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Sample records for continuous volume scan

  1. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-02-21

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  2. Measuring Spatial Vibration Using Continuous Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhak Bucher

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method, which allows one to use a single point laser vibrometer as a continuous sensor measuring along a line or a 2D surface. The mathematical background of the curve-fitting procedure and the necessary signal processing allowing one to extract the amplitude of sinusoidal vibration are discussed. In the current work, use has been made with an ordinary laser interferometer equipped with glavanometer-based x, y mirros. This system is not designed for continuous scanning therefore some effort needs to be spent in order to overcome the dynamical characteristics of this system. The potential of such an instrument, as demonstrated in this work, may encourage the development of mechanically better scanning devices.

  3. Line-scan system for continuous hand authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Kong, Lingsheng; Diao, Zhihui; Jia, Ping

    2017-03-01

    An increasing number of heavy machinery and vehicles have come into service, giving rise to a significant concern over protecting these high-security systems from misuse. Conventionally, authentication performed merely at the initial login may not be sufficient for detecting intruders throughout the operating session. To address this critical security flaw, a line-scan continuous hand authentication system with the appearance of an operating rod is proposed. Given that the operating rod is occupied throughout the operating period, it can be a possible solution for unobtrusively recording the personal characteristics for continuous monitoring. The ergonomics in the physiological and psychological aspects are fully considered. Under the shape constraints, a highly integrated line-scan sensor, a controller unit, and a gear motor with encoder are utilized. This system is suitable for both the desktop and embedded platforms with a universal serial bus interface. The volume of the proposed system is smaller than 15% of current multispectral area-based camera systems. Based on experiments on a database with 4000 images from 200 volunteers, a competitive equal error rate of 0.1179% is achieved, which is far more accurate than the state-of-the-art continuous authentication systems using other modalities.

  4. Nanometer accuracy with continuous scans at the ALBA-NOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Josep; Pedreira, Pablo; Å ics, Igors; Ramírez, Claudio; Campos, Juan

    2016-09-01

    We present the continuous scan operation of the ALBA-NOM as a working mode that allows obtaining low noise in short time, as well as high accuracy measurements. In the traditional step-scan operation, the position of the probe beam is kept fixed while many data points of autocollimator are averaged for noise reduction. This operation mode is very safe, as one has a perfect correspondence between mirror position and measured angle, but it is time inefficient, as it disregards all the data values acquired during motion, and basically averages data values taken under identical conditions. On the other hand, continuous scan is less safe in terms of correspondence between mirror position and slope, especially for NOM systems for which the autocollimator does not accept an electronic trigger. Nevertheless, it is possible to perform independent acquisitions of the autocollimator and of the linear stage data during a scan, and synchronize signals a posteriori. This solves the main problem of continuous scan with a NOM. Continuous scan operation for performing measurements is very efficient for noise reduction per unit time, as it allows integrating every single data value taken by the autocollimator. In addition, it opens the possibility of introducing pitch variations of the mirror between scans. This allows obtaining many independent datasets that can be combined using error suppression techniques to reduce not just noise but systematic errors too. In this paper we report the methods and the main results.

  5. The quality of three-dimensional images reconstructed with volume-scan CT

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    Shimbashi, Takeshi; Sakurai, Nobuaki; Watanabe, Norimitsu (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Takagi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Yutaka

    1993-05-01

    Volume-scan CT is based on slip-ring technology which leads to continuous scanning. It permits remarkable reduction in scanning time, which is especially meaningful where children and elderly patients are concerned. One scan takes one second, with a maximum continuous time of 50 seconds. Slice widths of 2, 3, 5 and 100 mm can be selected and table changed from 1.5 to 20 mm/second. The reconstruction index is 1 to 10 mm, and reconstruction time about 10 seconds. As both the patient and table are moved simultaneously, it is possible to scan a wide area in a short time. Volume-scan CT is suitable for three-dimensional (3-D) images because of the good continuity of slices. The authors reconstructed 3-D phantom images using both ordinary CT and volume-scan CT, and then compared the quality of these images. Under the condition of 3 mm slice width and 3 mm/sec table speed, the 3-D images reconstructed with volume-scan CT were clearly better than those reconstructed using ordinary CT. The quality of both has improved after interpolation. In particular, the periorbital and zygomatic areas of 3-D images reconstructed with volume-scan CT are quite natural. When a phantom was scanned under the condition of 10 mm slice width and 10 mm/sec table speed, the quality of 3-D image reconstructed with ordinary CT was not sufficient to be distinct. Even under interpolation, the quality of image was not natural. Useful images could not be obtained when the phantom was moving. It was found that volume-scan CT is suitable for reconstruction of 3-D images. (author).

  6. Continuous Blood Volume Monitoring and Ultrafiltration Control.

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    Lopot, František; Nejedlý, Bohdan; Sulková, Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Continuous blood volume monitoring (CBVM) is believed to be a promising method for making the determination of patients' "dry weight" more objective, and ultrafiltration (UF) control more appropriate. Although blood volume response to UF and the interrelation between blood volume changes and changes in hemodynamic parameters are highly individual, certain principles of this response and interrelation can be identified and exploited for effective use of CBVM. The present work summarizes the authors' findings from practical CBVM application over the past 5 years and their opinions on the future development of this method. Four distinct types of blood volume response to constant UF rate were identified: Type 1, flat line throughout the whole session; Type 2, flat line during the first part of dialysis, followed by a linear decrease during the remaining time; Type 3, linear decrease right from dialysis start; and Type 4, linear decrease first, followed by a flat line during the remaining time. The possibility of a shift from one type to the other was verified. Blood volume reduction due to UF was found to have a static and a dynamic component. The most important factors affecting both components were found to be, by sensitivity analysis of a three-pool kinetic model, degree of overhydration, vascular system compliance, and UF volume (for the static component); and UF coefficient of the capillary wall and UF rate (for the dynamic component). Type 3 response, induced by more vigorous UF, was found to significantly decrease the volume of residual daily diuresis on the first postdialysis day. If confirmed, this finding may serve as a basis for the response type choice in patients with still significant residual renal function. Exploitation of the existence of dynamic blood volume reduction component for the first generation of automated biofeedback UF controllers may be complemented by automated identification of patient's plasma refilling capacity and/or position of his

  7. Selective retinal therapy with a continuous line scanning laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Yannis M.; Jain, ATul; Gariano, Ray F.; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Schuele, Georg; Sramek, Christopher; Charalel, Resmi; Palanker, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluates the effects of exposure duration, beam diameter, and power on the safety, selectivity, and healing of retinal lesions created using a continuous line scanning laser. A 532 nm laser (PASCALTM) with retinal beam diameters of 40 and 66 μm was applied to 60 eyes of 30 Dutch-Belted rabbits. Retinal exposure duration varied from 15 to 60 μs. Lesions were acutely assessed by ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography (FA). RPE flatmounts were evaluated with live-dead fluorescent assay (LD). Histological analysis was performed at 1 hour, 1 and 3 days, 1 and 2 weeks, and 1 and 2 months following laser treatment. Ophthalmoscopic visibility (OV) of the lesions corresponded to photoreceptor damage on histological analysis at 1 hour. In subvisible lesions, FA and LD yielded similar thresholds of RPE damage. The ratios of the threshold of rupture and of OV to FA visibility (measures of safety and selectivity) increased with decreasing duration and beam diameter. Above the threshold of OV, histology showed focal RPE damage and photoreceptor loss at one day without inner retinal effects. By one week, continuity of photoreceptor and RPE layers was restored. By 1 month, photoreceptors appeared normal while hypertrophy and hyperpigmentation of the RPE persisted. Retinal therapy with a fast scanning continuous laser achieves selective targeting of the RPE and, at higher power, of the photoreceptors. The damage zone in the photoreceptor layer is quickly filled-in, likely due to photoreceptor migration from adjacent zones. Continuous scanning laser can treat large retinal areas within standard eye fixation time.

  8. Scanning tunneling microscope with continuous flow cryostat sample cooling

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    Behler, S.; Rose, M.K.; Dunphy, J.C.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chapelier, C. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA/Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1997-06-01

    We have constructed an ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM) for operation in the temperature range 20{endash}300 K. The design consists of a vibration isolated sample holder mounted on a continuous flow cryostat. By rotation and linear motion of the cryostat, the sample can be positioned in front of various surface preparation and analysis instruments contained in a single vacuum chamber. A lightweight beetle-type STM head is lowered from the top onto the sample by a linear manipulator. To minimize helium convection in the cryostat, the entire vacuum system, including a liquid helium storage Dewar, can be tilted by a few degrees perpendicular to the cryostat axis, which improves the operation. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of the Pd(111) surface and adsorbed CO molecules. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. A beam monitoring and validation system for continuous line scanning in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpki, G.; Psoroulas, S.; Bula, C.; Rechsteiner, U.; Eichin, M.; Weber, D. C.; Lomax, A.; Meer, D.

    2017-08-01

    Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional step-and-shoot irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility of modulating the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout the irradiation. We report on its design and implementation in this paper. In line scanning, we steer the proton beam continuously along straight lines while adapting the speed and/or current frequently to modulate the delivered dose. We intend to prevent delivery errors that could be clinically relevant through a two-stage system: safety level 1 monitors the beam current and position every 10 μs. We demonstrate that direct readings from ionization chambers in the gantry nozzle and Hall probes in the scanner magnets provide required information on current and position, respectively. Interlocks will be raised when measured signals exceed their predefined tolerance bands. Even in case of an erroneous delivery, safety level 1 restricts hot and cold spots of the physically delivered fraction dose to  ±36~mGy (±2% of 2~Gy biologically). In safety level 2—an additional, partly redundant validation step—we compare the integral line profile measured with a strip monitor in the nozzle to a forward-calculated prediction. The comparison is performed between two line applications to detect amplifying inaccuracies in speed and current modulation. This level can be regarded as an online quality assurance of the machine. Both safety levels use devices and functionalities already installed along the beamline. Hence, the presented monitoring and validation system preserves full compatibility of discrete and continuous delivery mode on a single gantry, with the possibility of switching between modes during the

  10. A beam monitoring and validation system for continuous line scanning in proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpki, G; Psoroulas, S; Bula, C; Rechsteiner, U; Eichin, M; Weber, D C; Lomax, A; Meer, D

    2017-07-12

    Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional step-and-shoot irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility of modulating the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout the irradiation. We report on its design and implementation in this paper. In line scanning, we steer the proton beam continuously along straight lines while adapting the speed and/or current frequently to modulate the delivered dose. We intend to prevent delivery errors that could be clinically relevant through a two-stage system: safety level 1 monitors the beam current and position every 10 μs. We demonstrate that direct readings from ionization chambers in the gantry nozzle and Hall probes in the scanner magnets provide required information on current and position, respectively. Interlocks will be raised when measured signals exceed their predefined tolerance bands. Even in case of an erroneous delivery, safety level 1 restricts hot and cold spots of the physically delivered fraction dose to  ±[Formula: see text] (±[Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] biologically). In safety level 2-an additional, partly redundant validation step-we compare the integral line profile measured with a strip monitor in the nozzle to a forward-calculated prediction. The comparison is performed between two line applications to detect amplifying inaccuracies in speed and current modulation. This level can be regarded as an online quality assurance of the machine. Both safety levels use devices and functionalities already installed along the beamline. Hence, the presented monitoring and validation system preserves full compatibility of discrete and continuous delivery mode on a single gantry, with the possibility

  11. Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR

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    Wagner, R.; Mikkelsen, T.; Courtney, M.

    2009-03-15

    LIDAR systems are getting more and more accurate and reliable. It has been shown many times that the mean horizontal wind speed measured by a lidar over flat terrain compares very well with that measured by a cup anemometer. But can a lidar measure turbulence? Here we investigate the case of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial averaging is done in two steps: 1) the weighted averaging of the wind speed in the probe volume of the laser beam; 2) the averaging of the wind speeds occurring on the circular path described by the conically scanning lidar. Therefore the standard deviation measured by a lidar resolves only the turbulence structures larger than a length scale depending on the circle diameter and the mean wind speed (range of magnitude: 100m). However, the Zephir lidar gives another turbulence quantity, the so-called turbulence parameter, which can resolve turbulence structures with a smaller length scale. In this paper, we suggest a volumetric filtering of the turbulence to represent the effect of the spatial averaging operated by a lidar when measuring the wind speed. We then evaluate this model by comparing the theoretical results to experimental data obtained with several Zephir systems, for both turbulence quantities. (au)

  12. Accuracy of cancellous bone volume fraction measured by micro-CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Hvid, I

    1999-01-01

    which covered a large range of volume fraction (9.8-39.8%) were produced. The specimens were micro-CT scanned, and the volume fraction based on Archimedes' principle was determined as a reference. After scanning, all micro-CT data were segmented using individual thresholds determined by the scanner...

  13. Lateral spatial resolution of thermal lens microscopy during continuous scanning for nonstaining biofilm imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossteuscher, T. T. J.; Hibara, A.; Mawatari, K.; Kitamori, T.

    2009-05-01

    The possible application of continuous scanning thermal lens microscopy (TLM) as alternative online biofilm observation method is studied. As biofilm is a heterogeneous sample, the influence of spatially limited thermal flow at the sample heterogeneities and the biofilm-environment border has to be considered. The influence of the edges on the lateral resolution with respect to scanning velocity during continuous scanning TLM was therefore evaluated. Lateral scanning experiments on 100 nm thin gold stripes showed that the maximum scan speed can be predicted from a time constant of a lock-in amplifier and the beamwidth. Since three-dimensional mapping is needed to fully characterize the biofilm structure, depth scanning experiments with stained 4 μm thick polystyrene samples with the coaxial TLM setup were evaluated for signal width at full width at half maximum. Thus, a minimum step width for depth scanning of 10 μm for observation has been acquired. A three-dimensional image of unstained biofilm grown in a flow chamber was acquired using continuous scanning TLM.

  14. Flash Glucose Monitoring: Differences Between Intermittently Scanned and Continuously Stored Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Kamecke, Ulrike; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2017-10-01

    The flash glucose monitoring system FreeStyle Libre (Abbott Diabetes Care Ltd., Witney, UK) measures interstitial glucose concentrations and continuously stores measurement values every 15 minutes. To obtain a current glucose reading, users have to scan the sensor with the reader. In a clinical trial, 5% of the scanned data showed relative differences of more than ±10% compared with continuously stored data points (median -0.5%). Such differences might impact results of studies using this system. It should be indicated whether scanned or continuously stored data were used for analyses. Health care professionals might have to differentiate between data reports from clinical software and the scanned data their patients are provided with. Additional information on these differences and their potential impact on therapeutic decisions would be helpful.

  15. Scanning high-power continuous wave laser-generated bulk acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Yan, Shiling; Xie, Qingnan; Ni, Chenyin; Shen, Zhonghua

    2017-05-20

    The ultrasonic bulk waves generated by a high-power continuous laser scanning along the surface of aluminum material were theoretically investigated. Although the temperature rise generated by this scanning laser irradiation was small, it provided a large temperature gradient, which was able to generate measurable ultrasonic waves. Detailed discussions were given to the influence of scanning speed on the generation propagation direction and the amplitude of the wavefront. The longitudinal and transverse waves would be generated in the material only when the scanning speeds reached a certain range. What's more, the amplitude of the wavefronts were significantly enhanced if the wavefront angle controlled by the scanning speed matched with the propagation direction of the ultrasound. In summary, it expounded a method to obtain the ultrasonic signal of direction, controlled from the perspective of numerical simulation, as long as the scanning speed met the requirements.

  16. Contrast-enhanced duplex scanning of crural arteries by means of continuous infusion of Levovist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffi, Stephen B.; Ubbink, Dirk Th; Zwiers, Ineke; van Gurp, Johan A. M.; Hanson, Dianne; Legemate, Dink A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the dosage needed for continuous infusion and to investigate whether continuous infusion of the ultrasound contrast-enhancing agent Levovist (SH U 508A) can improve duplex scanning of crural arteries in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD) eligible for

  17. Continuous measurement of optical surfaces using a line-scan interferometer with sinusoidal path length modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Holger; Laubach, Sören; Ehret, Gerd; Lehmann, Peter

    2014-12-01

    We present a fast approach to the continuous measurement of rotational symmetric optical surfaces. This approach is based on a line scanning interferometer with sinusoidal modulation of the optical path length. The specimen is positioned with respect to the sensor and both are moved during measurement by use of a five axes system comprising a high precision rotational table. The calibration of both the line sensor as well as the scanning and positioning system is discussed. As proof of principle of the measurement and stitching concept results of a scan of a rotational symmetric sinusoidal structure and a spherical lens with a moderate slope are shown.

  18. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation project quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%−90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  19. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%–90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  20. Volume adjustment of lung density by computed tomography scans in patients with emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, S B; Dirksen, A; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine how to adjust lung density measurements for the volume of the lung calculated from computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with emphysema. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty patients with emphysema underwent 3 CT scans at 2-week intervals. The scans were analyzed with a software...... package that detected the lung in contiguous images and subsequently generated a histogram of the pixel attenuation values. The total lung volume (TLV), lung weight, percentile density (PD), and relative area of emphysema (RA) were calculated from this histogram. RA and PD are commonly applied measures...... of pulmonary emphysema derived from CT scans. These parameters are markedly influenced by changes in the level of inspiration. The variability of lung density due to within-subject variation in TLV was explored by plotting TLV against PD and RA. RESULTS: The coefficients for volume adjustment for PD were...

  1. Comparison of MRI fast SPGR single slice scan and continuous dynamic scan in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

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    Zhang Xinyu [Department of Radiology, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003 (China)], E-mail: myginny2@sina.com; Yang Xue [Department of Radiology, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003 (China)], E-mail: yangxueqyfy@126.com; Hua Hui [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao (China)], E-mail: huahuisky@163.com; Chen Jingjing [Department of Radiology, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003 (China)], E-mail: chenjingjingsky@126.com

    2009-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of MRI fast SPGR single slice scan in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome when comparing the images between fast SPGR single slice scan and continuous dynamic scan. Methods: Eighteen patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome were examined by fast SPGR single slice scan and continuous dynamic scan in turn. Fast SPGR single slice scans were conducted when the phases of apnea, inspiration and expiration appeared on the respiratory wave of the subjects. Fast SPGR continuous dynamic scans were conducted when the patients were awake and apneic. The scan planes were median sagittal plane and axial planes (the slice of middle part of palate, the slice of inferior part of palate, the slice of middle part of lingual root and the slice of 0.5 cm beneath the free margin of epiglottis). The obstructed sites and the cross-sectional areas of upper airway were compared between the two scan methods. Results: Seven cases showed complete obstruction at the narrowest sites of upper airway when apnea appeared; eleven cases showed marked decrease in cross-sectional areas at the narrowest sites compared with the areas when the patients were awake; two cases manifested multiple narrowness. The obstructed sites showed by the two scan methods were same. The difference of the cross-sectional areas of upper airway between the two scan methods was insignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Fast SPGR single slice scan can accurately reflect the obstructed sites of upper airway when the breath breaks off and is the complementary method of continuous dynamic scan. Sometimes, single slice scan can replace continuous dynamic scan.

  2. A scan statistic for continuous data based on the normal probability model

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    Huang Lan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Temporal, spatial and space-time scan statistics are commonly used to detect and evaluate the statistical significance of temporal and/or geographical disease clusters, without any prior assumptions on the location, time period or size of those clusters. Scan statistics are mostly used for count data, such as disease incidence or mortality. Sometimes there is an interest in looking for clusters with respect to a continuous variable, such as lead levels in children or low birth weight. For such continuous data, we present a scan statistic where the likelihood is calculated using the the normal probability model. It may also be used for other distributions, while still maintaining the correct alpha level. In an application of the new method, we look for geographical clusters of low birth weight in New York City.

  3. Turbulence estimation from a continuous-wave scanning lidar (SpinnerLidar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnhoorn, J.G.; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2017-01-01

    measurements has earlier been shown to provide unfiltered, un-truncated line-of-sight turbulence measurements [1], [2]. Turbulence measurements from a continuous-wave scanning lidar, i.e. the DTU SpinnerLidar, mounted on the nacelle of the CART3 turbine at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind...

  4. Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Mikkelsen, Torben; Courtney, Michael

    of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial...... suggest a volumetric filtering of the turbulence to represent the effect of the spatial averaging operated by a lidar when measuring the wind speed. We then evaluate this model by comparing the theoretical results to experimental data obtained with several Zephir systems, for both turbulence quantities....

