WorldWideScience

Sample records for continuous wave lasers

  1. Solar pumped continuous wave carbon dioxide laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar pumped laser concept, gain has been measured in a CO2-He laser medium optically pumped by blackbody radiation. Various gas mixtures of CO2 and He have been pumped by blackbody radiation emitted from an electrically heated oven. Using a CO2 laser as a probe, an optical gain coefficient of 1.8 x 10 to the -3rd/cm has been measured at 10.6 microns for a 9:1 CO2-He mixture at an oven temperature of about 1500 K, a gas temperature of about 400 K and a pressure of about 1 torr. This corresponds to a small signal gain coefficient when allowance is made for saturation effects due to the probe beam, in reasonable agreement with a theoretical value.

  2. Generation of ultrasound in materials using continuous-wave lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, James N; DiComo, Gregory P; Nikitin, Sergei

    2012-03-01

    Generating and detecting ultrasound is a standard method of nondestructive evaluation of materials. Pulsed lasers are used to generate ultrasound remotely in situations that prohibit the use of contact transducers. The scanning rate is limited by the repetition rates of the pulsed lasers, ranging between 10 and 100 Hz for lasers with sufficient pulse widths and energies. Alternately, a high-power continuous-wave laser can be scanned across the surface, creating an ultrasonic wavefront. Since generation is continuous, the scanning rate can be as much as 4 orders of magnitude higher than with pulsed lasers. This paper introduces the concept, comparing the theoretical scanning speed with generation by pulsed laser. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  3. Toward continuous-wave operation of organic semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Matsushima, Toshinori; Bencheikh, Fatima; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo; Fujihara, Takashi; Goushi, Kenichi; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2017-01-01

    The demonstration of continuous-wave lasing from organic semiconductor films is highly desirable for practical applications in the areas of spectroscopy, data communication, and sensing, but it still remains a challenging objective. We report low-threshold surface-emitting organic distributed feedback lasers operating in the quasi–continuous-wave regime at 80 MHz as well as under long-pulse photoexcitation of 30 ms. This outstanding performance was achieved using an organic semiconductor thin film with high optical gain, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and no triplet absorption losses at the lasing wavelength combined with a mixed-order distributed feedback grating to achieve a low lasing threshold. A simple encapsulation technique greatly reduced the laser-induced thermal degradation and suppressed the ablation of the gain medium otherwise taking place under intense continuous-wave photoexcitation. Overall, this study provides evidence that the development of a continuous-wave organic semiconductor laser technology is possible via the engineering of the gain medium and the device architecture. PMID:28508042

  4. Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revin, D. G., E-mail: d.revin@sheffield.ac.uk; Hemingway, M.; Vaitiekus, D.; Cockburn, J. W. [Physics and Astronomy Department, The University of Sheffield, S3 7RH Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hempler, N.; Maker, G. T.; Malcolm, G. P. A. [M Squared Lasers Ltd., G20 0SP Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-29

    An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emission peak wavelength tuning range of 90 cm{sup −1} is realized by the incorporation of a diffraction grating into the cavity.

  5. Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revin, D. G.; Hemingway, M.; Vaitiekus, D.; Cockburn, J. W.; Hempler, N.; Maker, G. T.; Malcolm, G. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emission peak wavelength tuning range of 90 cm −1 is realized by the incorporation of a diffraction grating into the cavity

  6. Toward jet injection by continuous-wave laser cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrospe-Rodriguez, Carla; Visser, Claas Willem; Schlautmann, Stefan; Rivas, David Fernandez; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2017-10-01

    This is a study motivated by the need to develop a needle-free device for eliminating major global healthcare problems caused by needles. The generation of liquid jets by means of a continuous-wave laser, focused into a light absorbing solution, was studied with the aim of developing a portable and affordable jet injector. We designed and fabricated glass microfluidic devices, which consist of a chamber where thermocavitation is created and a tapered channel. The growth of a vapor bubble displaces and expels the liquid through the channel as a fast traveling jet. Different parameters were varied with the purpose of increasing the jet velocity. The velocity increases with smaller channel diameters and taper ratios, whereas larger chambers significantly reduce the jet speed. It was found that the initial position of the liquid-air meniscus interface and its dynamics contribute to increased jet velocities. A maximum velocity of 94±3 m/s for a channel diameter of D=120 μm, taper ratio n=0.25, and chamber length E=200 μm was achieved. Finally, agarose gel-based skin phantoms were used to demonstrate the potential of our devices to penetrate the skin. The maximum penetration depth achieved was ˜1 mm, which is sufficient to penetrate the stratum corneum and for most medical applications. A meta-analysis shows that larger injection volumes will be required as a next step to medical relevance for laser-induced jet injection techniques in general.

  7. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  8. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  9. POWER SCALING IN CONTINUOUS-WAVE YB:YAG MICROCHIP LASER FOR MEASURING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ivashko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics optimization of lasers used in different measuring systems is of great interest up to now. Diode-pumped microchip lasers is one of the most perspective ways for development of solid-state light sources with minimal size and weight together with low energy power consumption. Increasing of output power with good beam quality is rather difficult task for such type of lasers due to thermal effects in the gain crystal under high pump power.The investigation results of continuous-wave longitudinally diode-pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser are presented. In the presented laser radiation from multiple pump laser diodes were focused into the separate zone in one gain crystal that provides simultaneous generation of multiple laser beams. The energy and spatial laser beam characteristics were investigated.Influence of neighboring pumped regions on energy and spatial laser beams parameters both for separate and for sum laser output was observed. The dependences of laser output power from distance between neighboring pumped regions and their number were determined. Decreasing of laser output power was demonstrated with corresponding distance shortening between pumped regions and increasing their quantity with simultaneous improvement of laser beam quality.Demonstrated mutual influence of neighboring pumped regions in the longitudinally diode pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser allow as to generate diffraction limited Gaussian beam with 2W of continuous-wave output power that 30 % higher than in case of one pumped zone. 

  10. Comparison of photosensitivity in germanium doped silica fibers using 244 nm and 266 nm continuous wave lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo; Varming, Poul; Liu, B.

    2001-01-01

    Diode pumped continuous-wave UV lasers offer an interesting alternative to frequency doubled argon-ion lasers. We report the first photosensitivity comparison using these lasers on deuterium loaded standard telecommunication fibers and unloaded experimental fibers....

  11. Second-order interference of two independent and tunable single-mode continuous-wave lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianbin; Chen Hui; Zheng Huaibin; Xu Zhuo; Wei Dong; Zhou Yu; Gao Hong; Li Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    The second-order temporal interference of two independent single-mode continuous-wave lasers is discussed by employing two-photon interference in Feynman’s path integral theory. It is concluded that whether the second-order temporal interference pattern can or cannot be retrieved via two-photon coincidence counting rate is dependent on the resolution time of the detection system and the frequency difference between these two lasers. Two identical and tunable single-mode continuous-wave diode lasers are employed to verify the predictions. These studies are helpful to understand the physics of two-photon interference with photons of different spectra. (paper)

  12. Rapidly tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.E.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.; Auerbach, M.; Wessels, P.; Fallnich, C.

    2003-01-01

    We report on rapid, all-electronically controlled wavelength tuning of a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an ytterbium fiber laser. The OPO is singly resonant for the signal wave and consists of a 40-mm-long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal in a

  13. Nitinol laser cutting: microstructure and functional properties of femtosecond and continuous wave laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal processing can affect the properties of smart materials, and the correct selection of the best manufacturing technology is fundamental for producing high tech smart devices, containing embedded functional properties. In this work cutting of thin superelastic Nitinol plates using a femtosecond (fs) and continuous wave (CW) laser was studied. Diamond shaped elements were cut to characterize the kerf qualitative features; microstructural analysis of the cross sections allowed identification of thermal damage characteristics introduced into the material during the laser processes. A thermally undamaged microstructure was observed for fs laser cutting, while CW was seen to be characterized by a large heat-affected zone. Functional properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile testing of laser cut microelements and of the reference material. It was seen that the martensitic transformation behavior of Nitinol is not affected by fs regime, while cw cutting provokes an effect equivalent to a high temperature thermal treatment in the material surrounding the cutting kerf, degradating the material properties. Finally, tensile testing indicated that superelastic performances were guaranteed by fs regime, while strong reduction of the recoverable strain was detected in the CW processed sample.

  14. Bistable polarization switching in a continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Afzal, R. Sohrab

    1988-01-01

    Bistability in the output power, polarization state, and mode volume of an argon-ion laser pumped single mode ruby laser at 6943 A has been observed. The laser operates in a radially confined mode which exhibits hysteresis and bistability only when the pump polarization is parallel to the c-axis.

  15. A diode-end-pumped Nd:GYSGG continuous wave laser at 1104 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, B J; Kang, H X; Zhang, C G; Chen, P; Gao, R L; Liang, J; Gao, H J; Zhang, Q L; Sun, D L; Yin, S T; Luo, J Q

    2013-01-01

    The continuous wave (CW) laser performance of Nd:GYSGG at 1104 nm is investigated for the first time, to our knowledge. A CW laser output power of 4.7 W is obtained when the pump power of the 808 nm fiber coupled laser diode is 19.1 W, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 24.6% and slope efficiency of 37%. (paper)

  16. Precision improvement of frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Fumin

    2018-03-01

    The measurement precision of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser distance measurement should be proportional to the scanning range of the tunable laser. However, the commercial external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is not an ideal tunable laser source in practical applications. Due to the unavoidable mode hopping and scanning nonlinearity of the ECDL, the measurement precision of FMCW laser distance measurements can be substantially affected. Therefore, an FMCW laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers is proposed in this paper. Moreover, to eliminate the effects of ECDL, the frequency-sampling method and mode hopping influence suppression method are employed. Compared with a fringe counting interferometer, this FMCW laser ranging system has a measuring error of ± 20 μm at the distance of 5.8 m.

  17. Thermal properties and continuous-wave laser performance of Yb:LuVO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Zhang, H. J.; Yu, Y. G.; Wang, J. Y.; Tao, X. T.; Liu, J. H.; Petrov, V.; Ling, Z. C.; Xia, H. R.; Jiang, M. H.

    2007-03-01

    A laser crystal of Yb:LuVO4 with high optical quality was grown by the Czochralski technique. Its thermal properties including specific heat, thermal expansion coefficients, and thermal conductivities along the a- and c-axis have been measured for the first time. Continuous-wave laser output up to 3.5 W at 1031 nm was obtained at room temperature through end-pumping by a high-power diode laser. The corresponding optical conversion efficiency was 43% and the slope efficiency was 72%.

  18. Comb-Resolved Dual-Comb Spectroscopy Stabilized by Free-Running Continuous-Wave Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuse, Naoya; Ozawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy with relatively phase-locked two frequency combs, instead of frequency combs firmly fixed to the absolute frequency references. By stabilizing two beat frequencies between two mode-locked lasers at different wavelengths observed via free-running continuous-wave (CW) lasers, two combs are tightly phase locked to each other. The frequency noise of the CW lasers barely affects the performance of dual-comb spectroscopy because of the extremely fast common-mode noise rejection. Transform-limited comb-resolved dual-comb spectroscopy with a 6 Hz radio frequency linewidth is demonstrated by the use of Yb-fiber oscillators.

  19. Optical phase locking of two infrared continuous wave lasers separated by 100 THz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiodo, N.; Du-Burck, F.; Hrabina, Jan; Lours, M.; Chea, E.; Acef, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 10 (2014), s. 2936-2939 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P820; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR040 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Continuous wave lasers * Frequency allocation * Harmonic generation * Laser optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2014

  20. CdS thin films prepared by continuous wave Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Tenpas, Eric W.; Vuong, Khanh D.; Williams, James A.; Schuesselbauer, E.; Bernstein, R.; Fagan, J. G.; Wang, Xing W.

    1995-08-01

    We report new results on continuous wave Nd:YAG laser deposition of cadmium sulfide thin films. Substrates were soda-lime silicate glass, silica glass, silicon, and copper coated formvar sheets. As deposited films were mixtures of cubic and hexagonal phases, with two different grain sizes. As revealed by SEM micrographs, films had smooth surface morphology. As revealed by TEM analysis, grain sizes were extremely small.

  1. Electronic defect levels in continuous wave laser annealed silicon metal oxide semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M.; Garcia, B. J.; Martinez, J.; Garrido, J.; Piqueras, J.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of laser treatment on the bulk and interface states of the Si-SiO2 structure has been investigated. The annealing was performed prior to the gate metallization using a continuous wave Ar+ laser. For low laser powers the interface state density seems to decrease slightly in comparison with untreated samples. However, for the highest irradiating laser powers a new bulk level at 0.41 eV above the valence band with concentrations up to 1015 cm-3 arises probably due to the electrical activation of the oxygen diluted in the Czochralski silicon. Later postmetallization annealings reduce the interface state density to values in the 1010 cm-2 eV-1 range but leave the concentration of the 0.41-eV center nearly unchanged.

  2. Continuous-wave ceramic Nd:YAG laser at 1123 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S S; Wang, Q P; Zhang, X Y; Cong, Z H; Fan, S Z; Liu, Z J; Sun, W J

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic Nd:YAG (cNd:YAG) materials are employed to generate 1123-nm laser. A fiber-coupled continuous-wave (CW) 808-nm diode laser is used as the pumping source. With an incident diode power of 26.1 W, a CW output power of up to 10.8 W is obtained with a 10-mm-long ceramic Nd:YAG rod (1.0 at.%-Nd-doped). The conversion efficiency from diode power to 1123-nm laser power is 41.4%. The laser performance of another 10-mm-long cNd:YAG rod with a Nd-doping concentration of 0.6 at.% is studied as a comparison

  3. 532 nm continuous wave mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with SESAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L; Liu, J; Liu, M; Liu, S; Chen, F; Wang, W; Wang, Y

    2009-01-01

    We obtain continuous wave mode-locked Nd:GdVO 4 -KTP laser with a SESAM. This is the first report of CW mode-locked Nd:GdVO 4 -KTP laser with a SESAM to our knowledge. 396 mw CW mode-locked pulse is achieved at the incident power of 7.653 W, with the repetition about 95 MHz. The pulse duration is assumed to be 5.5 ps, this is the shortest green pulse of 532 nm with SESAM

  4. High-resolution multiphoton microscopy with a low-power continuous wave laser pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Dong; Li, Shen; Du, Bo; Dong, Yang; Wang, Ze-Hao; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2018-02-15

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been widely used for three-dimensional biological imaging. Here, based on the photon-induced charge state conversion process, we demonstrated a low-power high-resolution MPM with a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Continuous wave green and orange lasers were used to pump and detect the two-photon charge state conversion, respectively. The power of the laser for multiphoton excitation was 40 μW. Both the axial and lateral resolutions were improved approximately 1.5 times compared with confocal microscopy. The results can be used to improve the resolution of the NV center-based quantum sensing and biological imaging.

  5. Generation of continuous-wave 194 nm laser for mercury ion optical frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hongxin; Wu, Yue; Chen, Guozhu; Shen, Yong; Liu, Qu; Precision measurement; atomic clock Team

    2015-05-01

    194 nm continuous-wave (CW) laser is an essential part in mercury ion optical frequency standard. The continuous-wave tunable radiation sources in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region of the spectrum is also serviceable in high-resolution spectroscopy with many atomic and molecular lines. We introduce a scheme to generate continuous-wave 194 nm radiation with SFM in a Beta Barium Borate (BBO) crystal here. The two source beams are at 718 nm and 266 nm, respectively. Due to the property of BBO, critical phase matching (CPM) is implemented. One bow-tie cavity is used to resonantly enhance the 718 nm beam while the 266 nm makes a single pass, which makes the configuration easy to implement. Considering the walk-off effect in CPM, the cavity mode is designed to be elliptical so that the conversion efficiency can be promoted. Since the 266 nm radiation is generated by a 532 nm laser through SHG in a BBO crystal with a large walk-off angle, the output mode is quite non-Gaussian. To improve mode matching, we shaped the 266 nm beam into Gaussian modes with a cylindrical lens and iris diaphragm. As a result, 2.05 mW 194 nm radiation can be generated. As we know, this is the highest power for 194 nm CW laser using SFM in BBO with just single resonance. The work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91436103 and No. 11204374).

  6. Laser ablative nanostructuring of Au in liquid ambience in continuous wave illumination regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherik, A. O.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Ryabchikov, Y. V.; Al-Kattan, A.; Kabashin, A. V.; Itina, T. E.

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) attract particular attention because of their unique size-dependent chemical, physicochemical and optical properties and, hence, their potential applications in catalysis, nanoelectronics, photovoltaics and medicine. In particular, laser-produced colloidal nanoparticles are not only biocompatible, but also reveal unique chemical properties. Different laser systems can be used for synthesis of these colloids, varying from continuous wave (CW) to ultra-short femtosecond lasers. The choice of an optimum laser system is still a challenge in application development. To bring more light at this issue, we investigate an influence of laser parameters on nanoparticle formation from a gold target immersed in deionized water. First, an optical diagnostics of laser-induced hydrodynamic processes taking place near the gold surface is performed. Then, gold nanoparticle colloids with average particle sizes smaller than 10 nm and a very narrow dispersion are shown to be formed by CW laser ablation. The obtained results are compared with the ones obtained by using the second harmonics and with previous results obtained by using femtosecond laser systems.

  7. Modification of electrical properties of zinc oxide by continuous wave ytterbium fiber laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, H; Takahashi, M; Tani, J; Abe, N; Tsukamoto, M

    2011-01-01

    The polycrystalline plate-like ZnO samples were irradiated by a continuous wave Yb fiber laser and electrical properties of modified layer were investigated. The laser beam of spot size of 16 μm in diameter was scanned on the surface at a velocity of 5mm/s. There was a threshold for the laser modification. The laser etched grooves were formed above laser power of 20 W. The laser etched depth increased in relation to the laser power, 0.46 mm at 20 W and 5.0 mm at 126 W. The surface layers of laser etched grooves were modified in color and electrical property. The color changed from light yellow to black, and the electrical resistivity drastically decreased from initial value of 1.1x10 5 Ωcm to 3.2x10 -1 Ωcm at 56 W, 2.8x10 -1 Ωcm at 91 W, and 2.0x10 -1 Ωcm at 126 W. The Hall measurement showed that the modified surface layer was an n-type semiconductor and carrier concentration of the layer was 1.5x10 17 cm -3 at 56 W, 7.2x10 17 cm -3 at 91 W, and 1.9x10 18 cm -3 at 126 W.

  8. Modification of electrical properties of zinc oxide by continuous wave ytterbium fiber laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, H; Takahashi, M; Tani, J [Electronic Materials Research Division, Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, 1-6-50 Morinomiya, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-8553 (Japan); Abe, N; Tsukamoto, M, E-mail: kido@omtri.or.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    The polycrystalline plate-like ZnO samples were irradiated by a continuous wave Yb fiber laser and electrical properties of modified layer were investigated. The laser beam of spot size of 16 {mu}m in diameter was scanned on the surface at a velocity of 5mm/s. There was a threshold for the laser modification. The laser etched grooves were formed above laser power of 20 W. The laser etched depth increased in relation to the laser power, 0.46 mm at 20 W and 5.0 mm at 126 W. The surface layers of laser etched grooves were modified in color and electrical property. The color changed from light yellow to black, and the electrical resistivity drastically decreased from initial value of 1.1x10{sup 5} {Omega}cm to 3.2x10{sup -1} {Omega}cm at 56 W, 2.8x10{sup -1} {Omega}cm at 91 W, and 2.0x10{sup -1} {Omega}cm at 126 W. The Hall measurement showed that the modified surface layer was an n-type semiconductor and carrier concentration of the layer was 1.5x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at 56 W, 7.2x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at 91 W, and 1.9x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} at 126 W.

  9. Sub-wavelength patterning of organic monolayers via nonlinear processing with continuous-wave lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Mareike; Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); CeNIDE-Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); NETZ-NanoEnergieTechnikZentrum, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In recent years, nonlinear processing with continuous-wave lasers has been demonstrated to be a facile means of rapid nanopatterning of organic monolayers down to the sub-100 nm range. In this study, we report on laser patterning of thiol-based organic monolayers with sub-wavelength resolution. Au-coated silicon substrates are functionalized with 1-hexadecanethiol. Irradiation with a focused beam of an Ar{sup +} laser operating at {lambda}=514 nm allows one to locally remove the monolayer. Subsequently, the patterns are transferred into the Au film via selective etching in a ferri-/ferrocyanide solution. Despite a 1/e{sup 2} spot diameter of about 2.8 {mu}m, structures with lateral dimensions down to 250 nm are fabricated. The underlying nonlinear dependence of the patterning process on laser intensity is traced back to the interplay between the laser-induced transient local temperature rise and the thermally activated desorption of the thiol molecules. A simple thermokinetic analysis of the data allows us to determine the effective kinetic parameters. These results complement our previous work on photothermal laser patterning of ultrathin organic coatings, such as silane-based organic monolayers, organo/silicon interfaces and supported membranes. A general introduction to nonlinear laser processing of organic monolayers is presented.

  10. Fiber fuse behavior in kW-level continuous-wave double-clad field laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jun-Yi; Xiao Qi-Rong; Li Dan; Wang Xue-Jiao; Zhang Hai-Tao; Gong Ma-Li; Yan Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, original experimental data for fiber fuse in kW-level continuous-wave (CW) high power double-clad fiber (DCF) laser are reported. The propagating velocity of the fuse is 9.68 m/s in a 3.1-kW Yb-doped DCF laser. Three other cases in Yb-doped DCF are also observed. We think that the ignition of fiber fuse is caused by thermal mechanism, and the formation of bullet-shaped tracks is attributed to the optical discharge and temperature gradient. The inducements of initial fuse and formation of bullet-shaped voids are analyzed. This investigation of fiber fuse helps better understand the fiber fuse behavior, in order to avoid the catastrophic destruction caused by fiber fuse in high power fiber laser. (paper)

  11. Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence on an oscillatory xenon discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, N A; Cappelli, M A; Hargus, W A

    2012-11-01

    A novel approach to time-synchronizing laser-induced fluorescence measurements to an oscillating current in a 60 Hz xenon discharge lamp using a continuous wave laser is presented. A sample-hold circuit is implemented to separate out signals at different phases along a current cycle, and is followed by a lock-in amplifier to pull out the resulting time-synchronized fluorescence trace from the large background signal. The time evolution of lower state population is derived from the changes in intensity of the fluorescence excitation line shape resulting from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 6s(')[1/2](1)(0)-6p(')[3/2](2) xenon atomic transition at λ = 834.68 nm. Results show that the lower state population oscillates at twice the frequency of the discharge current, 120 Hz.

  12. Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence on an oscillatory xenon discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, N. A.; Cappelli, M. A. [Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hargus, W. A. Jr. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    A novel approach to time-synchronizing laser-induced fluorescence measurements to an oscillating current in a 60 Hz xenon discharge lamp using a continuous wave laser is presented. A sample-hold circuit is implemented to separate out signals at different phases along a current cycle, and is followed by a lock-in amplifier to pull out the resulting time-synchronized fluorescence trace from the large background signal. The time evolution of lower state population is derived from the changes in intensity of the fluorescence excitation line shape resulting from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 6s{sup Prime }[1/2]{sub 1}{sup 0}-6p{sup Prime }[3/2]{sub 2} xenon atomic transition at {lambda}= 834.68 nm. Results show that the lower state population oscillates at twice the frequency of the discharge current, 120 Hz.

  13. A simple equilibrium theoretical model and predictions for a continuous wave exciplex pumped alkali laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, David L; Verdeyen, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    The exciplex pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapour, Ar, with and without ethane, by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically excited CsAr molecules (exciplexes or excimers). The blue satellites of the alkali D 2 lines provide an advantageous pathway for optically pumping atomic alkali lasers on the principal series (resonance) transitions with broad linewidth (>2 nm) semiconductor diode lasers. The development of a simple theoretical analysis of continuous-wave XPAL systems is presented along with predictions as a function of temperature and pump intensity. The model predicts that an optical-to-optical efficiency in the range of 40-50% can be achieved for XPAL.

  14. Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Todor, Sebastian; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Klein, Thomas; Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast lasers have a crucial function in many fields of science; however, up to now, high-energy pulses directly from compact, efficient and low-power semiconductor lasers are not available. Therefore, we introduce a new approach based on temporal compression of the continuous-wave, wavelength-swept output of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers, where a narrowband optical filter is tuned synchronously to the round-trip time of light in a kilometre-long laser cavity. So far, these rapidly swept lasers enabled orders-of-magnitude speed increase in optical coherence tomography. Here we report on the generation of ~60-70 ps pulses at 390 kHz repetition rate. As energy is stored optically in the long-fibre delay line and not as population inversion in the laser-gain medium, high-energy pulses can now be generated directly from a low-power, compact semiconductor-based oscillator. Our theory predicts subpicosecond pulses with this new technique in the future.

  15. Continuous wave power scaling in high power broad area quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, M.; Leshin, J.; Go, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Shu, H.; Lyakh, A.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental and model results for high power broad area quantum cascade lasers are presented. Continuous wave power scaling from 1.62 W to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15 mm-long, high reflection-coated 5.6 μm quantum cascade lasers with 15 stage active region for active region width increased from 10 μm to 20 μm. A semi-empirical model for broad area devices operating in continuous wave mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sub-linearity of pulsed power vs current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm x 25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300Å, pulsed roll-over current density of 6 kA/cm2 , and InGaAs waveguide layers; optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to 4.5 W from 3.15 mm × 31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  16. Flow angle dependent photoacoustic Doppler power spectra under intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic Doppler (PAD power spectra showing an evident Doppler shift represent the major characteristics of the continuous wave-excited or burst wave-excited versions of PAD flow measurements. In this paper, the flow angle dependences of the PAD power spectra are investigated using an experiment setup that was established based on intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation. The setup has an overall configuration that is similar to a previously reported configuration, but is more sophisticated in that it accurately aligns the laser illumination with the ultrasound detection process, and in that it picks up the correct sample position. In the analysis of the power spectra data, we find that the background power spectra can be extracted by combining the output signals from the two channels of the lock-in amplifier, which is very useful for identification of the PAD power spectra. The power spectra are presented and analyzed in opposite flow directions, at different flow speeds, and at different flow angles. The power spectra at a 90° flow angle show the unique properties of symmetrical shapes due to PAD broadening. For the other flow angles, the smoothed power spectra clearly show a flow angle cosine relationship.

  17. Histologic evaluation of laser lipolysis comparing continuous wave vs pulsed lasers in an in vivo pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Jessica R; Veerappan, Anna; Chen, Bo; Mirkov, Mirko; Sierra, Ray; Spiegel, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate acute and delayed laser effects of subdermal lipolysis and collagen deposition using an in vivo pig model and to compare histologic findings in fatty tissue after continuous wave diode (CW) vs pulsed laser treatment. Three CW lasers (980, 1370, and 1470 nm) and 3 pulsed lasers (1064, 1320, and 1440 nm) were used to treat 4 Göttingen minipigs. Following administration of Klein tumescent solution, a laser cannula was inserted at the top of a 10 × 2.5-cm rectangle and was passed subdermally to create separate laser "tunnels." Temperatures at the surface and at intervals of 4-mm to 20-mm depths were recorded immediately after exposure and were correlated with skin injury. Full-thickness cutaneous biopsy specimens were obtained at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after exposure and were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome stain. Qualitative and semiquantitative histopathologic evaluations were performed with attention to vascular damage, lipolysis, and collagen deposition. Skin surface damage occurred at temperatures exceeding 46°C. Histologic examination at 1 day after exposure showed hemorrhage, fibrous collagen fiber coagulation, and adipocyte damage. Adipocytes surrounded by histiocytes, a marker of lipolysis, were present at 1 week and 1 month after exposure. Collagen deposition in subdermal fatty tissue and in reticular dermis of some specimens was noted at 1 week and had increased at 1 month. Tissue treated with CW laser at 1470 nm demonstrated greater hemorrhage and more histiocytes at damage sites than tissue treated with pulsed laser at 1440 nm. There was a trend toward more collagen deposition with pulsed lasers than with CW lasers, but this was not statistically significant. Histopathologic comparison between results of CW laser at 980 nm vs pulsed laser at 1064 nm showed the same trend. Hemorrhage differences may result from pulse duration variations. A theoretical calculation estimating temperature rise in vessels supported this

  18. Welding uranium with a multikilowatt, continuous-wave, carbon dioxide laser welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.W.; Townsend, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    A 15-kilowatt, continuous-wave carbon dioxide laser was contracted to make partial-penetration welds in 6.35-and 12.7-mm-thick wrought depleted uranium plates. Welding power and speed ranged from 2.3 to 12.9 kilowatts and from 21 to 127 millimeters per second, respectively. Results show that depth-to-width ratios of at least unity are feasible. The overall characteristics of the process indicate it can produce welds resembling those made by the electron-beam welding process

  19. Resonantly diode-pumped continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N W H; Simakov, N; Hosken, D J; Munch, J; Ottaway, D J; Veitch, P J

    2010-06-21

    We describe an efficient Er:YAG laser that is resonantly pumped using continuous-wave (CW) laser diodes at 1470 nm. For CW lasing, it emits 6.1 W at 1645 nm with a slope efficiency of 36%, the highest efficiency reported for an Er:YAG laser that is pumped in this manner. In Q-switched operation, the laser produces diffraction-limited pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at 2 kHz PRF. To our knowledge this is the first Q-switched Er:YAG laser resonantly pumped by CW laser diodes.

  20. Interband cascade lasers with >40% continuous-wave wallplug efficiency at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedy, C. L.; Kim, C. S.; Merritt, C. D.; Bewley, W. W.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Kim, M.

    2015-01-01

    Broad-area 10-stage interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting at λ = 3.0–3.2 μm are shown to maintain continuous-wave (cw) wallplug efficiencies exceeding 40% at temperatures up to 125 K, despite having a design optimized for operation at ambient and above. The cw threshold current density at 80 K is only 11 A/cm 2 for a 2 mm cavity with anti-reflection/high-reflection coatings on the two facets. The external differential quantum efficiency for a 1-mm-long cavity with the same coatings is 70% per stage at 80 K, and still above 65% at 150 K. The results demonstrate that at cryogenic temperatures, where free carrier absorption losses are minimized, ICLs can convert electrical to optical energy nearly as efficiently as the best specially designed intersubband-based quantum cascade lasers

  1. Infrared skin damage thresholds from 1319-nm continuous-wave laser exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Vincelette, Rebecca; Noojin, Gary D.; Clark, Clifton D.; Harbert, Corey A.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Kumru, Semih S.; Maughan, Justin; Kitzis, Naomi; Buffington, Gavin D.; Stolarski, David J.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in vivo using Yucatan miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) to determine thermal damage thresholds to the skin from 1319-nm continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Experiments employed exposure durations of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5, and 10 s and beam diameters of ˜0.6 and 1 cm. Thermal imagery data provided a time-dependent surface temperature response from the laser. A damage endpoint of fifty percent probability of a minimally visible effect was used to determine threshold for damage at 1 and 24 h postexposure. Predicted thermal response and damage thresholds are compared with a numerical model of optical-thermal interaction. Resultant trends with respect to exposure duration and beam diameter are compared with current standardized exposure limits for laser safety. Mathematical modeling agreed well with experimental data, predicting that though laser safety standards are sufficient for exposures <10 s, they may become less safe for very long exposures.

  2. Continuous-wave single-frequency laser with dual wavelength at 1064 and 532 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenwei; Lu, Huadong; Yin, Qiwei; Su, Jing

    2014-10-01

    A continuous-wave high-power single-frequency laser with dual-wavelength output at 1064 and 532 nm is presented. The dependencies of the output power on the transmission of the output coupler and the phase-matching temperature of the LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal are studied. An output coupler with transmission of 19% is used, and the temperature of LBO is controlled to the optimal phase-matching temperature of 422 K; measured maximal output powers of 33.7 W at 1064 nm and of 1.13 W at 532 nm are obtained with optical-optical conversion efficiency of 45.6%. The laser can be single-frequency operated stably and mode-hop-free, and the measured frequency drift is less than 15 MHz in 1 min. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 1064 nm laser are 1.06 and 1.09, respectively. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 532 nm laser are 1.12 and 1.11, respectively.

  3. Cutting performances with new industrial continuous wave ND:YAG high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagnot, C.; Dinechin, G. de; Canneau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dismantling is a great challenge for nuclear companies which are facing with the cleaning of former nuclear sites. Among the available cutting processes is the multi-kilowatts laser whose power is transmitted through optical fibers. Unlike other cutting processes such as the plasma arc cutting process or the oxy-cutting process, the laser process can be easily implemented by robotic equipments. The mechanised robotic arm carries a laser cutting head to perform, with remote-controlled equipments, the cutting operation. The present study deals with the performances which can be reached with high power continuous wave ND:YAG lasers. The cutting tests were carried out up to 8 kW. The laser power was delivered through a specific power supply chain: a 0.4 mm fiber was transporting the power from the laser to a first interface (coupler) then a second 0.6 mm fiber was bringing the laser power to the cutting head. This solution allowed a power delivery chain whose length could be as high as 100 + 20/50 m. Another advantage of this kind of power supply is that the first fiber can be set in a non-contaminated environment whereas the second fiber lies in the contaminated area. The cutting head used for these tests was a specific tool developed for this laser dismantling work: it is a laser cutting head cooled by pressurized air. This tool was developed with the requirement to be able to sustain a laser power of 14 kW. The pressurized air used to cool the head is also used as cutting gas. The cutting capability was about 10 mm by kW. At the power of 8 kW, austenitic steel plates of thickness 100 mm were cut. These performances were reached with the cut started on the plate's edge. If the cut started in the middle of the plate, the cutting performances were not so high: 8 kW became the power to drill and to cut plates of thickness 40 mm.

  4. Soliton radiation beat analysis of optical pulses generated from two continuous-wave lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajnulina, M.; Böhm, M.; Blow, K.; Rieznik, A. A.; Giannone, D.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a fibre-based approach for generation of optical frequency combs (OFCs) with the aim of calibration of astronomical spectrographs in the low and medium-resolution range. This approach includes two steps: in the first step, an appropriate state of optical pulses is generated and subsequently moulded in the second step delivering the desired OFC. More precisely, the first step is realised by injection of two continuous-wave (CW) lasers into a conventional single-mode fibre, whereas the second step generates a broad OFC by using the optical solitons generated in step one as initial condition. We investigate the conversion of a bichromatic input wave produced by two initial CW lasers into a train of optical solitons, which happens in the fibre used as step one. Especially, we are interested in the soliton content of the pulses created in this fibre. For that, we study different initial conditions (a single cosine-hump, an Akhmediev breather, and a deeply modulated bichromatic wave) by means of soliton radiation beat analysis and compare the results to draw conclusion about the soliton content of the state generated in the first step. In case of a deeply modulated bichromatic wave, we observed the formation of a collective soliton crystal for low input powers and the appearance of separated solitons for high input powers. An intermediate state showing the features of both, the soliton crystal and the separated solitons, turned out to be most suitable for the generation of OFC for the purpose of calibration of astronomical spectrographs.

  5. Continuous-wave, single-frequency 229  nm laser source for laser cooling of cadmium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yushi; Yarborough, J M; Merzlyak, Yevgeny; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayashida, Keitaro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-02-15

    Continuous-wave output at 229 nm for the application of laser cooling of Cd atoms was generated by the fourth harmonic using two successive second-harmonic generation stages. Employing a single-frequency optically pumped semiconductor laser as a fundamental source, 0.56 W of output at 229 nm was observed with a 10-mm long, Brewster-cut BBO crystal in an external cavity with 1.62 W of 458 nm input. Conversion efficiency from 458 nm to 229 nm was more than 34%. By applying a tapered amplifier (TA) as a fundamental source, we demonstrated magneto-optical trapping of all stable Cd isotopes including isotopes Cd111 and Cd113, which are applicable to optical lattice clocks.

  6. Surface detection performance evaluation of pseudo-random noise continuous wave laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Valentin; Matthey, Renaud; Pereira do Carmo, Joao

    2017-11-01

    A number of space missions (including in the ESA Exploration Programme) foreseen a use of laser radar sensor (or lidar) for determination of range between spacecrafts or between spacecraft and ground surface (altimetry). Such sensors need to be compact, robust and power efficient, at the same time with high detection performance. These requirements can be achieved with a Pseudo-Random Noise continuous wave lidar (PRN cw lidar). Previous studies have pointed to the advantages of this lidar with respect to space missions, but they also identified its limitations in high optical background. The progress of the lasers and the detectors in the near IR spectral range requires a re-evaluation of the PRN cw lidar potential. Here we address the performances of this lidar for surface detection (altimetry) in planetary missions. The evaluation is based on the following system configuration: (i) A cw fiber amplifier as lidar transmitter. The seeding laser exhibits a single-frequency spectral line, with subsequent amplitude modulation. The fiber amplifier allows high output power level, keeping the spectral characteristics and the modulation of the seeding light input. (ii) An avalanche photodiode in photon counting detection; (iii) Measurement scenarios representative for Earth, Mercury and Mars.

  7. Comparison of femtosecond laser and continuous wave UV sources for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecko, Christopher J; Munson, Katherine M; Saunders, Abbie; Sun, Guangxing; Begley, Tadhg P; Lis, John T; Webb, Watt W

    2007-01-01

    Crosslinking proteins to the nucleic acids they bind affords stable access to otherwise transient regulatory interactions. Photochemical crosslinking provides an attractive alternative to formaldehyde-based protocols, but irradiation with conventional UV sources typically yields inadequate product amounts. Crosslinking with pulsed UV lasers has been heralded as a revolutionary technique to increase photochemical yield, but this method had only been tested on a few protein-nucleic acid complexes. To test the generality of the yield enhancement, we have investigated the benefits of using approximately 150 fs UV pulses to crosslink TATA-binding protein, glucocorticoid receptor and heat shock factor to oligonucleotides in vitro. For these proteins, we find that the quantum yields (and saturating yields) for forming crosslinks using the high-peak intensity femtosecond laser do not improve on those obtained with low-intensity continuous wave (CW) UV sources. The photodamage to the oligonucleotides and proteins also has comparable quantum yields. Measurements of the photochemical reaction yields of several small molecules selected to model the crosslinking reactions also exhibit nearly linear dependences on UV intensity instead of the previously predicted quadratic dependence. Unfortunately, these results disprove earlier assertions that femtosecond pulsed laser sources provide significant advantages over CW radiation for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

  8. Thermal damage produced by high-irradiance continuous wave CO2 laser cutting of tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacker, K T; Walsh, J T; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F

    1990-01-01

    Thermal damage produced by continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser ablation of tissue in vitro was measured for irradiances ranging from 360 W/cm2 to 740 kW/cm2 in order to investigate the extent to which ablative cooling can limit tissue damage. Damage zones thinner than 100 microns were readily produced using single pulses to cut guinea pig skin as well as bovine cornea, aorta, and myocardium. Multiple pulses can lead to increased damage. However, a systematic decrease in damage with irradiance, predicted theoretically by an evaporation model of ablation, was not observed. The damage-zone thickness was approximately constant around the periphery of the cut, consistent with the existence of a liquid layer which stores heat and leads to tissue damage, and with a model of damage and ablation recently proposed by Zweig et al.

  9. High-efficiency frequency doubling of continuous-wave laser light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Stefan; Nia, Ramon Moghadas; Schönbeck, Axel; Lastzka, Nico; Steinlechner, Jessica; Eberle, Tobias; Mehmet, Moritz; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman

    2011-09-01

    We report on the observation of high-efficiency frequency doubling of 1550 nm continuous-wave laser light in a nonlinear cavity containing a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). The fundamental field had a power of 1.10 W and was converted into 1.05 W at 775 nm, yielding a total external conversion efficiency of 95±1%. The latter value is based on the measured depletion of the fundamental field being consistent with the absolute values derived from numerical simulations. According to our model, the conversion efficiency achieved was limited by the nonperfect mode matching into the nonlinear cavity and by the nonperfect impedance matching for the maximum input power available. Our result shows that cavity-assisted frequency conversion based on PPKTP is well suited for low-decoherence frequency conversion of quantum states of light.

  10. Power scaling and experimentally fitted model for broad area quantum cascade lasers in continuous wave operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, Matthew; Go, Rowel; Figueiredo, Pedro; Todi, Ankesh; Shu, Hong; Leshin, Jason; Lyakh, Arkadiy

    2018-01-01

    Experimental and model results for 15-stage broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are presented. Continuous wave (CW) power scaling from 1.62 to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15-mm long, high reflection-coated QCLs for an active region width increased from 10 to 20 μm. A semiempirical model for broad area devices operating in CW mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sublinearity of pulsed power versus current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall-plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm×25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design, but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300 Å, pulsed rollover current density of 6 kA/cm2, and InGaAs waveguide layers, an optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to ˜4.5 W from 3.15 mm×31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  11. Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongyi; Liu, Hong; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiyan

    2017-11-01

    An admirable and efficient Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm is demonstrated with a compact 35 mm plano-plano cavity. A chosen narrow bandpass filter with high-transmittance (HT) coating at 1064 nm (T=96%) and optimized part-reflection (PR) coating at 1085 nm (T=15%) is used as the output coupler. In the continuous-wave (CW) regime, the maximum output power reaches 3110 mW at the pump power of 11.41 W. Based on a Cr:YAG crystal with initial-transmittance of 91%, the first passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm is achieved. When the pump power is changed from the threshold of 4.50 to 6.08 W, the dual-wavelength lines at 1064 and 1085 nm are generated simultaneously. However, at the pump power of above 6.08 W, the single-wavelength line at 1085 nm is achieved. The largest output power, the highest peak power, and the narrowest pulse width are 1615 mW, 878 W and 26.2 ns, respectively.

  12. 205 nm continuous-wave laser: application to the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourzeix, S.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the construction of an experimental set-up, and in particular of a tunable continuous-wave laser at 205 nm, for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen. Chapter 1 deals with the Lamb shift from a historical point of view, and with the interest of its measurement, for metrology and test of quantum electrodynamics. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theory of the hydrogen atom. The principle of the experiment is based on the comparison of two frequencies which are in a ratio of 4: those of the two-photon transitions of 2S-6S or 2S-6D and 1S-3S. Chapter 3 describes the experimental set-up used to measure the 2S-6D transition which is excited by a titanium-sapphire laser at 820 nm. The 205 nm light required to excite the 1S-3S transition is generated by two frequency-doubling of the titanium-sapphire laser, made in non-linear crystals placed in enhancement cavities. Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the frequency-doubling. After a recall of non-linear optics, the enhancement cavities are described in detail, as well as the results we achieved. At last chapter 5 describes the research for a signal on the 1S-3S transition: the construction of a ground state atomic beam, and the development of the detection system. This work has led to a preliminary measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen: L(1S) = 8172.850 (174) MHz whose result is in very good agreement with both the previous measurements and the most recent theoretical results. (author)

  13. Watt-Level Continuous-Wave Emission from a Bi-Functional Quantum Cascade Laser/Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-18

    cally authorized by the U.S. Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. Watt-level continuous- wave emission from a bi- functional ... wave bi- functional devices, opens the perspective of on-chip dual comb spectroscopy. Also for discrete sens- ing setups, one can switch to lasers...seas.harvard.edu Abstract Bi- functional active regions, capable of light generation and detection at the same wavelength, allow a straightforward realization of

  14. Continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a distributed feedback laser diode with an external cavity using a volume Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yujin; Sekine, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Kato, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a broad-area distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode with a single external-cavity configuration. This high-power DFB laser has a narrow bandwidth (current and temperature ranges.

  15. 303 nm continuous wave ultraviolet laser generated by intracavity frequency-doubling of diode-pumped Pr3+:LiYF4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengfei; Zhang, Chaomin; Zhu, Kun; Ping, Yunxia; Song, Pei; Sun, Xiaohui; Wang, Fuxin; Yao, Yi

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate an efficient and compact ultraviolet laser at 303 nm generated by intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave (CW) laser diode-pumped Pr3+:YLiF4 laser at 607 nm. A cesium lithium borate (CLBO) crystal, cut for critical type I phase matching at room temperature, is used for second-harmonic generation (SHG) of the fundamental laser. By using an InGaN laser diode array emitting at 444.3 nm with a maximum incident power of 10 W, as high as 68 mW of CW output power at 303 nm is achieved. The output power stability in 4 h is better than 2.85%. To the best of our knowledge, this is high efficient UV laser generated by frequency doubling of an InGaN laser diode array pumped Pr3+:YLiF4 laser.

  16. Effect of temperature on electrical conductance of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during continuous wave laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Geon; Kim, Dong Keun; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of temperature on the specific electrical conductance of inkjet-printed ink during continuous wave laser sintering, the temperature of the sintered ink was estimated. The ink, which contained 34 wt.% silver nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm, was inkjet-printed onto a liquid crystal display glass substrate. The printed ink was irradiated with a 532 nm continuous wave laser for 60 s with various laser intensities. During laser irradiation, the in-situ electrical conductance of the sintered ink was measured to estimate the transient thermal conductivity of the ink. The electrical conductance and thermal conductivity of the ink was coupled to obtain the transient temperature by applying the Wiedemann–Franz law to a two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation. The electrical conductance of laser-sintered ink was highly dependent on the sintering temperature of the ink. - Highlights: • The in-situ electrical conductance was measured during the laser sintering process. • Wiedemann–Franz law coupled the electrical conductance with transient temperature. • The transient temperature of the laser-sintered Ag nanoparticle ink was estimated

  17. High speed video shooting with continuous-wave laser illumination in laboratory modeling of wind - wave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim

    2014-05-01

    Three examples of usage of high-speed video filming in investigation of wind-wave interaction in laboratory conditions is described. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) and at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m, wind velocity up to 10 m/s). A combination of PIV-measurements, optical measurements of water surface form and wave gages were used for detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. The modified PIV-method is based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by particles and high-speed video. During the experiments on the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS Green (532 nm) CW laser with 1.5 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint (VS-Fast) was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz. Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved using conditional in phase averaging like in [1]. In the experiments on the LASIF more powerful Argon laser (4 Wt, CW) was used as well as high-speed camera with higher sensitivity and resolution: Optronics Camrecord CR3000x2, frame rate 3571 Hz, frame size 259×1696 px. In both series of experiments spherical 0.02 mm polyamide particles with inertial time 7 ms were used for seeding airflow. New particle seeding system based on utilization of air pressure is capable of injecting 2 g of particles per second for 1.3 - 2.4 s without flow disturbance. Used in LASIF this system provided high particle density on PIV-images. In combination with high-resolution camera it allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from

  18. Quasi-continuous wave and continuous wave laser operation of Eu:KGd(WO4)2 crystal on a 5D0 → 7F4 transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashkevich, V I; Orlovich, V A; Bui, A A; Bagayev, S N; Vatnik, S M; Loiko, P A; Yumashev, K V; Kuleshov, N V; Pavlyuk, A A

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of quasi-continuous wave (quasi-CW) and real CW room-temperature lasing on the 5 D 0  →  7 F 4 transition of Eu 3+ -doped material using a 25 at.%Eu 3+  : KGd(WO 4 ) 2 crystal pumped into the 7 F 1  →  5 D 1 transition by a diode-end-pumped Nd 3+  : KGd(WO 4 ) 2 /KTP green laser at 533.6 nm. The maximum CW output power of this laser at 702.3 nm is 5.3 mW with 1.4% green-to-red conversion efficiency. In quasi-CW operation mode with a 10% duty cycle, the peak power of ms long pulses reaches ∼54 mW, which corresponds to the optical conversion efficiency of 3.5%. (letter)

  19. Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade laser at λ ~ 9.4 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuncai; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Jinchuan; Zhai, Shenqiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Junqi; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Shuman; Liu, Fengqi; Wang, Zhanguo

    2018-03-01

    Continuous wave (CW) operation of long wave infrared (LWIR) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is achieved up to a temperature of 303 K. For room temperature CW operation, the wafer with 35 stages was processed into buried heterostructure lasers. For a 2-mm-long and 10-μm-wide laser with high-reflectivity (HR) coating on the rear facet, CW output power of 45 mW at 283 K and 9 mW at 303 K is obtained. The lasing wavelength is around 9.4 μm locating in the LWIR spectrum range. Project supported by the National Key Research And Development Program (No. 2016YFB0402303), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61435014, 61627822, 61574136, 61774146, 61674144, 61404131), the Key Projects of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. ZDRW-XH-2016-4, QYZDJ-SSW-JSC027), and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4162060, 4172060).

  20. Field test of an all-semiconductor laser-based coherent continuous-wave Doppler lidar for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Dellwik, Ebba; Hu, Qi

    -produced all-semiconductor laser. The instrument is a coherent continuous-wave lidar with two fixed-focus telescopes for launching laser beams in two different directions. The alternation between the telescopes is achieved by a novel switching technique without any moving parts. Here, we report results from...... signal strength from external atmospheric parameters such as relative humidity and concentrations of atmospheric particles is discussed. This novel lidar instrument design seems to offer a promising low-cost alternative for prevision remote sensing of wind turbine inflow....

