, the frequency axis is appropriately subdivided. This gives high chance of success in finding a globally optimum set of harmonic coefficients. When approaching a turning point however, arc-lengths are adaptively reduced to obtain a very accurate solution. The combined procedure is tested on three hardening stiffness examples: a Duffing model; an oscillator with non-expansible stiffness and single harmonic forcing; and an oscillator with non-expansible stiffness and multiple-harmonic forcing. The results show that for non-expansible nonlinearities and multiple-harmonic forcing, the proposed algorithm is capable of tracing-out frequency response functions with high accuracy and efficiency.

  6. Control Method for Variable Speed Wind Turbines to Support Temporary Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haijiao; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Quanyuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a control method for variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) to support temporary primary frequency control of power system. The control method contains two parts: (1) up-regulate support control when a frequency drop event occurs; (2) down-regulate support control when a frequen...

  7. Security of continuous-variable QKD: exploiting symmetries in phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Leverrier, Anthony; Grangier, Philippe; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2009-01-01

    Proving the unconditional security of a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for continuous-variable QKD as the Hilbert space where the protocol is described is infinite dimensional. A very natural way to address this problem is to make an extensive use of the symmetries of the protocols. In this article, we investigate a symmetry in phase space that is particularly relevant to continuous-variable QKD, and explore the way towards a new quantum de Finetti theorem that would exploit this symmetry and provide a powerful tool to assess the security of continuous-variable protocols.

  8. EPR-Steering measure for two-mode continuous variable states

    CERN Document Server

    Kogias, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Steering is a manifestation of quantum correlations that embodies the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. While there have been recent attempts to quantify steering, continuous variable systems remained elusive. We introduce a steering measure for two-mode continuous variable systems that is valid for arbitrary states. The measure is based on the violation of an optimized variance test for the EPR paradox, and admits a computable and experimentally friendly lower bound only depending on the second moments of the state, which reduces to a recently proposed quantifier of steerability by Gaussian measurements. We further show that Gaussian states are extremal with respect to our measure, minimizing it among all continuous variable states with fixed second moments. As a byproduct of our analysis, we generalize and relate well-known EPR-steering criteria. Finally an operational interpretation is provided, as the proposed measure is shown to quantify the optimal guaranteed key rate in semi-device independent qua...

  9. Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability in horses at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physick-Sheard, P W; Marlin, D J; Thornhill, R; Schroter, R C

    2000-05-01

    The pattern of variation in heart rate on a beat-to-beat basis contains information concerning sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) contributions to autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation of heart rate (HR). In the present study, heart period (RR interval) time series data were collected at rest and during 3 different treadmill exercise protocols from 6 Thoroughbred horses. Frequency and spectral power were determined in 3 frequency bands: very low (VLF) 0-0.01-0.07-< or = 0.5 cycles/beat. Indicators of sympathetic (SNSI = LO/HI) and parasympathetic (PNSI = HI/TOTAL) activity were calculated. Power in all bands fell progressively with increasing exercise intensity from rest to trot. At the gallop VLF and LO power continued to fall but HI power rose. SNSI rose from rest to walk, then fell with increasing effort and was lowest at the gallop. PNSI fell from rest to walk, then rose and was highest at the gallop. Normalised HI power exceeded combined VLF and LO power at all gaits, with the ratio HI to LO power being lowest at the walk and highest at the gallop. ANS indicators showed considerable inter-horse variation, and varied less consistently than raw power with increasing physical effort. In the horses studied, the relationship between power and HR changed at exercise intensities associated with heart rates above approximately 120-130 beats/min. At this level, humoral and other non-neural mechanisms may become more important than autonomic modulation in influencing heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV at intense effort may be influenced by respiratory-gait entrainment, energetics of locomotion and work of breathing. HRV analysis in the frequency domain would appear to be of potential value as a noninvasive means of assessing autonomic modulation of heart rate at low exercise intensities, only. The technique may be a sensitive method for assessing exercise response to experimental manipulations and disease states.

  10. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  11. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  12. Low-frequency variability of surface air temperature over the Barents Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Eveline C.; Bintanja, Richard; Hazeleger, Wilco; Graversen, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    The predominant decadal to multidecadal variability in the Arctic region is a feature that is not yet well-understood. It is shown that the Barents Sea is a key region for Arctic-wide variability. This is an important topic because low-frequency changes in the ocean might lead to large variations

  13. Effect of continuous speech and non-speech signals on stuttering frequency in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayalu, Vikram N; Guntupalli, Vijaya K; Kalinowski, Joseph; Stuart, Andrew; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Rastatter, Michael P

    2011-10-01

    The inhibitory effects of continuously presented audio signals (/a/, /s/, 1,000 Hz pure-tone) on stuttering were examined. Eleven adults who stutter participated. Participants read four 300-syllable passages (i.e. in the presence and absence of the audio signals). All of the audio signals induced a significant reduction in stuttering frequency relative to the control condition (P = 0.005). A significantly greater reduction in stuttering occurred in the /a/ condition (P 0.05). These findings are consistent with the notion that the percept of a second signal as speech or non-speech can respectively augment or attenuate the potency for reducing stuttering frequency.

  14. Sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave light at 194 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeland, D J; Cruz, F C; Bergquist, J C

    1997-06-20

    Over 2 mW of continuous-wave tunable 194-nm light is produced by sum-frequency mixing approximately 500 mW of 792-nm and 500 mW of 257-nm radiation in beta-barium borate (BBO). The powers in both fundamental beams are enhanced in separate ring cavities whose optical paths overlap in the Brewster-cut BBO crystal. Due to the higher circulating fundamental powers, the sum-frequency-generated power is nearly 2 orders of magnitude greater than previously reported values.

  15. Continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with frequency-shifted feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyakh, A., E-mail: arkadiy.lyakh@ucf.edu [Pranalytica, Inc., 1101 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica, CA 90401 (United States); NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Pkwy, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 304 Scorpius St, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Barron-Jimenez, R.; Dunayevskiy, I.; Go, R.; Tsvid, G.; Patel, C. Kumar N., E-mail: patel@pranalytica.com [Pranalytica, Inc., 1101 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica, CA 90401 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Operation of continuous wave quantum cascade lasers with a frequency-shifted feedback provided by an acousto-optic modulator is reported. Measured linewidth of 1.7 cm{sup −1} for these devices, under CW operating conditions, was in a good agreement with predictions of a model based on frequency-shifted feedback seeded by spontaneous emission. Linewidth broadening was observed for short sweep times, consistent with sound wave grating period variation across the illuminated area on the acousto-optic modulator. Standoff detection capability of the AOM-based QCL setup was demonstrated for several solid materials.

  16. First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present the results of the first low frequency all-sky search of continuous gravitational wave signals conducted on Virgo VSR2 and VSR4 data. The search covered the full sky, a frequency range between 20 and 128 Hz with a range of spin-down between -1.0 ×10-10 and +1.5 ×10-11 Hz /s , and was based on a hierarchical approach. The starting point was a set of short fast Fourier transforms, of length 8192 s, built from the calibrated strain data. Aggressive data cleaning, in both the time and frequency domains, has been done in order to remove, as much as possible, the effect of disturbances of instrumental origin. On each data set a number of candidates has been selected, using the FrequencyHough transform in an incoherent step. Only coincident candidates among VSR2 and VSR4 have been examined in order to strongly reduce the false alarm probability, and the most significant candidates have been selected. The criteria we have used for candidate selection and for the coincidence step greatly reduce the harmful effect of large instrumental artifacts. Selected candidates have been subject to a follow-up by constructing a new set of longer fast Fourier transforms followed by a further incoherent analysis, still based on the FrequencyHough transform. No evidence for continuous gravitational wave signals was found, and therefore we have set a population-based joint VSR2-VSR4 90% confidence level upper limit on the dimensionless gravitational wave strain in the frequency range between 20 and 128 Hz. This is the first all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves conducted, on data of ground-based interferometric detectors, at frequencies below 50 Hz. We set upper limits in the range between about 1 0-24 and 2 ×10-23 at most frequencies. Our upper limits on signal strain show an improvement of up to a factor of ˜2 with respect to the results of previous all-sky searches at frequencies below 80 Hz.

  17. A novel variable polarity welding power based on high-frequency pulse modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Ling; Yang Chunli; Fan Chenglei; Lin Sanbao; Wu Yun

    2006-01-01

    A new type of variable polarity welding power modulated with high-frequency pulse current is developed.Series of high-frequency pulse current is superimposed on direct-current-electrode-negative (DCEN), which can improve the crystallization process in the weld bead as a result of the electromagnetic force generated by pulse current.Digital signal processor (DSP) is used to realize the closed-loop control of the first inverter, variable polarity output of the second inverter and high-frequency pulse current superposition.

  18. Multi-Partite EPR Entangled State Representation for Continuous Variables and Its Application in Squeezing Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Nian-Quan

    2005-01-01

    @@ By extending the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) bipartite entanglement to an n-partite case, we construct the common eigenstate of the n-partite total coordinate and relative momenta for the continuous variables. The entanglement property of the state is shown. The classical dilation transform of variables in such a state induces a new n-mode squeezing operator related to an n-mode bosonic operator realization of SU(1,1) Lie algebra.

  19. Polychotomization of continuous variables in regression models based on the overall C index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bax Leon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When developing multivariable regression models for diagnosis or prognosis, continuous independent variables can be categorized to make a prediction table instead of a prediction formula. Although many methods have been proposed to dichotomize prognostic variables, to date there has been no integrated method for polychotomization. The latter is necessary when dichotomization results in too much loss of information or when central values refer to normal states and more dispersed values refer to less preferable states, a situation that is not unusual in medical settings (e.g. body temperature, blood pressure. The goal of our study was to develop a theoretical and practical method for polychotomization. Methods We used the overall discrimination index C, introduced by Harrel, as a measure of the predictive ability of an independent regressor variable and derived a method for polychotomization mathematically. Since the naïve application of our method, like some existing methods, gives rise to positive bias, we developed a parametric method that minimizes this bias and assessed its performance by the use of Monte Carlo simulation. Results The overall C is closely related to the area under the ROC curve and the produced di(polychotomized variable's predictive performance is comparable to the original continuous variable. The simulation shows that the parametric method is essentially unbiased for both the estimates of performance and the cutoff points. Application of our method to the predictor variables of a previous study on rhabdomyolysis shows that it can be used to make probability profile tables that are applicable to the diagnosis or prognosis of individual patient status. Conclusion We propose a polychotomization (including dichotomization method for independent continuous variables in regression models based on the overall discrimination index C and clarified its meaning mathematically. To avoid positive bias in

  20. Equivalence between entanglement and the optimal fidelity of continuous variable teleportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-10-07

    We devise the optimal form of Gaussian resource states enabling continuous-variable teleportation with maximal fidelity. We show that a nonclassical optimal fidelity of N-user teleportation networks is necessary and sufficient for N-party entangled Gaussian resources, yielding an estimator of multipartite entanglement. The entanglement of teleportation is equivalent to the entanglement of formation in a two-user protocol, and to the localizable entanglement in a multiuser one. Finally, we show that the continuous-variable tangle, quantifying entanglement sharing in three-mode Gaussian states, is defined operationally in terms of the optimal fidelity of a tripartite teleportation network.

  1. Secret Key Distillation for Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution against Gaussian Classical Eve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-Bo; HAN Zheng-Fu; CHEN Jin-Jian; GU You-Zhen; GUO Guang-Can

    2008-01-01

    The continuous variable quantum key distribution is expected to provide high secret key rate without single photon source and detector, while the lack of the effective key distillation method makes it unpractical under the high loss condition. Here we present a single-bit-reverse-reconciliation protocol against Gaussian classical Eve,which can distill the secret key through practical imperfect error correction with high efficiency. The simulation results show that this protocol can distill secret keys even when the transmission fibre is longer than 150 km,which may make the continuous variable scheme to outvie the single photon one.

  2. Practical limitation for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2004-03-19

    In this Letter, first, we investigate the security of a continuous-variable quantum cryptographic scheme with a postselection process against individual beam splitting attack. It is shown that the scheme can be secure in the presence of the transmission loss owing to the postselection. Second, we provide a loss limit for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent states taking into account excess Gaussian noise on quadrature distribution. Since the excess noise is reduced by the loss mechanism, a realistic intercept-resend attack which makes a Gaussian mixture of coherent states gives a loss limit in the presence of any excess Gaussian noise.

  3. Linear tuning of gamma amplitude and frequency to luminance contrast: evidence from a continuous mapping paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Perry

    Full Text Available Individual differences in the visual gamma (30-100 Hz response and their potential as trait markers of underlying physiology (particularly related to GABAergic inhibition have become a matter of increasing interest in recent years. There is growing evidence, however, that properties of the gamma response (e.g., its amplitude and frequency are highly stimulus dependent, and that individual differences in the gamma response may reflect individual differences in the stimulus tuning functions of gamma oscillations. Here, we measured the tuning functions of gamma amplitude and frequency to luminance contrast in eighteen participants using MEG. We used a grating stimulus in which stimulus contrast was modulated continuously over time. We found that both gamma amplitude and frequency were linearly modulated by stimulus contrast, but that the gain of this modulation (as reflected in the linear gradient varied across individuals. We additionally observed a stimulus-induced response in the beta frequency range (10-25 Hz, but neither the amplitude nor the frequency of this response was consistently modulated by the stimulus over time. Importantly, we did not find a correlation between the gain of the gamma-band amplitude and frequency tuning functions across individuals, suggesting that these may be independent traits driven by distinct neurophysiological processes.

  4. Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave RADAR for Objects Mapping in Enclosed Spaces Using Smartphones and Arduino Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-06-01

    Based on previous studies and using mobile portable device, we were able to realize a portable system capable of detecting metallic objects in a room surrounded by walls while also extracting the approximate position of such objects. Our hardware included only a smartphone device connected to several Arduino components and we were applying frequency-modulated continuous-wave electronics in each of the Arduino devices.

  5. High performance superconducting radio frequency ingot niobium technology for continuous wave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Pashupati, E-mail: dhakal@jlab.org; Ciovati, Gianluigi, E-mail: gciovati@jlab.org; Myneni, Ganapati R., E-mail: rao@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Future continuous wave (CW) accelerators require the superconducting radio frequency cavities with high quality factor and medium accelerating gradients (≤20 MV/m). Ingot niobium cavities with medium purity fulfill the specifications of both accelerating gradient and high quality factor with simple processing techniques and potential reduction in cost. This contribution reviews the current superconducting radiofrequency research and development and outlines the potential benefits of using ingot niobium technology for CW applications.

  6. A Kinematic Analysis of the Variable Valve Timing Mechanism with Three Elements and Continuous Valve Lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Mihalcea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovating solution for throttle-free load control for spark-ignition engines is Variable Valve Timing system (VVT System, or VVA - Variable Valve Actuation System. In this paper is presented an analytic method for kinematic analysis of the valve timing mechanism with three elements, which mainly includes the camshaft, the roller rocker finger and an intermediate rocker arm. This type of mechanism ensures a continuous valve lift (VVL System between two extreme valve heights. It is also presented the numerical example for the variable valve lift mechanism’s motion.

  7. High-efficiency frequency doubling of continuous-wave laser light

    CERN Document Server

    Ast, Stefan; Schönbeck, Axel; Lastzka, Nico; Steinlechner, Jessica; Eberle, Tobias; Mehmet, Moritz; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman

    2011-01-01

    We report on the observation of high efficiency frequency doubling of 1550 nm continuous-wave laser light in a nonlinear cavity containing a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). The fundamental field had a power of 1.10 W and was converted into 1.05 W at 775 nm, yielding a total external conversion efficiency of (95 \\pm 1)%. The latter value is based on the measured depletion of the fundamental field being consistent with the absolute values derived from numerical simulations. According to our model, the conversion efficiency achieved was limited by the non-perfect mode-matching into the nonlinear cavity and the pump power available. Our result shows that cavity-assisted frequency conversion based on PPKTP is well suited for low-decoherence frequency conversion of quantum states of light.

  8. Improved dichotomous search frequency offset estimator for burst-mode continuous phase modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文超; 李赞; 司江勃; 柏均

    2015-01-01

    A data-aided technique for carrier frequency offset estimation with continuous phase modulation (CPM) in burst-mode transmission is presented. The proposed technique first exploits a special pilot sequence, or training sequence, to form a sinusoidal waveform. Then, an improved dichotomous search frequency offset estimator is introduced to determine the frequency offset using the sinusoid. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our estimator is noteworthy in the following aspects. First, the estimator can operate independently of timing recovery. Second, it has relatively low outlier, i.e., the minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) required to guarantee estimation accuracy. Finally, the most important property is that our estimator is complexity-reduced compared to the existing dichotomous search methods: it eliminates the need for fast Fourier transform (FFT) and modulation removal, and exhibits faster convergence rate without accuracy degradation.

  9. Dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reconstructed from continuous impedance measurement of single frequency during charging/discharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel implementation of dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS) is proposed. The method first measures the impedance continuously at a single frequency during one charging/discharging cycle, then repeats the measurement at a number of other selected frequencies. The impedance spectrum at a specific SOC is obtained by interpolating and collecting the impedance at all of the selected frequencies. The charge transfer resistance, Rct, from the DEIS is smaller than that from the steady EIS in a wide state-of-charge (SOC) range from 0.4 to 1.0, the Rct during charging is generally smaller than that during discharging for the battery chemistry used in this study.

  10. Maximum entropy analytic continuation for frequency-dependent transport coefficients with nonpositive spectral weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymbaut, A.; Gagnon, A.-M.; Bergeron, D.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2017-03-01

    The computation of transport coefficients, even in linear response, is a major challenge for theoretical methods that rely on analytic continuation of correlation functions obtained numerically in Matsubara space. While maximum entropy methods can be used for certain correlation functions, this is not possible in general, important examples being the Seebeck, Hall, Nernst, and Reggi-Leduc coefficients. Indeed, positivity of the spectral weight on the positive real-frequency axis is not guaranteed in these cases. The spectral weight can even be complex in the presence of broken time-reversal symmetry. Various workarounds, such as the neglect of vertex corrections or the study of the infinite frequency or Kelvin limits, have been proposed. Here, we show that one can define auxiliary response functions that allow one to extract the desired real-frequency susceptibilities from maximum entropy methods in the most general multiorbital cases with no particular symmetry. As a benchmark case, we study the longitudinal thermoelectric response and corresponding Onsager coefficient in the single-band two-dimensional Hubbard model treated with dynamical mean-field theory and continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo. We thereby extend the maximum entropy analytic continuation with auxiliary functions (MaxEntAux method), developed for the study of the superconducting pairing dynamics of correlated materials, to transport coefficients.

  11. Frequency support capability of variable speed wind turbine based on electromagnetic coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Rui; Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Chai, Jianyun;

    2015-01-01

    In the variable speed wind turbine based on electromagnetic coupler (WT-EMC), a synchronous generator is directly coupled with grid. So like conventional power plants WT-EMC is able to support grid frequency inherently. But due to the reduced inertia of synchronous generator, its frequency support...... capability has to be enhanced. In this paper, the frequency support capability of WT-EMC is studied at three typical wind conditions and with two control strategies-droop control and inertial control to enhance its frequency support capability. The synchronous generator speed, more stable than the grid...

  12. Variable frequency inverter for ac induction motors with torque, speed and braking control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A variable frequency inverter was designed for driving an ac induction motor which varies the frequency and voltage to the motor windings in response to varying torque requirements for the motor so that the applied voltage amplitude and frequency are of optimal value for any motor load and speed requirement. The slip frequency of the motor is caused to vary proportionally to the torque and feedback is provided so that the most efficient operating voltage is applied to the motor. Winding current surge is limited and a controlled negative slip causes motor braking and return of load energy to a dc power source.

  13. Creation and Annihilation Operators for Orthogonal Polynomials of Continuous and Discrete Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Lorente, M

    2004-01-01

    We develop general expressions for the raising and lowering operators that belong to the orthogonal polynomials of hypergeometric type with discrete and continuous variable. We construct the creation and annihilation operators that correspond to the normalized polynomials and study their algebraic properties in the case of the Kravchuk/Hermite Meixner/Laguerre polynomials.

  14. Unconditional security proof of long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution with discrete modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverrier, Anthony; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-05-08

    We present a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol combining a discrete modulation and reverse reconciliation. This protocol is proven unconditionally secure and allows the distribution of secret keys over long distances, thanks to a reverse reconciliation scheme efficient at very low signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. Continuous-variable Quantum Key Distribution protocols with a discrete modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider continuous-variable quantum key distribution with a discrete modulation, either binary or quaternary. We establish the security of these protocols against collective attacks, which implies their security against arbitrary attacks in the asymptotic limit. We give lower bounds for the secret key rate using extremality properties of Gaussian states.

  16. GY SAMPLING THEORY AND GEOSTATISTICS: ALTERNATE MODELS OF VARIABILITY IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the sampling theory developed by Pierre Gy, sample variability is modeled as the sum of a set of seven discrete error components. The variogram used in geostatisties provides an alternate model in which several of Gy's error components are combined in a continuous mode...

  17. Scheme for teleportation of unknown single qubit state via continuous variables entangling channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhong-Jie; Zhang Kan; Fan Chao-Yang

    2010-01-01

    A new scheme for quantum teleportation of single quantum bit state with using continuous variables entangling channel is presented. In our scheme two entangled light fields are employed. An outstanding characteristic of this scheme is that one atomic state is transmitted directly to another atom without using the third atom as the mediate.

  18. Scheme for Robust Long-Distance Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Sheng; QUO Guang-Can

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the configuration of phase coding for quantum key distribution with single photon can also be used for continuous variable quantum key distribution. Therefore the robust long-distance high-speed quantum key distribution can be achieved with current technology.

  19. Design study of a continuously variable roller cone traction CVT for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoin, D. K.; Walker, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Continuously variable ratio transmissions (CVT) featuring cone and roller traction elements and computerized controls are studied. The CVT meets or exceeds all requirements set forth in the design criteria. Further, a scalability analysis indicates the basic concept is applicable to lower and higher power units, with upward scaling for increased power being more readily accomplished.

  20. Soil Physical and Environmental Conditions Controlling Patterned-Ground Variability at a Continuous Permafrost Site, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    This study examines soil physical and environmental conditions controlling patterned-ground variability on an alluvial fan in a continuous permafrost landscape, at Adventdalen, Svalbard. On-site monitoring of ground temperature, soil moisture and snow depth, laboratory analyses of soil physical...

  1. Assessing the Potential of a Mechanical Continuously Variable Transmission for Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, J.

    2005-08-01

    This paper provides an update to a previous report that summarizes the results of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Fallbrook Technologies, Inc. (Fallbrook). The purpose of the CRADA is to assess the usefulness of a continuously variable transmission (CVT) for wind turbine applications.

  2. Quantum error correction of continuous-variable states against Gaussian noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, T. C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    We describe a continuous-variable error correction protocol that can correct the Gaussian noise induced by linear loss on Gaussian states. The protocol can be implemented using linear optics and photon counting. We explore the theoretical bounds of the protocol as well as the expected performance given current knowledge and technology.

  3. Experimental Analysis of Linear Induction Motor under Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit D. Wakode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete analysis of Linear Induction Motor (LIM under VVVF. The complete variation of LIM air gap flux under ‘blocked Linor’ condition and starting force is analyzed and presented when LIM is given VVVF supply. The analysis of this data is important in further understanding of the equivalent circuit parameters of LIM and to study the magnetic circuit of LIM. The variation of these parameters is important to know the LIM response at different frequencies. The simulation and application of different control strategies such as vector control thus becomes quite easy to apply and understand motor’s response under such strategy of control.

  4. Data-driven prediction strategies for low-frequency patterns of North Pacific climate variability

    CERN Document Server

    Comeau, Darin; Giannakis, Dimitrios; Majda, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The North Pacific exhibits patterns of low-frequency variability on the intra-annual to decadal time scales, which manifest themselves in both model data and the observational record, and prediction of such low-frequency modes of variability is of great interest to the community. While parametric models, such as stationary and non-stationary autoregressive models, possibly including external factors, may perform well in a data-fitting setting, they may perform poorly in a prediction setting. Ensemble analog forecasting, which relies on the historical record to provide estimates of the future based on past trajectories of those states similar to the initial state of interest, provides a promising, nonparametric approach to forecasting that makes no assumptions on the underlying dynamics or its statistics. We apply such forecasting to low-frequency modes of variability for the North Pacific sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration fields extracted through Nonlinear Laplacian Spectral Analysis. We find ...

  5. Continuous In-Stream Assimilatory Nitrate Uptake from High Frequency Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Michael; Rehan Anis, Muhammad; Weitere, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed in situ sensors provide new opportunities to measure changes in stream concentration at high temporal frequencies that historical have not been feasible. In this study we used multi-parameter sensor measurements to relate assimilatory uptake to metabolic rates and calculate continually uptake rates for two stream reaches and a whole stream network. Two years of continues 15 min data from a forest and agricultural stream reach of the Selke river (463km2) revealed strong correlation between assimilatory uptake and GPP for the forest (r2=0.72) and agricultural (r2=0.56) stream reach. The slopes of these regressions were in good agreement with predicted assimilatory N-uptake based on additional metabolism data. Mean yearly assimilatory uptake rates were 6.4 times higher in the agricultural stream (mean 68.5 mgNm-2d-1, max 270 mgNm-2d-1) than in the forest stream (mean 10.7 mgNm-2d-1, max 97.5 mgNm-2d-1). Percentage daily assimilatory uptake amounted up to 47.4 % in the whole mainly agricultural watershed, whereas the total yearly assimilatory in-stream uptake was 9.0% of total nitrogen load of the watershed. This value was lower in the forest dominated upstream watershed (4.8%) and higher in the lower agriculture dominated watershed (13.4%). High frequency measurements offer exploring continues nutrient uptake metrics for streams with strongly deviating site characteristics.

  6. Simulation of the aging process of insulating systems variable frequency drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganeev, A.; Leonov, A.; Merkulov, V.; Charkov, D.

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the intensity of the model in the electrical insulation variable frequency drive controlled at different temperatures and electric fields. It is shown that aging of insulation mechanism associated with the development of corona discharges caused by transients when the frequency adjustment. Laws aging of insulation can be described from the point of view of the theory of thermal destruction of dielectrics vibrations.

  7. The rich frequency spectrum of the triple-mode variable AC And

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacs, G; Hartman, J D

    2014-01-01

    Fourier analysis of the light curve of AC And from the HATNet database reveals the rich frequency structure of this object. Above 30 components are found down to the amplitude of 3 mmag. Several of these frequencies are not the linear combinations of the three basic components. We detect period increase in all three components that may lend support to the Pop I classification of this variable.

  8. PD-Detection vs. Loss Measurements at High Voltages with variable frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Edin, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Partial discharge-activity (PD) in internal voids in epoxy plastic was measured at AC voltages from below inception to 3 times inception with variable frequencies in the range 0.1 to 100Hz.The results from phase/height analyses were compared to dielec-tric loss measurements and related to the app......Partial discharge-activity (PD) in internal voids in epoxy plastic was measured at AC voltages from below inception to 3 times inception with variable frequencies in the range 0.1 to 100Hz.The results from phase/height analyses were compared to dielec-tric loss measurements and related...

  9. Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy Peden; Sanjiv Shah

    2005-07-26

    This report describes complete results of the project entitled ''Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System''. This demonstration project was initiated in July 2003 and completed in March 2005. The objective of the project was to develop an integrated power production/variable frequency drive system that could easily be deployed in the oil field that would increase production and decrease operating costs. This report describes all the activities occurred and documents results of the demonstration.