  5. Feasibility of Terrestrial laser scanning for collecting stem volume information from single trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Vastaranta, Mikko; Luoma, Ville; Pyörälä, Jiri; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Liang, Xinlian; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Yu, Xiaowei; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha

    2017-01-01

    Interest in measuring forest biomass and carbon stock has increased as a result of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and sustainable planning of forest resources is therefore essential. Biomass and carbon stock estimates are based on the large area estimates of growing stock volume provided by national forest inventories (NFIs). The estimates for growing stock volume based on the NFIs depend on stem volume estimates of individual trees. Data collection for formulating stem volume and biomass models is challenging, because the amount of data required is considerable, and the fact that the detailed destructive measurements required to provide these data are laborious. Due to natural diversity, sample size for developing allometric models should be rather large. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has proved to be an efficient tool for collecting information on tree stems. Therefore, we investigated how TLS data for deriving stem volume information from single trees should be collected. The broader context of the study was to determine the feasibility of replacing destructive and laborious field measurements, which have been needed for development of empirical stem volume models, with TLS. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the TLS data captured at various distance (i.e. corresponding 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of tree height) on the accuracy of the stem volume derived. In addition, we examined how multiple TLS point cloud data acquired at various distances improved the results. Analysis was carried out with two ways when multiple point clouds were used: individual tree attributes were derived from separate point clouds and the volume was estimated based on these separate values (multiple-scan A), and point clouds were georeferenced as a combined point cloud from which the stem volume was estimated (multiple-scan B). This permitted us to deal with the practical aspects of TLS data collection and data processing for development of

  6. Surface wave measurements using a single continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer: application to elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Sabra, Karim G

    2013-03-01

    A continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (CSLDV) obtained sweeping a single laser beam along a periodic scan pattern allows measuring surface vibrations at many points simultaneously by demultiplexing the CSLDV signal. This known method fundamentally differs from conventional scanning laser vibrometry techniques in which the laser beam is kept at a fixed point during each measurement and then moved to a new position prior to the next measurement. This article demonstrates the use of a CSLDV for measuring in a non-contact fashion the velocity of low-frequency surface waves (f laser beam, linearly scanned over the test surface at 200 Hz over lengths up to 6 cm, were validated using an array of three fixed laser Doppler vibrometers distributed along the same scan line. Furthermore, this CSLDV setup was used to measure the increase in surface wave velocity over the biceps brachii muscle which was directly correlated to the actual stiffening of the biceps occurring while a subject was performing voluntary contractions at an increasing level.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Versus 3-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Breast Volume Assessment After Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Benjamin H L; Watson, David I; Fosh, Beverley; Yip, Jia Miin; Kleinig, Pakan; Dean, Nicola Ruth

    2017-04-01

    There are several methods available for measuring breast volume in the clinical setting, but the comparability and accuracy of different methods is not well described. The ideal breast volume measurement technique should be low cost, comfortable for the patient, have no ionizing radiation and be non-invasive. Prospective cohort study comparing a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner versus noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast volume assessment. Subjects were women undergoing breast reconstruction with autologous fat graft. Both types of scan were performed the day before fat grafting and at 6 months postoperatively. Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman tests were performed to compare the assessment methods. Eighteen patients underwent preoperative breast MRI and 3D laser scanning. Eighteen patients also underwent assessment 6 months after surgery. The total number of breasts scanned for comparison was 36, with a total of 72 comparisons for analysis. There was a strong linear association between the 2 methods using a Pearson correlation (r = 0.79; P breast volume. Given the convenience of laser scanning and potential for lower cost compared with MRI, this technique should be considered for quantifying outcomes after complex breast reconstruction when the equipment is available.

  8. Magnification-continuous static calibration model of a scanning-electron microscope.

    OpenAIRE

    Malti, Abed Choaib; Dembélé, Sounkalo; Piat, Nadine; Rougeot, Patrick; Salut, Roland

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We present a new calibration model of both static distortion and projection for a scanning-electron microscope (SEM). The proposed calibration model depends continuously on the magnification factor. State-of-the-art methods have proposed models to solve the static distortion and projection model but for a discrete set of low and high magnifications: at low magnifications, existing models assume static distortion and perspective projection. At high magnifications, exist...

  9. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Watson

    Full Text Available Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  10. Inter-Scan Reproducibility of Carotid Plaque Volume Measurements by 3-D Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Benjamin V; Collet-Billon, Antoine; Entrekin, Robert

    2018-01-01

    We tested a novel 3-D matrix transducer with respect to inter-scan reproducibility of carotid maximum plaque thickness (MPT) and volume measurements. To improve reproducibility while focusing on the largest plaque/most diseased part of the carotid artery, we introduced a new partial plaque volume...... (PPV) measure centered on MPT. Total plaque volume (TPV), PPV from a 10-mm segment and MPT were measured using dedicated semi-automated software on 38 plaques from 26 patients. Inter-scan reproducibility was assessed using the t-test, Bland-Altman plots and Pearson's correlation coefficient...... of agreement: -88.2 to 61.5 mm3, Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.91). The good reproducibility revealed by the present results encourages future studies on establishing plaque quantification as part of cardiovascular risk assessment and for follow-up of disease progression over time....

  11. Broadband measurement of translational and angular vibrations using a single continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Sabra, Karim G

    2012-09-01

    A continuous scanning laser Doppler velocimetry (CSLDV) technique is used to measure the low frequency broadband vibrations associated with human skeletal muscle vibrations (typically f laser beam over distances that are short compared to the characteristic wavelengths of the vibrations. The high frequency scan (compared to the vibration frequency) enables the detection of broadband translational and angular velocities at a single point using amplitude demodulation of the CSDLV signal. For instance, linear scans allow measurement of the normal surface velocity and one component of angular velocity vector, while circular scans allow measurement of an additional angular velocity component. This CSLDV technique is first validated here using gel samples mimicking soft tissues and then applied to measure multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) of a subject's hand exhibiting fatigue-induced tremor. Hence this CSLDV technique potentially provides a means for measuring multiple DOF of small human body parts (e.g., fingers, tendons, small muscles) for various applications (e.g., haptic technology, remote surgery) when the use of skin-mounted sensors (e.g. accelerometers) can be problematic due to mass-loading artifacts or tethering issues.

  12. Augmentation of the step-by-step Energy-Scanning EXAFS beamline BL-09 to continuous-scan EXAFS mode at INDUS-2 SRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poswal, Ashwini Kumar; Agrawal, Ankur; Poswal, Himanshu Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Jha, Shambhu Nath; Sahoo, Naba Kishore

    2016-11-01

    An innovative scheme to carry out continuous-scan X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements similar to quick-EXAFS mode at the Energy-Scanning EXAFS beamline BL-09 at INDUS-2 synchrotron source (Indore, India), which is generally operated in step-by-step scanning mode, is presented. The continuous XAS mode has been implemented by adopting a continuous-scan scheme of the double-crystal monochromator and on-the-fly measurement of incident and transmitted intensities. This enabled a high signal-to-noise ratio to be maintained and the acquisition time was reduced to a few seconds from tens of minutes or hours. The quality of the spectra (signal-to-noise level, resolution and energy calibration) was checked by measuring and analysing XAS spectra of standard metal foils. To demonstrate the energy range covered in a single scan, a continuous-mode XAS spectrum of copper nickel alloy covering both Cu and Ni K-edges was recorded. The implementation of continuous-scan XAS mode at BL-09 would expand the use of this beamline in in situ time-resolved XAS studies of various important systems of current technological importance. The feasibility of employing this mode of measurement for time-resolved probing of reaction kinetics has been demonstrated by in situ XAS measurement on the growth of Ag nanoparticles from a solution phase.

  13. Continuously scanning time-correlated single-photon-counting single-pixel 3-D lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Markus; Larsson, Håkan; Grönwall, Christina; Tolt, Gustav

    2017-03-01

    Time-correlated single-photon-counting (TCSPC) lidar provides very high resolution range measurements. This makes the technology interesting for three-dimensional imaging of complex scenes with targets behind foliage or other obscurations. TCSPC is a statistical method that demands integration of multiple measurements toward the same area to resolve objects at different distances within the instantaneous field-of-view. Point-by-point scanning will demand significant overhead for the movement, increasing the measurement time. Here, the effect of continuously scanning the scene row-by-row is investigated and signal processing methods to transform this into low-noise point clouds are described. The methods are illustrated using measurements of a characterization target and an oak and hazel copse. Steps between different surfaces of less than 5 cm in range are resolved as two surfaces.

  14. Assessment of muscle stiffness using a continuously scanning laser-Doppler vibrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Sabra, Karim G; Shinohara, Minoru

    2014-07-01

    A stand-alone and low-cost elastography technique has been developed using a single continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. This elastography technique is used to measure the propagation velocity of surface vibrations over superficial skeletal muscles to assess muscle stiffness. Systematic variations in propagation velocity depending on the contraction level and joint position of the biceps brachii were demonstrated in 10 subjects. This technique may assist clinicians in characterizing muscle stiffness (or tone) changes due to neuromuscular disorders. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Model for continuously scanning ultrasound vibrometer sensing displacements of randomly rough vibrating surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratilal, Purnima; Andrews, Mark; Donabed, Ninos; Galinde, Ameya; Rappaport, Carey; Fenneman, Douglas

    2007-02-01

    An analytic model is developed for the time-dependent ultrasound field reflected off a randomly rough vibrating surface for a continuously scanning ultrasound vibrometer system in bistatic configuration. Kirchhoff's approximation to Green's theorem is applied to model the three-dimensional scattering interaction of the ultrasound wave field with the vibrating rough surface. The model incorporates the beam patterns of both the transmitting and receiving ultrasound transducers and the statistical properties of the rough surface. Two methods are applied to the ultrasound system for estimating displacement and velocity amplitudes of an oscillating surface: incoherent Doppler shift spectra and coherent interferometry. Motion of the vibrometer over the randomly rough surface leads to time-dependent scattering noise that causes a randomization of the received signal spectrum. Simulations with the model indicate that surface displacement and velocity estimation are highly dependent upon the scan velocity and projected wavelength of the ultrasound vibrometer relative to the roughness height standard deviation and correlation length scales of the rough surface. The model is applied to determine limiting scan speeds for ultrasound vibrometer measuring ground displacements arising from acoustic or seismic excitation to be used in acoustic landmine confirmation sensing.

  16. Scanning laser optical computed tomography system for large volume 3D dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2017-04-01

    Stray light causes artifacts in optical computed tomography (CT) that negatively affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry in gels or solids. Scatter effects are exacerbated by a large dosimeter volume, which is desirable for direct verification of modern radiotherapy treatment plans such as multiple-isocenter radiosurgery. The goal in this study was to design and characterize an optical CT system that achieves high accuracy primary transmission measurements through effective stray light rejection, while maintaining sufficient scan speed for practical application. We present an optical imaging platform that uses a galvanometer mirror for horizontal scanning, and a translation stage for vertical movement of a laser beam and small area detector for minimal stray light production and acceptance. This is coupled with a custom lens-shaped optical CT aquarium for parallel ray sampling of projections. The scanner images 15 cm diameter, 12 cm height cylindrical volumes at 0.33 mm resolution in approximately 30 min. Attenuation coefficients reconstructed from CT scans agreed with independent cuvette measurements within 2% for both absorbing and scattering solutions as well as small 1.25 cm diameter absorbing phantoms placed within a large, scattering medium that mimics gel. Excellent linearity between the optical CT scanner and the independent measurement was observed for solutions with between 90% and 2% transmission. These results indicate that the scanner should achieve highly accurate dosimetry of large volume dosimeters in a reasonable timeframe for clinical application to radiotherapy dose verification procedures.

  17. Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Junjing; Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Chen, Si; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris; Vine, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Ptychography is a coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) method for extended objects in which diffraction patterns are acquired sequentially from overlapping coherent illumination spots. The object's complex transmission function can be reconstructed from those diffraction patterns at a spatial resolution limited only by the scattering strength of the object and the detector geometry. Most experiments to date have positioned the illumination spots on the sample using a move-settle-measure sequence in which the move and settle steps can take longer to complete than the measure step. We describe here the use of a continuous "fly-scan" mode for ptychographic data collection in which the sample is moved continuously, so that the experiment resembles one of integrating the diffraction patterns from multiple probe positions. This allows one to use multiple probe mode reconstruction methods to obtain an image of the object and also of the illumination function. We show in simulations, and in x-ray imaging experiments, some of the characteristics of fly-scan ptychography, including a factor of 25 reduction in the data acquisition time. This approach will become increasingly important as brighter x-ray sources are developed, such as diffraction limited storage rings.

  18. Intrathoracic tracheal volume and collapsibility on inspiratory and end-expiratory ct scans correlations with lung volume and pulmonary function in 85 smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Tsuneo; San José Estépar, Raúl; Matsuoka, Shin; Bartholmai, Brian J; Ross, James C; Diaz, Alejandro; Murayama, Sadayuki; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Washko, George R

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the correlations of tracheal volume and collapsibility on inspiratory and end-expiratory computed tomography (CT) with lung volume and with lung function in smokers. The institutional review board approved this study at each institution. 85 smokers (mean age 68, range 45-87 years; 40 females and 45 males) underwent pulmonary function tests and chest CT at full inspiration and end-expiration. On both scans, intrathoracic tracheal volume and lung volume were measured. Collapsibility of the trachea and the lung was expressed as expiratory/inspiratory (E/I) ratios of these volumes. Correlations of the tracheal measurements with the lung measurements and with lung function were evaluated by the linear regression analysis. Tracheal volume showed moderate or strong, positive correlations with lung volume on both inspiratory (r = 0.661, P volume showed a strong, positive correlation with the E/I ratio of lung volume (r = 0.711, P volume and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity (r = -0.436, P volume and the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity (r = 0.253, P = .02). Tracheal volume and collapsibility, measured by inspiratory and end-expiratory CT scans, is related to lung volume and collapsibility. The highly collapsed trachea on end-expiratory CT does not indicate more severe airflow limitation or air-trapping in smokers. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tree Root System Characterization and Volume Estimation by Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Quantitative Structure Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The accurate characterization of three-dimensional (3D root architecture, volume, and biomass is important for a wide variety of applications in forest ecology and to better understand tree and soil stability. Technological advancements have led to increasingly more digitized and automated procedures, which have been used to more accurately and quickly describe the 3D structure of root systems. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS have successfully been used to describe aboveground structures of individual trees and stand structure, but have only recently been applied to the 3D characterization of whole root systems. In this study, 13 recently harvested Norway spruce root systems were mechanically pulled from the soil, cleaned, and their volumes were measured by displacement. The root systems were suspended, scanned with TLS from three different angles, and the root surfaces from the co-registered point clouds were modeled with the 3D Quantitative Structure Model to determine root architecture and volume. The modeling procedure facilitated the rapid derivation of root volume, diameters, break point diameters, linear root length, cumulative percentages, and root fraction counts. The modeled root systems underestimated root system volume by 4.4%. The modeling procedure is widely applicable and easily adapted to derive other important topological and volumetric root variables.

  20. High-throughput DNA Stretching in Continuous Elongational Flow for Genome Sequence Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Robert; Griffis, Joshua; Safranovitch, Mikhail; Malkin, Gene; Cameron, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Genome Sequence Scanning (GSS) identifies and compares bacterial genomes by stretching long (60 - 300 kb) genomic DNA restriction fragments and scanning for site-selective fluorescent probes. Practical application of GSS requires: 1) high throughput data acquisition, 2) efficient DNA stretching, 3) reproducible DNA elasticity in the presence of intercalating fluorescent dyes. GSS utilizes a pseudo-two-dimensional micron-scale funnel with convergent sheathing flows to stretch one molecule at a time in continuous elongational flow and center the DNA stream over diffraction-limited confocal laser excitation spots. Funnel geometry has been optimized to maximize throughput of DNA within the desired length range (>10 million nucleobases per second). A constant-strain detection channel maximizes stretching efficiency by applying a constant parabolic tension profile to each molecule, minimizing relaxation and flow-induced tumbling. The effect of intercalator on DNA elasticity is experimentally controlled by reacting one molecule of DNA at a time in convergent sheathing flows of the dye. Derivations of accelerating flow and non-linear tension distribution permit alignment of detected fluorescence traces to theoretical templates derived from whole-genome sequence data.

  1. QUANTIFICATION OF BIOFILMS IN MULTI-SPECTRAL DIGITAL1 VOLUMES FROM CONFOCAL LASER-SCANNING MICROSCOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Rodenacker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Populations of bacteria in sludge flocs and biofilm marked by fluorescence marked with fluorescent probes are digitised with a confocal laser scanning microscope. These data are used to analyse the microbial community structure, to obtain information on the localisation of specific bacterial groups and to examine gene expression. This information is urgently required for an in-depth understanding of the function and, more generally, the microbial ecology of biofilms. Methods derived from quantitative image analysis are applied to digitised data from confocal laser scanning microscopes to obtain quantitative descriptions of volumetric, topological (and topographical properties of different compartments of the components under research. In addition to free-moving flocs, also biofilms attached to a substratum in an experimental environment are analysed. Growth form as well as interaction of components are quantitatively described. Classical measurements of volume and intensity (shape, distribution and distance dependent interaction measurements using methods from mathematical morphology are performed. Mainly image (volume processing methods are outlined. Segmented volumes are globally and individually (in terms of 3Dconnected components measured and used for distance mapping transform as well as for estimation of geodesic distances from the substrate. All transformations are applied on the 3D data set. Resulting distance distributions are quantified and related to information on the identity and activity of the probe-identified bacteria.

  2. Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Junjing; Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Chen, Si; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris; Vine, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Ptychography is a coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) method for extended objects in which diffraction patterns are acquired sequentially from overlapping coherent illumination spots. The object’s complex transmission function can be reconstructed from those diffraction patterns at a spatial resolution limited only by the scattering strength of the object and the detector geometry. Most experiments to date have positioned the illumination spots on the sample using a move-settle-measure sequence in which the move and settle steps can take longer to complete than the measure step. We describe here the use of a continuous “fly-scan” mode for ptychographic data collection in which the sample is moved continuously, so that the experiment resembles one of integrating the diffraction patterns from multiple probe positions. This allows one to use multiple probe mode reconstruction methods to obtain an image of the object and also of the illumination function. We show in simulations, and in x-ray imaging experiments, some of the characteristics of fly-scan ptychography, including a factor of 25 reduction in the data acquisition time. This approach will become increasingly important as brighter x-ray sources are developed, such as diffraction limited storage rings.

  3. Changes in Intramuscular Blood Volume Induced by Continuous Shortwave Diathermy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karasuno, Hiroshi; Morozumi, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Goh, Ah Cheng; Yamamoto, Iwao; Senga, Fujitoshi

    2005-01-01

    ...) under continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) and compare them with the electric hot pack (EHP). The subjects consisted of 41 healthy adults, who received one of three interventions: CSWD (n=17), EHP (n=12...

  4. Volume change measurements of rice by environmental scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaohu; De Rooij, Mario; De Jong, Liesbeth

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of volume change, which is induced by changing the relative humidity, is performed on rice by using environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and stereoscopy techniques. The typical DeltaV% approximately RH curve of rice in both sorption and desorption can be categorized into three regions: low, intermediate, and high dependence on relative humidity from low- to high-relative humidity. The volume changes faster for rice samples with lower crystallinity, which is because the amorphous component is easier to absorb moisture than the crystalline component. The volume change behavior in various relative humidity environments is comparable with rice isotherm curve in sorption process though discrepancies exist in desorption, which are thought to be the presence of small pores and microstructure changes at high relative humidity. The volume in the desorption branch is less than that in the sorption branch at the same relative humidity, which can be attributed to the collapse of interior structures, existence of small pores, surface topography loss, and amylose leach.