  1. Compact, efficient diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 slab continuous-wave 912-nm laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huan; Gong Ma-Li

    2012-01-01

    A fiber-coupled laser-diode (LD) end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab continuous-wave (CW) 912-nm laser and an LD bar end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab CW 912-nm laser are both demonstrated in this paper. Using the fiber-coupled LD of end-pumped type, a highest CW 912-nm laser output power of 10.17 W is obtained with a high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 24.6% and a slope efficiency of 34.5%. The measured M 2 factors of beam quality in x and y directions are 5.3 and 5.1, respectively. Besides, an LD bar of end-pumped type is used to realize CW 912-nm laser output, which has the advantages of compactness and low cost. When the pump power is 38.8 W, the output power is 8.87 W and the measured M 2 factors of beam quality in x and y directions are 16 and 1.31, respectively. In order to improve the beam quality of the 912-nm laser at x direction, a new quasi-concentric laser resonator will be designed, and an LD bar end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab high-power CW 912-nm TEM 00 laser will be realized in the future. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. Study of welding characteristics of inconel 600 alloy using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Seong Wook; Yoo, Young Tae; Shin, Ho Jun

    2004-01-01

    Laser beam welding is increasingly being used in welding of structural steels. The laser welding process is one of the most advanced manufacturing technologies owing to its high speed and deep penetration. The thermal cycles associated with laser welding are generally much faster than those involved in conventional arc welding processes, leading to a rather small weld zone. Experiments are performed for Inconel 600 plates changing several process parameter such as laser power, welding speed, shielding gas flow rate, presence of surface pollution, with fixed or variable gap and misalignment between plate and plate, etc. The follow conclusions can be drawn that laser power and welding speed have a pronounced effect on size and shape of the fusion zone. Increase in welding speed resulted in an increase in weld depth/ aspect ratio and hence a decrease in the fusion zone size. The penetration depth increased with the increase in laser power. Welding characteristics of austienite Inconel 600 using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser are experimentally investigated. This paper describes the weld ability of inconel 600 for machine structural use by Nd:YAG laser

  3. Frequency-Modulated, Continuous-Wave Laser Ranging Using Photon-Counting Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Barber, Zeb W.; Dahl, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Optical ranging is a problem of estimating the round-trip flight time of a phase- or amplitude-modulated optical beam that reflects off of a target. Frequency- modulated, continuous-wave (FMCW) ranging systems obtain this estimate by performing an interferometric measurement between a local frequency- modulated laser beam and a delayed copy returning from the target. The range estimate is formed by mixing the target-return field with the local reference field on a beamsplitter and detecting the resultant beat modulation. In conventional FMCW ranging, the source modulation is linear in instantaneous frequency, the reference-arm field has many more photons than the target-return field, and the time-of-flight estimate is generated by balanced difference- detection of the beamsplitter output, followed by a frequency-domain peak search. This work focused on determining the maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation algorithm when continuous-time photoncounting detectors are used. It is founded on a rigorous statistical characterization of the (random) photoelectron emission times as a function of the incident optical field, including the deleterious effects caused by dark current and dead time. These statistics enable derivation of the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRB) on the accuracy of FMCW ranging, and derivation of the ML estimator, whose performance approaches this bound at high photon flux. The estimation algorithm was developed, and its optimality properties were shown in simulation. Experimental data show that it performs better than the conventional estimation algorithms used. The demonstrated improvement is a factor of 1.414 over frequency-domainbased estimation. If the target interrogating photons and the local reference field photons are costed equally, the optimal allocation of photons between these two arms is to have them equally distributed. This is different than the state of the art, in which the local field is stronger than the target return. The optimal

  4. Immediate and long-term changes of fundus autofluorescence in continuous wave laser lesions of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framme, Carsten; Roider, Johann

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether fundus autofluorescence imaging is able to show changes in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluorescence after thermal laser photocoagulation. In vivo imaging of fundus autofluorescence was performed with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. A laser with a wavelength of 488 nm was used for excitation of the tissue and autofluorescence was detected above 500 nm using a barrier filter. One hundred eight eyes of 87 patients who had had previous laser treatment were monitored. The appearance and size of the laser lesions were documented and correlated to the time of treatment. Immediate changes were observed prospectively in 13 eyes; long-term follow-up was studied retrospectively in 95 eyes. In all patients but one, autofluorescence was decreased in the area of laser lesions 1 hour after laser treatment. After 1 month, previously decreased autofluorescence in all lesions changed to significantly increased autofluorescence, which was stable up to 6 months after treatment. Mixed forms were present approximately 6 to 12 months after treatment, showing a central island of increased autofluorescence surrounded by a ring of decreased autofluorescence. After 1 to 2 years, lesions again changed to complete dark spots, enlarging later on. RPE destruction and subsequent proliferation after continuous wave laser photocoagulation can be visualized noninvasively by autofluorescence imaging. Immediate decreased autofluorescence may indicate acute damage of the RPE, subsequent increased autofluorescence seems to indicate proliferative behavior of the RPE, and final dark spots can indicate RPE atrophy secondary to a denaturation of neurosensory retinal tissue. Thus, autofluorescence can be used in the long-term monitoring of RPE changes after laser treatment. The enlargement of the laser atrophy zone demonstrates the potential risk of visual loss after central laser photocoagulation even years after treatment.

  5. Continuous-wave generation and tunability of eye-safe resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Michal; Indra, Lukás.; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Laser sources generating radiation in the spectral range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm are very attractive for many applications such as satellite communication, range finding, spectroscopy, and atmospheric sensing. The goal of our research was an investigation of continuous-wave generation and wavelength tuning possibility of diode pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser emitting radiation around 1645 nm. We used two 0.5 at. % doped Er:YAG active media with lengths of 10 mm and 25 mm (diameter 5 mm). As a pumping source, a fibre-coupled 1452 nm laser-diode was utilized, which giving possibility of the in-band pumping with a small quantum defect and low thermal stress of the active bulk laser material. The 150 mm long resonator was formed by a pump mirror (HT @ 1450 nm, HR @ 1610 - 1660 nm) and output coupler with 96 % reflectivity at 1610 - 1660 nm. For continuous-wave generation, the maximal output powers were 0.7 W and 1 W for 10 mm and 25 mm long laser crystals, respectively. The corresponding slope efficiencies with respect to absorbed pump power for these Er:YAG lasers were 26.5 % and 37.8 %, respectively. The beam spatial structure was close to the fundamental Gaussian mode. A wavelength tunability was realized by a birefringent plate and four local spectral maxima at 1616, 1633, 1645, and 1657 nm were reached. The output characteristics of the designed and realized resonantly diode-pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser show that this compact system has a potential for usage mainly in spectroscopic fields.

  6. Continuous-wave to pulse regimes for a family of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikandé, Alain M.; Voma Titafan, J.; Essimbi, B. Z.

    2017-10-01

    The transition dynamics from continuous-wave to pulse regimes of operation for a generic model of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable absorbers, characterized by an active medium with non-Kerr nonlinearity, are investigated analytically and numerically. The system is described by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with a general m:n saturable nonlinearity (i.e {I}m/{(1+{{Γ }}I)}n, where I is the field intensity and m and n are two positive numbers), coupled to a two-level gain equation. An analysis of stability of continuous waves, following the modulational instability approach, provides a global picture of the self-starting dynamics in the system. The analysis reveals two distinct routes depending on values of the couple (m, n), and on the dispersion regime: in the normal dispersion regime, when m = 2 and n is arbitrary, the self-starting requires positive values of the fast saturable absorber and nonlinearity coefficients, but negative values of these two parameters for the family with m = 0. However, when the spectral filter is negative, the laser can self-start for certain values of the input field and the nonlinearity saturation coefficient Γ. The present work provides a general map for the self-starting mechanisms of rare-earth doped figure-eight fiber lasers, as well as Kerr-lens mode-locked solid-state lasers.

  7. Diode-side-pumped continuous wave Nd³⁺ : YVO₄ self-Raman laser at 1176 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kores, Cristine Calil; Jakutis-Neto, Jonas; Geskus, Dimitri; Pask, Helen M; Wetter, Niklaus U

    2015-08-01

    Here we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first diode-side-pumped continuous wave (cw) Nd3+:YVO4 self-Raman laser operating at 1176 nm. The compact cavity design is based on the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the pumped side of the Nd3+:YVO4 crystal. Configurations with a single bounce and a double bounce of the laser beam at the pumped faced have been characterized, providing a quasi-cw peak output power of more than 8 W (multimode) with an optical conversion efficiency of 11.5% and 3.7 W (TEM00) having an optical conversion efficiency of 5.4%, respectively. Cw output power of 1.8 W has been demonstrated.

  8. End-pumped continuous-wave intracavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with SrWO4 Raman crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F. G.; You, Z. Y.; Zhu, Z. J.; Wang, Y.; Li, J. F.; Tu, C. Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present an end-pumped continuous-wave intra-cavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with a 60 mm long pure crystal SrWO4 and an intra-cavity LiB3O5 frequency doubling crystal. The highest output power of yellow laser at 590 nm was 230 mW and the output power and threshold were found to be correlative with the polarized directions of pure single crystal SrWO4 deeply. Along different directions, the minimum and maximum thresholds of yellow Raman laser at 590 nm were measured to be 2.8 W and 14.3 W with respect to 808 nm LD pump power, respectively.

  9. End-pumped continuous-wave intracavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with SrWO4 Raman crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F G; You, Z Y; Zhu, Z J; Wang, Y; Li, J F; Tu, C Y

    2010-01-01

    We present an end-pumped continuous-wave intra-cavity yellow Raman laser at 590 nm with a 60 mm long pure crystal SrWO 4 and an intra-cavity LiB 3 O 5 frequency doubling crystal. The highest output power of yellow laser at 590 nm was 230 mW and the output power and threshold were found to be correlative with the polarized directions of pure single crystal SrWO 4 deeply. Along different directions, the minimum and maximum thresholds of yellow Raman laser at 590 nm were measured to be 2.8 W and 14.3 W with respect to 808 nm LD pump power, respectively

  10. Efficient continuous-wave 1112 nm Nd:YAG laser operation under direct diode pumping at 885 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J; Dai, X J; Zhang, L; Wu, X D

    2013-01-01

    We report compact diode-end-pumped continuous-wave laser operation at 1112 nm under 885 nm diode-direct pumping for the first time. On the basis of the R 2 →Y 6 transition in a conventional Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) single crystal, the maximum output power of 12.5 W is achieved, with an optical to optical efficiency of 46.6% and a slope efficiency of 52.9%. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest output at 1112 nm generated by a diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser. Furthermore, it is the highest optical to optical efficiency ever reported for 1112 nm Nd:YAG lasers. The short term power stability is ∼0.32% at 12.0 W output. (letter)

  11. Low power continuous wave-laser seed irradiation effect on Moringa oleifera germination, seedling growth and biochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urva; Shafique, Hina; Jamil, Yasir; Haq, Zia Ul; Mujahid, Tamveel; Khan, Aman Ullah; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-05-01

    Recently, laser application in agriculture has gained much attention since plant characteristics were improved significantly in response of pre-sowing seed treatment. Pre-sowing laser seed treatment effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile were studied in Moringa olifera. M. olifera healthy seeds were exposed to 25, 50, 75mJ low power continuous wave laser light and grown under greenhouse conditions. The seedling growth and biochemical attributes were evaluated from 10-day-old seedlings. The germination parameters (percentage, mean germination time), vigor index, seedling growth (root length, seedling length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight) enhanced considerably. The laser energy levels used for seed irradiation showed variable effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile. The mineral contents were recorded to be higher in seedling raised from laser treated seeds, which were higher in roots versus shoots and leaves. The effect of laser treatment on seedling fat, nitrogen and protein content was insignificant and at higher energy level both nitrogen and protein contents decreased versus control. Results revealed that M. olifera germination, seedling growth and mineral contents were enhanced and optimum laser energy level has more acceleratory effect since at three laser energy levels the responses were significantly different. Overall the laser energy levels effect on germination and seedling growth was found in following order; 75mJ>50mJ>25mJ, where as in case of fat, protein and nitrogen contents the trend was as; 25mJ>50mJ and 75mJ. However, this technique could possibly be used to improve the M. olifera germination, seedling growth, and minerals contents where germination is low due to unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A scheme for recording a fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Jiang, Biqiang

    2015-04-01

    A scheme for recording fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave (CW) laser is described and demonstrated experimentally, which employs delayed-time fibers and angular multiplexing technique and can realize the variable temporal resolution at nanosecond scale and different measured depths of object field at certain temporal resolution. The actual delay-time is controlled by two delayed-time fibers with different lengths. The object field information in two different states can be simultaneously recorded in a composite hologram. This scheme is also suitable for recording fast process at picosecond scale, by using an electro-optic modulator.

  13. High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, L J; Tang, D Y; Xie, G Q; Dong, C M; Jia, Z T; Tao, X T

    2008-01-01

    We report on the continuous wave (CW) and passive Q-switching performance of a high-power diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser. A CW output power of 7.20 W was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 14.97 W, which gives a slop efficiency of 52.7%. With a Cr 4+ doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal as the saturable absorber, the shortest passively Q-switched pulse width, largest pulse energy, and highest peak power achieved were 7.7 ns, 126.25 μJ, and 15.5 kW, respectively

  14. Detection of benzene and toluene gases using a midinfrared continuous-wave external cavity quantum cascade laser at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydoryk, Ihor; Lim, Alan; Jäger, Wolfgang; Tulip, John; Parsons, Matthew T

    2010-02-20

    We demonstrate the application of a commercially available widely tunable continuous-wave external cavity quantum cascade laser as a spectroscopic source for the simultaneous detection of multiple gases. We measured broad absorption features of benzene and toluene between 1012 and 1063 cm(-1) (9.88 and 9.41 microm) at atmospheric pressure using an astigmatic Herriott multipass cell. Our results show experimental detection limits of 0.26 and 0.41 ppm for benzene and toluene, respectively, with a 100 m path length for these two gases.

  15. Experimental investigation on a diode-pumped cesium-vapor laser stably operated at continuous-wave and pulse regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Xu, Dongdong; Gao, Fei; Zheng, Changbin; Zhang, Kuo; He, Yang; Wang, Chunrui; Guo, Jin

    2015-05-04

    Employing a fiber-coupled diode-laser with a center wavelength of 852.25 nm and a line width of 0.17 nm, experimental investigation on diode-end-pumped cesium (Cs) vapor laser stably operated at continuous-wave (CW) and pulse regime is carried out. A 5 mm long cesium vapor cell filled with 60 kPa helium and 20 kPa ethane is used as laser medium. Using an output coupler with reflectivity of 48.79%, 1.26 W 894.57 nm CW laser is obtained at an incident pump power of 4.76 W, corresponding an optical-optical efficiency of 26.8% and a slope-efficiency of 28.8%, respectively. The threshold temperature is 67.5 °C. Stable pulsed cesium laser with a maximum average output power of 2.6 W is obtained at a repetition rate of 76 Hz, and the pulse repetition rate can be extend to 1 kHz with a pulse width of 18 μs.

  16. Systematic analysis of DNA damage induction and DNA repair pathway activation by continuous wave visible light laser micro-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Muster

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser micro-irradiation can be used to induce DNA damage with high spatial and temporal resolution, representing a powerful tool to analyze DNA repair in vivo in the context of chromatin. However, most lasers induce a mixture of DNA damage leading to the activation of multiple DNA repair pathways and making it impossible to study individual repair processes. Hence, we aimed to establish and validate micro-irradiation conditions together with inhibition of several key proteins to discriminate different types of DNA damage and repair pathways using lasers commonly available in confocal microscopes. Using time-lapse analysis of cells expressing fluorescently tagged repair proteins and also validation of the DNA damage generated by micro-irradiation using several key damage markers, we show that irradiation with a 405 nm continuous wave laser lead to the activation of all repair pathways even in the absence of exogenous sensitization. In contrast, we found that irradiation with 488 nm laser lead to the selective activation of non-processive short-patch base excision and single strand break repair, which were further validated by PARP inhibition and metoxyamine treatment. We conclude that these low energy conditions discriminated against processive long-patch base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair as well as double strand break repair pathways.

  17. Comparison of therapeutic effects between pulsed and continuous wave 810-nm wavelength laser irradiation for traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ando

    Full Text Available Transcranial low-level laser therapy (LLLT using near-infrared light can efficiently penetrate through the scalp and skull and could allow non-invasive treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI. In the present study, we compared the therapeutic effect using 810-nm wavelength laser light in continuous and pulsed wave modes in a mouse model of TBI.TBI was induced by a controlled cortical-impact device and 4-hours post-TBI 1-group received a sham treatment and 3-groups received a single exposure to transcranial LLLT, either continuous wave or pulsed at 10-Hz or 100-Hz with a 50% duty cycle. An 810-nm Ga-Al-As diode laser delivered a spot with diameter of 1-cm onto the injured head with a power density of 50-mW/cm(2 for 12-minutes giving a fluence of 36-J/cm(2. Neurological severity score (NSS and body weight were measured up to 4 weeks. Mice were sacrificed at 2, 15 and 28 days post-TBI and the lesion size was histologically analyzed. The quantity of ATP production in the brain tissue was determined immediately after laser irradiation. We examined the role of LLLT on the psychological state of the mice at 1 day and 4 weeks after TBI using tail suspension test and forced swim test.The 810-nm laser pulsed at 10-Hz was the most effective judged by improvement in NSS and body weight although the other laser regimens were also effective. The brain lesion volume of mice treated with 10-Hz pulsed-laser irradiation was significantly lower than control group at 15-days and 4-weeks post-TBI. Moreover, we found an antidepressant effect of LLLT at 4-weeks as shown by forced swim and tail suspension tests.The therapeutic effect of LLLT for TBI with an 810-nm laser was more effective at 10-Hz pulse frequency than at CW and 100-Hz. This finding may provide a new insight into biological mechanisms of LLLT.

  18. Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization, and continuous wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped LiLuF4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. C.; Hang, Y.; Zhang, L. H.; He, X. M.; Yin, J. G.; Li, R.; Yu, T.; Chen, W. B.

    2011-04-01

    Nd3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystal with high optical quality was grown by Czochralski technique. The segregation coefficient of Nd3+ in LiLuF4 crystal was determined by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry method. Polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra were investigated. The peak absorption cross section at 792 nm and peak emission cross section at 1053 nm are 6.94×10-20 and 7.60×10-20 cm2, respectively. With a laser-diode as the pump source, a maximum 6.22 W continuous-wave laser output at 1053 nm has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 37.2% with respect to the pump power.

  19. Comparison of the neuroinflammatory responses to selective retina therapy and continuous-wave laser photocoagulation in mouse eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Woo; Choi, Juhye; Kim, Young Shin; Kim, Jina; Brinkmann, Ralf; Lyu, Jungmook; Park, Tae Kwann

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated microglia and inflammatory cell responses after selective retina therapy (SRT) with microsecond-pulsed laser in comparison to continuous-wave laser photocoagulation (cwPC). Healthy C57BL/6 J mice were treated with either a train of short pulses (SRT; 527-nm, Q-switched, 1.7-μs pulse) or a conventional thermal continuous-wave (532-nm, 100-ms pulse duration) laser. The mice were sacrificed and their eyes were enucleated 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after both laser treatments. Pattern of cell death on retinal section was evaluated by TUNEL assay, and the distribution of activated inflammatory cells and glial cells were observed under immunohistochemistry. Consecutive changes for the expression of cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and TGF-β were also examined using immunohistochemistry, and compared among each period after quantification by Western blotting. The numbers of TUNEL-positive cells in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer did not differ in SRT and cwPC lesions, but TUNEL-positive cells in neural retinas were significantly less on SRT. Vague glial cell activation was observed in SRT-treated lesions. The population of inflammatory cells was also significantly decreased after SRT, and the cells were located in the RPE layer and subretinal space. Proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β and TNF-α, showed significantly lower levels after SRT; conversely, the level of TGF-β was similar to the cwPC-treated lesion. SRT resulted in selective RPE damage without collateral thermal injury to the neural retina, and apparently produced negligible glial activation. In addition, SRT showed a markedly less inflammatory response than cwPC, which may have important therapeutic implications for several macular diseases.

  20. High-power Yb-doped continuous-wave and pulsed fibre lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... In this article, a review of Yb-doped CW and pulsed fibre lasers along with our study on self-pulsing dynamics in CW fibre lasers to find its role in high-power fibre laser development and the physical ... Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, India ...

  1. Continuous wave and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ in disordered NaLa(MoO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, M.; Liu, J.; Cano-Torres, J. M.; García-Cortés, A.; Cascales, C.; Zaldo, C.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.

    2005-09-01

    Continuous-wave Yb3+ laser operation is studied in single crystals of disordered NaLa(MoO4)2 at room temperature. The sample used was grown by the Czochralski technique and incorporates an Yb ion density of 3.1×1020 cm-3. The effect of the Yb concentration on some of the crystal properties is described as well as the spectroscopic Yb3+ properties at 5 K. Maximum slope efficiencies of about 40% for π and 38% for σ polarization were obtained under Ti:sapphire laser pumping near 976 nm, respectively. The maximum output power for the π polarization was 400 mW at 1039.5 nm, the threshold in this case amounted to 240 mW (absorbed pump power). The laser emission was tunable between 1016 and 1064 nm with a Lyot filter. Lasing was also realized by pumping with a fiber-coupled diode laser module. Maximum output power of 900 mW at 1035 nm was achieved in this case for the π polarization and the threshold was 280 mW. The results, in terms of output power and tunability, are superior in comparison to all previous reports on Yb-doped disordered double tungstate or molybdate crystals and represent a significant improvement in comparison to earlier experiments with low-doped Yb:NaLa(MoO4)2.

  2. Formation of porous silicon oxide from substrate-bound silicon rich silicon oxide layers by continuous-wave laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Fricke-Begemann, Th.; Peretzki, P.; Ihlemann, J.; Seibt, M.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide that show room temperature photoluminescence (PL) have great potential in silicon light emission applications. Nanocrystalline silicon particle formation by laser irradiation has the unique advantage of spatially controlled heating, which is compatible with modern silicon micro-fabrication technology. In this paper, we employ continuous wave laser irradiation to decompose substrate-bound silicon-rich silicon oxide films into crystalline silicon particles and silicon dioxide. The resulting microstructure is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques with considerable emphasis on the formation and properties of laser damaged regions which typically quench room temperature PL from the nanoparticles. It is shown that such regions consist of an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to silicon dioxide which contains some nanometric silicon particles in addition to pores. A mechanism referred to as "selective silicon ablation" is proposed which consistently explains the experimental observations. Implications for the damage-free laser decomposition of silicon-rich silicon oxides and also for controlled production of porous silicon dioxide films are discussed.

  3. Diode-laser-pumped high efficiency continuous-wave operation at 912 nm laser in Nd:GdVO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X; Chen, F; Gao, J; Li, X D; Yan, R P; Zhang, K; Yu, J H; Zhang, Z H

    2009-01-01

    High efficiency operation on continuous-wave (cw) 912 nm laser at room temperature in Nd:GdVO 4 crystal pumped by 808 nm diode-laser is reported in this letter. The maximum output power of 8.0 W was obtained at the incident un-polarized pump power of 47.0 W, giving the corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 17.0% and the average slope efficiency of 22.9%. Further tests show that the lasing threshold is reduced and the efficiency is increased evidently when using the π-polarized 808 nm pump source. 4.8 W 912 nm laser was achieved at the polarized pump power of 21.8 W, optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is increased to 22.0% and average slope efficiency is up to 33.6%

  4. Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator placed inside a ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2003-01-01

    A cw singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) was built and placed inside the cavity of a ring laser. The system consists of a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 ring laser with intracavity periodically poled lithium niobate as the nonlinear gain medium of the SRO. When the laser was operated...... in a unidirectional mode, we obtained more than 520 mW of signal power in one beam. When the laser was operated in a bidirectional mode, we obtained 600 mW of signal power (300 mW in two separate beams). The power and the spectral features of the laser in the unidirectional and bidirectional modes were measured while...... the laser was coupled with the SRO. The results show that it is preferable to couple a SRO with a unidirectional ring laser....

  5. Gain-switched all-fiber lasers and quasi-continuous wave supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper

    The extreme broadening phenomenon of supercontinuum (SC) generation in optical fibers is the basis of SC laser sources. These sources have numerous applications in areas, such as spectroscopy and microscopy due to the unique combination of extremely broad spectral bandwidths, high spectral power...... densities, and high spatial coherence. In this work the feasibility of applying gain-switched all-fiber lasers to SC generation is investigated. It is motivated by the simplicity of the architecture and the ability to scale the optical output power of such fiber lasers. The physics of fiber lasers......-switching of fiber lasers with a variety of different configurations are carried out. The peak power, pulse duration, bandwidth, and scaling with repetition rate are thoroughly described. General guidelines are submitted to enable designing of gainswitched fiber lasers with specifically tailored properties...

  6. Characterization of a Continuous Wave Laser for Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy Analysis in Nuclear Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    multimode_optical_fiber. [15] J. Hecht, The Laser Guidebook, 2nd ed, Blue Ride Summit, PA: Mc Graw Hill Professional, 1999, pp. 101–109. [16] F...Available: https://secure.sacher-laser.com/downloads/- technical_documents/t03d6w-en.pdf. [22] J. H. Marquardt, F. C. Cruz, M. Stephens , C. W. Oates

  7. Diode-pumped continuous-wave eye-safe Nd:YAG laser at 1415 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Chul; Byeon, Sung Ug; Lukashev, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    We describe the output performance of the 1415 nm emission in Nd:YAG in a plane-concave cavity under traditional pumping into the 4F5/2 level (808 nm) and direct in-band pumping into the 4F3/2 level (885 nm). An end-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielded maximum cw output power of 6.3 W and 4.2 W at 885 nm and 808 nm laser diode (LD) pumping, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of a LD-pumped 1415 nm laser.

  8. 20 W continuous-wave cladding-pumped Nd-doped fiber laser at 910 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, M; Cadier, B; Gilles, H; Girard, S; Lablonde, L; Robin, T

    2013-08-15

    We demonstrate a double-clad fiber laser operating at 910 nm with a record power of 20 W. Laser emission on the three-level scheme is enabled by the combination of a small inner cladding-to-core diameter ratio and a high brightness pump source at 808 nm. A laser conversion efficiency as high as 44% was achieved in CW operating regime by using resonant fiber Bragg reflectors at 910 nm that prevent the lasing at the 1060 nm competing wavelength. Furthermore, in a master oscillator power-amplifier scheme, an amplified power of 14.8 W was achieved at 914 nm in the same fiber.

  9. High-power diode-side-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled continuous wave 532 nm laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuping; Zhang Huiyun; Zhong Kai; Li Xifu; Wang Peng; Yao Jianquan

    2007-01-01

    An efficient and high-power diode-side-pumped cw 532 nm green laser based on a V-shaped cavity geometry, and capable of generating 22.7 W green radiation with optical conversion efficiency of 8.31%, has been demonstrated. The laser is operated with rms noise amplitude of less than 1% and with M 2 -parameter of about 6.45 at the top of the output power. This laser has the potential for scaling to much higher output power. (authors)

  10. High power diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, B Q; Li, G; Meng, P B; Zhu, G L; Ju, Y L; Wang, Y Z

    2010-01-01

    High power diode-pumped continuous wave (CW) and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO 4 laser is reported. Using two Tm,Ho:YVO 4 rods in a single cavity, up to 20.2 W of CW output lasing at 2054.7 nm was obtained under cryogenic temperature of 77 K with an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 32.9%. For Q-switch operation, up to 19.4 W of output was obtained under 15 kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) with a minimum pulse width of 24.2 ns. In addition, different pulse repetition frequencies of Q-switch operation with 10.0 kHz, 12.5 kHz and 15.0 kHz were investigated comparatively

  11. Continuous-wave diode-pumped Yb 3+:LYSO tunable laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Liang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yi; Li, Ruxin; Yan, Chengfeng; Zhao, Guangjun; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2007-01-01

    A new alloyed crystal, Yb:LYSO, has been grown by the Czochralski method in our institute for the first time, and its effective diode-pumped cw tunable laser action was demonstrated. The alloyed crystal retains excellent laser properties of LSO with reduced growth cost, as well as the favorable growth properties of YSO. With a 5-at.% Yb:LYSO sample, we achieved 2.84 W output power at 1085 nm and a slope efficiency of 63.5%. And its laser wavelength could be tuned over a range broader than 80nm, from 1030nm to 1111 nm. This is the broadest tunable range achieved for Yb:LYSO laser, as far as we know.

  12. Stable continuous-wave single-frequency Nd:YAG blue laser at 473 nm considering the influence of the energy-transfer upconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoting; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Qin; Li, Yuanji; Zhang, Kuanshou

    2010-06-07

    We report a continuous-wave (cw) single frequency Nd:YAG blue laser at 473 nm end-pumped by a laser diode. A ring laser resonator was designed, the frequency doubling efficiency and the length of nonlinear crystal were optimized based on the investigation of the influence of the frequency doubling efficiency on the thermal lensing effect induced by energy-transfer upconversion. By intracavity frequency doubling with PPKTP crystal, an output power of 1 W all-solid-state cw blue laser of single-frequency operation was achieved. The stability of the blue output power was better than +/- 1.8% in the given four hours.

  13. Impact of 120-W 2-μm continuous wave laser vapoenucleation of the prostate on sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubin; Shao, Jinkai; Lu, Yongning; Lü, Yongan; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of 120-W 2-μm continuous wave (cw) laser vapoenucleation of the prostate in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on sexual function. One hundred twenty-two consecutive patients with BPH were retrospectively collected in this study and were classified into two groups for surgical treatment with 2-μm cw laser vapoenucleation or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and general assessment questions were completed before and 12 months after treatment to determine the impact on sexual function. A total of 33 patients (52.4%) in group 1 and 31 (52.5%) in group 2 reported various degrees of erectile dysfunction before surgery. Interestingly, an increase in IIEF-EF score by 2 points was reported by 16 (25.4%) and 14 (23.7%) patients, respectively, and mean EF score did show a marginal but not significant increase postoperatively in both group. Differences about orgasmic intercourse satisfaction, sexual desire domain, and overall satisfaction scores in each group were not significant between preoperative and postoperative, but there was a significant decrease in the orgasmic function domain score at 12 months postoperation in both groups (p function. No significant erectile function improvement was observed after surgery, but these two techniques significantly lowered the IIEF orgasmic function domain and this was mainly caused by retrograde ejaculation.

  14. Differential photoacoustic spectroscopy with continuous wave lasers for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y.; Tajima, T.; Seyama, M.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a differential photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), wherein two wavelengths of light with the same absorbance are selected, and differential signal is linearized by one of the two signals for a non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. PAS has the possibility to overcome the strong optical scattering in tissue, but there are still remaining issues: the water background and instability due to the variation in acoustic resonance conditions. A change in sample solution temperature is one of the causes of the variation in acoustic resonance conditions. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the sensitivity against glucose concentration under the condition where the temperature of the sample water solution ranges 30 to 40 °C. The glucose concentration change is simulated by shifting the wavelength of irradiated laser light, which can effectively change optical absorption. The temperature also affects optical absorption and the acoustic resonance condition (acoustic velocity). A distributed-feedback (DFB) laser, tunable wavelength laser (TWL) and an acoustic sensor were used to obtain the differential PAS signal. The wavelength of the DFB laser was 1.382 μm, and that of TWL was switched from 1.600 to 1.610 μm to simulate the glucose concentration change. Optical absorption by glucose occurs at around 1.600 μm. The sensitivities against temperature are almost the same: 1.9 and 1.8 %/°C for 1.600 and 1.610 μm. That is, the glucose dependence across the whole temperature range remains constant. This implies that temperature correction is available.

  15. Bistable direction switching in an off-axis pumped continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, R. Sohrab; Lawandy, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A report is presented of the observation of hysteretic bistable direction switching in a single-mode CW ruby laser system. This effect is only observed when the pump beam which is focused into the ruby rod is misaligned with respect to the rod end faces. At low pump powers, the ruby lases in a mode nearly collinear with the pump axis. At a higher pump power the ruby switches to a mode that is collinear with the rod end faces and preserves the original polarization. The effect is large enough to switch the beam by an angle equal to twice the diffraction angle. The observations show that under steady-state pumping, a CW ruby laser can exhibit bistable operation in its output direction and power. A calculation using the heat equation with two concentric cylinders with one as a heat source (pump laser) and the outer wall of the other held at 77 K, gives an increase in core temperature of about 0.01 K. Therefore, the increase in temperature is not large enough to change the index of refraction to account for such large macroscopic effects.

  16. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    The invention broadly involves a method and means for generating a traveling wave laser pulse and is basically analogous to a single pass light amplifier system. However, the invention provides a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content, wherein a gain medium is pumped in a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  17. Highly efficient single-pass frequency doubling of a continuous-wave distributed feedback laser diode using a PPLN waveguide crystal at 488 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechow, Andreas; Schedel, Marco; Stry, Sandra; Sacher, Joachim; Menzel, Ralf

    2007-10-15

    A continuous-wave distributed feedback diode laser emitting at 976 nm was frequency doubled by the use of a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide crystal with a channel size of 3 microm x 5 microm and an interaction length of 10 mm. A laser to waveguide coupling efficiency of 75% could be achieved resulting in 304 mW of incident infrared light inside the waveguide. Blue laser light emission of 159 mW at 488 nm has been generated, which equals to a conversion efficiency of 52%. The resulting wall plug efficiency was 7.4%.

  18. Generation of continuous-wave single-frequency 1.5 W 378 nm radiation by frequency doubling of a Ti:sapphire laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yong-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Hoon; Lim, Gwon; Han, Jae-Min; Park, Hyun-Min; Kim, Taek-Soo; Jeong, Do-Young

    2010-03-20

    We have generated continuous-wave single-frequency 1.5 W 378 nm radiation by frequency doubling a high-power Ti:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity. An LBO crystal that is Brewster-cut and antireflection coated on both ends is used for a long-term stable frequency doubling. By optimizing the input coupler's reflectivity, we could generate 1.5 W 378 nm radiation from a 5 W 756 nm Ti:sapphire laser. According to our knowledge, this is the highest CW frequency-doubled power of a Ti:sapphire laser.

  19. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for generating a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content wherein a gain medium is pumped into a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  20. Performance of continuous wave and acousto-optically Q-switched Tm, Ho: YAP laser pumped by diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoxing; Xie, Wenqiang; Yang, Xining; Zhang, Ziqiu; Zhang, Hongda; Zhang, Liang

    2018-02-01

    A two-end-pumped a-cut Tm(0.5%), Ho(0.5%):YAP laser output at 2119nm is reported under cryogenic temperature. The maximum output power reached to 7.76W with the incident pump power of 24.2W in CW mode. With the acousto-optically Q-switch, an average power of 7.3W can be obtained, when the pulse repetition frequency was 7.5 kHz. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was 30.2% and the slope efficiency was 31.4%. Then, the laser output characteristics in the repetition frequency of 7.5 kHz and 10kHz were researched. The output power, the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency and slope efficiency were increased with the increase of the repetition frequency. In the same repetition frequency, the pulse duration was decreasing with the growth of the incident pump power.

  1. Continuous-wave laser operation at 743 and 753 nm based on a diode-pumped c-cut Pr:YAlO3 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuji; Huang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Bin; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Dongzhen; Liu, Jian; Xu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    We report on blue-diode-pumped continuous-wave Pr:YAlO3 (YAP) crystal lasers. Using a b-cut sample, a maximum output power of 181 mW is achieved at ∼747 nm with slope efficiency of 12.7% with respect to the absorbed power. Using a c-cut sample, a dual-wavelength laser at ∼743 and ∼753 nm is obtained with a total maximum output power of 72 mW by using the blue diode pumping, for the first time to our knowledge. These laser emissions are all linearly polarized and M2 factors of these output laser beams are also measured. YAP is experimentally verified to be one of effective oxide hosts for Pr-doped visible laser operation besides its fluoride counterparts.

  2. Continuous wave and AO Q-switch operation Tm,Ho:YAP laser pumped by a laser diode of 798 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L J; Yao, B Q; Song, C W; Wang, Y Z; Wang, Z G

    2009-01-01

    Continuous wave (CW) and acousto-optical (AO) Q-switch operation of Tm (5 at.%), Ho (0.3 at.%):YAP laser at 2.13 μm wavelength were reported in this paper. The Tm,Ho:YAP crystal was cooled by liquid nitrogen and double-end-pumped by a 14.2 W fiber-coupled laser diode at 798 nm. Different resonator lengths and output couplers for the pump power were tried. A maximum conversion efficiency of 31.3% and a maximum slope efficiency of 35.2% were acquired with CW output power of 4.45 W. Average power of 4.21 W was obtained at pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 15 kHz, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 29.6% and a slope efficiency of 32.4%. The energy per pulse of 2.3 mJ in 64 ns was achieved at 1.5 kHz with the peak power of 35.8 kW

  3. The generation of a continuous-wave Nd:YVO4/LBO laser at 543 nm by direct in-band diode pumping at 888 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, S C; Wang, X; Chu, H

    2013-01-01

    We report the generation of a green laser at 543 nm by intracavity frequency doubling of the continuous-wave (cw) laser operation of a 1086 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser under 888 nm diode pumping into the emitting level 4 F 3/2 . An LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) crystal, cut for critical type I phase matching at room temperature, is used for the laser second-harmonic generation. At an incident pump power of 17.8 W, as high as 4.53 W cw output power at 543 nm is achieved. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is up to 25.4%, and the fluctuation of the green output power is better than 2.3% in a 30 min period. (paper)

  4. Continuous-wave operation and 10-Gb/s direct modulation of InAsP/InP sub-wavelength nanowire laser on silicon photonic crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Takiguchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated sub-wavelength (∼111 nm diameter single nanowire (NW continuous wave (CW lasers on silicon photonic crystal in the telecom-band with direct modulation at 10 Gb/s by optical pumping at cryogenic temperatures. To estimate the small signal response and pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS modulation of our CW lasers, we employed a new signal detection technique that employs a superconducting single photon detector and a time-correlated single photon counting module. The results showed that our NW laser was unambiguously modulated at above 10 Gb/s and an open eye pattern was obtained. This is the first demonstration of a telecom-band CW NW laser with high-speed PRBS modulation.

  5. Diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 lasers at 1406, 1415 and 1423 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haifeng; Zhu, Wenzhang; Xiong, Feibing; Ruan, Jianjian

    2018-05-01

    We report a diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) laser operating at 1.4 μm spectral region. A dual-wavelength laser at 1423 and 1406 nm is achieved with output power of about 2.59 W at absorbed pump power of 13.4 W. Further increasing the pump power, simultaneous tri-wavelength laser at 1423, 1415 and 1406 nm is also obtained with a maximum output power of 3.96 W at absorbed pump power of 18.9 W. Single-wavelength lasing is also realized at the three emission lines using an intracavity etalon. The laser result is believed to be the highest output power achieved in Nd:GGG crystal, at present, to the best of our knowledge.

  6. The continuous-wave passive mode-locking operation of a diode-pumped mixed Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H-T; Xu, J-L; He, J-L; Zhang, S-Y; Xu, J-Q; Zhao, B

    2011-01-01

    We reported a continuous-wave (CW) passively mode-locked Nd:Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 VO 4 laser at 1064 nm. A partially reflective semiconductor saturable absorber mirror was exploited in the Z-typed resonator. The Nd:Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 VO 4 laser generated CW mode-locked pulses with an average output power of 860 mW, a repetition rate of 53.7 MHz, and a pulse duration of 8.7 ps

  7. Efficient continuous-wave, broadly tunable and passive Q-switching lasers based on a Tm3+:CaF2 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Cheng; Zu, Yuqian; Fan, Xiuwei; Liu, Jie; Guo, Xinsheng; Qian, Xiaobo; Su, Liangbi

    2018-04-01

    Laser operations in the continuous-wave as well as in the pulsed regime of a 4 at.% Tm3+:CaF2 crystal are reported. For the continuous-wave operation, a maximum average output power of 1.15 W was achieved, and the corresponding slope efficiency was more than 64%. A continuous tuning range of about 160 nm from 1877-2036 nm was achieved using a birefringent filter. Using Argentum nanorods as a saturable absorber, the significant pulsed operation of a passively Q-switched Tm3+:CaF2 laser was observed at 1935.4 nm for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. A maximum output power of 385 mW with 41.4 µJ pulse energy was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 2.04 W. The present results indicate that the Tm3+:CaF2 lasers could be promising laser sources to operate in the eye-safe spectral region.

  8. Diode-pumped continuous-wave blue laser operation of Nd:GGG at 467.0, 467.7, and 468.5 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, B; Camy, P; Doualan, J L; Braud, A; Moncorgé, R; Cai, Z P; Brenier, A

    2012-01-01

    Intra-cavity frequency doubling of continuous-wave (CW) laser emission on the quasi-three level ( 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 9/2 ) laser transition of Nd 3+ in Nd:GGG is reported by using a three-mirror folded resonator. The thermal lens experienced by the optically-pumped Nd:GGG laser crystal is measured as a function of the absorbed pump power and compared to that found, in the same conditions, in the case of Nd:YAG. Results are interpreted by using a simple model accounting for the absorbed pump power and the thermo-mechanical properties of each laser crystal. Diode-pumped blue laser operation is achieved, for the first time, at 467.0 and 468.5 nm with output powers of 230 and 450 mW, respectively. Simultaneous laser operation resulting both from frequency-doubling and frequency summing at the three 467.1, 467.7, and 468.1 nm laser wavelengths is also obtained with a total output power of 60 mW

  9. Modeling of intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser absorption spectrometer systems for atmospheric CO(2) column measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Ismail, Syed; Wallace Harrison, F; Browell, Edward V; Nehrir, Amin R; Dobler, Jeremy; Moore, Berrien; Refaat, Tamer; Kooi, Susan A

    2013-10-10

    The focus of this study is to model and validate the performance of intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) CO(2) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) systems and their CO(2) column measurements from airborne and satellite platforms. The model accounts for all fundamental physics of the instruments and their related CO(2) measurement environments, and the modeling results are presented statistically from simulation ensembles that include noise sources and uncertainties related to the LAS instruments and the measurement environments. The characteristics of simulated LAS systems are based on existing technologies and their implementation in existing systems. The modeled instruments are specifically assumed to be IM-CW LAS systems such as the Exelis' airborne multifunctional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) operating in the 1.57 μm CO(2) absorption band. Atmospheric effects due to variations in CO(2), solar radiation, and thin clouds, are also included in the model. Model results are shown to agree well with LAS atmospheric CO(2) measurement performance. For example, the relative bias errors of both MFLL simulated and measured CO(2) differential optical depths were found to agree to within a few tenths of a percent when compared to the in situ observations from the flight of 3 August 2011 over Railroad Valley (RRV), Nevada, during the summer 2011 flight campaign. In addition, the horizontal variations in the model CO(2) differential optical depths were also found to be consistent with those from MFLL measurements. In general, the modeled and measured signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the CO(2) column differential optical depths (τd) agreed to within about 30%. Model simulations of a spaceborne IM-CW LAS system in a 390 km dawn/dusk orbit for CO(2) column measurements showed that with a total of 42 W of transmitted power for one offline and two different sideline channels (placed at different locations on the side of the CO(2) absorption line), the accuracy of the

  10. Nanoshell-mediated targeted photothermal therapy of HER2 human breast cancer cells using pulsed and continuous wave lasers: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Mohammad E; Hassannejad, Zahra; Firouzi, Masoumeh; Arshi, Ahmad R

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we report the apoptosis induction in HER2 overexpressed breast cancer cells using pulsed, continuous wave lasers and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized magneto-plasmonic nanoshells (PVP-MPNS) delivered by immunoliposomes. The immunoliposomes containing PVP-MPNS were fabricated and characterized. Heating efficiency of the synthesized nanostructures was calculated. The effect of functionalization on cellular uptake of nanoparticles was assessed using two cell lines of BT-474 and Calu-6. The best uptake result was achieved by functionalized liposome (MPNS-LAb) and BT-474. Also, the interaction of 514 nm argon (Ar) and Nd/YAG second harmonic 532-nm lasers with nanoparticles was investigated based on the temperature rise of the nanoshell suspension and the release value of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) from CF/MPNS-loaded liposomes. The temperature increase of the suspensions after ten consecutive pulses of 532 nm and 5 min of irradiation by Ar laser were measured approximately 2 and 12 °C, respectively. The irradiation of CF/MPNS-loaded liposomes by Ar laser for 3 min resulted in 24.3 % release of CF, and in the case of 532 nm laser, the release was laser energy dependent. Furthermore, the comparison of CF release showed a higher efficiency for the Ar laser than by direct heating of nanoshell suspension using circulating water. The percentage of cell apoptosis after irradiation by Ar and 532 nm lasers were 44.6 and 42.6 %, respectively. The obtained results suggest that controlling the NP-laser interaction using optical properties of nanoshells and the laser parameters can be used to develop a new cancer therapy modality via targeted nanoshell and drug delivery.

  11. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation in the telecom wavelength range of GaSb-based lasers monolithically grown on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, A.; Cerutti, L.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Narcy, G.; Garreau, A.; Lelarge, F.; Tournié, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report on electrically pumped GaSb-based laser diodes monolithically grown on Si and operating in a continuous wave (cw) in the telecom wavelength range. The laser structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on 6°-off (001) substrates. The devices were processed in coplanar contact geometry. 100 μm × 1 mm laser diodes exhibited a threshold current density of 1 kA/cm-2 measured under pulsed operation at 20 °C. CW operation was achieved up to 35 °C with 10 μm × 1 mm diodes. The output power at 20 °C was around 3 mW/uncoated facet, and the cw emission wavelength 1.59 μm, in the C/L-band of telecom systems.

  12. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation in the telecom wavelength range of GaSb-based lasers monolithically grown on Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castellano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on electrically pumped GaSb-based laser diodes monolithically grown on Si and operating in a continuous wave (cw in the telecom wavelength range. The laser structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on 6°-off (001 substrates. The devices were processed in coplanar contact geometry. 100 μm × 1 mm laser diodes exhibited a threshold current density of 1 kA/cm−2 measured under pulsed operation at 20 °C. CW operation was achieved up to 35 °C with 10 μm × 1 mm diodes. The output power at 20 °C was around 3 mW/uncoated facet, and the cw emission wavelength 1.59 μm, in the C/L-band of telecom systems.

  13. Tunable continuous wave and passively Q-switched Nd:LuLiF4 laser with monolayer graphene as saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Luo, Jianjun; Li, Shixia; Li, Tao; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Tunable continuous wave and passively Q-switched Nd:LuLiF 4 laser performances were demonstrated. Employing a 2 mm thick quartz plate as the birefringence filter, three continuous tuning ranges from 1045.2 to 1049.9 nm, 1051 to 1055.1 nm and 1072.1 to 1074.3 nm could be obtained. Q-switched laser operation was realized by using a monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber. At an incident pump power of 5.94 W, the maximum average output power was 669 mW with the pulse duration of 210 ns and the pulse repetition rate of 145 kHz at T = 10%. (paper)

  14. Hyper-Rayleigh scattering and hyper-Raman scattering of dye-adsorbed silver nanoparticles induced by a focused continuous-wave near-infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Tamitake; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Ihama, Takashi; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    We report that hyper-Rayleigh scattering, surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering, and two-photon excited luminescence occur intermittently by focusing a continuous-wave near-infrared (cw-NIR) laser into a colloidal silver solution including rhodamine 6G (R6G) and sodium chloride (NaCl). On the other hand, continuous hyper-Rayleigh scattering is observed from colloidal silver free from R6G and NaCl, demonstrating that hyper-Raman scattering and two-photon excited luminescence are attributed to R6G and their intermittent features are dependent on the colloidal dispersion. These results suggest that the cw-NIR laser has three roles; the source of the nonlinear response, optical trapping of nanoparticles, and making nanoparticle aggregates possessing the high activity for the nonlinear response

  15. Diode-pumped continuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:GdLuAG laser at 1443.9 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianwen; Liu, Zhaojun; Zhang, Sasa; Cong, Zhenghua; Guan, Chen; Xue, Feng; Chen, Hui; Huang, Qingjie; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun; Qin, Zengguang

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the 1443.9 nm laser characteristics of Nd:GdLuAG crystal. Diode-end-pumping configuration was employed under both continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched operations. For CW operation, the maximum average output power was 1.36 W with a slope efficiency of 15%. By using a V3+:YAG crystal as the saturable absorber, we obtained the maximum average output power of 164 mW under Q-switched operation. The corresponding pulse energy was 29.3 μJ and pulse duration was 59 ns.

  16. 1.9 W continuous-wave single transverse mode emission from 1060 nm edge-emitting lasers with vertically extended lasing area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. J., E-mail: jarez.miah@tu-berlin.de; Posilovic, K.; Kalosha, V. P.; Rosales, R.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kettler, T. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); PBC Lasers GmbH, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Skoczowsky, D. [PBC Lasers GmbH, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Pohl, J.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-10-13

    High-brightness edge-emitting semiconductor lasers having a vertically extended waveguide structure emitting in the 1060 nm range are investigated. Ridge waveguide (RW) lasers with 9 μm stripe width and 2.64 mm cavity length yield highest to date single transverse mode output power for RW lasers in the 1060 nm range. The lasers provide 1.9 W single transverse mode optical power under continuous-wave (cw) operation with narrow beam divergences of 9° in lateral and 14° (full width at half maximum) in vertical direction. The beam quality factor M{sup 2} is less than 1.9 up to 1.9 W optical power. A maximum brightness of 72 MWcm{sup −2}sr{sup −1} is obtained. 100 μm wide and 3 mm long unpassivated broad area lasers provide more than 9 W optical power in cw operation.