  10. Analytical Model of Fixed-Frequency Variable Duty-Cycle Controlled LLC Resonant Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2016-01-01

    For LLC resonant converters, the fixed-frequency variable duty-cycle control is usually combined with the variable frequency (VF) control to widen the gain range, improve light-load efficiency or suppress the inrush current during start-up. However, both the operation mode and the steady...... is derived, which makes the fast and automatic design optimization possible. The critical characteristics, such as dc voltage gain, peak resonant current, peak capacitor voltage, rms current as well as the constraint conditions for the operation mode are developed and verified with simulation...

  11. First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D V; Andersen, M; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Ashton, G; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Branco, V; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Colombini, M; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M D; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Dominguez, E; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J M; Eikenberry, S S; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Germain, V; Ghosh, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez, J; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C J; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Islas, G; Isler, J C; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M B; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Karlen, J L; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kerrigan, J; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N G; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J T; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Lee, J P; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Madden-Fong, D X; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N M; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, A; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Okounkova, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, R; O'Reilly, B; Ortega, W E; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C T; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patrick, Z; Pedraza, M; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J H; Poggiani, R; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodger, A S; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Santiago-Prieto, I; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaffery, P; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepanczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C van den; van der Schaaf, L; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, M; Wade, L E; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, K J; Williams, L; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the first low frequency all-sky search of continuous gravitational wave signals conducted on Virgo VSR2 and VSR4 data. The search covered the full sky, a frequency range between 20 Hz and 128 Hz with a range of spin-down between $-1.0 \\times 10^{-10}$ Hz/s and $+1.5 \\times 10^{-11}$ Hz/s, and was based on a hierarchical approach. The starting point was a set of short Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT), of length 8192 seconds, built from the calibrated strain data. Aggressive data cleaning, both in the time and frequency domains, has been done in order to remove, as much as possible, the effect of disturbances of instrumental origin. On each dataset a number of candidates has been selected, using the FrequencyHough transform in an incoherent step. Only coincident candidates among VSR2 and VSR4 have been examined in order to strongly reduce the false alarm probability, and the most significant candidates have been selected. The criteria we have used for candidate selection and...

  12. Development of GaAs Gunn Diodes and Their Applications to Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seok-Gyu; Han, Min; Baek, Yong-Hyun; Ko, Dong-Sik; Baek, Tae-Jong; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seong-Dae; Kim, Mi-Ra; Chae, Yeon-Sik; Kathalingam, Adaikalam; Rhee, Jin-Koo

    2010-11-01

    In this work, we have designed and fabricated the GaAs Gunn diodes for a 94 GHz waveguide voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) which is one of the important parts in a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar application. For fabrication of the high power GaAs Gunn diodes, we adopted a graded gap injector which enhances the output power and conversion efficiency by effectively removing the dead-zone. We have measured RF characteristics of the fabricated GaAs Gunn diodes. The operating current, oscillation frequency, and output power of the fabricated GaAs Gunn diodes are presented as a function of the anode diameters. The operating current increases with anode diameters, whereas the oscillation frequency decreases. The higher oscillation frequency was obtained from 60 µm anode diameters of the fabricated Gunn GaAs diodes and higher power was obtained from 68 µm. Also, for application of the 94 GHz FMCW radar system, we have fabricated the 94 GHz waveguide VCO. From the fabricated GaAs Gunn diodes of anode diameter of 60 µm, we have obtained the improved VCO performance.

  13. The Control System Simulation of Variable-Speed Constant-Frequency Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦金延; 曹娜

    2010-01-01

    <正>In general,Variable-Speed Constant Frequency (VSCF)Wind generation system is controlled by stator voltage orientation method which based on the mathematic model of VSCF Wind generation system and discussed the control strategy.Present the whole dynamic control model of variable-speed wind generator system in MATLAB/ Simulink,and the simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  14. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for evaluation of farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency doma...

  15. A continuous 3000-year precipitation record of ENSO variability during LGM from a stalagmite in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A glacial stalagmite chronology from Nanjing has been established by the TIMS-U series dating and annual band counting methods. The annually layering sequence spanning the 3000-year period from 18179 to 14900 calendar years before the present (aBP) was analyzed for evidence of East Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Power spectral analysis of the sequence shows a distinct interannual (2-7 years) band of enhanced variability suggestive of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections into East China during the LGM when climatic boundary conditions were different from those of today. The lower frequency bands (4-7 years) variability becomes weaker from 18179 to 14900 aBP, supporting the precession forcing model. The reappearance of the ENSO band in the coldest climatic boundary conditions during the Heinrich Event 1, however, suggests the stimulation of the enhanced East Asia winter monsoon to the El Nino events.

  16. Validation of a new control system for Elekta accelerators facilitating continuously variable dose rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Anders; Lorenzen, Ebbe L; Brink, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Elekta accelerators controlled by the current clinically used accelerator control system, Desktop 7.01 (D7), uses binned variable dose rate (BVDR) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The next version of the treatment control system (Integrity) supports continuously variable dose rate (CVDR......) as well as BVDR. Using CVDR opposed to BVDR for VMAT has the potential of reducing the treatment time but may lead to lower dosimetric accuracy due to faster moving accelerator parts. Using D7 and a test version of Integrity, differences in ability to control the accelerator, treatment efficiency...

  17. PARTIAL STABILIZATION OF A CLASS OF CONTINUOUS NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS WITH SEPARATED VARIABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jigui JIAN; Xiaoxin LIAO

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the partial stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear continuous control systems with separated variables is investigated. Several stabilizing controllers are constructed based on the partial stability theory of Lyapunov and the property of M-matrix, and some of these stabilizing controllers are only related to partial state variables. The controllers constructed here are shown to guarantee partial asymptotic stability of the closed-loop systems and these sufficient conditions may give some instructions to actual engineering application. A example is also given to illustrate the design method.

  18. Simulation and Analyis of a Continuous Variable Cam Phasing Internal Combustion Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarlund, Pär

    2008-01-01

    The development of fuel efficient internal combustion engines (ICE)have resulted in a variety of different solutions. One of those are the variable valve timing and an implemenation of such is the Continuous Variable Cam Phasing (CVCP). This thesis have used a simulation package, psPack, for the simulation of the gas exchange process for an ICE with CVCP. The purpose of the simulations was to investigate what kind of design parameters, e.g. the length of an intake pipe or the duration of comb...

  19. Development of Linearizing Feedback Control with a Variable Structure Observer for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bachir Daaou; Abdellah Mansouri; Mohamed Bouhamida; Mohammed Chenafa

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of an observer-based nonlinear control for continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). A variable structure observer is constructed to estimate the whole process state variables. This observer is basically the conventional Luenberger observer with an additional switching term used to guarantee the robustness against modeling errors. The observer is coupled with a nonlinear controller, designed based on input-output linearization for controlling the reactor temperature. The asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system is shown by the Lyapunov stability theorem. Finally, computer simulations are developed for showing the performance of the proposed approach.

  20. Performance Comparison of Time-Frequency Distributions for Estimation of Instantaneous Frequency of Heart Rate Variability Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Ali Khan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The instantaneous frequency (IF of a non-stationary signal is usually estimated from a time-frequency distribution (TFD. The IF of heart rate variability (HRV is an important parameter because the power in a frequency band around the IF can be used for the interpretation and analysis of the respiratory rate but also for a more accurate analysis of heart rate (HR signals. In this study, we compare the performance of five states of the art kernel-based time-frequency distributions (TFDs in terms of their ability to accurately estimate the IF of HR signals. The selected TFDs include three widely used fixed kernel methods: the modified B distribution, the S-method and the spectrogram; and two adaptive kernel methods: the adaptive optimal kernel TFD and the recently developed adaptive directional TFD. The IF of the respiratory signal, which is usually easier to estimate as the respiratory signal is a mono-component with small amplitude variations with time, is used as a reference to examine the accuracy of the HRV IF estimates. Experimental results indicate that the most reliable estimates are obtained using the adaptive directional TFD in comparison to other commonly used methods such as the adaptive optimal kernel TFD and the modified B distribution.

  1. Decentralized robust frequency control for power systems subject to wind power variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juhua

    As the penetration of wind energy generation increases in electric power systems, the frequency performance degrades mainly for two reasons. First, the intermittency of wind power introduces additional generation-load imbalance in the system, causing frequency to deviate from nominal values. Second, modern wind turbine generators are often decoupled from the grid by power electronics, making the wind turbines contribute no inertia to the grid. When more conventional generation is displaced by such wind generation, the total system inertia will decrease and the grid is more susceptible to generation-load imbalance. Therefore, frequency control must be revisited and enhanced in order to accommodate large-scale integration of wind energy. This dissertation mainly concerns the re-design of generator compensators to improve frequency performance of power systems when the penetration of wind power is high. Hinfinity methods can be used to synthesize controllers to achieve stability and robust performance in the presence disturbances. However, standard Hinfinity methods tend to produce complex controllers when the order of the system is high. Furthermore, when standard Hinfinity methods are continued with a naive decentralized control design, the resulting decentralized controllers may compete against each other and lead to instability. Therefore, we develop a passivity-based decentralized control framework for power system frequency control. A storage function is derived from the entropy of individual generators. Tellegen's theorem is invoked to derive the storage function for the entire power network. With this storage function, the power network is shown to be passive with respect to a supply rate, which is the sum of decentralized input-output products. Stability can then be assured when passive controllers are connected in negative feedback interconnection to the system. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers with positive gains are passive controllers

  2. Would one rather store squeezing or entanglement in continuous variable quantum memories?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadsan-Appleby, Hulya [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Serafini, Alessio, E-mail: serale@theory.phys.ucl.ac.u [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-02

    Given two quantum memories for continuous variables and the possibility to perform passive optical operations on the optical modes before or after the storage, two possible scenarios arise resulting in generally different degrees of final entanglement. Namely, one could either store an entangled state and retrieve it directly from the memory, or rather store two separate single-mode squeezed states and then combine them with a beam-splitter to generate the final entangled state. In this Letter, we analytically determine which of the two options yields more entanglement for several regions of the system's parameters, and quantify the advantage it entails. - Highlights: We study the optimised storage of continuous variable entanglement. Analytical conditions to determine optimal storage schemes. Comprehensive numerical studies complementing the analytics. Specific discussion concerning QND feedback memories included. Results applicable to very general Gaussian channel.

  3. Finite-size analysis of continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Leverrier, Anthony; Grangier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to extend the framework of finite size analysis recently developed for quantum key distribution to continuous-variable protocols. We do not solve this problem completely here, and we mainly consider the finite size effects on the parameter estimation procedure. Despite the fact that some questions are left open, we are able to give an estimation of the secret key rate for protocols which do not contain a postselection procedure. As expected, these results are significantly more pessimistic than the ones obtained in the asymptotic regime. However, we show that recent continuous-variable protocols are able to provide fully secure secret keys in the finite size scenario, over distances larger than 50 km.

  4. Composable Security Proof for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

  5. Three-mode Gaussian states in quantum information with continuous variables

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Serafini, A; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Serafini, Alessio

    2006-01-01

    The structural aspects of tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems have been studied in [Adesso G, Serafini A and Illuminati F 2006 Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 73} 032345]. Here we focus our attention on the usefulness of such states in the context of realistic processing of continuous-variable quantum information. We introduce and discuss in detail several examples of pure and mixed three-mode states that stand out for their informational and/or entanglement properties. We then describe practical schemes to engineer such states with linear optics. In particular, we introduce a simple procedure -- based on passive optical elements -- to produce pure three-mode Gaussian states with {\\em arbitrary} entanglement structure (upon availability of an initial single-mode squeezed state). We analyze in detail the properties of distributed entanglement, showing that the promiscuity of entanglement sharing is a feature peculiar to symmetric Gaussian states that survives even in the pres...

  6. Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Zheng; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2013-06-01

    The security proofs of continuous-variable quantum key distribution are based on the assumptions that the eavesdropper can neither act on the local oscillator nor control Bob's beam splitter. These assumptions may be invalid in practice due to potential imperfections in the implementations of such protocols. In this paper, we consider the problem of transmitting the local oscillator in a public channel and propose a wavelength attack which allows the eavesdropper to control the intensity transmission of Bob's beam splitter by switching the wavelength of the input light. Specifically we target continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems that use the heterodyne detection protocol using either direct or reverse reconciliation. Our attack is proved to be feasible and renders all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure, even if they have monitored the intensity of the local oscillator. To prevent our attack on commercial systems, a simple wavelength filter should be randomly added before performing monitoring detection.

  7. Improvement of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution with virtual photon subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijia; Zhang, Yichen; Li, Zhengyu; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2017-08-01

    We propose a method to improve the performance of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol by virtual photon subtraction. The virtual photon subtraction implemented via non-Gaussian post-selection not only enhances the entanglement of two-mode squeezed vacuum state but also has advantages in simplifying physical operation and promoting efficiency. In two-way protocol, virtual photon subtraction could be applied on two sources independently. Numerical simulations show that the optimal performance of renovated two-way protocol is obtained with photon subtraction only used by Alice. The transmission distance and tolerable excess noise are improved by using the virtual photon subtraction with appropriate parameters. Moreover, the tolerable excess noise maintains a high value with the increase in distance so that the robustness of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is significantly improved, especially at long transmission distance.

  8. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure on metabolic variables in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatzer, Christian; Schwarz, Esther I; Kohler, Malcolm

    2014-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly considered as a risk factor for metabolic disturbances, such as diabetes mellitus or dyslipidaemia. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, the standard treatment for patients with OSA, may improve various metabolic variables, such as insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, lipids, fat distribution and adipokines. Several observational and uncontrolled clinical studies claim an improvement of these metabolic variables through the use of CPAP. However, there is only a limited number of clinical randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of CPAP on metabolic variables. In this review, we summarise and discuss non-randomised studies and RCTs evaluating the effect of CPAP on metabolic variables in patients with OSA. In summary, the currently available body of evidence does not support a clinically important effect of CPAP treatment on any of the investigated metabolic variables. However, some investigators found small, but statistically significant changes in some metabolic variables, thus beneficial effects of CPAP treatment in selected patient cohorts cannot be excluded. To answer this question, more data from RCTs with well-defined study populations are warranted.

  9. Effect of relativistic acceleration on continuous variable quantum teleportation and dense coding

    OpenAIRE

    Grochowski, Piotr T.; Rajchel, Grzegorz; Kiałka, Filip; Dragan, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how relativistic acceleration of the observers can affect the performance of the quantum teleportation and dense coding for continuous variable states of localized wavepackets. Such protocols are typically optimized for symmetric resources prepared in an inertial frame of reference. A mismatch of the sender and the receiver's accelerations can introduce asymmetry to the shared entanglement, which has an effect on the efficiency of the protocol that goes beyond entanglement degr...

  10. No-cloning theorem and teleportation criteria for quantum continuous variables

    CERN Document Server

    Grosshans, F; Grosshans, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Grangier, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the criteria presently used for evaluating the efficiency of quantum teleportation schemes for continuous variables. Using an argument based upon the difference between 1-to-2 quantum cloning (quantum duplication) and 1-to-infinity cloning (classical measurement), we show that a fidelity value larger than 2/3 is required for successful quantum teleportation of coherent states. This value has not been reached experimentally so far.

  11. Improving the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution using a noiseless amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Blandino, Rémi; Barbieri, Marco; Etesse, Jean; Grangier, Philippe; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    We show that the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution in presence of a Gaussian noisy lossy channel can be arbitrarily increased using a linear noiseless amplifier. We explicitly consider a protocol using amplitude and phase modulated coherent states with reverse reconciliation. We find that a noiseless amplifier with amplitude gain g can increase the maximum admissible losses by a factor 1/g^2.

  12. Controlling excess noise in fiber optics continuous variables quantum key distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Lodewyck, Jérôme; Debuisschert, Thierry; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    5 pages, 4 figures; International audience; We describe a continuous variables coherent states quantum key distribution system working at 1550 nm, and entirely made of standard fiber optics and telecom components, such as integrated-optics modulators, couplers and fast InGaAs photodiodes. The setup is composed of an emitter randomly modulating a coherent state in the complex plane with a doubly Gaussian distribution, and a receiver based on a shot noise limited time-resolved homodyne detector...

  13. Teleportation of a Kind of Three-Mode Entangled States of Continuous Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum teleportation scheme to teleport a kind of tripartite entangled states of continuous variables by using a quantum channel composed of three bipartite entangled states is proposed. The joint Bell measurement is feasible because the bipartite entangled states are complete and the squeezed state has a natural representation in the entangled state basis. The calculation is greatly simplified by using the Schmidt decomposition of the entangled states.

  14. Experimental demonstration of continuous variable cloning with phase-conjugate inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of continuous variable cloning of phase-conjugate coherent states as proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)]. In contrast to this proposal, the cloning transformation is accomplished using only linear optical components......, homodyne detection, and feedforward. As a result of combining phase conjugation with a joint measurement strategy, superior cloning is demonstrated with cloning fidelities reaching 89%....

  15. Application of Bipartite and Tripartite Entangled State Representations in Quantum Teleportation of Continuous Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hong-Chun; QI Kai-Guo

    2005-01-01

    We mostly investigate two schemes. One is to teleport a multi-mode W-type entangled coherent state using a peculiar bipartite entangled state as the quantum channel different from other proposals. Based on our formalism,teleporting multi-mode coherent state or squeezed state is also possible. Another is that the tripartite entangled state is used as the quantum channel of controlled teleportation of an arbitrary and unknown continuous variable in the case of three participators.

  16. Association between Frequency Domain Heart Rate Variability and Unplanned Readmission to Hospital in Geriatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chin-Hua

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate prediction of unplanned readmission (UR after discharge from hospital can facilitate physician's decision making processes for providing better quality of care in geriatric patients. The objective of this study was to explore the association of cardiac autonomic functions as measured by frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV and 14-day UR in geriatric patients. Methods Patients admitted to the geriatric ward of a regional hospital in Chiayi county in Taiwan were followed prospectively from July 2006 to June 2007. Those with invasive tubes and those who were heavy smokers, heavy alcohol drinkers, on medications that might influence HRV, or previously admitted to the hospital within 30 days were excluded. Cardiac autonomic functions were evaluated by frequency domain indices of HRV. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between UR and HRV indices adjusted for age and length of hospitalization. Results A total of 78 patients met the inclusion criteria and 15 of them were readmitted within 14 days after discharge. The risk of UR was significantly higher in patients with lower levels of total power (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.04-2.00, low frequency power (LF (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.03-1.49, high frequency power (HF (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.02-1.64, and lower ratios of low frequency power to high frequency power (LF/HF ratio (OR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.07-3.84. Conclusion This is the first study to evaluate the association between frequency domain heart rate variability and the risk of UR in geriatric patients. Frequency domain heart rate variability indices measured on admission were significantly associated with increased risk of UR in geriatric patients. Additional studies are required to confirm the value and feasibility of using HRV indices on admission as a non-invasive tool to assist the prediction of UR in geriatric patients.

  17. A New Integrated Weighted Model in SNOW-V10: Verification of Continuous Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Laura X.; Isaac, George A.; Sheng, Grant

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the verification results of nowcasts of four continuous variables generated from an integrated weighted model and underlying Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. Real-time monitoring of fast changing weather conditions and the provision of short term forecasts, or nowcasts, in complex terrain within coastal regions is challenging to do with sufficient accuracy. A recently developed weighting, evaluation, bias correction and integration system was used in the Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010 project to generate integrated weighted forecasts (INTW) out to 6 h. INTW forecasts were generated with in situ observation data and background gridded forecasting data from Canadian high-resolution deterministic NWP system with three nested grids at 15-, 2.5- and 1-km horizontal grid-spacing configurations. In this paper, the four variables of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind gust are treated as continuous variables for verifying the INTW forecasts. Fifteen sites were selected for the comparison of the model performances. The results of the study show that integrating surface observation data with the NWP forecasts produce better statistical scores than using either the NWP forecasts or an objective analysis of observed data alone. Overall, integrated observation and NWP forecasts improved forecast accuracy for the four continuous variables. The mean absolute errors from the INTW forecasts for the entire test period (12 February to 21 March 2010) are smaller than those from NWP forecasts with three configurations. The INTW is the best and most consistent performer among all models regardless of location and variable analyzed.

  18. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Study Stuttering Frequency Variability during a Single Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Stuttering varies between and within speaking situations. In this study, the authors used statistical process control charts with 10 case studies to investigate variability of stuttering frequency. Method: Participants were 10 adults who stutter. The authors counted the percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for segments of their speech…

  19. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Study Stuttering Frequency Variability during a Single Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Stuttering varies between and within speaking situations. In this study, the authors used statistical process control charts with 10 case studies to investigate variability of stuttering frequency. Method: Participants were 10 adults who stutter. The authors counted the percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for segments of their speech…

  20. Cropping frequency and area response to climate variability can exceed yield response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Avery S.; Vanwey, Leah K.; Spera, Stephanie A.; Mustard, John F.

    2016-06-01

    The sensitivity of agricultural output to climate change has often been estimated by modelling crop yields under climate change scenarios or with statistical analysis of the impacts of year-to-year climatic variability on crop yields. However, the area of cropland and the number of crops harvested per growing season (cropping frequency) both also affect agricultural output and both also show sensitivity to climate variability and change. We model the change in agricultural output associated with the response of crop yield, crop frequency and crop area to year-to-year climate variability in Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, a key agricultural region. Roughly 70% of the change in agricultural output caused by climate was determined by changes in frequency and/or changes in area. Hot and wet conditions were associated with the largest losses and cool and dry conditions with the largest gains. All frequency and area effects had the same sign as total effects, but this was not always the case for yield effects. A focus on yields alone may therefore bias assessments of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change. Efforts to reduce climate impacts to agriculture should seek to limit production losses not only from crop yield, but also from changes in cropland area and cropping frequency.

  1. Theories and experiments on the stiffening effect of high-frequency excitation for continuous elastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J. J.

    2003-02-01

    One effect of strong mechanical high-frequency excitation may be to apparently "stiffen" a structure, a well-described phenomenon for discrete systems. The present study provides theoretical and experimental results on this effect for continuous elastic structures. A laboratory experiment is set up for demonstrating and measuring the stiffening effect in a simple setting, in the form of a horizontal piano string subjected to longitudinal high-frequency excitation at the clamped base and free at the other end. A simplest possible theoretical model is set up and analyzed using a hierarchy of three approximating theories, each providing valuable insight. One of these is capable of predicting the vertical string lift due to stiffening in terms of simple expressions, with results that agree very well with experimental measurements for a wide range of conditions. It appears that resonance effects cannot be ignored, as was done in a few related studies—unless the system has very low modal density or heavy damping; thus first-order consideration to resonance effects is included. Using the specific example with experimental support to put confidence on the proposed theory, expressions for predicting the stiffening effect for a more general class of continuous systems in differential operator form are also provided.

  2. Calibration of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model for flood frequency estimation by continuous simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Robert

    1999-10-01

    An approach is described to the calibration of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, the Probability Distributed Model (PDM), for estimating flood frequencies at gauged sites by continuous flow simulation. A first step was the estimation of routing store parameters by recession curve analysis. Uniform random sampling was then used to search for parameter sets that produced simulations achieving the best fit to observed, hourly flow data over a 2-year period. Goodness of fit was expressed in terms of four objective functions designed to give different degrees of weight to peaks in flow. Flood frequency results were improved, if necessary, by manual adjustment of parameters, with reference to peaks extracted from the entire hourly flow record. Although the primary aim was to reproduce observed peaks, consideration was also given to finding parameter sets capable of generating a realistic overall characterization of the flow regime. Examples are shown where the calibrated model generated simulations that reproduced well the magnitude and frequency distribution of peak flows. Factors affecting the acceptability of these simulations are discussed. For an example catchment, a sensitivity analysis shows that there may be more than one set of parameter values well suited to the simulation of peak flows.

  3. Design of Electro-Mechanical Dual-Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Tawi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulley-based continuously variable transmission (CVT with a metal pushing V-belt is fast becoming the preferred choice for global carmakers due to its potential particularly in terms of fuel efficiency thanks to its continuous and wide ratio range. Nevertheless, the existing CVTs still face the issues of high power consumption from the engine because of the application of an electro-hydro-mechanical (EHM actuation system for its ratio changing process and clamping force mechanism. To address this issue, researchers from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia have successfully developed the prototype of an electro-mechanical dual-acting pulley continuously variable transmission (EMDAP CVT for automotive applications. The prototype of EMDAP CVT is developed for a maximum input torque of 160 Nm with the application of a metal pushing V-belt. The results from the testing prove that the prototype can vary its ratio from 2.8 to 0.6 and no continuous power is required to maintain a constant CVT ratio. These results suggest that the prototype is workable and future testing in a real car is possible.

  4. Variable Camber Continuous Aerodynamic Control Surfaces and Methods for Active Wing Shaping Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamic control apparatus for an air vehicle improves various aerodynamic performance metrics by employing multiple spanwise flap segments that jointly form a continuous or a piecewise continuous trailing edge to minimize drag induced by lift or vortices. At least one of the multiple spanwise flap segments includes a variable camber flap subsystem having multiple chordwise flap segments that may be independently actuated. Some embodiments also employ a continuous leading edge slat system that includes multiple spanwise slat segments, each of which has one or more chordwise slat segment. A method and an apparatus for implementing active control of a wing shape are also described and include the determination of desired lift distribution to determine the improved aerodynamic deflection of the wings. Flap deflections are determined and control signals are generated to actively control the wing shape to approximate the desired deflection.

  5. Influence of stress factors of firewalking on heart rate frequency and variability of karate sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykij B.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of passing is studied on burning hot coal on the indexes of frequency of heart-throbs and variability of cardiac rhythm of sportsmen. In procedure of passing on coal took part 4 sportsmen (karate of high qualification aged 20-25 years. All of participants of experiment were healthy and gave the informed consent to participating in research. Found out the increase of frequency of heart-throbs (to 160-180 shots in a minute and change of separate indexes of spectral and statistical analysis of variability of cardiac rhythm. In particular, during passing of VLF grows on 36%, TP goes down on 97%. The changes of these parameters on the preparatory and finishings stages of procedure and distributing of components of spectrum of variability of cardiac rhythm specify on the leading role of psychoemotional factors and higher departments of central nervous system during passing on coal.

  6. Inclusion of Respiratory Frequency Information in Heart Rate Variability Analysis for Stress Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Alberto; Lazaro, Jesus; Gil, Eduardo; Arza, Adriana; Garzon, Jorge Mario; Lopez-Anton, Raul; de la Camara, Concepcion; Laguna, Pablo; Aguilo, Jordi; Bailon, Raquel

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory rate and heart rate variability (HRV) are studied as stress markers in a database of young healthy volunteers subjected to acute emotional stress, induced by a modification of the Trier Social Stress Test. First, instantaneous frequency domain HRV parameters are computed using time-frequency analysis in the classical bands. Then, the respiratory rate is estimated and this information is included in HRV analysis in two ways: 1) redefining the high-frequency (HF) band to be centered at respiratory frequency; 2) excluding from the analysis those instants where respiratory frequency falls within the low-frequency (LF) band. Classical frequency domain HRV indices scarcely show statistical differences during stress. However, when including respiratory frequency information in HRV analysis, the normalized LF power as well as the LF/HF ratio significantly increase during stress ( p-value 0.05 according to the Wilcoxon test), revealing higher sympathetic dominance. The LF power increases during stress, only being significantly different in a stress anticipation stage, while the HF power decreases during stress, only being significantly different during the stress task demanding attention. Our results support that joint analysis of respiration and HRV obtains a more reliable characterization of autonomic nervous response to stress. In addition, the respiratory rate is observed to be higher and less stable during stress than during relax ( p-value 0.05 according to the Wilcoxon test) being the most discriminative index for stress stratification (AUC = 88.2 % ).