  5. Dual-scanning optical coherence elastography for rapid imaging of two tissue volumes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qi; Frewer, Luke; Wijesinghe, Philip; Hamzah, Juliana; Ganss, Ruth; Allen, Wes M.; Sampson, David D.; Curatolo, Andrea; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2017-02-01

    In many applications of optical coherence elastography (OCE), it is necessary to rapidly acquire images in vivo, or within intraoperative timeframes, over fields-of-view far greater than can be achieved in one OCT image acquisition. For example, tumour margin assessment in breast cancer requires acquisition over linear dimensions of 4-5 centimetres in under 20 minutes. However, the majority of existing techniques are not compatible with these requirements, which may present a hurdle to the effective translation of OCE. To increase throughput, we have designed and developed an OCE system that simultaneously captures two 3D elastograms from opposite sides of a sample. The optical system comprises two interferometers: a common-path interferometer on one side of the sample and a dual-arm interferometer on the other side. This optical system is combined with scanning mechanisms and compression loading techniques to realize dual-scanning OCE. The optical signals scattered from two volumes are simultaneously detected on a single spectrometer by depth-encoding the interference signal from each interferometer. To demonstrate dual-scanning OCE, we performed measurements on tissue-mimicking phantoms containing rigid inclusions and freshly isolated samples of murine hepatocellular carcinoma, highlighting the use of this technique to visualise 3D tumour stiffness. These findings indicate that our technique holds promise for in vivo and intraoperative applications.

  6. Digital forensic osteology: morphological sexing of skeletal remains using volume-rendered cranial CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Kettner, Mattias; Gehl, Axel; Verhoff, M A

    2010-02-25

    Because of the increasing lack of recent bone collections, ethical issues concerning maceration procedures, and progress in radiological imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) scans offer an alternative to traditional anthropological bone collection. The present study examined volume-rendered cranial CT (CCT) scans from 50 crania to morphologically evaluate sex characteristics. CCT scans were performed and scored by two teams (Teams A and B) of two examiners each (2x50=100 examinations) to evaluate the occurrence and/or absence of morphological traits. Altogether, 60 of 100 crania (31 Team A+29 Team B) crania were determined to be male, and 40 (19 Team A+21 Team B) were determined to be female when using the scoring system adapted from Knussmann. These results imply a sex determination accuracy rate of 96%. Only in one case was recalculation of weighting factors necessary to determine one additional correct classification. As a single parameter, arcus superciliaris evaluation permitted the most accurate sex determination (female, 84.2%; male, 85.5%). No significant difference in accuracy rates was observed between the two sexes (pforensic casework and the systematic reevaluation and improvement of classical anthropological methods and their adaptation to changing populations. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, B.; Ewins, D.; Acciavatti, F.

    2014-05-01

    To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics.

  8. Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weekes, B.; Ewins, D. [University of Bristol, Queen' s Building, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Acciavatti, F. [Universita' Politecnica Delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 12, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2014-05-27

    To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics.

  9. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide correlates best with tissue volume from quantitative CT scanning analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjaktarevic, Igor; Springmeyer, Steven; Gonzalez, Xavier; Sirokman, William; Coxson, Harvey O; Cooper, Christopher B

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative analysis of high-resolution chest CT scan (QCT) is an established method for determining the severity and distribution of lung parenchymal destruction inpatients with emphysema. Diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(LCO)) is a traditional physiologic measure of emphysema severity and is probably influenced more by destruction of the alveolar capillary bed than by membrane diffusion per se. We reasoned that D(LCO) should correlate with tissue volume from QCT. A total of 460 patients with upper-lobe-predominant emphysema were enrolled in the study. Th e mean (SD) of percent predicted values for FEV 1 , total lung capacity, and D(LCO) were 30.6% (8.0%), 129.5% (18.1%), and 6.7% (13.1%), respectively. QCT was performed using custom soft ware; the relationship between D(LCO) and various metrics from QCT were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. On average, whole-body plethysmography volumes were higher by 841 mL compared with QCT-calculated total lung volume. However, there was a strong correlation between these measurements (r=0.824, P lung volume (r=0.314, Pvolume (r=0.498, Plung with low density (-950 Hounsfield units) (r=-0.337, Pvolume,supporting the hypothesis that pulmonary capillary blood volume is the main determinant of D(LCO) in the human lung. Th e relationships between D(LCO) and various anatomic metrics of lung parenchymal destruction from QCT inform our understanding of the relationship between structure and function of the human lung.

  10. Estimation of volumes of distribution and intratumoral ethanol concentrations by computed tomography scanning after percutaneous ethanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D G; Unger, E C; Seeger, S J; Karmann, S; Krupinski, E A

    1996-01-01

    We developed a technique for estimating the volumes of distribution and intratumoral ethanol concentrations using computed tomography (CT) scanning in patients undergoing percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) treatment of malignant hepatic tumors. A phantom containing anhydrous ethanol diluted with deionized distilled water to concentrations of 0-100% ethanol was scanned by CT. Thirty-seven treatment sessions were performed on eight patients with malignant hepatic tumors undergoing PEI under CT guidance. The patients were scanned pre- and post-PEI, and a region of interest containing the treated hepatic tissue was selected for pixels between -250 and 15 Hounsfield units (H). The mean density of the pixels in this range was computed and the concentration of ethanol estimated. Volumes of distribution of ethanol and intratumoral concentration were then correlated with volume of ethanol injected during PEI. The ratios of volumes of distribution of ethanol to ethanol injected (adjusted in-range [IR]/volume injected) were compared for responders (n = 4) and nonresponders (n = 4). CT numbers in the phantom scaled linearly with ethanol concentration; 100% ethanol measured -234 H. On CT scans after PEI, the volume of distribution of ethanol correlated positively with the volume injected. Calculated intratumoral ethanol concentrations ranged from 4% to 31%. The adjusted IR/volume injected was significantly higher for responders than nonresponders (p ethanol distribution in tissue; a larger relative intratumoral distribution of alcohol appears to correlate with a favorable response to PEI. However, CT measurement of intratumoral ethanol concentrations may require more complex computational techniques.

  11. A Cabled, High Bandwidth Instrument Platform for Continuous Scanning of the Upper Ocean Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, E.; Delaney, J. R.; Kelly, D.; Daly, K. L.; Luther, D. S.; Harkins, G.; Harrington, M.; McGuire, C.; Tilley, J.; Dosher, J.; Waite, P.; Cram, G.; Kawka, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Cabled Array portion of the National Science Foundation funded Ocean Observatories Initiative is a large scale, high bandwidth and high power subsea science network designed by the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory. Part of that system is a set of winched profilers which continuously scan the upper 200m of the ocean at their deployment sites. The custom built profilers leverage the Cabled Array's technology for interfacing collections of science instruments and add the ability to run predefined missions and to switch missions or mission parameters on the fly via command from shore. The profilers were designed to operate continuously for up to two years after deployment after which certain wearing components must be replaced. The data from the profiler's science and engineering sensors are streamed to shore via the seafloor network in real time. Data channel capacity from the profilers exceeds 40 Mbps. For profiler safety, mission execution is controlled within the platform. Inputs such as 3D gyro, pressure depth and deployed cable calculations are monitored to assure safe operation during any sea state. The profilers never surface but are designed to approach within 5m of the surface if conditions allow. Substantial engineering effort was focused on reliable cable handling under all ocean conditions. The profilers are currently operated from subsea moorings which also contain sets of fixed science and engineering sensors. The profilers and their associated mooring instrument assemblies are designed for rapid replacement using ROVs. We have operated this system for two years, including one annual maintenance turn and information relative to that experience will be included in the paper.[Image Caption] Cabled Array Shallow Profiler shown in its parking position.

  12. Delamination detection by Multi-Level Wavelet Processing of Continuous Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiariotti, P.; Martarelli, M.; Revel, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    A novel non-destructive testing procedure for delamination detection based on the exploitation of the simultaneous time and spatial sampling provided by Continuous Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry (CSLDV) and the feature extraction capability of Multi-Level wavelet-based processing is presented in this paper. The processing procedure consists in a multi-step approach. Once the optimal mother-wavelet is selected as the one maximizing the Energy to Shannon Entropy Ratio criterion among the mother-wavelet space, a pruning operation aiming at identifying the best combination of nodes inside the full-binary tree given by Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD) is performed. The pruning algorithm exploits, in double step way, a measure of the randomness of the point pattern distribution on the damage map space with an analysis of the energy concentration of the wavelet coefficients on those nodes provided by the first pruning operation. A combination of the point pattern distributions provided by each node of the ensemble node set from the pruning algorithm allows for setting a Damage Reliability Index associated to the final damage map. The effectiveness of the whole approach is proven on both simulated and real test cases. A sensitivity analysis related to the influence of noise on the CSLDV signal provided to the algorithm is also discussed, showing that the processing developed is robust enough to measurement noise. The method is promising: damages are well identified on different materials and for different damage-structure varieties.

  13. VOXEL-BASED APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING URBAN TREE VOLUME FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vonderach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of single trees and the determination of related parameters has been recognized in recent years, e.g. for forest inventories or management. For urban areas an increasing interest in the data acquisition of trees can be observed concerning aspects like urban climate, CO2 balance, and environmental protection. Urban trees differ significantly from natural systems with regard to the site conditions (e.g. technogenic soils, contaminants, lower groundwater level, regular disturbance, climate (increased temperature, reduced humidity and species composition and arrangement (habitus and health status and therefore allometric relations cannot be transferred from natural sites to urban areas. To overcome this problem an extended approach was developed for a fast and non-destructive extraction of branch volume, DBH (diameter at breast height and height of single trees from point clouds of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. For data acquisition, the trees were scanned with highest scan resolution from several (up to five positions located around the tree. The resulting point clouds (20 to 60 million points are analysed with an algorithm based on voxel (volume elements structure, leading to an appropriate data reduction. In a first step, two kinds of noise reduction are carried out: the elimination of isolated voxels as well as voxels with marginal point density. To obtain correct volume estimates, the voxels inside the stem and branches (interior voxels where voxels contain no laser points must be regarded. For this filling process, an easy and robust approach was developed based on a layer-wise (horizontal layers of the voxel structure intersection of four orthogonal viewing directions. However, this procedure also generates several erroneous "phantom" voxels, which have to be eliminated. For this purpose the previous approach was extended by a special region growing algorithm. In a final step the volume is determined layer-wise based on the

  14. The efficacy of automated breast volume scanning over conventional ultrasonography among patients with breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuan-ming; Chen, Zhi-heng; Zhou, Qi-chang; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2015-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) with that of conventional ultrasonography in the detection of breast cancer lesions. In a retrospective study, patients aged 18-78 years who had breast cancer, had undergone screening using ABVS and conventional ultrasonography, and provided a biopsy sample at a center in Changsha, China, between July 22, 2011, and September 20, 2014, were identified. Results of ultrasonography and ABVS were compared. A total of 417 lesions were detected among 300 patients. Ultrasonography detected 326 lesions, whereas ABVS detected all 417 (Pmicrocalcifications in only two cases, whereas ABVS reported these in eight cases (Pbreast lesions than conventional ultrasonography does. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In-scan and scan-rescan assessment of LV in- and outflow volumes by 4D flow MRI versus 2D planimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Vivian P; van der Palen, Roel L F; de Koning, Patrick J H; Elbaz, Mohammed S M; van der Geest, Rob J; de Roos, Albert; Roest, Arno A W; Westenberg, Jos J M

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the in-scan and scan-rescan consistency of left ventricular (LV) in- and outflow assessment from 1) 2D planimetry; 2) 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with retrospective valve tracking, and 3) 4D flow MRI with particle tracing. Ten healthy volunteers (age 27 ± 3 years) underwent multislice cine short-axis planimetry and whole-heart 4D flow MRI on a 3T MRI scanner twice with repositioning between the scans. LV in- and outflow was compared from 1) 2D planimetry; 2) 4D flow MRI with retrospective valve tracking over the mitral valve (MV) and aortic valve (AV), and 3) 4D flow MRI with particle tracing through forward and backward integration of velocity data. In-scan consistency between MV and AV flow volumes is excellent for both 4D flow MRI methods with r ≥ 0.95 (P ≤ 0.001). In-scan AV and MV flow by retrospective valve tracking shows good to excellent correlations versus AV and MV flow by particle tracing (r ≥ 0.81, P ≤ 0.004). Scan-rescan SV assessment by 2D planimetry shows excellent reproducibility (intraclass correlation [ICC] = 0.98, P < 0.001, coefficient of variation [CV] = 7%). Scan-rescan MV and AV flow volume assessment by retrospective valve tracking shows strong reproducibility (ICCs ≥ 0.89, P ≤ 0.05, CVs = 12%), as well as by forward and backward particle tracing (ICCs ≥ 0.90, P ≤ 0.001, CVs ≤ 11%). Multicomponent particle tracing shows good scan-rescan reproducibility (ICCs ≥ 0.81, P ≤ 0.007, CVs ≤ 16%). LV in- and outflow assessment by 2D planimetry and 4D flow MRI with retrospective valve tracking and particle tracing show good in-scan consistency and strong scan-rescan reproducibility, which indicates that both 4D flow MRI methods are reliable and can be used clinically. 2 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:511-522. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in

  16. Segmentation-free direct tumor volume and metabolic activity estimation from PET scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghanaki, Saeid Asgari; Duggan, Noirin; Ma, Hillgan; Hou, Xinchi; Celler, Anna; Benard, Francois; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2018-01-01

    Tumor volume and metabolic activity are two robust imaging biomarkers for predicting early therapy response in F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), which is a modality to image the distribution of radiotracers and thereby observe functional processes in the body. To date, estimation of these two biomarkers requires a lesion segmentation step. While the segmentation methods requiring extensive user interaction have obvious limitations in terms of time and reproducibility, automatically estimating activity from segmentation, which involves integrating intensity values over the volume is also suboptimal, since PET is an inherently noisy modality. Although many semi-automatic segmentation based methods have been developed, in this paper, we introduce a method which completely eliminates the segmentation step and directly estimates the volume and activity of the lesions. We trained two parallel ensemble models using locally extracted 3D patches from phantom images to estimate the activity and volume, which are derivatives of other important quantification metrics such as standardized uptake value (SUV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). For validation, we used 54 clinical images from the QIN Head and Neck collection on The Cancer Imaging Archive, as well as a set of 55 PET scans of the Elliptical Lung-Spine Body Phantom™with different levels of noise, four different reconstruction methods, and three different background activities, namely; air, water, and hot background. In the validation on phantom images, we achieved relative absolute error (RAE) of 5.11 % ±3.5% and 5.7 % ±5.25% for volume and activity estimation, respectively, which represents improvements of over 20% and 6% respectively, compared with the best competing methods. From the validation performed using clinical images, we found that the proposed method is capable of obtaining almost the same level of agreement with a group of trained experts, as a single trained

  17. Deriving airborne laser scanning based computational canopy volume for forest biomass and allometry studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauhkonen, Jari; Næsset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje

    2014-10-01

    A computational canopy volume (CCV) based on airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is proposed to improve predictions of forest biomass and other related attributes like stem volume and basal area. An approach to derive the CCV based on computational geometry, topological connectivity and numerical optimization was tested with sparse-density, plot-level ALS data acquired from 40 field sample plots of 500-1000 m2 located in a boreal forest in Norway. The CCV had a high correspondence with the biomass attributes considered when derived from optimized filtrations, i.e. ordered sets of simplices belonging to the triangulations based on the point data. Coefficients of determination (R2) between the CCV and total above-ground biomass, canopy biomass, stem volume, and basal area were 0.88-0.89, 0.89, 0.83-0.97, and 0.88-0.92, respectively, depending on the applied filtration. The magnitude of the required filtration was found to increase according to an increasing basal area, which indicated a possibility to predict this magnitude by means of ALS-based height and density metrics. A simple prediction model provided CCVs which had R2 of 0.77-0.90 with the aforementioned forest attributes. The derived CCVs always produced complementary information and were mainly able to improve the predictions of forest biomass relative to models based on the height and density metrics, yet only by 0-1.9 percentage points in terms of relative root mean squared error. Possibilities to improve the CCVs by a further analysis of topological persistence are discussed.

  18. Breast volume estimation from systematic series of CT scans using the Cavalieri principle and 3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erić, Mirela; Anderla, Andraš; Stefanović, Darko; Drapšin, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative breast volume estimation is very important for the success of the breast surgery. In the present study, two different breast volume determination methods, Cavalieri principle and 3D reconstruction were compared. Consecutive sections were taken in slice thickness of 5 mm. Every 2nd breast section in a set of consecutive sections was selected. We marked breast tissue with blue line on each selected section, and so prepared CT scans used for breast volume estimation. The volumes of the 60 breasts were estimated using the Cavalieri principle and 3D reconstruction. The mean breast volume value was established to be 467.79 ± 188.90 cm(3) with Cavalieri method and 465.91 ± 191.41 cm(3) with 3D reconstruction. The mean CE for the estimates in this study was calculated as 0.25%. Skin-sparing volume was about 91.64% of the whole breast volume. Both methods are very accurate and have a strong linear association. Our results suggest that the calculation of breast volume or its part in vivo from systematic series of CT scans using the Cavalieri principle or 3D breast reconstruction is accurate enough to have a significant clinical benefit in planning reconstructive breast surgery. These methods can help the surgeon guide the choice of the most appropriate implant or/and flap preoperatively. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Airborne Laser Scanning of Forest Stem Volume in a Mountainous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Schadauer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Airborne laser scanning (ALS is an active remote sensing technique that uses the time-of-flight measurement principle to capture the three-dimensional structure of the earth’s surface with pulsed lasers that transmit nanosecond-long laser pulses with a high pulse repetition frequency. Over forested areas most of the laser pulses are reflected by the leaves and branches of the trees, but a certain fraction of the laser pulses reaches the forest floor through small gaps in the canopy. Thus it is possible to reconstruct both the three-dimensional structure of the forest canopy and the terrain surface. For the retrieval of quantitative forest parameters such as stem volume or biomass it is necessary to use models that combine ALS with inventory data. One approach is to use multiplicative regression models that are trained with local inventory data. This method has been widely applied over boreal forest regions, but so far little experience exists with applying this method for mapping alpine forest. In this study the transferability of this approach to a 128 km2 large mountainous region in Vorarlberg, Austria, was evaluated. For the calibration of the model, inventory data as operationally collected by Austrian foresters were used. Despite these inventory data are based on variable sample plot sizes, they could be used for mapping stem volume for the entire alpine study area. The coefficient of determination R2 was 0.85 and the root mean square error (RMSE 90.9 m3ha-1 (relative error of 21.4% which is comparable to results of ALS studies conducted over topographically less complex environments. Due to the increasing availability, ALS data could become an operational part of Austrian’s forest inventories.

  20. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging on an Automated Breast Volume Scanning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; Nasief, Haidy G; Kohn, Sarah; Milkowski, Andy; Clary, Tom; Barnes, Stephen; Barbone, Paul E; Hall, Timothy J

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasound elasticity imaging has demonstrated utility in breast imaging, but it is typically performed with handheld transducers and two-dimensional imaging. Two-dimensional (2D) elastography images tissue stiffness of only a plane and hence suffers from errors due to out-of-plane motion, whereas three-dimensional (3D) data acquisition and motion tracking can be used to track out-of-plane motion that is lost in 2D elastography systems. A commercially available automated breast volume scanning system that acquires 3D ultrasound data with precisely controlled elevational movement of the 1D array ultrasound transducer was employed in this study. A hybrid guided 3D motion-tracking algorithm was developed that first estimated the displacements in one plane using a modified quality-guided search method, and then performed an elevational guided-search for displacement estimation in adjacent planes. To assess the performance of the method, 3D radiofrequency echo data were acquired with this system from a phantom and from an in vivo human breast. For both experiments, the axial displacement fields were smooth and high cross-correlation coefficients were obtained in most of the tracking region. The motion-tracking performance of the new method was compared with a correlation-based exhaustive-search method. For all motion-tracking volume pairs, the average motion-compensated cross-correlation values obtained by the guided-search motion-tracking method were equivalent to those by the exhaustive-search method, and the computation time was about a factor of 10 lesser. Therefore, the proposed 3D ultrasound elasticity imaging method was a more efficient approach to produce a high quality of 3D ultrasound strain image.