  17. 205 nm continuous-wave laser: application to the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen; Laser continu a 205 nm: application a la mesure du deplacement de lamb dans l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourzeix, S

    1995-01-15

    The subject of this thesis is the construction of an experimental set-up, and in particular of a tunable continuous-wave laser at 205 nm, for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen. Chapter 1 deals with the Lamb shift from a historical point of view, and with the interest of its measurement, for metrology and test of quantum electrodynamics. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theory of the hydrogen atom. The principle of the experiment is based on the comparison of two frequencies which are in a ratio of 4: those of the two-photon transitions of 2S-6S or 2S-6D and 1S-3S. Chapter 3 describes the experimental set-up used to measure the 2S-6D transition which is excited by a titanium-sapphire laser at 820 nm. The 205 nm light required to excite the 1S-3S transition is generated by two frequency-doubling of the titanium-sapphire laser, made in non-linear crystals placed in enhancement cavities. Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the frequency-doubling. After a recall of non-linear optics, the enhancement cavities are described in detail, as well as the results we achieved. At last chapter 5 describes the research for a signal on the 1S-3S transition: the construction of a ground state atomic beam, and the development of the detection system. This work has led to a preliminary measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen: L(1S) = 8172.850 (174) MHz whose result is in very good agreement with both the previous measurements and the most recent theoretical results. (author)

  18. Crystal growth, optical properties, and continuous-wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped CaNb2O6 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y; Xu, X D; Xiao, X D; Li, D Z; Zhao, C C; Zhou, S M; Xin, Z; Yang, X B; Xu, J

    2009-01-01

    Laser crystal Nd:CaNb 2 O 6 with excellent quality has been grown by Czochralski technique. The effective segregation coefficient of Nd 3+ was studied by X-ray fluorescence method. The polarized absorption spectra and the fluorescence spectra of Nd:CaNb 2 O 6 were measured at room temperature. The peak absorption cross section was calculated to be 6.202×10 -20 cm 2 with a broad FWHM of 7 nm at 808 nm for E ∥ a light polarization. The emission cross section at 1062 nm is 9.87×10 -20 cm 2 . We report what we believe to be the first demonstration of the continuous-wave Nd:CaNb 2 O 6 laser operation under diode pumping. Output power of 1.86 W at 1062 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 19% in the CW regime

  19. Crystal growth, optical properties, and continuous-wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped CaNb2O6 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Xu, X. D.; Xin, Z.; Yang, X. B.; Xiao, X. D.; Li, D. Z.; Zhao, C. C.; Xu, J.; Zhou, S. M.

    2009-10-01

    Laser crystal Nd:CaNb2O6 with excellent quality has been grown by Czochralski technique. The effective segregation coefficient of Nd3+ was studied by X-ray fluorescence method. The polarized absorption spectra and the fluorescence spectra of Nd:CaNb2O6 were measured at room temperature. The peak absorption cross section was calculated to be 6.202×10-20 cm2 with a broad FWHM of 7 nm at 808 nm for E ∥ a light polarization. The emission cross section at 1062 nm is 9.87×10-20 cm2. We report what we believe to be the first demonstration of the continuous-wave Nd:CaNb2O6 laser operation under diode pumping. Output power of 1.86 W at 1062 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 19% in the CW regime.

  20. Continuous-wave and acousto-optically Q-switched 1066 nm laser performance of a novel Nd:GdTaO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Peng, Zhenfang; Sun, Haiyue; Peng, Fang; Yan, Renpeng; Li, Xudong; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Qingli; Ding, Shoujun

    2018-05-01

    A diode-pumped acousto-optically (AO) Q-switched 1066 nm laser with a novel Nd:GdTaO4 crystal was demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The optimization selection of output coupler was carried out in the continuous-wave (CW) operation. After that the pulsed Nd:GdTaO4 laser performances using different modulation repetition rates of 10 kHz and 20 kHz were investigated. At an absorbed pump power of 10 W and repetition rates of 10 kHz, the obtained minimum pulse width was 28 ns and the maximum peak power was 5.4 kW.

  1. High-power diode-pumped Nd:Lu2O3 crystal continuous-wave thin-disk laser at 1359 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J H; Liu, X H; Wu, J B; Zhang, X; Li, Y L

    2012-01-01

    We present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a 1359 nm continuous-wave (CW) Nd:Lu 2 O 3 laser based on the 4 F 5/2 – 4 F 13/2 transition. The use of a pump module with 16 passes through the crystal allowed the realization of a Nd:Lu 2 O 3 thin-disk laser with 3.52 W of CW output power. The slope efficiency with respect to the incident pump power was 21.4%, and the fluctuation of the output power was better than 3.55% in the given 2 hour. The beam quality factor M 2 is 1.14 and 1.18 for tangential direction and sagittal direction, respectively

  2. Diode laser in-band pumped, efficient 1645 nm continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YLuAG lasers with near-diffraction-limited beam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Yang, SuHui; He, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-like Er:YLuAG laser rods were tested for continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched operation. Two narrow-band laser diodes emitting at 1532 nm were used as pump sources. The pump power was confined in the laser rods via total internal reflection. In CW mode, a maximum output power of 7.2 W was measured from a 30 mm long Er:YLuAG laser rod, corresponding to an optical–optical efficiency of 26% and a slope efficiency of 78%. Er:YLuAG and Er:YAG lasers were compared experimentally and exhibited comparable performance, while the measured central wavelength of the Er:YLuAG laser was 1644.75 nm, slightly longer than the central wavelength of the Er:YAG laser in the same experimental circumstances. In Q-switched mode, an output energy of 3.5 mJ was obtained from a 25 mm Er:YLuAG laser rod with a pulse duration of 100 ns and a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz. The pulsed output had near-diffraction-limited beam quality with M 2 values of 1.13 and 1.11 in the x and y directions, respectively. (letter)

  3. Photobiomodulation with Pulsed and Continuous Wave Near-Infrared Laser (810 nm, Al-Ga-As Augments Dermal Wound Healing in Immunosuppressed Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav K Keshri

    Full Text Available Chronic non-healing cutaneous wounds are often vulnerable in one or more repair phases that prevent normal healing and pose challenges to the use of conventional wound care modalities. In immunosuppressed subject, the sequential stages of healing get hampered, which may be the consequences of dysregulated or stagnant wound inflammation. Photobiomodulation (PBM or low-level laser (light therapy (LLLT emerges as a promising drug-free, non-invasive biophysical approach for promoting wound healing, reduction of inflammation, pain and restoration of functions. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the photobiomodulatory effects of 810 nm diode laser (40 mW/cm2; 22.6 J/cm2 with pulsed (10 and 100 Hz, 50% duty cycle and continuous wave on full-thickness excision-type dermal wound healing in hydrocortisone-induced immunosuppressed rats. Results clearly delineated that 810 nm PBM at 10 Hz was more effective over continuous and 100 Hz frequency in accelerating wound healing by attenuating the pro-inflammatory markers (NF-kB, TNF-α, augmenting wound contraction (α-SM actin, enhancing cellular proliferation, ECM deposition, neovascularization (HIF-1α, VEGF, re-epithelialization along with up-regulated protein expression of FGFR-1, Fibronectin, HSP-90 and TGF-β2 as compared to the non-irradiated controls. Additionally, 810 nm laser irradiation significantly increased CCO activity and cellular ATP contents. Overall, the findings from this study might broaden the current biological mechanism that could be responsible for photobiomodulatory effect mediated through pulsed NIR 810 nm laser (10 Hz for promoting dermal wound healing in immunosuppressed subjects.

  4. Nonadiabatic dynamics in intense continuous wave laser fields and real-time observation of the associated wavepacket bifurcation in terms of spectrogram of induced photon emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2016-11-14

    We propose a theoretical principle to directly monitor the bifurcation of quantum wavepackets passing through nonadiabatic regions of a molecule that is placed in intense continuous wave (CW) laser fields. This idea makes use of the phenomenon of laser-driven photon emission from molecules that can undergo nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and covalent potential energy surfaces like Li + F - and LiF. The resultant photon emission spectra are of anomalous yet characteristic frequency and intensity, if pumped to an energy level in which the nonadiabatic region is accessible and placed in a CW laser field. The proposed method is designed to take the time-frequency spectrogram with an appropriate time-window from this photon emission to detect the time evolution of the frequency and intensity, which depends on the dynamics and location of the relevant nuclear wavepackets. This method is specifically designed for the study of dynamics in intense CW laser fields and is rather limited in scope than other techniques for femtosecond chemical dynamics in vacuum. The following characteristic features of dynamics can be mapped onto the spectrogram: (1) the period of driven vibrational motion (temporally confined vibrational states in otherwise dissociative channels, the period and other states of which dramatically vary depending on the CW driving lasers applied), (2) the existence of multiple nuclear wavepackets running individually on the field-dressed potential energy surfaces, (3) the time scale of coherent interaction between the nuclear wavepackets running on ionic and covalent electronic states after their branching (the so-called coherence time in the terminology of the theory of nonadiabatic interaction), and so on.

  5. Surface oxidation of porous ZrB2-SiC ceramic composites by continuous-wave ytterbium fibre laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmod, Dayang Salyani Abang; Glandut, Nicolas; Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface oxidation of ZrB 2 -SiC ceramic composites by Yb-fibre laser. • Round spiral laser pattern created for the surface oxidation. • Presence of laser-formed oxide scale and unaffected beneath regions. • Crazed but uncracked surface oxide. • A dense glassy SiO 2 -rich layer exhibited enhances oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Surface treatment of ceramic substrates by a laser beam can allow to incorporate interesting properties to these ceramics. In the present work, surface oxidation of ca. 30% porous ZrB 2 -SiC ceramic composites by using an ytterbium fibre laser was conducted. Oxidation of ceramic substrates through this process under ambient conditions has certain advantages compared to the classical oxidation method. A particular spiral laser pattern was created in order to produce an oxidized structure on ZrB 2 -SiC porous substrates. The laser parameters were as follows i.e., laser power of 50, 60 and 70 W, a beam diameter of 1.25 mm, velocity of 2 mm/s, acceleration and deceleration of 1 mm/s 2 . The microstructural and morphological changes in the laser-treated region was examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. At laser power of 70 W, the sample exhibits uniform oxidation. It revealed that the very porous bulk beneath remained unaffected and unoxidized because this laser-formed oxide scale protects the substrate from oxidation. The presence of oxidized and unaffected regions indicated a high degree of heat localization. The dense glassy SiO 2 -rich layer prevents the inward oxygen diffusion into the inner bulk hence enhances the oxidation resistance.

  6. Crystal growth, optical properties, and continuous-wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped Lu2SiO5 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D Z; Xu, X D; Zhou, D H; Xia, C T; Wu, F; Xu, J; Cong, Z H; Zhang, J; Tang, D Y

    2011-01-01

    High quality Nd 3+ -doped Lu 2 SiO 5 (Nd:LSO) crystal has been grown by the Czochralski technique. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Room temperature absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the Nd:LSO crystal were measured and analyzed. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω 2,4,6 were obtained to be 2.59, 4.90, and 5.96×10 -20 cm 2 , respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and the branching ratios were calculated. The peak emission cross section is 5.8 and 6.6×10 -20 cm 2 at 1075 and 1079 nm, respectively, with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.8 and 5.1 nm in turn. Pumped by a laser diode, a maximum 2.54 W continuous-wave laser output has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 32%. All the results show that this crystal is a promising laser material

  7. Crystal growth, optical properties, and continuous-wave laser operation of Nd3+-doped Lu2SiO5 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. Z.; Xu, X. D.; Zhou, D. H.; Xia, C. T.; Wu, F.; Xu, J.; Cong, Z. H.; Zhang, J.; Tang, D. Y.

    2011-01-01

    High quality Nd3+-doped Lu2SiO5 (Nd:LSO) crystal has been grown by the Czochralski technique. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Room temperature absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the Nd:LSO crystal were measured and analyzed. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω2,4,6 were obtained to be 2.59, 4.90, and 5.96×10-20 cm2, respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and the branching ratios were calculated. The peak emission cross section is 5.8 and 6.6×10-20 cm2 at 1075 and 1079 nm, respectively, with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.8 and 5.1 nm in turn. Pumped by a laser diode, a maximum 2.54 W continuous-wave laser output has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 32%. All the results show that this crystal is a promising laser material.

  8. Theoretical evaluation of a continues-wave Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser with mid-infrared emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Kepeng; Cai, He; An, Guofei; Han, Juhong; Yu, Hang; Wang, Shunyan; Yu, Qiang; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, You

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we build a theoretical model to study a continues-wave (CW) Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser by considering both energy transfer up-conversion (ETU) and cross relaxation (CR) processes. The influences of the pump power, reflectance of an output coupler (OC), and crystal length on the output features are systematically analyzed for an end-pumped configuration, respectively. We also investigate how the processes of ETU and CR in the energy-level system affect the output of a Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser by use of the kinetic evaluation. The simulation results show that the optical-to-optical efficiency can be promoted by adjusting the parameters such as the reflectance of an output coupler, crystal length, and pump power. It has been theoretically demonstrated that the threshold of a Ho3+:BaY2F8 laser is very high for the lasing operation in a CW mode.

  9. Continuous-wave green thin-disk laser at 524 nm based on frequency-doubled diode-pumped Yb:GSO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Y; Zhang, D; Liu, H P; Jin, H J; Li, Y L; Tao, Z H; Ruan, Q R; Zhang, T Y

    2011-01-01

    We report what is believed to be the first demonstration of diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) thin-disk Yb 3+ -doped Gd 2 SiO 5 (Yb:GSO) laser at 1048 nm. With a 3.8% output coupler, the maximum output power is 1.38 W under a pump power of 17.8 W. Moreover, intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) has also been achieved with a power of 337 mW at 524 nm by using a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) nonlinear crystal. At the output power level of 337 mW, the green power stability is better than 5% and the ellipticity of spot is 0.97

  10. Compact lidar system using laser diode, binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode-based receiver controlled by a digital signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Antoni; Comerón, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the practical limits of a lidar system based on the use of a laser diode, random binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode (APD)-based photereceiver, combined with the control and computing power of the digital signal processors (DSP) currently available. The target is to design a compact portable lidar system made all in semiconductor technology, with a low-power demand and an easy configuration of the system, allowing change in some of its features through software. Unlike many prior works, we emphasize the use of APDs instead of photomultiplier tubes to detect the return signal and the application of the system to measure not only hard targets, but also medium-range aerosols and clouds. We have developed an experimental prototype to evaluate the behavior of the system under different environmental conditions. Experimental results provided by the prototype are presented and discussed.

  11. 808-nm diode-pumped continuous-wave Tm:GdVO4 laser at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Yoshiharu; Wada, Satoshi

    2005-05-01

    A high-quality gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4) crystal with 7-at. % thulium as the starting material was grown by the Czochralski technique. The measured absorption spectra exhibited sufficient absorption coefficients for laser diodes (LDs) for neodymium laser pumping: 6.0 cm^-1 for pi polarization and 6.2 cm^-1 for sigma polarization at 808 nm. Laser oscillation was carried out with single-stripe 808-nm LDs in an end-pumping configuration. A slope efficiency of 28% and a threshold of 750 mW were exhibited with respect to the absorbed pump power. An output power of 420 mW was achieved at an absorbed power of 2.4 W. It was demonstrated that Tm:GdVO4 is a useful material for 2-μm lasers, particularly in a compact LD-pumped system.

  12. Phase locking of a seven-channel continuous wave fibre laser system by a stochastic parallel gradient algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, M V; Garanin, S G; Dolgopolov, Yu V; Kopalkin, A V; Kulikov, S M; Sinyavin, D N; Starikov, F A; Sukharev, S A; Tyutin, S V; Khokhlov, S V; Chaparin, D A [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    A seven-channel fibre laser system operated by the master oscillator – multichannel power amplifier scheme is the phase locked using a stochastic parallel gradient algorithm. The phase modulators on lithium niobate crystals are controlled by a multichannel electronic unit with the microcontroller processing signals in real time. The dynamic phase locking of the laser system with the bandwidth of 14 kHz is demonstrated, the time of phasing is 3 – 4 ms. (fibre and integrated-optical structures)

  13. Blue 450nm high power semiconductor continuous wave laser bars exceeding rollover output power of 80W

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, H.; Lell, A.; Stojetz, B.; Ali, M.; Eichler, C.; Peter, M.; Löffler, A.; Strauss, U.; Baumann, M.; Balck, A.; Malchus, J.; Krause, V.

    2018-02-01

    Industrial material processing like cutting or welding of metals is rather energy efficient using direct diode or diode pumped solid state lasers. However, many applications cannot be addressed by established infrared laser technology due to fundamental material properties of the workpiece: For example materials like copper or gold have too low absorption in the near infrared wavelength range to be processed efficiently by use of existing high power laser systems. The huge interest to enable high power kW systems with more suitable wavelengths in the blue spectral range triggered the German funded research project 'BLAULAS': Therein the feasibility and capability of CW operating high power laser bars based on the GaN material system was investigated by Osram and Laserline. High performance bars were enabled by defeating fundamental challenges like material quality as well as the chip processes, both of which differ significantly from well-known IR laser bars. The research samples were assembled on actively cooled heat sinks with hard solder technology. For the first time an output power of 98W per bar at 60A drive current was achieved. Conversion efficiency as high as 46% at 50W output power was demonstrated.

  14. Discrete multi-wavelength tuning of a continuous wave diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Mohammad; Waritanant, Tanant; Major, Arkady

    2018-05-01

    Discrete multi-wavelength operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser at four different wavelengths was demonstrated using a single birefringent filter plate. The laser achieved maximum output powers of 5.92 W, 5.66 W, 5.56 W and 3.98 W at 1063.2 nm, 1070.8 nm, 1082.5 nm and 1086.2 nm wavelengths, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, apart from achieving the maximum output powers at ~1071 nm and ~1086 nm and best efficiencies at ~1071 nm, ~1083 nm and ~1086 nm wavelengths for a Nd:GdVO4 laser, this is also the largest number of wavelengths from the 4F3/2  →  4I11/2 transition that was ever obtained in a controlled manner from a single laser setup based on any of the Nd-doped laser crystals.

  15. Reduced dimer production in solar-simulator-pumped continuous wave iodine lasers based on model simulations and scaling and pumping studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costen, Robert C.; Heinbockel, John H.; Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E., Jr.; Tabibi, Bagher M.; Lee, Ja H.; Williams, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical rate equation model for a continuous wave iodine laser with longitudinally flowing gaseous lasant is validated by approximating two experiments that compare the perfluoroalkyl iodine lasants n-C3F7I and t-C4F9I. The salient feature of the simulations is that the production rate of the dimer (C4F9)2 is reduced by one order of magnitude relative to the dimer (C3F7)2. The model is then used to investigate the kinetic effects of this reduced dimer production, especially how it improves output power. Related parametric and scaling studies are also presented. When dimer production is reduced, more monomer radicals (t-C4F9) are available to combine with iodine ions, thus enhancing depletion of the laser lower level and reducing buildup of the principal quencher, molecular iodine. Fewer iodine molecules result in fewer downward transitions from quenching and more transitions from stimulated emission of lasing photons. Enhanced depletion of the lower level reduces the absorption of lasing photons. The combined result is more lasing photons and proportionally increased output power.

  16. Diode-pumped continuous-wave and passively Q-switched 1066 nm Nd:GYNbO4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Peng, Zhenfang; He, Ying; Li, Xudong; Yan, Renpeng; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Qingli; Ding, Shoujun; Sun, Dunlu

    2017-08-01

    A diode-pumped passively Q-switched 1066 nm laser with a novel Nd:Gd0.69Y0.3NbO4 mixed crystal was demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the continuous-wave (CW) operation, optimization selection of output couplers was carried out, and a maximum output power of 2.13 W was obtained when the plane mirror with transmission of 25% was chosen and the absorbed pump power was 10.5 W. The Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:Gd0.69Y0.3NbO4 laser performance was investigated. At an absorbed pump power of 10.5 W, using Cr4+:YAG with initial transmission of 80%, the obtained minimum pulse width was 7.2 ns with the pulse repetition rate of 19 kHz. The single pulse energy and peak power were estimated to be 26.7 µJ and 3.7 kW, respectively.

  17. Growth of micro-crystals in solution by in-situ heating via continuous wave infrared laser light and an absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shashank; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Mathur, Deepak; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on growth of micro-crystals such as sodium chloride (NaCl), copper sulphate (CuSO4), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in solution by in-situ heating using continuous wave Nd:YVO4 laser light. Crystals are grown by adding single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The SWNTs absorb 1064 nm light and act as an in-situ heat source that vaporizes the solvent producing microcrystals. The temporal dynamics of micro-crystal growth is investigated by varying experimental parameters such as SWNT bundle size and incident laser power. We also report crystal growth without SWNT in an absorbing medium: copper sulphate in water. Even though the growth dynamics with SWNT and copper sulphate are significantly different, our results indicate that bubble formation is necessary for nucleation. Our simple method may open up new vistas for rapid growth of seed crystals especially for examining the crystallizability of inorganic and organic materials.

  18. Continuous-Wave Operation of GaN Based Multi-Quantum-Well Laser Diode at Room Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Qun, Zhang; Shu-Ming, Zhang; Hui, Yang; Lian, Ji; Jian-Jun, Zhu; Zong-Shun, Liu; De-Gang, Zhao; De-Sheng, Jiang; Li-Hong, Duan; Hai, Wang; Yong-Sheng, Shi; Su-Ying, Liu; Jun-Wu, Liang; Qing, Cao; Liang-Hui, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Room-temperature operation of cw GaN based multi-quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) is demonstrated. The LD structure is grown on a sapphire (0001) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. A 2.5μm × 800μm ridge waveguide structure is fabricated. The electrical and optical characteristics of the laser diode under direct current injection at room temperature are investigated. The threshold current and voltage of the LD under cw operation are 110 mA and 10.5 V, respectively. Thermal induced series resistance decrease and emission wavelength red-shift are observed as the injection current is increased. The full width at half maximum for the parallel and perpendicular far field pattern (FFP) are 12° and 32°, respectively

  19. Continuous-wave yellow-green laser at 0.56  μm based on frequency doubling of a diode-end-pumped ceramic Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenming; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Long; Li, Jiang; Tian, Yubing; Ma, Yufei; Wu, Xiaodong; Ma, Gangfei; Yang, Jianming; Pan, Yubai; Dai, Xianjin

    2015-06-20

    We present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on yellow-green laser generation based on the frequency doubling of the 1.1 μm transitions in Nd:YAG ceramics. By employing an 885 nm diode laser as the end-pumping source and a lithium triborate crystal as the frequency doubler, the highest continuous wave output powers of 1.4, 0.5, and 1.1 W at 556, 558, and 561 nm are achieved, respectively. These result in optical-to-optical efficiencies of 6.9%, 2.5%, and 5.4% with respect to the absorbed pump power, respectively.

  20. Optical Spectra Properties and Continuous-Wave Laser Performance of Tm,Y:CaF2 Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 3 at.% Tm, x at.% Y:CaF2 crystals (x=0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 were grown by the vertical Bridgman method and investigated. Codoping Y3+ ions can manipulate the local structure of Tm3+ ions in the CaF2 crystal and then improve the spectroscopic properties. Compared with 3 at.% Tm:CaF2, 3 at.% Tm, 3 at.% Y:CaF2 crystal has several advantages. Firstly, the absorption cross section is improved from 0.35 × 10−20 cm−2 to 0.45 × 10−20 cm−2 at 767 nm, and the fluorescence intensity had elevated 3.4 times. Secondly, the linewidth of the fluorescence spectrum and lifetime also increased from 164 nm to 191 nm and from 6.16 ms to 8.15 ms at room temperature, respectively. Furthermore, quantum efficiency improved from 58.2% to 80.3%. The maximum laser output power of 583 mW and slope efficiency of 25.3% were achieved in 3 at.% Tm, 3 at.% Y:CaF2 crystal under 790 nm diode pumping.

  1. Comparison of Monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generators Based on Passively Mode-Locked Lasers for Continuous Wave mm-Wave and Sub-THz Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criado, A. R.; de Dios, C.; Acedo, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, two different Passive Mode-Locked Laser Diodes (PMLLD) structures, a Fabry–Perot cavity and a ring cavity laser are characterized and evaluated as monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generators (OFCG) for CW sub-THz generation. An extensive characterization of the devices under study...... is carried out based on an automated measurement system that systematically evaluates the dynamic characteristics of the devices, focusing on the figures of merit that define the optimum performance of a pulsed laser source when considered as an OFCG. Sub-THz signals generated with both devices at 60 GHz...... topologies that can be used for the implementation of photonic integrated sub-THz CW generation....

  2. Atmospheric CO2 Column Measurements with an Airborne Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave 1.57-micron Fiber Laser Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Jeremy T.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Browell, Edward V.; Lin, Bing; McGregor, Doug; Kooi, Susan; Choi, Yonghoon; Ismail, Syed

    2013-01-01

    The 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space recommended Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as a mid-term, Tier II, NASA space mission. ITT Exelis, formerly ITT Corp., and NASA Langley Research Center have been working together since 2004 to develop and demonstrate a prototype Laser Absorption Spectrometer for making high-precision, column CO2 mixing ratio measurements needed for the ASCENDS mission. This instrument, called the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), operates in an intensity-modulated, continuous-wave mode in the 1.57- micron CO2 absorption band. Flight experiments have been conducted with the MFLL on a Lear-25, UC-12, and DC-8 aircraft over a variety of different surfaces and under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Very high-precision CO2 column measurements resulting from high signal-to-noise (great than 1300) column optical depth measurements for a 10-s (approximately 1 km) averaging interval have been achieved. In situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 profiles were used to derive the expected CO2 column values, and when compared to the MFLL measurements over desert and vegetated surfaces, the MFLL measurements were found to agree with the in situ-derived CO2 columns to within an average of 0.17% or approximately 0.65 ppmv with a standard deviation of 0.44% or approximately 1.7 ppmv. Initial results demonstrating ranging capability using a swept modulation technique are also presented.

  3. BeZnCdSe quantum-well ridge-waveguide laser diodes under low threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jijun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System (Ministry of Education), School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093 (China); Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Akimoto, Ryoichi, E-mail: r-akimoto@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2015-10-19

    Low threshold current ridge-waveguide BeZnCdSe quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) have been developed by completely etching away the top p-type BeMgZnSe/ZnSe:N short-period superlattice cladding layer, which can suppress the leakage current that flows laterally outside of the electrode. The waveguide LDs are covered with a thick SiO{sub 2} layer and planarized with chemical-mechanical polishing and a reactive ion etching process. Room-temperature lasing under continuous-wave condition is achieved with the laser cavity formed by the cleaved waveguide facets coated with high-reflectivity dielectric films. For a 4 μm-wide green LD lasing around a wavelength of 535 nm, threshold current and voltage of 7.07 mA and 7.89 V are achieved for a cavity length of 300 μm, and the internal differential quantum efficiency, internal absorption loss, gain constant, and nominal transparency current density are estimated to be 27%, 4.09 cm{sup −1}, 29.92 (cm × μm)/kA and 6.35 kA/(cm{sup 2 }× μm), respectively. This compact device can realize a significantly improved performance with much lower threshold power consumption, which would benefit the potential application for ZnSe-based green LDs as light sources in full-color display and projector devices installed in consumer products such as pocket projectors.

  4. Continuous wave vertical cavity surface emitting lasers at 2.5 μm with InP-based type-II quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprengel, S.; Andrejew, A.; Federer, F.; Veerabathran, G. K.; Boehm, G.; Amann, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    A concept for electrically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for emission wavelength beyond 2 μm is presented. This concept integrates type-II quantum wells into InP-based VCSELs with a buried tunnel junction as current aperture. The W-shaped quantum wells are based on the type-II band alignment between GaInAs and GaAsSb. The structure includes an epitaxial GaInAs/InP and an amorphous AlF 3 /ZnS distributed Bragg reflector as bottom and top (outcoupling) mirror, respectively. Continuous-wave operation up to 10 °C at a wavelength of 2.49 μm and a peak output power of 400 μW at −18 °C has been achieved. Single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB for mesa diameters up to 14 μm is presented. The long emission wavelength and current tunability over a wavelength range of more than 5 nm combined with its single-mode operation makes this device ideally suited for spectroscopy applications

  5. Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Cano-Torres, J. M.; Cascales, C.; Esteban-Betegón, F.; Serrano, M. D.; Volkov, V.; Zaldo, C.; Rico, M.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.

    2005-03-01

    Single crystals of disordered NaLa(WO4)2 and NaLa(MoO4)2 doped with Yb3+ are grown by the Czochralski method from the melt. Continuous-wave laser operation with Ti:sapphire laser pumping is demonstrated at room temperature without special cooling. Tunability from 1017 to 1057 nm and from 1015 to 1053 nm is achieved for Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb:NaLa(MoO4)2, respectively. A maximum output power of 205 mW is obtained with Yb:NaLa(WO4)2.

  6. Passive coherent discriminator using phase diversity for the simultaneous measurement of frequency noise and intensity noise of a continuous-wave laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud-Belleau, V.; Bergeron, H.; Light, P. S.; Hébert, N. B.; Deschênes, J. D.; Luiten, A. N.; Genest, J.

    2016-10-01

    The frequency noise and intensity noise of a laser set the performance limits in many modern photonics applications and, consequently, must often be characterized. As lasers continue to improve, the measurement of these noises however becomes increasingly challenging. Current approaches for the characterization of very high-performance lasers often call for a second laser with equal or higher performance to the one that is to be measured, an incoherent interferometer having an extremely long delay-arm, or an interferometer that relies on an active device. These instrumental features can be impractical or problematic under certain experimental conditions. As an alternative, this paper presents an entirely passive coherent interferometer that employs an optical 90° hybrid coupler to perform in-phase and quadrature detection. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the frequency noise power spectral density of a highly-stable 192 THz (1560 nm) fiber laser over five frequency decades. Simultaneously, we are able to measure its relative intensity noise power spectral density and characterize the correlation between its amplitude noise and phase noise. We correct some common misconceptions through a detailed theoretical analysis and demonstrate the necessity to account for normal imperfections of the optical 90° hybrid coupler. We finally conclude that this passive coherent discriminator is suitable for reliable and simple noise characterization of highly-stable lasers, with bandwidth and dynamic range benefits but susceptibility to additive noise contamination.

  7. Laser control of electron matter waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, E.; Becker, M.; Luiten, O.J.; Batelaan, H.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years laser light has been used to control the motion of electron waves. Electrons can now be diffracted by standing waves of light. Laser light in the vicinity of nanostructures is used to affect free electrons, for example, femto-second and atto-second laser-induced electrons are emitted

  8. Study on guided waves in semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudensi, M.A.A.

    1980-01-01

    In This work we studied the guided waves in semiconductor lasers. In the first part we carried on the experimental measurements on lasers with stripe nonorthogonal to the mirrors. In the second part we developed a matrix method for the study of propagation and reflection of guided waves in lasers. (author) [pt

  9. Control of a laser front wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaoka, K.; Wakaida, I.

    1996-01-01

    We controlled the laser wave front through a laser beam simulation experiment propagating through medium. Thus, we confirmed that the RMS, defined as the quadratic mean of the laser beam wave front, dropped to the 1/3 - 1/6 of the pre-control value

  10. Generation of a continuous-wave squeezed vacuum state at 1.3 μm by employing a home-made all-solid-state laser as pump source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yao-Hui; Wu Zhi-Qiang; Huo Mei-Ru; Zhou Hai-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We present a continuous-wave squeezed vacuum generation system at a telecommunication wavelength of 1.3 μm. By employing a home-made single-frequency Nd:YVO 4 laser with dual wavelength outputs as the pump source, via an optical parameter oscillator based on periodically poled KTP, a squeezed vacuum of 6.1 dB±0.1 dB below the shot noise limit at 1342 nm is experimentally measured. This system could be utilized for demonstrating practical quantum information networks. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Efficient continuous-wave and passively Q-switched pulse laser operations in a diffusion-bonded sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4/sapphire composite crystal around 1.55 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujin; Lin, Yanfu; Huang, Jianhua; Gong, Xinghong; Luo, Zundu; Huang, Yidong

    2018-01-08

    A composite crystal consisting of a 1.5-mm-thick Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal between two 1.2-mm-thick sapphire crystals was fabricated by the thermal diffusion bonding technique. Compared with a lone Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal measured under the identical experimental conditions, higher laser performances were demonstrated in the sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 /sapphire composite crystal due to the reduction of the thermal effects. End-pumped by a 976 nm laser diode in a hemispherical cavity, a 1.55 μm continuous-wave laser with a maximum output power of 1.75 W and a slope efficiency of 36% was obtained in the composite crystal when the incident pump power was 6.54 W. Passively Q-switched by a Co 2+ :MgAl 2 O 4 crystal, a 1.52 μm pulse laser with energy of 10 μJ and repetition frequency of 105 kHz was also realized in the composite crystal. Pulse width was 315 ns. The results show that the sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 /sapphire composite crystal is an excellent active element for 1.55 μm laser.

  12. Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Rico, M.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.; Cano-Torres, J.M.; Cascales, C.; Esteban-Betegon, F.; Serrano, M.D.; Volkov, V.; Zaldo, C.

    2005-01-01

    Single crystals of disordered NaLa(WO 4 ) 2 and NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 doped with Yb 3+ are grown by the Czochralski method from the melt. Continuous-wave laser operation with Ti:sapphire laser pumping is demonstrated at room temperature without special cooling. Tunability from 1017 to 1057 nm and from 1015 to 1053 nm is achieved for Yb:NaLa(WO 4 ) 2 and Yb:NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 , respectively. A maximum output power of 205 mW is obtained with Yb:NaLa(WO 4 ) 2 . (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. An efficient continuous-wave 591 nm light source based on sum-frequency mixing of a diode pumped Nd:GdVO4–Nd:CNGG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y D; Liu, J H

    2013-01-01

    We report a laser architecture to obtain continuous-wave (CW) yellow-orange light sources at the 591 nm wavelength. An 808 nm diode pumped a Nd:GdVO 4 crystal emitting at 1063 nm. A part of the pump power was then absorbed by the Nd:CNGG crystal. The remaining pump power was used to pump a Nd:CNGG crystal emitting at 1329 nm. Intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 1063 and 1329 nm was then realized in a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) crystal to reach the yellow-orange radiation. We obtained a CW output power of 494 mW at 591 nm with a pump laser diode emitting 17.8 W at 808 nm. (paper)

  14. Laser shock wave and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojun; Zhang, Yongkang; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Aixin

    2007-12-01

    The technology of laser shock wave is used to not only surface modification but also metal forming. It can be divided into three parts: laser shock processing, laser shock forming (LSF) and laser peenforming(LPF). Laser shock processing as a surface treatment to metals can make engineering components have a residual compressive stress so that it obviously improves their fatigue strength and stress corrosion performances, while laser shock forming (LSF) is a novel technique that is used in plastic deformation of sheet metal recently and Laser peen forming (LPF) is another new sheet metal forming process presented in recent years. They all can be carried out by a high-power and repetition pulse Nd:Glass laser device made by Jiangsu University. Laser shock technology has characterized of ultrahigh pressure and high strain rate (10 6 - 10 7s -1). Now, for different materials, we are able to form different metals to contours and shapes and simultaneity leave their surfaces in crack-resistant compressive stress state. The results show that the technology of laser shock wave can strengthen surface property and prolong fatigue life and especially can deform metals to shapes that could not be adequately made using conventional methods. With the development of the technology of laser shock wave, the applied fields of laser will become greater and greater.

  15. Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Sintes, Alicia M.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Frasca, Sergio; Palomba, Cristiano

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities

  16. Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched cryogenic Yb: KLu(WO.sub.4./sub.).sub.2./sub. laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Petr; Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Paul David, Samuel; Yue, Fangxin; Serres, J.M.; Mateos, X.; Aguilo, M.; Diaz, F.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 21 (2017), s. 25886-25893 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA MŠk LM2015086 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 739573 - HiLASE CoE Grant - others:OP VVV - HiLASE-CoE(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000674 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diode-pumped lasers * laser materials Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016

  17. Surface oxidation of porous ZrB{sub 2}-SiC ceramic composites by continuous-wave ytterbium fibre laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmod, Dayang Salyani Abang, E-mail: dygsalyani@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Glandut, Nicolas [SPCTS, UMR 7315, CNRS, University of Limoges, European Ceramic Center, 12 Rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France); Khan, Amir Azam [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Labbe, Jean-Claude [SPCTS, UMR 7315, CNRS, University of Limoges, European Ceramic Center, 12 Rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Surface oxidation of ZrB{sub 2}-SiC ceramic composites by Yb-fibre laser. • Round spiral laser pattern created for the surface oxidation. • Presence of laser-formed oxide scale and unaffected beneath regions. • Crazed but uncracked surface oxide. • A dense glassy SiO{sub 2}-rich layer exhibited enhances oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Surface treatment of ceramic substrates by a laser beam can allow to incorporate interesting properties to these ceramics. In the present work, surface oxidation of ca. 30% porous ZrB{sub 2}-SiC ceramic composites by using an ytterbium fibre laser was conducted. Oxidation of ceramic substrates through this process under ambient conditions has certain advantages compared to the classical oxidation method. A particular spiral laser pattern was created in order to produce an oxidized structure on ZrB{sub 2}-SiC porous substrates. The laser parameters were as follows i.e., laser power of 50, 60 and 70 W, a beam diameter of 1.25 mm, velocity of 2 mm/s, acceleration and deceleration of 1 mm/s{sup 2}. The microstructural and morphological changes in the laser-treated region was examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. At laser power of 70 W, the sample exhibits uniform oxidation. It revealed that the very porous bulk beneath remained unaffected and unoxidized because this laser-formed oxide scale protects the substrate from oxidation. The presence of oxidized and unaffected regions indicated a high degree of heat localization. The dense glassy SiO{sub 2}-rich layer prevents the inward oxygen diffusion into the inner bulk hence enhances the oxidation resistance.

  18. Laser-supported detonation waves and pulsed laser propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kare, J.

    1990-01-01

    A laser thermal rocket uses the energy of a large remote laser, possibly ground-based, to heat an inert propellant and generate thrust. Use of a pulsed laser allows the design of extremely simple thrusters with very high performance compared to chemical rockets. The temperatures, pressures, and fluxes involved in such thrusters (10 4 K, 10 2 atmospheres, 10 7 w/cm 2 ) typically result in the creation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. The thrust cycle thus involves a complex set of transient shock phenomena, including laser-surface interactions in the ignition of the LSD wave, laser-plasma interactions in the LSD wave itself, and high-temperature nonequilibrium chemistry behind the LSD wave. The SDIO Laser Propulsion Program is investigating these phenomena as part of an overall effort to develop the technology for a low-cost Earth-to-orbit laser launch system. We will summarize the Program's approach to developing a high performance thruster, the double-pulse planar thruster, and present an overview of some results obtained to date, along with a discussion of the many research question still outstanding in this area

  19. Simultaneous multi-laser, multi-species trace-level sensing of gas mixtures by rapidly swept continuous-wave cavity-ringdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yabai; Kan, Ruifeng; Englich, Florian V; Liu, Wenqing; Orr, Brian J

    2010-09-13

    The greenhouse-gas molecules CO(2), CH(4), and H(2)O are detected in air within a few ms by a novel cavity-ringdown laser-absorption spectroscopy technique using a rapidly swept optical cavity and multi-wavelength coherent radiation from a set of pre-tuned near-infrared diode lasers. The performance of various types of tunable diode laser, on which this technique depends, is evaluated. Our instrument is both sensitive and compact, as needed for reliable environmental monitoring with high absolute accuracy to detect trace concentrations of greenhouse gases in outdoor air.

  20. Three-Rod Resonator for Krypton Lamp Pumped 1.8 kW Continuous-Wave Nd:YAG Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; FANG Ming-Xing; WANG Zhi-Yong; YU Zhen-Sheng; LEI Hong; GUO Jiang; LI Gang; ZUO Tie-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    @@ A three-rod series resonator cw Nd:YAG laser suitable for the industrial applications is presented. The symmetrical resonator laser has been developed and is rated at 1820-W output power with beam parameter product 24 mm.mrad. By utilizing the symmetrical resonator design, the characteristic of beam with multi-rod is not obviously decreased compared with that of a single one. The system total electro-optics efficiency of lamp pumped YAG crystal is as high as 4.0%. The main factors, which affect output power and beam quality of high power solid-state laser module, are theoretically analysed.

  1. Continuous-wave laser at 440 nm based on frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaing, Marc; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    We present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a frequency-doubled Nd:GdVO(4) laser operating in a cw on the pure three-level laser line at 880 nm. We obtained 300 mW at 440 nm for 23 W of incident pump power at 808 nm. Moreover, with a 25% output coupler we obtained a cw power of 1.9 W at the fundamental wavelength at 880 nm.

  2. A diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser with an average output power of 1 kW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Man; Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, Cheol Jung

    2004-01-01

    A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with an average output power of 1 kW is developed for industrial applications, such as metal cutting, precision welding, etc. To develop such a diode-pumped high power solid-state laser, a series of laser modules have been used in general with and without thermal birefringence compensation. For example, Akiyama et al. used three laser modules to obtain a output power of 5.4 kW CW.1 In the side-pumped Nd:YAG laser, which is a commonly used pump scheme to obtain high output power, the crystal rod has a short thermal focal length at a high input pump power, and the short thermal focal length in turn leads to beam distortion within a laser resonator. Therefore, to achieve a high output power with good stability, isotropic beam profile, and high optical efficiency, the detailed analysis of the resonator stability condition depending on both mirror distances and a crystal separation is essential

  3. All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, Karsten J; Loeffler, Torsten; Quast, Holger; Thomson, Mark; Bauer, Tobias; Leonhardt, Rainer; Czasch, Stephanie; Roskos, Hartmut G

    2002-01-01

    We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1/2. For a specific histological sample, an analysis of image noise is discussed

  4. Wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shitong; Shen Wenda; Guo Qizhi

    1993-01-01

    The wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma is obtained by solving exactly the Dirac equation in a curved space-time with optical metric for the laser plasma. When the laser field is diminished to zero, the wave function is naturally reduced to relativistic wave function of free electron. The possible application of the wave function is discussed

  5. Laser emission in Nd3+ doped barium–titanium–silicate microspheres under continuous and chopped wave pumping in a non-coupled pumping scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, L L; Pérez-Rodríguez, C; Martín, I R; Navarro-Urrios, D; Ferrarese-Lupi, F; Garrido, B; Montserrat, J; Dominguez, C; Capuj, N

    2013-01-01

    Laser action using non-coupled excitation and detection of microspheres made of Nd 3+ doped barium–titanium–silicate glass has been demonstrated and measured. The microspheres have also been successfully deposited over Si 3 N 4 strip waveguides with a SiO 2 separation layer, thus enabling the laser emission extraction onto a CMOS compatible photonic circuit. The dynamics of the lasing wavelength and intensity has been studied as a function of the pump power and interpreted in terms of thermal effects generated through non-radiative recombination of the excited ions. (paper)

  6. Continuous waves probing in dynamic acoustoelastic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalerandi, M.; Gliozzi, A. S.; Ait Ouarabi, M.; Boubenider, F.

    2016-05-01

    Consolidated granular media display a peculiar nonlinear elastic behavior, which is normally analysed with dynamic ultrasonic testing exploiting the dependence on amplitude of different measurable quantities, such as the resonance frequency shift, the amount of harmonics generation, or the break of the superposition principle. However, dynamic testing allows measuring effects which are averaged over one (or more) cycles of the exciting perturbation. Dynamic acoustoelastic testing has been proposed to overcome this limitation and allow the determination of the real amplitude dependence of the modulus of the material. Here, we propose an implementation of the approach, in which the pulse probing waves are substituted by continuous waves. As a result, instead of measuring a time-of-flight as a function of the pump strain, we study the dependence of the resonance frequency on the strain amplitude, allowing to derive the same conclusions but with an easier to implement procedure.

  7. Stabilized lasers for advanced gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willke, B; Danzmann, K; Kwee, P; Seifert, F; Frede, M; Kracht, D; Puncken, O; Schulz, B; Veltkamp, C; Wagner, S; Wessels, P; Winkelmann, L; King, P; Savage, R L Jr

    2008-01-01

    Second generation gravitational wave detectors require high power lasers with more than 100 W of output power and with very low temporal and spatial fluctuations. To achieve the demanding stability levels required, low noise techniques and adequate control actuators have to be part of the high power laser design. In addition feedback control and passive noise filtering is used to reduce the fluctuations in the so-called prestabilized laser system (PSL). In this paper, we discuss the design of a 200 W PSL which is under development for the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detector and will present the first results. The PSL noise requirements for advanced gravitational wave detectors will be discussed in general and the stabilization scheme proposed for the Advanced LIGO PSL will be described

  8. Dynamics of Laser-Driven Shock Waves in Solid Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Grun, J.; Metzler, N.; Zalesak, S. T.; Gardner, J. H.; Oh, J.; Harding, E. C.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate shock timing is a key issue of both indirect- and direct-drive laser fusions. The experiments on the Nike laser at NRL presented here were made possible by improvements in the imaging capability of our monochromatic x-ray diagnostics based on Bragg reflection from spherically curved crystals. Side-on imaging implemented on Nike makes it possible to observe dynamics of the shock wave and ablation front in laser-driven solid targets. We can choose to observe a sequence of 2D images or a continuous time evolution of an image resolved in one spatial dimension. A sequence of 300 ps snapshots taken using vanadium backlighter at 5.2 keV reveals propagation of a shock wave in a solid plastic target. The shape of the shock wave reflects the intensity distribution in the Nike beam. The streak records with continuous time resolution show the x-t trajectory of a laser-driven shock wave in a 10% solid density DVB foam.

  9. Polarized spectra calculation and continuous wave laser operation of Yb-doped disordered Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeqing; Chen, Aixi; You, Zhenyu; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-12-01

    A notable disorder crystal Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal with Yb3+ ion doping concentration of 10 at.% was grown by the Czochralski method. The polarized absorption, polarized emission, and polarized gain cross sections were systematically calculated. The laser operations were investigated with Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystals cut along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes. The highest output power of 3.88 W was obtained by using the b-cut Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal, with a slope efficiency of 62%. Additionally, it was confirmed that the output laser spectra were largely dependent on the output coupler.

  10. Polarized spectra calculation and continuous wave laser operation of Yb-doped disordered Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeqing; Chen, Aixi; You, Zhenyu; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    A notable disorder crystal Yb:Ca 3 La 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal with Yb 3+ ion doping concentration of 10 at.% was grown by the Czochralski method. The polarized absorption, polarized emission, and polarized gain cross sections were systematically calculated. The laser operations were investigated with Yb:Ca 3 La 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystals cut along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes. The highest output power of 3.88 W was obtained by using the b-cut Yb:Ca 3 La 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal, with a slope efficiency of 62%. Additionally, it was confirmed that the output laser spectra were largely dependent on the output coupler. (paper)

  11. Continuous-wave operation of a $(20\\bar{2}\\bar{1})$ InGaN laser diode with a photoelectrochemically etched current aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Megalini, Ludovico; Becerra, Daniel L.; Farrell, Robert M.; Pourhashemi, A.; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Cohen, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics. We demonstrated selective and controllable undercut etching of the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) active region of a (2021) laser diode (LD) structure by photoelectrochemical etching. This technique was used to fabricate current aperture edge-emitting blue laser diodes (CALDs), whose performance was compared with that of shallow-etched ridge LDs with a nominally identical epitaxial structure. The threshold current density, threshold voltage, peak output power, and series resistance for the CA-LD (shallow-etched LD) with a 2.5-μm-wide active region were 4.4 (8.1) kA/cm2, 6.1 (7.7) V, 96.5 (63.5)mW, and 4.7 (6.0)Ω under pulsed conditions and before facet coating, respectively.

  12. Note: Optical and electronic design of an amplitude-modulated continuous-wave laser scanner for high-accuracy distance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Junhwan; Hwang, Sungui; Park, Kyihwan

    2015-01-01

    To utilize a time-of-flight-based laser scanner as a distance measurement sensor, the measurable distance and accuracy are the most important performance parameters to consider. For these purposes, the optical system and electronic signal processing of the laser scanner should be optimally designed in order to reduce a distance error caused by the optical crosstalk and wide dynamic range input. Optical system design for removing optical crosstalk problem is proposed in this work. Intensity control is also considered to solve the problem of a phase-shift variation in the signal processing circuit caused by object reflectivity. The experimental results for optical system and signal processing design are performed using 3D measurements

  13. 120 watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and an Nd:YAG rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T H; Ohkubo, T; Yabe, T; Kuboyama, H

    2012-07-01

    We propose a simple and efficient pumping approach for a high-power solar-pumped laser by using a liquid light-guide lens (LLGL) and a hybrid pumping cavity. A 2×2 m Fresnel lens is used as a primary concentrator to collect natural sunlight; 120 W cw laser power and a 4.3% total slope efficiency are achieved with a 6-mm diameter Nd:YAG rod within a 14-mm diameter LLGL. The corresponded collection efficiency is 30.0 W/m(2), which is 1.5 times larger than the previous record. This result is unexpectedly better than that of Cr:Nd:YAG ceramics. It is because the scattering coefficient of Cr:Nd:YAG ceramics is 0.004cm(1), which is 2 times larger than that of the Nd:YAG crystal, although both have similar saturation gains.

  14. Note: Optical and electronic design of an amplitude-modulated continuous-wave laser scanner for high-accuracy distance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Junhwan; Hwang, Sungui; Park, Kyihwan, E-mail: khpark@gist.ac.kr [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 123 Cheomdangwagi-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To utilize a time-of-flight-based laser scanner as a distance measurement sensor, the measurable distance and accuracy are the most important performance parameters to consider. For these purposes, the optical system and electronic signal processing of the laser scanner should be optimally designed in order to reduce a distance error caused by the optical crosstalk and wide dynamic range input. Optical system design for removing optical crosstalk problem is proposed in this work. Intensity control is also considered to solve the problem of a phase-shift variation in the signal processing circuit caused by object reflectivity. The experimental results for optical system and signal processing design are performed using 3D measurements.

  15. 7.5 W blue light generation at 452 nm by internal frequency doubling of a continuous-wave Nd-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Baptiste; Gilles, Hervé; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoit; Laroche, Mathieu

    2018-04-16

    We present the first frequency-doubled neodymium-doped fiber laser generating multi-watt CW power near 450 nm. A bow-tie resonator incorporating a LBO nonlinear crystal is integrated within a Nd-doped fiber laser emitting near 900 nm. This scheme achieves an IR to blue conversion efficiency close to 55% without any active control of the internal resonant cavity. As a result, up to 7.5 W of linearly-polarized blue power is generated, with beam quality factors M x 2 ~1.0 and M y 2 ~1.5. A simple numerical model has been developed to optimize and analyse the IR to blue conversion efficiency in the resonant cavity. Performance limitations and prospects for further improvements are discussed.