  7. Multi-Frequency Blazar Micro-Variability as a Tool to Investigate Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Webb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the past 12 years we have been studying optical micro-variability of a sample of 15 Blazars. We summarize the results of this study and draw some basic conclusions about the characteristics of micro-variability. The intermittency, the stochastic nature, and the similar profile shapes seen in micro-variations at different times and in different objects have led us to a possible model to explain the observed micro-variations. The model is based on a strong shock propagating down a relativistic jet and encountering turbulence which causes density or magnetic field enhancements. We use the theory of Kirk, Reiger, and Mastichiadis (1998 to describe the pulse of synchrotron emission emanating from individual density enhancements energized by the shock. By fitting these “pulses” to micro-variability observations, we obtain excellent fits to actual micro-variations. The model predicts that the spectral index changes as a function of pulse duration. This effect should be observable in multi-frequency micro-variability data. We present the theoretical model, model fits of our micro-variability light curves, and preliminary multi-frequency micro-variability observations that support this model. A further test that has yet to be carried out involves observing polarization changes in different pulses.

  8. Continuous twin screw granulation: influence of process variables on granule and tablet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Córdoba Díaz, D; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to screen theophylline (125 mg) tablets manufactured via twin screw granulation in order to improve process understanding and knowledge of process variables that determine granule and tablet quality. A premix of theophylline anhydrate, α-lactose monohydrate and PVP (ratio: 30/67.5/2.5,w/w) was granulated with demineralized water. Experiments were done using the high-shear wet granulation module (based on twin screw granulation) of the ConsiGma™-25 unit (a continuous tablet manufacturing system) for particle size enlargement. After drying, granules were compressed using a MODUL™ P tablet press (compression force: 10 kN, tablet diameter: 12 mm). Using a D-optimal experimental design, the effect of several process variables (throughput (10-25 kg/h), screw speed (600-950 rpm), screw configuration (number (2, 4, 6 and 12) and angle (30°, 60° and 90°) of kneading elements), barrel temperature (25-40°C) and method of binder addition (dry versus wet)) on the granulation process (torque and temperature increase in barrel wall), granule (particle size distribution, friability and flowability) and tablet (tensile strength, porosity, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality was evaluated. The results showed that the quality of granules and tablets can be optimized by adjusting specific process variables (number of kneading elements, barrel temperature and binder addition method) during a granulation process using a continuous twin screw granulator.

  9. Exploring Factor Model Parameters across Continuous Variables with Local Structural Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Andrea; Lüdtke, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander; Sommer, Christopher; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Using an empirical data set, we investigated variation in factor model parameters across a continuous moderator variable and demonstrated three modeling approaches: multiple-group mean and covariance structure (MGMCS) analyses, local structural equation modeling (LSEM), and moderated factor analysis (MFA). We focused on how to study variation in factor model parameters as a function of continuous variables such as age, socioeconomic status, ability levels, acculturation, and so forth. Specifically, we formalized the LSEM approach in detail as compared with previous work and investigated its statistical properties with an analytical derivation and a simulation study. We also provide code for the easy implementation of LSEM. The illustration of methods was based on cross-sectional cognitive ability data from individuals ranging in age from 4 to 23 years. Variations in factor loadings across age were examined with regard to the age differentiation hypothesis. LSEM and MFA converged with respect to the conclusions. When there was a broad age range within groups and varying relations between the indicator variables and the common factor across age, MGMCS produced distorted parameter estimates. We discuss the pros of LSEM compared with MFA and recommend using the two tools as complementary approaches for investigating moderation in factor model parameters.

  10. Variable Sampling Composite Observer Based Frequency Locked Loop and its Application in Grid Connected System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARUN, K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified digital signal processing procedure is described for the on-line estimation of DC, fundamental and harmonics of periodic signal. A frequency locked loop (FLL incorporated within the parallel structure of observers is proposed to accommodate a wide range of frequency drift. The error in frequency generated under drifting frequencies has been used for changing the sampling frequency of the composite observer, so that the number of samples per cycle of the periodic waveform remains constant. A standard coupled oscillator with automatic gain control is used as numerically controlled oscillator (NCO to generate the enabling pulses for the digital observer. The NCO gives an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency making it suitable for power quality applications. Another observer with DC and second harmonic blocks in the feedback path act as filter and reduces the double frequency content. A systematic study of the FLL is done and a method has been proposed to design the controller. The performance of FLL is validated through simulation and experimental studies. To illustrate applications of the new FLL, estimation of individual harmonics from nonlinear load and the design of a variable sampling resonant controller, for a single phase grid-connected inverter have been presented.

  11. Growth of epitaxial semiconductor alloys and superlattices with continuously variable composition by pulsed-laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamy, J.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science; Lowndes, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    We describe a new method to grow epitaxial semiconductor alloys with continuously variable composition, while using a single pulsed laser ablation target of fixed composition. Epitaxial ZnSe{sub 1{minus}x}S{sub x} films with continuously variable sulfur content ``x`` were grown by ablating a ZnSe target through low-pressure ambient H{sub 2}S gas. The sulfur content was easily controlled by varying the H{sub 2}S partial pressure. The composition of ZnSe{sub 1{minus}x}S{sub x} films differs by as much as x = 0.52 from the pure ZnSe target. We have used this method to grow heteroepitaxial structures with either continuously graded or periodically repeating, abrupt compositional changes (compositional superlattices). Structures that simultaneously incorporate both types of compositional modulation also have been grown. This development removes the principal barrier to convenient pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) growth of compositionally graded semiconductor thin-film materials, namely that the film and target normally have the same composition. The method appears to have broad application for PLA growth of other compound semiconductor films and heterostructures, as well as for doping individual layers.

  12. The low frequency Western Mediterranean summer variability: relevance, feedbacks and predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Ortizbevia Maria; Antonio, Ruizdeelvira; Francisco Jose, Alvarez-Garcia; Miguel, Tasambay-Salazar

    2016-04-01

    In a recent study, OrtizBeviá et al. (2012) have defined a seasonal index, the Western Mediterranean Index, in order to characterize the Western Mediterranean summer variability. They have found there a statistically significant feedback between the Mediterranean and the North Pacific variability, characterized by the Pacific North America Mode Index. They have detected also a feedback between the Western Mediterranean in summer and the variability of some areas of the North Atlantic basin. Based on these statistical linear relationship they proposed a model to forecast the part of the Western Mediterranean variability represented by the Western Mediterranean Index in summer and autumn and validate it through some hindcast experiments, with a moderate, but significant skill. OrtizBeviá et al.(2012) presented also the evidence of the existence of a low frequency, multidecadal component in the Western Mediterranean summer variability. In the work to be presented here we extend the previous one, focusing on the long term variability. We perform similar statistical analysis on selected data fields that span more than 100 years. We add a second index to the characterisation of the Western Mediterranean variability and are then able to show the relevance of the Western Mediterranean summer variability for european air temperature and precipitation seasonal anomalies. Our analyses show that the variability represented by two North Atlantic Indexes play a key role in the Western Mediterranean summer variability. They also proof the existence of a feedback between this variability and that of the Pacific North America Mode, for an extended period of more than 140 years. The performance of the different predictive models built on the basis of those linear relationships are tested in a series of hindcast experiments. References Ortiz Beviá, M. J.; Alvarez García

  13. Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 and 1,800 MHz Continuous Wave Radio Frequency Radiation (CW RFR) on the permeability of Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) of rats. Results have shown that 20 min RFR exposure of 900 and 1,800 MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of BBB of male rats. There was no change in female rats. The scientific evidence on RFR safety or harm remains inconclusive. More studies are needed to demonstrate the effects of RFR on the permeability of BBB and the mechanisms of that breakdown.

  14. Continuous probe of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spaun, Ben; Patterson, David; Bjork, Bryce J; Heckl, Oliver H; Doyle, John M; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cavity-enhanced frequency comb spectroscopy for molecule detection in the mid-infrared powerfully combines high resolution, high sensitivity, and broad spectral coverage. However, this technique, and essentially all spectroscopic methods, is limited in application to relatively small, simple molecules. Here we integrate comb spectroscopy with continuous, cold samples of molecules produced via buffer gas cooling, thus enabling the study of significantly more complex molecules. We report simultaneous gains in resolution, sensitivity, and bandwidth and demonstrate this combined capability with the first rotationally resolved direct absorption spectra in the CH stretch region of several complex molecules. These include nitromethane (CH$_3$NO$_2$), a model system that presents challenging questions to the understanding of large amplitude vibrational motion, as well as several large organic molecules with fundamental spectroscopic and astrochemical relevance, including naphthalene (C$_{10}$H$_8$), adamantane (C$_{1...

  15. Continuous-wave, single-frequency 229 nm laser source for laser cooling of cadmium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneda, Yushi; Merzlyak, Yevgeny; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayashida, Keitaro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Continuous-wave output at 229 nm for the application of laser cooling of Cd atoms was generated by the 4th harmonic using two successive second harmonic generation stages. Employing a single-frequency optically pumped semiconductor laser as a fundamental source, 0.56 W of output at 229 nm was observed with a 10-mm long, Brewster-cut BBO crystal in an external cavity with 1.62 W of 458 nm input. Conversion efficiency from 458 nm to 229 nm was more than 34%. By applying a tapered amplifier as a fundamental source, we demonstrated magneto-optical trapping of all stable Cd isotopes including isotopes $^{111}$Cd and $^{113}$Cd, which are applicable to optical lattice clocks.

  16. Frequency doubled high-power disk lasers in pulsed and continuous-wave operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Sascha; Hangst, Alexander; Stolzenburg, Christian; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk; Killi, Alexander; Kalfhues, Steffen; Kriegshaeuser, Uwe; Holzer, Marco; Havrilla, David

    2012-03-01

    The disk laser with multi-kW output power in infrared cw operation is widely used in today's manufacturing, primarily in the automotive industry. The disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Additionally, the disk laser is ideally suited for frequency conversion due to its polarized output with negligible depolarization losses. Laser light in the green spectral range (~515 nm) can be created with a nonlinear crystal. Pulsed disk lasers with green output of well above 50 W (extracavity doubling) in the ps regime and several hundreds of Watts in the ns regime with intracavity doubling are already commercially available whereas intracavity doubled disk lasers in continuous wave operation with greater than 250 W output are in test phase. In both operating modes (pulsed and cw) the frequency doubled disk laser offers advantages in existing and new applications. Copper welding for example is said to show much higher process reliability with green laser light due to its higher absorption in comparison to the infrared. This improvement has the potential to be very beneficial for the automotive industry's move to electrical vehicles which requires reliable high-volume welding of copper as a major task for electro motors, batteries, etc.

  17. Treatment of Murine Tumor Models of Breast Adenocarcinoma by Continuous Dual-Frequency Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hoshang Barati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acoustic transient cavitation is the primary mechanism of sonochemical reaction and has potential use for tumor treatment. In this study, the in vivo anti-tumor effect of simultaneous dual-frequency ultrasound at low-level intensity (ISATA < 6 W/cm2 was investigated in a spontaneous murine model of breast adenocarcinoma in Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: Forty tumor bearing mice were divided into four groups (10 in each group. The treated groups received 15 or 30 minutes of combined dual-frequency ultrasound in continuous mode (1 MHzcon + 150 kHzcon respectively. The control and the sham groups contained the untreated mice. The tumor growth delay parameters including tumor volume, relative tumor volume, T5 and T2 (the needed time for each tumor to reach 5 and 2 times the initial tumor volume, respectively, survival period and percent of tumor growth inhibition ratio were measured on different days after treatment. Results: The results showed that the 30 min treatment was effective in tumor growth delay and percent of tumor growth inhibitory ratio compared to the sham and the control groups. The tumor volume growth and relative volume of tumors in the same treated group showed an anti-tumor effect relative to the sham and the control groups. There was a significant difference in tumor volume growth between this 30 min treatment group and the sham group 12 days after treatment (p-value

  18. On computational algorithms for real-valued continuous functions of several variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, David

    2014-11-01

    The subject of this paper is algorithms for computing superpositions of real-valued continuous functions of several variables based on space-filling curves. The prototypes of these algorithms were based on Kolmogorov's dimension-reducing superpositions (Kolmogorov, 1957). Interest in these grew significantly with the discovery of Hecht-Nielsen that a version of Kolmogorov's formula has an interpretation as a feedforward neural network (Hecht-Nielse, 1987). These superpositions were constructed with devil's staircase-type functions to answer a question in functional complexity, rather than become computational algorithms, and their utility as an efficient computational tool turned out to be limited by the characteristics of space-filling curves that they determined. After discussing the link between the algorithms and these curves, this paper presents two algorithms for the case of two variables: one based on space-filling curves with worked out coding, and the Hilbert curve (Hilbert, 1891).

  19. Practical robust stabilization of PMAC servo drive based on continuous variable structure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grcar, B.; Cafuta, P.; Znidaric, M. [Univ. of Maribor (Slovenia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

    1996-12-01

    In the paper the two stage control design of a high performance PMAC servo drive is described. In the first stage the nominal PMAC motor model is discussed as an analytical nonlinear system, transformed into the controllable canonical Brunovsky`s forms on the basis of input-output linearization. The influence of the load torque is considered implicitly by introducing the disturbance observer. Due to the sensitivity of the nominal model based control to parameter perturbations the linear tracking control is extended in the second stage by a continuous variable structure stabilizing control derived from Lyapunov`s function of the augmented feedback system. The design of the variable structure control requires no knowledge of the upper bounds of the perturbation function; instead, it considers the variable bounds of the available control signal. Undesired chattering of states and controlled variables are excluded. The introduced two stage control design assures practical robust stabilization for the class of bounded nonlinear perturbations satisfying the matching conditions without affecting the relative degree of the feedback system. Experimental results of the proposed PMAC servo drive control are presented.

  20. Development of a new adaptive ordinal approach to continuous-variable probabilistic optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente JosÔe; Chen, Chun-Hung (George Mason University, Fairfax, VA)

    2006-11-01

    A very general and robust approach to solving continuous-variable optimization problems involving uncertainty in the objective function is through the use of ordinal optimization. At each step in the optimization problem, improvement is based only on a relative ranking of the uncertainty effects on local design alternatives, rather than on precise quantification of the effects. One simply asks ''Is that alternative better or worse than this one?'' -not ''HOW MUCH better or worse is that alternative to this one?'' The answer to the latter question requires precise characterization of the uncertainty--with the corresponding sampling/integration expense for precise resolution. However, in this report we demonstrate correct decision-making in a continuous-variable probabilistic optimization problem despite extreme vagueness in the statistical characterization of the design options. We present a new adaptive ordinal method for probabilistic optimization in which the trade-off between computational expense and vagueness in the uncertainty characterization can be conveniently managed in various phases of the optimization problem to make cost-effective stepping decisions in the design space. Spatial correlation of uncertainty in the continuous-variable design space is exploited to dramatically increase method efficiency. Under many circumstances the method appears to have favorable robustness and cost-scaling properties relative to other probabilistic optimization methods, and uniquely has mechanisms for quantifying and controlling error likelihood in design-space stepping decisions. The method is asymptotically convergent to the true probabilistic optimum, so could be useful as a reference standard against which the efficiency and robustness of other methods can be compared--analogous to the role that Monte Carlo simulation plays in uncertainty propagation.

  1. A continuously weighing, high frequency sand trap: Wind tunnel and field evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, XingHua; Huo, Wen; Ali, Mamtimin; Zheng, XinQian; Zhou, ChengLong; He, Qing

    2017-09-01

    A new continuously weighing, high frequency sand trap (CWHF) has been designed. Its sampling efficiency is evaluated in a wind tunnel and the potential of the new trap has been demonstrated in field trials. The newly designed sand trap allows fully automated and high frequency measurement of sediment fluxes over extensive periods. We show that it can capture the variations and structures of wind-driven sand transport processes and horizontal sediment flux, and reveal the relationships between sand transport and meteorological parameters. Its maximum sampling frequency can reach 10 Hz. Wind tunnel tests indicated that the sampling efficiency of the CWHF sand trap varies between 39.2 to 64.3%, with an average of 52.5%. It achieved a maximum sampling efficiency of 64.3% at a wind speed of 10 m s- 1. This is largely achieved by the inclusion of a vent hole which leads to a higher sampling efficiency than that of a step-like sand trap at high wind speeds. In field experiments, we show a good agreement between the mass of sediment from the CWHF sand trap, the wind speed at 2 m and the number of saltating particles at 5 cm above the ground surface. According to analysis of the horizontal sediment flux at four heights from the CWHF sand trap (25, 35, 50, and 100 cm), the vertical distribution of the horizontal sediment flux up to a height of 100 cm above the sand surface follows an exponential function. Our field experiments show that the new instrument can capture more detailed information on sediment transport with much reduced labor requirement. Therefore, it has great potential for application in wind-blown sand monitoring and process studies.

  2. Variable frequency microwave (VFM) curing, processing of thermoset prepreg laminates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulauskas, F.L.

    1996-09-30

    The objective of this work was to investigate the beneficial effect of the variable frequency microwave (VFM) technology to cure thermosetting prepreg laminates. Further, it was to investigate the interrelationship and effect on the curing process of frequency, band width, and curing time with different types of laminates. Previous studies of microwave-assisted curing of neat resins (epoxy) and unidirectional glass and carbon fiber laminates with a fixed frequency of 2.45 GHz, have shown that a substantial reduction in the curing time was obtained. Results of this earlier work indicate that the microwave-assisted curing of multidirectional glass fiber laminates also show a substantial reduction of the required curing time. This may be explained by the penetration of microwave energy directly and throughout the laminate with enhancement of the kinetics of the chemical reaction. The fixed frequency microwave radiation of 2.45 GHz has been demonstrated to be a partially acceptable method to cure unidirectional carbon fiber laminates. Multidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy laminates demonstrate a lack of coupling during the curing process. A direct curing of these laminates was not possible by microwave radiation with the experimental approach used in agreement with previous work. In addition to this short coming, the unidirectional laminate samples cured with the fixed frequency are visually nonuniform. Localized areas of darker colors (burn, hot spots, overheating) are attributed to the formation of standing waves within the microwave cavity. For this reason, the laminates are subject to proper rotation while curing through fixed frequency. The present research indicates that variable frequency microwave technology is a sound and acceptable processing method to effectively cure uni-, bi- or multi-directional thermosetting glass fiber laminates. Also, this methodology will effectively cure unidirectional thermosetting carbon fiber laminates. For all these cases, this

  3. MODELING AND INTEGRATED CONTROL FOR A METAL PUSHING BELT CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By the bond graph theory,a bond graph analysis mode l of continuously variable transmission is establishedOn the basis of improvin g the ratio change response and reducing the engine torque response lag in norma l control,a new synthetic control algorithm is developedBy analyzing the engin e driving torque characteristics and the transmission inertia torque while ratio is changed under transient condition,the compensation value for engine driving torque is presentedThe simulation result shows that by this compensation contr ol algorithm the engine torque response lag can be reduced and the driving torqu e response can be improved effectively

  4. Would one rather store squeezing or entanglement in continuous variable quantum memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadsan-Appleby, Hulya; Serafini, Alessio

    2011-05-01

    Given two quantum memories for continuous variables and the possibility to perform passive optical operations on the optical modes before or after the storage, two possible scenarios arise resulting in generally different degrees of final entanglement. Namely, one could either store an entangled state and retrieve it directly from the memory, or rather store two separate single-mode squeezed states and then combine them with a beam-splitter to generate the final entangled state. In this Letter, we analytically determine which of the two options yields more entanglement for several regions of the system's parameters, and quantify the advantage it entails.

  5. Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouguet, Paul; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Debuisschert, Thierry; Fossier, Simon; Diamanti, Eleni; Alléaume, Romain; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe; Leverrier, Anthony; Pache, Philippe; Painchault, Philippe

    2012-06-18

    We report on the design and performance of a point-to-point classical symmetric encryption link with fast key renewal provided by a Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) system. Our system was operational and able to encrypt point-to-point communications during more than six months, from the end of July 2010 until the beginning of February 2011. This field test was the first demonstration of the reliability of a CVQKD system over a long period of time in a server room environment. This strengthens the potential of CVQKD for information technology security infrastructure deployments.

  6. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols with a non-Gaussian modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols which use non-Gaussian modulations. These specific modulation schemes are compatible with very efficient error correction procedures, hence allowing the protocols to outperform previous protocols in terms of achievable range. In their simplest implementation, these protocols are secure for any linear quantum channels (hence against Gaussian attacks). We also show how the use of decoy states makes the protocols secure against arbitrary collective attacks, which implies their unconditional security in the asymptotic limit.

  7. Field Test of Classical Symmetric Encryption with Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Jouguet, Paul; Debuisschert, Thierry; Fossier, Simon; Diamanti, Eleni; Alléaume, Romain; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe; Leverrier, Anthony; Pache, Philippe; Painchault, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We report on the design and performance of a point-to-point classical symmetric encryption link with fast key renewal provided by a Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) system. Our system was operational and able to encrypt point-to-point communications during more than six months, from the end of July 2010 until the beginning of February 2011. This field test was the first demonstration of the reliability of a CVQKD system over a long period of time in a server room environment. This strengthens the potential of CVQKD for information technology security infrastructure deployments.

  8. Improving the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution using a noiseless amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandino, Rémi; Etesse, Jean; Grangier, Philippe [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 2 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Leverrier, Anthony [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland and INRIA Paris-Rocquencourt, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex (France); Barbieri, Marco [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 2 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex, France and Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Tualle-Brouri, Rosa [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 2 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex, France and Institut Universitaire de France, 103 boulevard St. Michel, 75005, Paris (France)

    2014-12-04

    We show that the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution in presence of a Gaussian noisy lossy channel can be arbitrarily increased using a heralded noiseless linear amplifier. We explicitly consider a protocol using amplitude and phase modulated coherent states with reverse reconciliation. Assuming that the secret key rate drops to zero for a line transmittance T{sub lim}, we find that a noiseless amplifier with amplitude gain g can improve this value to T{sub lim}/g{sup 2}, corresponding to an increase in distance proportional to log g. We also show that the tolerance against noise is increased.

  9. Four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution with long secure distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Xu, Bingjie; Peng, Xiang; Guo, Hong

    2012-05-01

    The four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol has a long practical secure distance [A. Leverrier and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.180504 102, 180504 (2009)], while it poses the difficulty of parameter estimation. We propose an improved four-state protocol where the covariance matrix can be estimated from experimental data without using the linear channel assumption, thus ensuring its unconditional security in the asymptotical limit. Our scheme maintains the advantage of high reconciliation efficiency of the four-state protocol, which ensures long practical secure distance its. Our scheme can be implemented with the current technology.

  10. Experimental implementation of non-Gaussian attacks on a continuous-variable quantum key distribution system

    CERN Document Server

    Lodewyck, J; Garcia-Patron, R; Tualle-Brouri, R; Cerf, N J; Grangier, P; Lodewyck, Jerome; Debuisschert, Thierry; Garcia-Patron, Raul; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    An intercept-resend attack on a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution protocol is investigated experimentally. By varying the interception fraction, one can implement a family of attacks where the eavesdropper totally controls the channel parameters. In general, such attacks add excess noise in the channel, and may also result in non-Gaussian output distributions. We implement and characterize the measurements needed to detect these attacks, and evaluate experimentally the information rates available to the legitimate users and the eavesdropper. The results are consistent with the optimality of Gaussian attacks resulting from the security proofs.

  11. Bell's Inequalities for Continuous-Variable Systems in Generic Squeezed States

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Bell's inequality for continuous-variable bipartite systems is studied. The inequality is expressed in terms of pseudo-spin operators and quantum expectation values are calculated for generic two-mode squeezed states characterized by a squeezing parameter $r$ and a squeezing angle $\\varphi$. Allowing for generic values of the squeezing angle is especially relevant when $\\varphi$ is not under experimental control, such as in cosmic inflation, where small quantum fluctuations in the early Universe are responsible for structures formation. Compared to previous studies restricted to $\\varphi=0$ and to a fixed orientation of the pseudo-spin operators, allowing for $\\varphi\

  12. Noiseless Linear Amplifiers in Entanglement-Based Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to improve the performance of two entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols using noiseless linear amplifiers. The two entanglement-based schemes consist of an entanglement distribution protocol with an untrusted source and an entanglement swapping protocol with an untrusted relay. Simulation results show that the noiseless linear amplifiers can improve the performance of these two protocols, in terms of maximal transmission distances, when we consider small amounts of entanglement, as typical in realistic setups.

  13. Fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computing with continuous-variable cluster states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Nicolas C

    2014-03-28

    A long-standing open question about Gaussian continuous-variable cluster states is whether they enable fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation. The answer is yes. Initial squeezing in the cluster above a threshold value of 20.5 dB ensures that errors from finite squeezing acting on encoded qubits are below the fault-tolerance threshold of known qubit-based error-correcting codes. By concatenating with one of these codes and using ancilla-based error correction, fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation of theoretically indefinite length is possible with finitely squeezed cluster states.

  14. The construction of the generalized continuously variable two-mode entangled state and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The generalized continuous variable two-mode entangled state |〉 is proposed by using the tech-nique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators. The characteristics of this new entangled representation and its application in quantum teleportation are analyzed in detail. These results indicate that such real parameters |〉 indeed make up a new entangled representation owing to its completeness and orthogonal relation. By employing the |〉 as quantum transmission channel,the teleportation of any single-mode quantum state |ψ〉 3 can be realized by a unitary transformation.

  15. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states through varied gain channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Zhang Jing; Zhang Jun-Xiang; Zhang Tian-Cai

    2006-01-01

    This paper has investigated quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states in terms of the EPR entanglement states for continuous variables. It discusses the relationship between the fidelity and the entanglement of EPR states, which is characterized by the degree of squeezing and the gain of classical channels. It shows that the quality of teleporting quantum states also depends on the characteristics of the states themselves. The properties of teleporting even and odd coherent states at different intensities are investigated. The difference of teleporting two such kinds of quantum states are analysed based on the quantum distance function.

  16. Comparative study on performances of a continuously variable transmission used in two different powertrain architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibiceanu, A. R.; Ivan, F.; Nicolae, V.; Iorga, A.; Cioroianu, C.

    2017-08-01

    Given the importance of reducing carbon emissions from road transport, price and security of oil supply, hybrid electric vehicle can provide a viable alternative solution to conventional vehicles, equipped with thermal engines, which use fossil fuels. Based on the growing trends of new vehicles sales, which include hybrid and electric vehicles closely associated with their use in terms of harmful emissions, strict regulations are established. In this paper were created models of thermal and hybrid electric powertrains groups, using computer simulation program AVL Cruise, making a comparative study using petroleum fuels for continuously variable transmission. The results obtained highlights both fuel consumption as well as pollutant emissions.