  1. Does Tree Architectural Complexity Influence the Accuracy of Wood Volume Estimates of Single Young Trees by Terrestrial Laser Scanning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Hess

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of the wood volume or biomass of individual trees have gained considerable importance in recent years. The accuracy of wood volume estimation by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS point cloud data may differ between individual trees due to species-specific differences in tree architecture. We selected three common and ecologically important central European deciduous tree species, which differ considerably in tree architectural complexity in early ontogenetic stages: Acer pseudoplatanus (simple, Sorbus aucuparia (intermediate and Betula pendula (complex. We scanned six single young trees for each species (18 trees in total under optimal scan conditions (single tree stand, leafless state, four scanning positions, high resolution. TLS-based volume estimates were derived for the total tree as well as for the two compartments; trunk and branches, using a voxel-based bounding box method. These estimates were compared with highly accurate xyolmetric (water displacement volume measurements. Coefficients of determination between xylometric measurements and bounding box estimates were very high for total trees (R2adj = 0.99, trunks (R2adj = 0.99, and high for branches (R2adj = 0.78. The accuracy of estimations for total tree and trunk volume was highly similar among the three tree species. In contrast, significant differences were found for branch volume estimates: the accuracy was very high for Sorbus aucuparia, intermediate for Betula pendula, and low for Acer pseudoplatanus. A stepwise multiple regression showed that the accuracy of branch volume estimates was negatively related to the number of the first-order branches within diameter sizes of D ≤ 5 mm and crown surface area (R2adj = 0.61. We conclude that the accuracy in total tree and trunk volume estimates was not affected by the studied types of tree architectural complexity. The impact of the structural variability of branches and occlusion by branches was, thus, not as high as

  2. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.

  3. A New Sparse Representation Framework for Reconstruction of an Isotropic High Spatial Resolution MR Volume From Orthogonal Anisotropic Resolution Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuanyuan; Gholipour, Ali; He, Zhongshi; Warfield, Simon K

    2017-05-01

    In magnetic resonance (MR), hardware limitations, scan time constraints, and patient movement often result in the acquisition of anisotropic 3-D MR images with limited spatial resolution in the out-of-plane views. Our goal is to construct an isotropic high-resolution (HR) 3-D MR image through upsampling and fusion of orthogonal anisotropic input scans. We propose a multiframe super-resolution (SR) reconstruction technique based on sparse representation of MR images. Our proposed algorithm exploits the correspondence between the HR slices and the low-resolution (LR) sections of the orthogonal input scans as well as the self-similarity of each input scan to train pairs of overcomplete dictionaries that are used in a sparse-land local model to upsample the input scans. The upsampled images are then combined using wavelet fusion and error backprojection to reconstruct an image. Features are learned from the data and no extra training set is needed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm using simulated and clinical MR scans. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves promising results in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity image index, intensity profiles, and visualization of small structures obscured in the LR imaging process due to partial volume effects. Our novel SR algorithm outperforms the nonlocal means (NLM) method using self-similarity, NLM method using self-similarity and image prior, self-training dictionary learning-based SR method, averaging of upsampled scans, and the wavelet fusion method. Our SR algorithm can reduce through-plane partial volume artifact by combining multiple orthogonal MR scans, and thus can potentially improve medical image analysis, research, and clinical diagnosis.

  4. A scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with continuous bias modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Edward; Yin, Xing; Waldeck, David H; Wierzbinski, Emil

    2015-09-28

    Single molecule conductance measurements on 1,8-octanedithiol were performed using the scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with an externally controlled modulation of the bias voltage. Application of an AC voltage is shown to improve the signal to noise ratio of low current (low conductance) measurements as compared to the DC bias method. The experimental results show that the current response of the molecule(s) trapped in the junction and the solvent media to the bias modulation can be qualitatively different. A model RC circuit which accommodates both the molecule and the solvent is proposed to analyze the data and extract a conductance for the molecule.

  5. Compact hadron driver for cancer therapies using continuous energy sweep scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Kwee Wah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A design of a compact hadron driver for future cancer therapies based on the induction synchrotron concept is presented. To realize a slow extraction technique in a fast-cycling synchrotron, which allows energy sweep beam scanning, a zero momentum-dispersion D(s region and a high flat D(s region are necessary. The proposed design meets both requirements. The lattice has two-fold symmetry with a circumference of 52.8 m, a 2-m dispersion-free straight section, and a 3-m-long large flat dispersion straight section. Assuming a 1.5-T bending magnet, the ring can deliver heavy ions (200  MeV/u at 10 Hz. A beam fraction is dropped from the barrier bucket at the desired timing, and the increasing negative momentum deviation of this beam fraction becomes large enough for the fraction to fall in the electrostatic septum extraction gap, which is placed at the large D(s region. The programmed energy sweep extraction enables scanning beam irradiation on a cancer site in depth without an energy degrader, avoiding the production of secondary particles and the degradation of emittance. Details of the lattice parameters and computer simulations for slow extraction are discussed. An example extraction scenario is presented. Qualities of the spilled beam such as emittance and momentum spread are discussed, as well as necessary functions and parameters required for the extraction system.

  6. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  7. Mode shape reconstruction of an impulse excited structure using continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometer and empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyong, Yongsoo; Kim, Daesung; Dayou, Jedol; Park, Kyihwan; Wang, Semyung

    2008-07-01

    For vibration testing, discrete types of scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) have been developed and have proven to be very useful. For complex structures, however, SLDV takes considerable time to scan the surface of structures and require large amounts of data storage. To overcome these problems, a continuous scan was introduced as an alternative. In this continuous method, the Chebyshev demodulation (or polynomial) technique and the Hilbert transform approach have been used for mode shape reconstruction with harmonic excitation. As an alternative, in this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform approach is applied to impact excitation cases in terms of a numerical approach, where the vibration of the tested structure is modeled using impulse response functions. In order to verify this technique, a clamped-clamped beam was chosen as the test rig in the numerical simulation and real experiment. This paper shows that with additional innovative steps of using ideal bandpass filters and nodal point determination in the postprocessing, the Hilbert-Huang transformation can be used to create a better mode shape reconstruction even in the impact excitation case.

  8. Sensor for In-Motion Continuous 3D Shape Measurement Based on Dual Line-Scan Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of three-dimensional surface data plays an increasingly important role in the industrial sector. Numerous 3D shape measurement techniques have been developed. However, there are still limitations and challenges in fast measurement of large-scale objects or high-speed moving objects. The innovative line scan technology opens up new potentialities owing to the ultra-high resolution and line rate. To this end, a sensor for in-motion continuous 3D shape measurement based on dual line-scan cameras is presented. In this paper, the principle and structure of the sensor are investigated. The image matching strategy is addressed and the matching error is analyzed. The sensor has been verified by experiments and high-quality results are obtained.

  9. Characterization of wind velocities in the upstream induction zone of a wind turbine using scanning continuous-wave lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simley, Eric; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2016-01-01

    Technical University’s Risø campus is investigated using a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system. Three short-range continuous-wave “WindScanner” lidars are positioned in the field around the V27 turbine allowing detection of all three components of the wind velocity vectors within...... in the induction zone are studied by more rapidly scanning along individual lines perpendicular to the rotor at different radial distances from the hub. The mean velocity measurements reveal that the longitudinal velocity reductions become greater closer to the rotor plane and closer to the center of the rotor...... 9% and 3% of the freestream longitudinal wind speed were measured for the abovementioned high and low CP values, respectively. Turbulence statistics, calculated using 2.5-min time series, suggest that the standard deviation of the longitudinal wind component decreases close to the rotor, while...

  10. Effect of View, Scan Orientation and Analysis Volume on Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS) Based Textural Analysis of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong; Oravec, Daniel; Divine, George W; Flynn, Michael J; Yeni, Yener N

    2017-05-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) derived textural parameters of human vertebral cancellous bone have been previously correlated to the finite element (FE) stiffness and 3D microstructure. The objective of this study was to optimize scanning configuration and use of multiple image slices in the analysis, so that FE stiffness prediction using DTS could be maximized. Forty vertebrae (T6, T8, T11, and L3) from ten cadavers (63-90 years) were scanned using microCT to obtain trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and FE stiffness. The vertebrae were then scanned using DTS anteroposteriorly (AP) and laterally (LM) while aligned axially (0°), transversely (90°) or obliquely (23°) to the superior-inferior axis of the vertebrae. From the serial DTS images, fractal dimension (FD), mean intercept length (MIL) and line fraction deviation (LFD) parameters were obtained from a 2D-single mid-stack location and 3D-multi-image stack. The DTS derived textural parameters were then correlated with FE stiffness using linear regression models within each scanning orientation. 3D-multi-image stack models obtained from Transverse-LM scanning orientation (90°) were most explanatory regardless of accounting for the effects of BV/TV. Therefore, DTS scanning perpendicular to the axis of the spine in an LM view is the preferred configuration for prediction of vertebral cancellous bone stiffness.

  11. Damage identification of beam structures using free response shapes obtained by use of a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. F.; Chen, Da-Ming; Zhu, W. D.

    2017-08-01

    Spatially dense operating deflection shapes and mode shapes can be rapidly obtained by use of a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (CSLDV) system, which sweeps its laser spot over a vibrating structure surface. This paper introduces a new type of vibration shapes called a free response shape (FRS) that can be obtained by use of a CSLDV system, and a new damage identification methodology using FRSs is developed for beam structures. An analytical expression of FRSs of a damped beam structure is derived, and FRSs from the analytical expression compare well with those from a finite element model. In the damage identification methodology, a free-response damage index (FRDI) is proposed, and damage regions can be identified near neighborhoods with consistently high values of FRDIs associated with different modes; an auxiliary FRDI is defined to assist identification of the neighborhoods. A FRDI associated with a mode consists of differences between curvatures of FRSs associated with the mode in a number of half-scan periods of a CSLDV system and those from polynomials that fit the FRSs with properly determined orders. A convergence index is proposed to determine the proper order of a polynomial fit. One advantage of the methodology is that the FRDI does not require any baseline information of an undamaged beam structure, if it is geometrically smooth and made of materials that have no stiffness and mass discontinuities. Another advantage is that FRDIs associated with multiple modes can be obtained using free response of a beam structure measured by a CSLDV system in one scan. The number of half-scan periods for calculation of the FRDI associated with a mode can be determined by use of the short-time Fourier transform. The proposed methodology was numerically and experimentally applied to identify damage in beam structures; effects of the scan frequency of a CSLDV system on qualities of obtained FRSs were experimentally investigated.

  12. Regional Volume Characteristics of the Preterm Infant Receiving First Intention Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Risha; Davis, Peter G; Tingay, David G

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether applying nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) using systematic changes in continuous distending pressure (CDP) results in a quasi-static pressure-volume relationship in very preterm infants receiving first intention CPAP in the first 12-18 hours of life. Twenty infants at Poes) was measured as a proxy for intrapleural pressure to determine transpulmonary pressure (Ptp). Overall, there was a relationship between Ptp and global ΔZEEV representing the pressure-volume relationship in the lungs. There were regional variations in ΔZEEV, with 13 infants exhibiting hysteresis with the greatest gains in EEV and tidal volume in the dependent lung with no hemodynamic compromise. Seven infants did not demonstrate hysteresis during decremental CDP changes. It was possible to define a pressure-volume relationship of the lung and demonstrate reversal of atelectasis by systematically manipulating CDP in most very preterm infants with mild RDS. This suggests that CDP manipulation can be used to optimize the volume state of the preterm lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Overbeaming and overlapping of volume-scan CT with tube current modulation in a 320-detector row CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Lan; Chen, Yan-Shi; Lai, Nan-Ku; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Tsai, Hui-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of volume scan tube current modulation (VS-ATCM) with adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR3D) technique in abdomen CT examinations. We scanned an elliptical cone-shaped phantom utilizing AIDR3D technique combined with VS-ATCM mode in a 320-detector row CT scanner. The image noise distributions with conventional filtered back-projction (FBP) technique and those with AIDR3D technique were compared. The radiation dose profile and tube current time product (mAs) in three noise levels of VS-ATCM modes were compared. The radiation beam profiles of five preset scan lengths were measured using Gafchromic film strips to assess the effects of overbeaming and everlapping. The results indicated that the image noises with AIDR3D technique was 13-74% lower than those in FBP technique. The mAs distributions can be a prediction for various abdominal sizes when undergoing a VS-ATCM mode scan. Patients can receive the radiation dose of overbeaming and overlapping during the VS-ATCM mode scans.

  14. Continuous nasogastric tube feeding: monitoring by combined use of refractometry and traditional gastric residual volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W-K; McClave, S-A; Chao, Y-C

    2004-02-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs) is insensitive and cannot distinguish retained enteral formula from the large volume of endogenous secretions. We designed this prospective study to determine whether refractometry and Brix value (BV) measurements could be used to monitor gastric emptying and tolerance in patients receiving continuous enteral feeding. Thirty-six patients on continuous nasogastric tube feeding were divided into two groups; patients with lower GRVs (75 ml) in Group 2. Upon entry, all gastric contents were aspirated, the volume was recorded (Asp GRV), BV measurements were made by refractometry, and then the contents were reinstilled but diluted with 30 ml additional water. Finally, a small amount was reaspirated and repeat BV measurements were made. Three hours later, the entire procedure was repeated a second time. The BV ratio, calculated (Cal) GRV, and volume of formula remaining were calculated by derived equations. Mean BV ratios were significantly higher for those patients in Group 2 compared to those in Group 1. All but one of the 22 patients (95%) in Group 1 had a volume of formula remaining in the stomach estimated on both measurements to be less than the hourly infusion rate (all these patients had BV ratios 70%). Three of the Group 2 patients (21%) whose initial measurement showed evidence for retention of formula, improved on repeat follow-up measurement assuring adequate gastric emptying. The remaining five patients from Group 2 (35%) had a volume of formula remaining that was less than the hourly infusion rate on both measurements. The pattern of Asp GRVs and serial pre- and post-dilution BVs failed to differentiate these patients in Group 2 with potential emptying problems from those with sufficient gastric emptying. Refractometry and measurement of the BV may improve the clinical utilization of GRVs, by its ability to identify the component of formula within gastric contents and track changes in that component related

  15. Validation of a continuous penile blood-flow measurement by pulse-volume-plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, P; Barbe, R; Gally, M

    2002-04-01

    Today, in the assessment of cavernous artery blood-flow, the most commonly used technique is Doppler ultrasound velocimetry (continuous, pulsed, color-coded or power), which is often considered as the gold standard. Plethysmographic techniques and radioactive tracers have been widely used for the assessment of global penis flow variations but are not adequate for continuous blood-flow measurement. A new pulse-volume plethysmographic (PVP) device using a water-filled penile cuff was employed to assess continuous blood-flow measurement in the penis. Simultaneously Doppler velocity was recorded and served as a gold standard. A penile water-cuff is connected through a pressure tube to a three-way tap. The pulse-volume changes in the penile water-cuff are measured by means of a latex membrane placed over one of the three-way taps. The displacements of the latex are recorded by a photoplethysmograph. The third tap is connected to a 5 l perfusion bag placed 30 cm above the penis so as to maintain constant pressure in the whole device whatever the penis volume. Twenty-four volunteers were tested. The Doppler velocity signal and pulse volume of cavernous arteries were measured simultaneously after PGE1 intra-cavernous injection. Blood-flow variations were induced by increasing penis artery compression with a second penile water-cuff used as a tourniquet fitted onto the penis root, and the pressure of which could be modified by a water-filled syringe. The amplitude of the plethysmographic pulse-volume signal and the area under the Doppler velocity signal were correlated. The inter-patient (n=24) correlation ranged from 0.455 to 0.904, with a mean correlation of 0.704 and P<0.0001. PVP measurement by a water-filled cuff was validated by ultrasound velocimetry. This new continuous, non-invasive and easy-to-use technique enables physiological and physiopathological flow-measurement during sleep, under visual sexual stimulation (VSS), or following artificial erection

  16. Continuous positive airway pressure effects on regional lung aeration in patients with COPD: a high-resolution CT scan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Marcelo A; Fortaleza, Simone C B; Alves-de-Almeida, Mirizana; Winkeler, Georgia F P; Reis, Ricardo C; Felix, John H S; Lima, José W O; Pereira, Eanes D B

    2010-08-01

    The effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the lung parenchyma of patients with COPD, to our knowledge, have never been assessed by high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning. HRCT scans were obtained at the apex, hilum, and basis of the lungs at functional residual capacity while on spontaneous respiration and at the end of CPAP trials of 5 cm water (H(2)O), 10 cm H(2)O, and 15 cm H(2)O in 11 stable patients with COPD and eight healthy volunteers. Lung aeration was assessed by quantitative density parameters and by qualitative analysis of each CT image after processing by means of a density-based color-mask computational algorithm. The quantitative parameters were density histograms, the relative area of the lungs with attenuation values lung aeration in both groups, but in some patients with COPD, CPAP deflated some regions of the lungs. CPAP levels of 10 cm H(2)O and 15 cm H(2)O increased the emphysematous zones in all sectors of the lungs, including dorsal and apical regions in patients with COPD compared to little hyperaeration predominantly in the ventral areas in healthy volunteers. Nasal CPAP causes variable effects on regional lung aeration in relation to the applied pressure and the regional distribution of emphysema in patients with COPD. Low pressure levels may cause regional lung deflation in some patients. High levels increase the emphysematous areas wherever they are located inside the lungs.

  17. Femtosecond direct-writing of low-loss fiber Bragg gratings using a continuous core-scanning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Krämer, Ria G; Nolte, Stefan; Withford, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    We report the inscription of low-loss fiber Bragg gratings using focused femtosecond (fs) pulses and a continuous core-scanning technique. This direct-write technique produces high-fidelity Type I-IR gratings that share the inherent advantages of other direct-write methods, such as the point-by-point (PbP) method, for which the grating period is a free parameter. However, here we demonstrate an order of magnitude improvement in scattering loss compared to PbP gratings, to a level comparable with that of phase-mask-based fs inscription. A first-order grating was inscribed in standard telecommunications fiber with -49 dB transmission at the Bragg wavelength and 0.1 dB broadband scattering loss. Potential application of these gratings to large-mode-area fibers and chirped grating fabrication are highlighted.

  18. Effect of Scanning and Reconstruction Parameters on Three Dimensional Volume and CT Value Measurement of Pulmonary Nodules: A Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datong SU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The computed tomography (CT follow-up of indeterminate pulmonary nodules aiming to evaluate the change of the volume and CT value is the common strategy in clinic. The CT dose needs to considered on serious CT scans in addition to the measurement accuracy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the precision of pulmonary nodule volumetric measurement and CT value measurement with various tube currents and reconstruction algorithms in a phantom study with dual-energy CT. Methods A chest phantom containing 9 artificial spherical solid nodules with known diameter (D=2.5 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm and density (-100 HU, 60 HU and 100 HU was scanned using a 64-row detector CT canner at 120 Kilovolt & various currents (10 mA, 20 mA, 50 mA, 80 mA,100 mA, 150 mA and 350 mA. Raw data were reconstructed with filtered back projection and three levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm (FBP, ASIR; 30%, 50% and 80%. Automatic volumetric measurements were performed using commercially available software. The relative volume error (RVE and the absolute attenuation error (AAE between the software measures and the reference-standard were calculated. Analyses of the variance were performed to evaluate the effect of reconstruction methods, different scan parameters, nodule size and attenuation on the RPE. Results The software substantially overestimated the very small (D=2.5 mm nodule's volume [mean RVE: (100.8%±28%] and underestimated it attenuation [mean AAE: (-756±80 HU]. The mean RVEs of nodule with diameter as 5 mm and 10 mm were small [(-0.9%±1.1% vs (0.9%±1.4%], however, the mean AAEs [(-243±26 HU vs (-129±7 HU] were large. The ANOVA analysis for repeated measurements showed that different tube current and reconstruction algorithm had no significant effect on the volumetric measurements for nodules with diameter of 5 mm and 10 mm (F=5.60, P=0.10 vs F=11.13, P=0.08, but significant effects on the measurement of CT

  19. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Lindsey, Laurence F; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2) (65.54 µm per side) at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) system, which were only 66.59 µm(2) (8.160 µm per side) at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2) and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm). Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems.

  20. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kuwajima

    Full Text Available Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2 (65.54 µm per side at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM system, which were only 66.59 µm(2 (8.160 µm per side at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2 and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm. Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems.