  16. High Power Continuous-Wave Diode-End-Pumped 1.34-μm Nd:GdVO4 Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui, Zhou; Shuang-Chen, Ruan; Chen-Lin, Du; Jian-Quan, Yao

    2008-01-01

    A high power cw all-solid-state 1.34-μm Nd:GdVO 4 laser is experimentally demonstrated. With a diode-double-end-pumped configuration and a simple plane-parallel cavity, a maximum output power of 27.9W is obtained at incident pump power of 96 W, introducing a slope efficiency of 35.4%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of diode-end-pumped 1.3-μm laser. With the experimental data, the thermal-stress-resistance figure of merit of Nd:GdVO 4 crystal with 0.3 at% Nd 3+ doped level is calculated to be larger than 9.94 W/cm

  17. Continuous-wave operation of a $(20\\bar{2}\\bar{1})$ InGaN laser diode with a photoelectrochemically etched current aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Megalini, Ludovico

    2015-03-06

    © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics. We demonstrated selective and controllable undercut etching of the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) active region of a (2021) laser diode (LD) structure by photoelectrochemical etching. This technique was used to fabricate current aperture edge-emitting blue laser diodes (CALDs), whose performance was compared with that of shallow-etched ridge LDs with a nominally identical epitaxial structure. The threshold current density, threshold voltage, peak output power, and series resistance for the CA-LD (shallow-etched LD) with a 2.5-μm-wide active region were 4.4 (8.1) kA/cm2, 6.1 (7.7) V, 96.5 (63.5)mW, and 4.7 (6.0)Ω under pulsed conditions and before facet coating, respectively.

  18. LDRD final report on continuous wave intersubband terahertz sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samora, Sally; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.; Young, Erik W.; Fuller, Charles T.; Stephenson, Larry L.; Reno, John Louis; Wanke, Michael Clement; Hudgens, James J.

    2005-02-01

    There is a general lack of compact electromagnetic radiation sources between 1 and 10 terahertz (THz). This a challenging spectral region lying between optical devices at high frequencies and electronic devices at low frequencies. While technologically very underdeveloped the THz region has the promise to be of significant technological importance, yet demonstrating its relevance has proven difficult due to the immaturity of the area. While the last decade has seen much experimental work in ultra-short pulsed terahertz sources, many applications will require continuous wave (cw) sources, which are just beginning to demonstrate adequate performance for application use. In this project, we proposed examination of two potential THz sources based on intersubband semiconductor transitions, which were as yet unproven. In particular we wished to explore quantum cascade lasers based sources and electronic based harmonic generators. Shortly after the beginning of the project, we shifted our emphasis to the quantum cascade lasers due to two events; the publication of the first THz quantum cascade laser by another group thereby proving feasibility, and the temporary shut down of the UC Santa Barbara free-electron lasers which were to be used as the pump source for the harmonic generation. The development efforts focused on two separate cascade laser thrusts. The ultimate goal of the first thrust was for a quantum cascade laser to simultaneously emit two mid-infrared frequencies differing by a few THz and to use these to pump a non-linear optical material to generate THz radiation via parametric interactions in a specifically engineered intersubband transition. While the final goal was not realized by the end of the project, many of the completed steps leading to the goal will be described in the report. The second thrust was to develop direct THz QC lasers operating at terahertz frequencies. This is simpler than a mixing approach, and has now been demonstrated by a few groups

  19. Analytical solution of transient temperature in continuous wave end-pumped laser slab: Reduction of temperature distribution and time of thermal response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibib Khalid S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution of transient 3-D heat equation based on integral transform method is derived. The result are compared with numerical solution, and good agreements are obtained. Minimization of response time and temperature distribution through a laser slab are tested. It is found that the increasing in the lateral convection heat transfer coefficient can significantly reduce the response time and the temperature distribution while no effect on response time is observed when changing pumping profile from Gaussian to top hat beam in spite of the latter reduce the temperature distribution, also it is found that dividing the pumping power between two slab ends might reduce the temperature distribution and it has no effect on thermal response time.

  20. Room-Temperature Continuous-Wave Operation of InGaN-Based Blue-Violet Laser Diodes with a Lifetime of 15.6 Hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Chang; Zhang Shu-Ming; Ji Lian; Zhao De-Gang; Zhu Jian-Jun; Liu Zong-Shun; Jiang De-Sheng; Duan Li-Hong; Wang Hai; Shi Yong-Sheng; Liu Su-Ying; Yang Hui; Wang Huai-Bing; Cao Qing; Chong Ming; Chen Liang-Hui

    2010-01-01

    We report our recent progress of investigations on InGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes (LDs). The room-temperature (RT) cw operation lifetime of LDs has extended to longer than 15.6 h. The LD structure was grown on a c-plane free-standing (FS) GaN substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The typical threshold current and voltage of LD under RT cw operation are 78 mA and 6.8 V, respectively. The experimental analysis of degradation of LD performances suggests that after aging treatment, the increase of series resistance and threshold current can be mainly attributed to the deterioration of p-type ohmic contact and the decrease of internal quantum efficiency of multiple quantum well (MQW), respectively. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  1. Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehari, Shlomo; Cohen, Daniel A; Becerra, Daniel L; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P

    2018-01-22

    The benefits of utilizing transparent conductive oxide on top of a thin p-GaN layer for continuous-wave (CW) operation of blue laser diodes (LDs) were investigated. A very low operating voltage of 5.35 V at 10 kA/cm 2 was obtained for LDs with 250 nm thick p-GaN compared to 7.3 V for LDs with conventional 650 nm thick p-GaN. An improved thermal performance was also observed for the thin p-GaN samples resulting in a 40% increase in peak light output power and a 32% decrease in surface temperature. Finally, a tradeoff was demonstrated between low operating voltage and increased optical modal loss in the indium tin oxide (ITO) with thinner p-GaN. LDs lasing at 445 nm with 150 nm thick p-GaN had an excess modal loss while LDs with an optimal 250 nm thick p-GaN resulted in optical output power of 1.1 W per facet without facet coatings and a wall-plug efficiency of 15%.

  2. Stochastic generation of continuous wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trulsen, J.; Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Wave packets of electromagnetic or Langmuir waves trapped in a well between oscillating reflectors are considered. An equation for the temporal evolution of the probability distribution for the carrier wave number is derived, and solved analytically in terms of moments in the limits of long...

  3. GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine

    2017-11-01

    When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.

  4. Laser driven detonation waves above a solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmony, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of a TEA CO 2 laser pulse with a carbon target in an argon atmosphere (p approximately mmHg) is shown to produce a double detonation wave system. The laser driven detonation wave becomes the most important as the gas pressure is increased. Calculation of the energy in the detonation waves is in good agreement with the incident laser energy at different times during the main laser pulse and the long tail. The observation of the incident laser detonation wave accounts for the anomalous energies reported previously. (Auth.)

  5. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-05-08

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  6. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liu, Zhixiong; Alatawi, Abdullah; Ng, Tien Khee; Wu, Tao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  7. All-solid-state continuous-wave doubly resonant all-intracavity sum-frequency mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, H M; Heine, F; Huber, G; Halldórsson, T

    1997-10-01

    A new resonator design for doubly resonant continuous-wave intracavity sum-frequency mixing is presented. We generated 212 mW of coherent radiation at 618 nm by mixing the radiation of a 1080-nm Nd(3+):YAlO(3) laser and a 1444-nm Nd(3+):YAG laser. Two different mixing resonator setups and several nonlinear-optical crystals were investigated. So far output is limited by unequal performance of the two fundamental lasers and coating problems of the nonlinear crystals.

  8. Resolution Enhancement of Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope Using Transverse Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, D. S.; Park, J. S.; Kim, Y. H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Science the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM image in the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode

  9. Bragg-Scattering Four-Wave Mixing in Nonlinear Fibers with Intracavity Frequency-Shifted Laser Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krupa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally study four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fibers using two independent and partially coherent laser pumps and a third coherent signal. We focus our attention on the Bragg-scattering frequency conversion. The two pumps were obtained by amplifying two Intracavity frequency-shifted feedback lasers working in a continuous wave regime.

  10. Continuous-Integration Laser Energy Lidar Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    This circuit design implements an integrator intended to allow digitization of the energy output of a pulsed laser, or the energy of a received pulse of laser light. It integrates the output of a detector upon which the laser light is incident. The integration is performed constantly, either by means of an active integrator, or by passive components.

  11. Continuity relations and quantum wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedecke, G.H.; Davis, B.T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the mathematical synthesis of the Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon, Pauli-Schroedinger, and Dirac equations starting from probability continuity relations. We utilize methods similar to those employed by R. E. Collins (Lett. Nuovo Cimento, 18 (1977) 581) in his construction of the Schroedinger equation from the position probability continuity relation for a single particle. Our new results include the mathematical construction of the Pauli-Schroedinger and Dirac equations from the position probability continuity relations for a particle that can transition between two states or among four states, respectively.

  12. Influence of acoustic waves on TEA CO2 laser performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Bergmann, H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author’s present results on the influence of acoustic waves on the output laser beam from high repetition rate TEA CO2 lasers. The authors show that acoustic waves generated inside the cavity lead to deterioration in beam quality...

  13. Continuing studies of the plasma beat wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1990-01-01

    This is a proposal for the release of third year funds for the ''Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator'' program (PBWA) at UCLA under the direction of Professor C. Joshi. This report is also a summary of progress on this project since March 1990; i.e., the date of the last report to the DOE. Once again we note that although the program is for historical reasons called the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator Program, our group is active in all areas of applications of lasers and plasmas in future high energy accelerators. These are as follows: heat gradient plasma structures; excited by plasma beat wave technique; laser wake field technique; and plasma wake field technique. Development of a photoinjector-driven, 20 MeV linac; and theoretical studies of the plasma lens and use of plasmas at the final focus

  14. Continuous wave terahertz reflection imaging of human colorectal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-ionizing, and nondestructive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. Fresh excisions of normal colon tissue were obtained from surgeries performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. Reflection measurements of thick sections of colorectal tissues, mounted in an aluminum sample holder, were obtained for both fresh and formalin fixed tissues. The two-dimensional reflection images were acquired by using an optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz with liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance form the samples was collected. Analysis of the images showed the importance of understanding the effects of formalin fixation while determining reflectance level of tissue response. The resulting co- and cross-polarized images of both normal and formalin fixed tissues showed uniform terahertz response over the entire sample area. Initial measurements indicated a co-polarized reflectance of 16%, and a cross-polarized reflectance of 0.55% from fresh excisions of normal colonic tissues.

  15. Continuous anti-Stokes Raman laser operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitisch, A.; Muller, T.; Welling, H.; Wellegehausen, B.

    1988-01-01

    The anti-Stokes Raman laser (ASRL) process has proved to be a method that works well for frequency upconversion and for the generation of powerful tunable narrowband (pulsed) laser radiation in the UV and VUV spectral range. This conversion process allows large-frequency shifts in single step, high output energies, and high efficiencies. A basic requirement is population inversion on a two-photon transition, where, in general, the upper level of the transition should be metastable. Up to now the ASRL technique has only been demonstrated for the pulsed regime, where the necessary population inversion was generated by photodissociation or inner shell photoionization. These inversion techniques, however, cannot be transferred to cw operation of an ASRL, and, therefore, other inversion techniques have to be developed. Here a novel approach for the creation of the necessary population inversion is proposed, that uses well-known cw gas lasers as the active material for the conversion process. The basic idea is to use either existing two-photon population inversions in a cw laser material or to generate the necessary population inversion by applying a suitable population transfer process to the material. A natural two-photon inversion situation in a laser material is evident whenever a cascade laser can be operated. Cascade laser-based anti-Stokes schemes are possible in a He-Ne laser discharge, and investigations of these schemes are discussed

  16. A continuous wave RF vacuum window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, R.

    1999-09-01

    An essential part of an ICRF system to be used in fusion reactor is the RF window. This is fitted in a coaxial transmission line. It forms a vacuum and tritium boundary between the antenna, situated inside the machine, and the transmission line, which feeds it. A double window is required with a vacuum inter-space. The dielectric, which forms the vacuum boundary, must be brazed into its housing. The window must be of a robust construction, and capable of withstanding both axial and radial loads. The vacuum boundaries should be thick walled in order act as a suitable tritium barrier. A further requirement is that the window is capable of continuous operation. The design of such a window is presented below. A half scale prototype has been manufactured, which has successfully completed RF, vacuum, and mechanical testing at JET, but has no water cooling, which is a requirement for continuous operation. The design presented here is for a window to match the existing 30 Ω main transmission lines at JET. It employs two opposed ceramic dielectric cones with a much increased angle of incidence compared with existing JET windows. The housing is machined from titanium. Small corona rings are used, and the tracking distance along the ceramic surface is large. The geometry minimizes the peak electric field strength. The design uses substantial pre-stressing during manufacture, to produce a compressive stress field throughout the dielectric material. Significant tensile stresses in the ceramic, and therefore the possibility of fracture due to applied thermal and mechanical loading, are eliminated in this way. A full-scale actively cooled RF window using this basic design should be capable of continuous use at 50 kV in the 20 - 90 MHz range. A half scale, inertially cooled prototype window has been designed, built and tested successfully at JET to 48 kV for up to 20 seconds. The prototype uses alumina for the dielectric, whereas beryllia is more appropriate for continuous

  17. Continuous wave ultraviolet radiation induced frustration of etching in lithium niobate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailis, S.; Riziotis, C.; Smith, P.G.R.; Scott, J.G.; Eason, R.W

    2003-02-15

    Illumination of the -z face of congruent lithium niobate single crystals with continuous wave (c.w.) ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation modifies the response of the surface to subsequent acid etching. A frequency doubled Ar{sup +} laser ({lambda}=244 nm) was used to illuminate the -z crystal face making it resistive to HF etching and thus transforming the illuminated tracks into ridge structures. This process enables the fabrication of relief patterns in a photolithographic manner. Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy indicates preservation of the good crystal quality after irradiation.

  18. Optical wave microphone measurement during laser ablation of Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsugi, Fumiaki, E-mail: mitsugi@cs.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Ide, Ryota; Ikegami, Tomoaki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Nakamiya, Toshiyuki; Sonoda, Yoshito [Graduate School of Industrial Engineering, Tokai University, 9-1-1 Toroku, Kumamoto, 862-8652 (Japan)

    2012-10-30

    Pulsed laser irradiation is used for surface treatment of a solid and ablation for particle formation in gas, liquid or supercritical phase media. When a pulsed laser is used to irradiate a solid, spatial refractive index variations (including photothermal expansion, shockwaves and particles) occur, which vary depending on the energy density of the pulsed laser. We focused on this phenomenon and applied an unique method for detection of refractive index variation using an optical wave microphone based on Fraunhofer diffraction. In this research, we analyzed the waveforms and frequencies of refractive index variations caused by pulsed laser irradiation of silicon in air and measured with an optical wave microphone.

  19. Broadband multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1500–1600 nm generated by four-wave mixing in a dual wavelength Brillouin fiber laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Jia, Z. X.; Weng, H. Z.; Li, Z. R.; Yang, Y. D.; Xiao, J. L.; Chen, S. W.; Huang, Y. Z.; Qin, W. P.; Qin, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate broadband multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1500–1600 nm and a frequency separation of ~9.28 GHz generated by four-wave mixing in a dual wavelength Brillouin fiber laser cavity. By using one continuous-wave laser as the pump source, multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1554–1574 nm were generated via cascaded Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing. Interestingly, when pumped by two continuous-wave lasers with an appropriate frequency separation, the operating wavelength range of the multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers was increased to 1500–1600 nm due to cavity-enhanced cascaded four-wave mixing among the frequency components generated by two pump lasers in the dual wavelength Brillouin laser cavity.

  20. Cw hyper-Raman laser and four-wave mixing in atomic sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, M.; Kablukov, S. I.; Wellegehausen, B.

    2005-01-01

    Continuous wave hyper-Raman (HR) generation in a ring cavity on the 6s → 4p transition at 1640 nm in sodium is realized for the first time by two-photon excitation of atomic sodium on the 3s → 6s transition with a continuous wave (cw) dye laser at 590 nm and a single frequency argon ion laser at 514 nm. It is shown, that the direction and efficiency of HR lasing depends on the propagation direction of the pump waves and their frequencies. More than 30% HR gain is measured at 250 mW of pump laser powers for counter-propagating pump waves and a medium length of 90 mm. For much shorter interaction lengths and corresponding focussing of the pump waves a dramatic increase of the gain is predicted. For co-propagating pump waves, in addition, generation of 330 nm radiation on the 4p → 3s transition by a four-wave mixing (FWM) process is observed. Dependencies of HR and parametric four-wave generation have been investigated and will be discussed.

  1. Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Martin, E-mail: hempel@pdi-berlin.de; Röben, Benjamin; Schrottke, Lutz; Grahn, Holger T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Leibniz-Institut im Forschungsverbund Berlin e. V., Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-09

    GaAs-based terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are continuously tuned in their emission frequency by illuminating the rear facet with a near-infrared, high-power diode laser. For QCLs emitting around 3.1 THz, the maximum tuning range amounts to 2.8 GHz for continuous-wave operation at a heat sink temperature of 55 K, while in pulsed mode 9.1 and 8.0 GHz are achieved at 35 and 55 K, respectively.

  2. Saturation of Langmuir waves in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    This dissertation deals with the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma (a quasineutral collection of electrons and ions). During this interaction, the laser drives large-amplitude waves through a class of processes known as parametric instabilities. Several such instabilities drive one type of wave, the Langmuir wave, which involves oscillations of the electrons relative to the nearly-stationary ions. There are a number of mechanisms which limit the amplitude to which Langmuir waves grow. In this dissertation, these mechanisms are examined to identify qualitative features which might be observed in experiments and/or simulations. In addition, a number of experiments are proposed to specifically look for particular saturation mechanisms. In a plasma, a Langmuir wave can decay into an electromagnetic wave and an ion wave. This parametric instability is proposed as a source for electromagnetic emission near half of the incident laser frequency observed from laser-produced plasmas. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with existing experimental data and it is found that one of the previous mechanisms used to explain such emission is not. The scattering version of the electromagnetic decay instability is shown to provide an enhanced noise source of electromagnetic waves near the frequency of the incident laser

  3. Laser Source for Atomic Gravity Wave Detector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atom Interferometry (AI) Technology for Gravity Wave Measurements demonstrates new matter wave Interferometric sensor technology for precise detection and...

  4. Continuous atom laser with Bose-Einstein condensates involving three-body interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, A V; Michinel, H; Novoa, D [Area de Optica, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidade de Vigo, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense, ES-32004 (Spain); Olivieri, D N, E-mail: avcarpentier@uvigo.e [Area de Linguaxes e sistemas informaticos, Escola Superior de EnxenerIa Informatica, Universidade de Vigo, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense, ES-32004 (Spain)

    2010-05-28

    We demonstrate, through numerical simulations, the emission of a coherent continuous matter wave of constant amplitude from a Bose-Einstein condensate in a shallow optical dipole trap. The process is achieved by spatial control of the variations of the scattering length along the trapping axis, including elastic three-body interactions due to dipole interactions. In our approach, the outcoupling mechanism is atomic interactions, and thus, the trap remains unaltered. We calculate analytically the parameters for the experimental implementation of this continuous wave atom laser.

  5. Photonic synthesis of continuous‐wave millimeter‐wave signals using a passively mode‐locked laser diode and selective optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acedo, P.; Carpintero, G.; Criado, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    We report a photonic synthesis scheme for continuous wave millimeter‐wave signal generation using a single passively mode‐locked laser diode (PMLLD), optical filtering and photomixing in a fast photodiode.The phase noise of the photonically synthesized signals is evaluated and inherits...

  6. Continuous and pulsed laser high power beam combiner for additive manufacturing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassignana, Marta; Califano, Alessio; Pescarmona, Francesco; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing (AM) from metal powders is emerging as the new industrial revolution, although current fabrication approaches still require long mechanical post-processing to improve the final surface quality and meet the design tolerances. To overcome this limitation, the next generation machines are expected to complement laser AM with laser ablation (LA) to implement surface finishing and micro texturing already during the device growth process. With this aim, a new beam combiner to allow the real-time interchange of additive and subtractive processes using the same scanner head has been designed. Extensive tests have been carried out using a 6 kW continuous-wave laser similar to that used for the metal powder fusion and a nanosecond 100W pulsed source similar to that used for laser ablation.

  7. Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Present day knowledge of the magnitude of the strain levels in the ground associated with geotechnical structures, together with an increasing number of projects requiring the best estimates of ground movements around excavations, has led to, inter alia, increased interest in measuring the very......-small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....

  8. Laser amplitude stabilization for advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, B W; Strain, K A; Killow, C J

    2005-01-01

    We present results of experiments into the stabilization of the amplitude of Nd:YAG lasers for use in advanced gravitational wave detectors. By feeding back directly to the pump-diode driving current we achieved shot-noise-limited stabilization at frequencies up to several kHz with some residual noise at lower frequencies (sub ∼100 Hz). The method used is applicable to higher powered laser systems planned for advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors

  9. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Noisy Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    Existing experimental implementations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution require shot-noise limited operation, achieved with shot-noise limited lasers. However, loosening this requirement on the laser source would allow for cheaper, potentially integrated systems. Here, we implement...... a theoretically proposed prepare-and-measure continuous-variable protocol and experimentally demonstrate the robustness of it against preparation noise stemming for instance from technical laser noise. Provided that direct reconciliation techniques are used in the post-processing we show that for small distances...

  10. Terahertz transmission properties of silicon wafers using continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Ji, Taeksoo; Eom, Joo Beom

    2017-04-01

    We present the spectral properties of Si wafers using continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) spectroscopy. By using a tunable laser source and a fixed distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), a stably tunable beat source for CW-THz spectroscopy system can be implemented. THz radiation is generated in the frequency range of 100 GHz-800 GHz by photomixing in a photoconductive antenna. We also measured CW-THz waveforms by changing the beat frequency and confirmed repeatability through repeated measurement. We calculated the peaks of the THz frequency by taking fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of measured THz waveforms. The feasibility of CW-THz spectroscopy is demonstrated by the THz spectra of Si wafers with different resistivities, mobilities, and carrier concentrations. The results show that Si wafers with a lower resistivity absorb more THz waves. Thus, we expect our CW-THz system to have the advantage of being able to perform fast non-destructive analysis.

  11. Terahertz transmission properties of silicon wafers using continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Eom, Joo Beom; Ji, Taeksoo

    2017-01-01

    We present the spectral properties of Si wafers using continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) spectroscopy. By using a tunable laser source and a fixed distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), a stably tunable beat source for CW-THz spectroscopy system can be implemented. THz radiation is generated in the frequency range of 100 GHz–800 GHz by photomixing in a photoconductive antenna. We also measured CW-THz waveforms by changing the beat frequency and confirmed repeatability through repeated measurement. We calculated the peaks of the THz frequency by taking fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of measured THz waveforms. The feasibility of CW-THz spectroscopy is demonstrated by the THz spectra of Si wafers with different resistivities, mobilities, and carrier concentrations. The results show that Si wafers with a lower resistivity absorb more THz waves. Thus, we expect our CW-THz system to have the advantage of being able to perform fast non-destructive analysis. (paper)

  12. The Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) design and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M. (Grumman Space and Electronics Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Nightingale, M.P.S. (AEA Industrial Technology, Culham (United Kingdom)); Yule, T.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The design of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) and the status of the fabricated hardware is presented. The CWDD is a high brightness, 352 MHz, CW linear accelerator designed to deliver a 7.54 MeV, 80 mA D[sup [minus

  13. Unlimited electron acceleration in laser-driven plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the limitation to the energy gain of 2(ω/ω/sub p/) 2 mc 2 of an electron in the laser-plasma beat-wave accelerator can be overcome by imposing a magnetic field of appropriate strength perpendicular to the plasma wave. This accelerates particles parallel to the phase fronts of the accelerating wave which keeps them in phase with it. Arbitrarily large energy is theoretically possible

  14. Stabilized High Power Laser for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willke, B; Danzmann, K; Fallnich, C; Frede, M; Heurs, M; King, P; Kracht, D; Kwee, P; Savage, R; Seifert, F; Wilhelm, R

    2006-01-01

    Second generation gravitational wave detectors require high power lasers with several 100W of output power and with very low temporal and spatial fluctuations. In this paper we discuss possible setups to achieve high laser power and describe a 200W prestabilized laser system (PSL). The PSL noise requirements for advanced gravitational wave detectors will be discussed in general and the stabilization scheme proposed for the Advanced LIGO PSL will be described. Special emphasis will be given to the most demanding power stabilization requirements and new results (RIN ≤ 4x10 -9 /√Hz) will be presented

  15. Cluster Observations of Non-Time Continuous Magnetosonic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon N.; Demekhov, Andrei G.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Ganushkina, Natalia Y.; Sibeck, David G.; Balikhin, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial magnetosonic waves are normally observed as temporally continuous sets of emissions lasting from minutes to hours. Recent observations, however, have shown that this is not always the case. Using Cluster data, this study identifies two distinct forms of these non temporally continuous use missions. The first, referred to as rising tone emissions, are characterized by the systematic onset of wave activity at increasing proton gyroharmonic frequencies. Sets of harmonic emissions (emission elements)are observed to occur periodically in the region +/- 10 off the geomagnetic equator. The sweep rate of these emissions maximizes at the geomagnetic equator. In addition, the ellipticity and propagation direction also change systematically as Cluster crosses the geomagnetic equator. It is shown that the observed frequency sweep rate is unlikely to result from the sideband instability related to nonlinear trapping of suprathermal protons in the wave field. The second form of emissions is characterized by the simultaneous onset of activity across a range of harmonic frequencies. These waves are observed at irregular intervals. Their occurrence correlates with changes in the spacecraft potential, a measurement that is used as a proxy for electron density. Thus, these waves appear to be trapped within regions of localized enhancement of the electron density.

  16. EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH CONTINUOUS SPIKES-WAVES ACTIVITY DURING SLEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Belousova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author represents the review and discussion of current scientific literature devoted to epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-waves activity during sleep — the special form of partly reversible age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by triad of symptoms: continuous prolonged epileptiform (spike-wave activity on EEG in sleep, epileptic seizures and cognitive disorders. The author describes the aspects of classification, pathogenesis and etiology, prevalence, clinical picture and diagnostics of this disorder, including the peculiar anomalies on EEG. The especial attention is given to approaches to the treatment of epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikeswaves activity during sleep. Efficacy of valproates, corticosteroid hormones and antiepileptic drugs of other groups is considered. The author represents own experience of treatment this disorder with corticosteroids, scheme of therapy and assessment of efficacy.

  17. Continuous magnetic trapping of laser cooled atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnato, V.S.; Lafyatis, G.; Martin, A.G.; Raab, E.L.; Landry, J.; Ahmad-Bitar, R.N.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present here initial results of the deceleration of a thermal atomic beam from -- 1000 to -- 100 m/s. The experiment was conducted in the 1.4-m long vertical superconducting solenoid which produced the slowing field. The fluorescence of the slowed atomic beam has been studied as a function of laser frequency. Figure 2 is a 12-GHz scan showing the fluorescence at a position 150 cm from the beginning of the solenoid. The wide peak corresponds to unslowed atoms with generally the initial velocity distribution. The second, narrower, peak corresponds to slowed atoms with a velocity of -- 150 m/s. Similar spectra have been obtained for various positions along the magnetic slower and trap. These data should allow better understanding of the cooling process and will be compared to computer models

  18. Biological effects of laser-induced stress waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doukas, A.; Lee, S.; McAuliffe, D.

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced stress waves can be generated by one of the following mechanisms: Optical breakdown, ablation or rapid heating of an absorbing medium. These three modes of laser interaction with matter allow the investigation of cellular and tissue responses to stress waves with different characteristics and under different conditions. The most widely studied phenomena are those of the collateral damage seen in photodisruption in the eye and in 193 run ablation of cornea and skin. On the other hand, the therapeutic application of laser-induced stress waves has been limited to the disruption of noncellular material such as renal stones, atheromatous plaque and vitreous strands. The effects of stress waves to cells and tissues can be quite disparate. Stress waves can fracture tissue, damage cells, and increase the permeability of the plasma membrane. The viability of cell cultures exposed to stress waves increases with the peak stress and the number of pulses applied. The rise time of the stress wave also influences the degree of cell injury. In fact, cell viability, as measured by thymidine incorporation, correlates better with the stress gradient than peak stress. Recent studies have also established that stress waves induce a transient increase of the permeability of the plasma membrane in vitro. In addition, if the stress gradient is below the damage threshhold, the cells remain viable. Thus, stress waves can be useful as a means of drug delivery, increasing the intracellular drug concentration and allowing the use of drugs which are impermeable to the cell membrane. The present studies show that it is important to create controllable stress waves. The wavelength tunability and the micropulse structure of the free electron laser is ideal for generating stress waves with independently adjustable parameters, such as rise time, duration and peak stress

  19. Plasma wave amplitude measurement created by guided laser wakefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojda, Franck

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of an intense laser pulse of short duration with a plasma produces a plasma wave with large amplitude in its wake, which is associated with a longitudinal electric field. It can be used to accelerate relativistic electrons injected into the wave to energies in the GeV range over distances of the order of a few centimeters, short compared to acceleration lengths in conventional accelerators. The control of the electron beam characteristics during the acceleration process is fundamental for achieving a usable laser-plasma acceleration stage. The main result of this thesis is the creation and characterization of a plasma wave in a weakly nonlinear regime over a length of several centimeters. Capillary tubes are used to guide the laser beam over these distances, while maintaining a large enough intensity (∼ 10 17 W/cm 2 ). The guided laser beam ionizes the gas in the tube and creates the plasma wave. A diagnostic based on the modification of the laser pulse spectrum was used to determine the amplitude of the plasma wave along the tube. The amplitude of the plasma wave was studied as a function of gas filling pressure, length of the capillary and laser energy. Experimental results are compared; they are in excellent agreement with analytical results and modeling. They show that the electric field associated with the plasma wave is between 1 and 10 GV/m over a length of up to 8 cm. This work has demonstrated the ability to create a controlled plasma wave in a weakly nonlinear regime. (author)

  20. Continuous-wave lasing in an organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yufei; Kerner, Ross A.; Grede, Alex J.; Rand, Barry P.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as promising gain media for tunable, solution-processed semiconductor lasers. However, continuous-wave operation has not been achieved so far1-3. Here, we demonstrate that optically pumped continuous-wave lasing can be sustained above threshold excitation intensities of 17 kW cm-2 for over an hour in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) distributed feedback lasers that are maintained below the MAPbI3 tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature of T ≈ 160 K. In contrast with the lasing death phenomenon that occurs for pure tetragonal-phase MAPbI3 at T > 160 K (ref. 4), we find that continuous-wave gain becomes possible at T ≈ 100 K from tetragonal-phase inclusions that are photogenerated by the pump within the normally existing, larger-bandgap orthorhombic host matrix. In this mixed-phase system, the tetragonal inclusions function as carrier recombination sinks that reduce the transparency threshold, in loose analogy to inorganic semiconductor quantum wells, and may serve as a model for engineering improved perovskite gain media.

  1. Toward the Extreme Ultra Violet Four Wave Mixing Experiments: From Table Top Lasers to Fourth Generation Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Cucini; Andrea Battistoni; Filippo Bencivenga; Alessandro Gessini; Riccardo Mincigrucci; Erika Giangrisostomi; Emiliano Principi; Flavio Capotondi; Emanuele Pedersoli; Michele Manfredda; Maya Kiskinova; Claudio Masciovecchio

    2015-01-01

    Three different Transient Grating setups are presented, with pulsed and continuous wave probe at different wavelengths, ranging from infrared to the extreme ultra violet region. Both heterodyne and homodyne detections are considered. Each scheme introduces variations with respect to the previous one, allowing moving from classical table top laser experiments towards a new four wave mixing scheme based on free electron laser radiation. A comparison between the various setups and the first resu...

  2. Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave Optical Parametric Oscillator-based Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslanov, D.D.; Spunei, M.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Cristescu, S.M.; Lindsay, I.D.; Lindsay, I.D.; Boller, Klaus J.; Persijn, S.T.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A fiber-amplified Distributed Bragg Reflector diode laser is used to pump a continuous wave, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO). The output radiation covers the 3–4 μm with ability of rapid (100 THz/s) and broad mode-hop-free tuning (5 cm−1). Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy is

  3. Improved ion acceleration via laser surface plasma waves excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigongiari, A. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Raynaud, M. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Riconda, C. [TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Héron, A. [CPHT, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2013-05-15

    The possibility of enhancing the emission of the ions accelerated in the interaction of a high intensity ultra-short (<100 fs) laser pulse with a thin target (<10λ{sub 0}), via surface plasma wave excitation is investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed for laser intensities ranging from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}. The surface wave is resonantly excited by the laser via the coupling with a modulation at the target surface. In the cases where the surface wave is excited, we find an enhancement of the maximum ion energy of a factor ∼2 compared to the cases where the target surface is flat.

  4. Ion temperature via laser scattering on ion Bernstein waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurden, G.A.; Ono, M.; Wong, K.L.

    1981-10-01

    Hydrogen ion temperature has been measured in a warm toroidal plasma with externally launched ion Bernstein waves detected by heterodyne CO 2 laser scattering. Radial scanning of the laser beam allows precise determination of k/sub perpendicular to/ for the finite ion Larmor radius wave (ω approx. less than or equal to 2Ω/sub i/). Knowledge of the magnetic field strength and ion concentration then give a radially resolved ion temperature from the dispersion relation. Probe measurements and Doppler broadening of ArII 4806A give excellent agreement

  5. High-precision terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave imaging method using continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Tianyi; Dai, Bing; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Wei; You, Chengwu; Wang, Kejia; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Shenglie; Yang, Zhengang

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the extensive application of terahertz (THz) imaging technologies in the field of aerospace, we exploit a THz frequency modulated continuous-wave imaging method with continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm to detect a multilayer heat shield made of special materials. This method uses the frequency modulation continuous-wave system to catch the reflected THz signal and then process the image data by the CWT with different basis functions. By calculating the sizes of the defects area in the final images and then comparing the results with real samples, a practical high-precision THz imaging method is demonstrated. Our method can be an effective tool for the THz nondestructive testing of composites, drugs, and some cultural heritages.

  6. Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Mikkelsen, Torben; Courtney, Michael

    averaging is done in two steps: 1) the weighted averaging of the wind speed in the probe volume of the laser beam; 2) the averaging of the wind speeds occurring on the circular path described by the conically scanning lidar. Therefore the standard deviation measured by a lidar resolves only the turbulence...... of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial...

  7. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowade, Rosita

    2010-12-15

    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  8. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowade, Rosita

    2010-12-01

    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  9. LASER PLASMA AND LASER APPLICATIONS: Plasma transparency in laser absorption waves in metal capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V. N.; Kozolupenko, A. P.; Sebrant, A. Yu

    1988-12-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the plasma transparency to heating radiation in capillaries when absorption waves propagated in these capillaries as a result of interaction with a CO2 laser pulse of 5-μs duration. When the length of the capillary was in excess of 20 mm, total absorption of the radiation by the plasma was observed at air pressures of 1-100 kPa. When the capillary length was 12 mm, a partial recovery of the transparency took place. A comparison was made with the dynamics and recovery of the plasma transparency when breakdown of air took place near the free surface.

  10. Nonlinear wave propagation in discrete and continuous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothos, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this review we try to capture some of the recent excitement induced by a large volume of theoretical and computational studies addressing nonlinear Schrödinger models (discrete and continuous) and the localized structures that they support. We focus on some prototypical structures, namely the breather solutions and solitary waves. In particular, we investigate the bifurcation of travelling wave solution in Discrete NLS system applying dynamical systems methods. Next, we examine the combined effects of cubic and quintic terms of the long range type in the dynamics of a double well potential. The relevant bifurcations, the stability of the branches and their dynamical implications are examined both in the reduced (ODE) and in the full (PDE) setting. We also offer an outlook on interesting possibilities for future work on this theme.

  11. Development of SMM wave laser scattering apparatus for the measurements of waves and turbulences in the tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Hamada, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Ikeda, M.; Nakamura, M.

    1980-01-01

    The SMM wave laser scattering apparatus has been developed for the measurement of the waves and turbulences in the plasma. This apparatus will help greatly to clarify the physics of RF heating of the tokamak plasma. The present status of main parts of the apparatus, the SMM wave laser and the Schottky barrier diode mixer for the heterodyne receiver, are described. (author)

  12. Challenges in noise removal from Doppler spectra acquired by a continuous-wave lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Foroughi Abari, Farzad; Mann, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    are presented. A method for determining the background noise spectrum without interrupting the transmission of the laser beam is described. Moreover, the dependency between the determination of the threshold of a Doppler spectrum with low signal-to-noise ratios and the characteristics of the wind flow......This paper is focused on the required post processing of Doppler spectra, acquired from a continuous-wave coherent lidar at high sampling rates (400 Hz) and under rapid scanning of the laser beam. In particular, the necessary steps followed for extracting the wind speed from such Doppler spectra...... are investigated and a systematic approach for removing the noise is outlined. The suggested post processing procedures are applied to two sample time series acquired by a short-range WindScanner during one second each....

  13. Influence of laser-supported detonation waves on metal drilling with pulsed CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuermer, E.; von Allmen, M.

    1978-01-01

    Drilling of highly reflective metals in an ambient atmosphere with single TEA-CO 2 -laser pulses of fluences between 300 and 6000 J/cm 2 is reported. The drilling process was investigated by measuring the time-resolved laser power reflected specularly from the targets during the interaction and by analyzing the craters produced. Experiments were performed in ambient air, argon, and helium. Target damage was found to be strongly influenced by a laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave in the ambient gas. If the laser fluence exceeded a material-dependent damage threshold (copper: 300 J/cm 2 ), drilling occurred, but the efficiency was inversely related to the duration of the LSD wave. Efficient material removal is possible if the LSD wave can be dissipated within a small fraction of the laser pulse duration. This was achieved by small-F-number focusing of TEM 00 laser pulses of 5-μs duration. Replacing the ambient air at the target by a gas of lower density results in a further significant reduction of LSD-wave lifetime, and a correlated increase of the drilling yield. On copper targets a maximum drilling yield of 10 -5 cm 3 /J was observed in ambient helium at a laser fluence of 1 kJ/cm 2

  14. Simple model for decay of laser generated shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainor, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple model is derived to calculate the hydrodynamic decay of laser-generated shock waves. Comparison with detailed hydrocode simulations shows good agreement between calculated time evolution of shock pressure, position, and instantaneous pressure profile. Reliability of the model decreases in regions of the target where superthermal-electron preheat effects become comparable to shock effects

  15. Commissioning status of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, P.D.; Dooling, J.; Lorello, M.; Rathke, J.; Carwardine, J.; Godden, D.; Pile, G.; Yule, T.; Zinneman, T.

    1993-01-01

    Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Argonne National Laboratory, and Culham Laboratory are commissioning the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) in a facility at Argonne National Laboratory. CWDD is a high-brightness, high-current, 7.5-MeV negative deuterium accelerator. The 352-MHz rf accelerating cavities are cryogenically cooled with supercritical neon to reduce the rf power requirements. Installation of the accelerator into the Argonne facility began in May 1991, and first beam from the injector was extracted in February 1992. The accelerator and facility and described, and current status and future plans are discussed

  16. Soot volume fraction fields in unsteady axis-symmetric flames by continuous laser extinction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Bonnety, Jérôme; Guibert, Philippe; Morin, Céline; Legros, Guillaume

    2012-12-17

    A Laser Extinction Method has been set up to provide two-dimensional soot volume fraction field time history at a tunable frequency up to 70 Hz inside an axis-symmetric diffusion flame experiencing slow unsteady phenomena preserving the symmetry. The use of a continuous wave laser as the light source enables this repetition rate, which is an incremental advance in the laser extinction technique. The technique is shown to allow a fine description of the soot volume fraction field in a flickering flame exhibiting a 12.6 Hz flickering phenomenon. Within this range of repetition rate, the technique and its subsequent post-processing require neither any method for time-domain reconstruction nor any correction for energy intrusion. Possibly complemented by such a reconstruction method, the technique should support further soot volume fraction database in oscillating flames that exhibit characteristic times relevant to the current efforts in the validation of soot processes modeling.

  17. Phase velocity of nonlinear plasma waves in the laser beat-wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The suggested plasma-laser accelerator is an attempt to achieve a very high energy gradient by resonantly exciting a longitudinal wave traveling at close to the speed of light in cold plasma by means of the beat-wave generated by the transverse fields in two laser beams. Previous calculations to all orders in v/sub z/ have been done essentially from the laboratory frame point of view and have treated the plasma wave as having sharply defined phase velocity equal to the speed of light. However a high energy particle beam undergoing acceleration sees the plasma wave from a nearly light-like frame of reference and hence is very sensitive to small deviations in its phase velocity. Here the authors introduce a calculational scheme that includes all orders in v/sub z/ and in the plasma density, and additionally takes into account the influence of plasma nonlinearities on the wave's phase velocity. The main assumption is that the laser frequencies are very large compared to the plasma frequency - under which they are able to in essence formally sum up all orders of forward Raman scattering. They find that the nonlinear plasma wave does not have simply a single phase velocity - it is really a superposition of many - but that the beat-wave which drives it is usefully described by a non-local effective phase velocity function

  18. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Mark H.; Macklin, John J.; Harris, Stephen E.

    1989-09-26

    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  19. Subsurface plasma in beam of continuous CO2-laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danytsikov, Y. V.; Dymshakov, V. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Pismennyy, V. D.; Ryazanov, A. V.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments performed at the Institute of Atomic Energy established the conditions for formation of subsurface plasma in substances by laser radiation and its characteristics. A quasi-continuous CO2 laser emitting square pulses of 0.1 to 1.0 ms duration and 1 to 10 kW power as well as a continuous CO2 laser served as radiation sources. Radiation was focused on spots 0.1 to 0.5 mm in diameter and maintained at levels ensuring constant power density during the interaction time, while the temperature of the target surface was measured continuously. Metals, graphite and dielectric materials were tested with laser action taking place in air N2 + O2 mixtures, Ar or He atmosphere under pressures of 0.01 to 1.0 atm. Data on radiation intensity thresholds for evaporation and plasma formation were obtained. On the basis of these thresholds, combined with data on energy balance and the temperature profile in plasma layers, a universal state diagram was constructed for subsurface plasma with nonquantified surface temperature and radiation intensity coordinates.

  20. Continuous measurement of uranium concentrations with the laser spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.G.; Cremers, D.A.; Wachter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been applied to the continuous determination of uranium concentrations between 0.1 and 300 g/L in flowing solutions. The technique is rapid, noninvasive, and unaffected by radioactivity. A concentration of 10 g/L was measured with 0.8% precision in 3 min. Substances that absorb at the laser wavelength, suspended materials, and variations in the acidity of the solution have little or no effect on the results. High concentrations of zirconium, cadmium, aluminum, or stainless steel in solution do not interfere

  1. Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, Ph.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Schafer, K. J.; Mairesse, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use a train of sub-200 attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with energies just above the ionization threshold in argon to create a train of temporally localized electron wave packets. We study the energy transfer from a strong infrared (IR) laser field to the ionized electrons as a function of the delay between the XUV and IR fields. When the wave packets are born at the zero crossings of the IR field, a significant amount of energy (∼20 eV) is transferred from the field to the electrons. This results in dramatically enhanced above-threshold ionization in conditions where the IR field alone does not induce any significant ionization. Because both the energy and duration of the wave packets can be varied independently of the IR laser, they are valuable tools for studying and controlling strong-field processes

  2. Ripplon laser through stimulated emission mediated by water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Samuel; Martin, Leopoldo L.; Maayani, Shai; Carmon, Tal

    2016-12-01

    Lasers rely on stimulated electronic transition, a quantum phenomenon in the form of population inversion. In contrast, phonon masers depend on stimulated Raman scattering and are entirely classical. Here we extend Raman lasers to rely on capillary waves, which are unique to the liquid phase of matter and relate to the attraction between intimate fluid particles. We fabricate resonators that co-host capillary and optical modes, control them to operate at their non-resolved sideband and observe stimulated capillary scattering and the coherent excitation of capillary resonances at kilohertz rates (which can be heard in audio files recorded by us). By exchanging energy between electromagnetic and capillary waves, we bridge the interfacial tension phenomena at the liquid phase boundary to optics. This approach may impact optofluidics by allowing optical control, interrogation and cooling of water waves.

  3. Exploratory laser-driven shock wave studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.

    1977-11-01

    We show the results of a feasibility study for investigating shock structure and for measuring equation-of-state parameters using high-energy, short-pulse lasers. We discuss the temporal and spatial structure of the luminosity from laser-driven shock unloading in aluminum foils. We demonstrate that shock velocity can be measured by observing the time interval between shock emergence across two thicknesses and show data for shocks of 1.3 and 2.1 Mbar. The fact that we observe shock fronts cleanly breaking through steps as small as 3 μm indicates that the shock front thickness is very small in the few megabar region; this is the first experimental verification that these fronts are not more than a few micrometers thick. We present approximate measurements of free-surface velocity. Finally, we speculate on the use of these techniques to obtain detailed equation-of-state data

  4. Continuous-wave violet generation at 373.5 nm by frequency-doubled power-scaled near-infrared emitting Pr:YAlO.sub.3./sub. laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fibrich, Martin; Jelínková, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 10 (2013), "105814-1"-"105814-4" ISSN 1612-2011 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : blue generation * emission * YAlO 3 Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.964, year: 2013

  5. Modulated Sine Waves for Differential Absorption Measurements Using a CW Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor); Lin, Bing (Inventor); Nehrir, Amin R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A continuous wave Light Detection and Ranging (CW LiDAR) system utilizes two or more laser frequencies and time or range shifted pseudorandom noise (PN) codes to discriminate between the laser frequencies. The performance of these codes can be improved by subtracting out the bias before processing. The CW LiDAR system may be mounted to an artificial satellite orbiting the earth, and the relative strength of the return signal for each frequency can be utilized to determine the concentration of selected gases or other substances in the atmosphere.

  6. Continuously tunable solution-processed organic semiconductor DFB lasers pumped by laser diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkhammer, Sönke; Liu, Xin; Huska, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of continuously tunable, solution-processed distributed feedback (DFB) lasers in the visible regime is reported. Continuous thin film thickness gradients were achieved by means of horizontal dipping of several conjugated polymer and blended small molecule solu...

  7. Compact continuous HF microwave-discharge mixing laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Bertrand, L.; Conturie, Y.; Mah, S.Q.; Monchalin, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of a continuous chemical laser is discussed. Fluorine atoms are produced in a SF 6 + He mixture by means of a microwave-discharge apparatus that operates in a continuous mode. A maximum output power of 4 W is obtained for a 5 cm length of amplifying medium; this power output is primarily due to P transitions from the 1-0 and 2-1 bands. Weak transitions in the 3-2 band are also observed. The maximum value of measured gain is 0.11 cm -1 ; good agreement is obtained between theoretical and experimental values of gain. (auth)

  8. Formation and decay of laser-generated shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The process of formation and decay of laser-generated shock waves is described by a hydrodynamic model. Measurements of shock velocities are performed on copper foils for incident intensities between 3 x 10/sup 11/ and 3 x 10/sup 12/ W/cm/sup 2/, with the use of piezoelectric detectors. Maximum induced pressures are found between 0.5 and 1.2 Mbar in the intensity range considered. Analysis of the results with the shock-evolution model outlines the importance of the decay process of laser-generated shocks.

  9. Exploiting large-scale correlations to detect continuous gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Holger J; Allen, Bruce

    2009-10-30

    Fully coherent searches (over realistic ranges of parameter space and year-long observation times) for unknown sources of continuous gravitational waves are computationally prohibitive. Less expensive hierarchical searches divide the data into shorter segments which are analyzed coherently, then detection statistics from different segments are combined incoherently. The novel method presented here solves the long-standing problem of how best to do the incoherent combination. The optimal solution exploits large-scale parameter-space correlations in the coherent detection statistic. Application to simulated data shows dramatic sensitivity improvements compared with previously available (ad hoc) methods, increasing the spatial volume probed by more than 2 orders of magnitude at lower computational cost.

  10. Resonance control for a cw [continuous wave] accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.M.; Biddle, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A resonance-control technique is described that has been successfully applied to several cw accelerating structures built by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the National Bureau of Standards and for the University of Illinois. The technique involves sensing the rf fields in an accelerating structure as well as the rf power feeding into the cavity and, then, using the measurement to control the resonant frequency of the structure by altering the temperature of the structure. The temperature of the structure is altered by adjusting the temperature of the circulating cooling water. The technique has been applied to continuous wave (cw) side-coupled cavities only but should have applications with most high-average-power accelerator structures. Some additional effort would be required for pulsed systems

  11. Spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors using continuous-wave supercontinuum sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Vishal; Prakash, Roopa; Nagarjun, K. P.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    A simple and powerful method using continuous wave supercontinuum lasers is demonstrated to perform spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors in the NIR Band. In contrast to existing techniques, this method allows for a simple system to achieve the goal, requiring just a standard continuous wave(CW) high-power fiber laser source and an RF spectrum analyzer. From our recent work, we summarize methods to easily convert any high-power fiber laser into a CW supercontinuum. These sources in the time domain exhibit interesting properties all the way down to the femtosecond time scale. This enables measurement of broadband frequency response of photodetectors while the wide optical spectrum of the supercontinuum can be spectrally filtered to obtain this information in a spectrally resolved fashion. The method involves looking at the RF spectrum of the output of a photodetector under test when incident with the supercontinuum. By using prior knowledge of the RF spectrum of the source, the frequency response can be calculated. We utilize two techniques for calibration of the source spectrum, one using a prior measurement and the other relying on a fitted model. Here, we characterize multiple photodetectors from 150MHz bandwidth to >20GHz bandwidth at multiple bands in the NIR region. We utilize a supercontinuum source spanning over 700nm bandwidth from 1300nm to 2000nm. For spectrally resolved measurement, we utilize multiple wavelength bands such as around 1400nm and 1600nm. Interesting behavior was observed in the frequency response of the photodetectors when comparing broadband spectral excitation versus narrower band excitation.