  17. Demonstration of Cluster State Shaping and Quantum Erasure for Continuous Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Miwa, Yoshichika; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Filip, Radim; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally how to remove an arbitrary node from a continuous-variable cluster state and how to shorten any quantum wires of such a state. These two basic operations, performed in an unconditional fashion, are a manifestation of quantum erasure and can be employed to obtain various graph states from an initial cluster state. Starting with a sufficiently large cluster, the resulting graph states can then be used for universal quantum information processing. In the experiment, all variations of this cluster-shaping are demonstrated on a four-mode linear cluster state through homodyne measurements and feedforward.

  18. High performance frame synchronization for continuous variable quantum key distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dakai; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Wang, Chao; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-08-24

    Considering a practical continuous variable quantum key distribution(CVQKD) system, synchronization is of significant importance as it is hardly possible to extract secret keys from unsynchronized strings. In this paper, we proposed a high performance frame synchronization method for CVQKD systems which is capable to operate under low signal-to-noise(SNR) ratios and is compatible with random phase shift induced by quantum channel. A practical implementation of this method with low complexity is presented and its performance is analysed. By adjusting the length of synchronization frame, this method can work well with large range of SNR values which paves the way for longer distance CVQKD.

  19. Continuous-Variable Entanglement in Tunnel-Coupled Double Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Xin-You; LIU Ji-Bing; HAO Xiang-Ying; HUANG Pei; YANG Xiao-Xue

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the generation and evolution of continuous-variable entanglement in an asymmetric coupled-quantum well (CQW) system. Our numerical results show that this CQW system can be regarded as a source of macroscopic entangled light over a wide range of initial states of the cavity field. This investigation can be used for achieving the macroscopic entangled light in the CQW solid-state medium, which is much more practical than that in an atomic medium because of its flexible design and the controllable interference strength.

  20. Improving the fidelity of continuous-variable quantum teleportation by tuning displacement gain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinming Liu(刘金明); Jian Li(李剑); Guangcan Guo(郭光灿)

    2003-01-01

    The fidelity of teleportation of continuous quantum variables can be improved by tuning the local displace-ment gain. We investigate the optimization of the fidelity for the teleportation of Schrodinger cat states,and of coherent states. It is found that the gain corresponding to the maximum fidelity is not equal to onefor the two input states in the case of the small squeezing degree of the entanglement resource, while unitydisplacement gain is the best choice for teleporting arbitrary quantum states in the case of large squeezing.

  1. Optimal Driving of Large Belt Conveyor with Multi-roller Variable-Frequency Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jun-qing; WANG Cong; LI Yu-jin

    2004-01-01

    in this paper, an electromechanically coupled mathematic model of multi-roller driving system for belt conveyor is set up, and the computing equations for dynamic displacement and dynamic tension of the conveyor are also formulated when the hoister is used for straining. Based on the belt conveyor of main inclined shaft in Chengzhuang coal mine, the driving torque, driving power and starting-speed characteristic of each electric motor are studied and measured when multi-roller variable-frequency drive (power distribution 2∶1) is used. The optimal control and the optimal starting-acceleration of the multi-roller variable-frequency drive are determined by a large number of industrial experiments and theoretical calculations.

  2. Long term variability of radio sources in the frequencies of 22 GHz and 44 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botti, L.C.L.; Abraham, Z.

    1987-05-01

    The radio sources 3C273, OV236, Cen A and Sgr A were observed during a period of six years (1980-1986), in the frequencies of 22 GHz and 44 GHz, with the Itapetinga radiotelescope (Brazil). The objective of this work was the detection of variability in the intensity and in the shape of the spectra of the sources. All of them presented some variability, specially the quasar 3C273, which after a period of intense activity (1981-1985), returned to its quiescent level at the end of 1985. The increase of the flux density in these frequencies is associated to the ejection of new components by the central source in the quasar, as observed in the maps obtained by VLBI techniques. 17 references, 4 figures.

  3. Design of a multilevel Active Power Filter for More Electrical Airplane variable frequency systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Joel Filipe; Pomilio, Jose Antenor; Busarello, Tiago Davi Curi

    This paper presents the design and simulation of an Aeronautical Active Power Filter (AAPF) for a Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF) advanced aircraft electric power system. The purposes of the AAPF are to mitigate current harmonics, to improve the source power factor and to mitigate the effects of unbalanced loads. Regarding the fact that the Aircraft Electrical Power System (AEPS) frequency may vary between 360 Hz and 900 Hz, and the load dynamics is often modified, an enhanced filtering technique is required. The designed AAPF topology is an asymmetrical multilevel inverter (AMI), which control strategy is based on the Conservative Power Theory (CPT) and synchronized by a Kalman Filter Phase-Locked Loop (KF-PLL). The above configuration renders the AAPF very robust and effective to its purpose. Accurate simulation results on Matlab/Simulink platform verify the feasibility of the proposed AAPF and the high performance of the control strategy during steady-state and dynamic operations.

  4. Time-Frequency Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Neonatal Seizure Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvili, M. B.; Mesbah, Mostefa; Boashash, Boualem

    2007-12-01

    There are a number of automatic techniques available for detecting epileptic seizures using solely electroencephalogram (EEG), which has been the primary diagnosis tool in newborns. The electrocardiogram (ECG) has been much neglected in automatic seizure detection. Changes in heart rate and ECG rhythm were previously linked to seizure in case of adult humans and animals. However, little is known about heart rate variability (HRV) changes in human neonate during seizure. In this paper, we assess the suitability of HRV as a tool for seizure detection in newborns. The features of HRV in the low-frequency band (LF: 0.03-0.07 Hz), mid-frequency band (MF: 0.07-0.15 Hz), and high-frequency band (HF: 0.15-0.6 Hz) have been obtained by means of the time-frequency distribution (TFD). Results of ongoing time-frequency (TF) research are presented. Based on our preliminary results, the first conditional moment of HRV which is the mean/central frequency in the LF band and the variance in the HF band can be used as a good feature to discriminate the newborn seizure from the nonseizure.

  5. Time-Frequency Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Neonatal Seizure Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Boashash

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of automatic techniques available for detecting epileptic seizures using solely electroencephalogram (EEG, which has been the primary diagnosis tool in newborns. The electrocardiogram (ECG has been much neglected in automatic seizure detection. Changes in heart rate and ECG rhythm were previously linked to seizure in case of adult humans and animals. However, little is known about heart rate variability (HRV changes in human neonate during seizure. In this paper, we assess the suitability of HRV as a tool for seizure detection in newborns. The features of HRV in the low-frequency band (LF: 0.03–0.07 Hz, mid-frequency band (MF: 0.07–0.15 Hz, and high-frequency band (HF: 0.15–0.6 Hz have been obtained by means of the time-frequency distribution (TFD. Results of ongoing time-frequency (TF research are presented. Based on our preliminary results, the first conditional moment of HRV which is the mean/central frequency in the LF band and the variance in the HF band can be used as a good feature to discriminate the newborn seizure from the nonseizure.

  6. High power, continuous-wave, single frequency fiber amplifier at 1091 nm and frequency doubling to 545.5 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Stappel, M; Kolbe, D; Walz, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a high power single-frequency ytterbium fiber amplifier system with an output power of 30 W at 1091 nm. The amplifier system consists of two stages, a preamplifier stage in which amplified spontaneous emission is efficiently suppressed (>40 dB) and a high power amplifier with an efficiency of 52 %. Two different approaches of frequency doubling are compared. We achieve 8.6 W at 545.5 nm by single-pass frequency doubling in a MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO3 and up to 19.3 W at 545.5 nm by frequency doubling with a lithium-triborate (LBO) crystal in an external enhancement cavity.

  7. Manufacturing: SiC Power Electronics for Variable Frequency Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bench Reese, Samantha R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This brochure, published as an annual research highlight of the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), summarizes CEMAC analysis of silicon carbide (SiC) power electronics for variable frequency motor drives. The key finding presented is that variations in manufacturing expertise, yields, and access to existing facilities impact regional costs and manufacturing location decisions for SiC ingots, wafers, chips, and power modules more than do core country-specific factors such as labor and electricity costs.

  8. Variability, frequency composition, and temporal regularity of submaximal isometric elbow flexion force in subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, John W; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2016-11-01

    We compared variability, frequency composition, and temporal regularity of submaximal isometric elbow flexion force at 10, 20, 35, and 50 % of peak torque between 34 stroke subjects (5-48 days post-onset, both arms) and 24 age-matched controls (dominant arm), and related the findings in the paretic arm to motor impairment. Force variability was quantified by the coefficient of variation (CV), frequency composition by the median frequency and relative power in 0-3-, 4-6-, and 8-12-Hz bands, and regularity by the sample entropy (SampEn). The paretic elbow flexors showed significantly increased CV and relative power in 0-3-Hz band, decreased power in 4-6- and 8-12-Hz bands, and decreased SampEn compared to both the non-paretic and control elbow flexors (P ≤ 0.0002), with no differences between the latter two (P ≥ 0.012). With increasing contraction intensity, the relative power in different frequency bands was insufficiently modulated and SampEn excessively decreased in the paretic elbow flexors. Also, CV in the paretic elbow flexors was non-linearly related to the relative power in different frequency bands and SampEn across contraction intensities (rectangular hyperbolic fit, 0.21 ≤ R (2) ≤ 0.55, P ≤ 0.006), whereas no force parameter correlated with arm motor impairment. These results largely extend our previous findings in the paretic knee extensors to the elbow flexors in subacute stroke, except that here force variability was increased only in the paretic elbow flexors and modulation of force regularity with increasing contraction intensity showed the opposite, decreasing pattern, which was considerably exaggerated in the paretic muscles.

  9. Time-frequency analysis of heart rate variability in elderly people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Herbert C.; Guntermann, Juergen

    2001-11-01

    Assessment of the ability of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to regulate blood pressure (BP). This is of particular importance for elderly people, for whom the project was designed. We measure a patient's BP noninvasively under various conditions: deep respiration, passive tilt, etc. The variability of the heart rate in the lower frequency band (LF) (0.04 - 0.15 Hz) is known to have sympathetic- and parasympathetic origin, while in the higher (HF) (0.15 - 0.4 Hz) it is vagally mediated. We do a Time-Frequency analysis for the two frequency bands (Wigner) and eliminate the 'cross-terms' with a novel method due to Qian and Chen. We obtain a clear resolution of the activity in LF and HF over time. Research is ongoing aiming at identifying unambiguously the sympathetic and vagal activity.

  10. Active notch filter network with variable notch depth, width and frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An active notch filter having independently adjustable notch frequency, width, and depth is provided by three equal capacitors connected in series with an operational amplifier (connected in a voltage follower configuration), a potentiometer across the series connected capacitors for notch depth adjustment, and a potentiometer (for notch frequency connected across the center capacitor); with its tap connected to receive a voltage feedback signal from a variable voltage divider comprised of another potentiometer for notch width. Adjusting the voltage dividing potentiometer will independently set the notch width, and adjusting the tap on the potentiometer across the center capacitor will independently adjust the notch frequency of the filter. A second operational amplifier connected in a voltage follower configuration may be used to connect the voltage divider output to the adjustable tap of the potentiometer across the center capacitor.

  11. Capacitance variation measurement method with a continuously variable measuring range for a micro-capacitance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiaozhou; Xie, Kai; Xue, Dongfeng; Zhang, Feng; Qi, Liang; Tao, Yebo; Li, Teng; Bao, Weimin; Wang, Songlin; Li, Xiaoping; Chen, Renjie

    2017-10-01

    Micro-capacitance sensors are widely applied in industrial applications for the measurement of mechanical variations. The measurement accuracy of micro-capacitance sensors is highly dependent on the capacitance measurement circuit. To overcome the inability of commonly used methods to directly measure capacitance variation and deal with the conflict between the measurement range and accuracy, this paper presents a capacitance variation measurement method which is able to measure the output capacitance variation (relative value) of the micro-capacitance sensor with a continuously variable measuring range. We present the principles and analyze the non-ideal factors affecting this method. To implement the method, we developed a capacitance variation measurement circuit and carried out experiments to test the circuit. The result shows that the circuit is able to measure a capacitance variation range of 0–700 pF linearly with a maximum relative accuracy of 0.05% and a capacitance range of 0–2 nF (with a baseline capacitance of 1 nF) with a constant resolution of 0.03%. The circuit is proposed as a new method to measure capacitance and is expected to have applications in micro-capacitance sensors for measuring capacitance variation with a continuously variable measuring range.

  12. Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution via a Gaussian de Finetti Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Establishing the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks in a realistic finite-size regime is an outstanding open problem in the field of theoretical quantum cryptography if we restrict our attention to protocols that rely on the exchange of coherent states. Indeed, techniques based on the uncertainty principle are not known to work for such protocols, and the usual tools based on de Finetti reductions only provide security for unrealistically large block lengths. We address this problem here by considering a new type of Gaussian de Finetti reduction, that exploits the invariance of some continuous-variable protocols under the action of the unitary group U (n ) (instead of the symmetric group Sn as in usual de Finetti theorems), and by introducing generalized S U (2 ,2 ) coherent states. Crucially, combined with an energy test, this allows us to truncate the Hilbert space globally instead as at the single-mode level as in previous approaches that failed to provide security in realistic conditions. Our reduction shows that it is sufficient to prove the security of these protocols against Gaussian collective attacks in order to obtain security against general attacks, thereby confirming rigorously the widely held belief that Gaussian attacks are indeed optimal against such protocols.

  13. MODELING, VALIDATION AND OPTIMAL DESIGN OF THE CLAMPING FORCE CONTROL VALVE USED IN CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yunshan; LIU Jin'gang; CAI Yuanchun; ZOU Naiwei

    2008-01-01

    Associated dynamic performance of the clamping force control valve used in continuously variable transmission (CVT) is optimized. Firstly, the structure and working principle of the valve are analyzed, and then a dynamic model is set up by means of mechanism analysis. For the purpose of checking the validity of the modeling method, a prototype workpiece of the valve is manufactured for comparison test, and its simulation result follows the experimental result quite well. An associated performance index is founded considering the response time, overshoot and saving energy, and five structural parameters are selected to adjust for deriving the optimal associated performance index. The optimization problem is solved by the genetic algorithm (GA) with necessary constraints. Finally, the properties of the optimized valve are compared with those of the prototype workpiece, and the results prove that the dynamic performance indexes of the optimized valve are much better than those of the prototype workpiece.Key words: Dynamic modeling Optimal design Genetic algorithm Clamping force control valve Continuously variable transmission (CVT)

  14. Impact of Offshore Wind Power Variability on the Frequency Stability of European Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    this variability is important and will assist quantifying the possible impacts of large-scale deployment of offshore wind on the operation of the power system. The analysis of maximum offshore wind power ramping in 2020 and 2030 North Seas shows that wind power variability, at synchronous area level, can exceed......Offshore wind power development scenarios are very ambitious. In Europe, it is expected to surpass 100 GW by 2030. As opposed to onshore, offshore wind will be concentrated in relatively small geographical areas, meaning that the geographical smoothening would be diminished. Being able to simulate...... the current dimensioning incidents values. This indicates that wind power variability should be considered in frequency stability....

  15. Linear-in-dB Variable-Gain Downconversion Mixer for Zero Intermediate Frequency Receivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In-phase/quadrature (I/Q) mismatch is a key problem in zero intermediate frequency (ZIF) receiver architectures. Although integration and careful layout can alleviate I/Q mismatch, circuit and system level calibrations are also needed due to process variations and variable operating conditions. The amplitude imbalance between I/Q channels was calibrated using a modified R-2R ladder to achieve fine linear-in-dB variable gain. A downconversion mixer working in the 2.4-GHz band was developed for a wireless local area network (WLAN) ZIF receiver using 0.25-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS). The two-stage mixer configuration relaxes the tradeoff between noise and linearity. Experimental results verify the fine linear-in-dB variable conversion gain of the mixer, which can also be used as part of an automatic gain control (AGC) loop.

  16. A UNIVERSAL APPROACH FOR CONTINUOUS OR DISCRETE NONLINEAR PROGRAMMINGS WITH MULTIPLE VARIABLES AND CONSTRAINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A universal numerical approach for nonlinear mathematic programming problems is presented with an application of ratios of first-order differentials/differences of objective functions to constraint functions with respect to design variables. This approach can be efficiently used to solve continuous and, in particular, discrete programmings with arbitrary design variables and constraints. As a search method, this approach requires only computations of the functions and their partial derivatives or differences with respect to design variables, rather than any solution of mathematic equations. The present approach has been applied on many numerical examples as well as on some classical operational problems such as one-dimensional and two-dimensional knap-sack problems, one-dimensional and two-dimensional resource-distribution problems, problems of working reliability of composite systems and loading problems of machine, and more efficient and reliable solutions are obtained than traditional methods. The present approach can be used without limitation of modeling scales of the problem. Optimum solutions can be guaranteed as long as the objective function,constraint functions and their first-order derivatives/differences exist in the feasible domain or feasible set. There are no failures of convergence and instability when this approach is adopted.

  17. Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution with advanced reconciliation of a Gaussian modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, L.; Imre, S.

    2014-02-01

    The two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) systems allow higher key rates and improved transmission distances over standard telecommunication networks in comparison to the one-way CVQKD protocols. To exploit the real potential of two-way CVQKD systems a robust reconciliation technique is needed. It is currently unavailable, which makes it impossible to reach the real performance of a two-way CVQKD system. The reconciliation process of correlated Gaussian variables is a complex problem that requires either tomography in the physical layer that is intractable in a practical scenario, or high-cost calculations in the multidimensional spherical space with strict dimensional limitations. To avoid these issues, we propose an efficient logical layer-based reconciliation method for two-way CVQKD to extract binary information from correlated Gaussian variables. We demonstrate that by operating on the raw-data level, the noise of the quantum channel can be corrected in the scalar space and the reconciliation can be extended to arbitrary high dimensions. We prove that the error probability of scalar reconciliation is zero in any practical CVQKD scenario, and provides unconditional security. The results allow to significantly improve the currently available key rates and transmission distances of two-way CVQKD. The proposed scalar reconciliation can also be applied in oneway systems as well, to replace the existing reconciliation schemes.

  18. Low frequency variability of Climate-Related-Energy penetration in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Damien; Baptiste, François; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    The penetration rate of Climate Related Energy sources like solar-power, wind-power and hydro-power source measures the mismatch between the energy availability from those fatal productions and the energy demand which may be also partly dependent on the climate. The penetration rate is a key factor - with potentially large technical and economic implications, to be accounted for in public policies and private initiatives for a massive integration of renewables in the classical energy system. For a given region, it is classically estimated from high resolution time series of energy productions and energy demand derived from times series of their driving climatic variables (temperature, wind, radiation, precipitation). The penetration rate obviously highly depends on the seasonal and also high frequency time variability of these climatic variables (François et al. 2016). A less studied aspect of this penetration rate is its dependence to low frequency variability of climate, from annual to pluriannual time scales. We here explore this dependence for a set of 12 contrasted hydroclimatic regions in Europe with long time series of weather variables reconstructed for the whole 20th century. We discuss the interannual, and interdecadal variability of the penetration rate for the solar-power, wind-power and run-of-the river energy sources taken individually and for different mixes. We discuss how it can be increased / stabilized with local energy storage. Reference : François, B, Hingray, B., Raynaud, R., Borga, M. and Creutin, J.D., 2016. Increasing Climate-Related-Energy penetration by integrating run-of-the river hydropower to wind/solar mix. Renewable Energy. 87(1), pp.686-696. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2015.10.064 This work is part of the COMPLEX Project (European Collaborative Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  19. Development and beam test of a continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The front end of any modern ion accelerator includes a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ. While many pulsed ion linacs successfully operate RFQs, several ion accelerators worldwide have significant difficulties operating continuous wave (CW RFQs to design specifications. In this paper we describe the development and results of the beam commissioning of a CW RFQ designed and built for the National User Facility: Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS. Several innovative ideas were implemented in this CW RFQ. By selecting a multisegment split-coaxial structure, we reached moderate transverse dimensions for a 60.625-MHz resonator and provided a highly stabilized electromagnetic field distribution. The accelerating section of the RFQ occupies approximately 50% of the total length and is based on a trapezoidal vane tip modulation that increased the resonator shunt impedance by 60% in this section as compared to conventional sinusoidal modulation. To form an axially symmetric beam exiting the RFQ, a very short output radial matcher with a length of 0.75βλ was developed. The RFQ is designed as a 100% oxygen-free electronic (OFE copper structure and fabricated with a two-step furnace brazing process. The radio frequency (rf measurements show excellent rf properties for the resonator, with a measured intrinsic Q equal to 94% of the simulated value for OFE copper. An O^{5+} ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was used for the RFQ commissioning. In off-line beam testing, we found excellent coincidence of the measured beam parameters with the results of beam dynamics simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK, which was developed at Argonne. These results demonstrate the great success of the RFQ design and fabrication technology developed here, which can be applied to future CW RFQs.

  20. Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaun, Ben; Changala, P. Bryan; Patterson, David; Bjork, Bryce J.; Heckl, Oliver H.; Doyle, John M.; Ye, Jun

    2016-05-01

    For more than half a century, high-resolution infrared spectroscopy has played a crucial role in probing molecular structure and dynamics. Such studies have so far been largely restricted to relatively small and simple systems, because at room temperature even molecules of modest size already occupy many millions of rotational/vibrational states, yielding highly congested spectra that are difficult to assign. Targeting more complex molecules requires methods that can record broadband infrared spectra (that is, spanning multiple vibrational bands) with both high resolution and high sensitivity. However, infrared spectroscopic techniques have hitherto been limited either by narrow bandwidth and long acquisition time, or by low sensitivity and resolution. Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) combines the inherent broad bandwidth and high resolution of an optical frequency comb with the high detection sensitivity provided by a high-finesse enhancement cavity, but it still suffers from spectral congestion. Here we show that this problem can be overcome by using buffer gas cooling to produce continuous, cold samples of molecules that are then subjected to CE-DFCS. This integration allows us to acquire a rotationally resolved direct absorption spectrum in the C-H stretching region of nitromethane, a model system that challenges our understanding of large-amplitude vibrational motion. We have also used this technique on several large organic molecules that are of fundamental spectroscopic and astrochemical relevance, including naphthalene, adamantane and hexamethylenetetramine. These findings establish the value of our approach for studying much larger and more complex molecules than have been probed so far, enabling complex molecules and their kinetics to be studied with orders-of-magnitude improvements in efficiency, spectral resolution and specificity.

  1. Continuous-Time ΣΔ ADC with Implicit Variable Gain Amplifier for CMOS Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    2014-01-01

    amplifier (OTA, for the concern of a high power noise rejection. The second integrator is realized with a single-ended inverter-based amplifier, instead of a standard OTA. As a result, the power consumption is reduced, without sacrificing the noise performance. Moreover, the variable gain amplifier in the traditional column-parallel read-out circuit is merged into the front-end of the CTSD modulator. By programming the input resistance, the amplitude range of the input current can be tuned with 8 scales, which is equivalent to a traditional 2-bit preamplification function without consuming extra power and chip area. The test chip prototype is fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process and the measurement result shows an ADC power consumption lower than 63.5 μW under 1.4 V power supply and 50 MHz clock frequency.

  2. The value of crossdating to retain high-frequency variability, climate signals, and extreme events in environmental proxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan A; Griffin, Daniel; van der Sleen, Peter; Wanamaker, Alan D; Speer, James H; Frank, David C; Stahle, David W; Pederson, Neil; Copenheaver, Carolyn A; Trouet, Valerie; Griffin, Shelly; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution biogenic and geologic proxies in which one increment or layer is formed per year are crucial to describing natural ranges of environmental variability in Earth's physical and biological systems. However, dating controls are necessary to ensure temporal precision and accuracy; simple counts cannot ensure that all layers are placed correctly in time. Originally developed for tree-ring data, crossdating is the only such procedure that ensures all increments have been assigned the correct calendar year of formation. Here, we use growth-increment data from two tree species, two marine bivalve species, and a marine fish species to illustrate sensitivity of environmental signals to modest dating error rates. When falsely added or missed increments are induced at one and five percent rates, errors propagate back through time and eliminate high-frequency variability, climate signals, and evidence of extreme events while incorrectly dating and distorting major disturbances or other low-frequency processes. Our consecutive Monte Carlo experiments show that inaccuracies begin to accumulate in as little as two decades and can remove all but decadal-scale processes after as little as two centuries. Real-world scenarios may have even greater consequence in the absence of crossdating. Given this sensitivity to signal loss, the fundamental tenets of crossdating must be applied to fully resolve environmental signals, a point we underscore as the frontiers of growth-increment analysis continue to expand into tropical, freshwater, and marine environments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Continuous-flow sorting of microalgae cells based on lipid content by high frequency dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Redelman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a continuous-flow cell screening device to isolate and separate microalgae cells (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on lipid content using high frequency (50 MHz dielectrophoresis. This device enables screening of microalgae due to the balance between lateral DEP forces relative to hydrodynamic forces. Positive DEP force along with amplitude-modulated electric field exerted on the cells flowing over the planar interdigitated electrodes, manipulated low-lipid cell trajectories in a zigzag pattern. Theoretical modelling confirmed cell trajectories during sorting. Separation quantification and sensitivity analysis were conducted with time-course experiments and collected samples were analysed by flow cytometry. Experimental testing with nitrogen starveddw15-1 (high-lipid, HL and pgd1 mutant (low-lipid, LL strains were carried out at different time periods, and clear separation of the two populations was achieved. Experimental results demonstrated that three populations were produced during nitrogen starvation: HL, LL and low-chlorophyll (LC populations. Presence of the LC population can affect the binary separation performance. The continuous-flow micro-separator can separate 74% of the HL and 75% of the LL out of the starting sample using a 50 MHz, 30 voltages peak-to-peak AC electric field at Day 6 of the nitrogen starvation. The separation occurred between LL (low-lipid: 86.1% at Outlet # 1 and LC (88.8% at Outlet # 2 at Day 9 of the nitrogen starvation. This device can be used for onsite monitoring; therefore, it has the potential to reduce biofuel production costs

  4. Influence of running stride frequency in heart rate variability analysis during treadmill exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailón, Raquel; Garatachea, Nuria; de la Iglesia, Ignacio; Casajús, Jose Antonio; Laguna, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    The analysis and interpretation of heart rate variability (HRV) during exercise is challenging not only because of the nonstationary nature of exercise, the time-varying mean heart rate, and the fact that respiratory frequency exceeds 0.4 Hz, but there are also other factors, such as the component centered at the pedaling frequency observed in maximal cycling tests, which may confuse the interpretation of HRV analysis. The objectives of this study are to test the hypothesis that a component centered at the running stride frequency (SF) appears in the HRV of subjects during maximal treadmill exercise testing, and to study its influence in the interpretation of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV during exercise. The HRV of 23 subjects during maximal treadmill exercise testing is analyzed. The instantaneous power of different HRV components is computed from the smoothed pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution of the modulating signal assumed to carry information from the autonomic nervous system, which is estimated based on the time-varying integral pulse frequency modulation model. Besides the LF and HF components, the appearance is revealed of a component centered at the running SF as well as its aliases. The power associated with the SF component and its aliases represents 22±7% (median±median absolute deviation) of the total HRV power in all the subjects. Normalized LF power decreases as the exercise intensity increases, while normalized HF power increases. The power associated with the SF does not change significantly with exercise intensity. Consideration of the running SF component and its aliases is very important in HRV analysis since stride frequency aliases may overlap with LF and HF components.