  1. Clinical application of calculated split renal volume using computed tomography-based renal volumetry after partial nephrectomy: Correlation with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Park, Young Joo; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ha, Hong Koo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical application of computed tomography-based measurement of renal cortical volume and split renal volume as a single tool to assess the anatomy and renal function in patients with renal tumors before and after partial nephrectomy, and to compare the findings with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. The data of 51 patients with a unilateral renal tumor managed by partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The renal cortical volume of tumor-bearing and contralateral kidneys was measured using ImageJ software. Split estimated glomerular filtration rate and split renal volume calculated using this renal cortical volume were compared with the split renal function measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. A strong correlation between split renal function and split renal volume of the tumor-bearing kidney was observed before and after surgery (r = 0.89, P < 0.001 and r = 0.94, P < 0.001). The preoperative and postoperative split estimated glomerular filtration rate of the operated kidney showed a moderate correlation with split renal function (r = 0.39, P = 0.004 and r = 0.49, P < 0.001). The correlation between reductions in split renal function and split renal volume of the operated kidney (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) was stronger than that between split renal function and percent reduction in split estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.64, P < 0.001). The split renal volume calculated using computed tomography-based renal volumetry had a strong correlation with the split renal function measured using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. Computed tomography-based split renal volume measurement before and after partial nephrectomy can be used as a single modality for anatomical and functional assessment of the tumor-bearing kidney. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. SU-E-T-562: Scanned Percent Depth Dose Curve Discrepancy for Photon Beams with Physical Wedge in Place (Varian IX) Using Different Sensitive Volume Ion Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H; Sarkar, V; Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Huang, Y; Szegedi, M; Huang, L; Salter, B [University Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate and report the discrepancy of scanned percent depth dose (PDD) for photon beams with physical wedge in place when using ion chambers with different sensitive volumes. Methods/Materials: PDD curves of open fields and physical wedged fields (15, 30, 45, and 60 degree wedge) were scanned for photon beams (6MV and 10MV, Varian iX) with field size of 5x5 and 10x10 cm using three common scanning chambers with different sensitive volumes - PTW30013 (0.6cm3), PTW23323 (0.1cm3) and Exradin A16 (0.007cm3). The scanning system software used was OmniPro version 6.2, and the scanning water tank was the Scanditronix Wellhoffer RFA 300.The PDD curves from the three chambers were compared. Results: Scanned PDD curves of the same energy beams for open fields were almost identical between three chambers, but the wedged fields showed non-trivial differences. The largest differences were observed between chamber PTW30013 and Exradin A16. The differences increased as physical wedge angle increased. The differences also increased with depth, and were more pronounced for 6MV beam. Similar patterns were shown for both 5x5 and 10x10 cm field sizes. For open fields, all PDD values agreed with each other within 1% at 10cm depth and within 1.62% at 20 cm depth. For wedged fields, the difference of PDD values between PTW30013 and A16 reached 4.09% at 10cm depth, and 5.97% at 20 cm depth for 6MV with 60 degree physical wedge. Conclusion: We observed a significant difference in scanned PDD curves of photon beams with physical wedge in place obtained when using different sensitive volume ion chambers. The PDD curves scanned with the smallest sensitive volume ion chamber showed significant difference from larger chamber results, beyond 10cm depth. We believe this to be caused by varying response to beam hardening by the wedges.

  3. [Continuous low volume infusion of hydroxyethyl starch as an option of water balance correction in patients with gestosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurova, A A; Ekstrem, A V; Popov, A S

    2010-01-01

    The method of long-term continuous low-volume infusion of hydroxyethyl starch (low-flow low volume correction HES) is administrated for correction of fluid balance disorders. The method is aimed to improve the outcomes in preeclamsia patients with multiple organ dysfunction and failure, as the most severe manifestation of system inflammatory response syndrome. After 4 days of the intensive care with application of the developed method in patients with preeclamsia the total body water level is decreased to the normal physiological level, the oedemas are significantly reduced or ceased, the haemodynamics stabilizes, which leads to the reduce of neurologic symptoms. The suggested method of low-flow low volume correction HES, in dose of 15 ml/kg/day is a significant addition to the existing methods of homeostasis and preeclampsia correction.

  4. Influence of 320-detector-row volume scanning and AAPM report 111 CT dosimetry metrics on size-specific dose estimate: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Tomonobu; Koyama, Shuji; Kinomura, Yutaka; Ida, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Masanao

    2016-09-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group 204 has recommended the use of size-dependent conversion factors to calculate size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) values from volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) values. However, these conversion factors do not consider the effects of 320-detector-row volume computed tomography (CT) examinations or the new CT dosimetry metrics proposed by AAPM task group 111. This study aims to investigate the influence of these examinations and metrics on the conversion factors reported by AAPM task group 204, using Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations were performed modelling a Toshiba Aquilion ONE CT scanner, in order to compute dose values in water for cylindrical phantoms with 8-40-cm diameters at 2-cm intervals for each scanning parameter (tube voltage, bow-tie filter, longitudinal beam width). Then, the conversion factors were obtained by applying exponential regression analysis between the dose values for a given phantom diameter and the phantom diameter combined with various scanning parameters. The conversion factors for each scanning method (helical, axial, or volume scanning) and CT dosimetry method (i.e., the CTDI100 method or the AAPM task group 111 method) were in agreement with those reported by AAPM task group 204, within a percentage error of 14.2 % for phantom diameters ≥11.2 cm. The results obtained in this study indicate that the conversion factors previously presented by AAPM task group 204 can be used to provide appropriate SSDE values for 320-detector-row volume CT examinations and the CT dosimetry metrics proposed by the AAPM task group 111.

  5. How will you need me, how will you read me, when I'm 64 (or more!)?: volume computed tomographic scanning and information overload in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chason, David P; Anderson, Jon A; Stephens, Jason S; Suss, Richard A; Guild, Jeffrey B; Blackburn, Timothy J; Champine, Julie G; Lane, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scanning technology now employs up to 320 detector rows of 0.5-mm width and allows rapid acquisition of isotropic volume datasets over the entire body. Data from a single CT acquisition can be reconstructed into image series that would formerly have required multiple acquisitions. Small isotropic voxels permit scan parameters to be general while reconstruction algorithms remain specific to anatomy. While this results in more efficient operation in the Emergency Department, it necessitates new ways of displaying, interpreting, and archiving the information. Critical decisions include how much of the patient to scan and how to time contrast injections when imaging multiple organs. These choices must be made in light of dose considerations to the patient and the general population of patients. The technical basis of high-density CT scanning is discussed, including detector configurations and reconstruction techniques. Volumetric scanning in the Emergency Department can improve patient care but requires a change of technical habits. 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying the eroded volume of mercury-contaminated sediment using terrestrial laser scanning at Stocking Flat, Deer Creek, Nevada County, California, 2010–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, James F.; Alpers, Charles N.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Bond, Sandra

    2016-07-28

    High-resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar), also known as terrestrial laser scanning, was used to quantify the volume of mercury-contaminated sediment eroded from a stream cutbank at Stocking Flat along Deer Creek in the Sierra Nevada foothills, about 3 kilometers west of Nevada City, California. Terrestrial laser scanning was used to collect sub-centimeter, three-dimensional images of the complex cutbank surface, which could not be mapped non-destructively or in sufficient detail with traditional surveying techniques.The stream cutbank, which is approximately 50 meters long and 8 meters high, was surveyed on four occasions: December 1, 2010; January 20, 2011; May 12, 2011; and February 4, 2013. Volumetric changes were determined between the sequential, three-dimensional lidar surveys. Volume was calculated by two methods, and the average value is reported. Between the first and second surveys (December 1, 2010, to January 20, 2011), a volume of 143 plus or minus 15 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by Deer Creek. Between the second and third surveys (January 20, 2011, to May 12, 2011), a volume of 207 plus or minus 24 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by the stream. Total volumetric change during the winter and spring of 2010–11 was 350 plus or minus 28 cubic meters. Between the third and fourth surveys (May 12, 2011, to February 4, 2013), the differencing of the three-dimensional lidar data indicated that a volume of 18 plus or minus 10 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank. The total volume of sediment eroded from the cutbank between the first and fourth surveys was 368 plus or minus 30 cubic meters.

  7. Portable continuous flow centrifugation and method 1623 for monitoring of waterborne protozoa from large volumes of various water matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, U; Tzipori, S

    2006-06-01

    The aims of this study were to validate a portable continuous flow centrifuge (PCFC) as an alternative concentration step of US-EPA Method 1623 and to demonstrate it's efficacy for recovery of low numbers of protozoa from large volumes of various water matrices. Recoveries of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia intestinalis cysts and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores spiked into 10-1000 l volumes of various water matrices were evaluated during in-house and collaborative trials. Spiked protozoa were either approved standards or diluted stock samples enumerated according to USEPA Method 1623. Cryptosporidium recoveries exceeded method 1623 criteria and substantially high recoveries were observed for Giardia and E. intestinalis. Portable continuous flow centrifuge methodology exceeded method 1623 acceptance criteria for Cryptosporidium and could be easily adopted for other protozoa. The PCFC could be adopted as an alternative user-friendly concentration method for Cryptosporidium and for monitoring of large volumes of source and tap water for accidental or deliberate contamination with protozoa and potentially with other enteric pathogens. It is anticipated that PCFC would also be equal or superior to filtration for protozoa monitoring in wastewater and effluents.

  8. Quantitative analysis of continuous intravenous infusions in pediatric anesthesia: safety implications of dead volume, flow rates, and fluid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haobo; Lovich, Mark A; Peterfreund, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of continuous pediatric drug infusions. The dynamics of drug delivery by continuous infusion to pediatric patients have not been systematically examined. This study extends previously described analytic models to propofol and remifentanil delivery, focusing on infants and toddlers. We postulated that infusion system dead volume, and drug and carrier flow rates, significantly influence drug delivery. We studied effects of patient weight, infusion system dead volume, drug and carrier flow rates, along with drug stock concentration and dose, on propofol and remifentanil delivery to the circulation. We calculated the drug mass available for inadvertent bolus in the dead volume, the volume of fluid supplied by drug infusions, and model-based estimates of the range of lag times to achieve a targeted steady-state rate of drug delivery. The drug mass in the dead volume at steady state increased with dead volume size and drug dose. For infants, this drug mass could exceed 100% of commonly used loading doses. Predicted lag times to steady state depend on patient size, fluid flow rates, and the mixing behavior of the drug entering the main fluid pathway. Neonates have the longest lag times to achieve steady state. Fluid quantities delivered by drug infusions increase with drug flow rate and can represent a large fraction of estimated maintenance fluid requirements. Fluid delivery increases if stock drug concentrations are diluted. These relationships were qualitatively similar for propofol and remifentanil. Traditional studies focus on drug disposition once a drug enters the circulation. Our analysis shows the potential importance of factors influencing drug delivery to the patient's circulation, focusing on propofol and remifentanil administration to small patients. The drug mass available for inadvertent bolus residing in the reservoir of the dead volume at steady state may be large and clinically relevant. Lag times to achieve steady

  9. Combined use of positron emission tomography and volume doubling time in lung cancer screening with low-dose CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, H; Dirksen, A; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2011-01-01

    In lung cancer screening the ability to distinguish malignant from benign nodules is a key issue. This study evaluates the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) and volume doubling time (VDT) to discriminate between benign and malignant nodules....

  10. Combined use of positron emission tomography and volume doubling time in lung cancer screening with low-dose CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, H; Dirksen, A; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2011-01-01

    In lung cancer screening the ability to distinguish malignant from benign nodules is a key issue. This study evaluates the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) and volume doubling time (VDT) to discriminate between benign and malignant nodules.......In lung cancer screening the ability to distinguish malignant from benign nodules is a key issue. This study evaluates the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) and volume doubling time (VDT) to discriminate between benign and malignant nodules....

  11. Examination of forensic entomology evidence using computed tomography scanning: case studies and refinement of techniques for estimating maggot mass volumes in bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan; Archer, Melanie; Leigh-Shaw, Lyndie; Pais, Mike; O'Donnell, Chris; Wallman, James

    2012-09-01

    A new technique has recently been developed for estimating the volume of maggot masses on deceased persons using post-mortem CT scans. This allows volume to be measured non-invasively and factored into maggot mass temperature calculations for both casework and research. Examination of admission scans also allows exploration of entomological evidence in anatomical areas not usually exposed by autopsy (e.g. nasal cavities and facial sinuses), and before autopsy disrupts the maggot distribution on a body. This paper expands on work already completed by providing the x-ray attenuation coefficient by way of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for various maggot species, maggot masses and human tissue adjacent to masses. Specifically, this study looked at the HU values for four forensically important blowfly larvae: Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata, Calliphora stygia and C. vicina. The Calliphora species had significantly lower HU values than the Lucilia species. This might be explained by histological analysis, which revealed a non-significant trend, suggesting that Calliphora maggots have a higher fat content than the Lucilia maggots. It is apparent that the variation in the x-ray attenuation coefficient usually precludes its use as a tool for delineating the maggot mass from human tissue and that morphology is the dominant method for delineating a mass. This paper also includes three case studies, which reveal different applications for interpreting entomological evidence using post-mortem CT scans.

  12. Environmental, scanning electron and optical microscope image analysis software for determining volume and occupied area of solid-state fermentation fungal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a software for the estimation of the occupied area and volume of fungal cultures. This software was developed using a Matlab platform and allows analysis of high-definition images from optical, electronic or atomic force microscopes. In a first step, a single hypha grown on potato dextrose agar was monitored using optical microscopy to estimate the change in occupied area and volume. Weight measurements were carried out to compare them with the estimated volume, revealing a slight difference of less than 1.5%. Similarly, samples from two different solid-state fermentation cultures were analyzed using images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an environmental SEM (ESEM). Occupied area and volume were calculated for both samples, and the results obtained were correlated with the dry weight of the cultures. The difference between the estimated volume ratio and the dry weight ratio of the two cultures showed a difference of 10%. Therefore, this software is a promising non-invasive technique to determine fungal biomass in solid-state cultures.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of brain perfusion and labeling efficiency in a single pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhensen; Zhao, Xihai; Zhang, Xingxing; Guo, Rui; Teeuwisse, Wouter M; Zhang, Bida; Koken, Peter; Smink, Jouke; Yuan, Chun; van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-07-24

    The aim of this study was to propose, optimize, and validate a pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) sequence for simultaneous measurement of brain perfusion and labeling efficiency. The proposed sequence incorporates the labeling efficiency measurement into the postlabeling delay period of a conventional perfusion pCASL sequence by using the time-encoding approach. In vivo validation experiments were performed on nine young subjects by comparing it to separate perfusion and labeling efficiency sequences. Sensitivity of the proposed combined sequence for measuring labeling efficiency changes was further addressed by varying the flip angles of the pCASL labeling radiofrequency pulses. The proposed combined sequence decreased the perfusion signal by ∼4% and a lower labeling efficiency (by ∼10%) was found as compared to the separate sequences. However, the temporal signal-noise-ratio of the perfusion signal remained unchanged. When the pCASL flip angle was decreased to a suboptimal setting, a strong correlation was found between the combined and the separate sequences for the relative change in pCASL perfusion signal as well as for the relative change in labeling efficiency. High correlation was also observed between relative changes in perfusion signal and the measured labeling efficiencies. The proposed sequence allows simultaneous measurement of brain perfusion and labeling efficiency with high time-efficiency at the price of only a small compromise in measurement accuracy. The additional labeling efficiency measurement can be used to facilitate qualitative interpretation of pCASL perfusion images. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Assessment of glioma response to radiotherapy using 3D pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling and 3D segmented volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Jianrui; Diao, Qiang; Lin, YuanKai; Zhang, Jun; Li, Lin; Yang, Gang; Fang, Xiaokun; Li, Xie; Chen, YingQi; Zheng, Ling, E-mail: lingzheng1989@yeah.net; Lu, Guangming, E-mail: guangminglu1905@163.com

    2016-11-15

    Background: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, in some cases, radiotherapy may be the preferred treatment option especially for elderly people who cannot endure surgery. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on glioma. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MR imaging technique that allows for a quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. Tumor volume is still an important determinant for evaluating treatment response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the tumor perfusion parameters and tumor volume and assess the effects of radiotherapy on glioma using pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) technique. Methods: 35 patients with gliomas, histologically classified as low-grade group (n = 16) and high-grade group (n = 19), treated with radiotherapy only or before using other therapies were included in this study. MR examinations, including T1 weighted image and pcASL, were performed before and 4, 8, 12, 16 weeks after radiotherapy. Regional CBF of normal tissue, mean tumor blood flow (TBF{sub mean}), maximum tumor blood flow (TBF{sub max}), and tumor volume were evaluated at each time point. Both the percentage change in CBF (CBF ratio), TBF{sub mean} (TBF{sub mean} ratio), TBF{sub max} (TBF{sub max} ratio) and the percentage change in tumor volume (volume ratio) were calculated using values obtained before and after radiotherapy. The correlation between the volume ratio and CBF ratio, TBF{sub mean} ratio, TBF{sub max} ratio was assessed using linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation. Results: The TBF{sub mean} and TBF{sub max} of high-grade gliomas were significantly higher than that of low-grade group. In high-grade group, a strong correlation was demonstrated between the tumor volume and the TBF{sub max} before radiotherapy (R{sup 2} = 0.35, r{sub s} = 0.59, p < 0.05). There was also a significant correlation between the TBF

  15. Effect of continuous oxygen insufflation on induced-gastric air volume during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nicolas; Voiglio, Eric J; Rerbal, Djamila; Jost, Daniel; Dubien, Pierre-Yves; Lanoe, Vincent; Dhers, Marion; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Plaisance, Patrick; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the volume of gas insufflated in the stomach with continuous external chest compressions plus continuous oxygen insufflation (C-CPR) versus standard-CPR (S-CPR) which alternates external chest compressions and synchronized positive insufflations through a bag-valve-mask with a 30/2 ratio. The secondary objective was to compare upper airway pressures (intratracheal and intramask) generated during continuous oxygen insufflation. Open, prospective, randomized, cross over, comparative, non-inferiority study. CPR was performed for six minutes periods, on seven fresh human corpses, with C-CPR or S-CPR in a random order. Before each CPR period, the stomach was completely emptied through the gastrostomy tube, and then 200 mL of air was injected in the stomach to be sure it was not collapsed. The gastric volume was measured at the end of each intervention. Intratracheal and intramask pressures were recorded continuously during C-CPR. Results were provided as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analyses were done with a paired student t test. Induced-gastric inflation was lower with C-CPR (221 ± 130 mL) than with S-CPR (5401 ± 2208 mL, p = 0.001). Throughout C-CPR, no difference was found between the intratracheal and intramask pressures (4.4 ± 1.2; 4.0 ± 0.8 cmH2O, respectively, p = 0.45). This human cadaver study demonstrates that continuous oxygen insufflation induced less gastric inflation than intermittent insufflation during CPR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Programmers manual for IOSYM: an input-oriented simulation language for continuous systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.

    1981-06-01

    IOSYM is an extension of the GASP IV simulation language. It permits systems which are sequences of continuous processes to be modeled graphically. Normally the system can be described by data input only. The language permits stochastic sequencing and termination criteria for processes and allows crossing conditions for ending operations that are more general than GASP IV. Extensive capability exists for conditional branching and logical modification of the network. IOSYM has been used to model the cost of geothermal drilling where the various costly processes of drilling are represented by IOSYM operations. The language is much more general, however, since it retains more of GASP IV's discrete event capabilities and permits easy modeling of continuous processes.