  12. Inverse free electron laser beat-wave accelerator research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.C.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1993-09-01

    A calculation on the stabilization of the sideband instability in the free electron laser (FEL) and inverse FEL (IFEL) was completed. The issue arises in connection with the use of a tapered (''variable-parameter'') undulator of extended length, such as might be used in an ''enhanced efficiency'' traveling-wave FEL or an IFEL accelerator. In addition, the FEL facility at Columbia was configured as a traveling wave amplifier for a 10-kW signal from a 24-GHz magnetron. The space charge field in the bunches of the FEL was measured. Completed work has been published

  13. Simulations of nonlinear continuous wave pressure fields in FOCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Hamilton, Mark F.; McGough, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    The Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation is a parabolic approximation to the Westervelt equation that models the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and nonlinearity. Although the KZK equation is only valid in the far field of the paraxial region for mildly focused or unfocused transducers, the KZK equation is widely applied in medical ultrasound simulations. For a continuous wave input, the KZK equation is effectively modeled by the Bergen Code [J. Berntsen, Numerical Calculations of Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, in M. F. Hamilton and D. T. Blackstock, editors, Frontiers of Nonlinear Acoustics: Proceedings of 12th ISNA, Elsevier, 1990], which is a finite difference model that utilizes operator splitting. Similar C++ routines have been developed for FOCUS, the `Fast Object-Oriented C++ Ultrasound Simulator' (http://www.egr.msu.edu/˜fultras-web) to calculate nonlinear pressure fields generated by axisymmetric flat circular and spherically focused ultrasound transducers. This new routine complements an existing FOCUS program that models nonlinear ultrasound propagation with the angular spectrum approach [P. T. Christopher and K. J. Parker, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 488-499 (1991)]. Results obtained from these two nonlinear ultrasound simulation approaches are evaluated and compared for continuous wave linear simulations. The simulation results match closely in the farfield of the paraxial region, but the results differ in the nearfield. The nonlinear pressure field generated by a spherically focused transducer with a peak surface pressure of 0.2MPa radiating in a lossy medium with β = 3.5 is simulated, and the computation times are also evaluated. The nonlinear simulation results demonstrate acceptable agreement in the focal zone. These two related nonlinear simulation approaches are now included with FOCUS to enable convenient simulations of nonlinear pressure fields on desktop and laptop computers.

  14. Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.

    1996-01-01

    A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.

  15. Continuous-wave room-temperature diamond maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Jonathan D.; Salvadori, Enrico; Sathian, Juna; Alford, Neil Mcn.; Kay, Christopher W. M.

    2018-03-01

    The maser—the microwave progenitor of the optical laser—has been confined to relative obscurity owing to its reliance on cryogenic refrigeration and high-vacuum systems. Despite this, it has found application in deep-space communications and radio astronomy owing to its unparalleled performance as a low-noise amplifier and oscillator. The recent demonstration of a room-temperature solid-state maser that utilizes polarized electron populations within the triplet states of photo-excited pentacene molecules in a p-terphenyl host paves the way for a new class of maser. However, p-terphenyl has poor thermal and mechanical properties, and the decay rates of the triplet sublevel of pentacene mean that only pulsed maser operation has been observed in this system. Alternative materials are therefore required to achieve continuous emission: inorganic materials that contain spin defects, such as diamond and silicon carbide, have been proposed. Here we report a continuous-wave room-temperature maser oscillator using optically pumped nitrogen–vacancy defect centres in diamond. This demonstration highlights the potential of room-temperature solid-state masers for use in a new generation of microwave devices that could find application in medicine, security, sensing and quantum technologies.

  16. High-power continuous-wave mid-infrared radiation generated by difference frequency mixing of diode-laser-seeded fiber amplifiers and its application to dual-beam spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, D. G.; Richter, D.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Goldberg, L.; Koplow, J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the generation of up to 0.7 mW of narrow-linewidth (radiation at 3.3 micrometers by difference frequency mixing of a Nd:YAG-seeded 1.6-W Yb fiber amplifier and a 1.5-micrometers diode-laser-seeded 0.6-W Er/Yb fiber amplifier in periodically poled LiNbO3. A conversion efficiency of 0.09%/W (0.47 mWW-2 cm-1) was achieved. A room-air CH4 spectrum acquired with a compact 80-m multipass cell and a dual-beam spectroscopic configuration indicates an absorption sensitivity of +/-2.8 x 10(-5) (+/-1 sigma), corresponding to a sub-parts-in-10(9) (ppb) CH4 sensitivity (0.8 ppb).

  17. Pump depletion limited evolution of the relativistic plasma wave-front in a forced laser-wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, F; Clayton, C E; Marsh, K A; Pak, A E; Ralph, J E; Joshi, C; Lopes, N C

    2009-01-01

    In a forced laser-wakefield accelerator experiment (Malka et al 2002 Science 298 1596) where the length of the pump laser pulse is a few plasma periods long, the leading edge of the laser pulse undergoes frequency downshifting and head erosion as the laser energy is transferred to the wake. Therefore, after some propagation distance, the group velocity of the leading edge of the pump pulse-and thus of the driven electron plasma wave-will slow down. This can have implications for the dephasing length of the accelerated electrons and therefore needs to be understood experimentally. We have carried out an experimental investigation where we have measured the velocity v f of the 'wave-front' of the plasma wave driven by a nominally 50 fs (full width half maximum), intense (a 0 ≅ 1), 0.815 μm laser pulse. To determine the speed of the wave front, time- and space-resolved refractometry, interferometry and Thomson scattering were used. Although a laser pulse propagating through a relatively low-density plasma (n e = 1.3 x 10 19 cm -3 ) showed no measurable changes in v f over 1.3 mm (and no accelerated electrons), a high-density plasma (n e = 5 x 10 19 cm -3 ) generated accelerated electrons and showed a continuous change in v f as the laser pulse propagated through the plasma. Possible causes and consequences of the observed v f evolution are discussed.

  18. Laser Generated Leaky Acoustic Waves for Needle Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai-Wen; Wang, Yi-An; Li, Pai-Chi

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided needle operation is usually used to visualize both tissue and needle position such as tissue biopsy and localized drug delivery. However, the transducer-needle orientation is limited due to reflection of the acoustic waves. We proposed a leaky acoustic wave method to visualize the needle position and orientation. Laser pulses are emitted on top of the needle to generate acoustic waves; then, these acoustic waves propagate along the needle surface. Leaky wave signals are detected by the US array transducer. The needle position can be calculated by phase velocities of two different wave modes and their corresponding emission angles. In our experiments, a series of needles was inserted into a tissue mimicking phantom and porcine tissue to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The results show that the detection depth is up to 51 mm and the insertion angle is up to 40° with needles of different diameters. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach outperforms the conventional B-mode US-guided needle operation in terms of the detection range while achieving similar accuracy. The proposed method reveals the potentials for further clinical applications.

  19. LAGRANGE: LAser GRavitational-wave ANtenna in GEodetic Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, S.; Conklin, J. W.; Balakrishnan, K.; Aguero, V.; Alfauwaz, A.; Aljadaan, A.; Almajed, M.; Altwaijry, H.; Saud, T. A.; Byer, R. L.; Bower, K.; Costello, B.; Cutler, G. D.; DeBra, D. B.; Faied, D. M.; Foster, C.; Genova, A. L.; Hanson, J.; Hooper, K.; Hultgren, E.; Klavins, A.; Lantz, B.; Lipa, J. A.; Palmer, A.; Plante, B.; Sanchez, H. S.; Saraf, S.; Schaechter, D.; Shu, K.; Smith, E.; Tenerelli, D.; Vanbezooijen, R.; Vasudevan, G.; Williams, S. D.; Worden, S. P.; Zhou, J.; Zoellner, A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new space gravitational wave observatory design called LAG-RANGE that maintains all important LISA science at about half the cost and with reduced technical risk. It consists of three drag-free spacecraft in a geocentric formation. Fixed antennas allow continuous contact with the Earth, solving the problem of communications bandwidth and latency. A 70 mm diameter sphere with a 35 mm gap to its enclosure serves as the single inertial reference per spacecraft, operating in “true” drag-free mode (no test mass forcing). Other advantages are: a simple caging design based on the DISCOS 1972 drag-free mission, an all optical read-out with pm fine and nm coarse sensors, and the extensive technology heritage from the Honeywell gyroscopes, and the DISCOS and Gravity Probe B drag-free sensors. An Interferometric Measurement System, designed with reflective optics and a highly stabilized frequency standard, performs the ranging between test masses and requires a single optical bench with one laser per spacecraft. Two 20 cm diameter telescopes per spacecraft, each with infield pointing, incorporate novel technology developed for advanced optical systems by Lockheed Martin, who also designed the spacecraft based on a multi-flight proven bus structure. Additional technological advancements include updated drag-free propulsion, thermal control, charge management systems, and materials. LAGRANGE subsystems are designed to be scalable and modular, making them interchangeable with those of LISA or other gravitational science missions. We plan to space qualify critical technologies on small and nano satellite flights, with the first launch (UV-LED Sat) in 2013.

  20. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  1. LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Adhikari, R; Anderson, S B; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Aso, Y; Ballmer, S; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Aulbert, C; Allen, G; Amin, R S; Anderson, W G; Armor, P; Arain, M A; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Babak, S; Baker, P

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is to detect and study gravitational waves (GWs) of astrophysical origin. Direct detection of GWs holds the promise of testing general relativity in the strong-field regime, of providing a new probe of exotic objects such as black holes and neutron stars and of uncovering unanticipated new astrophysics. LIGO, a joint Caltech-MIT project supported by the National Science Foundation, operates three multi-kilometer interferometers at two widely separated sites in the United States. These detectors are the result of decades of worldwide technology development, design, construction and commissioning. They are now operating at their design sensitivity, and are sensitive to gravitational wave strains smaller than one part in 10 21 . With this unprecedented sensitivity, the data are being analyzed to detect or place limits on GWs from a variety of potential astrophysical sources.

  2. Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidaux, Yves, E-mail: yves.bidaux@alpeslasers.ch [Alpes Lasers SA, 1-3 Passsage Max Meuron, CH-2001 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bismuto, Alfredo, E-mail: alfredo.bismuto@alpeslasers.ch; Tardy, Camille; Terazzi, Romain; Gresch, Tobias; Blaser, Stéphane; Muller, Antoine [Alpes Lasers SA, 1-3 Passsage Max Meuron, CH-2001 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Faist, Jerome [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-11-30

    In this work, we demonstrate broad electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers at 9.25 μm, 8.5 μm, and 4.4 μm in continuous wave operation using Vernier-effect distributed Bragg reflectors based on superstructure gratings. Integrated micro-heaters allow to switch from one Vernier channel to the other, while predictable and mode-hop free tuning can be obtained in each channel modulating the laser current with a side mode suppression ratio as high as 30 dB. The resulting device behaves effectively as a switchable multicolour tunable source. Tuning up to 6.5% of the central wavelength is observed. To prove the importance of the developed devices for high resolution molecular spectroscopy, a N{sub 2}O absorption spectrum has been measured.

  3. Laser-driven Mach waves for gigabar-range shock experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damian; Lazicki, Amy; Coppari, Federica; Saunders, Alison; Nilsen, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Mach reflection offers possibilities for generating planar, supported shocks at higher pressures than are practical even with laser ablation. We have studied the formation of Mach waves by algebraic solution and hydrocode simulation for drive pressures at much than reported previously, and for realistic equations of state. We predict that Mach reflection continues to occur as the drive pressure increases, and the pressure enhancement increases monotonically with drive pressure even though the ``enhancement spike'' characteristic of low-pressure Mach waves disappears. The growth angle also increases monotonically with pressure, so a higher drive pressure seems always to be an advantage. However, there are conditions where the Mach wave is perturbed by reflections. We have performed trial experiments at the Omega facility, using a laser-heated halfraum to induce a Mach wave in a polystyrene cone. Pulse length and energy limitations meant that the drive was not maintained long enough to fully support the shock, but the results indicated a Mach wave of 25-30 TPa from a drive pressure of 5-6 TPa, consistent with simulations. A similar configuration should be tested at the NIF, and a Z-pinch driven configuration may be possible. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Modes in light wave propagating in semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, Margarita A.

    1994-01-01

    The study of semiconductor laser based on an analogy of the Schrodinger equation and an equation describing light wave propagation in nonhomogeneous medium is developed. The active region of semiconductor laser is considered as optical waveguide confining the electromagnetic field in the cross-section (x,y) and allowing waveguide propagation along the laser resonator (z). The mode structure is investigated taking into account the transversal and what is the important part of the suggested consideration longitudinal nonhomogeneity of the optical waveguide. It is shown that the Gaussian modes in the case correspond to spatial squeezing and correlation. Spatially squeezed two-mode structure of nonhomogeneous optical waveguide is given explicitly. Distribution of light among the laser discrete modes is presented. Properties of the spatially squeezed two-mode field are described. The analog of Franck-Condon principle for finding the maxima of the distribution function and the analog of Ramsauer effect for control of spatial distribution of laser emission are discussed.

  5. Laser light scattering in a laser-induced argon plasma: Investigations of the shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrzywka, B. [Obserwatorium Astronomiczne na Suhorze, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny, ulica Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Mendys, A., E-mail: agata.mendys@uj.edu.pl [Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Dzierzega, K.; Grabiec, M. [Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Pellerin, S. [GREMI, site de Bourges, Universite d' Orleans, CNRS, rue Gaston Berger BP 4043, 18028 Bourges (France)

    2012-08-15

    Shock wave produced by a laser induced spark in argon at atmospheric pressure was examined using Rayleigh and Thomson scattering. The spark was generated by focusing a laser pulse from the second harmonic ({lambda} = 532 nm) of a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser using an 80 mm focal length lens, with a fluence of 2 kJ{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. Images of the spark emission were recorded for times between 30 ns and 100 {mu}s after the laser pulse in order to characterize its spatial evolution. The position of the shock wave at several instants of its evolution and for several plasma regions was determined from the Rayleigh-scattered light of another nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 40 J{center_dot}cm{sup -2} fluence). Simultaneously, Thomson scattering technique was applied to determine the electron density and temperature in the hot plasma core. Attempts were made to describe the temporal evolution of the shock wave within a self-similar model, both by the simple Sedov-Taylor formula as well as its extension deduced by de Izarra. The temporal radial evolution of the shock position is similar to that obtained within theory taking into account the counter pressure of the ambient gas. Density profiles just behind the shock front are in qualitative agreement with those obtained by numerically solving the Euler equations for instantaneous explosion at a point with counter pressure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated shock wave evolution by Rayleigh scattering method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2D map of shockwave position for several times after plasma generation is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shock wave evolution is not satisfactorily described within self-similar models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evolution of shock position similar to theory taking into account counter pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density profile behind the shock similar to numerical solution of Euler equations.

  6. Continuous particle focusing in a waved microchannel using negative dc dielectrophoresis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming; Li, Shunbo; Cao, Wenbin; Li, Weihua; Wen, Weijia; Alici, Gursel

    2012-01-01

    We present a waved microchannel for continuous focusing of microparticles and cells using negative direct current (dc) dielectrophoresis. The waved channel is composed of consecutive s-shaped curved channels in series to generate an electric field

  7. Toward the Extreme Ultra Violet Four Wave Mixing Experiments: From Table Top Lasers to Fourth Generation Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cucini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different Transient Grating setups are presented, with pulsed and continuous wave probe at different wavelengths, ranging from infrared to the extreme ultra violet region. Both heterodyne and homodyne detections are considered. Each scheme introduces variations with respect to the previous one, allowing moving from classical table top laser experiments towards a new four wave mixing scheme based on free electron laser radiation. A comparison between the various setups and the first results from extreme ultra violet transient grating experiments is also discussed.

  8. Ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene using a continuous CO2 laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstopyatov, E M

    2005-01-01

    The ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is studied using a continuous CO 2 laser beam of 30-50 W at a mean intensity of 0.05-50 MW m -2 . The ablation products and changes in the target layer are examined using infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The main experiments were conducted with an unfocused beam of intensity 0.9-1.2 MW m -2 . The radiation-polymer interaction characteristics were found to change appreciably as the ablation conditions are approached. Within the polymer layer, light scattering diminishes and true resonant light absorption increases. Two distinct polymer components, which differ primarily in their resistance to CO 2 laser radiation, were found to exist under ablation conditions. The less stable component depolymerizes intensively, while the more resistant component is blown up into fibres by intense gas flow. The reasons behind this behaviour are discussed. Preliminary gamma irradiation of PTFE is found to have a significant influence on the laser ablation process

  9. Reflection and diffraction of atomic de Broglie waves by evanescent laser waves. Bare-state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiaoping; Witte, N.S.; Hollenberg, C.L.; Opat, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two methods are presented for the investigation of the reflection and diffraction of atoms by gratings formed either by standing or travelling evanescent laser waves. Both methods use the bare-state rather than dressed-state picture. One method is based on the Born series, whereas the other is based on the Laplace transformation of the coupled differential equations. The two methods yield the same theoretical expressions for the reflected and diffracted atomic waves in the whole space including the interaction and the asymptotic regions. 1 ref., 1 fig

  10. Guided ultrasonic waves for determining effective orthotropic material parameters of continuous-fiber reinforced thermoplastic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webersen, Manuel; Johannesmann, Sarah; Düchting, Julia; Claes, Leander; Henning, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic methods are widely established in the NDE/NDT community, where they are mostly used for the detection of flaws and structural damage in various components. A different goal, despite the similar technological approach, is non-destructive material characterization, i.e. the determination of parameters like Young's modulus. Only few works on this topic have considered materials with high damping and strong anisotropy, such as continuous-fiber reinforced plastics, but due to the increasing demand in the industry, appropriate methods are needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate the application of laser-induced ultrasonic Lamb waves for the characterization of fiber-reinforced plastic plates, providing effective parameters for a homogeneous, orthotropic material model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptive clustering procedure for continuous gravitational wave searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avneet; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Walsh, Sinéad

    2017-10-01

    In hierarchical searches for continuous gravitational waves, clustering of candidates is an important post-processing step because it reduces the number of noise candidates that are followed up at successive stages [J. Aasi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 102002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevD.88.102002; B. Behnke, M. A. Papa, and R. Prix, Phys. Rev. D 91, 064007 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.064007; M. A. Papa et al., Phys. Rev. D 94, 122006 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.122006]. Previous clustering procedures bundled together nearby candidates ascribing them to the same root cause (be it a signal or a disturbance), based on a predefined cluster volume. In this paper, we present a procedure that adapts the cluster volume to the data itself and checks for consistency of such volume with what is expected from a signal. This significantly improves the noise rejection capabilities at fixed detection threshold, and at fixed computing resources for the follow-up stages, this results in an overall more sensitive search. This new procedure was employed in the first Einstein@Home search on data from the first science run of the advanced LIGO detectors (O1) [LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, arXiv:1707.02669 [Phys. Rev. D (to be published)

  12. Environmental assessment of the proposed Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    An assessment was made of the potential environmental impacts of construction and operation of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), including an evaluation of alternative actions. Key elements considered were on- and off-site radiological effects and potential impacts to cultural resources. The radiological consequences of routine operations of the CWDD are readily reduced to insignificant levels by bulk shielding, confinement, and containment. The radiation dose to the maximally exposed off-site individual would be 0.52 mrem/yr from direct radiation and 1.2 x 10 -3 mrem/yr from airborne radionuclides, based on maximum planned facility operation. The maximum credible postulated accident would result in a dose to the maximally exposed individual of less than 20 mrem. A cultural resource survey has determined that the location for the CWDD has, no cultural resource sites or materials and construction is permitted by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Demands for utility services would require only about two percent of excess capacity already installed at Argonne. Other environmental impact categories were considered, including socioeconomic effects, aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna, wetlands, and water and air quality

  13. The Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) design and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M. [Grumman Space and Electronics Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States); Nightingale, M.P.S. [AEA Industrial Technology, Culham (United Kingdom); Yule, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The design of the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) and the status of the fabricated hardware is presented. The CWDD is a high brightness, 352 MHz, CW linear accelerator designed to deliver a 7.54 MeV, 80 mA D{sup {minus}} beam at a transverse normalized rms emittance of 0.11 {pi} mm-mrad and a longitudinal rms emittance of 0.20 {pi} mm-mrad. End-to-end beam dynamics analysis for nominal and off-design conditions is described. The tuning and predicted operational performance os the as-built device are also discussed. These results all indicate that the present design can meet the output performance specifications in the presence of combined errors at the limits of the specified engineering tolerances. Preliminary injector operations have been conducted at AEA Technologies, Culham Laboratory and at Argonne National Laboratory, where the CWDD is sited. Initial RGQ beam experiments at Argonne are projected for October 1993. DTL installation and commissioning will be completed in 1994.

  14. Relativistic solitary waves modulating long laser pulses in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arriaga, G; Siminos, E; Lefebvre, E

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence of solitary electromagnetic waves trapped in a self-generated Langmuir wave and embedded in an infinitely long circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating through a plasma. From a mathematical point of view they are exact solutions of the one-dimensional relativistic cold fluid plasma model with nonvanishing boundary conditions. Under the assumption of travelling wave solutions with velocity V and vector potential frequency ω, the fluid model is reduced to a Hamiltonian system. The solitary waves are homoclinic (grey solitons) or heteroclinic (dark solitons) orbits to fixed points. Using a dynamical systems description of the Hamiltonian system and a spectral method, we identify a large variety of solitary waves, including asymmetric ones, discuss their disappearance for certain parameter values and classify them according to (i) grey or dark character, (ii) the number of humps of the vector potential envelope and (iii) their symmetries. The solutions come in continuous families in the parametric V-ω plane and extend up to velocities that approach the speed of light. The stability of certain types of grey solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell simulations that demonstrate their propagation for a few tens of the inverse of the plasma frequency.

  15. Design study of a traveling-wave Thomson-scattering experiment for the realization of optical free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiniger, Klaus; Loeser, Markus; Pausch, Richard; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Albach, Daniel; Debus, Alexander; Roeser, Fabian; Siebold, Matthias; Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental setup strategy for the realization of an optical free-electron laser (OFEL) in the Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering geometry (TWTS). In TWTS, the electric field of petawatt class, pulse-front tilted laser pulses is used to provide an optical undulator field. This is passed by a relativistic electron bunch so that electron direction of motion and laser propagation direction enclose an interaction angle. The combination of side scattering and pulse-front tilt provides continuous overlap of electrons and laser pulse over meter scale distances which are achieved with centimeter wide laser pulses. An experimental challenge lies in shaping of these wide laser pulses in terms of laser dispersion compensation along the electron trajectory and focusing. In the talk we show how diffraction gratings in combination with mirrors are used to introduce and control dispersion of the laser in order to provide a plane wave laser field along the electron trajectory. Furthermore we give tolerance limits on alignment errors to operate the OFEL. Example setups illustrate functioning and demonstrate feasibility of the scheme.

  16. Laser shock wave consolidation of nanodiamond powders on aluminum 319

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molian, Pal [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS, and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States)], E-mail: molian@iastate.edu; Molian, Raathai; Nair, Rajeev [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS, and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A novel coating approach, based on laser shock wave generation, was employed to induce compressive pressures up to 5 GPa and compact nanodiamond (ND) powders (4-8 nm) on aluminum 319 substrate. Raman scattering indicated that the coating consisted of amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite with peaks at 1360 cm{sup -1} and 1600 cm{sup -1} respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a wavy, non-uniform coating with an average thickness of 40 {mu}m and absence of thermal effect on the surrounding material. The phase transition from nanodiamond to other phases of carbon is responsible for the increased coating thickness. Vicker's microhardness test showed hardness in excess of 1000 kg{sub f}/mm{sup 2} (10 GPa) while nanoindentation test indicated much lower hardness in the range of 20 MPa to 2 GPa. Optical surface profilometry traces displayed slightly uneven surfaces compared to the bare aluminum with an average surface roughness (R{sub a}) in the range of 1.5-4 {mu}m depending on the shock wave pressure and type of confining medium. Ball-on-disc tribometer tests showed that the coefficient of friction and wear rate were substantially lower than the smoother, bare aluminum sample. Laser shock wave process has thus aided in the generation of a strong, wear resistant, durable carbon composite coating on aluminum 319 substrate.

  17. Decay of a laser generated shock wave in an aluminium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werdiger, M.

    1993-09-01

    When a shock wave arrives at the near surface of a solid material, a radical and fast change occurs in the reflection properties of the material. The phenomenon is used in the present work in order to develop a new way to measure the transit time of a shock wave in a target. A 10 milliwatt He:Ne laser is directed toward the rear surface of the target. The reflected beam arrives at a photo-diode with a fast rise time of 150 psec which detects the instant of the change in the reflection. This technique, called 'continuous back lightning', is used in experiments with aluminium foil thickness in the range of 40μm ≤x≥ 1000μm. The shock wave is induced by a laser pulse of an intensity of 3*10 13 W/cm 2 . The results show two main physical regimes: in the first one 40μ ≤x≥ 210μm, there is a constant shock wave velocity which in our experiments was measured to be (12.81±0.67)km/s. In the second range of the thickness where 300μm there is a decay of the shock velocity. For x ≥ 210μm the geometry is one dimensional for our experimental conditions, while for x ≥ 300μm the 1-D geometry changes to 2 dimensional (2-D) geometry. The 2-D shock wave decay asymptotically (x→∞ to an acoustic wave. shock wave is described by a pressure scaling as x -n (n is a positive constant). The phenomenological equation of the state is taken to be P=A**u s + B*u s 2 +Bu s , where P is the pressure, u s - the shock velocity, A and B are constants. Applying our experimental results to the solution of the differential equation in this model A*x 2 ± B*x=C*x -n yields a value of n in the range 3.16 ≤n≥ 3.51. This pressure scaling law agrees with the self-similar solution of a concentrated impact on a surface between two media. This situation is well simulated by the laser deposition energy on a metal surface. In the experiment a 5% accuracy is achieved. Such a good accuracy has not been achieved so far in a laser induced shock-wave measurements in solids. (author). 52 refs

  18. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  19. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ) in the laboratory and on an operational rail track (with S-4 60-SAR profile) and example results are presented in this section. The measurements 5 were performed using a Polytec PSV-400-M2-20 high frequency scanning vibrometer 6 equipped with the VD-09 velocity...Hz on operational rail track and to identify the modes that are capable of 16 propagating large distances. 17 18 KEYWORDS: Semi-analytical finite element method; modes of guided wave 19 propagation; laser vibrometer measurement; rail track 20 PACs...

  20. Design and construction of wave guide CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ali, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, construction and operation of a countinous wave (CW) CO2 waveguide laser with axial gas flow in which the multi-electrode technique was used to achieve uniform volume of ionized gas using two and four pairs of electrodes. Resonators of lengths ( 26 - 47.5 ) cm with inside diameter ( 3 - 4 ) mm were used with discharge taking place between four pairs of electordes 8.25 cm long each, in axial direction of the tube. The avearge flow at the tube outlet was ( 5 - 6.5 ) L/min at different gas pressures. ( 4 tabs., 74 figs., 58 refs. )

  1. Harmonic emission due to the nonlinear coupling of a Gaussian laser and a plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, R; Jain, R K [Department of Mathematics, SSL Jain College, Vidisha, MP, 464001 (India); Parashar, J [Department of Physics, Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, MP, 464001 (India)

    2010-04-15

    A high-power Gaussian laser propagating through a plasma couples with a large-amplitude plasma wave and undergoes scattering to produce harmonics. The process is sensitive to the phase matching angle between the laser and plasma wave numbers and the plasma wave frequency. For larger harmonics, the phase matching angle is high. The efficiency of the process is comparatively high at higher plasma wave frequencies.

  2. On the fast gas ionization wave in an intense laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of the adsorption zone of laser radiation along a beam is considered. It is shown that for a sufficiently strong laser beam intensity, q 0 >q tilde, the conditions of wave propagation differ principally from those known previously. In particular, the plasma temperature behind the wave front Tsup(*) decreases with the increase of q 0 , whereas the wave velocity D(q 0 ) grows faster than a linear function. The structure and laws of propagation of the ionization wave are determined

  3. Interference of laser-induced resonances in the continuous structures of a helium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magunov, A I; Strakhova, S I

    2003-01-01

    Coherent effects in the interference of overlapping laser-induced resonances in helium atoms are considered. The simultaneous action of single-mode radiation of the 294-nm second harmonic of a cw dye laser and a 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser on helium atoms provides the overlap of two resonances induced by transitions from the 1s2s 1 S and 1s4s 1 S helium levels. The shape of the overlapping laser-induced resonances in the rotating-wave approximation is described by analytic expressions, which depend on the laser radiation intensities and the ratio of laser frequencies. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  4. High sensitivity detection of NO2 employing cavity ringdown spectroscopy and an external cavity continuously tunable quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gottipaty N; Karpf, Andreas

    2010-09-10

    A trace gas sensor for the detection of nitrogen dioxide based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) and a continuous wave external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser operating at room temperature has been designed, and its features and performance characteristics are reported. By measuring the ringdown times of the cavity at different concentrations of NO(2), we report a sensitivity of 1.2 ppb for the detection of NO(2) in Zero Air.

  5. [Absorption spectrum of Quasi-continuous laser modulation demodulation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xin; Liu, Fu-Gui; Du, Zhen-Hui; Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    A software phase-locked amplifier demodulation method is proposed in order to demodulate the second harmonic (2f) signal of quasi-continuous laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) properly, based on the analysis of its signal characteristics. By judging the effectiveness of the measurement data, filter, phase-sensitive detection, digital filtering and other processing, the method can achieve the sensitive detection of quasi-continuous signal The method was verified by using carbon dioxide detection experiments. The WMS-2f signal obtained by the software phase-locked amplifier and the high-performance phase-locked amplifier (SR844) were compared simultaneously. The results show that the Allan variance of WMS-2f signal demodulated by the software phase-locked amplifier is one order of magnitude smaller than that demodulated by SR844, corresponding two order of magnitude lower of detection limit. And it is able to solve the unlocked problem caused by the small duty cycle of quasi-continuous modulation signal, with a small signal waveform distortion.

  6. Pulse propagation dynamics in the presence of a continuous-wave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijević, Jelena; Arsenović, Dušan; Jelenković, Branislav M

    2013-01-01

    We present theoretical results for the propagation dynamics of an electromagnetic field pulse through rubidium vapor, while another field, a continuous-wave electromagnetic field, is present. The frequencies of both electromagnetic fields are resonant with the transition between the ground and excited state hyperfine levels of Rb, F g  → F e  = F g  ± 1. Detuning from resonance is done by the magnetic field oriented along the light propagation direction (Hanle configuration). When both the electromagnetic fields are simultaneously interacting with Rb atoms, either electromagnetically induced transparency or absorption is induced. Propagation dynamics was obtained solving the set of Maxwell–Bloch equations for the interacting atoms with two electromagnetic fields. Motivated by recent results (Brazhnikov et al 2011 Eur. Phys. J. D 63 315–25; Brazhnikov et al 2010 JETP Lett. 91 625–9; Kou et al 2011 Phys. Rev. A 84 063807), we have analyzed the influence of experimental parameters, laser polarization, and mutual phases between lasers, which can lead to optical switching, i.e. the transformation from electromagnetically induced absorption to transparency and vice versa. (paper)

  7. Room temperature continuous wave mid-infrared VCSEL operating at 3.35 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, V.; Segal, S.; Lascola, K.; Burgner, C.; Towner, F.; Cazabat, A.; Cole, G. D.; Follman, D.; Heu, P.; Deutsch, C.

    2018-02-01

    Tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) offer a potentially low cost tunable optical source in the 3-5 μm range that will enable commercial spectroscopic sensing of numerous environmentally and industrially important gases including methane, ethane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide. Thus far, achieving room temperature continuous wave (RTCW) VCSEL operation at wavelengths beyond 3 μm has remained an elusive goal. In this paper, we introduce a new device structure that has enabled RTCW VCSEL operation near the methane absorption lines at 3.35 μm. This device structure employs two GaAs/AlGaAs mirrors wafer-bonded to an optically pumped active region comprising compressively strained type-I InGaAsSb quantum wells grown on a GaSb substrate. This substrate is removed in processing, as is one of the GaAs mirror substrates. The VCSEL structure is optically pumped at room temperature with a CW 1550 nm laser through the GaAs substrate, while the emitted 3.3 μm light is captured out of the top of the device. Power and spectrum shape measured as a function of pump power exhibit clear threshold behavior and robust singlemode spectra.

  8. Fatigue crack localization using laser nonliner wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peipei; Sohn, Hoon [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kundu, Tribikram [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Nonlinear features of ultrasonic waves are more sensitive to the presence of a fatigue crack than their linear counterparts are. For this reason, the use of nonlinear ultrasonic techniques to detect a fatigue crack at its early stage has been widely investigated. Of the different proposed techniques, laser nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS) is unique because a pulse laser is used to exert a single broadband input and a noncontact measurement can be performed. Broadband excitation causes a nonlinear source to exhibit modulation at multiple spectral peaks owing to interactions among various input frequency components. A feature called maximum sideband peak count difference(MSPCD), which is extracted from the spectral plot, measures the degree of crack- induced material nonlinearity. First, the ratios of spectral peaks whose amplitudes are above a moving threshold to the total number of peaks are computed for spectral signals obtained from the pristine and the current state of a target structure. Then, the difference of these ratios are computed as a function of the moving threshold. Finally, the MSPCD is defined as the maximum difference between these ratios. The basic premise is that the MSPCD will increase as the nonlinearity of the material increases. This technique has been used successfully for localizing fatigue cracks in metallic plates.

  9. Fatigue crack localization using laser nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peipei; Sohn, Hoon [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kundu, Tribikram [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear features of ultrasonic waves are more sensitive to the presence of a fatigue crack than their linear counterparts are. For this reason, the use of nonlinear ultrasonic techniques to detect a fatigue crack at its early stage has been widely investigated. Of the different proposed techniques, laser nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS) is unique because a pulse laser is used to exert a single broadband input and a noncontact measurement can be performed. Broadband excitation causes a nonlinear source to exhibit modulation at multiple spectral peaks owing to interactions among various input frequency components. A feature called maximum sideband peak count difference (MSPCD), which is extracted from the spectral plot, measures the degree of crack-induced material nonlinearity. First, the ratios of spectral peaks whose amplitudes are above a moving threshold to the total number of peaks are computed for spectral signals obtained from the pristine and the current state of a target structure. Then, the difference of these ratios are computed as a function of the moving threshold. Finally, the MSPCD is defined as the maximum difference between these ratios. The basic premise is that the MSPCD will increase as the nonlinearity of the material increases. This technique has been used successfully for localizing fatigue cracks in metallic plates.

  10. Establishment of a Continuous Wave Laser Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    to radiography to check internal soundness. Internal soundness is an important criter- ion in selection of a preweld cleaning process. 1. Cleaning...manipulated. This flexibility is gained by completely de- coupling the shield from the workplace - in contrast to trailers or hoods which must be operated...TI,-^^„—-^j,-,,...,., ....„..„..^ IIMMinM^pu,... . Ji, « w,-™l,«™~.....—T—..^-. UIMWimil Radiography Penetrant Magnetic Particle (penetrant

  11. Noninvasive continuous monitoring of digital pulse waves during hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkert, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous, investiga...

  12. Acoustic waves in transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser discharges: effect on performance and reduction techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    von Bergmann, HM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the influence of acoustic waves on the performance of high-repetition-rate TEA CO2 lasers. It is shown that acoustic waves generated inside the laser cavity lead to nonuniform discharges, resulting in a deterioration...

  13. Amplification of pressure waves in laser-assisted endodontics with synchronized delivery of Er:YAG laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Nejc; Jezeršek, Matija

    2018-05-01

    When attempting to clean surfaces of dental root canals with laser-induced cavitation bubbles, the resulting cavitation oscillations are significantly prolonged due to friction on the cavity walls and other factors. Consequently, the collapses are less intense and the shock waves that are usually emitted following a bubble's collapse are diminished or not present at all. A new technique of synchronized laser-pulse delivery intended to enhance the emission of shock waves from collapsed bubbles in fluid-filled endodontic canals is reported. A laser beam deflection probe, a high-speed camera, and shadow photography were used to characterize the induced photoacoustic phenomena during synchronized delivery of Er:YAG laser pulses in a confined volume of water. A shock wave enhancing technique was employed which consists of delivering a second laser pulse at a delay with regard to the first cavitation bubble-forming laser pulse. Influence of the delay between the first and second laser pulses on the generation of pressure and shock waves during the first bubble's collapse was measured for different laser pulse energies and cavity volumes. Results show that the optimal delay between the two laser pulses is strongly correlated with the cavitation bubble's oscillation period. Under optimal synchronization conditions, the growth of the second cavitation bubble was observed to accelerate the collapse of the first cavitation bubble, leading to a violent collapse, during which shock waves are emitted. Additionally, shock waves created by the accelerated collapse of the primary cavitation bubble and as well of the accompanying smaller secondary bubbles near the cavity walls were observed. The reported phenomena may have applications in improved laser cleaning of surfaces during laser-assisted dental root canal treatments.

  14. Free wave propagation in continuous pipes carrying a flowing fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espindola, J.J. de; Silva, J.B. da

    1982-01-01

    The propagation constants of a periodically supported pipe are computed. Use is made of a general free wave-propagation theory, based on transfer matrices. Comparison is made with previously published results, computed through a simpler, limited scope theory. (Author) [pt

  15. Theory of spin and lattice wave dynamics excited by focused laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ka; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2018-06-01

    We develop a theory of spin wave dynamics excited by ultrafast focused laser pulses in a magnetic film. We take into account both the volume and surface spin wave modes in the presence of applied, dipolar and magnetic anisotropy fields and include the dependence on laser spot exposure size and magnetic damping. We show that the sound waves generated by local heating by an ultrafast focused laser pulse can excite a wide spectrum of spin waves (on top of a dominant magnon–phonon contribution). Good agreement with recent experiments supports the validity of the model.

  16. Induction of subterahertz surface waves on a metal wire by intense laser interaction with a foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Kensuke; Inoue, Shunsuke; Tokita, Shigeki; Yasuhara, Ryo; Nakamiya, Yoshihide; Nagashima, Takeshi; Mori, Kazuaki; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji

    2018-02-01

    We have demonstrated that a pulsed electromagnetic wave (Sommerfeld wave) of subterahertz frequency and 11-MV/m field strength can be induced on a metal wire by the interaction of an intense femtosecond laser pule with an adjacent metal foil at a laser intensity of 8.5 × 1018W /c m2 . The polarity of the electric field of this surface wave is opposite to that obtained by the direct interaction of the laser with the wire. Numerical simulations suggest that an electromagnetic wave associated with electron emission from the foil induces the surface wave. A tungsten wire is placed normal to an aluminum foil with a gap so that the wire is not irradiated and damaged by the laser pulse, thus making it possible to generate surface waves on the wire repeatedly.

  17. Applications of nanosecond, kilojoule lasers to the basic physics of waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas can sustain many normal modes of oscillation (waves), including both electromagnetic and electrostatic modes. These waves can interact by a wide variety of linear and nonlinear mechanisms, including mode coupling, mixing, and instabilities. Furthermore, such mechanisms compete, so that a given wave might be absorbed, might mode convert, or might decay by one of several instabilities, depending upon the specific circumstances in which it is produced. Moreover, such waves are important in many applications, including for example laser fusion, x-ray lasers, plasma accelerators, and ionospheric heating. Laser-produced plasmas can provide an effective medium for the studies of such waves and the related mechanisms. New opportunities will be made possible by the advent of comparatively inexpensive nanosecond, kilojoule lasers. One can now contemplate affordable experiments, not limited by programmatic constraints, that could study such the basic physics of the waves in such plasmas with unprecedented precision and in unprecedented detail

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James Chien-Chih [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of failing molten lithium or Li2BeF4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactors central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel.

  19. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. Chien-Chih

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of failing molten lithium or Li 2 BeF 4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactors central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel

  20. Comparison of acoustic shock waves generated by micro and nanosecond lasers for a smart laser surgery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguendon Kenhagho, Hervé K.; Rauter, Georg; Guzman, Raphael; C. Cattin, Philippe; Zam, Azhar

    2018-02-01

    Characterization of acoustic shock wave will guarantee efficient tissue differentiation as feedback to reduce the probability of undesirable damaging (i.e. cutting) of tissues in laser surgery applications. We ablated hard (bone) and soft (muscle) tissues using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and a microsecond pulsed Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm. When the intense short ns-pulsed laser is applied to material, the energy gain causes locally a plasma at the ablated spot that expands and propagates as an acoustic shock wave with a rarefaction wave behind the shock front. However, when using a μs-pulsed Er:YAG laser for material ablation, the acoustic shock wave is generated during the explosion of the ablated material. We measured and compared the emitted acoustic shock wave generated by a ns-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a μs-pulsed Er:YAG laser measured by a calibrated microphone. As the acoustic shock wave attenuates as it propagates through air, the distance between ablation spots and a calibrated microphone was at 5 cm. We present the measurements on the propagation characteristics of the laser generated acoustic shock wave by measuring the arrival time-of-flight with a calibrated microphone and the energy-dependent evolution of acoustic parameters such as peak-topeak pressure, the ratio of the peak-to-peak pressures for the laser induced breakdown in air, the ablated muscle and the bone, and the spectral energy.

  1. Methods to filter out spurious disturbances in continuous-wave searches from gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Semicoherent all-sky searches over year-long observation times for continuous gravitational wave signals produce various thousands of potential periodic source candidates. Efficient methods able to discard false candidate events are crucial in order to put all the efforts into a computationally intensive follow-up analysis for the remaining most promising candidates (Shaltev et al 2014 Phys. Rev. D 89 124030). In this paper we present a set of techniques able to fulfill such requirements, identifying and eliminating false candidate events, reducing thus the bulk of candidate sets that need to be further investigated. Some of these techniques were also used to streamline the candidate sets returned by the Einstein@Home hierarchical searches presented in (Aasi J et al (The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration) 2013 Phys. Rev. D 87 042001). These powerful methods and the benefits originating from their application to both simulated and on detector data from the fifth LIGO science run are illustrated and discussed. (paper)

  2. Blandford's argument: The strongest continuous gravitational wave signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knispel, Benjamin; Allen, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    For a uniform population of neutron stars whose spin-down is dominated by the emission of gravitational radiation, an old argument of Blandford states that the expected gravitational-wave amplitude of the nearest source is independent of the deformation and rotation frequency of the objects. Recent work has improved and extended this argument to set upper limits on the expected amplitude from neutron stars that also emit electromagnetic radiation. We restate these arguments in a more general framework, and simulate the evolution of such a population of stars in the gravitational potential of our galaxy. The simulations allow us to test the assumptions of Blandford's argument on a realistic model of our galaxy. We show that the two key assumptions of the argument (two dimensionality of the spatial distribution and a steady-state frequency distribution) are in general not fulfilled. The effective scaling dimension D of the spatial distribution of neutron stars is significantly larger than two, and for frequencies detectable by terrestrial instruments the frequency distribution is not in a steady state unless the ellipticity is unrealistically large. Thus, in the cases of most interest, the maximum expected gravitational-wave amplitude does have a strong dependence on the deformation and rotation frequency of the population. The results strengthen the previous upper limits on the expected gravitational-wave amplitude from neutron stars by a factor of 6 for realistic values of ellipticity.

  3. Pump depletion limited evolution of the relativistic plasma wave-front in a forced laser-wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, F; Clayton, C E; Marsh, K A; Pak, A E; Ralph, J E; Joshi, C [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lopes, N C [Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: cclayton@ucla.edu

    2009-02-15

    In a forced laser-wakefield accelerator experiment (Malka et al 2002 Science 298 1596) where the length of the pump laser pulse is a few plasma periods long, the leading edge of the laser pulse undergoes frequency downshifting and head erosion as the laser energy is transferred to the wake. Therefore, after some propagation distance, the group velocity of the leading edge of the pump pulse-and thus of the driven electron plasma wave-will slow down. This can have implications for the dephasing length of the accelerated electrons and therefore needs to be understood experimentally. We have carried out an experimental investigation where we have measured the velocity v{sub f} of the 'wave-front' of the plasma wave driven by a nominally 50 fs (full width half maximum), intense (a{sub 0} {approx_equal} 1), 0.815 {mu}m laser pulse. To determine the speed of the wave front, time- and space-resolved refractometry, interferometry and Thomson scattering were used. Although a laser pulse propagating through a relatively low-density plasma (n{sub e} = 1.3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) showed no measurable changes in v{sub f} over 1.3 mm (and no accelerated electrons), a high-density plasma (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) generated accelerated electrons and showed a continuous change in v{sub f} as the laser pulse propagated through the plasma. Possible causes and consequences of the observed v{sub f} evolution are discussed.

  4. Parametric Excitations of Fast Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.; Fisch, N.J.

    2001-01-01

    Short- and long-wavelength plasma waves can become strongly coupled in the presence of two counter-propagating laser pump pulses detuned by twice the cold plasma frequency. What makes this four-wave interaction important is that the growth rate of the plasma waves occurs much faster than in the more obvious co-propagating geometry

  5. The study of waves, instabilities, and turbulence using Thomson scattering in laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Much basic work in plasma physics has been devoted to the study of wave properties in plasmas, one of the nonlinear development of driven waves, and of the instabilities in which such waves may participate. The use of laser-plasma techniques has allowed one to extend such studies into new regimes. Such techniques and their results are the subject here. Once one chooses a physical problem within this subject area, it is now possible to design a laser-plasma experiment that is optimized for the study of that problem. The plasma can be designed to have a variety of density and flow-velocity profiles, the damping of ion acoustic waves and of electron plasma waves can be independently controlled, and the waves can be driven weakly or strongly. By using Nd-glass lasers and their harmonics one can non-invasively drive and diagnose the waves, using separate laser beams to produce the plasma, drive the waves, and diagnose their properties. The author uses as examples some recent work with his collaborators, including the first experimental detection of ion plasma waves and the first direct observation of the plasma wave driven by the acoustic decay of laser light

  6. A physical model for laser metal vapour interactions and laser supported detonation waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenghai; Pei Wenbing; Yan Jun; Fan Furu

    1990-05-01

    A physical model for laser metal-vapour interactions has been developed in this paper. The model developed by authors has been used to study numerically the Laser Supported Detonation Waves (LSDWs) in vapour in front of metal targets, and some good results about LSDWs, such as ignition mechanism, threshold, propagation law and so on, have been obtained numerically with the model. In the model developed, a assumption for non-equilibrium between electrons and ions has been taken, and the target vapour has been discribed with two-temperature hydrodynamic equations of electrons and ions in the Euler space. The ionization-equilibrium assumption has been taken, and the Saha equations have been solved. The laser energy is absorbed due to inverse bremsstrahlung. Energy exchange between electrons and ions is by Coulomb scattering, and energy exchange between electrons and neutral particles is by way of electron-neutral elastic scattering. Electron and ion (including neutral particle) thermal conductions are taken respectively. The LSDWs threshold obtained is in agreement with experement reasonably, and a power law between LSDWs threshold and laser pulse duration, I th ∞τ p -1/2 , has been obtained. Some useful results about the LSDWs shield effects have also been obtained. In the developping phase of LSDWs, the optical thickness of front of LSDWs may reach 5 ∼ 10 in order of magnitude. It is shown that the LSDWs are able to play a very strong shield role

  7. Efficient continuous-wave eye-safe region signal output from intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Ding Xin; Sheng Quan; Yin Su-Jia; Shi Chun-Peng; Li Xue; Wen Wu-Qi; Yao Jian-Quan; Yu Xuan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    We report an efficient continuous-wave (CW) tunable intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on the multi-period periodically poled lithium niobate and using a laser diode (LD) end-pumped CW 1064 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser as the pump source. A highly efficiency CW operation is realized through a careful cavity design for mode matching and thermal stability. The signal tuning range is 1401–1500 nm obtained by varying the domain period. The maximum output power of 2.2 W at 1500 nm is obtained with a 17.1 W 808 nm LD power and the corresponding conversion efficiency is 12.9%. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Dia, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. A.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D. X.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jang, D.H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karlen, J. L.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kerrigan, J.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J. T.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, J. P.; Lee, J. P.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lubinski, M. J.; Luck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Madden-Fong, D. X.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Ma, H.Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okounkova, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W. E.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C. T.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Purrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Racz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodger, A. S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosins, D.; Rowan, S.; Rud, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schonbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffery, P.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tap, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; Eijningen, J. V.; Eggel, A. A. V.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, MT; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, K. J.; Williams, L.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    Following a major upgrade, the two advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) held their first observation run between September 2015 and January 2016. With a strain sensitivity of 10−23/√Hz at 100 Hz, the product of observable volume and measurement time

  9. A Study on non-contact measurements of laser-generated lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Tae Seong; Lee, Jung Ju; Lee, Seung Seok

    2002-01-01

    Generation and detection of Lamb waves offer an effective non-destructive testing technique that will detect defects quickly and reliably. Lamb waves are generated in a thin plate by Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb modes in low-frequency-thickness regime are excited by illuminating a thin plate with an array of laser-generated line sources. The propagation of laser-generated Lamb waves is detected by measuring the out-of-plane displacements in a non-contact manner using the fiber optic Sagnac interferometer and all commercial adaptive reference-beam interferometer. The characteristics of laser-generated Lamb wave due to its frequency are investigated. Fundamental understanding of laser-generated Lamb modes is presented.

  10. Optical wave microphone measurements of laser ablation of copper in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsugi, Fumiaki, E-mail: mitsugi@cs.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Ikegami, Tomoaki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nakamiya, Toshiyuki; Sonoda, Yoshito [Graduate School of Industrial Engineering, Tokai University, 9-1-1 Toroku, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Laser ablation plasma in a supercritical fluid has attracted much attention recently due to its usefulness in forming nanoparticles. Observation of the dynamic behavior of the supercritical fluid after laser irradiation of a solid is necessary for real-time monitoring and control of laser ablation. In this study, we utilized an optical wave microphone to monitor pulsed laser irradiation of a solid in a supercritical fluid. The optical wave microphone works based on Fraunhofer diffraction of phase modulation of light by changes in refractive index. We hereby report on our measurements for pulsed laser irradiation of a Cu target in supercritical carbon dioxide using an optical wave microphone. Photothermal acoustic waves which generated after single pulsed laser irradiation of a Cu target were detectable in supercritical carbon dioxide. The speed of sound around the critical point of supercritical carbon dioxide was clearly slower than that in gas. The optical wave microphone detected a signal during laser ablation of Cu in supercritical carbon dioxide that was caused by shockwave degeneration. - Highlights: • Photothermal acoustic wave in supercritical fluid was observed. • Sound speed around the critical point was slower than that in gas. • Optical wave microphone detected degeneration of a shockwave. • Ablation threshold of a solid in supercritical fluid can be estimated. • Generation of the second shockwave in supercritical phase was suggested.