  5. CONTROL STRATEGY OF A PARALLEL HYBRID CAR WITH A METAL BELT-PLANETARY GEAR CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The most remarkable characteristic of a metal belt-planetary gear continuously variable transmission is a wider ratio range and a bigger torque capacity than a conventional metal pushing belt continuously variable transmission. A parallel hybrid car with this transmission system not only can reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emission at a ECE city cycle, but also can keep the motor working in the most efficiency area and can be started by a lower power motor by oneself. At the same time, the continuously variable transmission system can realize the smooth switch between the motor and the engine.

  6. A high-order, purely frequency based harmonic balance formulation for continuation of periodic solutions: The case of non-polynomial nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Karkar, Sami; Vergez, Christophe; 10.1016/j.jsv.2012.09.033

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the method proposed by Cochelin and Vergez [A high order purely frequency-based harmonic balance formulation for continuation of periodic solutions, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 324 (2009) 243-262] to the case of non-polynomial nonlinearities. This extension allows for the computation of branches of periodic solutions of a broader class of nonlinear dynamical systems. The principle remains to transform the original ODE system into an extended polynomial quadratic system for an easy application of the harmonic balance method (HBM). The transformation of non-polynomial terms is based on the differentiation of state variables with respect to the time variable, shifting the nonlinear non-polynomial nonlinearity to a time-independent initial condition equation, not concerned with the HBM. The continuation of the resulting algebraic system is here performed by the asymptotic numerical method (high order Taylor series representation of the solution branch) using a further differentiation ...

  7. Continuous Vernier filtering of an optical frequency comb for broadband cavity-enhanced molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Lucile; Morville, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    We have recently introduced the Vernier-based Direct Frequency Comb Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy technique which allows us to record broadband spectra at high sensitivity and GHz resolution (Rutkowski and Morville, 2014) [1]. We discuss here the effect of Vernier filtering on the observed lineshapes in the 3 ν + δ band of water vapor and the entire A-band of oxygen around 800 nm in ambient air. We derive expressions for the absorption profiles resulting from the continuous Vernier filtering method, testing them on spectra covering more than 2000 cm-1 around 12,500 cm-1. With 31,300 independent spectral elements acquired at the second time scale, an absorption baseline noise of 2 ×10-8cm-1 is obtained, providing a figure of merit of 1.1×10-10 cm-1/√{ Hz } per spectral element with a cavity finesse of 3000 and a cavity round-trip length around 3.3 m.

  8. How to Apply a Filter Defined in the Frequency Domain by a Continuous Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Briand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose algorithms for filtering real-valued images, when the filter is provided as a continuous function defined in the Nyquist frequency domain. This problem is ambiguous because images are discrete entities and there is no unique way to define the filtering. We provide a theoretical framework designed to analyse the classical and computationally efficient filtering implementations based on discrete Fourier transforms (DFT. In this framework, the filtering is interpreted as the convolution of a distribution, standing for the filter, with a trigonometric polynomial interpolator of the image. The various plausible interpolations and choices of the distribution lead to three equally licit algorithms which can be seen as method variants of the same standard filtering algorithm. In general none should be preferred to the others and the choice depends on the application. In practice, the method differences, which come from the boundary DFT coefficients, are not visible to the naked eye. We demonstrate that claim on several experimental configurations by varying the input image and the considered filter. In some cases however, we discuss how the choice of the variant may affect fundamental properties of the filtering.

  9. Simple and Fast Continuous Estimation Method of Respiratory Frequency During Sleep using the Number of Extreme Points of Heart Rate Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is reported that frequency component of approximately 0.25Hz of heart rate time series (RSA) is corresponding to the respiratory frequency. In this paper, we proposed that continuous estimation method of respiratory fequency during sleep using the number of extreme points of heart rate time series in real time. Equation for calculation of the method is very simple and the method can continuously calculate frequency by window width of about 18 beats. To evaluate accuracy of proposal method, RSA frequency was calculated using proposal method from the heart rate time series during supine rest. Result, minimum error rate was observed when RSA had time lag for about 11s and error rate was about 13.8%. Result of estimating RSA frequency time series during sleep, it varied regularly during non-REM and varied irregularly during REM. This result is similar as report of previous study about respiratory variability during sleep. Therefore, it is considered that proposal method possible to apply respiratory monitoring system during sleep.

  10. Analytical Modeling for the Bending Resonant Frequency of Multilayered Microresonators with Variable Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Lu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Multilayered microresonators commonly use sensitive coating or piezoelectric layers for detection of mass and gas. Most of these microresonators have a variable cross-section that complicates the prediction of their fundamental resonant frequency (generally of the bending mode through conventional analytical models. In this paper, we present an analytical model to estimate the first resonant frequency and deflection curve of single-clamped multilayered microresonators with variable cross-section. The analytical model is obtained using the Rayleigh and Macaulay methods, as well as the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. Our model is applied to two multilayered microresonators with piezoelectric excitation reported in the literature. Both microresonators are composed by layers of seven different materials. The results of our analytical model agree very well with those obtained from finite element models (FEMs and experimental data. Our analytical model can be used to determine the suitable dimensions of the microresonator’s layers in order to obtain a microresonator that operates at a resonant frequency necessary for a particular application.

  11. Quantum Key Distribution using Continuous-variable non-Gaussian States

    CERN Document Server

    Borelli, L F M; Roversi, J A; Vidiella-Barranco, A

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present a quantum key distribution protocol using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states, homodyne detection and post-selection. The employed signal states are the Photon Added then Subtracted Coherent States (PASCS) in which one photon is added and subsequently one photon is subtracted. We analyze the performance of our protocol, compared to a coherent state based protocol, for two different attacks that could be carried out by the eavesdropper (Eve). We calculate the secret key rate transmission in a lossy line for a superior channel (beam-splitter) attack, and we show that we may increase the secret key generation rate by using the non-Gaussian PASCS rather than coherent states. We also consider the simultaneous quadrature measurement (intercept-resend) attack and we show that the efficiency of Eve's attack is substantially reduced if PASCS are used as signal states.

  12. Optimization of the transmission of observable expectation values and observable statistics in Continuous Variable Teleportation

    CERN Document Server

    Farias, L Albano

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the statistics of observables in continuous variable quantum teleportation in the formalism of the characteristic function. We derive expressions for average values of output state observables in particular cumulants which are additive in terms of the input state and the resource of teleportation. Working with Squeezed Bell-like states, which may be optimized in a free parameter for better teleportation performance we discuss the relation between resources optimal for fidelity and for different observable averages. We obtain the values of the free parameter which optimize the central momenta and cumulants up to fourth order. For the cumulants the distortion between in and out states due to teleportation depends only on the resource. We obtain optimal parameters for the second and fourth order cumulants which do not depend on the squeezing of the resource. The second order central momenta which is equal to the second order cumulants and the photon number average are optimized by the same resource. W...

  13. Canonical and micro-canonical typical entanglement of continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince' s Gate, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Dahlsten, O C O [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince' s Gate, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Gross, D [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince' s Gate, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince' s Gate, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-03

    We present a framework, compliant with the general canonical principle of statistical mechanics, to define measures on the set of pure Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. Within such a framework, we define two specific measures, referred to as 'micro-canonical' and 'canonical', and apply them to study systematically the statistical properties of the bipartite entanglement of n-mode pure Gaussian states at, respectively, given maximal energy and given temperature. We prove the 'concentration of measure' around a finite average, occurring for the entanglement in the thermodynamical limit in both the canonical and the micro-canonical approach. For finite n, we determine analytically the average and standard deviation of the entanglement (as quantified by the reduced purity) between one mode and all the other modes. Furthermore, we numerically investigate more general situations, clearly showing that the onset of the concentration of measure already occurs at relatively small n.

  14. Five-wave-packet quantum error correction based on continuous-variable cluster entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shuhong; Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2015-10-01

    Quantum error correction protects the quantum state against noise and decoherence in quantum communication and quantum computation, which enables one to perform fault-torrent quantum information processing. We experimentally demonstrate a quantum error correction scheme with a five-wave-packet code against a single stochastic error, the original theoretical model of which was firstly proposed by S. L. Braunstein and T. A. Walker. Five submodes of a continuous variable cluster entangled state of light are used for five encoding channels. Especially, in our encoding scheme the information of the input state is only distributed on three of the five channels and thus any error appearing in the remained two channels never affects the output state, i.e. the output quantum state is immune from the error in the two channels. The stochastic error on a single channel is corrected for both vacuum and squeezed input states and the achieved fidelities of the output states are beyond the corresponding classical limit.

  15. Reconstruction of Optical Schr\\"odinger Kitten States Solely with Continuous Variable Field Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chrzanowski, H M; Sparkes, B M; Hage, B; Lund, A P; Ralph, T C; Lam, P K; Symul, T

    2011-01-01

    The Schr\\"odinger Cat gedankenexperiment, which considers the quantum superposition of the dead and alive states of a household pet, is a quintessential example of the enigmatic nature of quantum physics. Optical Schr\\"odinger cats, commonly defined as the quantum super- position of two classically distinguishable coherent states, have applications in quantum communications, metrology and quantum computing. To deterministically generate such states requires extreme nonlinearity with negligible losses. An alternative to this experimental difficulty is to introduce non- Gaussian post-selective measurements. For example, photon-counting can be exploited to conditionally herald non-Gaussian states, while field measurements are subsequently used to characterise them. These `hybrid' experiments face the challenges arising from simultaneously measuring both the wave and particle proper- ties of light. In this letter, we demonstrate a method to reconstruct non-Gaussian states solely with continuous variable field mea...

  16. Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossier, S; Debuisschert, T [Thales Research and Technology France, RD 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Diamanti, E; Villing, A; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique-CNRS-Univ. Paris-Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)], E-mail: simon.fossier@institutoptique.fr

    2009-04-15

    We have designed and realized a prototype that implements a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol based on coherent states and reverse reconciliation. The system uses time and polarization multiplexing for optimal transmission and detection of the signal and phase reference, and employs sophisticated error-correction codes for reconciliation. The security of the system is guaranteed against general coherent eavesdropping attacks. The performance of the prototype was tested over preinstalled optical fibres as part of a quantum cryptography network combining different QKD technologies. The stable and automatic operation of the prototype over 57 h yielded an average secret key distribution rate of 8 kbit s{sup -1} over a 3 dB loss optical fibre, including the key extraction process and all quantum and classical communication. This system is therefore ideal for securing communications in metropolitan size networks with high-speed requirements.

  17. Improvement of continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems by using optical preamplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossier, S; Debuisschert, T [Thales Research and Technology France, RD 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Diamanti, E; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2009-06-14

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols have been implemented recently, based on Gaussian modulation of the quadratures of coherent states. A present limitation of such systems is the finite efficiency of the detectors, that can in principle be compensated for by the use of classical optical preamplifiers. Here we study this possibility in detail, by deriving the modified secret key generation rates when an optical parametric amplifier is placed at the output of the quantum channel. After presenting a general set of security proofs, we show that the use of preamplifiers does compensate all the imperfections of the detectors when the amplifier is optimal in terms of gain and noise. Imperfect amplifiers can also enhance the system performance, under conditions which are generally satisfied in practice.

  18. Virtual Entanglement and Reconciliation Protocols for Quantum Cryptography with Continuous Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Grosshans, F; Wenger, J; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P; Grangier, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss quantum key distribution protocols using quantum continuous variables. We show that such protocols can be made secure against individual gaussian attacks regardless the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob. This is achieved by reversing the reconciliation procedure subsequent to the quantum transmission, that is, using Bob's instead of Alice's data to build the key. Although squeezing or entanglement may be helpful to improve the resistance to noise, they are not required for the protocols to remain secure with high losses. Therefore, these protocols can be implemented very simply by transmitting coherent states and performing homodyne detection. Here, we show that entanglement nevertheless plays a crucial role in the security analysis of coherent state protocols. Every cryptographic protocol based on displaced gaussian states turns out to be equivalent to an entanglement-based protocol, even though no entanglement is actually present. This equivalence even holds in the absence of...

  19. Controlling excess noise in fiber optics continuous variables quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Lodewyck, J; Grangier, P; Tualle-Brouri, R; Debuisscher, Thierry; Grangier, Philippe; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2005-01-01

    We describe a continuous variables coherent states quantum key distribution system working at 1550 nm, and entirely made of standard fiber optics and telecom components, such as integrated-optics modulators, couplers and fast InGaAs photodiodes. The setup is composed of an emitter randomly modulating a coherent state in the complex plane with a doubly Gaussian distribution, and a receiver based on a shot noise limited time-resolved homodyne detector. By using a reverse reconciliation protocol, the device can transfer a raw key rate up to 1 Mb/s, with a proven security against Gaussian or non-Gaussian attacks. The dependence of the secret information rate of the present fiber set-up is studied as a function of the line transmission and excess noise.

  20. Virtual noiseless amplification and Gaussian post-selection in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2012-01-01

    The noiseless amplification or attenuation are two heralded filtering operations that enable respectively to increase or decrease the mean field of any quantum state of light with no added noise, at the cost of a small success probability. We show that inserting such noiseless operations in a transmission line improves the performance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution over this line. Remarkably, these noiseless operations do not need to be physically implemented but can simply be simulated in the data post-processing stage. Hence, virtual noiseless amplification or attenuation amounts to perform a Gaussian post-selection, which enhances the secure range or tolerable excess noise while keeping the benefits of Gaussian security proofs.

  1. Phase-sensitive cascaded four-wave mixing processes for generating continuous-variable entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Jing, Jietai

    2017-03-20

    Quantum entanglement shared by different parties enhances their capabilities to communicate, which is the core content of continuous-variable quantum optics and quantum information science. Here, we study an experimentally feasible scheme for generating quantum entanglement of bipartite and tripartite cases based on phase-sensitive cascaded four-wave mixing processes in rubidium vapor. Quantum entanglement of bipartite and tripartite cases in our system, which can be manipulated by the phases and the intensity gains of the input beams, is predicted. We also find a sufficient optimal single-condition criterion to give a valid description for genuine tripartite quantum entanglement in our system. The sufficient optimal single-condition criterion is convenient and can be extended to genuine multipartite entanglement.

  2. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with discrete modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takuya; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Oguri, Yusuke; Namiki, Ryo; Kasai, Kenta; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system that employs discrete quadrature-amplitude modulation and homodyne detection of coherent states of light. We experimentally demonstrated automated secure key generation with a rate of 50 kbps when a quantum channel is a 10 km optical fibre. The CV-QKD system utilises a four-state and post-selection protocol and generates a secure key against the entangling cloner attack. We used a pulsed light source of 1550 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 10 MHz. A commercially available balanced receiver is used to realise shot-noise-limited pulsed homodyne detection. We used a non-binary LDPC code for error correction (reverse reconciliation) and the Toeplitz matrix multiplication for privacy amplification. A graphical processing unit card is used to accelerate the software-based post-processing.

  3. Real-time Continuous Assessment Method for Mental and Physiological Condition using Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is necessary to monitor the daily health condition for preventing stress syndrome. In this study, it was proposed the method assessing the mental and physiological condition, such as the work stress or the relaxation, using heart rate variability at real time and continuously. The instantanuous heart rate (HR), and the ratio of the number of extreme points (NEP) and the number of heart beats were calculated for assessing mental and physiological condition. In this method, 20 beats heart rate were used to calculate these indexes. These were calculated in one beat interval. Three conditions, which are sitting rest, performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie, were assessed using our proposed algorithm. The assessment accuracies were 71.9% and 55.8%, when performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie respectively. In this method, the mental and physiological condition was assessed using only 20 regressive heart beats, so this method is considered as the real time assessment method.

  4. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig and Renner (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)). This work was supported by the SNF through the National Centre of Competence in Research ``Quantum Science and Technology'' and through Grant No. 200020-135048, the ERC (grant No. 258932), the Humbolt foundation and the F.R.S.-FNRS under project HIPERCOM.

  5. Feasibility and design study of continuously variable capacity refrigeration plant. A demonstration at Safeway plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report concerns a feasibility and design study carried out on a new type of high efficiency refrigeration system for use in supermarkets. The study compared the performance of Margaux Continuously Variable Capacity (CVC) refrigeration equipment with conventional supermarket plant. The tests were carried out at a Presto store in Stanley near Newcastle-upon-Tyne from August 1988 to February 1989. They involved assessment of systems for both chilled food (HT) and frozen food (LT). Significant energy savings were achieved by the CVC equipment. The HT system reduced energy consumption by 56% compared with conventional plant. Measured LT savings were only 13%, although adjustments made for monitoring problems and improved temperature control indicate savings of around 30%. (author)

  6. Five-wave-packet quantum error correction based on continuous-variable cluster entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shuhong; Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2015-10-26

    Quantum error correction protects the quantum state against noise and decoherence in quantum communication and quantum computation, which enables one to perform fault-torrent quantum information processing. We experimentally demonstrate a quantum error correction scheme with a five-wave-packet code against a single stochastic error, the original theoretical model of which was firstly proposed by S. L. Braunstein and T. A. Walker. Five submodes of a continuous variable cluster entangled state of light are used for five encoding channels. Especially, in our encoding scheme the information of the input state is only distributed on three of the five channels and thus any error appearing in the remained two channels never affects the output state, i.e. the output quantum state is immune from the error in the two channels. The stochastic error on a single channel is corrected for both vacuum and squeezed input states and the achieved fidelities of the output states are beyond the corresponding classical limit.

  7. Parameter design and performance analysis of zero inertia continuously variable transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建军; 吉毅; 晏玖江

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of weak power performance of vehicle equipped with continuously variable transmission (CVT) system working under transient operating conditions, a new CVT equipped with planetary gear mechanism and flywheel was researched, a design method of transmission parameter optimization was proposed, and the comprehensive matching control strategy was established for the new transmission system. Fuzzy controllers for throttle opening and CVT speed ratio were designed, and power performance and fuel economy of both vehicles respectively equipped with conventional CVT system and new transmission system wrere compared and analyzed by simulation. The results show that power performance and fuel economy of the vehicle equipped with new transmission system are better than that equipped with conventional CVT, thus the rationality of the parameter design method and control algorithm are verified.

  8. Continuous variable quantum key distribution with two-mode squeezed states

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Lars S; Lassen, Mikael; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2011-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables two remote parties to grow a shared key which they can use for unconditionally secure communication [1]. The applicable distance of a QKD protocol depends on the loss and the excess noise of the connecting quantum channel [2-10]. Several QKD schemes based on coherent states and continuous variable (CV) measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise [2-6]. Here we propose and experimentally address a CV QKD protocol which uses fragile squeezed states combined with a large coherent modulation to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. As a proof of principle we experimentally demonstrate that the resulting QKD protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal CV coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising avenue for extending the distance for which secure communication is possible.

  9. Realistic continuous-variable quantum teleportation with non-Gaussian resources

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Anno, Fabio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of nonideal continuous-variable quantum teleportation implemented with entangled non-Gaussian resources. We discuss in a unified framework the main decoherence mechanisms, including imperfect Bell measurements and propagation of optical fields in lossy fibers, applying the formalism of the characteristic function. By exploiting appropriate displacement strategies, we compute analytically the success probability of teleportation for input coherent states, and two classes of non-Gaussian entangled resources: Two-mode squeezed Bell-like states (that include as particular cases photon-added and photon-subtracted de-Gaussified states), and two-mode squeezed cat-like states. We discuss the optimization procedure on the free parameters of the non-Gaussian resources at fixed values of the squeezing and of the experimental quantities determining the inefficiencies of the non-ideal protocol. It is found that non-Gaussian resources enhance significantly the efficiency of teleport...

  10. Violation of Continuous-Variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering with Discrete Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous-variable systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details of the measurement apparatus. We use this inequality to witness EPR steering between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We examine the asymmetry between parties in this inequality, and show that this asymmetry can be used to reduce the technical requirements of experimental setups intended to demonstrate the EPR paradox. Furthermore, we develop a more stringent steering inequality that is symmetric between parties, and use it to show that the down-converted photon pairs also exhibit symmetric EPR steering.

  11. Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Multipartite Quantum Communication Using Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Guo, Ying

    2017-02-01

    A continuous-variable measurement-device-independent (CV-MDI) multipartite quantum communication protocol is designed to realize multipartite communication based on the GHZ state analysis using Gaussian coherent states. It can remove detector side attack as the multi-mode measurement is blindly done in a suitable Black Box. The entanglement-based CV-MDI multipartite communication scheme and the equivalent prepare-and-measurement scheme are proposed to analyze the security and guide experiment, respectively. The general eavesdropping and coherent attack are considered for the security analysis. Subsequently, all the attacks are ascribed to coherent attack against imperfect links. The asymptotic key rate of the asymmetric configuration is also derived with the numeric simulations illustrating the performance of the proposed protocol.

  12. Intra-raw material variability and use-wear accrual: A continuing exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Joseph Lerner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the latest results of an ongoing research initiative into the role of lithic raw material variability in use-wear formation. The present study continues recent exploration of wear formation associated with working dry hide. The work presented here expands on a recently published study of two raw materials from the American Southwest [San Juan Fossiliferous Chert (SJF and Yellow Silicified Wood (YSW] (Lerner, In Press by presenting the analysis of two additional materials [Morrison Undifferentiated Gray Chert (MUG and Brushy Basin Silicified Siltstone (BB] using the same quantitative measures from the previous study (area percent, density, average intensity. The methods used have broad geographic and temporal applicability, thus the potential for contributing to greater standardization in the quantification of archaeological use-wear. 

  13. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with random intensity fluctuation of the local oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ming; Huang, Ming-Qiu; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2016-10-01

    In practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) systems, due to environmental disturbance or some intrinsic imperfections of devices, inevitably the local oscillator (LO) employed in a coherent detection always fluctuates arbitrarily over time, which compromises the security and performance of practical CVQKD systems. In this paper, we investigate the performance of practical CVQKD systems with LO fluctuating randomly. By revising the measurement result of balanced homodyne detection and embedding fluctuation parameters into security analysis, we find that in addition to the average LO intensity, the fluctuation variance also severely affects the secret key rate. No secret key can be obtained if fluctuation variance is relatively large. This indicates that in a practical CVQKD, LO intensity should be well monitored and stabilized. Our research can be directly applied to improve the robustness of a practical CVQKD system as well as be used to optimize CVQKD protocols.

  14. Effect of excess noise on continuous variable entanglement sudden death and Gaussian quantum discord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Xiao-Long

    2013-01-01

    A symmetric two-mode Gaussian entangled state is used to investigate the effect of excess noise on entanglement sudden death and Gaussian quantum discord with continuous variables.The results show that the excess noise in the channel can lead to entanglement sudden death of a symmetric two-mode Gaussian entangled state,while Gaussian quantum discord never vanishes.As a practical application,the security of a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme based on a symmetric two-mode Gaussian entangled state against collective Gaussian attacks is analyzed.The calculation results show that the secret key cannot be distilled when entanglement vanishes and only quantum discord exists in such a QKD scheme.

  15. Demonstration of a Controlled-Phase Gate for Continuous-Variable One-Way Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Ukai, Ryuji; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a controlled-phase gate for continuous variables in a fully measurement-based fashion. In our scheme, the two independent input states of the gate, encoded in two optical modes, are teleported into a four-mode Gaussian cluster state. As a result, one of the entanglement links present in the initial cluster state appears in the two unmeasured output modes as the corresponding entangling gate acting on the input states. The genuine quantum character of this gate becomes manifest and is verified through the presence of entanglement at the output for a product two-mode coherent input state. By combining our controlled-phase gate with the recently reported module for universal single-mode Gaussian operations [R. Ukai et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 240504 (2011)], it is possible to implement universal Gaussian operations on arbitrary multi-mode quantum optical states in form of a fully measurement-based one-way quantum computation.

  16. Deterministic Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Dense Coding and Continuous Variable Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lian-Fang; CHEN Yue-Ming; YUAN Hao

    2009-01-01

    We propose a deterministic quantum secure direct communication protocol by using dense coding.The two check photon sequences are used to check the securities of the channels between the message sender and the receiver.The continuous variable operations instead of the usual discrete unitary operations are performed on the travel photons so that the security of the present protocol can be enhanced.Therefore some specific attacks such as denial-of-service attack, intercept-measure-resend attack and invisible photon attack can be prevented in ideal quantum channel.In addition, the scheme is still secure in noise channel.Furthurmore, this protocol has the advantage of high capacity and can be realized in the experiment.

  17. Practical security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with finite sampling bandwidth effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-02-01

    Practical security of the continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system with finite sampling bandwidth of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at the receiver's side is investigated. We find that the finite sampling bandwidth effects may decrease the lower bound of secret key rate without awareness of the legitimate communicators. This leaves security loopholes for Eve to attack the system. In addition, this effect may restrains the linear relationship of secret key bit rate with repetition rate of the system; subsequently, there is a saturation value for the secret key bit rate with the repetition rate. To resist such kind of effects, we propose a dual sampling detection approach in which two ADCs are employed so that the finite sampling bandwidth effects are removed.

  18. Photon-monitoring attack on continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source in middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Huang, Peng; Guo, Ying; Huang, Dazu

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by a fact that the non-Gaussian operation may increase entanglement of an entangled system, we suggest a photon-monitoring attack strategy in the entanglement-based (EB) continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) using the photon subtraction operations, where the entangled source originates from the center instead of one of the legal participants. It shows that an eavesdropper, Eve, can steal large information from participants after intercepting the partial beams with the photon-monitoring attach strategy. The structure of the proposed CVQKD protocol is useful in simply analyzing how quantum loss in imperfect channels can decrease the performance of the CVQKD protocol. The proposed attack strategy can be implemented under current technology, where a newly developed and versatile no-Gaussian operation can be well employed with the entangled source in middle in order to access to mass information in the EB CVQKD protocol, as well as in the prepare-and-measure (PM) CVQKD protocol.

  19. POWER FLOW ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION SIMULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the structure of two air gaps and two rotors, the electromagnetic continuously variable transmission(EMCVT) is a novel power-split continuously variable transmission(CVT). There are two kinds of power flowing through the EMCVT, one is mechanical power and the other is electric power. In the mean time, there are three power ports in the EMCVT, one is the outer rotor named mechanical power port and the other two are the inner rotor and the stator named electric power ports. The mechanical power port is connected to the driving wheels through the final gear and the electric ports are connected to the batteries through the transducers. The two kinds of power are coupled on the outer rotor of the EMCVT. The EMCVT can be equipped on the conventional vehicle being regarded as the CVT and it also can be equipped on the hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) as the multi-energy sources assembly. The power flows of these two kinds of applications are analysed. The back electromotive force(EMF) equations are illatively studied and so the dynamic mathematic model is theorized. In order to certify the feasibility of the above theories, three simulations are carried out in allusion to the above two kinds of mentioned applications of the EMCVT and a five speed automatic transmission(AT) vehicle. The simulation results illustrate that the efficiency of the EMCVT vehicles is higher than that of the AT vehicle owed to the optimized operation area of the engine. Hence the fuel consumption of the EMCVT vehicles is knock-down.