  17. Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Integrated Network Architecture Definition Document (ADD). Volume 1; Executive Summary; Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Badri A.; Schier, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The SCaN Program has defined an integrated network architecture that fully meets the Administrator s mandate to the Program, and will result in a NASA infrastructure capable of providing the needed and enabling communications services to future space missions. The integrated network architecture will increase SCaN operational efficiency and interoperability through standardization, commonality and technology infusion. It will enable NASA missions requiring advanced communication and tracking capabilities such as: a. Optical communication b. Antenna arraying c. Lunar and Mars Relays d. Integrated network management (service management and network control) and integrated service execution e. Enhanced tracking for navigation f. Space internetworking with DTN and IP g. End-to-end security h. Enhanced security services Moreover, the SCaN Program has created an Integrated Network Roadmap that depicts an orchestrated and coherent evolution path toward the target architecture, encompassing all aspects that concern network assets (i.e., operations and maintenance, sustaining engineering, upgrade efforts, and major development). This roadmap identifies major NASA ADPs, and shows dependencies and drivers among the various planned undertakings and timelines. The roadmap is scalable to accommodate timely adjustments in response to Agency needs, goals, objectives and funding. Future challenges to implementing this architecture include balancing user mission needs, technology development, and the availability of funding within NASA s priorities. Strategies for addressing these challenges are to: define a flexible architecture, update the architecture periodically, use ADPs to evaluate options and determine when to make decisions, and to engage the stakeholders in these evaluations. In addition, the SCaN Program will evaluate and respond to mission need dates for technical and operational capabilities to be provided by the SCaN integrated network. In that regard, the architecture

  18. Low contrast volume run-off CT angiography with optimized scan time based on double-level test bolus technique – feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxa, Jan, E-mail: baxaj@fnplzen.cz [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Vendiš, Tomáš [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Moláček, Jiří [Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Štěpánková, Lucie [Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Flohr, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Korporaal, Johannes G. [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography Division, Forchheim (Germany); Ferda, Jiří [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of low contrast volume (40 mL) run-off CT angiography (run-off CTA) with the individual scan time optimization based on double-level test bolus technique. Materials and methods: A prospective study of 92 consecutive patients who underwent run-off CTA performed with 40 mL of contrast medium (injection rate of 6 mL/s) and optimized scan times on a second generation of dual-source CT. Individual optimized scan times were calculated from aortopopliteal transit times obtained on the basis of double-level test bolus technique – the single injection of 10 mL test bolus and dynamic acquisitions in two levels (abdominal aorta and popliteal arteries). Intraluminal attenuation (HU) was measured in 6 levels (aorta, iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries, middle and distal lower-legs) and subjective quality (3-point score) was assessed. Relations of image quality, test bolus parameters and arterial circulation involvement were analyzed. Results: High mean attenuation (HU) values (468; 437; 442; 440; 342; 274) and quality score in all monitored levels was achieved. In 91 patients (0.99) the sufficient diagnostic quality (score 1–2) in aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was determined. A total of 6 patients (0.07) were not evaluable in distal lower-legs. Only the weak indirect correlation of image quality and test-bolus parameters was proved in iliac, femoral and popliteal levels (r values: −0.263, −0.298 and −0.254). The statistically significant difference of the test-bolus parameters and image quality was proved in patients with occlusive and aneurysmal disease. Conclusion: We proved the technical feasibility and sufficient quality of run-off CTA with low volume of contrast medium and optimized scan time according to aortopopliteal transit time calculated from double-level test bolus.

  19. Scan time adapted contrast agent injection protocols with low volume for low-tube voltage CT angiography: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Matthias R; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Froehlich, Johannes M; Stadelmann, Geraldine; Bongartz, Georg; Bouwman, Luc; Schindera, Sebastian T

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were twofold. First, we investigated the extent of changes in arterial peak enhancement and changes in the duration of a diagnostic arterial enhancement when small amounts of CA volumes (≤30mL) were administered at varying tube voltages. Second, we investigated how to optimize CA injection protocols for CT-angiography with long scan times at various tube voltages to achieve optimal vascular enhancement at the lowest reasonable CA dose. Measurements were performed with a custom-made dynamic flow phantom. For CTA protocols with a short scan time, we investigated the effect of various tube voltages (70-120kVp) on the arterial enhancement profile with very small CA volumes (20 and 30mL of Iobitridol 350mg I/mL) at a flow rate of 5mL/s. For CTA protocols with a long scan time, we utilized an optimized multi-bolus technique switching rapidly between 13 "micro-boli" of CA (total, 60mL) and saline (total, 24mL) at a flow rate of 4mL/s. The peak arterial enhancement (PAE) and the time period of diagnostic aortic enhancement ≥200 HU (T200) were analyzed. For the short scan time protocols, a diagnostic peak enhancement was achieved using 20mL of CA at 70 and 80kVp (PAE: 327±10 and 255±15 HU, respectively) or 30mL of CA at 70, 80 and 100kVp (PAE 451±10, 367±9, and 253±15 HU). For the long scan time, the optimized multi-bolus injection protocol extended T200 at 100kVp by 6s (40%) compared to a linear injection protocol (21±1s and 15±1s, respectively; p<0.001). Optimized CTA protocols comprising alternations of tube voltage and the CA injection protocol can save radiation doses and CA volumes at the same time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Capacitive sensor for continuous monitoring of high-volume droplet microfluidic generation

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2016-12-19

    This paper presents a capacitive sensor for monitoring parallel microfluidic droplet generation. The great electric permittivity difference between common droplet microfluidic fluids such as air, oil and water (ϵoil ≈ 2–3 and ϵwater ≈ 80.4), allows for accurate detection of water in oil concentration changes. Capacitance variations as large as 10 pF between a channel filled with water or dodecane, are used to continuously monitor the output of a parallelization system producing 150 µl/min of water in dodecane emulsions. We also discuss a low cost fabrication process to manufacture these capacitive sensors, which can be integrated to different substrates.

  1. On-chip manipulation of continuous picoliter-volume superparamagnetic droplets using a magnetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Liang, Qionglin; Ma, Sai; Mu, Xuan; Hu, Ping; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2009-10-21

    A microfluidic device for generating monodisperse superparamagnetic droplets and rapidly manipulating desired droplets into designated sub-microchannels by an external magnetic force is described. Superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. They are well dispersed in the water-phase to form a superparamagnetic fluid that is sheared into picoliter-volume monodisperse superparamagnetic droplets by the oil-phase in a T-junction PDMS microchannel. Superparamagnetic droplets always flow into sub-microchannel 1 due only to laminar flow without a magnetic field. But they are deflected from the direction of laminar flow by a perpendicular magnetic field. The results show that the deflection is proportional to the magnetic field gradient and magnetic nanoparticle concentration, and it is closely related to the magnet position. The observed experimental results make a good match with theoretical analysis. Single or bulk superparamagnetic droplets are successfully manipulated into the designated sub-microchannels 2 and 3 respectively, only by changing the positions of the magnet. Relatively high efficiency is obtained with more than 10 superparamagnetic droplets precisely manipulated per second. This simple and robust apparatus has wide applications in high throughput drug delivery/screening, immunoassay, cell research and synthesis of magnetic microparticles due to good biological compatibility and monodispersity of superparamagnetic droplets.

  2. Vegetation Structure, Tree Volume and Biomass Estimation using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Remote Sensing: A Case Study of the Mangrove Forests in the Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forests are being threatened by accelerated climate change, sea level rise and coastal projects. Carbon/above ground biomass (AGB) losses due to natural or human intervention can affect global warming. Thus, it is important to monitor AGB fluctuations in mangrove forests similar to those inhabiting the Everglades National Park (ENP). Tree volume and tree wood specific density are two important measurements for the estimation of AGB (mass = volume * density). Wood specific density is acquired in the laboratory by analyzing stem cores acquired in the field. However, tree volume is a challenging task because trees resemble tapered surfaces. The majority of published studies estimate tree volume and biomass using allometric equations, which describe the size, shape, volume or AGB of a given population of trees. However, these equations can be extremely general and might not give a representative value of volume or AGB for a specific tree species. In order to have precise biomass estimations, other methodologies for tree volume estimation are needed. To overcome this problem, we use a state-of-the-art remote sensing tool known as ground-based LiDAR a.k.a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), which can be used to precisely measure vegetation structure and tree volume from its 3-D point cloud. We surveyed three mangrove communities: (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncuria racemosa and Avicennia germinans) in three different sites along Shark River Slough (SRS), which is the primary source of water to the ENP. Our sites included: small-, intermediate- and tall- size mangroves. Our ground measurements included both: traditional forestry surveys and TLS surveys for tree attributes (tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) comparison. These attributes are used as input to allometric equations for the estimation of tree volume and AGB. A total of 25 scans were collected in 2011 with a Leica ScanStation C10 TLS. The 3-D point cloud acquired from the TLS data revealed that

  3. Serial section scanning electron microscopy (S3EM on silicon wafers for ultra-structural volume imaging of cells and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Horstmann

    Full Text Available High resolution, three-dimensional (3D representations of cellular ultrastructure are essential for structure function studies in all areas of cell biology. While limited subcellular volumes have been routinely examined using serial section transmission electron microscopy (ssTEM, complete ultrastructural reconstructions of large volumes, entire cells or even tissue are difficult to achieve using ssTEM. Here, we introduce a novel approach combining serial sectioning of tissue with scanning electron microscopy (SEM using a conductive silicon wafer as a support. Ribbons containing hundreds of 35 nm thick sections can be generated and imaged on the wafer at a lateral pixel resolution of 3.7 nm by recording the backscattered electrons with the in-lens detector of the SEM. The resulting electron micrographs are qualitatively comparable to those obtained by conventional TEM. S(3EM images of the same region of interest in consecutive sections can be used for 3D reconstructions of large structures. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by reconstructing a 31.7 µm(3 volume of a calyx of Held presynaptic terminal. The approach introduced here, Serial Section SEM (S(3EM, for the first time provides the possibility to obtain 3D ultrastructure of large volumes with high resolution and to selectively and repetitively home in on structures of interest. S(3EM accelerates process duration, is amenable to full automation and can be implemented with standard instrumentation.

  4. Algorithm Variability in the Estimation of Lung Nodule Volume From Phantom CT Scans: Results of the QIBA 3A Public Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athelogou, Maria; Kim, Hyun J; Dima, Alden; Obuchowski, Nancy; Peskin, Adele; Gavrielides, Marios A; Petrick, Nicholas; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Colditz Colditz, Dirk; Beaumont, Hubert; Oubel, Estanislao; Tan, Yongqiang; Zhao, Binsheng; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Moltz, Jan Hendrik; Orieux, Guillaume; Gillies, Robert J; Gu, Yuhua; Mantri, Ninad; Goldmacher, Gregory; Zhang, Luduan; Vega, Emilio; Bloom, Michael; Jarecha, Rudresh; Soza, Grzegorz; Tietjen, Christian; Takeguchi, Tomoyuki; Yamagata, Hitoshi; Peterson, Sam; Masoud, Osama; Buckler, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Quantifying changes in lung tumor volume is important for diagnosis, therapy planning, and evaluation of response to therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of multiple algorithms on a reference data set. The study was organized by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA). The study was organized as a public challenge. Computed tomography scans of synthetic lung tumors in an anthropomorphic phantom were acquired by the Food and Drug Administration. Tumors varied in size, shape, and radiodensity. Participants applied their own semi-automated volume estimation algorithms that either did not allow or allowed post-segmentation correction (type 1 or 2, respectively). Statistical analysis of accuracy (percent bias) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility) was conducted across algorithms, as well as across nodule characteristics, slice thickness, and algorithm type. Eighty-four percent of volume measurements of QIBA-compliant tumors were within 15% of the true volume, ranging from 66% to 93% across algorithms, compared to 61% of volume measurements for all tumors (ranging from 37% to 84%). Algorithm type did not affect bias substantially; however, it was an important factor in measurement precision. Algorithm precision was notably better as tumor size increased, worse for irregularly shaped tumors, and on the average better for type 1 algorithms. Over all nodules meeting the QIBA Profile, precision, as measured by the repeatability coefficient, was 9.0% compared to 18.4% overall. The results achieved in this study, using a heterogeneous set of measurement algorithms, support QIBA quantitative performance claims in terms of volume measurement repeatability for nodules meeting the QIBA Profile criteria. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on the variation of maxillary sinus volume and projection angle in children for CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Youn Sang; Dong, Kyung Rae; Choi, Seong Kwan; Kim, Mi Hyun [Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myung Jin [Dept. of Radiation Science and Technology, Graduate School of Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Hwa Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Nambu University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The Water's view is that you can examine and diagnose disease of the maxillary sinus and implemented a simple and economical because a lot of tests. Because changes in the size of the maxillary sinus and skull growth in volume, depending on the disease that occurs in children often differ from the baseline angle of the water's view that it is easy to observe. Through Computed tomography (CT) and volumetric analysis and Orbitmeatal line (OML) and Image plate (IP) is the angle and evaluate the appropriate Water's view angle in children.

  6. Continuous light after 2 months of long days stimulates ram testis volume and increases fertility in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesneau, D; Guillaume, D; Chemineau, P; Malpaux, B

    2017-07-01

    Seasonal reproduction is one of the major biotechnical and economic constraints of sheep production in temperate latitudes. Treatments using extra light followed by melatonin implants have been used satisfactorily in open barns, farms and artificial insemination centres to produce out-of-season sexual activity in rams. The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of replacing melatonin implants with continuous light (LL), which was recently shown to increase LH secretion similar to melatonin and/or pinealectomy. Four experiments during 4 consecutive years were conducted in 'Ile-de-France' rams. In each study, one group was systematically exposed to permanent light after a first photoperiodic treatment of 60 long days (LD-LL) during the winter and compared with various other control groups subjected either to a natural photoperiod or the classical LD-melatonin treatment. As expected, blood nocturnal melatonin secretion was suppressed by LL. In all four experiments, LL treatment produced a highly significant and robust increase in ram testicular volume in the spring compared with the testicular volume of control rams or of that of treated rams at the end of the LD. For the two experiments in which fertility was tested, fertility after hand-mating was significantly higher in LD-LL rams than in control rams (76% v. 64%). Therefore, permanent light after an LD treatment may be an interesting alternative to LD-melatonin treatment to induce out-of-season sexual activity in rams.

  7. The Mechanism Underlying the Brückner Effect Studied with an Automated, High-Resolution, Continuously Scanning Brückner Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Matthijs J; van der Helm, Frans C T; Simonsz, Huib J

    2015-01-01

    When an eye is illuminated by a light coaxial with the observing eye or camera, the light is reflected by the back of the eye and a red reflex will be observed through the pupil. The intensity of this red reflex varies with the angle of eccentric gaze. The red reflex darkens as the eye fixates at the light source. Brückner described this principle in 1962. Although this effect has been used as a screening test for strabismus ever since, the mechanism that causes this effect is only partly known. None of the current explanations are accepted as conclusively proven. We developed an automated, high-resolution, continuously scanning Brückner device to study the mechanisms underlying the Brückner effect. The right eyes of 6 subjects, students aged 22-31 years, were measured. A subject sat in front of a camera at a distance of about 0.75 m. The luminance of the red fundus reflex and the eye movements were measured continuously while the subject followed a fixation target that moved in two dimensions. Eye movement was also recorded objectively and in the analysis this was used in addition to the position of the fixation target. The eyes were illuminated coaxially using an infrared light source and a beam splitter. By using two methods to record eye rotation and relating this to the continuously measured pupillary luminous intensity and pupillary area, we were able to construct 2-dimensional maps of pupillary luminance. All 6 subjects showed the expected general darkening of the pupil as fixation changed from eccentric fixation to foveal fixation at the center of the camera. However, there were many local fluctuations. The global minimum in pupillary luminance, the "dark spot," was often roughly circle-shaped with a radius of about 1°. The pupillary luminance kept increasing beyond 2° eccentricity. We measured the Brückner effect continuously in two dimensions. Brückner's original explanation--absorption by the macular pigment--cannot explain our findings as the

  8. Micro-CT scan reveals an unexpected high-volume and interconnected pore network in a Cretaceous Sanagasta dinosaur eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenleitner, E Martín; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Foley, Matthew; Fiorelli, Lucas E; Thompson, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    The Cretaceous Sanagasta neosauropod nesting site (La Rioja, Argentina) was the first confirmed instance of extinct dinosaurs using geothermal-generated heat to incubate their eggs. The nesting strategy and hydrothermal activities at this site led to the conclusion that the surprisingly 7 mm thick-shelled eggs were adapted to harsh hydrothermal microenvironments. We used micro-CT scans in this study to obtain the first three-dimensional microcharacterization of these eggshells. Micro-CT-based analyses provide a robust assessment of gas conductance in fossil dinosaur eggshells with complex pore canal systems, allowing calculation, for the first time, of the shell conductance through its thickness. This novel approach suggests that the shell conductance could have risen during incubation to seven times more than previously estimated as the eggshell erodes. In addition, micro-CT observations reveal that the constant widening and branching of pore canals form a complex funnel-like pore canal system. Furthermore, the high density of pore canals and the presence of a lateral canal network in the shell reduce the risks of pore obstruction during the extended incubation of these eggs in a relatively highly humid and muddy nesting environment. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Micro-CT scan reveals an unexpected high-volume and interconnected pore network in a Cretaceous Sanagasta dinosaur eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Foley, Matthew; Thompson, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The Cretaceous Sanagasta neosauropod nesting site (La Rioja, Argentina) was the first confirmed instance of extinct dinosaurs using geothermal-generated heat to incubate their eggs. The nesting strategy and hydrothermal activities at this site led to the conclusion that the surprisingly 7 mm thick-shelled eggs were adapted to harsh hydrothermal microenvironments. We used micro-CT scans in this study to obtain the first three-dimensional microcharacterization of these eggshells. Micro-CT-based analyses provide a robust assessment of gas conductance in fossil dinosaur eggshells with complex pore canal systems, allowing calculation, for the first time, of the shell conductance through its thickness. This novel approach suggests that the shell conductance could have risen during incubation to seven times more than previously estimated as the eggshell erodes. In addition, micro-CT observations reveal that the constant widening and branching of pore canals form a complex funnel-like pore canal system. Furthermore, the high density of pore canals and the presence of a lateral canal network in the shell reduce the risks of pore obstruction during the extended incubation of these eggs in a relatively highly humid and muddy nesting environment. PMID:27009182

  10. Beam specific planning target volumes incorporating 4DCT for pencil beam scanning proton therapy of thoracic tumors

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Liyong; Huang, Sheng; Mayer, Rulon; Thomas, Andrew; Solberg, Timothy D; McDonough, James E; Simone, Charles B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether organ sparing and target coverage can be simultaneously maintained for pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy treatment of thoracic tumors in the presence of motion, stopping power uncertainties and patient setup variations. Ten consecutive patients that were previously treated with proton therapy to 66.6/1.8 Gy (RBE) using double scattering (DS) were replanned with PBS. Minimum and maximum intensity images from 4DCT were used to introduce flexible smearing in the determination of the beam specific PTV (BSPTV). Datasets from eight 4DCT phases, using +-3% uncertainty in stopping power, and +-3 mm uncertainty in patient setup in each direction were used to create 8X12X10=960 PBS plans for the evaluation of ten patients. Plans were normalized to provide identical coverage between DS and PBS. The average lung V20, V5, and mean doses were reduced from 29.0%, 35.0%, and 16.4 Gy with DS to 24.6%, 30.6%, and 14.1 Gy with PBS, respectively. The average heart V30 and...

  11. Improvement of Oxygenation in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome With High-Volume Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenmin; Hong, Jie; Zeng, Qiyi; Tao, Jianping; Chen, Feiyan; Dang, Run; Liang, Yufeng; Wu, Zhiyuan; Yang, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and therapeutic mechanisms of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for improvement of oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain controversial. These questions were addressed by retrospective analysis of severe ARDS patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of our hospital from 2009 to 2015 who received high-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration during mechanical ventilation. There was a significant improvement in partial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) 24 hours after CRRT onset compared with baseline (median change = 51.5; range = −19 to 450.5; P CRRT. White blood cell (WBC) count decreased in the subgroup with high baseline WBC count (P < .05). PaO2/FiO2 was higher in ARDS patients with extrapulmonary etiology than in those with pulmonary etiology (P < .05). Improvement in oxygenation is likely related to both restoration of fluid balance and clearance of inflammatory mediators. PMID:27336018

  12. Improvement of Oxygenation in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome With High-Volume Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenmin Yang MD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and therapeutic mechanisms of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT for improvement of oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remain controversial. These questions were addressed by retrospective analysis of severe ARDS patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of our hospital from 2009 to 2015 who received high-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration during mechanical ventilation. There was a significant improvement in partial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 24 hours after CRRT onset compared with baseline (median change = 51.5; range = −19 to 450.5; P < .001 as well as decreases in FiO2, peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and mean airway pressure (P < .05. The majority of patients had a negative fluid balance after 24 hours of CRRT. White blood cell (WBC count decreased in the subgroup with high baseline WBC count (P < .05. PaO2/FiO2 was higher in ARDS patients with extrapulmonary etiology than in those with pulmonary etiology (P < .05. Improvement in oxygenation is likely related to both restoration of fluid balance and clearance of inflammatory mediators.

  13. Large-volume reconstruction of brain tissue from high-resolution serial section images acquired by SEM-based scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin.