  11. A Wave-Optics Approach to Paraxial Geometrical Laws Based on Continuity at Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a derivation of the paraxial geometrical laws starting from a wave-optics approach, in particular by using simple continuity conditions of paraxial spherical waves at boundaries (discontinuities) between optical media. Paraxial geometrical imaging and magnification laws, under refraction and reflection at boundaries, are derived for…

  12. Next wave EM technology : Electromagnetic communication technology continues to progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Alpine Oil Services Corp. and Ryan Energy Technologies Inc., have made technological advances in the use of real time electromagnetic (EM) data transmission, using low frequency radio waves to transmit well commands or geological information. The development of the telemetry activated tool was done in two steps. The first technology was real time EM data transmission from the subsurface which used the wellbore to transfer information. The second step was constructing a memory pack which involved an electronic instrument installed in the wellbore which was programmed to perform certain tasks at certain times by transmitting signals back and forth. The use of EM communication allows the geological steering information to come back faster. The EM signal is much faster compared to MWD systems for deeper directional wells. The EM technology also has immediate applications in underbalanced drilling. 1 fig

  13. Continuity Conditions on Schrodinger Wave Functions at Discontinuities of the Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, David

    1979-01-01

    Several standard arguments which attempt to show that the wave function and its derivative must be continuous across jump discontinuities of the potential are reviewed and their defects discussed. (Author/HM)

  14. Continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy based on the control of cavity reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixin; Ma, Weiguang; Fu, Xiaofang; Tan, Wei; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2013-07-29

    A new type of continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectrometer based on the control of cavity reflection for trace gas detection was designed and evaluated. The technique separated the acquisitions of the ringdown event and the trigger signal to optical switch by detecting the cavity reflection and transmission, respectively. A detailed description of the time sequence of the measurement process was presented. In order to avoid the wrong extraction of ringdown time encountered accidentally in fitting procedure, the laser frequency and cavity length were scanned synchronously. Based on the statistical analysis of measured ringdown times, the frequency normalized minimum detectable absorption in the reflection control mode was 1.7 × 10(-9)cm(-1)Hz(-1/2), which was 5.4 times smaller than that in the transmission control mode. However the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption spectrum was only 3 times improved since the etalon effect existed. Finally, the peak absorption coefficients of the C(2)H(2) transition near 1530.9nm under different pressures showed a good agreement with the theoretical values.

  15. Threshold response using modulated continuous wave illumination for multilayer 3D optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, A.; Christenson, C. W.; Khattab, T. A.; Wang, R.; Twieg, R. J.; Singer, K. D.

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve a high capacity 3D optical data storage medium, a nonlinear or threshold writing process is necessary to localize data in the axial dimension. To this end, commercial multilayer discs use thermal ablation of metal films or phase change materials to realize such a threshold process. This paper addresses a threshold writing mechanism relevant to recently reported fluorescence-based data storage in dye-doped co-extruded multilayer films. To gain understanding of the essential physics, single layer spun coat films were used so that the data is easily accessible by analytical techniques. Data were written by attenuating the fluorescence using nanosecond-range exposure times from a 488 nm continuous wave laser overlapping with the single photon absorption spectrum. The threshold writing process was studied over a range of exposure times and intensities, and with different fluorescent dyes. It was found that all of the dyes have a common temperature threshold where fluorescence begins to attenuate, and the physical nature of the thermal process was investigated.

  16. Microcontroller based resonance tracking unit for time resolved continuous wave cavity-ringdown spectroscopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, Ondrej; Mašát, Milan; Parker, Alexander E; Jain, Chaithania; Fittschen, Christa

    2012-04-01

    We present in this work a new tracking servoloop electronics for continuous wave cavity-ringdown absorption spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) and its application to time resolved cw-CRDS measurements by coupling the system with a pulsed laser photolysis set-up. The tracking unit significantly increases the repetition rate of the CRDS events and thus improves effective time resolution (and/or the signal-to-noise ratio) in kinetics studies with cw-CRDS in given data acquisition time. The tracking servoloop uses novel strategy to track the cavity resonances that result in a fast relocking (few ms) after the loss of tracking due to an external disturbance. The microcontroller based design is highly flexible and thus advanced tracking strategies are easy to implement by the firmware modification without the need to modify the hardware. We believe that the performance of many existing cw-CRDS experiments, not only time-resolved, can be improved with such tracking unit without any additional modification to the experiment. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  17. The numerical simulation of Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jingming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhou, Qingxiang; Han, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In order to explore the Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel, the numerical simulation is used to show the feature of Lamb wave. In this paper, according to Lamb dispersion equation, excites the Lamb wave on the edge of thin stainless steel plate, and presents the reflection coefficient for quantizing the Lamb wave energy, the results show that the reflection coefficient is increased with the welding width increasing,

  18. Laser applications in materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ready, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The seminar focused on laser annealing of semiconductors, laser processing of semiconductor devices and formation of coatings and powders, surface modification with lasers, and specialized laser processing methods. Papers were presented on the theoretical analysis of thermal and mass transport during laser annealing, applications of scanning continuous-wave and pulsed lasers in silicon technology, laser techniques in photovoltaic applications, and the synthesis of ceramic powders from laser-heated gas-phase reactants. Other papers included: reflectance changes of metals during laser irradiation, surface-alloying using high-power continuous lasers, laser growth of silicon ribbon, and commercial laser-shock processes

  19. The measurement of capillary waves on a weldpool formed by a Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deam, R.T.; Brandt, M.; Harris, J.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were performed using an on-line pyrometer to measure the capillary waves on a weldpool formed by a Nd: YAG laser. The surface temperature measurements taken from the weldpool revealed strong temporal fluctuations. Fourier transform of the pyrometer data revealed distinct peaks, consistent with calculated resonant frequencies for capillary surface waves on the weldpool formed by the laser. The possibility of using on-line measurement of surface temperature fluctuations to control weldpool depth in laser welds is discussed. The work forms part of an on-going programme to develop closed loop control for laser processing at Swinburne University

  20. Controlling of the electromagnetic solitary waves generation in the wake of a two-color laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K. Q.; Li, S. W.; Guo, L.; Yang, D.; Li, Z. C.; Zheng, C. Y.; Jiang, S. E.; Zhang, B. H.; He, X. T.

    2018-05-01

    Electromagnetic solitary waves generated by a two-color laser interaction with an underdense plasma are investigated. It is shown that, when the former wave packet of the two-color laser is intense enough, it will excite nonlinear wakefields and generate electron density cavities. The latter wave packets will beat with the nonlinear wakefield and generate both high-frequency and low-frequency components. When the peak density of the cavities exceeds the critical density of the low-frequency component, this part of the electromagnetic field will be trapped to generate electromagnetic solitary waves. By changing the laser and plasma parameters, we can control the wakefield generation, which will also control the generation of the solitary waves. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed to prove the controlling of the solitary waves. The simulation results also show that solitary waves generated by higher laser intensities will become moving solitary waves. The two-dimensional particle-in-cell also shows the generation of the solitary waves. In the two-dimensional case, solitary waves are distributed in the transverse directions because of the filamentation instability.

  1. Laser-supported ionization wave in under-dense gases and foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Limpouch, J.; Nicolaie, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2011-01-01

    Propagation of laser-supported ionization wave in homogeneous and porous materials with a mean density less than the critical plasma density is studied theoretically in the one-dimensional geometry. It is shown that the velocity of the ionization wave in a foam is significantly decreased in comparison with the similar wave in a homogeneous fully ionized plasma of the same density. That difference is attributed to the ionization and hydro-homogenization processes forming an under-critical density environment in the front of ionization wave. The rate of energy transfer from laser to plasma is found to be in a good agreement with available experimental data.

  2. Laser Source for Atomic Gravity Wave Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atom Interferometry (AI) Technology for Gravity Wave Measurements demonstrates new matter wave Interferometric sensor technology for precise detection and...

  3. Ultra-Low Noise Quad Photoreceiver for Space Based Laser Interferometric Gravity Wave Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravity wave detection using space-based long-baseline laser interferometric sensors imposes stringent noise requirements on the system components, including the...

  4. Guided-wave tomographic imaging of plate defects by laser-based ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junpil; Lim, Ju Young; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Contact-guided-wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and rough surfaces or complex geometric features. A non-contact setup with a laser-ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is quite attractive for guided-wave inspection. In the present work, we developed a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique using the laser-ultrasonic technique in a plate. A method for Lamb-wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulsed laser-ultrasonic transmitter and Michelson-interferometer receiver was developed. The defect shape and area in the images obtained using laser scanning, showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact online inspection and monitoring technique.

  5. A study on laser-based ultrasonic technique by the use of guided wave tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junpil, E-mail: jpp@pusan.ac.kr; Lim, Juyoung, E-mail: jpp@pusan.ac.kr [Graduate school, School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Younho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Krishnaswamy, Sridhar [Center for Quality Engineering and Failure Prevention, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Guided wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and coarse surfaces or geometrically complicated features. A non-contact setup with a laser ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is the classic attractive for guided wave inspection. The present work was done to develop a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique by laser ultrasonic technique in a plate-like structure. A method for Lam wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulse laser ultrasonic transmitter and a Michelson interferometer receiver has been developed. In the images obtained by laser scanning, the defect shape and area showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact-based online inspection and monitoring technique.

  6. Guided-wave tomography imaging plate defects by laser-based ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Pil; Lim, Ju Young; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Contact-guided-wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and rough surfaces or complex geometric features. A non-contact setup with a laser-ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is quite attractive for guided-wave inspection. In the present work, we developed a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique using the laser-ultrasonic technique in a plate. A method for Lamb-wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulsed laser-ultrasonic transmitter and Michelson-interferometer receiver was developed. The defect shape and area in the images obtained using laser scanning, showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact online inspection and monitoring technique.

  7. Laser Induced Shock Waves and Vaporization in Biological System and Material Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerstman, Bernard S

    2008-01-01

    .... We have developed a computational model that allows the calculation of damage resulting from a laser pulse of any duration or energy due to temperature rise, explosive bubble formation, and shock wave production...

  8. Temporal variability of tidal and gravity waves during a record long 10-day continuous lidar sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Kathrin; Gerding, Michael; Baumgarten, Gerd; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2018-01-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) as well as solar tides are a key driving mechanism for the circulation in the Earth's atmosphere. The propagation of gravity waves is strongly affected by tidal waves as they modulate the mean background wind field and vice versa, which is not yet fully understood and not adequately implemented in many circulation models. The daylight-capable Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar at Kühlungsborn (54° N, 12° E) typically provides temperature data to investigate both wave phenomena during one full day or several consecutive days in the middle atmosphere between 30 and 75 km altitude. Outstanding weather conditions in May 2016 allowed for an unprecedented 10-day continuous lidar measurement, which shows a large variability of gravity waves and tides on timescales of days. Using a one-dimensional spectral filtering technique, gravity and tidal waves are separated according to their specific periods or vertical wavelengths, and their temporal evolution is studied. During the measurement period a strong 24 h wave occurs only between 40 and 60 km and vanishes after a few days. The disappearance is related to an enhancement of gravity waves with periods of 4-8 h. Wind data provided by ECMWF are used to analyze the meteorological situation at our site. The local wind structure changes during the observation period, which leads to different propagation conditions for gravity waves in the last days of the measurement period and therefore a strong GW activity. The analysis indicates a further change in wave-wave interaction resulting in a minimum of the 24 h tide. The observed variability of tides and gravity waves on timescales of a few days clearly demonstrates the importance of continuous measurements with high temporal and spatial resolution to detect interaction phenomena, which can help to improve parametrization schemes of GWs in general circulation models.

  9. Traveling wave model for laser-guided discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, Martin; Fernsler, Richard F.; Slinker, Steven P.; Gordon, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an easily solvable 1D traveling wave model for laser-guided discharges. By assuming constant propagation speed u, the hydro/electrodynamic/chemistry equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations in retarded time τ. Negative discharges are shown to propagate only if u>μE b , where μ is electron mobility and E b is the breakdown field; positive discharges propagate only if the channel preconductance exceeds ∼6x10 -11 m/Ω. The axial electric field E is shown to spike up to several times E b and then relax to ∼E b for as long as the gas remains cold. In this streamer region, the channel conductance, current, and potential all increase linearly with τ. The transition to the leader stage, where E is much smaller, occurs in two steps: excitation of vibrational and low-lying electronic states, then gas heating. The propagation range decreases as a function of initial radius and (for given maximum voltage) of the voltage rise rate. Expansion of the hot channel is shown to increase the range.

  10. Millimeter wave free electron laser amplifiers: Experiments and designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, S.W.; Zhang, Z.X.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Bensen, D.M.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Lantham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Rodgers, J.

    1991-01-01

    Free electron laser amplifies are investigated as sources of high- average-power (1 MW) millimeter to submillimeter wave radiation (200 GHz - 600 GHz) for application to electron cyclotron resonance heating of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. As a stepping-stone to higher frequencies and cw operation a pulsed amplifier (τ pulse ≅ 80 ns) at 98 GHz is being developed. Status is reported on this experiment which investigates linear gain amplification with use of sheet electron beam (transverse cross section = 0.1 cm x 2.0 cm, V beam = 440 keV, I beam ≅ 10 A) and short-period wiggler (ell w = 0.96 cm) and with expected output of 140 W. Predictions of gain and efficiency from a 1-D universal formulation are presented. Beam propagation results, with wiggler focusing as a means of sheet beam confinement in both transverse dimensions, through the 54 cm (56 period) pulsed electromagnet wiggler are discussed. Peak wiggler fields of 5.1 kG on-axis have been achieved

  11. Heat wave propagation in a thin film irradiated by ultra-short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Gwon; Kim, Cheol Jung; Lim, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    A thermal wave solution of a hyperbolic heat conduction equation in a thin film is developed on the basis of the Green's function formalism. Numerical computations are carried out to investigate the temperature response and the propagation of the thermal wave inside a thin film due to a heat pulse generated by ultra-short laser pulses with various laser pulse durations and thickness of the film

  12. Neuronal Networks in Children with Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groening, Kristina; Moehring, Jan; Moeller, Friederike; Boor, Rainer; Brodbeck, Verena; Michel, Christoph M.; Rodionov, Roman; Lemieux, Louis; Stephani, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep is an age-related disorder characterized by the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges during at least greater than 85% of sleep and cognitive deficits associated with this electroencephalography pattern. The pathophysiological mechanisms of continuous spikes and…

  13. Design and fabrication of a continuous wave electron accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Jiro

    1997-01-01

    The Physics Institute of Sao Paulo University, SP, Brazil is fabricating a 31 MeV cw racetrack microtron (RTM) designed for nuclear physics research. This is a two-stage microtron that includes a 1.93 MeV injector linac feeding a five-turn microtron booster. After 28 turns, the main microtron delivers a 31 MeV continuous electron beam. The objective of this work is the development and fabrication of an advanced, beta=l, cw accelerating structure for the main microtron. The accelerating structure will be a side-coupled structure (SCS). We have chosen this kind of cavity, because it presents good vacuum properties, allows operation at higher accelerating electric fields and has a shunt impedance better than 81 MQ/m, with a high coupling factor ( 3 - 5%). The engineering design is the Los Alamos one. There will be two tuning plungers placed at both ends of the accelerating structure. They automatically and quickly compensate for the variation in the resonance frequency caused by changes in the structure temperature. Our design represents an advanced accelerating structure with the optimum SCS properties coexisting with the plunger's good tuning properties. (author)

  14. In situ measurement of plasma and shock wave properties inside laser-drilled metal holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajdic, Mihael; Hermans, Martin; Horn, Alexander; Kelbassa, Ingomar

    2008-10-01

    High-speed imaging of shock wave and plasma dynamics is a commonly used diagnostic method for monitoring processes during laser material treatment. It is used for processes such as laser ablation, cutting, keyhole welding and drilling. Diagnosis of laser drilling is typically adopted above the material surface because lateral process monitoring with optical diagnostic methods inside the laser-drilled hole is not possible due to the hole walls. A novel method is presented to investigate plasma and shock wave properties during the laser drilling inside a confined environment such as a laser-drilled hole. With a novel sample preparation and the use of high-speed imaging combined with spectroscopy, a time and spatial resolved monitoring of plasma and shock wave dynamics is realized. Optical emission of plasma and shock waves during drilling of stainless steel with ns-pulsed laser radiation is monitored and analysed. Spatial distributions and velocities of shock waves and of plasma are determined inside the holes. Spectroscopy is accomplished during the expansion of the plasma inside the drilled hole allowing for the determination of electron densities.

  15. Continued Optical Sensor Operations in a Laser Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    laser aperture), efficiency (i.e., high ratio of output power to input power), low jitter (i.e., high reproducibility from 6 pulse to pulse), and...Services Committee House of Representatives (Washington, DC: GAO, November 2004); and Lindsay Peacock and Alexander Von Rosenbach, eds., Jane’s World

  16. Semiconductor lasers with a continuous tuning range above 100 nm in the nearest IR spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, Yu O; Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V [OOO ' Opton' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, A A [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chamorovsky, A Yu [Superlum Ltd., Unit B3, Fota Point Enterprise Park, Carrigtwohill, Co Cork (Ireland); Yakubovich, S D [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    We have developed two new types of lasers based on quantum-confined semiconductor optical amplifiers with an acousto-optic tunable filter in an external fibre ring cavity. The lasers offer continuous wavelength tuning ranges from 780 to 885 and from 880 to 1010 nm, 20 mW of cw output power, and a tuning rate up to 10{sup 4} nm s{sup -1} at an instantaneous spectral linewidth less than 0.1 nm. (lasers)

  17. Measurements of the parametric decay of CO2 laser radiation into plasma waves at quarter critical density using ruby laser Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuss, J.J.; Chu, T.K.; Johnson, L.C.

    1977-11-01

    We report the results of small-angle ruby laser Thomson scattering measurements of the parametric excitation of plasma waves by CO 2 laser radiation at quarter-critical density in a laser-heated gas target plasma. From supplementary data obtained from interferometry and large-angle ruby laser scattering we infer that the threshold conditions for a convective decay are satisfied

  18. Multiwatt-level continuous-wave midwave infrared generation using difference frequency mixing in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shekhar; Barnes, Jacob O; Gonzalez, Leonel P

    2014-09-01

    Over 3.5 W of continuous-wave power at 3.4 μm was obtained by single-pass difference frequency mixing of 1.064 and 1.55 μm fiber lasers in a 5 cm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Good agreement was obtained between the observed temperature dependence of the generated power and the prediction from focused Gaussian beam theory.

  19. Bi-directional ultrasonic wave coupling to FBGs in continuously bonded optical fiber sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Junghyun; Hackney, Drew; Bradford, Philip; Peters, Kara

    2017-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are typically spot-bonded onto the surface of a structure to detect ultrasonic waves in laboratory demonstrations. However, to protect the rest of the optical fiber from any environmental damage during real applications, bonding the entire length of fiber, called continuous bonding, is commonly done. In this paper, we investigate the impact of continuously bonding FBGs on the measured Lamb wave signal. In theory, the ultrasonic wave signal can bi-directionally transfer between the optical fiber and the plate at any adhered location, which could potentially produce output signal distortion for the continuous bonding case. Therefore, an experiment is performed to investigate the plate-to-fiber and fiber-to-plate signal transfer, from which the signal coupling coefficient of each case is theoretically estimated based on the experimental data. We demonstrate that the two coupling coefficients are comparable, with the plate-to-fiber case approximately 19% larger than the fiber-to-plate case. Finally, the signal waveform and arrival time of the output FBG responses are compared between the continuous and spot bonding cases. The results indicate that the resulting Lamb wave signal output is only that directly detected at the FBG location; however, a slight difference in signal waveform is observed between the two bonding configurations. This paper demonstrates the practicality of using continuously bonded FBGs for ultrasonic wave detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications.

  20. Searching for Fast Radio Bursts with the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan Patrick; Hughey, Brennan; Howell, Eric; LIGO Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Although Fast Radio Bursts (FRB) are being detected with increasing frequency, their progenitor systems are still mostly a mystery. We present the plan to conduct targeted searches for gravitational-wave counterparts to these FRB events in the data from the first and second observing runs of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO).

  1. Laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state studies at megabar pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, H C; Senecha, V K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Rai, V N; Khare, P; Bhat, R K; Gupta, N K; Godwal, B K

    2002-01-01

    We present the results from laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state (EOS) studies of gold metal. An Nd:YAG laser chain (2 J, 1.06 mu m wavelength, 200 ps pulse FWHM) is used to generate shocks in planar Al foils and Al + Au layered targets. The EOS of gold in the pressure range of 9-13 Mbar is obtained using the impedance matching technique. The numerical simulations performed using the one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code support the experimental results. The present experimental data show remarkable agreement with the existing standard EOS models and with other experimental data obtained independently using laser driven shock wave experiments.

  2. Wave function continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Garrett A; Levine, Benjamin G

    2016-05-14

    We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular wave function as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular wave function that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular wave function may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous functions. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular wave function does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear wave functions. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on wave function continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation.

  3. Energetic, spectral, and temporal characteristics of a two-wave CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertel' , I.M.; Petukhov, V.O.; Prokopov, A.P.; Tochitskii, S.Ya.; Churakov, V.V.

    1987-09-01

    This work studies the energetic and temporal parameters of a pulsed two-wave TEA CO/sub 2/ laser's radiation and the means for controlling these parameters. Obtaining the two-wave generation regime in CO/sub 2/ lasers uses, as is known, spatial splitting of the radiation, different variants of operating diffraction gratings, and placing a cell with selectively absorbing gas in the resonator. To realize the simultaneous two-wave generation regime in the present work, a double-resonant scheme is used with mutually orthogonal polarizers to spatially separate the radiation.

  4. Continued advances in high brightness fiber-coupled laser modules for efficient pumping of fiber and solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, M.; Chen, Z.; Urbanek, W.; Dawson, D.; Bao, L.; Kanskar, M.; DeVito, M.; Martinsen, R.

    2018-02-01

    Both the fibber laser and diode-pumped solid-state laser market continue to drive advances in pump diode module brightness. We report on the continued progress by nLIGHT to develop and deliver the highest brightness diode-laser pumps using single-emitter technology. Continued advances in multimode laser diode technology [13] and fiber-coupling techniques have enabled higher emitter counts in the element packages, enabling us to demonstrate 305 W into 105 μm - 0.16 NA. This brightness improvement is achieved by leveraging our prior-reported package re-optimization, allowing an increase in the emitter count from two rows of nine emitters to two rows of twelve emitters. Leveraging the two rows off twelve emitter architecture,, product development has commenced on a 400 W into 200 μm - 00.16 NA package. Additionally, the advances in pump technology intended for CW Yb-doped fiber laser pumping has been leveraged to develop the highest brightness 793 nm pump modules for 2 μm Thulium fiber laser pumping, generating 150 W into 200 μm - 0.18 NA and 100 W into 105 μm - 0.15 NA. Lastly, renewed interest in direct diode materials processing led us to experiment with wavelength multiplexing our existing state of the art 200 W, 105 μm - 00.15 NA package into a combined output of 395 WW into 105 μm - 0.16 NA.

  5. Effect of laser beam filamentation on plasma wave localization and stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Gunjan; Sharma, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of laser beam filamentation on the localization of electron plasma wave (EPW) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in unmagnitized plasma when both relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities are operative. The filamentary dynamics of laser beam is studied and the splitted profile of the laser beam is obtained due to uneven focusing of the off-axial rays. The localization of electron plasma wave takes place due to nonlinear coupling between the laser beam and EPW. Stimulated Raman scattering of this EPW is studied and backreflectivity has been calculated. The localization of EPW also affects the eigenfrequency and damping of plasma wave; consequently, mismatch and modified enhanced Landau damping lead to the disruption of SRS process and a substantial reduction in the backreflectivity. The new enhanced damping of the plasma wave has been calculated and it is found that the SRS process gets suppressed due to the localization of plasma wave in laser beam filamentary structures. For typical laser beam and plasma parameters with wavelength λ (=1064 nm), power flux (=10 16 W/cm 2 ) and plasma density (n/n cr ) = 0.2; the SRS back reflectivity is found to be suppressed by a factor of around 5%. (author)

  6. Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben; Mann, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneou......The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra...

  7. Magnetic losses reduction in grain oriented silicon steel by pulse and continuous fiber laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshynets, Ivan; Kováč, František; Puchý, Viktor; Šebek, Martin; Füzer, Ján; Kollár, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The present paper shows the impact of different laser scribing conditions on possible reduction of magnetic losses in grain oriented electrical steel sheets. The experimental Fe-3%Si steel was taken from industrial line after final box annealing. The surface of investigated steel was subjected to fiber laser processing using both pulse and continuous scribing regimes in order to generate residual thermal stresses inducing the magnetic domains structure refinement. The magnetic losses of experimental samples before and after individual laser scribing regimes were tested in AC magnetic field with 50Hz frequency and induction of 1.5T. The most significant magnetic losses reduction of 38% was obtained at optimized conditions of continuous laser scribing regime. A semi quantitative relationship has been found between the domain patterns and the used fiber laser processing.

  8. Magnetic losses reduction in grain oriented silicon steel by pulse and continuous fiber laser processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Petryshynets

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper shows the impact of different laser scribing conditions on possible reduction of magnetic losses in grain oriented electrical steel sheets. The experimental Fe-3%Si steel was taken from industrial line after final box annealing. The surface of investigated steel was subjected to fiber laser processing using both pulse and continuous scribing regimes in order to generate residual thermal stresses inducing the magnetic domains structure refinement. The magnetic losses of experimental samples before and after individual laser scribing regimes were tested in AC magnetic field with 50Hz frequency and induction of 1.5T. The most significant magnetic losses reduction of 38% was obtained at optimized conditions of continuous laser scribing regime. A semi quantitative relationship has been found between the domain patterns and the used fiber laser processing.

  9. Allowable propagation of short pulse laser beam in a plasma channel and electromagnetic solitary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Wang, Hong-Yu; Xie, Bai-Song

    2011-01-01

    Nonparaxial and nonlinear propagation of a short intense laser beam in a parabolic plasma channel is analyzed by means of the variational method and nonlinear dynamics. The beam propagation properties are classified by five kinds of behaviors. In particularly, the electromagnetic solitary wave for finite pulse laser is found beside the other four propagation cases including beam periodically oscillating with defocussing and focusing amplitude, constant spot size, beam catastrophic focusing. It is also found that the laser pulse can be allowed to propagate in the plasma channel only when a certain relation for laser parameters and plasma channel parameters is satisfied. For the solitary wave, it may provide an effective way to obtain ultra-short laser pulse.

  10. Influence of plasma shock wave on the morphology of laser drilling in different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhaoyang; Wang, Wenjun; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Kedian; Yang, Huizhu

    2017-05-01

    Nanosecond pulse laser was used to study nickel-based alloy drilling and compare processing results of microholes in air environment and water environment. Through analysis and comparison, it's found that environmental medium had obvious influence on morphology of laser drilling. High-speed camera was used to shoot plasma morphology during laser drilling process, theoretical formula was used to calculate boundary dimension of plasma and shock wave velocity, and finally parameters were substituted into computational fluid dynamics simulation software to obtain solutions. Obtained analysis results could intuitively explain different morphological features and forming reasons between laser drilling in air environment and water environment in the experiment from angle of plasma shock waves. By comparing simulation results and experimental results, it could help to get an understanding of formation mechanism of microhole morphology, thus providing basis for further improving process optimization of laser drilling quality.

  11. Continuously tunable pulsed Ti:Sa laser self-seeded by an extended grating cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruohong; Rothe, Sebastian; Teigelhöfer, Andrea; Mostamand, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    A continuously tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser self-seeded by an extended grating cavity was demonstrated and characterized. By inserting a partially reflecting mirror inside the cavity of a classic single-cavity grating laser, two oscillators are created: a broadband power oscillator, and a narrowband oscillator with a prism beam expander and a diffraction grating in Littrow configuration. By coupling the grating cavity oscillation into the power oscillator, a power-enhanced narrow-linewidth laser oscillation is achieved. Compared to the classic grating laser, this simple modification significantly increases the laser output power without considerably broadening the linewidth. With most of the oscillating laser power confined inside the broadband power cavity and lower power incident onto the grating, the new configuration also allows higher pump power, which is typically limited by the thermal deformation of the grating coating at high oscillation power.

  12. Study on excitation of vibrational levels of osmium tetroxide molecule by the continuous CO2 laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kompanets, O.N.; Letokhov, V.S.; Minogin, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of nonlinear infrared absorption in OsO 4 has been studied using a single-frequence continuous-wave CO 2 laser (10.6 μ). Measured are relationships between the OsO 4 absorption coefficient and the laser radiation intensity, the week beam transmission through a cell filled with OsO 4 and the frequency of the intensity modulation of the strong beam which saturates the absorption. It is indicated that the thermal mechanism prevails in OsO 4 bleaching under pressure (>=) 1mm Hg. A strong infrared fluorescence observed and studied at 5.3 and 10.6 μ in the molecular OsO 4 in the field of the high-power CO 2 laser has supplied another proof of the conclusion. The thermal diffusion rate and the coefficient of thermal conductivity for OsO 4 vapours have been determined. It has been revealed that the hot bands represent a significant part in thermal mechanism of the laser radiation absorption by the molecule

  13. Ultrafast streak and framing technique for the observation of laser driven shock waves in transparent solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kessel, C.G.M.; Sachsenmaier, P.; Sigel, R.

    1975-01-01

    Shock waves driven by laser ablation in plane transparent plexiglass and solid hydrogen targets have been observed with streak and framing techniques using a high speed image converter camera, and a dye laser as a light source. The framing pictures have been made by mode locking the dye laser and using a wide streak slit. In both materials a growing hemispherical shock wave is observed with the maximum velocity at the onset of laser radiation. (author)

  14. Tunnel ionization of H2 in a low-frequency laser field: A wave-packet approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen-Dang, T.; Chateauneuf, F.; Manoli, S.; Atabek, O.; Keller, A.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamics of multielectron dissociative ionization (MEDI) of H 2 in an intense IR laser pulse are investigated using a wave-packet propagation scheme. The electron tunneling processes corresponding to the successive ionizations of H 2 are expressed in terms of field-free Born-Oppenheimer (BO) potential energy surfaces (PES) by transforming the tunnel shape resonance picture into a Feshbach resonance problem. This transformation is achieved by defining a new, time-dependent electronic basis in which the bound electrons are still described by field-free BO electronic states while the ionized ones are described by Airy functions. In the adiabatic, quasistatic approximation, these functions describe free electrons under the influence of the instantaneous electric field of the laser and such an ionized electron can have a negative total energy. As a consequence, when dressed by the continuous ejected electron energy, the BO PES of an ionic channel can be brought into resonance with states of the parent species. This construction gives a picture in which wave packets are to be propagated on a continuum of coupled electronic manifolds. A reduction of the wave-packet propagation scheme to an effective five-channel problem has been obtained for the description of the first dissociative ionization process in H 2 by using Fano's formalism [U. Fano, Phys. Rev. 124, 1866 (1961)] to analytically diagonalize the infinite, continuous interaction potential matrix and by using the properties of Fano's solutions. With this algorithm, the effect that continuous ionization of H 2 has on the dissociation dynamics of the H 2 + ion has been investigated. In comparison with results that would be obtained if the first ionization of H 2 was impulsive, the wave-packet dynamics of the H 2 + ion prepared continuously by tunnel ionization are markedly nonadiabatic. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinjie; Yazdi, Shahrzad; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Ding, Xiaoyun; Chiang, I-Kao; Sharp, Kendra; Huang, Tony Jun

    2011-07-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) continuous microparticle focusing has been achieved in a single-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel using a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW). The SSAW was generated by the interference of two identical surface acoustic waves (SAWs) created by two parallel interdigital transducers (IDTs) on a piezoelectric substrate with a microchannel precisely bonded between them. To understand the working principle of the SSAW-based 3D focusing and investigate the position of the focal point, we computed longitudinal waves, generated by the SAWs and radiated into the fluid media from opposite sides of the microchannel, and the resultant pressure and velocity fields due to the interference and reflection of the longitudinal waves. Simulation results predict the existence of a focusing point which is in good agreement with our experimental observations. Compared with other 3D focusing techniques, this method is non-invasive, robust, energy-efficient, easy to implement, and applicable to nearly all types of microparticles.

  16. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were...... recruited. Cathodal tDCS and sham stimulation were applied to the epileptic focus, before sleep (1 mA; 20 min). Cathodal tDCS did not reduce the spike-index in any of the patients....

  17. Shock wave generation in laser ablation studied using pulsed digital holographic interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Eynas; Gren, Per; Sjoedahl, Mikael [Division of Experimental Mechanics, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)], E-mail: eynas.amer@ltu.se, E-mail: per.gren@ltu.se, E-mail: mikael.sjodahl@ltu.se

    2008-11-07

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to study the shock wave induced by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm and pulse duration 12 ns) on a polycrystalline boron nitride (PCBN) ceramic target under atmospheric air pressure. A special setup based on using two synchronized wavelengths from the same laser for processing and measurement simultaneously has been introduced. Collimated laser light ({lambda} = 532 nm) passed through the volume along the target and digital holograms were recorded for different time delays after processing starts. Numerical data of the integrated refractive index field were calculated and presented as phase maps showing the propagation of the shock wave generated by the process. The location of the induced shock wave front was observed for different focusing and time delays. The amount of released energy, i.e. the part of the incident energy of the laser pulse that is eventually converted to a shock wave has been estimated using the point explosion model. The released energy is normalized by the incident laser pulse energy and the energy conversion efficiency between the laser pulse and PCBN target has been calculated at different power densities. The results show that the energy conversion efficiency seems to be constant around 80% at high power densities.

  18. Generation of spin waves by a train of fs-laser pulses: a novel approach for tuning magnon wavelength

    OpenAIRE

    Savochkin, I. V.; J?ckl, M.; Belotelov, V. I.; Akimov, I. A.; Kozhaev, M. A.; Sylgacheva, D. A.; Chernov, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Berzhansky, V. N.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Bayer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Currently spin waves are considered for computation and data processing as an alternative to charge currents. Generation of spin waves by ultrashort laser pulses provides several important advances with respect to conventional approaches using microwaves. In particular, focused laser spot works as a point source for spin waves and allows for directional control of spin waves and switching between their different types. For further progress in this direction it is important to manipulate with ...

  19. Calculation of laser induced impulse based on the laser supported detonation wave model with dissociation, ionization and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Li; Mousen, Cheng; Xiaokang, Li

    2014-01-01

    In the laser intensity range that the laser supported detonation (LSD) wave can be maintained, dissociation, ionization and radiation take a substantial part of the incidence laser energy. There is little treatment on the phenomenon in the existing models, which brings obvious discrepancies between their predictions and the experiment results. Taking into account the impact of dissociation, ionization and radiation in the conservations of mass, momentum and energy, a modified LSD wave model is developed which fits the experimental data more effectively rather than the existing models. Taking into consideration the pressure decay of the normal and the radial rarefaction, the laser induced impulse that is delivered to the target surface is calculated in the air; and the dependencies of impulse performance on laser intensity, pulse width, ambient pressure and spot size are indicated. The results confirm that the dissociation is the pivotal factor of the appearance of the momentum coupling coefficient extremum. This study focuses on a more thorough understanding of LSD and the interaction between laser and matter

  20. Calculation of laser induced impulse based on the laser supported detonation wave model with dissociation, ionization and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Li, E-mail: ligan0001@gmail.com; Mousen, Cheng; Xiaokang, Li [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2014-03-15

    In the laser intensity range that the laser supported detonation (LSD) wave can be maintained, dissociation, ionization and radiation take a substantial part of the incidence laser energy. There is little treatment on the phenomenon in the existing models, which brings obvious discrepancies between their predictions and the experiment results. Taking into account the impact of dissociation, ionization and radiation in the conservations of mass, momentum and energy, a modified LSD wave model is developed which fits the experimental data more effectively rather than the existing models. Taking into consideration the pressure decay of the normal and the radial rarefaction, the laser induced impulse that is delivered to the target surface is calculated in the air; and the dependencies of impulse performance on laser intensity, pulse width, ambient pressure and spot size are indicated. The results confirm that the dissociation is the pivotal factor of the appearance of the momentum coupling coefficient extremum. This study focuses on a more thorough understanding of LSD and the interaction between laser and matter.

  1. Continuous-wave optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liu, Zhixiong; Alatawi, Abdullah; Ng, Tien Khee; Wu, Tao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report an optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter operating in continuous-wave (CW) with a power density threshold of ~89 kW/cm2. The device has an active region of CH3NH3PbBr3 embedded in a dielectric microcavity

  2. Continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox with traveling-wave second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum entanglement are at the heart of quantum mechanics. Here we show that single-pass traveling-wave second-harmonic generation can be used to demonstrate both entanglement and the paradox with continuous variables that are analogous to the position and momentum of the original proposal

  3. Search for continuous gravitational waves from neutron stars in globular cluster NGC 6544

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoebeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a directed search for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth initial LIGO science run. The target was the nearby globular cluster NGC 6544 at a distance of approximate to 2.7 kpc. The search covered a broad band of frequencies along with first and second frequency

  4. Continuous wave terahertz radiation from an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot photomixer device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, T.; Leyman, R.; Carnegie, D.; Bazieva, N.; Erbert, G.; Schulz, S.; Reardon, C.; Reynolds, S.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2012-08-01

    Generation of continuous wave radiation at terahertz (THz) frequencies from a heterodyne source based on quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor materials is reported. The source comprises an active region characterised by multiple alternating photoconductive and QD carrier trapping layers and is pumped by two infrared optical signals with slightly offset wavelengths, allowing photoconductive device switching at the signals' difference frequency ˜1 THz.

  5. Time-Frequency-Wavenumber Analysis of Surface Waves Using the Continuous Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.

    2013-03-01

    A modified approach to surface wave dispersion analysis using active sources is proposed. The method is based on continuous recordings, and uses the continuous wavelet transform to analyze the phase velocity dispersion of surface waves. This gives the possibility to accurately localize the phase information in time, and to isolate the most significant contribution of the surface waves. To extract the dispersion information, then, a hybrid technique is applied to the narrowband filtered seismic recordings. The technique combines the flexibility of the slant stack method in identifying waves that propagate in space and time, with the resolution of f- k approaches. This is particularly beneficial for higher mode identification in cases of high noise levels. To process the continuous wavelet transform, a new mother wavelet is presented and compared to the classical and widely used Morlet type. The proposed wavelet is obtained from a raised-cosine envelope function (Hanning type). The proposed approach is particularly suitable when using continuous recordings (e.g., from seismological-like equipment) since it does not require any hardware-based source triggering. This can be subsequently done with the proposed method. Estimation of the surface wave phase delay is performed in the frequency domain by means of a covariance matrix averaging procedure over successive wave field excitations. Thus, no record stacking is necessary in the time domain and a large number of consecutive shots can be used. This leads to a certain simplification of the field procedures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we tested it on synthetics as well on real field data. For the real case we also combine dispersion curves from ambient vibrations and active measurements.

  6. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  7. Laser Structuring of Thin Layers for Flexible Electronics by a Shock Wave-induced Delamination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Pierre; Ehrhardt, Martin; Zimmer, Klaus

    The defect-free laser-assisted structuring of thin films on flexible substrates is a challenge for laser methods. However, solving this problem exhibits an outstanding potential for a pioneering development of flexible electronics. Thereby, the laser-assisted delamination method has a great application potential. At the delamination process: the localized removal of the layer is induced by a shock wave which is produced by a laser ablation process on the rear side of the substrate. In this study, the thin-film patterning process is investigated for different polymer substrates dependent on the material and laser parameters using a KrF excimer laser. The resultant structures were studied by optical microscopy and white light interferometry (WLI). The delamination process was tested at different samples (indium tin oxide (ITO) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET), epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU8) on polyimide (PI) and indium tin oxide/copper indium gallium selenide/molybdenum (ITO/CIGS/Mo) on PI.

  8. Continuous particle focusing in a waved microchannel using negative dc dielectrophoresis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming

    2012-07-26

    We present a waved microchannel for continuous focusing of microparticles and cells using negative direct current (dc) dielectrophoresis. The waved channel is composed of consecutive s-shaped curved channels in series to generate an electric field gradient required for the dielectrophoretic effect. When particles move electrokinetically through the channel, the experienced negative dielectrophoretic forces alternate directions within two adjacent semicircular microchannels, leading to a focused continuous-flow stream along the channel centerline. Both the experimentally observed and numerically simulated results of the focusing performance are reported, which coincide acceptably in proportion to the specified dimensions (i.e. inlet and outlet of the waved channel). How the applied electric field, particle size and medium concentration affect the performance was studied by focusing polystyrene microparticles of varying sizes. As an application in the field of biology, the focusing of yeast cells in the waved mcirochannel was tested. This waved microchannel shows a great potential for microflow cytometry applications and is expected to be widely used before different processing steps in lab-on-A-chip devices with integrated functions. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. A continuous wave fan beam tomography system having a best estimating filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    A continuous wave fan beam tomographic system is described which continuously samples X-ray absorption values and a means of providing a best-estimate of the X-ray absorption values at discrete points in time determined by sampling signal s(t). The means to provide the best-estimate include a continuous filter having a frequency range defined by the geometry of the mechanical system. Errors due to the statistical variation in photon emissions of the X-ray source are thereby minimized and the effective signal-to-noise ratio of signals is enhanced, which in turn allows a significant reduction in radiation dosage. (author)

  10. Evidence for a continuous spectrum of equatorial waves in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Charles C.

    1980-06-01

    Seven-month records of current and temperature measurements from a moored array centered at 53°E on the equator in the Indian Ocean are consistent with a continuous spectrum of equatorially trapped internal inertial-gravity, mixed Rossby-gravity, and Kelvin waves. A model spectrum of free linear waves analogous to those for mid-latitude internal gravity waves is used to compute spectra of observed quantities at depths greater than about 2000 m. Model parameters are adjusted to fit general patterns in the observed spectra over periods from roughly 2 days to 1 month. Measurements at shallower depths presumably include forced motions which we have not attempted to model. This `straw-person' spectrum is consistent with the limited data available. The model spectru Ē (n, m, ω) = K · B(m) · C(n, ω), where Ē is an average local energy density in the equatorial wave guide which has amplitude K, wave number shape B(m) ∝ (1 + m/m*)-3, where m is vertical mode number and the bandwidth parameter m* is between 4 and 8, and frequency shape C(n, ω) ∝ [(2n + 1 + s2)½ · σ3]-1 where n is meridional mode number, and s and σ are dimensionless zonal wave number and frequency related by the usual dispersion relation. The scales are (β/cm)½ and (β · cm)½ for horizontal wave number and frequency, where cm is the Kelvin wave speed of the vertical mode m. At each frequency and vertical wave number, energy is partitioned equally among the available inertial gravity modes so that the field tends toward horizontal isotropy at high frequency. The transition between Kelvin and mixed Rossby-gravity motion at low frequency and inertial-gravity motion at high frequency occurs at a period of roughly 1 week. At periods in the range 1-3 weeks, the model spectrum which fits the observations suggests that mixed Rossby-gravity motion dominates; at shorter periods gravity motion dominates. The model results are consistent with the low vertical coherence lengths observed (roughly 80 m

  11. Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C

    2012-04-15

    We demonstrate wavelength conversion through nonlinear parametric processes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with maximum conversion efficiency of -13 dB at telecommunication data rates (10 GHz) using only 15 mW of pump peak power. Conversion bandwidths as large as 150 nm (20 THz) are measured in continuous-wave regime at telecommunication wavelengths. The nonlinear refractive index of the material is determined by four-wave mixing (FWM) to be n(2)=7.43×10(-13) cm(2)/W, approximately an order of magnitude larger than that of single crystal silicon. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  12. Plasma wave detection in laser spectroscopy and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzke, J.; Irmer, A. von; Veza, D.; Niemax, K.

    1995-01-01

    Frequency changes of plasma oscillations in low-pressure discharges are used for sensitive detection of atomic or molecular trace gases. Analyte selectivity can be either obtained by resonant laser excitation or by gas chromatography

  13. Laser-generated shock-wave experiments in metals above 1 TPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainor, R.J.; Shaner, J.W.; Auerbach, J.M.; Phillion, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some initial experiments are described which form part of a new program aimed at significantly extending the range of high pressures and densities which may be explored in laboratory equation-of-state (EOS) experiments. These experiments will utilize high-energy lasers, such as those employed in the Laser Fusion Program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), to generate intense shock waves in materials of interest

  14. Electron plasma waves in CO/sub 2/ laser plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldis, H.A.; Villeneuve, D.M.; Walsh, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    During the past few years, the use of Thomson scattering in CO/sub 2/ laser produced plasmas has permitted the identification and study of electron plasma waves and ion waves, driven by various instabilities in the plasma corona, such as Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), two plasmon decay, and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). Since these instabilities may coexist in the plasma, the density fluctuations associated with one wave may influence the behaviour of one or more of the other instabilities. The authors discuss the experimental evidence of such effects and, in particular, the consequences of a recent experiment in which the ion waves driven by SBS were observed to adversely affect the production of the electron plasma waves driven by SRS. In that experiment, a strong correlation was observed between the onset of SBS and the disappearance of the electron plasma waves driven by SRS at low densities (n/sub e/ n/sub e/ > 0.05 n/sub c/)

  15. Traveling waves in a free-electron laser with an electromagnetic wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olumi, Mohsen; Maraghechi, B; Rouhani, M H

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic traveling wave in a free-electron laser (FEL) with an electromagnetic wiggler is investigated using the relativistic fluid-Maxwell formulation. By adapting the traveling-wave ansatz, three coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations are obtained describing the nonlinear propagation of the coupled wave. These equations may be used to study saturation in FELs. By linearizing the nonlinear equations dispersion relations for the traveling wave are obtained. Numerical solution of the small-signal traveling dispersion relation reveals the coupling of radiation to both slow and fast space-charge waves. It is shown that the traveling wave, which is not a normal mode in a laboratory frame, becomes a normal mode in terms of a transformed variable.

  16. Internal structure of laser supported detonation waves by two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Kawamura, Koichi; Fukuda, Akio; Wang Bin; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Hatai, Keigo; Fukui, Akihiro; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of the internal structure of the laser supported detonation (LSD) waves, such as the electron density n e and the electron temperature T e profiles behind the shock wave were measured using a two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer along with emission spectroscopy. A TEA CO 2 laser with energy of 10 J/pulse produced explosive laser heating in atmospheric air. Results show that the peak values of n e and T e were, respectively, about 2 x 10 24 m -3 and 30 000 K, during the LSD regime. The temporal variation of the laser absorption coefficient profile estimated from the measured properties reveals that the laser energy was absorbed perfectly in a thin layer behind the shock wave during the LSD regime, as predicted by Raizer's LSD model. However, the absorption layer was much thinner than a plasma layer, the situation of which was not considered in Raizer's model. The measured n e at the shock front was not zero while the LSD was supported, which implies that the precursor electrons exist ahead of the shock wave.

  17. Laser-driven shock-wave propagation in pure and layered targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzmann, D.; Eliezer, S.; Krumbein, A.D.; Gitter, L.

    1983-01-01

    The propagation properties of laser-driven shock waves in pure and layered polyethylene and aluminum slab targets are studied for a set of laser intensities and pulse widths. The laser-plasma simulations were carried out by means of our one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code. It is shown that the various parts of a laser-driven compression wave undergo different thermodynamic trajectories: The shock front portion is on the Hugoniot curve whereas the rear part is closer to an adiabat. It is found that the shock front is accelerated into the cold material till troughly-equal0.8tau (where tau is the laser pulse width) and only later is a constant velocity propagation attained. The scaling laws obtained for the pressure and temperature of the compression wave in pure targets are in good agreement with those published in other works. In layered targets, high compression and pressure were found to occur at the interface of CH 2 on Al targets due to impedance mismatch but were not found when the layers were reversed. The persistence time of the high pressure on the interface in the CH 2 on Al case is long enough relative to the characteristic times of the plasma to have an appreciable influence on the shock-wave propagation into the aluminum layer. This high pressure and compression on the interface can be optimized by adjusting the CH 2 layer thickness

  18. Gravitational Wave Detection with Single-Laser Atom Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Tinto, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A new design for a broadband detector of gravitational radiation relies on two atom interferometers separated by a distance L. In this scheme, only one arm and one laser are used for operating the two atom interferometers. The innovation here involves the fact that the atoms in the atom interferometers are not only considered as perfect test masses, but also as highly stable clocks. Atomic coherence is intrinsically stable, and can be many orders of magnitude more stable than a laser.

  19. Numerical study of laser-induced blast wave coupled with unsteady ionization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Y; Ohnishi, N; Sawada, K

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the numerical simulation of laser-induced blast wave coupled with rate equations to clarify the unsteady property of ionization processes during pulse heating. From comparison with quasi-steady computations, the plasma region expands more widely, which is sustained by the inverse-bremsstrahlung since an ionization equilibrium does not establish at the front of the plasma region. The delayed relaxation leads to the rapid expansion of the driving plasma and enhances the energy conversion efficiency from a pulse heating laser to the blast wave

  20. Status of advanced ground-based laser interferometers for gravitational-wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, K L; Akutsu, T; Dwyer, S; Puppo, P

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based laser interferometers for gravitational-wave (GW) detection were first constructed starting 20 years ago and as of 2010 collection of several years’ worth of science data at initial design sensitivities was completed. Upgrades to the initial detectors together with construction of brand new detectors are ongoing and feature advanced technologies to improve the sensitivity to GWs. This conference proceeding provides an overview of the common design features of ground-based laser interferometric GW detectors and establishes the context for the status updates of each of the four gravitational-wave detectors around the world: Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, GEO 600 and KAGRA. (paper)

  1. Status of advanced ground-based laser interferometers for gravitational-wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, K. L.; Akutsu, T.; Dwyer, S.; Puppo, P.