  20. Causal inference in longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Pin; Jo, Booil; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-09-10

    We propose a principal stratification approach to assess causal effects in nonrandomized longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with a binary endpoint outcome and repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable. Our method is an extension of the principal stratification approach originally proposed for the longitudinal randomized study "Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial" to assess the treatment effect on the continuous Hamilton depression score adjusting for the heterogeneity of repeatedly measured binary compliance status. Our motivation for this work comes from a comparison of the effect of two glucose-lowering medications on a clinical cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we consider a causal inference problem assessing how well the two medications work relative to one another on two binary endpoint outcomes: cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Clinically, these glucose-lowering medications can have differential effects on the intermediate outcome, glucose level over time. Ultimately, we want to compare medication effects on the endpoint outcomes among individuals in the same glucose trajectory stratum while accounting for the heterogeneity in baseline covariates (i.e., to obtain 'principal effects' on the endpoint outcomes). The proposed method involves a three-step model estimation procedure. Step 1 identifies principal strata associated with the intermediate variable using hybrid growth mixture modeling analyses. Step 2 obtains the stratum membership using the pseudoclass technique and derives propensity scores for treatment assignment. Step 3 obtains the stratum-specific treatment effect on the endpoint outcome weighted by inverse propensity probabilities derived from Step 2.

  1. Pseudo-transient Continuation Based Variable Relaxation Solve in Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Chen

    2009-12-07

    Efficient and robust Variable Relaxation Solver, based on pseudo-transient continuation, is developed to solve nonlinear anisotropic thermal conduction arising from fusion plasma simulations. By adding first and/or second order artificial time derivatives to the system, this type of method advances the resulting time-dependent nonlinear PDEs to steady state, which is the solution to be sought. In this process, only the stiffness matrix itself is involved so that the numerical complexity and errors can be greatly reduced. In fact, this work is an extension of integrating efficient linear elliptic solvers for fusion simulation on Cray XIE. Two schemes are derived in this work, first and second order Variable Relaxations. Four factors are observed to be critical for efficiency and preservation of solution's symmetric structure arising from periodic boundary condition: refining meshes in different coordinate directions, initializing nonlinear process, varying time steps in both temporal and spatial directions, and accurately generating nonlinear stiffness matrix. First finer mesh scale should be taken in strong transport direction; Next the system is carefully initialized by the solution with linear conductivity; Third, time step and relaxation factor are vertex-based varied and optimized at each time step; Finally, the nonlinear stiffness matrix is updated by just scaling corresponding linear one with the vector generated from nonlinear thermal conductivity.

  2. Quantum and Classical Effects in the Two-Frequency Kicked Rotor with Variable Initial Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Mullins, T G; Sadgrove, M P; Hoogerland, M D; Parkins, A S; Leonhardt, R

    2004-01-01

    We present an investigation into effects exhibited by the two-frequency kicked rotor. Experiments were performed and in addition quantum and classical dynamics were simulated and compared with the experimental results. The experiments involved pulsing the optical standing wave with two pulsing periods of differing frequencies and variable initial phase offset. The ratio of pulsing periods was sampled for rational and irrational values for different experimental runs. In this paper we present these results and examine the measured momentum distributions for the cause of any structures that are seen in the energy as the initial phase offset is changed. Irrational ratios exhibit no significant quantum effects, whereas rational ratios show dynamical localisation (DL) for certain values of the initial phase. However, most of the observed structure is found to be due to classical effects, in particular KAM boundaries, and is therefore not of uniquely quantum origin.

  3. Variable low-frequency radio emission of the solar system and galactic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, Alexander; Kolyadin, Vladimir; Rucker, Helmut; Zakharenko, Vyacheslav; Zarka, Philippe; Griessmeier, Jean-M.; Denis, Loran; Melnik, Valentin; Litvinenko, Galina; Zaitsev, Valerij; Falkovich, Igor; Ulyanov, Oleg; Sidorchuk, Mikhail; Stepkin, Sergej; Stanislavskij, Alexander; Kalinichenko, Nikolaj; Boiko, Nastja; Vasiljiva, Iaroslavna; Mukha, Dmytro; Koval, Artem

    2013-04-01

    There are many physical processes and propagation effects for the producing the time variable radio emission just at the low frequencies (at the decameter wavelength). The study of this radio emission is the important part of the modern radio astronomy. Strong progress in the development of the radio telescopes, methods and instrumentation allowed to start the corresponding investigations at new quality and quantity levels. It related to the implementation of the world largest UTR-2 radio telescope (effective area is more than 100 000 sq.m) more high sensitive at frequencies less than 30 MHz. During last years many new observations were carried out with this radio telescope and many new effects have been detected for the Sun, planets, interplanetary medium, exoplanets as well as various kinds of the stars.

  4. Simulation of a Drivetrain of a Vehicle comprising Continuously Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Sanchawat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the constant hike in fuel prices on a day to day basis, maximum performance with minimum compromise on the front of fuel economy and emissions is highly desirable and expected from a vehicle’s drivetrain. In this context, a drivetrain comprising a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT plays the role to the best extent possible. CVT facilitates a continuous change in gear ratiosbetween the driver and the driven shaft. CVTs are superior to automatic transmissions with a fixed number of gear ratios in that it offers greater acceleration and more efficient fuel economy.In this paper, we propose to model a drivetrain of a vehicle comprising CVT. A detailed mathematical model based on the geometry of the components has been formulated and also, equations of theirrespective motions representing their behaviour have been derived. Furthermore, a dynamic model of a drivetrain, using bond graph method, is prepared which captures the behaviour of the CVT during thetransient shift ratio condition and the complete simulation is implemented in MATLAB Simulink. The results substantiate the effect of mass of flyweights and spring constant of torsion springs on theperformance of CVT.

  5. Modelling and Simulation of Variable Frequency Synchronous DC-DC Buck Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeya Selvan Renius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, novel small-signal averaged models for dc–dc converter operating at variable switching frequency are derived. This is achieved by separately considering the on-time and the off-time of the switching period. The derivation is shown in detail for a synchronous buck converter. The Enhanced Small Signal (ESSA Model is derived for the synchronous buck converter. The equivalent series inductance (ESL is also considered in this modelling. The buck converter model is also simulated in MATLAB and the result is also presented.

  6. Second order sliding power control for a variable speed-constant frequency energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciaga, Fernando, E-mail: fval@ing.unlp.edu.a [CONICET, Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC.91, C.P. 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a decoupled active and reactive power control for a variable speed-constant frequency generation system based on a brushless doubly fed reluctance machine. The control design is approached using multi-input second order sliding techniques which are specially appropriate to deal with nonlinear system models in presence of external disturbances and model inaccuracies. The controller synthesized through this theoretical framework presents very good robustness features, a finite reaching time and a chattering-free behavior. The performance of the closed loop system is assessed through representative computer simulations.

  7. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups

  8. Iterative Learning Control Design and Application for Linear Continuous Systems with Variable Initial States Based on 2-D System Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Guan; Qiao Zhu; Xu-Dong Wang; Xu-Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the variable initial states problem in iterative learning control (ILC) for linear continuous systems. Firstly, the properties of the trajectory of 2-D continuous-discrete Roesser model are analyzed by using Lyapunov's method. Then, for any variable initial states which absolutely converge to the desired initial state, some ILC design criteria in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMI) are given to ensure the convergence of the PD-type ILC rules. The converge...

  9. The Time-Frequency Energy Attenuation Factor and Its Application on the Basis of Gauss Linear Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiqiang; Shen Ping; Li Hong; Shan Changlun; Ji Aidong; Zhang Ping; Cai Mingjun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Gauss linear frequency-modulated wavelet transform, a new characteristic index is presented, namely time-frequency energy attenuation factor which can reflect the difference features of waveform in earthquake focus mechanism, wave traveling path and its attenuation characteristics in focal area or near field. In order to test its validity, we select the natural earthquakes and explosion or collapse events whose focus mechanisms vary obviously, and some natural earthquakes located at the same site or in a very small area. The study indicates that the time-frequency energy attenuation factors of the natural earthquakes are obviously different with that of explosion or collapse events, and the change of the time-frequency energy attenuation factors is relatively stable for the earthquakes under the normal seismicity background. Using the above-mentioned method, it is expected to offer a useful criterion for strong earthquake prediction by continuous earthquake observation.

  10. Intrinsic variability in the eddying ocean at low frequency: climate-relevant fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penduff, T.; Gregorio, S.; Juza, M.; Barnier, B.; Dewar, W. K.; Molines, J.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Idealized studies (see the review by e.g. Dijkstra and Ghil, 2005) have shown that the nonlinear ocean circulation spontaneously generates low-frequency variability under constant atmospheric forcing. This phenomenon is chaotic and gets stronger with increasing Reynolds number. In the eddying regime, this intrinsic ocean variability has typical timescales of 1-10 years, and particularly affects the horizontal circulation. Nonlinear processes have been proposed to explain its generation, e.g. eddy-eddy interactions (Arbic et al. 2011), eddy PV fluxes or turbulent rectification (Spall 1996; Dewar 2003; Berloff et al 2007). Identifying the magnitude, spatial structure and fingerprints of this intrinsic chaotic variability in the real ocean would have important implications (e.g. for climate monitoring/hindcasting/forecasting, model assessment, etc). This can hardly be done from observations only since intrinsic and atmospherically-forced variabilities are entangled, but may be attempted from recent global, high-resolution, multi-decadal Ocean General Circulation Model simulations. In this presentation, we address the issues mentioned above by comparing a 327-year seasonally-forced simulation (no interannual forcing) performed with the Drakkar NEMO-based global 1/4° model, with its 50-year counterpart driven by a realistic forcing including the full range of timescales (i.e. with interannual forcing). Our seasonally-forced simulation reveals the imprint of the intrinsic interannual variability on various climate-relevant ocean variables, e.g. sea-level anomalies, sea-surface temperature, mixed layer depth, meridional overturning streamfunction. Comparing these intrinsic variances with their total counterpart (from the second simulation) then provides us with estimates of this chaotic component's fingerprint on climate-related variabilities. We show that intrinsic variances, which are negligeable in laminar IPCC-like (~2°) ocean models, may exceed their

  11. Fine frequency tuning in sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave single-frequency coherent light at 252 nm with dual-wavelength enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Fine frequency tuning of the deep-ultraviolet single-mode coherent light at 252 nm was conducted through the PID feedback system automatically by changing the temperature of a beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal in a doubly resonant external cavity for the sum-frequency mixing of 373 and 780 nm light. The temperature-dependent frequency tuning rate is 19.3 MHzK(-1), which is sufficiently fine to realize the laser cooling of neutral silicon atoms because the natural width of the laser cooling transition is 28.8 MHz.

  12. Frequency and Time Domain Analysis of Foetal Heart Rate Variability with Traditional Indexes: A Critical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Romano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of foetal heart rate and its variability (FHRV covers an important role in assessing health of foetus. Many analysis methods have been used to get quantitative measures of FHRV. FHRV has been studied in time and in frequency domain and interesting clinical results have been obtained. Nevertheless, a standardized definition of FHRV and a precise methodology to be used for its evaluation are lacking. We carried out a literature overview about both frequency domain analysis (FDA and time domain analysis (TDA. Then, by using simulated FHR signals, we defined the methodology for FDA. Further, employing more than 400 real FHR signals, we analysed some of the most common indexes, Short Term Variability for TDA and power content of the spectrum bands and sympathovagal balance for FDA, and evaluated their ranges of values, which in many cases are a novelty. Finally, we verified the relationship between these indexes and two important parameters: week of gestation, indicator of foetal growth, and foetal state, classified as active or at rest. Our results indicate that, according to literature, it is necessary to standardize the procedure for FHRV evaluation and to consider week of gestation and foetal state before FHR analysis.

  13. Low-frequency variability of surface air temperature over the Barents Sea: causes and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Eveline C.; Bintanja, Richard; Hazeleger, Wilco; Graversen, Rune G.

    2016-08-01

    The predominant decadal to multidecadal variability in the Arctic region is a feature that is not yet well-understood. It is shown that the Barents Sea is a key region for Arctic-wide variability. This is an important topic because low-frequency changes in the ocean might lead to large variations in the sea-ice cover, which then cause massive changes in the ocean-atmosphere heat exchanges. Here we describe the mechanism driving surface temperatures and heat fluxes in the Barents Sea based primarily on analyzes of one global coupled climate model. It is found that the ocean drives the low-frequency changes in surface temperature, whereas the atmosphere compensates the oceanic transport anomalies. The seasonal dependence and the role of individual components of the ocean-atmosphere energy budget are analyzed in detail, showing that seasonally-varying climate mechanisms play an important role. Herein, sea ice is governing the seasonal response, by acting as a lid that opens and closes during warm and cold periods, respectively, thereby modulating the surface heat fluxes.

  14. Low-frequency Pliocene climate variability in the eastern Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Andersson, Carin; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2016-09-01

    The Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma) is often described as a relatively stable climatic period, with warm temperatures characterizing high latitudes. New suborbital resolved stable isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 642B in the eastern Nordic Seas document that the Pliocene was not a stable period characterized by one climate. Rather, seven distinct climate phases, each lasting between 150,000 and 400,000 years, are identified and characterized in the time interval 5.1-3.1 Ma. Four of the transitions between the defined climate phases occurred close to an eccentricity minimum and a minimum in amplitude of change for Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, while two occurred around an eccentricity maximum and a maximum in amplitude in insolation change. Hence, a low-frequency response of the Nordic Seas to insolation forcing is indicated. In addition, paleogeographic and related paleoceanographic changes, expansion of the Arctic sea ice cover, and onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation were important factors behind the evolving Pliocene low-frequency variability in the eastern Nordic Seas. It is likely that the identified climate phases and transitions are important beyond the Nordic Seas, due to their association with changes to both insolation and paleogeography. However, a strong and variable degree of diagenetic calcite overgrowth is documented for the planktic foraminifera, especially influencing the planktic δ18O results; the absolute values and amplitude of change cannot be taken at face value.

  15. A Meta-analysis on Resting State High-frequency Heart Rate Variability in Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Stephanie K V; Feeling, Nicole R; Vögele, Claus; Kaess, Michael; Thayer, Julian F; Koenig, Julian

    2016-09-01

    Autonomic nervous system function is altered in eating disorders. We aimed to quantify differences in resting state vagal activity, indexed by high-frequency heart rate variability comparing patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and healthy controls. A systematic search of the literature to identify studies eligible for inclusion and meta-analytical methods were applied. Meta-regression was used to identify potential covariates. Eight studies reporting measures of resting high-frequency heart rate variability in individuals with BN (n = 137) and controls (n = 190) were included. Random-effects meta-analysis revealed a sizeable main effect (Z = 2.22, p = .03; Hedge's g = 0.52, 95% CI [0.06;0.98]) indicating higher resting state vagal activity in individuals with BN. Meta-regression showed that body mass index and medication intake are significant covariates. Findings suggest higher vagal activity in BN at rest, particularly in unmedicated samples with lower body mass index. Potential mechanisms underlying these findings and implications for routine clinical care are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Study of process variables in industrial acetic fermentation by a continuous pilot fermentor and response surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Vidal, Diego; Pizarro, Consuelo; González-Sáiz, José M

    2003-01-01

    The modeling and optimization of industrial processes requires an intensive study of the factors involved. In this work, a continuous pilot system for studying the industrial process of acetic fermentation is developed. A Doehlert design is applied to the five variables involved in the pilot process. This experimental design allows reduction of the experimental burden and the maximum amount of information to be obtained, studying the factors at different levels depending on their significance. The experimental system provides a robust measure of the specific growth rate and the rates of substrates consumption and acetic acid production, related to the flow of effluent stream evaluated in the steady state. The results demonstrate the growth-associated kinetics of substrates and product, and the yield factors are calculated with low values of variances for the coefficients, i.e., within the range 1-11%. The specific growth rate suits the quadratic model proposed. The response surfaces generated by the model are applied to explain the behavior of the bacterial growth and, therefore, the effects of the process variables studied over the acetic acid production. Very low levels of ethanol or oxygen make the acetification rate decrease, and a saturation effect with high levels of ethanol or oxygen is also deduced. The effects of the aeration rate, agitation, and overpressure suggest a kind of inhibition of the acetic acid production caused by the oxygen that has not been practically studied before. The temperature strengthens the inhibitory effect of the ethanol and the oxygen. The conclusions of this work consolidate the structure of a hybrid model for the acetic fermentation.

  17. Quantum hacking on a practical continuous-variable quantum cryptosystem by inserting an external light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alleaume, Romain

    2015-10-01

    We report here a new side channel attack on a practical continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Inspired by blinding attack in discrete-variable QKD, we formalize an attack strategy by inserting an external light into a CV QKD system implemented Gaussian-modulated coherent state protocol and show that our attack can compromise its practical security. In this attack, we concern imperfections of a balanced homodyne detector used in CV QKD. According to our analysis, if one inserts an external light into Bob's signal port, due to the imperfect subtraction from the homodyne detector, the leakage of the external light contributes a displacement on the homodyne signal which causes detector electronics saturation. In consequence, Bob's quadrature measurement is not linear with the quadrature sent by Alice. By considering such vulnerability, a potential Eve can launch a full intercept-resend attack meanwhile she inserts an external light into Bob's signal port. By selecting proper properties of the external light, Eve actively controls the induced displacement value from the inserted light which results saturation of homodyne detection. In consequence, Eve can bias the excess noise due to the intercept-resend attack and the external light, such that Alice and Bob believe their excess noise estimation is below the null key threshold and they can still share a secret key. Our attack shows that the detector loopholes also exist in CV QKD, and it seems influence all the CV QKD systems using homodyne detection, since all the practical detectors have finite detection range.

  18. Frequency Domain Analysis for Assessing Fluid Responsiveness by Using Instantaneous Pulse Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the ICU, fluid therapy is conventional strategy for the patient in shock. However, only half of ICU patients have well-responses to fluid therapy, and fluid loading in non-responsive patient delays definitive therapy. Prediction of fluid responsiveness (FR has become intense topic in clinic. Most of conventional FR prediction method based on time domain analysis, and it is limited ability to indicate FR. This study proposed a method which predicts FR based on frequency domain analysis, named instantaneous pulse rate variability (iPRV. iPRV provides a new indication in very high frequency (VHF range (0.4-0.8Hz of spectrum for peripheral responses. Twenty six healthy subjects participated this study and photoplethysmography signal was recorded in supine baseline, during head-up tilt (HUT, and passive leg raising (PLR, which induces variation of venous return and helps for quantitative assessment of FR individually. The result showed the spectral power of VHF decreased during HUT (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 348.00±434.92 ms2 in HUT and increased during PLR (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 718.92±973.70 ms2 in PLR, which present the compensated regulation of venous return and FR. This study provides an effective indicator for assessing FR in frequency domain and has potential to be a reliable system in ICU.

  19. Interval estimation and optimal design for the within-subject coefficient of variation for continuous and binary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoukri, Mohamed M; Elkum, Nasser; Walter, Stephen D

    2006-05-10

    In this paper we propose the use of the within-subject coefficient of variation as an index of a measurement's reliability. For continuous variables and based on its maximum likelihood estimation we derive a variance-stabilizing transformation and discuss confidence interval construction within the framework of a one-way random effects model. We investigate sample size requirements for the within-subject coefficient of variation for continuous and binary variables. We investigate the validity of the approximate normal confidence interval by Monte Carlo simulations. In designing a reliability study, a crucial issue is the balance between the number of subjects to be recruited and the number of repeated measurements per subject. We discuss efficiency of estimation and cost considerations for the optimal allocation of the sample resources. The approach is illustrated by an example on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We also discuss the issue of sample size estimation for dichotomous responses with two examples. For the continuous variable we found that the variance stabilizing transformation improves the asymptotic coverage probabilities on the within-subject coefficient of variation for the continuous variable. The maximum like estimation and sample size estimation based on pre-specified width of confidence interval are novel contribution to the literature for the binary variable. Using the sample size formulas, we hope to help clinical epidemiologists and practicing statisticians to efficiently design reliability studies using the within-subject coefficient of variation, whether the variable of interest is continuous or binary.

  20. Interval estimation and optimal design for the within-subject coefficient of variation for continuous and binary variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkum Nasser

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we propose the use of the within-subject coefficient of variation as an index of a measurement's reliability. For continuous variables and based on its maximum likelihood estimation we derive a variance-stabilizing transformation and discuss confidence interval construction within the framework of a one-way random effects model. We investigate sample size requirements for the within-subject coefficient of variation for continuous and binary variables. Methods We investigate the validity of the approximate normal confidence interval by Monte Carlo simulations. In designing a reliability study, a crucial issue is the balance between the number of subjects to be recruited and the number of repeated measurements per subject. We discuss efficiency of estimation and cost considerations for the optimal allocation of the sample resources. The approach is illustrated by an example on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. We also discuss the issue of sample size estimation for dichotomous responses with two examples. Results For the continuous variable we found that the variance stabilizing transformation improves the asymptotic coverage probabilities on the within-subject coefficient of variation for the continuous variable. The maximum like estimation and sample size estimation based on pre-specified width of confidence interval are novel contribution to the literature for the binary variable. Conclusion Using the sample size formulas, we hope to help clinical epidemiologists and practicing statisticians to efficiently design reliability studies using the within-subject coefficient of variation, whether the variable of interest is continuous or binary.

  1. The super-orbital variability of LS I +61 303 at all frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Diego F.; Hadasch, Daniela; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Detected from radio to TeV gamma rays, the gamma-ray binary LS I + 61 303 is highly variable across all frequencies. Beside its variability due to the modulation of its emission at the 26.496-day orbital period, the system also presents variability consistent with the so-called superorbital period, of 1667 days. Short and highly luminous X-ray bursts, reminiscent of typical magnetar behavior, have been also detected. I will summarize this phenomenology and present recent analysis of LSI +61 303 using data taken with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, putting it in a multi-wavelength context. I will show that the super-orbital modulation of the GeV data is obvious, and that is more prominently seen at orbital phases around apastron. I will also show that the super-orbital evolution also exists in TeV data. Finally, I will present correlation studies between TeV, GeV, X-ray, optical, and radio data and comment on a physical, pulsar-based scenario which could explain the general behavior of this enigmatic binary.

  2. Dementia-Related Work Activities of Home Care Nurses and Aides: Frequency, Perceived Competence, and Continuing Education Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debra G.; Kosteniuk, Julie G.; O'Connell, Megan E.; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Stewart, Norma J.; Karunanayake, Chandima

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the specific dementia learning needs of home care staff is needed to plan relevant continuing education (CE) programs and supports. The study's objective was to examine frequency and perceived competence in performing 20 dementia-related work activities, and identify CE priorities among home care staff. A cross-sectional survey…

  3. Method of frequency dependent correlations: investigating the variability of total solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelt, J.; Käpylä, M. J.; Olspert, N.

    2017-03-01

    Context. This paper contributes to the field of modeling and hindcasting of the total solar irradiance (TSI) based on different proxy data that extend further back in time than the TSI that is measured from satellites. Aims: We introduce a simple method to analyze persistent frequency-dependent correlations (FDCs) between the time series and use these correlations to hindcast missing historical TSI values. We try to avoid arbitrary choices of the free parameters of the model by computing them using an optimization procedure. The method can be regarded as a general tool for pairs of data sets, where correlating and anticorrelating components can be separated into non-overlapping regions in frequency domain. Methods: Our method is based on low-pass and band-pass filtering with a Gaussian transfer function combined with de-trending and computation of envelope curves. Results: We find a major controversy between the historical proxies and satellite-measured targets: a large variance is detected between the low-frequency parts of targets, while the low-frequency proxy behavior of different measurement series is consistent with high precision. We also show that even though the rotational signal is not strongly manifested in the targets and proxies, it becomes clearly visible in FDC spectrum. A significant part of the variability can be explained by a very simple model consisting of two components: the original proxy describing blanketing by sunspots, and the low-pass-filtered curve describing the overall activity level. The models with the full library of the different building blocks can be applied to hindcasting with a high level of confidence, Rc ≈ 0.90. The usefulness of these models is limited by the major target controversy. Conclusions: The application of the new method to solar data allows us to obtain important insights into the different TSI modeling procedures and their capabilities for hindcasting based on the directly observed time intervals.

  4. Improving Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Multipartite Quantum Communication with Optical Amplifiers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Wei; Li, Fei; Huang, Duan; Liao, Qin; Xie, Cai-Lang

    2017-08-01

    The developing tendency of continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum cryptography is to cope with the practical issue of implementing scalable quantum networks. Up to now, most theoretical and experimental researches on CV-MDI QKD are focused on two-party protocols. However, we suggest a CV-MDI multipartite quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol use the EPR states coupled with optical amplifiers. More remarkable, QSS is the real application in multipartite CV-MDI QKD, in other words, is the concrete implementation method of multipartite CV-MDI QKD. It can implement a practical quantum network scheme, under which the legal participants create the secret correlations by using EPR states connecting to an untrusted relay via insecure links and applying the multi-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analysis at relay station. Even if there is a possibility that the relay may be completely tampered, the legal participants are still able to extract a secret key from network communication. The numerical simulation indicates that the quantum network communication can be achieved in an asymmetric scenario, fulfilling the demands of a practical quantum network. Additionally, we illustrate that the use of optical amplifiers can compensate the partial inherent imperfections of detectors and increase the transmission distance of the CV-MDI quantum system.

  5. Exponentially enhanced quantum communication rate by multiplexing continuous-variable teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Andreas; Lupo, Cosmo; Silberhorn, Christine

    2012-08-01

    A major challenge of today's quantum communication systems lies in the transmission of quantum information with high rates over long distances in the presence of unavoidable losses. Thereby the achievable quantum communication rate is fundamentally limited by the amount of energy that can be transmitted per use of the channel. It is hence vital to develop quantum communication protocols that encode quantum information as energy efficiently as possible. To this aim we investigate continuous-variable quantum teleportation as a method of distributing quantum information. We explore the possibility to encode information on multiple optical modes and derive upper and lower bounds on the achievable quantum channel capacities. This analysis enables us to benchmark single-mode versus multi-mode entanglement resources. Our research reveals that multiplexing does not only feature an enhanced energy efficiency, leading to an exponential increase in the achievable quantum communication rates in comparison to single-mode coding, but also yields an improved loss resilience. However, as reliable quantum information transfer is only achieved for entanglement values above a certain threshold a careful optimization of the number of coding modes is needed to obtain the optimal quantum channel capacity.

  6. Entanglement-distillation attack on continuous-variable quantum key distribution in a turbulent atmospheric channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Xie, Cailang; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Guihua; Huang, Duan

    2017-08-01

    The survival of Gaussian quantum states in a turbulent atmospheric channel is of crucial importance in free-space continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD), in which the transmission coefficient will fluctuate in time, thus resulting in non-Gaussian quantum states. Different from quantum hacking of the imperfections of practical devices, here we propose a different type of attack by exploiting the security loopholes that occur in a real lossy channel. Under a turbulent atmospheric environment, the Gaussian states are inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which would cause a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. Therefore, an eavesdropper can perform an intercept-resend attack by applying an entanglement-distillation operation on the transmitted non-Gaussian mixed states, which allows the eavesdropper to bias the estimation of the parameters and renders the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure. Our proposal highlights the practical CV QKD vulnerabilities with free-space quantum channels, including the satellite-to-earth links, ground-to-ground links, and a link from moving objects to ground stations.