  14. Numerical expression of volume status using the bioimpedance ratio in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Jang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume overload results in higher mortality rates in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. The ratio of bioimpedance (RBI might be a helpful parameter in adjusting dry body weight in CAPD patients. This study examined whether it is possible to distinguish between non-hypervolemic status and hypervolemic status in CAPD patients by using only RBI. Methods: RBI was calculated as follows: RBI = impedance at 50 kHz/impedance at 500 kHz. Based on the experts’ judgements, a total of 64 CAPD patients were divided into two groups, a non-hypervolemic group and a hypervolemic group. The RBI was measured from right wrist to right ankle (rw-raRBI by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM®, Fresenius Medical Care before and after the peritosol was emptied. Other RBIs were measured from the right side of the anterior superior iliac spine to the ipsilateral ankle (rasis-raRBI to control for the electro-physiological effects of peritoneal dialysate. Results: The mean rw-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients in the presence (1.141 ± 0.022 vs. 1.121 ± 0.021, P < 0.001 of a peritosol. Likewise, the mean rasis-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients (presence of peritosol: 1.136 ± 0.026 vs. 1.109 ± 0.022, P < 0.001; absence of peritosol: 1.131 ± 0.022 vs. 1.107 ± 0.022, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The volume status of CAPD patients was able to be simply expressed by RBI. Therefore, this study suggests that when patients cannot be analyzed using BCM, RBI could be an alternative.

  15. Numerical expression of volume status using the bioimpedance ratio in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mun; Kim, Won Hak; Lee, Jung Hee; Kim, Mi Soon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, So Mi; Chang, Jai Won

    2017-01-01

    Background Volume overload results in higher mortality rates in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The ratio of bioimpedance (RBI) might be a helpful parameter in adjusting dry body weight in CAPD patients. This study examined whether it is possible to distinguish between non-hypervolemic status and hypervolemic status in CAPD patients by using only RBI. Methods RBI was calculated as follows: RBI = impedance at 50 kHz/impedance at 500 kHz. Based on the experts’ judgements, a total of 64 CAPD patients were divided into two groups, a non-hypervolemic group and a hypervolemic group. The RBI was measured from right wrist to right ankle (rw-raRBI) by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM®, Fresenius Medical Care) before and after the peritosol was emptied. Other RBIs were measured from the right side of the anterior superior iliac spine to the ipsilateral ankle (rasis-raRBI) to control for the electro-physiological effects of peritoneal dialysate. Results The mean rw-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients in the presence (1.141 ± 0.022 vs. 1.121 ± 0.021, P < 0.001) of a peritosol. Likewise, the mean rasis-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients (presence of peritosol: 1.136 ± 0.026 vs. 1.109 ± 0.022, P < 0.001; absence of peritosol: 1.131 ± 0.022 vs. 1.107 ± 0.022, P < 0.001). Conclusion The volume status of CAPD patients was able to be simply expressed by RBI. Therefore, this study suggests that when patients cannot be analyzed using BCM, RBI could be an alternative. PMID:28904881

  16. Novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D volume rendering toward improving the resolution of the fossil record of charcoal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Belcher

    Full Text Available Variations in the abundance of fossil charcoals between rocks and sediments are assumed to reflect changes in fire activity in Earth's past. These variations in fire activity are often considered to be in response to environmental, ecological or climatic changes. The role that fire plays in feedbacks to such changes is becoming increasingly important to understand and highlights the need to create robust estimates of variations in fossil charcoal abundance. The majority of charcoal based fire reconstructions quantify the abundance of charcoal particles and do not consider the changes in the morphology of the individual particles that may have occurred due to fragmentation as part of their transport history. We have developed a novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to image processing that enables the 3-dimensional reconstruction of individual charcoal particles. This method is able to measure the volume of both microfossil and mesofossil charcoal particles and allows the abundance of charcoal in a sample to be expressed as total volume of charcoal. The method further measures particle surface area and shape allowing both relationships between different size and shape metrics to be analysed and full consideration of variations in particle size and size sorting between different samples to be studied. We believe application of this new imaging approach could allow significant improvement in our ability to estimate variations in past fire activity using fossil charcoals.

  17. Imaging water velocity and volume fraction distributions in water continuous multiphase flows using inductive flow tomography and electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas-water and oil-gas-water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the water

  18. [The application of 3D liver acquisition volume acceleration integrated with array spatial sensitivity encoding technique in liver dynamic-enhancement scanning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhao, Jian-nong; Guo, Da-jing; Xie, Wei-bo; Zhong, Wei-jia; Luo, Yin-deng; Chen, Wei-juan

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the application of 3D liver acquisition volume acceleration (3D-LAVA) integrated with array spatial sensitivity encoding technique (ASSET) in liver dynamic-enhancement scanning. One hundred forty-seven patients underwent conventional plain and contrast enhancement liver MR imaging. 3D-LAVA and 2D fast spoiled gradient recalled echo were used for contrast enhancement liver MR scanning in 90 and 57 patients respectively. In the 3D-LAVA group, integrated ASSET was used in 72 out of the 90 patients. Of the 57 patients who underwent examinations using 2D fast spoiled gradient recalled echo, portal vein CE-MRA was performed on 20. The ability of 3D-LAVA to detect the lesions and the advantage to shorten the acquisition time after integrating with ASSET were analyzed. Original images of 60 patients in the 3D-LAVA group were processed using MIP to illustrate the anatomy of the portal vein. They were compared with those shown by CE-MRA to evaluate the illustration abilities of the two approaches. 3D-LAVA is more sensitive than 2D-FSPGR in detecting metastatic hepatic carcinomas. In the 3D-LAVA group integrated with ASSET, earlier and peak arterial phase images were acquired in 34 cases; and earlier, peak and late arterial phase images were acquired in 23 cases. The illustrations of the portal vein anatomy by 3D-LAVA were similar to those shown by portal vein CE-MRA. 3D-LAVA integrated with ASSET can obtain higher quality multi-phase dynamic enhancement images of the liver in a shorter time, and in the meantime also shows the vascular anatomy.

  19. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  20. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  1. Relation Between Pressure and Volume Unloading During Ramp Testing in Patients Supported with a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Hassager, Christian; Balling, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is the key to describing left ventricular (LV) unloading, however, the relation between pressure and the echocardiography-derived surrogate of LV volume (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)) as a function of pump speed (RPM) in continuous......-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients is unknown. In this study the pressure-volume relationship as a function of RPM during ramp testing was investigated by simultaneously measuring PCWP by Swan-Ganz catheter and LVEDD by echocardiography. The ramp protocol started at usual pump setting...

  2. Inter-scan and inter-observer tumour volume delineation variability on cone beam computed tomography in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Lee, Stephanie; Agrawal, Vishesh; Romano, John; Baldini, Elizabeth H; Chen, Aileen B; Kozono, David E; Killoran, Joseph H; Wagar, Matthew; Hacker, Fred L; Aerts, Hugo Jwl; Lewis, John H; Mak, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Quantification of volume changes on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and for adaptive treatment planning. This study quantifies inter-scan and inter-observer variability in tumour volume delineation on CBCT. Three clinicians independently contoured the primary gross tumour volume (GTV) manually on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (post) for 19 NSCLC patients. Relative volume differences (RVD) were calculated between the pre- and post-CBCTs for a given treatment and between any two of three observers for a given CBCT. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to quantitatively measure and compare the extent of variability. Inter-observer variability had a significantly higher CV of 0.15 ± 0.13 compared to inter-scan CV of 0.03 ± 0.04 with P volume delineation on CBCT with greatest variability for small tumours (volume change during SBRT treatment for tumours with diameter greater than 2 cm, with larger thresholds needed for smaller tumours. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  3. Quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume: effects of scanning protocol and reproducibility of measurements in non-contrast cardiac CT vs. coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Luigia; Salituri, Francesco; Ciardetti, Marco; Favilla, Riccardo; Mazzarisi, Alessandro; Coppini, Giuseppe; Bartolozzi, Carlo; Marraccini, Paoli

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have focused on the role of epicardial fat in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The main purpose of the study was to evaluate a computerized method for the quantitative analysis of epicardial fat volume (EFV) by non-contrast cardiac CT (NCT) for coronary calcium scan and coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA). Thirty patients (61±12.5 years, 73% male, body mass index (BMI) =25.9±6.3 kg/m2) referred to our Institution for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent NCT and coronary CTA. Epicardial boundaries were traced by 2 experienced operators (operator 1, operators 2) on 3 and 6 short-axis (SA) slices. EFV was computed with a semi-automatic method using an in-house developed software based on spherical harmonic representation of the epicardial surface. In order to analyze the inter-observer variability both the Coefficient of Repeatability (CR) and Intra Class Correlation (ICC) were computed. The total EFV was 103.62±50.97 and 94.96±67.91 cc in NCT and coronary CTA with non-significant difference (P=0.292). CR error was 10.22 cc for operator 1 and 11.31 cc for operator 2 in NCT and 7.99 cc for operator 1 and 7.75 cc for operator 2 in coronary CTA. To analyze the inter-observer variability CR and ICC were computed. CR was 8.17 and 8.39 cc with NCT and 7.07 and 7.21 cc with CTA for 6 and 3 SA slices respectively. ICC values >0.99 were obtained in all cases. The right ventricular EFV was 67.23±31.4 and 57.41±34.3 cc for NCT and coronary CTA respectively; the corresponding values for left ventricular EFV were 38.01±19.1 and 35.27±25.9 cc. Both NCT and coronary CTA can be used with low intra- and inter-observer variability for computer-assisted measurements of EFV. Cardiac CT may allow a fast and reliable computation of EFV in clinical setting.

  4. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  5. A comparative study of the target volume definition in radiotherapy with «Slow CT Scan» vs. 4D PET/CT Scan in early stages non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, M; Anducas, N; Simó, M; Seoane, A; Ramos, M; Cuberas-Borros, G; Beltran, M; Castell, J; Giralt, J

    To evaluate the use of 4D PET/CT to quantify tumor respiratory motion compared to the «Slow»-CT (CTs) in the radiotherapy planning process. A total of 25 patients with inoperable early stage non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were included in the study. Each patient was imaged with a CTs (4s/slice) and 4D PET/CT. The adequacy of each technique for respiratory motion capture was evaluated using the volume definition for each of the following: Internal target volume (ITV) 4D and ITVslow in relation with the volume defined by the encompassing volume of 4D PET/CT and CTs (ITVtotal). The maximum distance between the edges of the volume defined by each technique to that of the total volume was measured in orthogonal beam's eye view. The ITV4D showed less differences in relation with the ITVtotal in both the cranio-caudal and the antero-posterior axis compared to the ITVslow. The maximum differences were 0.36mm in 4D PET/CTand 0.57mm in CTs in the antero-posterior axis. 4D PET/CT resulted in the definition of more accurate (ITV4D/ITVtotal 0.78 vs. ITVs/ITVtotal 0.63), and larger ITVs (19.9 cc vs. 16.3 cc) than those obtained with CTs. Planning with 4D PET/CT in comparison with CTs, allows incorporating tumor respiratory motion and improving planning radiotherapy of patients in early stages of lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Lysine production from methanol at 50 degrees C using Bacillus methanolicus: Modeling volume control, lysine concentration, and productivity using a three-phase continuous simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G H; Hur, W; Bremmon, C E; Flickinger, M C

    1996-03-20

    A simulation was developed based on experimental data obtained in a 14-L reactor to predict the growth and L-lysine accumulation kinetics, and change in volume of a large-scale (250-m(3)) Bacillus methanolicus methanol-based process. Homoserine auxotrophs of B. methanolicus MGA3 are unique methylotrophs because of the ability to secrete lysine during aerobic growth and threonine starvation at 50 degrees C. Dissolved methanol (100 mM), pH, dissolved oxygen tension (0.063 atm), and threonine levels were controlled to obtain threonine-limited conditions and high-cell density (25 g dry cell weight/L) in a 14-L reactor. As a fed-batch process, the additions of neat methanol (fed on demand), threonine, and other nutrients cause the volume of the fermentation to increase and the final lysine concentration to decrease. In addition, water produced as a result of methanol metabolism contributes to the increase in the volume of the reactor. A three-phase approach was used to predict the rate of change of culture volume based on carbon dioxide production and methanol consumption. This model was used for the evaluation of volume control strategies to optimize lysine productivity. A constant volume reactor process with variable feeding and continuous removal of broth and cells (VF(cstr)) resulted in higher lysine productivity than a fed-batch process without volume control. This model predicts the variation in productivity of lysine with changes in growth and in specific lysine productivity. Simple modifications of the model allows one to investigate other high-lysine-secreting strains with different growth and lysine productivity characteristics. Strain NOA2#13A5-2 which secretes lysine and other end-products were modeled using both growth and non-growth-associated lysine productivity. A modified version of this model was used to simulate the change in culture volume of another L-lysine producing mutant (NOA2#13A52-8A66) with reduced secretion of end-products. The modified

  7. Low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic cycling in patients with chronic heart failure: a pragmatic randomised clinical trial of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Thomas H; George, Keith P; Nolan, James

    2014-04-01

    The health benefits of high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation warrant further research. We compared the effectiveness of low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic exercise training in chronic heart failure. Unblinded, two arm parallel design with random assignment to exercise interventions in out-patient hospital rehabilitation gym. Patients with signs of chronic heart failure and ejection fraction training (n = 9) or high-intensity interval training (n = 8). Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined during cycle ergometry using respiratory gas exchange analysis. Functional capacity was assessed via sit-to-stand and gait speed. Quality of life was assessed using the MOS Short-Form 36 and Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaires. Cardiac autonomic regulation was assessed using Heart Rate Variability. Analysis of Covariance revealed significant time effects but no group × time interactions for exercise and functional capacity outcomes. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) improved by a mean of 14.9% (SD 16.3%) from baseline and by 22% (SD 28.3) at ventilatory threshold in both groups. Sit-to-stand (11.9 (SD 11%)) and gait speed (16.0 (SD 19%)) improved similarly in both groups. No changes in quality of life or heart rate variability were noted. Training adaptations in high-intensity interval training were achieved despite a significantly reduced time commitment and total work volume compared to continuous aerobic exercise training. Low-volume high-intensity interval training is a feasible and well tolerated training modality in cardiac rehabilitation settings, but is not more effective than continuous aerobic exercise training.

  8. Low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic cycling in patients with chronic heart failure: A pragmatic randomised clinical trial of feasibility and effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Tom; George, K.; Nolan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The health benefits of high-intensity interval\\ud training in cardiac rehabilitation warrant further research.\\ud We compared the effectiveness of low-volume high-intensity\\ud interval training vs continuous aerobic exercise training in\\ud chronic heart failure.\\ud Design/Settings: Unblinded, two arm parallel design with\\ud random assignment to exercise interventions in out-patient\\ud hospital rehabilitation gym.\\ud Methods: Patients with signs of chronic heart failure and\\ud ejec...

  9. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry of N-3DPA and DHA from -100 to 10°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F; Nguyen, Julie K; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Aubuchon, Steven R; Kim, Moon S

    2017-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is exclusively utilized in fast signal processing tissues such as retinal, neural and cardiac. N-3 docosapentaenoic acid (n-3DPA, 22:5n-3), with just one less double bond, is also found in the marine food chain yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS and both conventional and modulated DSC to n-3DPA and DHA from -100 to 20°C. Three-dimensional data arrays with 0.2°C increments and first derivatives allowed complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes. Melting temperatures n-3DPA (-45°C) and DHA (-46°C) are similar and show evidence for solid-state phase transitions not seen in n-6DPA (-27°C melt). The C6H2 site is an elastic marker for temperature perturbation of all three lipids, each of which has a distinct three dimensional structure. N-3 DPA shows the spectroscopic signature of saturated fatty acids from C1 to C6. DHA does not have three aliphatic carbons in sequence; n-6DPA does but they occur at the methyl end, and do not yield the characteristic signal. DHA appears to have uniform twisting from C6H2 to C12H2 to C18H2 whereas n-6DPA bends from C12 to C18, centered at C15H2. For n-3DPA, twisting is centered at C6H2 adjacent to the C2-C3-C4-C5 aliphatic moiety. These molecular sites are the most elastic in the solid phase and during premelting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) a microcomputer-based analysis system for shipping cask design review: User`s manual to Version 3a. Volume 1, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, G.C.; Thomas, G.R.; Gerhard, M.A.; Trummer, D.J.; Johnson, G.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) is a microcomputer-based system of computer programs and databases developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for evaluating safety analysis reports on spent fuel shipping casks. SCANS is an easy-to-use system that calculates the global response to impact loads, pressure loads and thermal conditions, providing reviewers with an independent check on analyses submitted by licensees. SCANS is based on microcomputers compatible with the IBM-PC family of computers. The system is composed of a series of menus, input programs, cask analysis programs, and output display programs. All data is entered through fill-in-the-blank input screens that contain descriptive data requests. Analysis options are based on regulatory cases described in the Code of Federal Regulations 10 CFR 71 and Regulatory Guides published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1977 and 1978.

  11. Supplement analysis for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. Volume 2: Comment response document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), prepared a draft Supplement Analysis (SA) for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL-L), in accordance with DOE`s requirements for implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 1021.314). It considers whether the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (1992 EIS/EIR) should be supplement3ed, whether a new environmental impact statement (EIS) should be prepared, or no further NEPA documentation is required. The SA examines the current project and program plans and proposals for LLNL and SNL-L, operations to identify new or modified projects or operations or new information for the period from 1998 to 2002 that was not considered in the 1992 EIS/EIR. When such changes, modifications, and information are identified, they are examined to determine whether they could be considered substantial or significant in reference to the 1992 proposed action and the 1993 Record of Decision (ROD). DOE released the draft SA to the public to obtain stakeholder comments and to consider those comments in the preparation of the final SA. DOE distributed copies of the draft SA to those who were known to have an interest in LLNL or SNL-L activities in addition to those who requested a copy. In response to comments received, DOE prepared this Comment Response Document.

  12. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  13. Optimal scan timing for artery-vein separation at whole-brain CT angiography using a 320-row MDCT volume scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaka, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Kondo, Masatoshi; Hamasaki, Hiroshi; Shimomiya, Yamato; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Funama, Yoshinori; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    A 320-row multidetector CT (MDCT) is expected for a good artery-vein separation in terms of temporal resolution. However, a shortened scan duration may lead to insufficient vascular enhancement. We assessed the optimal scan timing for the artery-vein separation at whole-brain CT angiography (CTA) when bolus tracking was used at 320-row MDCT. We analyzed 60 patients, who underwent whole-brain four-dimensional CTA. Difference in CT attenuation between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the superior sagittal sinus (Datt) was calculated in each phase. Using a visual evaluation score for the depiction of arteries and veins, we calculated the difference between the mean score for the intracranial arteries and the mean score for the veins (Dscore). We assessed the time at which the maximum Datt and Dscore were simultaneously observed. The maximum Datt was observed at 6.0 s and 8.0 s in the arterial-dominant phase and at 16.0 s and 18.0 s in the venous-dominant phase after the contrast media arrival time at the ICA (Taa). The maximum Dscore was observed at 6.0 s and 8.0 s in the arterial-dominant phase and at 16.0 s in the venous-dominant phase after the Taa. There were no statistically significant differences in Datt (p = 0.375) or Dscore (p = 0.139) between these scan timings. The optimal scan timing for artery-vein separation at whole-brain CTA was 6.0 s or 8.0 s for the arteries and 16.0 s for the veins after the Taa. Advances in knowledge: Optimal scan timing allowed us to visualize intracranial arteries or veins with minimal superimposition.

  14. Interactive annotation of textures in thoracic CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2010-03-01

    This study describes a system for interactive annotation of thoracic CT scans. Lung volumes in these scans are segmented and subdivided into roughly spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering procedure. For each 3D VOI, 72 features are calculated. The observer inspects the scan to determine which textures are present and annotates, with mouse clicks, several VOIs of each texture. Based on these annotations, a k-nearest-neighbor classifier is trained, which classifies all remaining VOIs in the scan. The algorithm then presents a slice with suggested annotations to the user, in which the user can correct mistakes. The classifier is retrained, taking into account these new annotations, and the user is presented another slice for correction. This process continues until at least 50% of all lung voxels in the scan have been classified. The remaining VOIs are classified automatically. In this way, the entire lung volume is annotated. The system has been applied to scans of patients with usual and non-specific interstitial pneumonia. The results of interactive annotation are compared to a setup in which the user annotates all predefined VOIs manually. The interactive system is 3.7 times as fast as complete manual annotation of VOIs and differences between the methods are similar to interobserver variability. This is a first step towards precise volumetric quantitation of texture patterns in thoracic CT in clinical research and in clinical practice.