    2015-05-01

    Ground-based laser interferometers for gravitational-wave (GW) detection were first constructed starting 20 years ago and as of 2010 collection of several years’ worth of science data at initial design sensitivities was completed. Upgrades to the initial detectors together with construction of brand new detectors are ongoing and feature advanced technologies to improve the sensitivity to GWs. This conference proceeding provides an overview of the common design features of ground-based laser interferometric GW detectors and establishes the context for the status updates of each of the four gravitational-wave detectors around the world: Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, GEO 600 and KAGRA.

  2. Experimental realization of millimeter-wave amplification by a sheet beam free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.; Rodgers, J.; Cheng, S.

    1994-01-01

    We report an observation of millimeter-wave (94 GHz) amplification in a sheet beam, short period, planar wiggler, free electron laser amplifier. The observed gain is about 5 dB for a 530 keV, 4 A beam through a 54 cm wiggler. Wave energy absorption was also observed when the beam energy is off-resonance. Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulation. This amplifier configuration has potential for producing equally high output power but at relatively low voltage compared with longer period free electron lasers

  3. Scalable patterning using laser-induced shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhom, Saidjafarzoda; Kholikov, Khomidkhodza; Li, Peizhen; Ottman, Claire; Sanford, Dylan; Thomas, Zachary; San, Omer; Karaca, Haluk E.; Er, Ali O.

    2018-04-01

    An advanced direct imprinting method with low cost, quick, and minimal environmental impact to create a thermally controllable surface pattern using the laser pulses is reported. Patterned microindents were generated on Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloys and aluminum using an Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm combined with a suitable transparent overlay, a sacrificial layer of graphite, and copper grid. Laser pulses at different energy densities, which generate pressure pulses up to a few GPa on the surface, were focused through the confinement medium, ablating the copper grid to create plasma and transferring the grid pattern onto the surface. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope images show that various patterns were obtained on the surface with high fidelity. One-dimensional profile analysis indicates that the depth of the patterned sample initially increases with the laser energy and later levels off. Our simulations of laser irradiation process also confirm that high temperature and high pressure could be generated when the laser energy density of 2 J/cm2 is used.

  4. Gravitational wave detection using laser interferometry beyond the standard quantum limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurs, M.

    2018-05-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors (such as advanced LIGO) employ high-power solid-state lasers to maximize their detection sensitivity and hence their reach into the universe. These sophisticated light sources are ultra-stabilized with regard to output power, emission frequency and beam geometry; this is crucial to obtain low detector noise. However, even when all laser noise is reduced as far as technically possible, unavoidable quantum noise of the laser still remains. This is a consequence of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, the basis of quantum mechanics: in this case, it is fundamentally impossible to simultaneously reduce both the phase noise and the amplitude noise of a laser to arbitrarily low levels. This fact manifests in the detector noise budget as two distinct noise sources-photon shot noise and quantum radiation pressure noise-which together form a lower boundary for current-day gravitational wave detector sensitivities, the standard quantum limit of interferometry. To overcome this limit, various techniques are being proposed, among them different uses of non-classical light and alternative interferometer topologies. This article explains how quantum noise enters and manifests in an interferometric gravitational wave detector, and gives an overview of some of the schemes proposed to overcome this seemingly fundamental limitation, all aimed at the goal of higher gravitational wave event detection rates. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  5. Research of the elastic waves generated by a pulse laser. Excitation mechanism of elastic waves and application to nondestructive testing; Pulse laser de reikishita danseiha ni kansuru kenkyu. Danseiha reiki no mechanism to hihakai kensa eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering

    1994-07-20

    A bulk wave is generated when a pulse laser is irradiated to the material, and the characteristics of a Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio can be nondestructively estimated from the bulk wave. The generation mechanism of laser ultrasonic waves must be first clarified for such application. In this paper, fundamental research was conducted to study the generation mechanism of the elastic waves excited by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, and the generation method and characteristics of Rayleigh waves. The following result was obtained. A bulk wave is generated by the disk-like adiabatic expansion near the surface if the laser power is small when a spot-shape pulse laser was irradiated. A bulk wave is generated by the thin disk-like adiabatic expansion beneath the surface due to the thermal diffusion in the depth direction of a base material when the laser power becomes large. Moreover, a bulk wave is generated by the impact force due to abrasion and plasma when the power becomes still larger. The information on the bulk wave characteristics and Rayleigh wave was also obtained. 25 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Sensitive detection of malachite green and crystal violet by nonlinear laser wave mixing and capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Eric J; Tong, William G

    2016-05-01

    An ultrasensitive label-free antibody-free detection method for malachite green and crystal violet is presented using nonlinear laser wave-mixing spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis. Wave-mixing spectroscopy provides a sensitive absorption-based detection method for trace analytes. This is accomplished by forming dynamic gratings within a sample cell, which diffracts light to create a coherent laser-like signal beam with high optical efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio. A cubic dependence on laser power and square dependence on analyte concentration make wave mixing sensitive enough to detect molecules in their native form without the use of fluorescent labels for signal enhancement. A 532 nm laser and a 635 nm laser were used for malachite green and crystal violet sample excitation. The use of two lasers of different wavelengths allows the method to simultaneously detect both analytes. Selectivity is obtained through the capillary zone electrophoresis separation, which results in characteristic migration times. Measurement in capillary zone electrophoresis resulted in a limit of detection of 6.9 × 10(-10)M (2.5 × 10(-19) mol) for crystal violet and 8.3 × 10(-11)M (3.0 × 10(-20) mol) for malachite green at S/N of 2. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Limitations On The Creation of Continuously Surfable Waves Generated By A Pressure Source Moving In A Circular Path

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmied, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this work was to investigate the novel idea to produce continuous breaking waves, whereby a pressure source was rotated within an annular wave pool. The concept was that the pressure source generates non-breaking waves that propagate inward to the inner ring of

  8. Atomic collisions in the presence of laser radiation - Time dependence and the asymptotic wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    A time-dependent, wave-packet description of atomic collisions in the presence of laser radiation is extracted from the more conventional time-independent, stationary-state description. This approach resolves certain difficulties of interpretation in the time-independent approach which arise in the case of asymptotic near resonance. In the two-state model investigated, the approach predicts the existence of three spherically scattered waves in this asymptotically near-resonant case.

  9. A generic travelling wave solution in dissipative laser cavity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... Abstract. A large family of cosh-Gaussian travelling wave solution of a complex Ginzburg–Landau equation ... pling, wherein the real part represents diffusive coupling ... knowledge, this is the first time that cosh-Gaussian pro-.

  10. Excitation of Accelerating Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennady Shvets; Nathaniel J. Fisch; Alexander Pukhov

    2001-01-01

    Generation of accelerating plasma waves using two counter-propagating laser beams is considered. Colliding-beam accelerator requires two laser pulses: the long pump and the short timing beam. We emphasize the similarities and differences between the conventional laser wakefield accelerator and the colliding-beam accelerator (CBA). The highly nonlinear nature of the wake excitation is explained using both nonlinear optics and plasma physics concepts. Two regimes of CBA are considered: (i) the short-pulse regime, where the timing beam is shorter than the plasma period, and (ii) the parametric excitation regime, where the timing beam is longer than the plasma period. Possible future experiments are also outlined

  11. OPTIMAL STRATEGIES FOR CONTINUOUS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTION IN PULSAR TIMING ARRAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Creighton, J. D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are expected to emit a continuous gravitational wave signal in the pulsar timing array (PTA) frequency band (10 –9 to 10 –7 Hz). The development of data analysis techniques aimed at efficient detection and characterization of these signals is critical to the gravitational wave detection effort. In this paper, we leverage methods developed for LIGO continuous wave gravitational searches and explore the use of the F-statistic for such searches in pulsar timing data. Babak and Sesana have used this approach in the context of PTAs to show that one can resolve multiple SMBHB sources in the sky. Our work improves on several aspects of prior continuous wave search methods developed for PTA data analysis. The algorithm is implemented fully in the time domain, which naturally deals with the irregular sampling typical of PTA data and avoids spectral leakage problems associated with frequency domain methods. We take into account the fitting of the timing model and have generalized our approach to deal with both correlated and uncorrelated colored noise sources. We also develop an incoherent detection statistic that maximizes over all pulsar-dependent contributions to the likelihood. To test the effectiveness and sensitivity of our detection statistics, we perform a number of Monte Carlo simulations. We produce sensitivity curves for PTAs of various configurations and outline an implementation of a fully functional data analysis pipeline. Finally, we present a derivation of the likelihood maximized over the gravitational wave phases at the pulsar locations, which results in a vast reduction of the search parameter space.

  12. Detection of Fatigue Damage by Using Frequency Attenuation of a Laser Ultrasonic Longitudinal Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Hyun-Kyu; Joo, Young-Sang; Cha, Hyung-Ki; Kang, Young-June

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of fatigue damage in nuclear power plant components is very important to prevent a catastrophic accident and the subsequent severe losses. Specifically, it is preferred to detect at an early stage of the fatigue damage. If the fatigue damage that is in danger of growing into a fracture is accurately detected, an appropriate treatment could be carried out to improve the condition. Although most engineers and designers take precautions against fatigue, some breakdowns of nuclear power plant components still occur due to fatigue damage. It is considered that ultrasound testing technique is the most promising method to detect the fatigue damage in many nondestructive testing methods. Ultrasound testing method has a variety of elastic waves, such as a longitudinal wave, a shear wave, a surface wave and a lamb wave. Also we can use various analysis methods, such as a velocity variation and a signal attenuation. Laser ultrasonic testing has attracted attention as a non-contact testing technique. This system consists of a pulse laser to remotely generate ultrasound and a laser interferometer to remotely measure the surface displacement due to the generated ultrasound. This noncontact testing technique has the following advantages over the conventional piezoelectric transducers. Firstly, the inspection system can be remotely operated for a structure in hostile environments, such as in high radioactivity, high temperatures and narrow spaces. Secondly, we can obtain lots of information from the received ultrasonic waveforms because the laser ultrasonic technique does not require fluid couplant which disturbs the ultrasonic waveforms. Thirdly, laser ultrasound has a wideband spectrum and a high spatial resolution. Therefore, the laser ultrasound provides more accurate information for a testing material and has potential for the detection of fatigue damage in various metals composing a nuclear power plant

  13. A prospective study of levetiracetam efficacy in epileptic syndromes with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkins, Mary; Nikanorova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the add-on effect of levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the EEG and clinical status of children with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep (CSWS).......To evaluate the add-on effect of levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the EEG and clinical status of children with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep (CSWS)....

  14. Guided Wave Sensing In a Carbon Steel Pipe Using a Laser Vibrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Toledo, Abelardo; Salazar Soler, Jordi; Chávez Domínguez, Juan Antonio; García Hernández, Miguel Jesús; Turó Peroy, Antoni

    2010-05-01

    Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques have achieved a great development during the last decades as a valuable tool for material characterization, manufacturing control and structural integrity tests. Among these tools, the guided wave technology has been rapidly extended because it reduces inspection time and costs compared to the ordinary point by point testing in large structures, as well as because of the possibility of inspecting under insulation and coating conditions. This fast development has motivated the creation of several inspection and material characterization systems including different technologies which can be combined with this technique. Different measurements systems based on laser techniques have been presented in order to inspect pipes, plates and diverse structures. Many of them are experimental systems of high cost and complexity which combine the employment of a laser for generation of waves in the structure and an interferometer for detection. Some of them employ air-coupled ultrasound generation transducers, with high losses in air and which demand high energy for exciting waves in materials of high stiffness. The combined employment of a commercial vibrometer system for Lamb wave sensing in plates has been successfully shown in the literature. In this paper we present a measurement system based on the combined employment of a piezoelectric wedge transducer and a laser vibrometer to sense guided acoustic waves in carbon steel pipes. The measurement system here presented is mainly compounded of an angular wedge transducer, employed to generate the guided wave and a commercial laser vibrometer used in the detection process. The wedge transducer is excited by means of a signal function generator whose output signal has been amplified with a power signal amplifier. A high precision positioning system is employed to place the laser beam at different points through the pipe surface. The signal detected by the laser vibrometer system is

  15. Supersonic Ionization Wave Driven by Radiation Transport in a Short-Pulse Laser-Produced Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmire, T.; Gumbrell, E.T.; Smith, R.A.; Mountford, L.; Hutchinson, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Through the use of an ultrashort (2ps) optical probe, we have time resolved the propagation of an ionization wave into solid fused silica. This ionization wave results when a plasma is created by the intense irradiation of a solid target with a 2ps laser pulse. We find that the velocity of the ionization wave is consistent with radiation driven thermal transport, exceeding the velocity expected from simple electron thermal conduction by nearly an order of magnitude. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Supersonic propagation of ionization waves in an underdense, laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, C.; Back, C.A.; Fournier, K.B.; Gregori, G.; Landen, O.L.; Glenzer, S.H.; Dewald, E.L.; Miller, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    A laser-driven supersonic ionization wave propagating through a millimeter-scale plasma of subcritical density up to 2-3 keV electron temperatures was observed. Propagation velocities initially ten times the sound speed were measured by means of time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics. The measured ionization wave trajectory is modeled analytically and by a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code. The comparison to the modeling suggests that nonlocal heat transport effects may contribute to the attenuation of the heat-wave propagation

  17. Traveling-wave solutions in continuous chains of unidirectionally coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu; Rozov, N. Kh

    2017-12-01

    Proposed is a mathematical model of a continuous annular chain of unidirectionally coupled generators given by certain nonlinear advection-type hyperbolic boundary value problem. Such problems are constructed by a limit transition from annular chains of unidirectionally coupled ordinary differential equations with an unbounded increase in the number of links. It is shown that any preassigned finite number of stable periodic motions of the traveling-wave type can coexist in the model.

  18. High performance superconducting radio frequency ingot niobium technology for continuous wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2015-01-01

    Future continuous wave (CW) accelerators require the superconducting radio frequency cavities with high quality factor and medium accelerating gradients (≤20 MV/m). Ingot niobium cavities with medium purity fulfill the specifications of both accelerating gradient and high quality factor with simple processing techniques and potential reduction in cost. This contribution reviews the current superconducting radiofrequency research and development and outlines the potential benefits of using ingot niobium technology for CW applications

  19. Continuous terahertz-wave generation using a monolithically integrated horn antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytavit, E.; Beck, A.; Akalin, T.; Lampin, J.-F.; Hindle, F.; Yang, C.; Mouret, G.

    2008-09-01

    A transverse electromagnetic horn antenna is monolithically integrated with a standard ultrafast interdigitated electrode photodetector on low-temperature-grown GaAs. Continuous-wave terahertz radiation is generated at frequencies up to 2 THz with a maximum power of approximately 1 μW at 780 GHz. Experimental variations in the terahertz power as function of the frequency are explained by means of electromagnetic simulations of the antenna and the photomixer vicinity.

  20. Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeholm, M; Mikkelsen, T; Mann, J; Enevoldsen, K; Courtney, M

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 μm continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneously obtained from a mast-mounted sonic anemometer at 78 meters height at the test station for large wind turbines at Hoevsoere in Western Jutland, Denmark is presented for the first time

  1. Bound states embedded into continuous spectrum as 'gathered' (compactified) scattering waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhar'ev, B.N.; Chabanov, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that states of continuous spectrum (the half-line case) can be considered as bound states normalized by unity but distributed on the infinite interval with vanishing density. Then the algorithms of shifting the range of primary localization of a chosen bound state in potential well of finite width appear to be applicable to scattering functions. The potential perturbations of the same type (but now on half-axis) concentrate the scattering wave in near vicinity of the origin, which leads to creation of bound state embedded into continuous spectrum. (author). 8 refs., 7 figs

  2. Terminal load response law of coaxial cable to continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaodong; Wei Guanghui; Li Xinfeng; Lu Xinfu

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the coupling response law of continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation to coaxial cable, the typical RF coaxial cable is selected as the object under test. The equipment or subsystem connected by coaxial cable is equivalent to a lumped load. Continuous wave irradiation effect experiments under different conditions are carried out to analyze the terminal load response law of coaxial cable. The results indicate that the coaxial cable has a frequency selecting characteristic under electromagnetic irradiation, and the terminal load response voltage peak appears at a series of discrete frequency points where the test cable's relative lengths equal to semi-integers. When the coaxial cable is irradiated by continuous wave, the induced sheath current converts to the differential-mode induced voltage between inner conductor and shielding layer through transfer impedance, and the internal resistance of induced voltage source is the characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable. The change in terminal load value has no influence on the response curve. The voltages on the terminal load and the internal resistance of equivalent induced voltage source obey the principle of voltage division. Moreover, when the sheath current on the coaxial cable is in resonance, the distributed induced voltage between adjacent current nodes is in the same polarity, which can be equivalent to a single induced voltage source. The induced voltage source which is adjacent to the terminal load plays the leading role in the irradiation response process. (authors)

  3. Continuously tunable S and C+L bands ultra wideband erbium-doped fiber ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q; Yu, Q X

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an ultra wideband tunable silica-based erbium doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) that can be continuously tuned in S and C+L bands from 1475 to 1619 nm. It is the first time that a fiber ring laser's tuning range reaches 144 nm using a standard silica-based C-band erbium-doped fiber as gain media. In the laser configuration two isolators are used in the fiber loop for suppressing the ASE in C-band and elevating the lasing gain in S-band. As a result the available lasing wavelength is extended toward the shorter wavelength of the gain bandwidth. The optimized erbium-doped fiber length, output coupling ratio and pumping laser power have been obtained through experimental study. This ring fiber laser has simple configuration, low threshold, flat laser spectral distribution and high signal-to-ASE-noise ratio. The laser will have many potential applications in fiber sensor wavelength interrogation, high-resolution spectroscopy and fiber optic communications

  4. TUMOR-GROWTH DELAY BY LASER-GENERATED SHOCK-WAVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reijke, T. M.; Schamhart, D. H.; Kurth, K. H.; Löwik, C. W.; Donkers, L. H.; Sterenborg, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    The antiproliferative effect of laser-generated shock waves (L-SW) was investigated on a human renal cell carcinoma, RC-8, grown subcutaneously in the nu/nu mouse. The RC-8 is characterized by the syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) associated with profound cachexia, increase of

  5. Wireless guided wave and impedance measurement using laser and piezoelectric transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun-Jun; Sohn, Hoon; Yun, Chung-Bang; Chung, Joseph; Lee, Michael M S

    2012-01-01

    Guided-wave- and impedance-based structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have gained much attention due to their high sensitivity to small defects. One of the popular devices commonly used for guided wave and impedance measurements is a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer. This study proposes a new wireless scheme where the power and data required for PZT excitation and sensing are transmitted via laser. First, a modulated laser beam is wirelessly transmitted to the photodiode connected to a PZT on a structure. Then, the photodiode converts the laser light into an electric signal, and it is applied to the PZT for excitation. The corresponding responses, impedance at the same PZT or guided waves at another PZT, are measured, re-converted into laser light, and wirelessly transmitted back to the other photodiode located in the data interrogator for signal processing. The feasibility of the proposed wireless guided wave and impedance measurement schemes has been examined through circuit analyses and experimentally investigated in a laboratory setup. (paper)

  6. Correlation coefficient measurement of the mode-locked laser tones using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Panapakkam, Vivek; Vujicic, Vidak; Merghem, Kamel; Lelarge, Francois; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Barry, Liam P

    2016-06-01

    We use four-wave mixing to measure the correlation coefficient of comb tones in a quantum-dash mode-locked laser under passive and active locked regimes. We study the uncertainty in the measurement of the correlation coefficient of the proposed method.

  7. Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, J.G.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Volokhine, I.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for

  8. Double shock front formation in cylindrical radiative blast waves produced by laser irradiation of krypton gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.; Quevedo, H. J.; Feldman, S.; Bang, W.; Serratto, K.; McCormick, M.; Aymond, F.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, C1510, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Radiative blast waves were created by irradiating a krypton cluster source from a supersonic jet with a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. It was found that the radiation from the shock surface is absorbed in the optically thick upstream medium creating a radiative heat wave that travels supersonically ahead of the main shock. As the blast wave propagates into the heated medium, it slows and loses energy, and the radiative heat wave also slows down. When the radiative heat wave slows down to the transonic regime, a secondary shock in the ionization precursor is produced. This paper presents experimental data characterizing both the initial and secondary shocks and numerical simulations to analyze the double-shock dynamics.

  9. Effects of Medium Characteristics on Laser RCS of Airplane with E-Wave Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam El-Ocla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plane wave incidence should be postulated to have an authentic target detection. Practically, the plane wave is incapable usually of keeping its power in the far field especially when propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. Consequently, we assume an incident beam wave with a finite width around the target. In this work, we calculate numerically a laser radar cross section (LRCS of conducting targets having smooth cross sections with inflection points such as airplane in random media. Effects of fluctuations intensity of random media on the LRCS performance are studied in this paper. E-wave polarization (E-wave incidence is considered while the mean target size is approximately twice the wavelength.

  10. Relativistic reversal of the ponderomotive force in a standing laser wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A.L.; Kaplan, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of relativistic reversal of the ponderomotive force (PF), reported earlier for a collinear configuration of electron and laser standing wave [A. E. Kaplan and A. L. Pokrovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95, 053601 (2005)], is studied here theoretically for various types of polarizations of the laser beam. We demonstrated that the collinear configuration, in which the laser wave is linearly polarized with electric field E-vector parallel to the initial electron momentum p-vector 0 , is the optimal configuration for the relativistic reversal. In that case, the transverse PF reverses its direction when the incident momentum is p 0 =mc. The reversal effect vanishes in the cases of circular and linear with E-vector perpendicular p-vector 0 polarizations. We have discovered, however, that the counter-rotating circularly polarized standing waves develop attraction and repulsion areas along the axis of laser, in the laser field whose intensity is homogeneous in that axis, i.e., has no field gradient

  11. Efficacy observation on multiple wave length laser for diabetic retinopathy and central retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Tian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the efficacy of the multiple wave length laser in treating diabetic retinopathy combined with central retinal vein occlusion. METHODS:Totally 95 cases(100 eyeswith diabetic retinopathy combined with central retinal vein occlusion were treated by multiple wave length laser. Krypton yellow laser was used for macular edema in focal photocoagulation and diffuse photocoagulation. For peripheral retina, krypton green or krypton red laser were used. Visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and fundus fluorescein angiography were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. The patients were followed up for 12 to 48wk. In this study, change in visual acuity and macular edema were observed in both groups, and statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS:The effective rate was 61.2% in diffuse macular edema group and 86.3% in focal macular edema group. The general effective rate of later was higher than the former, while the treatment effect had significant statistical difference(PCONCLUSION: Multiple wave length laser is an effective and safe way to treat diabetic macular edema of diabetic retinopathy combined with central retinal vein occlusion,which is worth widely applying in clinical practice.

  12. Lower Energy Endovenous Laser Ablation of the Great Saphenous Vein with 980 nm Diode Laser in Continuous Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun S.; Nwankwo, Ikechi J.; Hong, Kelvin; McElgunn, Patrick S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To assess clinical outcomes, complication rates, and unit energy applied using 980 nm diode endovenous laser treatment at 11 watts for symptomatic great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence and reflux disease. Methods. Thirty-four consecutive ablation therapies with a 980 nm diode endovenous laser at 11 watts were studied. The diagnosis of GSV incompetence with reflux was made by clinical evaluation and duplex Doppler examinations. The treated GSVs had a mean diameter of 1.19 cm (range 0.5-2.2 cm). The patients were followed with clinical evaluation and color flow duplex studies up to 18.5 months (mean 12.19 months ± 4.18). Results. Using 980 nm diode endovenous laser ablation in continuous mode, 100% technical success was noted. The mean length of GSVs treated was 33.82 cm (range 15-45 cm). The mean energy applied during the treatment was 1,155.81 joules (J) ± 239.50 (range 545.40-1620 J) for a mean treatment duration of 90.77 sec ± 21.77. The average laser fiber withdrawal speed was 0.35 cm/sec ± 0.054. The mean energy applied per length of GSV was 35.16 J/cm ± 8.43. Energy fluence, calculated separately for each patient, averaged 9.82 J/cm 2 ± 4.97. At up to 18.5 months follow-up (mean 12.19 months), 0% recanalization was noted; 92% clinical improvement was achieved. There was no major complication. Minor complications included 1 patient with hematoma at the percutaneous venotomy site, 1 patient with thrombophlebitis on superficial tributary varices of the treated GSV, 24% ecchymoses, and 32% self-limiting hypersensitivity/tenderness/'pulling' sensation along the treatment area. One patient developed temporary paresthesia. Four endovenous laser ablation treatments (12%) were followed by adjunctive sclerotherapies for improved cosmetic results. Conclusion. Endovenous laser ablation treatment of GSV using a 980 nm diode laser at 11 watts in continuous mode appears safe and effective. Mean energy applied per treated GSV length of 35.16 J/cm or mean

  13. Laser Gravitational-wave Antenna in Geodetic Orbit: LAGRANGE and LAGRANGE 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchman, S.; Balakrishnan, K.; Byer, R.L.; Cutler, G.D.; Debra, D.B.; Hultgren, E.; Lantz, B.; Lipa, J.A.; Saraf, S.; Zoellner, A.; Conklin, J.W.; Aguero, V.; Williams, S.D.; Alfauwaz, A.; Aljadaan, A.; Almajed, M.; Altwaijry, H.; Al Saud, T.; Bower, K.; Costello, B.; Hooper, K.; Klavins, A.; Palmer, A.; Plante, B.; Schaechter, D.; Shu, K.L.; Smith, E.; Tenerelli, D.; Vanbezooijen, R.; Vasudevan, G.; Faied, D.M.; Foster, C.; Genova, A.L.; Sanchez, H.S.; Worden, S.P.; Hanson, J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a Laser Gravitational-wave Antenna in Geodic Orbit design called LAGRANGE that maintains all important LISA science at about half the cost of the original LISA mission and with reduced technical risk. It consists of 3 drag-free spacecraft (SC) in a geocentric formation. Fixed antennas allow continuous contact with the Earth, solving the problem of communications bandwidth and latency. A 70 mm diameter sphere with a 35 mm gap to its enclosure serves as the single inertial reference per SC, operating in 'true' drag-free mode (no test mass forcing). Other advantages are: a single caging design based on the DISCOS 1972 drag-free mission, an all optical read-out with pm fine and nm coarse sensors, and the extreme technology heritage from the Honeywell gyroscopes, and the DISCOS and Gravity Probe B drag-free sensors. An interferometric Measurement System, designed with reflective optics and a highly stabilized frequency standard, performs the ranging between test masses and requires a single optical bench with one laser per SC. Two 20 cm diameter telescope per SC, each with infield pointing, incorporate novel technology developed for advanced optical systems by Lockheed Martin, who also designed the SC based on a multi-flight proven bus structure. Additional technological advancements include include updated propulsion technology, improved thermal control, and a UV-LED charge management system. LAGRANGE subsystems are designed to be scalable and modular, making them interchangeable with those of LISA or other gravitational science missions. We plan to space qualify critical technologies on small and nano satellite flights, with the first launch (UV-LED Sat) in 2013. We further propose a relaxed performance version of LAGRANGE to be flown before 2020 at one quarter the cost of LISA. The requirements on the drag-free sensors and interferometers are relaxed by factors of 10-100 while the core science, super massive black hole (MBH) mergers, is maintained

  14. Towards PDT with Genetically Encoded Photosensitizer KillerRed: A Comparison of Continuous and Pulsed Laser Regimens in an Animal Tumor Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Shirmanova

    Full Text Available The strong phototoxicity of the red fluorescent protein KillerRed allows it to be considered as a potential genetically encoded photosensitizer for the photodynamic therapy (PDT of cancer. The advantages of KillerRed over chemical photosensitizers are its expression in tumor cells transduced with the appropriate gene and direct killing of cells through precise damage to any desired cell compartment. The ability of KillerRed to affect cell division and to induce cell death has already been demonstrated in cancer cell lines in vitro and HeLa tumor xenografts in vivo. However, the further development of this approach for PDT requires optimization of the method of treatment. In this study we tested the continuous wave (593 nm and pulsed laser (584 nm, 10 Hz, 18 ns modes to achieve an antitumor effect. The research was implemented on CT26 subcutaneous mouse tumors expressing KillerRed in fusion with histone H2B. The results showed that the pulsed mode provided a higher rate of photobleaching of KillerRed without any temperature increase on the tumor surface. PDT with the continuous wave laser was ineffective against CT26 tumors in mice, whereas the pulsed laser induced pronounced histopathological changes and inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, we selected an effective regimen for PDT when using the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed and pulsed laser irradiation.

  15. Manipulation of the polarization of intense laser beams via optical wave mixing in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Pierre; Divol, Laurent; Turnbull, David; Moody, John

    2014-10-01

    When intense laser beams overlap in plasmas, the refractive index modulation created by the beat wave via the ponderomotive force can lead to optical wave mixing phenomena reminiscent of those used in crystals and photorefractive materials. Using a vector analysis, we present a full analytical description of the modification of the polarization state of laser beams crossing at arbitrary angles in a plasma. We show that plasmas can be used to provide full control of the polarization state of a laser beam, and give simple analytical estimates and practical considerations for the design of novel photonics devices such as plasma polarizers and plasma waveplates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  17. Laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state studies at megabar pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H C; Shukla, M; Senecha, V K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Rai, V N; Khare, P; Bhat, R K; Gupta, N K; Godwal, B K

    2002-01-01

    We present the results from laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state (EOS) studies of gold metal. An Nd:YAG laser chain (2 J, 1.06 μm wavelength, 200 ps pulse FWHM) is used to generate shocks in planar Al foils and Al + Au layered targets. The EOS of gold in the pressure range of 9-13 Mbar is obtained using the impedance matching technique. The numerical simulations performed using the one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code support the experimental results. The present experimental data show remarkable agreement with the existing standard EOS models and with other experimental data obtained independently using laser driven shock wave experiments

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien-Chih Liu, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of falling molten lithium or Li2BeF4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactor`s central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel. X-rays from the fusion microexplosion will ablate a thin layer of blanket material from the surfaces which face toward the fusion site. This generates a highly energetic vapor, which mostly coalesces in the central cavity. The blast expansion from the central cavity generates a shock which propagates through the segmented blanket - a complex geometry, gas-continuous two-phase medium. The impulse that the blast gives to the liquid as it vents past, the gas shock on the chamber wall, and ultimately the liquid impact on the wall are all important quantities to the HYLIFE structural designers.

  19. Spatio-temporal evolution of magnetosonic wave in the laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R. P.; Singh, Ram Kishor; Sharma, Swati; Tiwary, Prem Pyari; Modi, K. V.; Satsangi, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model for the transient response of nonlinear coupling between magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave in the overdense plasma. Filamentation of magnetosonic wave has been considered to be responsible for magnetic turbulence during the laser plasma interaction. The ion acoustic wave gets excited due to the ponderomotive force exerted by magnetosonic wave and this ion acoustic wave in turn generates perturbation in the background density in the form of spatial density harmonics. Numerical simulation has been carried out for dimensionless coupled equations of magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave; and the results show quite complex localized structures that grow with time. The power spectrum has also been studied which shows that the spectral index follows an approximate scaling of the order of ∼k −2.4 at smaller scales. The data obtained from numerical simulation are used in semi analytical model to better understand the mechanism of nonlinear evolution of magnetosonic wave. The results indicate considerable randomness in the spatial structure of the magnetic field profile which gives sufficient indication of turbulence

  20. Spatio-temporal evolution of magnetosonic wave in the laser plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R. P., E-mail: rpsharma@ces.iitd.ac.in; Singh, Ram Kishor, E-mail: ram007kishor@gmail.com; Sharma, Swati, E-mail: swati.sharma704@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Tiwary, Prem Pyari, E-mail: prempyari@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayal Bagh Educational Institute(Deemed University), DayalBagh, Agra 282005 (India); Modi, K. V., E-mail: kvmodi.iitd@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Mechanical Engineering Department, Government Engineering College Valsad, Gujarat 396001 (India); Satsangi, V. R. [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayal Bagh Educational Institute(Deemed University), DayalBagh, Agra 282005 (India)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents a theoretical model for the transient response of nonlinear coupling between magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave in the overdense plasma. Filamentation of magnetosonic wave has been considered to be responsible for magnetic turbulence during the laser plasma interaction. The ion acoustic wave gets excited due to the ponderomotive force exerted by magnetosonic wave and this ion acoustic wave in turn generates perturbation in the background density in the form of spatial density harmonics. Numerical simulation has been carried out for dimensionless coupled equations of magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave; and the results show quite complex localized structures that grow with time. The power spectrum has also been studied which shows that the spectral index follows an approximate scaling of the order of ∼k{sup −2.4} at smaller scales. The data obtained from numerical simulation are used in semi analytical model to better understand the mechanism of nonlinear evolution of magnetosonic wave. The results indicate considerable randomness in the spatial structure of the magnetic field profile which gives sufficient indication of turbulence.

  1. Scanning laser vibrometer measurement of guided waves in rails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Guided wave based inspection and monitoring systems for railway tracks operate at frequencies where as many as 40 modes of propagation may exist. During the development of such systems it is advantageous to be able to measure the amplitude...

  2. Virgo: a laser interferometer to detect gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Accadia, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; van der Voet, H.; Mul, F.A.; Rabeling, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a complete description of Virgo, the French-Italian gravitational wave detector. The detector, built at Cascina, near Pisa (Italy), is a very large Michelson interferometer, with 3 km-long arms. In this paper, following a presentation of the physics requirements, leading to the

  3. Continuation of mitosis after selective laser microbeam destruction of the centriolar region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berns, N.W.; Richardson, S.M.

    1977-12-01

    The centriole regions of prophase PTK2 cells were irradiated with a laser microbeam. Cells continued through mitosis normally. Ultrastructural analysis revealed either an absence of centrioles or severely damaged centrioles at the irradiated poles. Microtubules appeared to focus into pericentriolar cloud material.

  4. Continuation of mitosis after selective laser microbeam destruction of the centriolar region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, N.W.; Richardson, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    The centriole regions of prophase PTK2 cells were irradiated with a laser microbeam. Cells continued through mitosis normally. Ultrastructural analysis revealed either an absence of centrioles or severely damaged centrioles at the irradiated poles. Microtubules appeared to focus into pericentriolar cloud material

  5. Propagation of bulk longitudinal waves in thin films using laser ultrasonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dong-eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents the investigation of the propagation behavior of bulk longitudinal waves generated by an ultrafast laser system in thin films. A train of femtosecond laser pulses was focused onto the surface of a 150-nm thick metallic (chromium or aluminum) film on a silicon substrate to excite elastic waves, and the change in thermoreflectance at the spot was monitored to detect the arrival of echoes from the film/substrate interface. The experimental results show that the film material characteristics such as the wave velocity and Young's modulus can be evaluated through curve-fitting in numerical solutions. The material properties of nanoscale thin films are difficult to measure using conventional techniques. Therefore, this research provides an effective method for the nondestructive characterization of nanomaterials.

  6. Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense Plasma for Efficient X-Ray Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, M.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nagai, K.; Iwamae, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Fournier, K.B.; Girard, F.; Primout, M.; Villette, B.; Tobin, M.; Mima, K.

    2008-01-01

    We have observed supersonic heat wave propagation in a low-density aerogel target (ρ ∼ 3.2 mg/cc) irradiated at the intensity of 4 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The heat wave propagation was measured with a time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics, and the results were compared with simulations made with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code, RAICHO. Propagation velocity of the ionization front gradually decreased as the wave propagates into the target. The reason of decrease is due to increase of laser absorption region as the front propagates and interplay of hydrodynamic motion and reflection of laser propagation. These features are well reported with the simulation

  7. Damage Detection on Thin-walled Structures Utilizing Laser Scanning and Standing Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Se Hyeok; Jeon, Jun Young; Kim, Du Hwan; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, To; Han, Soon Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes wavenumber filtering for damage detection using single-frequency standing wave excitation and laser scanning sensing. An embedded piezoelectric sensor generates ultrasonic standing waves, and the responses are measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and mirror tilting device. After scanning, newly developed damage detection techniques based on wavenumber filtering are applied to the full standing wave field. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques, several experiments were performed on composite plates with delamination and aluminum plates with corrosion damage. The results demonstrated that the developed techniques could be applied to various structures to localize the damage, with the potential to improve the damage detection capability at a high interrogation speed.

  8. Hypersonic wave drag reduction performance of cylinders with repetitive laser energy depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J; Hong, Y J; Li, Q; Huang, H

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely research that wave drag reduction on hypersonic vehicle by laser energy depositions. Using laser energy to reduce wave drag can improve vehicle performance. A second order accurate scheme based on finite-difference method and domain decomposition of structural grid is used to compute the drag performance of cylinders in a hypersonic flow of Mach number 2 at altitude of 15km with repetitive energy depositions. The effects of frequency on drag reduction are studied. The calculated results show: the recirculation zone is generated due to the interaction between bow shock over the cylinder and blast wave produced by energy deposition, and a virtual spike which is supported by an axis-symmetric recirculation, is formed in front of the cylinder. By increasing the repetitive frequency, the drag is reduced and the oscillation of the drag is decreased; however, the energy efficiency decreases by increasing the frequency.

  9. Sub-parts-per-quadrillion-level graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry based on laser wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickadeit, Fritz K; Berniolles, Sandrine; Kemp, Helen R; Tong, William G

    2004-03-15

    Nonlinear laser wave mixing in a common graphite furnace atomizer is presented as a zeptomole-level, sub-Doppler, high-resolution atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. A nonplanar three-dimensional wave-mixing optical setup is used to generate the signal beam in its own space. Signal collection is efficient and convenient using a template-based optical alignment. The graphite furnace atomizer offers advantages including fast and convenient introduction of solid, liquid, or gas analytes, clean atomization environment, and minimum background noise. Taking advantage of the unique features of the wave-mixing optical method and those of the graphite furnace atomizer, one can obtain both excellent spectral resolution and detection sensitivity. A preliminary concentration detection limit of 0.07 parts-per-quadrillion and a preliminary mass detection limit of 0.7 ag or 8 zmol are determined for rubidium using a compact laser diode as the excitation source.

  10. Non-contact estimation of the bond quality in soldered thin laminate by laser generated lamb waves; Laser reiki ramuha ni yoru handazuke sekisohaku no setsugo seijo no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, H.; Futatsugi, T.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama-Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering

    1998-03-20

    The bond quality of a solder-bonded copper laminated plate was modeled into rigid contact (rc) and slip contact (sc) to calculate the velocity dispersion of lamb waves. The velocity dispersion of laser generated lamb waves was measured, and the bond quality or the thickness of a solder layer was evaluated by non-contact. In the model whose bond surface is rc, the velocity dispersion of lamb waves can be calculated under conditions where the stress and displacement in an interface are continuous. In the model whose bond surface is sc, it can be calculated under conditions where an interface slips freely. Weak bond indicates the velocity dispersion between rc and sc. In this model, the velocity dispersion can also be calculated by a change in the thickness of a solder layer and used for quantitative evaluation of a bond interface. A three-layer solder bond manufactured for trial could be evaluated from the velocity dispersion of laser lamb waves. At the room temperature, the change in bond quality near the solder melting point of bond laminate that was judged as rc was investigated. When the solidus temperature is exceeded, the amplitude of lamb waves and the velocity dispersion changed largely. The amplitude of lamb waves increases as the liquid phase ratio increases. The bond quality near the solder melting point can be evaluated using lamb waves. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  12. Analysis of laser ablation: Contribution of ionization energy to the plasma and shock wave properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.-B.; Mao Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    By fitting simulation results with experimentally measured trajectories of the shock wave and the vapor/background gas contact surface, we found that inclusion of ionization energy in the analysis leads to a change in the evolution of the pressure, mass density, electron number density, and temperature of the vapor plume. The contribution of ionization energy to both the plasma and shock wave has been neglected in most studies of laser ablation. Compared to previous simulations, the densities, pressures, and temperatures are lower shortly after the laser pulse ( 50 ns). The predicted laser energy conversion ratio also showed about a 20% increase (from 35% to 45%) when the ionization energy is considered. The changes in the evolution of the physical quantities result from the retention of the ionization energy in the vapor plume, which is then gradually transformed to kinetic and thermal energies. When ionization energy is included in the simulation, the vapor plume attains higher expansion speeds and temperatures for a longer time after the laser pulse. The better determination of the temperature history of the vapor plume not only improves the understanding of the expansion process of the laser induced vapor plume but also is important for chemical analysis. The accurate temperature history provides supplementary information which enhances the accuracy of chemical analysis based on spectral emission measurements (e.g., laser induced breakdown spectroscopy)

  13. Pseudo-Random Modulation of a Laser Diode for Generating Ultrasonic Longitudinal Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anatasi, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Laser generated ultrasound systems have historically been more complicated and expensive than conventional piezoelectric based systems, and this fact has relegated the acceptance of laser based systems to niche applications for which piezoelectric based systems are less suitable. Lowering system costs, while improving throughput, increasing ultrasound signal levels, and improving signal-to-noise are goals which will help increase the general acceptance of laser based ultrasound. One current limitation with conventional laser generated ultrasound is a material s damage threshold limit. Increasing the optical power to generate more signal eventually damages the material being tested due to rapid, high heating. Generation limitations for laser based ultrasound suggests the use of pulse modulation techniques as an alternate generation method. Pulse modulation techniques can spread the laser energy over time or space, thus reducing laser power densities and minimizing damage. Previous experiments by various organizations using spatial or temporal pulse modulation have been shown to generate detectable surface, plate, and bulk ultrasonic waves with narrow frequency bandwidths . Using narrow frequency bandwidths improved signal detectability, but required the use of expensive and powerful lasers and opto-electronic systems. The use of a laser diode to generate ultrasound is attractive because of its low cost, small size, light weight, simple optics and modulation capability. The use of pulse compression techniques should allow certain types of laser diodes to produce usable ultrasonic signals. The method also does not need to be limited to narrow frequency bandwidths. The method demonstrated here uses a low power laser diode (approximately 150 mW) that is modulated by controlling the diode s drive current and the resulting signal is recovered by cross correlation. A potential application for this system which is briefly demonstrated is in detecting signals in thick

  14. Soliton generation via continuous stokes acoustic self-scattering of hypersonic waves in a paramagnetic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, A. N.; Sazonov, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed for continuous frequency down-conversion of acoustic waves propagating in a paramagnetic crystal at a low temperature in an applied magnetic field. A transverse hypersonic pulse generating a carrier-free longitudinal strain pulse via nonlinear effects is scattered by the generated pulse. This leads to a Stokes shift in the transverse hypersonic wave proportional to its intensity, and both pulses continue to propagate in the form of a mode-locked soliton. As the transverse-pulse frequency is Stokes shifted, its spectrum becomes narrower. This process can be effectively implemented only if the linear group velocity of the transverse hypersonic pulse equals the phase velocity of the longitudinal strain wave. These velocities are renormalized by spin-phonon coupling and can be made equal by adjusting the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The transverse structure of the soliton depends on the sign of the group velocity dispersion of the transverse component. When the dispersion is positive, planar solitons can develop whose transverse component has a topological defect of dark vortex type and longitudinal component has a hole. In the opposite case, the formation of two-component acoustic 'bullets' or vortices localized in all directions is possible

  15. Coherently combining data between detectors for all-sky semi-coherent continuous gravitational wave searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, E; Riles, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments, e.g., by up to 42% over a single detector for an all-sky search. For misaligned detectors, however, this improvement requires careful attention when marginalizing over unknown polarization parameters. In addition, care must be taken in correcting for differential detector velocity due to the Earth’s rotation for high signal frequencies and widely separated detectors. (paper)

  16. Hidden Markov model tracking of continuous gravitational waves from young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Melatos, A.; Suvorova, S.; Moran, W.; Evans, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    Searches for persistent gravitational radiation from nonpulsating neutron stars in young supernova remnants are computationally challenging because of rapid stellar braking. We describe a practical, efficient, semicoherent search based on a hidden Markov model tracking scheme, solved by the Viterbi algorithm, combined with a maximum likelihood matched filter, the F statistic. The scheme is well suited to analyzing data from advanced detectors like the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO). It can track rapid phase evolution from secular stellar braking and stochastic timing noise torques simultaneously without searching second- and higher-order derivatives of the signal frequency, providing an economical alternative to stack-slide-based semicoherent algorithms. One implementation tracks the signal frequency alone. A second implementation tracks the signal frequency and its first time derivative. It improves the sensitivity by a factor of a few upon the first implementation, but the cost increases by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude.

  17. Experimental development of a millimeter wave free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radack, D.J.; Bidwell, S.W.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Rodgers, J.; Zhang, Z.X.

    1990-01-01

    A 1 MW (cw), millimeter wave FEL (λ 3 ∼ 0.5 mm)is currently under development with an application for heating fusion plasmas. Two salient features of the FEL are the use of a short-period wiggler ell w ≤ 10 mm electromagnet and a mildly relativistic (E beam ≤ 1 MeV) sheet electron beam. The FEL has been designed to operate in the high-gain regime and uses a tapered wiggler. The wiggler provides beam focusing as well as the magnetostatic pump wave. The effectiveness of wiggler focusing is being investigated. Planned experiments will address the critical issues of beam interception and stable single-mode operation. 12 refs., 1 tab

  18. Dynamic exposure model analysis of continuous laser direct writing in Polar-coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan; Lv, Yingjun; Mao, Wenjie

    2018-01-01

    In order to exactly predict the continuous laser direct writing quality in Polar-coordinate, we take into consideration the effect of the photoresist absorbing beam energy, the Gaussian attribute of the writing beam and the dynamic exposure process, and establish a dynamic exposure model to describe the influence of the tangential velocity of the normal incident facular center and laser power on the line width and sidewall angle. Numerical simulation results indicate that while writing velocity remains unchanged, the line width and sidewall angle are all increased as the laser power increases; while laser power remains unchanged, the line width and sidewall angle are all decreased as the writing velocity increases; at the same time the line profile in the exposure section is asymmetry and the center of the line has tiny excursion toward the Polar-coordinate origin compared with the facular center. Then it is necessary to choose the right writing velocity and laser power to obtain the ideal line profile. The model makes up the shortcomings of traditional models that can only predict line width or estimate the profile of the writing line in the absence of photoresist absorption, and can be considered as an effect analysis method for optimizing the parameters of fabrication technique of laser direct writing.

  19. Optimised frequency modulation for continuous-wave optical magnetic resonance sensing using nitrogen-vacancy ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ella, Haitham; Ahmadi, Sepehr; Wojciechowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    transitions, we experimentally show that when the ratio between the hyperfine linewidth and their separation is ≥ 1=4, square-wave based frequency modulation generates the steepest slope at modulation depths exceeding the separation of the hyperfine lines, compared to sine-wave based modulation. We formulate......Magnetometers based on ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centres are a promising platform for continuously sensing static and low-frequency magnetic fields. Their combination with phase-sensitive (lock-in) detection creates a highly versatile sensor with a sensitivity that is proportional...... to the derivative of the optical magnetic resonance lock-in spectrum, which is in turn dependant on the lock-in modulation parameters. Here we study the dependence of the lock-in spectral slope on the modulation of the spin-driving microwave field. Given the presence of the intrinsic nitrogen hyperfine spin...

  20. Searching for continuous gravitational wave signals. The hierarchical Hough transform algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, M.; Schutz, B.F.; Sintes, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that matched filtering techniques cannot be applied for searching extensive parameter space volumes for continuous gravitational wave signals. This is the reason why alternative strategies are being pursued. Hierarchical strategies are best at investigating a large parameter space when there exist computational power constraints. Algorithms of this kind are being implemented by all the groups that are developing software for analyzing the data of the gravitational wave detectors that will come online in the next years. In this talk I will report about the hierarchical Hough transform method that the GEO 600 data analysis team at the Albert Einstein Institute is developing. The three step hierarchical algorithm has been described elsewhere [8]. In this talk I will focus on some of the implementational aspects we are currently concerned with. (author)

  1. Integration of laser trapping for continuous and selective monitoring of photothermal response of a single microparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George C K; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh

    2008-12-01

    Photothermal response (PTR) is an established pump and probe technique for real-time sensing of biological assays. Continuous and selective PTR monitoring is difficult owing to the Brownian motion changing the relative position of the target with respect to the beams. Integration of laser trapping with PTR is proposed as a solution. The proposed method is verified on red polystyrene microparticles. PTR is continuously monitored for 30 min. Results show that the mean relaxation time variation of the acquired signals is less than 5%. The proposed method is then applied to human red blood cells for continuous and selective PTR.

  2. High-power Nd:YAG lasers using stable-unstable resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Mudge, D; Ottaway, D J; Veitch, P J; Munch, J P; Hamilton, M W

    2002-01-01

    The development of a power-scalable diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser for advanced long-baseline interferometric detectors of gravitational waves is described. The laser employs a chain of injection-locked slave lasers to yield an efficient, frequency-stable, diffraction-limited laser beam.