  7. Intelligent Control Electromagnetic Actuated Continuously Variable Transmission System for Passenger Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Sharif, Sazzad; Mohiuddin, AKM; Faris Ismail, Ahmed; Izan, Sany Ihsan

    2017-03-01

    Continuously variable transmission (CVT) system transmits the engine /battery power to the car driving wheel smoothly and efficiently. Cars with CVT produces some noise and slow acceleration to meet the car power demand on initial start-ups and slow speed. The car noise is produced as a result of CVT adjustment the engine speed with the hydraulic pressure. The current CVT problems incurred due to the slow response of hydraulic pressure and CVT fluid viscosity due to the development of heat.The aim of this study is to develop electromagnetic actuated CVT (EMA-CVT) with intelligent switching controlling system (ICS). The experimental results of ¼ scale EMA shows that it make the acceleration time of the car in 3.5-5 sec which is 40% less than the hydraulic CVT in the market. The EMA develops the electromagnetic force in the ranged of 350 -1200 N for the supply current in the range of 10-15 amp. This study introduced fuzzy intelligent system (FIS) to predict the EMA system dynamic behaviour in order to identify the current control for the EMA actuation during operation of the CVT. It is expecting that the up scale EMA-CVT would reduce the 75% of vehicle power transmission loss by accelerating vehicle in 5 sec and save the IC engine power consumption about 20% which will makes the vehicle energy efficient (EEV) and reduction of green house gas reduction.

  8. Would one rather store squeezing or entanglement in continuous variable quantum memories?

    CERN Document Server

    Yadsan-Appleby, Hulya

    2010-01-01

    Given two quantum memories for continuous variables (e.g., the collective pseudo-spin of two atomic ensembles) and the possibility to perform passive optical operations (typically beam-splitters) on the optical modes before or after the storage, two possible scenarios arise resulting in generally different degrees of final entanglement. Namely, one could either store an entangled state and retrieve it directly from the memory, or rather store two separate single-mode squeezed states and then combine them with a beam-splitter to generate the final entangled state. In this paper, we address the question of which of these two options yields the higher entanglement. By adopting a well established descrip- tion of QND feedback memories, and a simple but realistic noise model, we analytically determine the optimal choice for several regions of noise parameters and quantify the advantage it entails, not only in terms of final entanglement but also in terms of the capability of the final state to act as a shared reso...

  9. Generating the Local Oscillator "Locally" in Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution Based on Coherent Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bing; Lougovski, Pavel; Pooser, Raphael; Grice, Warren; Bobrek, Miljko

    2015-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) protocols based on coherent detection have been studied extensively in both theory and experiment. In all the existing implementations of CV-QKD, both the quantum signal and the local oscillator (LO) are generated from the same laser and propagate through the insecure quantum channel. This arrangement may open security loopholes and limit the potential applications of CV-QKD. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a pilot-aided feedforward data recovery scheme that enables reliable coherent detection using a "locally" generated LO. Using two independent commercial laser sources and a spool of 25-km optical fiber, we construct a coherent communication system. The variance of the phase noise introduced by the proposed scheme is measured to be 0.04 (rad2 ), which is small enough to enable secure key distribution. This technology also opens the door for other quantum communication protocols, such as the recently proposed measurement-device-independent CV-QKD, where independent light sources are employed by different users.

  10. Quantum hacking: Saturation attack on practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alléaume, Romain

    2016-07-01

    We identify and study a security loophole in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) implementations, related to the imperfect linearity of the homodyne detector. By exploiting this loophole, we propose an active side-channel attack on the Gaussian-modulated coherent-state CVQKD protocol combining an intercept-resend attack with an induced saturation of the homodyne detection on the receiver side (Bob). We show that an attacker can bias the excess noise estimation by displacing the quadratures of the coherent states received by Bob. We propose a saturation model that matches experimental measurements on the homodyne detection and use this model to study the impact of the saturation attack on parameter estimation in CVQKD. We demonstrate that this attack can bias the excess noise estimation beyond the null key threshold for any system parameter, thus leading to a full security break. If we consider an additional criterion imposing that the channel transmission estimation should not be affected by the attack, then the saturation attack can only be launched if the attenuation on the quantum channel is sufficient, corresponding to attenuations larger than approximately 6 dB. We moreover discuss the possible countermeasures against the saturation attack and propose a countermeasure based on Gaussian postselection that can be implemented by classical postprocessing and may allow one to distill the secret key when the raw measurement data are partly saturated.

  11. Tunable non-Gaussian resources for continuous-variable quantum technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Anno, F; Nocerino, G; Porzio, A; Solimeno, S; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and discuss a set of tunable two-mode states of continuous-variable systems, as well as an efficient scheme for their experimental generation. This novel class of tunable entangled resources is defined by a general ansatz depending on two experimentally adjustable parameters. It is very ample and flexible as it encompasses Gaussian as well as non-Gaussian states. The latter include, among others, known states such as squeezed number states and de-Gaussified photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed states, the latter being the most efficient non-Gaussian resources currently available in the laboratory. Moreover, it contains the classes of squeezed Bell states and even more general non-Gaussian resources that can be optimized according to the specific quantum technological task that needs to be realized. The proposed experimental scheme exploits linear optical operations and photon detections performed on a pair of uncorrelated two--mode Gaussian squeezed states. The desired non-Gaussian state i...

  12. A novel evolutionary algorithm for global numerical optimization with continuous variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhong Zhao; Wei Wang; Yuping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are a class of general optimization algorithms which are applicable to functions that are multimodal, non-differentiable, or even discontinuous. In this paper, a novel evolutionary algorithm is proposed to solve global numerical optimization with continuous variables. In order to make the algorithm more robust, the initial population is generated by combining determinate factors with random ones, and a decent scale function is designed to tailor the crossover operator so that it can not only find the decent direction quickly but also keep scanning evenly in the whole feasible space. In addition, to improve the performance of the algorithm, a mutation operator which increases the convergence-rate and ensures the convergence of the proposed algorithm is designed. Then, the global convergence of the presented algorithm is proved in detail. Finally, the presented algorithm is executed to solve 24 benchmark problems, and the results show that the convergence-rate of the proposed algorithm is much faster than that of the compared algorithms.

  13. Influence of System Variables on the Heating Characteristics of Water during Continuous Flow Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A domestic microwave oven (1000 W was modified to permit the continuous flow of liquids run through a helical coil centrally located inside the oven cavity. Heating characteristics were evaluated by measuring inlet and outlet temperatures of coil as a function of system variables. The influence of number of turns, coil diameter, tube diameter, pitch and initial temperature were evaluated at different flow rates. The average residence time of water was computed by dividing the coil volume by the volumetric flow rate. The influence of Dean number was evaluated. Results from this study showed that (1 higher number of turns resulted in lower heating rate, lower temperature fluctuations, higher exit temperature and longer time to achieve temperature equilibrium; (2 larger tube or coil diameter gave larger coil volume causing the heating rate to decrease; (3 faster flow rates resulted in lower exit temperatures, lower temperature fluctuation, higher Dean number and slightly higher heating rate; (4 higher initial temperatures resulted in higher exit temperatures; (5 higher Dean number resulted in more uniform heating and slightly higher heating rate. Overall, the coil volume was the more dominant factor affecting heating rate as compared with flow rate and Dean number.

  14. Unconditional security of entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum secret sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogias, Ioannis; Xiang, Yu; He, Qiongyi; Adesso, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    The need for secrecy and security is essential in communication. Secret sharing is a conventional protocol to distribute a secret message to a group of parties, who cannot access it individually but need to cooperate in order to decode it. While several variants of this protocol have been investigated, including realizations using quantum systems, the security of quantum secret sharing schemes still remains unproven almost two decades after their original conception. Here we establish an unconditional security proof for entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum secret sharing schemes, in the limit of asymptotic keys and for an arbitrary number of players. We tackle the problem by resorting to the recently developed one-sided device-independent approach to quantum key distribution. We demonstrate theoretically the feasibility of our scheme, which can be implemented by Gaussian states and homodyne measurements, with no need for ideal single-photon sources or quantum memories. Our results contribute to validating quantum secret sharing as a viable primitive for quantum technologies.

  15. Phase-noise limitations in continuous-variable quantum key distribution with homodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvaja, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    In continuous-variables quantum key distribution with coherent states, the advantage of performing the detection by using standard telecoms components is counterbalanced by the lack of a stable phase reference in homodyne detection due to the complexity of optical phase-locking circuits and to the unavoidable phase noise of lasers, which introduces a degradation on the achievable secure key rate. Pilot-assisted phase-noise estimation and postdetection compensation techniques are used to implement a protocol with coherent states where a local laser is employed and it is not locked to the received signal, but a postdetection phase correction is applied. Here the reduction of the secure key rate determined by the laser phase noise, for both individual and collective attacks, is analytically evaluated and a scheme of pilot-assisted phase estimation proposed, outlining the tradeoff in the system design between phase noise and spectral efficiency. The optimal modulation variance as a function of the phase-noise amount is derived.

  16. A parametric study on the contact stress of half toroidal continuously variable transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil Abdulla Attia; QIN Datong; SHI Wankai; LI Huaying

    2003-01-01

    The most general contact in mechanical transmission is the elliptical one. In particular, a toroidal continuously variable transmission (CVT) has an elliptical shape in the contact area under the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime, where the shearing of the fluid subjects to high contact stress and transmits the power. Many parameters affect the contact service performance of the half toroidal CVT, which include the properties of the contacting material (Young's modulus), operating parameters (input torque and maximum traction coefficient) and geometrical parameters (aspect cavity ratio, curvature ratio and half cone angle of the power roller). In this paper, the contacts between the input disk, the power roller and the output disk are formulated using the classical Hertzian contact theory. Based on the formulated equations, different system parameters, which affect the maximum Hertzian stresses, are compared. The comparative results will provide some observations of the relations between the maximum Hertzian stresses and transmission ratios in the form of graphs. These graphs give useful information for designer to know the maximum Hertzian stress during operation in such s ystems.

  17. Coastal waters monitoring data: frequency distributions of the principal water quality variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca DI LORENZO

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Examining the results of the Italian national programme of marine coastal monitoring, the old problem has arisen about the choice of the most appropriate procedures and methods to validate data and screen preliminary data. Therefore, statistical distributions of water quality parameters have been taken into consideration, in order to assign appropriate frequency distributions to all the routinely measured variables. Each sample distribution has been analysed and defined by a probability density function (p.d.f., by means of a powerful method of data analysis (Johnson 1949 that allows for the computation of statistical parameters of a wide variety of non-normal distributions. The resulting Johnson distributions are then classified depending on four fundamental categories of frequency distributions: normal, log-normal, bounded and unbounded. Theoretical aspects of the method are explained and discussed in an adequate way, so as to allow for practical applications. The shape and nature of these curves require further consideration, in order to understand the behaviour of water quality variables and to make comparison among different coastal zones. To this end, two coastal systems were considered in this work: the Emilia-Romagna coastal area of the NW Adriatic Sea and the Tuscany littoral of the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea. There are notable advantages to the adopted approach. First it offers the possibility to overcome severe constraints requested by the normality assumption, and avoids the troublesome search for the most appropriate transformation function (i.e. for ensuring normality. Second, it avoids searching for other kinds of theoretical distributions that are appropriate for the data. In our approach, the density functions are opportunely integrated, in such a way that, for whatever value assumed by a given variable, the corresponding expected percentage point value under the respective frequency curve, can be calculated, and vice versa. We

  18. The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensor for gravitational wave interferometer low-frequency controls

    CERN Document Server

    Tariq, H; Vetrano, F; Wang Chen Yang; Bertolini, A; Calamai, G; DeSalvo, R; Gennai, A; Holloway, L E; Losurdo, G; Marka, S; Mazzoni, M; Paoletti, F; Passuello, D; Sannibale, V; Stanga, R

    2002-01-01

    Low-power, ultra-high-vacuum compatible, non-contacting position sensors with nanometer resolution and centimeter dynamic range have been developed, built and tested. They have been designed at Virgo as the sensors for low-frequency modal damping of Seismic Attenuation System chains in Gravitational Wave interferometers and sub-micron absolute mirror positioning. One type of these linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) has been designed to be also insensitive to transversal displacement thus allowing 3D movement of the sensor head while still precisely reading its position along the sensitivity axis. A second LVDT geometry has been designed to measure the displacement of the vertical seismic attenuation filters from their nominal position. Unlike the commercial LVDTs, mostly based on magnetic cores, the LVDTs described here exert no force on the measured structure.

  19. Bench Marking of Alternate Soft-charging Circuits for Variable-frequency Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anandh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents about various soft charging techniques used in variable frequency drives to limit the in-rush current into the dc-bus capacitors during pre-charging condition. The main objective of a pre-charging circuit is to charge the capacitor within possible allowed time and maximum converter current without any voltage overshoot. A capacitor pre-charging circuit needs to be robust and simple in control by limiting the dc link inductor and input ac current to any desired magnitude. In this study we will discuss about various soft charging topologies, techniques and their performance during different operating conditions such as partially pre-charged capacitors, input line voltage variation, ground faults and bus faults. In the final this study discusses also about a novel pre-charging circuit, technique and provides a comparison of proposed technique with the existing techniques.

  20. High-Frequency Heart Rate Variability Linked to Affiliation with a New Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder K Sahdra

    Full Text Available This study tests the hypothesis that high levels of high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV predisposes individuals to affiliate with new groups. Resting cardiac physiological recordings were taken before and after experimental sessions to measure trait high-frequency heart rate variability as an index of dispositional autonomic influence on heart rate. Following an experimental manipulation of priming of caring-related words, participants engaged in a minimal group paradigm, in which they imagined being a member of one of two arbitrary groups, allocated money to members of the two groups, and rated their affiliation with the groups. High levels of HF-HRV were associated with ingroup favouritism while allocating money, an effect largely attributable to a positive relationship between HF-HRV and allocation of money to the ingroup, and less due to a negative relationship between HF-HRV and money allocation to the outgroup. HF-HRV was also associated with increased self-reported affiliation feelings for the ingroup but was unrelated to feelings towards the outgroup. These effects remained substantial even after controlling for age, gender, BMI, mood, caffeine consumption, time of day of data collection, smoking and alcohol behaviour, and respiration rate. Further, the effects were observed regardless of whether participants were primed with caring-related words or not. This study is the first to bridge a long history of research on ingroup favouritism to the relatively recent body of research on cardiac vagal tone by uncovering a positive association between HF-HRV and affiliation with a novel group.

  1. Variable Frequency Operations of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated. Based on DOE study, wind power generation may reach 330 GW by 2030 at the level of penetration of 20% of the total energy production. From this amount of wind power, 54 GW of wind power will be generated at offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore wind power plants requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cable, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. Otherwise, if the power is transmitted via alternating current, the reactive power generated by the cable capacitance may cause an excessive over voltage in the middle of the transmission distance which requires unnecessary oversized cable voltage breakdown capability. The use of HVDC is usually required for transmission distance longer than 50 kilometers of submarine cables to be economical. The use of HVDC brings another advantage; it is capable of operating at variable frequency. The inland substation will be operated to 60 Hz synched with the grid, the offshore substation can be operated at variable frequency, thus allowing the wind power plant to be operated at constant Volt/Hz. In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated.

  2. A New Improved Variable Frequency Triangular Carrier-PWM with MOPSO Algorithm for Carrier Based PWM Techniques in Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Orfi Yegane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates multi-carrier PWM methods in multi-level inverters. Two new MCPWM methods are introduced. This study proposes a new optimized MCPWM method to improve the output voltage characteristics like THD and LOH. The proposed method is based on variable frequency with a specific range. It means each carrier wave has a determined frequency. It is calling Variable Frequency Triangular Carrier-PWM. MOPSO algorithm is used to optimize the answers. This work considers some different levels of inverters like five, seven and nine levels. The results are compared with SPWM method.

  3. Temperature-variable high-frequency dynamic modeling of PIN diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangbin, Ye; Jiajia, Zhang; Yicheng, Zhang; Yongtao, Yao

    2016-04-01

    The PIN diode model for high frequency dynamic transient characteristic simulation is important in conducted EMI analysis. The model should take junction temperature into consideration since equipment usually works at a wide range of temperature. In this paper, a temperature-variable high frequency dynamic model for the PIN diode is built, which is based on the Laplace-transform analytical model at constant temperature. The relationship between model parameters and temperature is expressed as temperature functions by analyzing the physical principle of these parameters. A fast recovery power diode MUR1560 is chosen as the test sample and its dynamic performance is tested under inductive load by a temperature chamber experiment, which is used for model parameter extraction and model verification. Results show that the model proposed in this paper is accurate for reverse recovery simulation with relatively small errors at the temperature range from 25 to 120 °C. Project supported by the National High Technology and Development Program of China (No. 2011AA11A265).

  4. High-Frequency X-ray Variability Detection in A Black Hole Transient with USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, Gayane

    2000-10-16

    Studies of high-frequency variability (above {approx}100 Hz) in X-ray binaries provide a unique opportunity to explore the fundamental physics of spacetime and matter, since the orbital timescale on the order of several milliseconds is a timescale of the motion of matter through the region located in close proximity to a compact stellar object. The detection of weak high-frequency signals in X-ray binaries depends on how well we understand the level of Poisson noise due to the photon counting statistics, i.e. how well we can understand and model the detector deadtime and other instrumental systematic effects. We describe the preflight timing calibration work performed on the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) X-ray detector to study deadtime and timing issues. We developed a Monte Carlo deadtime model and deadtime correction methods for the USA experiment. The instrumental noise power spectrum can be estimated within {approx}0.1% accuracy in the case when no energy-dependent instrumental effect is present. We also developed correction techniques to account for an energy-dependent instrumental effect. The developed methods were successfully tested on USA Cas A and Cygnus X-1 data. This work allowed us to make a detection of a weak signal in a black hole candidate (BHC) transient.

  5. Frequency content of sea surface height variability from internal gravity waves to mesoscale eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Anna C.; Arbic, Brian K.; Richman, James G.; Shriver, Jay F.; Alford, Matthew H.; Buijsman, Maarten C.; Thomas Farrar, J.; Sharma, Hari; Voet, Gunnar; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Zamudio, Luis

    2017-03-01

    High horizontal-resolution (1/12.5° and 1/25°) 41-layer global simulations of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), forced by both atmospheric fields and the astronomical tidal potential, are used to construct global maps of sea surface height (SSH) variability. The HYCOM output is separated into steric and nonsteric and into subtidal, diurnal, semidiurnal, and supertidal frequency bands. The model SSH output is compared to two data sets that offer some geographical coverage and that also cover a wide range of frequencies—a set of 351 tide gauges that measure full SSH and a set of 14 in situ vertical profilers from which steric SSH can be calculated. Three of the global maps are of interest in planning for the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) two-dimensional swath altimeter mission: (1) maps of the total and (2) nonstationary internal tidal signal (the latter calculated after removing the stationary internal tidal signal via harmonic analysis), with an average variance of 1.05 and 0.43 cm2, respectively, for the semidiurnal band, and (3) a map of the steric supertidal contributions, which are dominated by the internal gravity wave continuum, with an average variance of 0.15 cm2. Stationary internal tides (which are predictable), nonstationary internal tides (which will be harder to predict), and nontidal internal gravity waves (which will be very difficult to predict) may all be important sources of high-frequency "noise" that could mask lower frequency phenomena in SSH measurements made by the SWOT mission.

  6. Rotational swashplate pulse continuously variable transmission based on helical gear axial meshing transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiandong; Fu, Wenyu; Lei, Hong; Tian, E.; Liu, Ziping

    2012-11-01

    The current research on pulse continuously variable transmission(CVT) is mainly focused on reducing the pulse degree and making pulse degrees a constant value. Current research mainly confined to find out new design parameters by using the method of optimization, and reduce the pulse degree of pulse CVT and its range of variation. But the fact is that the reduction of the pulse degree is not significant. This article presents a new structure of mechanical pulse CVT—the rotational swashplate pulse CVT with driven by helical gear axial meshing. This transmission is simple and compact in structure and low in pulsatile rate (it adopts 6 guide rods), and the pulsatile degree is irrelevant to the transmission ratio. Theoretically, pulsatile rate could be reduced to zero if appropriate curved surface of the swashplate is used. Compared with the connecting rod pulse CVT, the present structure uses helical gear mechanism as transmission part and it avoids unbalanced inertial force in the former model. This paper analyzes the principle of driving of this transmission, presents its mechanical structure, and discusses its motion characteristics. Experimental prototype of this type of CVT has been manufactured. Tests for the transmission efficiency(when the rotational speed of the output shaft is the maximum) and the angular velocity of the output shaft have been carried out, and data have been analyzed. The experimental results show that the speed of the output shaft for the experimental prototype is slightly lower than the theoretical value, and the transmission efficiency of the experimental prototype is about 70%. The pulse degree of the CVT discussed in this paper is less than the existing pulse CVT of other types, and it is irrelevant to the transmission ratio of the CVT. The research provides the new idea to the CVT study.

  7. Entanglement in continuous-variable systems: recent advances and current perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesso, Gerardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2007-07-13

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization and the scaling of bipartite entanglement in multimode Gaussian states. We then discuss recent advances in the understanding of entanglement sharing in multimode Gaussian states, including the proof of the monogamy inequality of distributed entanglement for all Gaussian states. Multipartite entanglement of Gaussian states is reviewed by discussing its qualification by different classes of separability, and the main consequences of the monogamy inequality, such as the quantification of genuine tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states, the promiscuous nature of entanglement sharing in symmetric Gaussian states and the possible coexistence of unlimited bipartite and multipartite entanglement. We finally review recent advances and discuss possible perspectives on the qualification and quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states, a field of research that is to a large extent yet to be explored.

  8. Self-coherent phase reference sharing for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Adrien; Alléaume, Romain

    2017-01-01

    We develop a comprehensive framework to model and optimize the performance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) with a local local oscillator (LLO), when phase reference sharing and QKD are jointly implemented. We first analyze the limitations of the only existing approach, called LLO-sequential, and show that it requires high modulation dynamics and can only tolerate small phase noise. Our main contribution is to introduce two designs to perform LLO CV-QKD, respectively called LLO-delayline and LLO-displacement, and to study their performance. Both designs rely on a self-coherent approach, in which phase reference information and quantum information are coherently obtained from a single optical wavefront. We show that these designs can lift some limitations of the existing LLO-sequential approach. The LLO-delayline design can in particular tolerate much stronger phase noise and thus appears to be an appealing alternative to LLO-sequential in terms of network integrability. We also investigate, with the LLO-displacement design, how phase reference information and quantum information can be multiplexed within a single optical pulse. By studying the trade-off between phase reference recovery and phase noise induced by displacement, we, however, demonstrate that this design can only tolerate low phase noise. On the other hand, the LLO-displacement design has the advantage of minimal hardware requirements and provides a simple approach to multiplex classical and quantum communications, opening a practical path towards the development of ubiquitous coherent classical-quantum communications systems compatible with next-generation network requirements.

  9. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leverrier, A [Institut Telecom/Telecom ParisTech, CNRS LTCI, 46, rue Barrault, 75634 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Karpov, E; Cerf, N J [Quantum Information and Communication, Ecole Polytechnique, CP 165/59, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 avenue F D Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Grangier, P [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)], E-mail: anthony.leverrier@enst.fr

    2009-11-15

    Proving the unconditional security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for continuous-variable QKD as the Hilbert space where the protocol is described is infinite dimensional. A possible strategy to address this problem is to make an extensive use of the symmetries of the protocol. In this paper, we investigate a rotation symmetry in phase space that is particularly relevant to continuous-variable QKD, and explore the way towards a new quantum de Finetti theorem that would exploit this symmetry and provide a powerful tool to assess the security of continuous-variable protocols. As a first step, a single-party asymptotic version of this quantum de Finetti theorem in phase space is derived.

  10. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverrier, A.; Karpov, E.; Grangier, P.; Cerf, N. J.

    2009-11-01

    Proving the unconditional security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for continuous-variable QKD as the Hilbert space where the protocol is described is infinite dimensional. A possible strategy to address this problem is to make an extensive use of the symmetries of the protocol. In this paper, we investigate a rotation symmetry in phase space that is particularly relevant to continuous-variable QKD, and explore the way towards a new quantum de Finetti theorem that would exploit this symmetry and provide a powerful tool to assess the security of continuous-variable protocols. As a first step, a single-party asymptotic version of this quantum de Finetti theorem in phase space is derived.

  11. Iterative Learning Control Design and Application for Linear Continuous Systems with Variable Initial States Based on 2-D System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the variable initial states problem in iterative learning control (ILC for linear continuous systems. Firstly, the properties of the trajectory of 2-D continuous-discrete Roesser model are analyzed by using Lyapunov's method. Then, for any variable initial states which absolutely converge to the desired initial state, some ILC design criteria in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMI are given to ensure the convergence of the PD-type ILC rules. The convergence for variable initial states implies that the ILC rules can be used to achieve the perfect tacking for variable initial states, even if the system dynamic is unknown. Finally, the micropropulsion system is considered to illustrate efficiency of the proposed ILC design criteria.

  12. Optical to microwave clock frequency ratios with a nearly continuous strontium optical lattice clock

    CERN Document Server

    Lodewyck, Jérôme; Bookjans, Eva; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Shi, Chunyan; Vallet, Grégoire; Targat, Rodolphe Le; Nicolodi, Daniele; Coq, Yann Le; Guéna, Jocelyne; Abgrall, Michel; Rosenbusch, Peter; Bize, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Optical lattice clocks are at the forefront of frequency metrology. Both the instability and systematic uncertainty of these clocks have been reported to be two orders of magnitude smaller than the best microwave clocks. For this reason, a redefinition of the SI second based on optical clocks seems possible in the near future. However, the operation of optical lattice clocks has not yet reached the reliability that microwave clocks have achieved so far. In this paper, we report on the operation of a strontium optical lattice clock that spans several weeks, with more than 80% uptime. We make use of this long integration time to demonstrate a reproducible measurement of frequency ratios between the strontium clock transition and microwave Cs primary and Rb secondary frequency standards.

  13. Universal Quantum Computing with Measurement-Induced Continuous-Variable Gate Sequence in a Loop-Based Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira

    2017-09-01

    We propose a scalable scheme for optical quantum computing using measurement-induced continuous-variable quantum gates in a loop-based architecture. Here, time-bin-encoded quantum information in a single spatial mode is deterministically processed in a nested loop by an electrically programmable gate sequence. This architecture can process any input state and an arbitrary number of modes with almost minimum resources, and offers a universal gate set for both qubits and continuous variables. Furthermore, quantum computing can be performed fault tolerantly by a known scheme for encoding a qubit in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of a single light mode.