  3. Laser ultrasound and simulated time reversal on bulk waves for non destructive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diot, G; Walaszek, H; Kouadri-David, A; Guégan, S; Flifla, J

    2014-01-01

    Laser welding of aluminium generally creates embedded welding defects, such as porosities or cracks. Non Destructive Inspection (NDI) after processing may ensure an acceptable weld quality by defect detection. Nowadays, NDI techniques used to control the inside of a weld are mainly limited to X-Rays or ultrasonics. The current paper describes the use of a Laser Ultrasound (LU) technique to inspect porosities in 2 and 4-mm thick sheet lap welds. First experimentations resulted in the detection of 0.5-mm drilled holes in bulk aluminium sheets. The measurement of the depth of these defects is demonstrated too. Further experimentations shows the applicability of the LU technique to detect porosities in aluminium laser welds. However, as the interpretation of raw measures is limiting the detection capacity of this technique, we developed a signal processing using Time-Reversal capabilities to enhance detection capacities. Furthermore, the signal processing output is a geometrical image of the material's inner state, increasing the ease of interpretation. It is based on a mass-spring simulation which enables the back-propagation of the acquired ultrasound signal. The spring-mass simulation allows the natural generation of all the different sound waves and thus enables the back-propagation of a raw signal without any need of filtering or wave identification and extraction. Therefore the signal processing uses the information contained in the compression wave as well as in the shear wave

  4. Nonlinear plasma wave models in 3D fluid simulations of laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Arrighi, Bill; Langer, Steve; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions require multi-mm spatial scales due to the typical laser beam size and durations of order 100 ps in order for numerical laser reflectivities to converge. To be computationally achievable, these scales necessitate a fluid-like treatment of light and plasma waves with a spatial grid size on the order of the light wave length. Plasma waves experience many nonlinear phenomena not naturally described by a fluid treatment, such as frequency shifts induced by trapping, a nonlinear (typically suppressed) Landau damping, and mode couplings leading to instabilities that can cause the plasma wave to decay rapidly. These processes affect the onset and saturation of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering, and are of direct interest to the modeling and prediction of deleterious LPI in ICF. It is not currently computationally feasible to simulate these Debye length-scale phenomena in 3D across experimental scales. Analytically-derived and/or numerically benchmarked models of processes occurring at scales finer than the fluid simulation grid offer a path forward. We demonstrate the impact of a range of kinetic processes on plasma reflectivity via models included in the LPI simulation code pF3D. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigations of shock and shear wave propagation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation in epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecault, Romain; Touchard, Fabienne; Boustie, Michel; Berthe, Laurent; Lescoute, Emilien; Sollier, Arnaud; Voillaume, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    In this work, original shock experiments are presented. Laser-induced shock and shear wave propagations have been observed in an epoxy resin, in the case of femtosecond laser irradiation. A specific time-resolved shadowgraphy setup has been developed using the photoelasticimetry principle to enhance the shear wave observation. Shear waves have been observed in epoxy resin after laser irradiation. Their propagation has been quantified in comparison with the main shock propagation. A discussion, hinging on numerical results, is finally given to improve understanding of the phenomenon. (paper)

  6. Comparative study of acute lateral skin damage during radio wave and laser exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubensky V.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to study the depth and nature of the zones of thermal damage to the skin under radio wave and laser skin dissection during experiment. Material and Methods. The model of acute thermal damage was full-liner skin wounds of 20 nonlinear rats that were divided into 2 groups and operated by different methods. In the 1st group, the incisions were made by the apparatus of radio wave surgery (Surgitron DF S5, in the 2nd group the animals were operated with a laser surgical apparatus. The magnitude and structure of the lateral thermal damage was evaluated when analyzing the biopsy material. Results. During the study of experimental wounds, the extent of carbonation in the first group (operated with Surgitron DF S5 was 11.56±3.056 urn, coagulation necrosis 116.5±26.78 urn, and the hyper-thermiazone 148.42±60.171 urn. In the group of animals operated with a laser apparatus, the carbonization zone was 22.58±6.62 urn, the coagulation necrosis zone was 331.1±79.08 urn, and the hyperthermia extent was 376.2±53.27 urn. Conclusion. A comparative study of lateral skin damage in radio wave and laser skin dissection revealed a deeper thermal change in the skin and an increase in the extent of thermally altered structures under laser action: the carbonization zone was larger than for radio waves by 11.02 urn, coagulation necrosis by 214.6 urn, and the hyperthermia zone by 227.78 urn.

  7. Influence of viscoelastic property on laser-generated surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongxiang; Zhang Shuyi; Xu Baiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Taking account of the viscoelasticity of materials, the pulsed laser generation of surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems has been investigated quantitatively by using the finite element method. The displacement spectra of the surface acoustic waves have been calculated in frequency domain for different coating-substrate systems, in which the viscoelastic properties of the coatings and substrates are considered separately. Meanwhile, the temporal displacement waveforms have been obtained by applying inverse fast Fourier transforms. The numerical results of the normal surface displacements are presented for different configurations: a single plate, a slow coating on a fast substrate, and a fast coating on a slow substrate. The influences of the viscoelastic properties of the coating and the substrate on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves have been studied. In addition, the influence of the coating thickness on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves has been also investigated in detail.

  8. Strong shock wave and areal mass oscillations associated with impulsive loading of planar laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A.L.; Schmitt, A.J.; Metzler, N.; Gardner, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    When a rippled surface of a planar target is irradiated with a short (subnanosecond) laser pulse, the shock wave launched into the target and the mass distribution of the shocked plasma will oscillate. These oscillations are found to be surprisingly strong compared, for example, to the case when the laser radiation is not turned off but rather keeps pushing the shock wave into the target. Being stronger than the areal mass oscillations due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and feedout in planar targets, which have recently been observed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) [Aglitskiy et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2264 (2002)], these oscillations should therefore be directly observable with the same diagnostic technique. Irradiation of a target with a short laser pulse represents a particular case of an impulsive loading, a fast release of finite energy in a thin layer near the surface of a target. Renewed interest to the impulsive loading in the area of direct-drive laser fusion is due to the recent proposals of using a short pulse prior to the drive pulse to make the target more resistant to laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Impulsive loading produces a shock wave that propagates into the target and is immediately followed by an expansion wave, which gradually reduces the shock strength. If the irradiated surface is rippled, then, while the shock wave propagates through the target, its modulation amplitude grows, exceeding the initial ripple amplitude by a factor of 2 or more. The oscillating areal mass reaches the peak values that exceed the initial mass modulation amplitude (density times ripple height) by a factor of 5-7 or more, and reverses its phase several times after the laser pulse is over. The oscillatory growth is more pronounced in fluids with higher shock compressibility and is probably related to the Vishniac's instability of a blast wave. Frequency of the oscillations is determined by the speed of sound in the shocked material, and

  9. Pulsar discoveries by volunteer distributed computing and the strongest continuous gravitational wave signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Neutron stars are the endpoints of stellar evolution and one of the most compact forms of matter in the universe. They can be observed as radio pulsars and are promising sources for the emission of continuous gravitational waves. Discovering new radio pulsars in tight binary orbits offers the opportunity to conduct very high precision tests of General Relativity and to further our understanding of neutron star structure and matter at super-nuclear densities. The direct detection of gravitational waves would validate Einstein's theory of Relativity and open a new window to the universe by offering a novel astronomical tool. This thesis addresses both of these scientific fields: the first fully coherent search for radio pulsars in tight, circular orbits has been planned, set up and conducted in the course of this thesis. Two unusual radio pulsars, one of them in a binary system, have been discovered. The other half of this thesis is concerned with the simulation of the Galactic neutron star population to predict their emission of continuous gravitational waves. First realistic statistical upper limits on the strongest continuous gravitational-wave signal and detection predictions for realistic all-sky blind searches have been obtained. The data from a large-scale pulsar survey with the 305-m Arecibo radio telescope were searched for signals from radio pulsars in binary orbits. The massive amount of computational work was done on hundreds of thousands of computers volunteered by members of the general public through the distributed computing project Einstein@Home. The newly developed analysis pipeline searched for pulsar spin frequencies below 250 Hz and for orbital periods as short as 11 min. The structure of the search pipeline consisting of data preparation, data analysis, result post-processing, and set-up of the pipeline components is presented in detail. The first radio pulsar, discovered with this search, PSR J2007+2722, is an isolated radio pulsar, likely from

  10. Beam characterization of a new continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, A., E-mail: aperry4@hawk.iit.edu [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Zinkann, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    A new Continuous Wave (CW) Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) for the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System) Intensity Upgrade was developed, built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. We present here a characterization of the RFQ output beam in the longitudinal phase space, as well as a measurement of the transverse beam halo. Measurement results are compared to simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK. -- Highlights: • Beam commissioning of a new CW RFQ has been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. • Energy spread and bunch shape measurements were conducted. • The formation of a beam halo in the transverse phase space was studied.

  11. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent ra...

  12. Wide-band continuous-wave terahertz source with a vertically integrated photomixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytavit, E.; Lampin, J.-F.; Hindle, F.; Yang, C.; Mouret, G.

    2009-10-01

    A transverse electromagnetic horn antenna is monolithically integrated with a low temperature grown GaAs vertical photodetector on a silicon substrate forming a vertically integrated photomixer. Continuous-wave terahertz radiation is generated at frequencies up to 3.5 THz with a power level reaching 20 nW around 3 THz. Microwave and material concepts allow both qualitative and quantitative explanations of the experimental results. The thin film microstrip line topology has been adapted for active devices by an Au-Au thermocompression layer transfer technique and seems to be a promising generic tool for a new generation of efficient terahertz devices.

  13. Enhancement of Continuous Variable Entanglement in Four-Wave Mixing due to Atomic Memory Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Zhu, Zhu; Xiang-Ming, Hu; Fei, Wang; Jing-Yan, Li

    2010-01-01

    We explore the effects of atomic memory on quantum correlations of two-mode light fields from four-wave mixing. A three-level atomic system in Λ configuration is considered, in which the atomic relaxation times are comparable to or longer than the cavity relaxation times and thus there exists the atomic memory. The quantum correlation spectrum in the output is calculated without the adiabatic elimination of atomic variables. It is shown that the continuous variable entanglement is enhanced over a wide range of the normalized detuning in the intermediate and bad cavity cases compared with the good cavity case. In some situations more significant enhancement occurs at sidebands

  14. Continuous-Wave Single-Photon Transistor Based on a Superconducting Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriienko, Oleksandr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2016-01-01

    We propose a microwave frequency single-photon transistor which can operate under continuous wave probing and represents an efficient single microwave photon detector. It can be realized using an impedance matched system of a three level artificial ladder-type atom coupled to two microwave cavities...... and the appearance of a photon flux leaving the second cavity through a separate input-output port. The proposal does not require time variation of the probe signals, thus corresponding to a passive version of a single-photon transistor. The resulting device is robust to qubit dephasing processes, possesses low dark...

  15. On the shape of continuous wave infrared stimulated luminescence signals from feldspars: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, V.; Jain, Mayank; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2014-01-01

    The continuous-wave IRSL (CW-IRSL) signals from feldspars are known to decay in a non-exponential manner, and their exact mathematical description is of great importance in dosimetric and dating studies. This paper investigates the possibility of fitting experimental CW-IRSL curves from a variety...... to guide future modeling work on luminescence processes in feldspars. Small statistical differences were found between K-rich and Na-rich fractions of the same sample. However, the experimental data shows that the parameters depend on the irradiation dose, but do not depend on the time elapsed after...

  16. Fourier Deconvolution Methods for Resolution Enhancement in Continuous-Wave EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, George H; Poyner, Russell R

    2015-01-01

    An overview of resolution enhancement of conventional, field-swept, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra using Fourier transform-based deconvolution methods is presented. Basic steps that are involved in resolution enhancement of calculated spectra using an implementation based on complex discrete Fourier transform algorithms are illustrated. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. An application to an experimentally obtained spectrum is provided to illustrate the power of the method for resolving overlapped transitions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. OMNIDIRECTIONAL PERCEPTION FOR LIGHTWEIGHT UAVS USING A CONTINUOUSLY ROTATING 3D LASER SCANNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Droeschel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many popular unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV are restricted in their size and weight, making the design of sensory systems for these robots challenging. We designed a small and lightweight continuously rotating 3D laser scanner – allowing for environment perception in a range of 30 m in almost all directions. This sensor it well suited for applications such as 3D obstacle detection, 6D motion estimation, localization, and mapping. We aggregate the distance measurements in a robot-centric grid-based map. To estimate the motion of our multicopter, we register 3D laser scans towards this local map. In experiments, we compare the laser-based ego-motion estimate with ground-truth from a motion capture system. Overall, we can build an accurate 3D obstacle map and can estimate the vehicle's trajectory by 3D scan registration.

  18. Numerical Analysis on Thermal Non-Equilibrium Process of Laser-Supported Detonation Wave in Axisymmetric Nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Numerical Analyses on Laser-Supported Plasma (LSP) have been performed for researching the mechanism of laser absorption occurring in the laser propulsion system. Above all, Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), categorized as one type of LSP, is considered as one of the most important phenomena because it can generate high pressure and high temperature for performing highly effective propulsion. For simulating generation and propagation of LSD wave, I have performed thermal non-equilibrium analyses by Navier-stokes equations, using a CO 2 gasdynamic laser into an inert gas, where the most important laser absorption mechanism for LSD propagation is Inverse Bremsstrahlung. As a numerical method, TVD scheme taken into account of real gas effects and thermal non-equilibrium effects by using a 2-temperature model, is applied. In this study, I analyze a LSD wave propagating through a conical nozzle, where an inner space of an actual laser propulsion system is simplified

  19. Streak-photographic investigation of shock wave emission after laser-induced plasma formation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Joachim; Vogel, Alfred

    1995-05-01

    The shock wave emission after dielectric breakdown in water was investigated to assess potential shock wave effects in plasma mediated tissue ablation and intraocular photodisruption. Of particular interest was the dependence of shock wave pressure as a function of distance from the plasma for different laser pulse energies. We have generated plasmas in water with a Nd:YAG laser system delivering pulses of 6 ns duration. The pulses, with energies between 0.4 and 36 mJ (approximately equals 180 times threshold), were focused into a cuvette containing distilled water. The shock wave was visualized with streak photography combined with a schlieren technique. An important advantage of this technique is that the shock position as a function of time can directly be obtained from a single streak and hence a single event. Other methods (e.g. flash photography or passage time measurements between fixed locations) in contrast rely on reproducible events. Using the shock wave speed obtained from the streak images, shock wave peak pressures were calculated providing detailed information on the propagation of the shock. The shock peak pressure as a function of distance r from the optical axis was found to decrease faster than 1/r2 in regions up to distances of 100-150 micrometers . For larger distances it was found to be roughly proportional to 1/r. The scaling law for maximum shock pressure p, at a given distance was found to be proportional to the square root of the laser pulse energy E for distances of 50-200 micrometers from the optical axis.

  20. Intersubband Rabi oscillations in asymmetric nanoheterostructures: implications for a tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, V A

    2012-06-01

    A tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation based on a semiconductor nanoheterostructure with asymmetric quantum wells is suggested. It utilizes Rabi oscillations at a transition between quantum well subbands excited by external femtosecond pulses of a mid-infrared electromagnetic field. Due to quantum well broken inversion symmetry the subbands possess different average dipole moments, which enables the creation of polarization at the Rabi frequency as the subband populations change. It is shown that if this polarization is excited so that it is periodic in space, then, though being pulsed, it can produce continuous-wave output radiation. Changing the polarization space period and the time intervals between the exciting pulses, one can tune the frequency of this radiation throughout the far-infrared and THz range. In the present work a concrete multiple quantum well heterostructure design and a scheme of its space-periodic polarization are suggested. It is shown that for existing sources of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses the proposed scheme can provide a continuous-wave output power of order the power of far-infrared and THz quantum cascade lasers. Being added to the possibility of its output frequency tuning, this can make the suggested device attractive for fundamental research and various applications.

  1. Confinement effects of shock waves on laser-induced plasma from a graphite target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Feiling; Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Cai, Hua; Wu, Jiada; Xu, Ning; Ying, Zhifeng; Sun, Jian, E-mail: jsun@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing Engineering Center, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The spatial confinement effects of shock waves on the laser-induced plasma (LIP) from a graphite target in air were studied by probe beam deflection (PBD) measurements and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). A clear relationship between the confinement of the LIP by the shock wave and the effects on the LIP emission was observed, and the underlying mechanisms are discussed. PBD monitoring revealed that the laser-ablation induced shock wave could be well analogized to the shock wave generated by a point explosion and would be reflected by a block. OES measurements indicated that the optical emission of the LIP exhibited significant variations with the block placement. A first enhancement and then a fast decay of CN molecular emission as well as a suppression of carbon atomic emission were observed in the presence of the block. The results revealed that the reflected shock wave spatially confined the expansion of the LIP and compressed the LIP after encountering it, pushing back the species of the LIP and changing the density of the LIP species including luminous carbon atoms and CN molecules. It is suggested that the change of the LIP emission is attributed to the density variation of the LIP species due to the compression of the LIP and the reactions occurring in the plasma.

  2. Welding induced residual stress evaluation using laser-generated Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chong; Zhou, Yuanlai; Reddy, Vishnu V. B.; Mebane, Aaron; Ume, I. Charles

    2018-04-01

    Welding induced residual stress could affect the dimensional stability, fatigue life, and chemical resistance of the weld joints. Ultrasonic method serves as an important non-destructive tool for the residual stress evaluation due to its easy implementation, low cost and wide application to different materials. Residual stress would result in the ultrasonic wave velocity variation, which is the so called acoustoelastic effect. In this paper, Laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique was proposed to experimentally study the relative velocity variation ΔV/V of Rayleigh wave, which has the potential to evaluate surface/subsurface longitudinal residual stress developed during the Gas Metal Arc Welding process. Broad band ultrasonic waves were excited by pulsed Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) attached to the welded plates was used to capture the Rayleigh wave signals propagating along the weld seam direction. Different time of flight measurements were conducted by varying the distance between the weld seam and Rayleigh wave propagating path in the range of 0 to 45 mm. The maximum relative velocity difference was found on the weld seam. With the increasing distance away from the weld seam, the relative velocity difference sharply decreased to negative value. With further increase in distance, the relative velocity difference slowly increased and approached zero. The distribution of relative velocity variations indicates that tensile stress appears in the melted zone as it becomes compressive near the heat-affected zone.

  3. Parametric Instability in Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, L; Grass, S; Zhao, C; Degallaix, J; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    High frequency parametric instabilities in optical cavities are radiation pressure induced interactions between test mass mechanical modes and cavity optical modes. The parametric gain depends on the cavity power and the quality factor of the test mass internal modes (usually in ultrasonic frequency range), as well as the overlap integral for the mechanical and optical modes. In advanced laser interferometers which require high optical power and very low acoustic loss test masses, parametric instabilities could prevent interferometer operation if not suppressed. Here we review the problem of parametric instabilities in advanced detector configurations for different combinations of sapphire and fused silica test masses, and compare three methods for control or suppression of parametric instabilities-thermal tuning, surface damping and active feedback

  4. The matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna (MIGA: New perspectives for fundamental physics and geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are building a hybrid detector of new concept that couples laser and matter-wave interferometry to study sub Hertz variations of the strain tensor of space-time and gravitation. Using a set of atomic interferometers simultaneously manipulated by the resonant optical field of a 200 m cavity, the MIGA instrument will allow the monitoring of the evolution of the gravitational field at unprecedented sensitivity, which will be exploited both for geophysical studies and for Gravitational Waves (GWs detection. This new infrastructure will be embedded into the LSBB underground laboratory, ideally located away from major anthropogenic disturbances and benefitting from very low background noise.

  5. Initial experiment of focusing wiggler of MM wave Free Electron Laser on LAX-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Keishi; Maebara, Sunao; Watanabe, Akihiko; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Nagashima, Takashi; Maeda, Hikosuke; Shiho, Makoto; Oda, Hisako; Kawasaki, Sunao.

    1991-03-01

    Initial results of Free Electron laser (FEL) Experiment in the mm wave region are presented. The experiment is carried out using a induction linac system (LAX-1: Large current Accelerator Experiment) of E b = 1 MeV, Ib = 1 ∼ 3 kA. The wiggler of FEL is composed of the curved surface magnets arrays (focusing wiggler), which is found to be effective for a transport of low energy and high current beam through the wiggler. The superradiance of the mm wave region (30 GHz ∼ 40 GHz) is observed. The growth rate of this radiation is 0.42 dB/cm. (author)

  6. Modeling of the response of the POLARBEAR bolometers with a continuously rotating half-wave plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Satoru; POLARBEAR Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The curly pattern, the so-called B-mode, in the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a powerful probe to measure primordial gravitational waves from the cosmic inflation, as well as the weak lensing due to the large scale structure of the Universe. At present, ground-based CMB experiments with a few arcminutes resolution such as POLARBEAR, SPTpol, and ACTPol have successfully measured the angular power spectrum of the B-mode only in sub-degree scales, though these experiments also have potential to measure the inflationary B-modes in degree scales in absence of the low-frequency noise (1/f noise). Thus, techniques of polarization signal modulation such as a continuously rotating half-wave plate (CRHWP) are widely investigated to suppress the 1/f noise and also to reduce instrumental systematic errors. In this study, we have implemented a CRHWP placed around the prime focus of the POLARBEAR telescope and operated at ambient temperatures. We construct a comprehensive model including half-wave plate synchronous signals, detector non-linearities, beam imperfections, and all noise sources. Using this model, we show that, in practice, the 1/f noise and instrumental systematics could remain even with the CRHWP. However, we also evaluate those effects from test observations using a prototype CRHWP on the POLARBEAR telescope and find that the residual 1/f noise is sufficiently small for POLARBEAR to probe the multipoles about 40. We will also discuss prospects for future CMB experiments with better sensitivities.

  7. Continuous ultrasonic waves to detect steam bubbles in water under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H J.M.; Schurink, F

    1985-01-01

    Steam in the recirculation circuit of boilers may lead to unacceptable high thermal loads on the evaporator tubes. The ability to detect steam in the recirculation circuit during process transients is therefore important. A simple detector using continuous ultrasonic waves and able to detect bubbles in water contained in steel tubes is described in this paper. The variation of the transmitted wave caused by the bubbles was determined by demodulation. The results have met the objectives set for cold water with air bubbles. A clear indication of the presence of steam bubbles was found in fast-flowing hot water in a steel tube with a diameter of 60 mm. A change in the low-frequency region of the modulation was the only indication of the presence of steam bubbles in the large-diameter downcomer of the water-separator drum of a boiler in an electrical power plant. Possible causes of the differences in the results obtained are discussed on the basis of differences in bubble sizes and in focusing and reflection of the ultrasonic waves. (orig.). 11 refs.; 10 figs.

  8. Continuous ultrasonic waves to detect steam bubbles in water under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulshof, H.J.M.; Schurink, F.

    1985-01-01

    Steam in the recirculation circuit of boilers may lead to unacceptable high thermal loads on the evaporator tubes. The ability to detect steam in the recirculation circuit during process transients is therefore important. A simple detector using continuous ultrasonic waves and able to detect bubbles in water contained in steel tubes is described in this paper. The variation of the transmitted wave caused by the bubbles was determined by demodulation. The results have met the objectives set for cold water with air bubbles. A clear indication of the presence of steam bubbles was found in fast-flowing hot water in a steel tube with a diameter of 60 mm. A change in the low-frequency region of the modulation was the only indication of the presence of steam bubbles in the large-diameter downcomer of the water-separator drum of a boiler in an electrical power plant. Possible causes of the differences in the results obtained are discussed on the basis of differences in bubble sizes and in focusing and reflection of the ultrasonic waves. (orig.)

  9. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

  10. Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sagar, Laxmi Kishore; Infante, Ivan; Zapata, Felipe; Grigel, Valeriia; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

  11. High-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency, all-periodically-poled, near-infrared source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kavita; Chaitanya Kumar, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2012-12-15

    We report a high-power, single-frequency, continuous-wave (cw) source tunable across 775-807 nm in the near-infrared, based on internal second harmonic generation (SHG) of a cw singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a Yb-fiber laser. The compact, all-periodically-poled source employs a 48-mm-long, multigrating MgO doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal for the OPO and a 30-mm-long, fan-out grating MgO-doped stoichiometric periodically poled lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) crystal for intracavity SHG, providing as much as 3.7 W of near-infrared power at 793 nm, together with 4 W of idler power at 3232 nm, at an overall extraction efficiency of 28%. Further, the cw OPO is tunable across 3125-3396 nm in the idler, providing as much as 4.3 W at 3133 nm with >3.8  W over 77% of the tuning range together with >3  W of near-infrared power across 56% of SHG tuning range, in high-spatial beam-quality with M2<1.4. The SHG output has an instantaneous linewidth of 8.5 MHz and exhibits a passive power stability better than 3.5% rms over more than 1 min.

  12. Detection of a Surface-Breaking Crack by Using the Surface Wave of a Laser Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Hyun-Kyu; Joo, Young-Sang; Cha, Hyung-Ki; Kang, Young-June

    2006-01-01

    A laser ultrasonic system is a non-contact inspection device with a high spatial resolution and a wide-band spectrum. Also it provides absolute measurements of the moving distance and can be applied to the hard-to access locations with curved or rough surfaces like a nuclear power plant. Several laser ultrasonic techniques are applied for the detection of micro cracks in a nuclear power plant. Also, laser ultrasonic techniques are used to measure the grain size of materials and to detect cracks in railroads and aircrafts. Though the laser ultrasonic inspection system is widely applicable, it is comparatively expensive and it provides a low signal-to-noise ratio when compared to the conventional piezoelectric transducers. Many studies have been carried out to improve the system performance. One of the widely used measurement devices of a ultrasound is the Confocal Fabry-Perot Interferometer(CFPI) with a dynamic stabilizer. The dynamic stabilizer improves the stability of the CFPI by adaptively maintaining the optimum working status at the measuring time of the CFPI. In this paper, we have investigated the detection methods of the depth of a surface-breaking crack by using the surface wave of a laser ultrasound. We have fabricated a laser ultrasonic inspection system on an optical table by using a pulse laser, a CFPI with a dynamic stabilizer and a computer. The computer acquires the laser ultrasound by using a high speed A/D converter with a sampling rate of 1000 MHz. The dynamic stabilizer stabilizes the CFPI by adaptively maintaining it at an optimum status when the laser ultrasound is generated. The computer processes the ultrasonic signal in real time to extract the depth information of a surface-breaking crack. We extracted the depth information from the peak-to-valley values in the time domain and also from the center frequencies of the spectrum in the frequency domain

  13. A Continuously Tunable Erbium-Doped Fibre Laser Using Tunable Fibre Bragg Gratings and Optical Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Liu; Feng-Ping, Yan; Jian, Li; Lin, Wang; Ti-Gang, Ning; Tao-Rong, Gong; Shui-Sheng, Jian

    2008-01-01

    A continuously tunable erbium-doped fibre laser (TEDFL) based on tunable fibre Bragger grating (TFBG) and a three-port optical circulator (OC) is proposed and demonstrated. The OC acts as a 100%-reflective mirror. A strain-induced uniform fibre Bragger grating (FBG) which functions as a partial-reflecting mirror is implemented in the linear cavity. By applying axial strain onto the TFBG, a continuously tunable lasing output can be realized. The wavelength tuning range covers approximately 7.00nm in C band (from 1543.6161 to 1550.3307nm). The side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is better than 50 dB, and the 3 dB bandwidth of the laser is less than 0.01 nm. Moreover, an array waveguide grating (AWG) is inserted into the cavity for wavelength preselecting, and a 50 km transmission experiment was performed using our TEDFL at a 10Gb/s modulation rate

  14. One step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhrowiyah, N.; Yasin, M.

    2017-09-01

    The method one step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography is proposed and demonstrated for polyvinyl chloride based material and breast phantom. Approximation which used in this method is selecting regulation coefficient and evaluating the difference between two states that corresponding to the data acquired without and with a change in optical properties. This method is used to recovery of optical parameters from measured boundary data of light propagation in the object. The research is demonstrated by simulation and experimental data. Numerical object is used to produce simulation data. Chloride based material and breast phantom sample is used to produce experimental data. Comparisons of results between experiment and simulation data are conducted to validate the proposed method. The results of the reconstruction image which is produced by the one step linear reconstruction method show that the image reconstruction almost same as the original object. This approach provides a means of imaging that is sensitive to changes in optical properties, which may be particularly useful for functional imaging used continuous wave diffuse optical tomography of early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  15. Optimally setting up directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO O1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Krishnan, Badri; Prix, Reinhard; Beer, Christian; Zhu, Sylvia J.; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Bock, Oliver; Machenschalk, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a search for continuous gravitational waves from three supernova remnants: Vela Jr., Cassiopeia A (Cas A) and G347.3. These systems might harbor rapidly rotating neutron stars emitting quasiperiodic gravitational radiation detectable by the advanced LIGO detectors. Our search is designed to use the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home for a few months and assumes the sensitivity and duty cycles of the advanced LIGO detectors during their first science run. For all three supernova remnants, the sky positions of their central compact objects are well known but the frequency and spin-down rates of the neutron stars are unknown which makes the searches computationally limited. In a previous paper we have proposed a general framework for deciding on what target we should spend computational resources and in what proportion, what frequency and spin-down ranges we should search for every target, and with what search setup. Here we further expand this framework and apply it to design a search directed at detecting continuous gravitational wave signals from the most promising three supernova remnants identified as such in the previous work. Our optimization procedure yields broad frequency and spin-down searches for all three objects, at an unprecedented level of sensitivity: The smallest detectable gravitational wave strain h0 for Cas A is expected to be 2 times smaller than the most sensitive upper limits published to date, and our proposed search, which was set up and ran on the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, covers a much larger frequency range.

  16. Project of a laser gyroscope to determine continuously the Earth's rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, N. S.; Zharov, V. E.; Sazhin, M. V.; Fedoseev, E. N.; Vlasov, B. I.; Rusakov, V. K.

    The Time Service of the Sternberg State Astronomical Institute together with specialists of VNIIFTRI began to work at the project of the laser gyroscope to determine continuously the Earth's rotation. It is assumed to measure both the high-frequency variations with periods of 100 - 1000 sec and the low-frequency variations with periods of a few days. It gives the opportunity to combine these data with the VLBI data.

  17. High power millimeter-wave free electron laser based on recirculating electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Sun-Kook; Jeong, Young-Uk; Cho, Sung-Oh; Lee, Jongmin

    1995-01-01

    Progress in the development of a high power, millimeter-wave free electron laser driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator is reported. The energy and the current of electron beam are 430 keV and 2 A, respectively. The expected average output power is above 10 kW at the wavelength of 3-10 mm. Minimizing of the beam loss is a key issue for CW operation of the FEL with high efficiency. (author)

  18. Arm-length stabilisation for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors using frequency-doubled auxiliary lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Mullavey, Adam J.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Miller, John; Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Sigg, Daniel; Waldman, Sam J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Residual motion of the arm cavity mirrors is expected to prove one of the principal impediments to systematic lock acquisition in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. We present a technique which overcomes this problem by employing auxiliary lasers at twice the fundamental measurement frequency to pre-stabilise the arm cavities’ lengths. Applying this approach, we reduce the apparent length noise of a 1.3 m long, independently suspended Fabry-Perot cavity to 30 pm rms and successfully...

  19. Experimental investigations of driven Alfven wave resonances in a tokamak plasma using carbon dioxide laser interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.

    1984-09-01

    The first direct observation of the internal structure of driven global Alfven eigenmodes in a tokamak plasma is presented. A carbon dioxide laser scattering/interferometer has been designed, built, and installed on the PRETEXT tokamak. By using this diagnostic system in the interferometer configuration, we have for the first time, thoroughly investigated the resonance conditions required for, and the spatial wave field structure of, driven plasma eigenmodes at frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency in a confined, high temperature, tokamak plasma

  20. Single-mode electrically pumped GaSb-based VCSELs emitting continuous-wave at 2.4 and 2.6 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Alexander; Arafin, Shamsul; Kashani-Shirazi, Kaveh

    2009-01-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are perfect light sources for spectroscopic applications, where properties such as continuous-wave (cw) operation, single-mode emission, high lifetime and often low power consumption are crucial. For applications such as tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), there is a growing interest in laser devices emitting in the near- to mid-infrared wavelength range, where many environmentally and technologically important gases show strong absorption lines. The (AlGaIn)(AsSb) material system based on GaSb is the material of choice for covering the 2.0-3.3 μm range. In this paper, we report on electrically pumped single-mode VCSELs with emission wavelengths of 2.4 and 2.6 μm, operating cw at room temperature and beyond. By (electro-) thermal tuning, the emission wavelength can be tuned mode-hop free over a range of several nanometers. In addition, low threshold currents of several milliamperes promise mobile application. In the devices, a structured buried tunnel junction with subsequent overgrowth has been used in order to achieve efficient current confinement, reduced optical losses and increased electrical conductivity. Furthermore, strong optical confinement is introduced in the lasers due to laterally differing cavity lengths.

  1. Angular characteristics of the stimulated-Brillouin-scattering spectrum from a laser plasma with strong acoustic-wave damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, P.

    1981-01-01

    The spectrum of stimulated Brillouin scattering from an inhomogeneous moving laser plasma is analyzed. The damping of acoustic waves and scattered electromagnetic waves is taken into account. Spectra are derived for various scattering angles and for various radii of the laser beam. For all observation angles the center of the spectral line is at an unshifted frequency. As the observation angle increases, the width of the red wing in the spectrum increases. The intensity of the scattered light is very anisotropic

  2. Development of continuous glass melting for production of Nd-doped phosphate glasses for the NIF and LMJ laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J. H.; Ficini-Dorn, G.; Hawley-Fedder, R.; McLean, M. J.; Suratwala, T.; Trombert, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The NIF and LMJ laser systems require about 3380 and 4752 Nd-doped laser glass slabs, respectively. Continuous laser glass melting and forming will be used for the first time to manufacture these slabs. Two vendors have been chosen to produce the glass: Hoya Corporation and Schott Glass Technologies. The laser glass melting systems that each of these two vendors have designed, built and tested are arguably the most advanced in the world. Production of the laser glass will begin on a pilot scale in the fall of 1999

  3. Crack Detection in Single-Crystalline Silicon Wafer Using Laser Generated Lamb Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyoo Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the semiconductor industry, with increasing requirements for high performance, high capacity, high reliability, and compact components, the crack has been one of the most critical issues in accordance with the growing requirement of the wafer-thinning in recent years. Previous researchers presented the crack detection on the silicon wafers with the air-coupled ultrasonic method successfully. However, the high impedance mismatching will be the problem in the industrial field. In this paper, in order to detect the crack, we propose a laser generated Lamb wave method which is not only noncontact, but also reliable for the measurement. The laser-ultrasonic generator and the laser-interferometer are used as a transmitter and a receiver, respectively. We firstly verified the identification of S0 and A0 lamb wave modes and then conducted the crack detection under the thermoelastic regime. The experimental results showed that S0 and A0 modes of lamb wave were clearly generated and detected, and in the case of the crack detection, the estimated crack size by 6 dB drop method was almost equal to the actual crack size. So, the proposed method is expected to make it possible to detect the crack in the silicon wafer in the industrial fields.

  4. Characteristics of laser-induced shock wave injury to the inner ear of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Niwa, Katsuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Yasushi; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the number of blast injuries of the inner ear has increased in the general population. In blast-induced inner ear injury, a shock wave (SW) component in the blast wave is considered to play an important role in sensorineural hearing loss. However, the mechanisms by which an SW affects inner ear tissue remain largely unknown. We aimed to establish a new animal model for SW-induced inner ear injury by using laser-induced SWs (LISWs) on rats. The LISWs were generated by irradiating an elastic laser target with 694-nm nanosecond pulses of a ruby laser. After LISW application to the cochlea through bone conduction, auditory measurements revealed the presence of inner ear dysfunction, the extent of which depended on LISW overpressure. A significantly lower survival rate of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, as well as severe oxidative damage, were observed in the inner ear exposed to an LISW. Although considerable differences in the pressure characteristics exist between LISWs and SWs in real blast waves, the functional and morphological changes shown by the present LISW-based model were similar to those observed in real blast-induced injury. Thus, our animal model is expected to be useful for laboratory-based research of blast-induced inner ear injury.

  5. Thermal wave propagation in the pulsed laser irradiation of media with thermal memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galovic, S.; Kostoski, D.; Stamboliev, G.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. If a sample is exposed to the influence of laser radiation part of its energy is absorbed and converted in heat. The heat generated in this way is transferred through the sample as heat waves, resulting in various effects (so called photothermal effects). A large number of nondestructive diagnostic methods are based on recording of these effects. It is necessary to create a good model in order to understand and correctly describe the measured results of heat transfer in different media. In a certain number of materials and structures, such as complex biological materials, polymers, metals excited by very short laser pulses etc., the property of thermal memory has been experimentally observed. Starting with the hyperbolic equation that describes heat transfer processes of such media, in this paper has been developed a model of laser-excited heat waves propagation in order to enable application of photothermal techniques in characterization of these media. The cases of optically opaque and transparent samples are considered. The influence of various backings on photothermal waves has also been analyzed. The results are compared to the previous models

  6. Characteristics of laser-induced shock wave injury to the inner ear of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Niwa, Katsuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Yasushi; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the number of blast injuries of the inner ear has increased in the general population. In blast-induced inner ear injury, a shock wave (SW) component in the blast wave is considered to play an important role in sensorineural hearing loss. However, the mechanisms by which an SW affects inner ear tissue remain largely unknown. We aimed to establish a new animal model for SW-induced inner ear injury by using laser-induced SWs (LISWs) on rats. The LISWs were generated by irradiating an elastic laser target with 694-nm nanosecond pulses of a ruby laser. After LISW application to the cochlea through bone conduction, auditory measurements revealed the presence of inner ear dysfunction, the extent of which depended on LISW overpressure. A significantly lower survival rate of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, as well as severe oxidative damage, were observed in the inner ear exposed to an LISW. Although considerable differences in the pressure characteristics exist between LISWs and SWs in real blast waves, the functional and morphological changes shown by the present LISW-based model were similar to those observed in real blast-induced injury. Thus, our animal model is expected to be useful for laboratory-based research of blast-induced inner ear injury.

  7. Study on the relationship of continuous laser printing and the distance of trace on the OPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhou Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis aims to seek the relationship between photosensitive drum cyclical trace distance of two pages (shorted for L' and continuity printing of laser printers. Characteristics quantification, statistics are chosen to evaluate the data and results. It is indicated that the regularity is existed between L' and continuity printing, and regular performance between different models of HP and Canon printers are consistent. According to the data, L' of continuous printing are summed up, the probability of replacing the front page and the middle page which can meet the continuity regularity are analyzed. The numerical interval is given of noncontinuous printing. The study can enhance the scientificity of printing document examination and have innovation and practical significance in civil disputes, criminal cases, and social community.

  8. On the neutron diffraction in a crystal in the field of a standing laser wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, K.K.; Hayrapetyan, A.G.; Petrosyan, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of high-energy neutron diffraction in a crystal is shown by applying the solution of time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a neutron in the field of a standing laser wave. The scattering picture is examined within the framework of non-stationary S-matrix theory, where the neutron-laser field interaction is considered exactly and the neutron-crystal interaction is considered as a perturbation described by Fermi pseudopotential (Farri representation). The neutron-crystal interaction is elastic, and the neutron-laser field interaction has both inelastic and elastic behaviors which results in the observation of an analogous to the Kapitza-Dirac effect for neutrons. The neutron scattering probability is calculated and the analysis of the results are adduced. Both inelastic and elastic diffraction conditions are obtained and the formation of a 'sublattice' is illustrated in the process of neutron-photon-phonon elastic interaction.

  9. Nonlinear dynamic effects in a two-wave CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorobets, V A; Kozlov, K V; Kuntsevich, B F; Petukhov, V O

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were made of nonlinear dynamic regimes of the operation of a two-wave CO 2 laser with cw excitation in an electric discharge and loss modulation in one of the channels. Nonlinear amplitude - frequency characteristics of each of the laser channels have two low-frequency resonance spikes, associated with forced linear oscillations of two coupled oscillators, and high-frequency spikes, corresponding to doubling of the period of the output radiation oscillations. At low loss-modulation frequencies the intensity oscillations of the output radiation in the coupled channels are in antiphase, whereas at high modulation frequencies the dynamics is cophasal. Nonlinear dynamic effects, such as doubling of the period and of the repetition frequency of the pulses and chaotic oscillations of the output radiation intensity, are observed for certain system parameters. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  10. Laser Shock Wave-Assisted Patterning on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhom, Saidjafarzoda; Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Kholikov, Khomidkohodza; Thomas, Zachary; Er, Ali O.; Li, Peizhen; Karaca, Haluk E.; San, Omer

    2018-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of smart materials and they were employed in various applications in engineering, biomedical, and aerospace technologies. Here, we report an advanced, efficient, and low-cost direct imprinting method with low environmental impact to create thermally controllable surface patterns. Patterned microindents were generated on Ni50Ti50 (at. %) SMAs using an Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm wavelength at 10 Hz. Laser pulses at selected fluences were focused on the NiTi surface and generated pressure pulses of up to a few GPa. Optical microscope images showed that surface patterns with tailorable sizes can be obtained. The depth of the patterns increases with laser power and irradiation time. Upon heating, the depth profile of SMA surfaces changed where the maximum depth recovery ratio of 30% was observed. Recovery ratio decreased and stabilized when the number of pulses and thus the well depth were further increased. A numerical simulation of pressure evolution in shape memory alloys showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The stress wave closely followed the rise time of the laser pulse to its peak value and initial decay. Rapid attenuation and dispersion of the stress wave were found in our simulation.

  11. Laser-induced pressure-wave and barocaloric effect during flash diffusivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D.; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton

    2017-01-01

    We report laser-induced pressure-wave and barocaloric effect captured by an infrared detector during thermal diffusivity measurements. Very fast (< 1 ms) and negative transients during laser flash measurements were captured by the infrared detector on thin, high thermal conductivity samples. Standard thermal diffusivity analysis only focuses the longer time scale thermal transient measured from the back surface due to thermal conduction. These negative spikes are filtered out and ignored as noise or anomaly from instrument. This study confirmed that the initial negative signal was indeed a temperature drop induced by the laser pulse. The laser pulse induced instantaneous volume expansion and the associated cooling in the specimen can be explained by the barocaloric effect. The initial cooling (< 100 microsecond) is also known as thermoelastic effect in which a negative temperature change is generated when the material is elastically deformed by volume expansion. A subsequent temperature oscillation in the sample was observed and only lasted about one millisecond. The pressure-wave induced thermal signal was systematically studied and analyzed. In conclusion, the underlying physics of photon-mechanical-thermal energy conversions and the potential of using this signal to study barocaloric effects in solids are discussed.

  12. Laser Shock Wave-Assisted Patterning on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhom, Saidjafarzoda; Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Kholikov, Khomidkohodza; Thomas, Zachary; Er, Ali O.; Li, Peizhen; Karaca, Haluk E.; San, Omer

    2018-03-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of smart materials and they were employed in various applications in engineering, biomedical, and aerospace technologies. Here, we report an advanced, efficient, and low-cost direct imprinting method with low environmental impact to create thermally controllable surface patterns. Patterned microindents were generated on Ni50Ti50 (at. %) SMAs using an Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm wavelength at 10 Hz. Laser pulses at selected fluences were focused on the NiTi surface and generated pressure pulses of up to a few GPa. Optical microscope images showed that surface patterns with tailorable sizes can be obtained. The depth of the patterns increases with laser power and irradiation time. Upon heating, the depth profile of SMA surfaces changed where the maximum depth recovery ratio of 30% was observed. Recovery ratio decreased and stabilized when the number of pulses and thus the well depth were further increased. A numerical simulation of pressure evolution in shape memory alloys showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The stress wave closely followed the rise time of the laser pulse to its peak value and initial decay. Rapid attenuation and dispersion of the stress wave were found in our simulation.

  13. Blast-Wave Generation and Propagation in Rapidly Heated Laser-Irradiated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, S. T.; Stillman, C. R.; Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Froula, D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Time-resolved extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy was used to study the creation and propagation of a >100-Mbar blast wave in a target irradiated by an intense (>1018WWcm2 cm2) laser pulse. Blast waves provide a platform to generate immense pressures in the laboratory. A temporal double flash of XUV radiation was observed when viewing the rear side of the target, which is attributed to the emergence of a blast wave following rapid heating by a fast-electron beam generated from the laser pulse. The time-history of XUV emission in the photon energy range of 50 to 200 eV was recorded with an x-ray streak camera with 7-ps temporal resolution. The heating and expansion of the target was simulated with an electron transport code coupled to 1-D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The temporal delay between the two flashes measured in a systematic study of target thickness and composition was found to evolve in good agreement with a Sedov-Taylor blast-wave solution. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and Department of Energy Office of Science Award Number DE-SC-0012317.

  14. Development of laser-induced grating spectroscopy for underwater temperature measurement in shock wave focusing regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, Ardian B.; Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Saito, Tsutomu; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2004-02-01

    In Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) underwater shock wave focusing generates high pressures at very short duration of time inside human body. However, it is not yet clear how high temperatures are enhanced at the spot where a shock wave is focused. The estimation of such dynamic temperature enhancements is critical for the evaluation of tissue damages upon shock loading. For this purpose in the Interdisciplinary Shock Wave Research Center a technique is developed which employs laser induced thermal acoustics or Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy. Unlike most of gas-dynamic methods of measuring physical quantities this provides a non-invasive one having spatial and temporal resolutions of the order of magnitude of 1.0 mm 3 and 400 ns, respectively. Preliminary experiments in still water demonstrated that this method detected sound speed and hence temperature in water ranging 283 K to 333 K with errors of 0.5%. These results are used to empirically establish the equation of states of water, gelatin or agar cell which will work as alternatives of human tissues.

  15. Research on Formation Mechanism of Dynamic Response and Residual Stress of Sheet Metal Induced by Laser Shock Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aixin; Cao, Yupeng; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Zhengang

    2018-01-01

    In order to reveal the quantitative control of the residual stress on the surface of metal materials, the relevant theoretical and experimental studies were carried out to investigate the dynamic response of metal thin plates and the formation mechanism of residual stress induced by laser shock wave. In this paper, the latest research trends on the surface residual stress of laser shock processing technology were elaborated. The main progress of laser shock wave propagation mechanism and dynamic response, laser shock, and surface residual stress were discussed. It is pointed out that the multi-scale characterization of laser and material, surface residual stress and microstructure change is a new hotspot in laser shock strengthening technology.

  16. Design of the miniaturized free electron laser module as an efficient source of the THz waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Chul; Ahn, Seong Joon; Kim, Ho Seob; Kim, Dae-Wook; Ahn, Seungjoon

    2011-01-01

    Since the tremendous potential of the THz wave for the bio-technological applications has been found, there has been a lot of interest paid to development of the THz-wave sources. The miniaturized free electron laser (FEL) module based on the microcolumn can be a very convenient THz wave emitter because of its compactness. In this work, we tried to design the miniaturized FEL module to achieve the optimized electron beam (e-beam) trajectory in the module by using 3D simulation tool. We found that the accelerator bias, the length and radius of the limiting aperture were important parameters to obtain the strong and parallel e-beam. We have also proposed the ring-type grids to get more symmetrical behavior of the e-beam in the wiggler.

  17. Design of the miniaturized free electron laser module as an efficient source of the THz waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Chul [Department of Optometry, Eulji University, 212 Yangji-dong, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seong Joon [Department of I and C Engineering, Sun Moon University, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Seob; Kim, Dae-Wook [Department of Information Display, Sun Moon University, 100 Kalsan-ri, Tangjeong-myun, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seungjoon, E-mail: sjan@sunmoon.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Sun Moon University, 100 Kalsan-ri, Tangjeong-myun, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-21

    Since the tremendous potential of the THz wave for the bio-technological applications has been found, there has been a lot of interest paid to development of the THz-wave sources. The miniaturized free electron laser (FEL) module based on the microcolumn can be a very convenient THz wave emitter because of its compactness. In this work, we tried to design the miniaturized FEL module to achieve the optimized electron beam (e-beam) trajectory in the module by using 3D simulation tool. We found that the accelerator bias, the length and radius of the limiting aperture were important parameters to obtain the strong and parallel e-beam. We have also proposed the ring-type grids to get more symmetrical behavior of the e-beam in the wiggler.

  18. The elimination of pump depletion in laser-plasma beat-wave accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinxiu; Xu Zhizhan

    1988-01-01

    The pump depletion is a severe problem which hinders the laser-plasma beat-wave accelerator concept from being practical. Starting with the weak relativistic equation of beat-wave excitation of electron plasma waves, the authors have derived the condition for eliminating the pump depletion in the fame moving with the light pulse for arbitrary pulse shapes. It is shown that the depletion can be eliminated by a phase jump of π at the center of the pump pulse and by the appropriated choice of initial plasma density detuning. The numerical calculation have yielded the dependence of the initial detuning on the pump intensity for square pump pulses, and have supported the methods used in this paper

  19. Lunar Laser-Ranging Detection of Light-Speed Anisotropy and Gravitational Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Apache Point Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO, in NM, can detect photon bounces from retroreflectors on the moon surface to 0.1ns timing resolution. This facility enables not only the detection of light speed anisotropy, which defines a local preferred frame of reference - only in that frame is the speed of light isotropic, but also fluctuations/turbulence (gravitational waves in the flow of the dynamical 3-space relative to local systems/observers. So the APOLLO facility can act as an effective "gravitational wave" detector. A recently published small data set from November 5, 2007, is analysed to characterise both the average anisotropy velocity and the wave/turbulence effects. The results are consistent with some 13 previous detections, with the last and most accurate being from the spacecraft earth-flyby Doppler-shift NASA data.

  20. Deciphering inflation with gravitational waves: Cosmic microwave background polarization vs direct detection with laser interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tristan L.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Cooray, Asantha

    2006-01-01

    A detection of the primordial gravitational wave background is considered to be the 'smoking-gun' evidence for inflation. While superhorizon waves are probed with cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, the relic background will be studied with laser interferometers. The long lever arm spanned by the two techniques improves constraints on the inflationary potential and validation of consistency relations expected under inflation. If gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar amplitude ratio greater than 0.01 are detected by the CMB, then a direct-detection experiment with a sensitivity consistent with current concept studies should be pursued vigorously. If no primordial tensors are detected by the CMB, a direct-detection experiment to understand the simplest form of inflation must have a sensitivity improved by two to 3 orders of magnitude over current plans