  14. Analysis of heart rate variability in pre-eclamptic pregnancy: a study employing frequency domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Ar Navi Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a disorder characterized by development of hypertension to the extent of 140/90 mmHg or more with proteinuria after 20th weeks of pregnancy in a previously normotensive and non proteinuric woman. Physiologically blood pressure is controlled by Autonomic Nervous System (ANS so study of ANS during pregnancy plays a significant role to extract some vital information which may be helpful to deal with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH or preeclampsia. The autonomic nervous system and changes in ANS during different pathophysiological conditions could be evaluated with heart rate variability analysis test. The modification in the autonomic control occurs during pregnancy and its evaluation through Heart Rate Variability (HRV analysis is very informative technique now a day but studied little thus the main objective of our project is to compare the maternal HRV changes between normal pregnancy and pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Methods: 48 subjects (33 of normotensive pregnant women i.e., control group and 15 pre-eclamptic pregnant women i.e, study group of more than 20 weeks pregnancy were recruited from the outpatients, antenatal unit and wards of obstetrics and gynaecology department of JNMC, AMU, Aligarh. Physical examination was done and anthropometric measurement like height and weight were taken. BMI was calculated as per Quetlet's index. Urine test was conducted to every pregnant woman for urine albumin and we designated the pregnant women as pre-eclamptic women on the basis of definition. The subject was advised to take complete bed rest in supine position for 15 minutes in a cool and calm environment. The recording of short term HRV was done according to recommendation of the task force on HRV. The data was transferred from Medicaid machine to window based computer with HRV analysis software. Frequency domain analysis of HRV was taken for further statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference of

  15. Continuous Vernier filtering of an optical frequency comb for broadband cavity-enhanced molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rutkowski, Lucile

    2016-01-01

    We have recently introduced the Vernier-based Direct Frequency Comb Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy technique and we present the corresponding formalism for quantitative broadband spectroscopy. We achieve high sensitivity and broadband performance by acquiring spectra covering more than 2000 cm$^{-1}$ around 12600 cm$^{-1}$ (800 nm), resolving the 3$\

  16. Intra- and inter-individual variability of Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies in healthy volunteers in dependency of mould exposure in residential and working environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Sebastian; Weis, Philipp; Page, Lukas; Helm, Johanna; Lazariotou, Maria; Einsele, Hermann; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    Invasive aspergillosis remains a deadly disease in immunocompromised patients, whereas the combination of an exaggerated immune response and continuous exposure lead to various hyperinflammatory diseases. This pilot study aimed to gain an overview of the intra- and inter-individual variability in Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-helper cells in healthy adults and the correlation with environmental mould exposure. In this flow cytometric study, the frequencies of CD154(+) A. fumigatus reactive T cells were evaluated in 70 healthy volunteers. All subjects completed a standardised questionnaire addressing their mould exposure. Subjects with intensive mould exposure in their professional or residential surrounding demonstrated considerably higher mean frequencies of A. fumigatus reactive T-helper and T-memory cells. Comparative evaluation of multiple measurements over time demonstrated relatively conserved reactive T-cell frequencies in the absence of major changes to the exposure profile, whereas those frequently exposed in professional environment or with changes to their risk score demonstrated a marked dependency of antigen reactive T-cell frequencies on recent mould exposure. This pilot study was the first to provide data on the intra-individual variability in A. fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies and its linkage to mould encounter. Fungus reactive T cells are to be considered a valued tool for the assessment of environmental mould exposure. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. A 3-D Computational Study of a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) Spanwise Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Upender K.; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2015-01-01

    Results of a computational study carried out to explore the effects of various elastomer configurations joining spanwise contiguous Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) segments are reported here. This research is carried out as a proof-of-concept study that will seek to push the flight envelope in cruise with drag optimization as the objective. The cruise conditions can be well off design such as caused by environmental conditions, maneuvering, etc. To handle these off-design conditions, flap deflection is used so when the flap is deflected in a given direction, the aircraft angle of attack changes accordingly to maintain a given lift. The angle of attack is also a design parameter along with the flap deflection. In a previous 2D study,1 the effect of camber was investigated and the results revealed some insight into the relative merit of various camber settings of the VCCTEF. The present state of the art has not advanced sufficiently to do a full 3-D viscous analysis of the whole NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) wing with VCCTEF deployed with elastomers. Therefore, this study seeks to explore the local effects of three contiguous flap segments on lift and drag of a model devised here to determine possible trades among various flap deflections to achieve desired lift and drag results. Although this approach is an approximation, it provides new insights into the "local" effects of the relative deflections of the contiguous spanwise flap systems and various elastomer segment configurations. The present study is a natural extension of the 2-D study to assess these local 3-D effects. Design cruise condition at 36,000 feet at free stream Mach number of 0.797 and a mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) based Reynolds number of 30.734x10(exp 6) is simulated for an angle of attack (AoA) range of 0 to 6 deg. In the previous 2-D study, the calculations revealed that the parabolic arc camber (1x2x3) and circular arc camber (VCCTEF222) offered the best L

  18. Real-time implementation of frequency-modulated continuous-wave synthetic aperture radar imaging using field programmable gate array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yinghui; Li, Yachao; Hu, Guibin; Xing, Mengdao

    2015-06-01

    A new miniature linear frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar which mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle is presented. It allows the accomplishment of high resolution synthetic aperture radar imaging in real-time. Only a Kintex-7 field programmable gate array from Xilinx is utilized for whole signal processing of sophisticated radar imaging algorithms. The proposed hardware architecture achieves remarkable improvement in integration, power consumption, volume, and computing performance over its predecessor designs. The realized design is verified by flight campaigns.

  19. HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGE PROJECTION IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN FOR CONTINUOUS IMAGE SEQUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nagaraju Naik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most other information technologies, which have enjoyed an exponential growth for the past several decades, display resolution has largely stagnated. Low display resolution has in turn limited the resolution of digital images. Scaling is a non-trivial process that involves a trade-off between efficiency, smoothness and sharpness. As the size of an image is increased, so the pixels, which comprise the image, become increasingly visible, making the image to appear soft. Super scalar representation of image sequence is limited due to image information present in low dimensional image sequence. To project a image frame sequence into high-resolution static or fractional scalingvalue, a scaling approach is developed based on energy spectral interpolation and frequency spectral interpolation techniques. To realize the frequency spectral resolution Cubic-B-Spline method is used.

  20. Possibilities for Continuous Frequency Tuning in Terahertz Gyrotrons with Nontunable Electrodynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.; Chang, T. H.

    2016-02-01

    Large ohmic losses in the cavities of terahertz gyrotrons may lead to the overlapping of the axial mode spectra. In a number of gyrotron experiments, this effect has been used to provide a fairly broadband frequency tuning by changing appropriately the operating magnetic field and/or accelerating voltage of the gyrotron. Similar to the systems with nonfixed axial structure of the RF electromagnetic field and low diffraction quality, which are due to weak reflections of the operating wave from the collector end of the electrodynamic system, this changing leads to a monotonic change in the axial index of the operating wave and transition from the gyrotron regime to the gyro-BWO regime. According to a theoretical comparison of these two methods performed on the basis of generalization of self-consistent gyrotron equations with allowance for variations in the axial electron momenta, low-reflection systems can provide a higher efficiency and monotonicity of the frequency tuning.

  1. Low-frequency intraseasonal variability in a zonally symmetric aquaplanet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Surajit; Sengupta, Debasis; Chakraborty, A.; Sukhatme, Jai; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2016-12-01

    We use the aquaplanet version of the community atmospheric model, with perpetual spring equinox forcing and zonally symmetric sea surface temperature (SST), to study tropical intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs). In the first two experiments, we specify zonally symmetric SST profiles that mimic observed climatological July and January SSTs as surface boundary conditions. In the January SST simulation, we find a zonal wavenumber 1 mode with dominant period of 60 days, moving east at about 6 m s-1. This mode, which resembles the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), is absent in the July SST case, although convectively coupled Kelvin waves are prominent in both experiments. To further investigate the influence of tropical SST on ISO and convectively coupled equatorial waves, we conduct experiments with idealised symmetric SST profiles having different widths of warm ocean centered at the equator. In the narrowest SST experiment, the variance of moist activity is predominantly in weather-scale Kelvin waves. When the latitudinal extent of warm SST is comparable to or larger than the equatorial Rossby radius, we find a dominant low frequency (50-80 days) eastward mode that resembles the MJO, as in the January SST experiment. We also find westward propagating waves with intraseasonal (30-120 days) periods and zonal wavenumber 1-3; the structure of these signals projects onto equatorially trapped Rossby waves with meridional mode numbers 1, 3 and 5, associated with convection that is symmetric about the equator. In addition, the model generates 30-80 days westward moving signals with zonal wavenumber 4-7, particularly in the narrow SST experiment. Although these waves are seen in the wavenumber-frequency spectra in the equatorial region, they have largest amplitude in the middle and high latitudes. Thus, our study shows that wider, meridionally symmetric SST profiles support a strong MJO-like eastward propagation, and even in an aquaplanet setting, westward propagating Rossby

  2. The Impact of Resonance Frequency Breathing on Measures of Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure, and Mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R. Steffen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB significantly improves heart rate variability (HRV. Breathing at resonance frequency (RF, approximately 6 breaths/min constitutes a key part of HRVB training and is hypothesized to be a pathway through which biofeedback improves HRV. No studies to date, however, have experimentally examined whether RF breathing impacts measures of HRV. The present study addressed this question by comparing three groups: the RF group breathed at their determined RF for 15 min; the RF + 1 group breathed at 1 breath/min higher than their determined RF for 15 min; and the third group sat quietly for 15 min. After this 15-min period, all groups participated in the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT for 8 min, and then sat quietly during a 10-min recovery period. HRV, blood pressure, and mood were measured throughout the experiment. Groups were not significantly different on any of the measures at baseline. After the breathing exercise, the RF group reported higher positive mood than the other two groups and a significantly higher LF/HF HRV ratio relative to the control group, a key goal in HRVB training (p < 0.05. Additionally, the RF group showed lower systolic blood pressure during the PASAT and during the recovery period relative to the control group, with the RF + 1 group not being significantly different from either group (p < 0.05. Overall, RF breathing appears to play an important role in the positive effect HRVB has on measures of HRV.

  3. Low-Frequency Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Variability in the Southern Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Junqiao; HU Dunxin; YU Lejiang

    2012-01-01

    The low-frequency atmosphere-ocean coupled variability of the southern Indian Ocean (SIO) was investigated using observation data over 1958-2010.These data were obtained from ECMWF for sea level pressure (SLP) and wind,from NCEP/NCAR for heat fluxes,and from the Hadley Center for SST.To obtain the coupled air-sea variability,we performed SVD analyses on SST and SLP.The primary coupled mode represents 43% of the total square covariance and is featured by weak westerly winds along 45°-30°S.This weakened subtropical anticyclone forces fluctuations in a well-known subtropical dipole structure in the SST via wind-induced processes.The SST changes in response to atmosphere forcing and is predictable with a lead-time of 1-2 months.Atmosphere-ocean coupling of this mode is strongest during the austral summer.Its principle component is characterized by mixed interannual and interdecadal fluctuations.There is a strong relationship between the first mode and Antarctic Oscillation (AAO).The AAO can influence the coupled processes in the SIO by modulating the subtropical high.The second mode,accounting for 30% of the total square covariance,represents a 25-year period interdecadal oscillation in the strength of the subtropical anticyclone that is accompanied by fluctuations of a monopole structure in the SST along the 35° 25°S band.It is caused by subsidence of the atmosphere.The present study also shows that physical processes of both local thermodynamic and ocean circulation in the SIO have a crucial role in the formation of the atmosphere-ocean covariability.

  4. On the quantification of heart rate variability spectral parameters using time-frequency and time-varying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Luca T

    2009-01-28

    In the last decades, one of the main challenges in the study of heart rate variability (HRV) signals has been the quantification of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of the HRV spectrum during non-stationary events. At this regard, different time-frequency and time-varying approaches have been proposed with the aim to track the modification of the HRV spectra during ischaemic attacks, provocative stress testing, sleep or daily-life activities. The quantitative evaluation of power (and frequencies) of the LF and HF components has been approached in various ways depending on the selected time-frequency method. This paper is an excursus through the most common time-frequency/time-varying representation of the HRV signal with a special emphasis on the algorithms employed for the reliable quantification of the LF and HF parameters and their tracking.

  5. A continuous-discrete approach for evaluation of natural frequencies and mode shapes of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekinejad, Mohsen; Rahgozar, Reza; Malekinejad, Ali; Rahgozar, Peyman

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a continuous-discrete approach based on the concept of lumped mass and equivalent continuous approach is proposed for free vibration analysis of combined system of framed tube, shear core and outrigger-belt truss in high-rise buildings. This system is treated as a continuous system (i.e., discrete beams and columns are replaced with equivalent continuous membranes) and a discrete system (or lumped mass system) at different stages of dynamic analysis. The structure is discretized at each floor of the building as a series of lumped masses placed at the center of shear core. Each mass has two transitional degrees of freedom (lateral and axial( and one rotational. The effect of shear core and outrigger-belt truss on framed tube system is modeled as a rotational spring placed at the location of outrigger-belt truss system along structure's height. By solving the resulting eigen problem, natural frequencies and mode-shapes are obtained. Numerical examples are presented to show acceptable accuracy of the procedure in estimating the fundamental frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the combined system as compared to finite element analysis of the complete structure. The simplified proposed method is much faster and should be more suitable for rapid interactive design.

  6. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Charles E.

    2016-12-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF) technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. We review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  7. High power continuous wave atomic Xe laser with radio frequency excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitruk, P. P.; Morley, R. J.; Baker, H. J.; Hall, D. R.

    1995-09-01

    Radio frequency discharges in Ar/He/Xe gas mixtures have been studied in the range 5-150 MHz, and the importance of the ion sheaths in Xe laser excitation has been recognized. The discharge data have been used to improve the cw Xe laser performance, and efficiencies up to 0.8% observed. Area scaling in the slab geometry has been studied for α discharge excitation at 49 MHz, and multimode cw laser power up to 5.5 W has been observed. High quality beams have been produced at 4.9 W using a hybrid waveguide/unstable resonator.

  8. Design and multiphysics analysis of a 176Â MHz continuous-wave radio-frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsaev, S. V.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Schrage, D.; Rodnizki, J.; Berkovits, D.

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a new design for a 176 MHz cw radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for the SARAF upgrade project. At this frequency, the proposed design is a conventional four-vane structure. The main design goals are to provide the highest possible shunt impedance while limiting the required rf power to about 120 kW for reliable cw operation, and the length to about 4 meters. If built as designed, the proposed RFQ will be the first four-vane cw RFQ built as a single cavity (no resonant coupling required) that does not require π-mode stabilizing loops or dipole rods. For this, we rely on very detailed 3D simulations of all aspects of the structure and the level of machining precision achieved on the recently developed ATLAS upgrade RFQ. A full 3D model of the structure including vane modulation was developed. The design was optimized using electromagnetic and multiphysics simulations. Following the choice of the vane type and geometry, the vane undercuts were optimized to produce a flat field along the structure. The final design has good mode separation and should not need dipole rods if built as designed, but their effect was studied in the case of manufacturing errors. The tuners were also designed and optimized to tune the main mode without affecting the field flatness. Following the electromagnetic (EM) design optimization, a multiphysics engineering analysis of the structure was performed. The multiphysics analysis is a coupled electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical analysis. The cooling channels, including their paths and sizes, were optimized based on the limiting temperature and deformation requirements. The frequency sensitivity to the RFQ body and vane cooling water temperatures was carefully studied in order to use it for frequency fine-tuning. Finally, an inductive rf power coupler design based on the ATLAS RFQ coupler was developed and simulated. The EM design optimization was performed using cst Microwave Studio and the results were verified using

  9. Neuromuscular fatigue is not different between constant and variable frequency stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papaiordanidou

    Full Text Available This study compared fatigue development of the triceps surae induced by two electrical stimulation protocols composed of constant and variable frequency trains (CFTs, VFTs, 450 trains, 30 Hz, 167 ms ON, 500 ms OFF and 146 ms ON, 500 ms OFF respectively. For the VFTs protocol a doublet (100 Hz was used at the beginning of each train. The intensity used evoked 30% of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and was defined using CFTs. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and after each protocol. Changes in excitation-contraction coupling were assessed by analysing the M-wave [at rest (Mmax and during MVC (Msup] and associated peak twitch (Pt. H-reflex [at rest (Hmax and during MVC (Hsup] and the motor evoked potential (MEP during MVC were studied to assess spinal and corticospinal excitability of the soleus muscle. MVC decrease was similar between the protocols (-8%, P<0.05. Mmax, Msup and Pt decreased after both protocols (P<0.01. Hmax/Mmax was decreased (P<0.05, whereas Hsup/Msup and MEP/Msup remained unchanged after both protocols. The results indicate that CFTs and VFTs gave rise to equivalent neuromuscular fatigue. This fatigue resulted from alterations taking place at the muscular level. The finding that cortical and spinal excitability remained unchanged during MVC indicates that spinal and/or supraspinal mechanisms were activated to compensate for the loss of spinal excitability at rest.

  10. A model study of the Gulf Stream Extension intrinsic low-frequency variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Pierini, Stefano; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2010-05-01

    A process-oriented model study aimed at understanding aspects of the intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream Extension is presented. Reduced-gravity and two-layer shallow water eddy-permitting models are implemented in a domain spanning the latitudes from 10°S to 60°N, with schematic coastlines representing correctly the large-scale shape of the continental boundaries. The forcing, provided by a time-independent climatological wind stress field, is obtained from 41 years (1961-2001) of ECMWF Re-Analysis data. In the two-layer model a Deep Western Boundary Current is introduced through boundary forcing. The dissipative mechanisms are the lateral eddy viscosity (with coefficient A) and the interfacial friction (with coefficient F) and, in the two-layer model, also the bottom friction. Sensitivity experiments are carried out by varying A and F, and the results are interpreted also in terms of dynamical systems theory. For sufficiently high dissipation a steady western boundary current and corresponding extension jet are obtained: their comparison with AVISO altimeter data provides experimental validation of the model setup. Decreasing A and F leads to a first Hopf bifurcation and to the successive transition to chaotic fluctuations characterized by interannual time scales. A thorough analysis is carried out also by considering previous work on more idealized double-gyre flows.

  11. Low-frequency variability of the shallow meridional overturning circulation in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhitong; LUO Yiyong

    2016-01-01

    The low-frequency variability of the shallow meridional overturning circulation (MOC) in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated using a Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) product for the period of 1900-2010. A dynamical decomposition method is used in which the MOC is decomposed into the Ekman, external mode, and vertical shear components. Results show that all the three dynamical components contribute to the formation of the seasonal and annual mean shallow MOC in the SCS. The shallow MOC in the SCS consists of two cells: a clockwise cell in the south and an anticlockwise cell in the north; the former is controlled by the Ekman flow and the latter is dominated by the external barotropic flow, with the contribution of the vertical shear being to reduce the magnitude of both cells. In addition, the strength of the MOC in the south is found to have a falling trend over the past century, due mainly to a weakening of the Luzon Strait transport (LST) that reduces the transport of the external component. Further analysis suggests that the weakening of the LST is closely related to a weakening of the westerly wind anomalies over the equatorial Pacific, which leads to a southward shift of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation and thus a stronger transport of the Kuroshio east of Luzon.

  12. Low frequency variability of European weather patterns and its impact on power generation in northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masato, Giacomo; Slavov, Georgi

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that Europe is becoming increasingly reliant on the power generation from the solar and wind sources. Germany is a leader in such a trend - it is then interesting to study to what extent the low-frequency variability of the European weather patterns impacts the power production in this country. Rather than identifying such patterns starting from the weather angle, four weather regimes are identified that maximize and minimize the production of solar and wind power. The analysis of their past occurrence and trends allows us to estimate the potential amount of energy produced for any given year (assuming a constant installed capacity). It is found that the sole change in such weather regimes over the recent years is able to drive up to a 20% annual difference in power generation. This also throws an interesting challenge at the scientific community, whereby the future projection of these regimes can heavily influence both the short- and long-term Eurozone plans in terms of European renewable energy targets.

  13. Meditation-induced changes in high-frequency heart rate variability predict smoking outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Libby

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV is a measure of parasympathetic nervous system output that has been associated with enhanced self-regulation. Low resting levels of HF-HRV are associated with nicotine dependence and blunted stress-related changes in HF-HRV are associated with decreased ability to resist smoking. Meditation has been shown to increase HF-HRV. However, it is unknown whether tonic levels of HF-HRV or acute changes in HF-HRV during meditation predict treatment responses in addictive behaviors such as smoking cessation. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between HF-HRV and subsequent smoking outcomes. Methods: HF-HRV during resting baseline and during mindfulness meditation was measured within two weeks of completing a 4-week smoking cessation intervention in a sample of 31 community participants. Self-report measures of smoking were obtained at a follow up 17-weeks after the initiation of treatment. Results: Regression analyses indicated that individuals exhibiting acute increases in HF-HRV from resting baseline to meditation smoked fewer cigarettes at follow-up than those who exhibited acute decreases in HF-HRV (b=-4.94, p=.009. Conclusion: Acute changes in HF-HRV in response to meditation may be a useful tool to predict smoking cessation treatment response.

  14. ADM-CLE approach for detecting slow variables in continuous time Markov chains and dynamic data

    CERN Document Server

    Cucuringu, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    A method for detecting intrinsic slow variables in high-dimensional stochastic chemical reaction networks is developed and analyzed. It combines anisotropic diffusion maps (ADM) with approximations based on the chemical Langevin equation (CLE). The resulting approach, called ADM-CLE, has the potential of being more efficient than the ADM method for a large class of chemical reaction systems, because it replaces the computationally most expensive step of ADM (running local short bursts of simulations) by using an approximation based on the CLE. The ADM-CLE approach can be used to estimate the stationary distribution of the detected slow variable, without any a-priori knowledge of it. If the conditional distribution of the fast variables can be obtained analytically, then the resulting ADM-CLE approach does not make any use of Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the distributions of both slow and fast variables.

  15. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Rosangela; Janczak, Andrew M; Marchant-Forde, Ruth M; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N; Matthews, Donald L; Dowell, Carol A; Hogan, Daniel F; Freeman, Lynetta J; Lay, Donald C

    2011-05-03

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for assessing farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency domain analyses may provide a sensitive and reliable measure of affective states and stress-mediated changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic tones. The aim of this research was to define low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power spectral ranges using pharmacological autonomic blockade, and to examine HRV and BPV parameter changes in response to atropine and propranolol in swine. Ten, 13-week old, barrows (n=6) and gilts (n=4) underwent surgery to place an intra-cardiac electrode and a blood pressure catheter attached to a biotelemetric transmitter; pigs had a 3-week recovery period prior to data collection. Each pig was subjected to administration of 4 intravenous (i.v.) drug treatments: a control treatment, 3 mL of saline, and 3 blockade treatments; 0.1 mg/kg of atropine, 1.0 mg/kg of propranolol, and .1 mg/kg of atropine together with 1.0 mg/kg of propranolol. All treatments were delivered by injection in the jugular vein with a minimum of 48 h between individual treatments. Behavior, ECG and blood pressure data were recorded continuously for a total of 1h, from 30 min pre-injection to 30 min post-injection. For data analyses, two 512-beat intervals were selected for each treatment while the pig was lying and inactive. The first interval was selected from the pre-injection period (baseline), and the second was selected between 10 and 30 min post-injection. Time and frequency domain (power spectral density) analyses were performed on each data interval. Subsequent, LF and HF bands from the power spectral densities were defined based on general linear and regression analyses. The HRV and BPV were computed with a covariate (baseline) factorial analysis of treatment by sex

  16. Comparison of Model Predictions and Laboratory Observations of Transgene Frequencies in Continuously-Breeding Mosquito Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Laura; North, Ace; Collins, C Matilda; Mumford, John D; Facchinelli, Luca; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Benedict, Mark Q

    2016-09-22

    The persistence of transgenes in the environment is a consideration in risk assessments of transgenic organisms. Combining mathematical models that predict the frequency of transgenes and experimental demonstrations can validate the model predictions, or can detect significant biological deviations that were neither apparent nor included as model parameters. In order to assess the correlation between predictions and observations, models were constructed to estimate the frequency of a transgene causing male sexual sterility in simulated populations of a malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that were seeded with transgenic females at various proportions. Concurrently, overlapping-generation laboratory populations similar to those being modeled were initialized with various starting transgene proportions, and the subsequent proportions of transgenic individuals in populations were determined weekly until the transgene disappeared. The specific transgene being tested contained a homing endonuclease gene expressed in testes, I-PpoI, that cleaves the ribosomal DNA and results in complete male sexual sterility with no effect on female fertility. The transgene was observed to disappear more rapidly than the model predicted in all cases. The period before ovipositions that contained no transgenic progeny ranged from as little as three weeks after cage initiation to as long as 11 weeks.

  17. Comparison of Model Predictions and Laboratory Observations of Transgene Frequencies in Continuously-Breeding Mosquito Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Valerio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of transgenes in the environment is a consideration in risk assessments of transgenic organisms. Combining mathematical models that predict the frequency of transgenes and experimental demonstrations can validate the model predictions, or can detect significant biological deviations that were neither apparent nor included as model parameters. In order to assess the correlation between predictions and observations, models were constructed to estimate the frequency of a transgene causing male sexual sterility in simulated populations of a malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that were seeded with transgenic females at various proportions. Concurrently, overlapping-generation laboratory populations similar to those being modeled were initialized with various starting transgene proportions, and the subsequent proportions of transgenic individuals in populations were determined weekly until the transgene disappeared. The specific transgene being tested contained a homing endonuclease gene expressed in testes, I-PpoI, that cleaves the ribosomal DNA and results in complete male sexual sterility with no effect on female fertility. The transgene was observed to disappear more rapidly than the model predicted in all cases. The period before ovipositions that contained no transgenic progeny ranged from as little as three weeks after cage initiation to as long as 11 weeks.

  18. Theory of filtered type-II parametric down-conversion in the continuous-variable domain: Quantifying the impacts of filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Andreas; Lupo, Cosmo; Reichelt, Matthias; Meier, Torsten; Silberhorn, Christine

    2014-08-01

    Parametric down-conversion (PDC) forms one of the basic building blocks for quantum optical experiments. However, the intrinsic multimode spectral-temporal structure of pulsed PDC often poses a severe hindrance for the direct implementation of the heralding of pure single-photon states or, for example, continuous-variable entanglement distillation experiments. To get rid of multimode effects narrowband frequency filtering is frequently applied to achieve a single-mode behavior. A rigorous theoretical description to accurately describe the effects of filtering on PDC, however, is still missing. To date, the theoretical models of filtered PDC are rooted in the discrete-variable domain and only account for filtering in the low-gain regime, where only a few photon pairs are emitted at any single point in time. In this paper we extend these theoretical descriptions and put forward a simple model, which is able to accurately describe the effects of filtering on PDC in the continuous-variable domain. This developed straightforward theoretical framework enables us to accurately quantify the tradeoff between suppression of higher-order modes, reduced purity, and lowered Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement, when narrowband filters are applied to multimode type-II PDC.

  19. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol.

  20. Aeolian sediment transport on a beach: Thresholds, intermittency, and high frequency variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson-Arnott, R. G. D.; Bauer, B. O.

    2009-04-01

    During a field experiment designed to measure wind flow and sediment transport over the beach and foredune at Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island National Park, measurements were made on October 11, 2004, during a storm with wind speeds ranging from 4 ms - 1 to over 20 ms - 1 . This paper examines thresholds of sand movement, intermittency and the relationship between fluctuating winds and transport intensity based on high frequency measurements of wind speed and saltation. Wind speed was measured at four points across the beach profile using cup anemometers set at a height of 0.6 m. The anemometers were co-located with saltation probes (set at a height of 0.02 m) that measure the impacts of saltating sand grains. The instruments were sampled at 1 Hz during runs of 1 or 2 h over an eight-hour period. Sand transport was highly intermittent early in the day when winds were only slightly above threshold and became more continuous towards the upper beach because of increasing fetch distance and decreasing surface moisture. Despite more continuous transport and increasing wind speed through the day, a zone of highly intermittent transport migrated landward across the beach as water levels rose due to storm surge. Examination of three thresholds related to measures of wind speed - the maximum wind speed without transport ( Utmax), minimum wind speed with transport ( Utmin) and the intermittency threshold ( Utγ) - showed that none provide a consistently robust measure of the threshold although they all provide some insight into conditions controlling entrainment. While graphs of instantaneous saltation intensity crudely mimic the pattern of fluctuating wind speed, statistical correlations over periods of 2-10 min were generally poor ( R2 < 0.25) even with considerable smoothing applied to the time series. Such poor correlation appears to reflect the spatial and temporal complexity of the beach surface, particularly the pattern of surface moisture as well as saltation