  15. Continuous collection and simultaneous detection of picoliter volume of nucleic acid samples using a mille-feuille probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidenori; Tanaka, Motoki; Zhou, Yuanshu; Nashimoto, Yuji; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Ino, Kosuke; Matsue, Tomokazu; Shiku, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    Investigation of the positional heterogeneity of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in tissues requires a technology that facilitates analysis of mRNA expression in the selected single cells. We developed a mille-feuille probe (MP) that allows the lamination of the aqueous and organic phases in a nanopipette under voltage control. The MP was used for continuous collection of different nucleic acid samples and sequential evaluation of gene expression with mRNA barcoding tags. First, we found that the aqueous phases could be laminated into five individual layers and separated by the plugs of the organic phases in a nanopipette when the salt (THATPBCl) concentration in the organic phase was 100 mM. Second, the aspiration rate of the MP was stabilized and the velocity of the aqueous phase in the MP was lowered at higher THATPBCl concentrations in the organic phase. This was because the force during ingression of the aqueous phase into the organic - phase-filled nanopipette induced an electro-osmotic flow between the inside wall of the nanopipette and THATPBCl in the organic phase. Third, inclusion of mRNA barcoding tags in the MP facilitated complementary DNA construction and sequential analysis of gene expression. This technique has potential to be applicable to RNA sequencing from different cell samples across the life sciences. Graphical abstract We developed a mille-feuille probe (MP) that allows the lamination of the aqueous and organic phases in a nanopipette under voltage control.

  16. MRI Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

  17. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  18. Noninvasive, low-noise, fast imaging of blood volume and deoxygenation changes in muscles using light-emitting diode continuous-wave imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanqing; Lech, Gwen; Nioka, Shoko; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

    2002-08-01

    This article focuses on optimizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a three-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) near-infrared continuous-wave (cw) imager and its application to in vivo muscle metabolism measurement. The shot-noise limited SNR is derived and calculated to be 2 x104 for the physiological blood concentrations of muscle. Aiming at shot-noise limited SNR performance and fast imaging, we utilize sample and hold circuits to reduce high-frequency noise. These circuits have also been designed to be parallel integrating, through which SNR of 2 x103 and 2 Hz imaging acquisition rate have been achieved when the probe is placed on a muscle model. The noise corresponds to 2 x10-4 optical density error, which suggests an in vitro resolution of 15. 4 nM blood volume and 46.8 nM deoxygenation changes. A 48 dB digital gain control circuit with 256 steps is employed to enlarge the dynamic range of the imager. We utilize cuff ischemia as a living model demonstration and its results are reported. The instrument is applied during exercise to measure the changes of blood volume and deoxygenation, which provides important information about muscle metabolism. We find that the primary source of noise encountered during exercise experiment is from the random motion of muscle. The results demonstrate that the LED cw imager is ideal for the noninvasive study of muscle metabolism.

  19. Predicting Stem Total and Assortment Volumes in an Industrial Pinus taeda L. Forest Plantation Using Airborne Laser Scanning Data and Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised machine learning algorithm, to estimate stem total and assortment (commercial and pulpwood volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation in southern Brazil. Random Forest was populated using field and lidar-derived forest metrics from 50 sample plots with trees ranging from three to nine years old. We found that a model defined as a function of only two metrics (height of the top of the canopy and the skewness of the vertical distribution of lidar points has a very strong and unbiased predictive power. We found that predictions of total, commercial, and pulp volume, respectively, showed an adjusted R2 equal to 0.98, 0.98 and 0.96, with unbiased predictions of −0.17%, −0.12% and −0.23%, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values of 7.83%, 7.71% and 8.63%. Our methodology makes use of commercially available airborne lidar and widely used mathematical tools to provide solutions for increasing the industry efficiency in monitoring and managing wood volume.

  20. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  1. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  2. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  3. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  4. Three-dimensional computer-controlled acoustic pressure scanning and quantification of focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joonho; Koizumi, Norihiro; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Sugita, Naohikoa; Nomiya, Akira; Homma, Yukio; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2010-04-01

    We propose an automated needle hydrophone-based scanning system to measure high-resolution 3-D acoustic pressure distributions generated by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The hardware consists of a host computer, subsystems for HIFU generation, and an oscilloscope to sample the pressure response from a sensor in a water tank. Software was developed to control the hardware subsystems, to search for the initial scan position, and to design the scanning path and volume. A preoperative scanning plan with three perpendicular planes is used to manipulate the position of the HIFU transducer and to automate the acquisition of the spatial acoustic pressure distribution. The post-processing process displays the scanning results, compensates time delays caused by continuous linear scans, and quantifies the focal region. A method to minimize the displacement error induced by the time delay improves the scanning speed of a conventional needle hydrophone-based scanning system. Moreover, a noise-robust, automatic-focus searching algorithm using Gaussian function fitting reduces the total number of iterations and prevents the initial scanning position search from diverging. Finally, the minimum-volume enclosing ellipsoid approximation is used to quantify the size and orientation of the 3-D focal region thresholded by the minimum pressure of interest for various input conditions and to test the reproducibility of the scanning system.

  5. Fluid therapy LiDCO controlled trial-optimization of volume resuscitation of extensively burned patients through noninvasive continuous real-time hemodynamic monitoring LiDCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarik, Monika; Sjöberg, Folke; Balik, Martin; Pafcuga, Igor; Broz, Ludomir

    2013-01-01

    This pilot trial aims at gaining support for the optimization of acute burn resuscitation through noninvasive continuous real-time hemodynamic monitoring using arterial pulse contour analysis. A group of 21 burned patients meeting preliminary criteria (age range 18-75 years with second- third- degree burns and TBSA ≥10-75%) was randomized during 2010. A hemodynamic monitoring through lithium dilution cardiac output was used in 10 randomized patients (LiDCO group), whereas those without LiDCO monitoring were defined as the control group. The modified Brooke/Parkland formula as a starting resuscitative formula, balanced crystalloids as the initial solutions, urine output of 0.5 ml/kg/hr as a crucial value of adequate intravascular filling were used in both groups. Additionally, the volume and vasopressor/inotropic support were based on dynamic preload parameters in the LiDCO group in the case of circulatory instability and oligouria. Statistical analysis was done using t-tests. Within the first 24 hours postburn, a significantly lower consumption of crystalloids was registered in LiDCO group (P = .04). The fluid balance under LiDCO control in combination with hourly diuresis contributed to reducing the cumulative fluid balance approximately by 10% compared with fluid management based on standard monitoring parameters. The amount of applied solutions in the LiDCO group got closer to Brooke formula whereas the urine output was at the same level in both groups (0.8 ml/kg/hr). The new finding in this study is that when a fluid resuscitation is based on the arterial waveform analysis, the initial fluid volume provided was significantly lower than that delivered on the basis of physician-directed fluid resuscitation (by urine output and mean arterial pressure).

  6. Low-volume High-intensity Interval versus Continuous Endurance Training: Effects on Hematological and Cardiorespiratory System Adaptations in Professional Canoe Polo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhlouvand, Mohsen; Gharaat, Mohammadali; Khalili, Erfan; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Rahmaninia, Farhad; Arazi, Hamid

    2017-07-08

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two paddling-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous endurance training (CET) on hematological, immunological, and cardiorespiratory adaptations in professional canoe polo athletes. Twenty one male canoe polo athletes were randomly divided into one of three groups (N=7): 1) HIIT with variable intensity (VIHIIT) (6×60-second at 100,110,120,130,130, 130,120,110,100% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak from 1 to 9 session respectively, 1:3 work to recovery ratio); 2) HIIT with variable volume (VVHIIT) (6,7,8,9,9,9,8,7,6 repetitions/session from 1 to 9 session respectively)×60-second at lowest velocity that elicited V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), 1:3 work to recovery ratio); and 3) the CET group performed 3 times × 60 min paddling sessions (75% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) per week for 3 weeks. Significant increases in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (ml·kg·min) (VIHIIT=7.6%, VVHIIT=6.7%), ventilation (V[Combining Dot Above]E) at V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (VIHIIT=11.5%, VVHIIT=15.2%), respiratory frequency (Rf) at V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (VVHIIT=21.1%), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at ventilatory threshold (VT) (VIHIIT=10.5%, VVHIIT=25.1%), V[Combining Dot Above]E at VT (VIHIIT=12.4%, VVHIIT=34.0%), tidal volume at VT (VIHIIT=11.7%, VVHIIT=33.3%), Rf at VT (VIHIIT=9.7%), V[Combining Dot Above]E/V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at VT (VVHIIT=13.1%), V[Combining Dot Above]O2/HR at VT (VIHIIT=12.9%, VVHIIT=21.4%), and V[Combining Dot Above]E/HR at VT (VIHIIT=7.8%, VVHIIT=27.2%) were seen compared to pre-training. Training interventions resulted in significant increases in mean platelet volume (VIHIIT=2.7%, VVHIIT=1.9%), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (CET=3.3%), and significant decrease in red blood cell distribution width (VVHIIT=-4.3), and cell numbers of lymphocyte (CET=-27.1) compared to pre-training. This study demonstrated that paddling-based HIIT enhances

  7. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available for medical professionals. Get updates. . Provider Relations Online Services for Referring Physicians Video Center Publications Continuing Medical Education Mayo Medical Laboratories ...

  8. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    CERN Document Server

    Magro, G; Mairani, A; Mirandola, A; Panizza, D; Russo, S; Ferrari, A; Valvo, F; Fossati, P; Ciocca, M

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5–30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus® chamber. An EBT3® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size r...

  9. Effect of sample test volume and geometry on the tensile mechanical behavior of SiC/SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar, J.; Kelkar, A.D.; Neogi, J.

    1998-09-01

    The development of a silicon carbide-type fiber from an organometallic precursor has led to a major resurgence of interest in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites. By combining this high strength fiber with a variety of ceramic matrices it has been possible to achieve tough composites offering significant potential advantages over monolithic ceramics and carbon-carbon for high temperature applications. A continuous-fiber ceramic matrix composite (CFCC) typical of materials proposed for such industrial applications as power generation, heat recovery and chemical production as well as biomedical and environmental applications was tested in uniaxial tension using a universal test machine. Test parameters investigated included: test mode (load versus displacement), test rate (0.003 mm/s, 0.03 mm/s, 50 N/s and 500 N/s), specimen geometry (straight-sided versus reduced-gauge section) and type of specimen volume (long/thin versus short/fat). Typical properties include an average elastic modulus 130 {+-} 10 Gpa, an average proportional limit stress of 45 {+-} 20 Mpa, an average ultimate tensile strength of 180 {+-} 20 MPa and an average modulus of toughness of 8.4 {+-} 2 (x10{sup 5})J/m{sup 3}.

  10. Prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis in18F-FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced breast cancer staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; García García-Esquinas, M; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Rodríguez Rey, C; Román-Santamaría, J M; Moreno, F; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    To determine whether metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are able to predict recurrence risk in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Retrospective study of LABC patients who undertook neoadjuvant, local and adjuvant treatment and follow up. A 18 F-FDG PET/CT study for initial staging was performed analysing in this study different metabolic parameters (MTV, TLG, SUVmax and SUVmed) both in the primary tumour (T) as well as in axillary nodes (N) and whole-body (WB). Forty females were included between January 2010-2011; follow up until January 2015 was completed. The average follow-up was 46 months. Twenty percent presented recurrence: local disease (n=2) and distant metastasis (n=6); 3 patients died (38% of the patients which recurred and 7.5% from the total). SUVmax, MTV and TLG, in T, N and WB, were higher in those patients with recurrence. The MTV and TLG parameters in the tumour (T) were related to the recurrence rate (P=.020 and P=.028, respectively); whereas SUVmax in the lymph nodes (N) was significantly related (P=.008) to the recurrence rate. The best cut-off points to predict recurrence where: MTV T ≥19.3cm 3 , TLG T≥74.4g and SUVmax N≥13.8, being 10-12 times more likely to recidivate when these thresholds where exceeded. Tumour grade was the only clinical-pathological variable which was related to recurrence probability (p=.035). In this study of LABC patients the metabolic parameters which have a better relationship with recurrence rate are: MTV and TLG in the primary tumour, SUVmax in the regional lymph node disease and whole-body PET data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  11. SU-E-T-147: Beam Specific Planning Target Volumes Incorporating 4DCT for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy of Thoracic Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L; Kang, M; Huang, S; McDonough, J; Solberg, T; Simone, C [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mayer, R [Henry Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, MD (United States); Thomas, A [ATC healthcare, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether organ sparing and target coverage can be simultaneously maintained for pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy treatment of thoracic tumors in the presence of motion, stopping power uncertainties and patient setup variations. Methods: Ten consecutive patients that were previously treated with proton therapy to 66.6/1.8 Gy (RBE) using double scattering (DS) were replanned with PBS. Minimum and maximum intensity images from 4DCT were used to introduce flexible smearing in the determination of the beam specific PTV (BSPTV). Datasets from eight 4DCT phases, using ±3% uncertainty in stopping power, and ±3 mm uncertainty in patient setup in each direction were used to create 8*12*10=960 PBS plans for the evaluation of ten patients. Plans were normalized to provide identical coverage between DS and PBS. Results: The average lung V20, V5, and mean doses were reduced from 29.0%, 35.0%, and 16.4 Gy with DS to 24.6%, 30.6%, and 14.1 Gy with PBS, respectively. The average heart V30 and V45 were reduced from 10.4% and 7.5% in DS to 8.1% and 5.4% for PBS, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum spinal cord, esophagus and heart dose were decreased from 37.1 Gy, 71.7 Gy and 69.2 Gy with DS to 31.3 Gy, 67.9 Gy and 64.6 Gy with PBS. The conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and global maximal dose were improved from 3.2, 0.08, 77.4 Gy with DS to 2.8, 0.04 and 72.1 Gy with PBS. All differences are statistically significant, with p values <0.05, with the exception of the heart V45 (p= 0.146). Conclusion: PBS with BSPTV achieves better organ sparing and improves target coverage using a repainting method for the treatment of thoracic tumors. Incorporating motion-related uncertainties is essential This work was supported by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Contract Agreement No. DAMD17-W81XWH-07-2-0121 and W81XWH-09-2-0174.

  12. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Kellie Toohey; Pumpa, Kate L.; Leonard Arnolda; Julie Cooke; Desmond Yip; Craft, Paul S.; Stuart Semple

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group (n = 8) or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group (n = 8) group for 36 sessions (12 w...

  13. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back pain. if a DEXA scan gives borderline readings. top of page How should I prepare? On the day ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique ... that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal ...

  14. Utility of Volume Assessment Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hyun Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Fluid overload prior to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is an important prognostic factor. Thus, precise evaluation of fluid status is necessary to treat such patients. In this study, we investigated whether fluid assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA can predict outcomes in critically ill patients requiring CRRT. Methods A prospective observational study was performed in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit and who required CRRT. BIA was conducted before CRRT; then, the ratio of extracellular water to total body water (ECW/TBW was derived to estimate volume status. Results A total of 31 patients treated with CRRT were included. There were 18 men (58.1%, and the median age was 67 years (interquartile range, 51 to 78 years. Fourteen patients (45.2% died within 28 days after CRRT initiation. Patients were divided into 16 with ECW/TBW ≥0.41 and 15 with ECW/TBW <0.41. Survival rate within 28 days was different between the two groups (P = 0.044. Cox regression analysis revealed a relationship between ECW/TBW ≥0.41 and 28-day mortality, but it was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 9.8; P = 0.061. Lastly, the area under the curve of ECW/TBW for 28-day mortality was analyzed. The area under the curve of ECW/TBW was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.92, and this was significant (P = 0.037. Conclusions Fluid status can be assessed using BIA in critically ill patients requiring CRRT, and BIA can predict mortality. Further large trials are needed to confirm the usefulness of BIA in critically ill patients.

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  17. 4D computed tomography scans for conformal thoracic treatment planning: is a single scan sufficient to capture thoracic tumor motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yolanda D.; Wootton, Landon; Nyflot, Matthew; Apisarnthanarax, Smith; Rengan, Ramesh; Bloch, Charles; Sandison, George; St. James, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans are routinely used in radiation therapy to determine the internal treatment volume for targets that are moving (e.g. lung tumors). The use of these studies has allowed clinicians to create target volumes based upon the motion of the tumor during the imaging study. The purpose of this work is to determine if a target volume based on a single 4DCT scan at simulation is sufficient to capture thoracic motion. Phantom studies were performed to determine expected differences between volumes contoured on 4DCT scans and those on the evaluation CT scans (slow scans). Evaluation CT scans acquired during treatment of 11 patients were compared to the 4DCT scans used for treatment planning. The images were assessed to determine if the target remained within the target volume determined during the first 4DCT scan. A total of 55 slow scans were compared to the 11 planning 4DCT scans. Small differences were observed in phantom between the 4DCT volumes and the slow scan volumes, with a maximum of 2.9%, that can be attributed to minor differences in contouring and the ability of the 4DCT scan to adequately capture motion at the apex and base of the motion trajectory. Larger differences were observed in the patients studied, up to a maximum volume difference of 33.4%. These results demonstrate that a single 4DCT scan is not adequate to capture all thoracic motion throughout treatment.

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ...

  20. Lumbar spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower ... The lumbar CT scan is good for evaluating large herniated disks, ... smaller ones. This test can be combined with a myelogram to get ...

  1. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  2. Thoracic spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - thoracic spine; Computed axial tomography scan - thoracic spine; Computed tomography scan - thoracic spine; CT scan - ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 44. US Food and Drug Administration. Computed tomography (CT). Updated August ...

  3. Continuous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and hematocrit changes during hemodialysis in humans: direct comparison with the CRIT-LINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Kastner, Evan; Narsipur, Sriram S.; Goodisman, Jerry; Chaiken, J.

    2014-02-01

    We report a new device and algorithm that allows simultaneous monitoring of the hematocrit and plasma volume fraction of blood within the intravascular space of an optically probed volume of skin. Skin is probed with a near infrared (NIR) laser and simultaneously collecting the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light as one raw signal and the undifferentiated Raman and fluorescence emission as the second raw signal. These signals are combined using six parameters that can be obtained by either direct calculation or empirical calibration to permit monitoring of the blood in human skin (e.g. fingertips). We tested a device based on the algorithm that might be useful in allowing the early detection of blood loss for people who have no external injury but may be hemorrhaging internally. IRB allowed experiments monitoring blood in human fingertip skin in vivo during routine hemodialysis demonstrated good agreement between the experimental device and the CRIT-LINE®, an FDA approved device that is built into the dialysis machine and applies the Twersky algorithm to blood in the dialysis machine (i.e. in vitro). Based on observation of 9 different test subjects, as dialysis removes fluid from the intravascular space causing an increase in hematocrit and a decrease in plasma volume, the CRIT-LINE response is closely emulated (typical per session linear correlation r2=0.78, N=87, pfactors will also be discussed.

  4. Continued Fractions for e

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 1. Continued Fractions for e. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 5 Issue 1 January 2000 pp 14-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/01/0014-0028. Author Affiliations.

  5. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have false results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  6. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  7. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Kellie; Pumpa, Kate L; Arnolda, Leonard; Cooke, Julie; Yip, Desmond; Craft, Paul S; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group (n = 8) or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group (n = 8) group for 36 sessions (12 weeks) of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT) group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate) and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT) group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate) on a stationary bike or treadmill. Significant improvements (time) were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05-0.61, p ≤ 0.05). An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43-4.63] ES 0.50, p ≤ 0.01) with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT); it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings.

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  9. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  11. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, David B; Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Anton J. M. Wagenmakers; Shaw, Christopher S.; Lord, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43???11 years) healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate) or MICT (70% maximum heart rate) group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak...

  12. Transurethral bipolar plasmakinetic resection combined with 2 μm continuous wave laser vaporization: a new method for the treatment of large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Naikai; Yu, JianJun

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of transurethral bipolar plasmakinetic resection of the prostate (PKRP) combined with 2 μm laser vaporization in the management of large prostates (>80 mL). The safety and efficiency of transurethral vaporesection of the prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), using a 2 μm laser system, have been verified. However, this method does still not manage large volume prostates efficiently. From October 2009 to June 2010, 120 BPH patients with a median prostatic volume of 106.7 (±16.7) mL (range, 82.5-156.8 mL) were randomized for surgical treatment with PKRP combined with 2 μm laser vaporization (n=58) or PKRP only (n=62). All patients were preoperatively assessed with subjective symptoms score. Preoperative and perioperative parameters at 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-up were also evaluated. All complications were recorded. PKRP combined with 2 μm laser vaporization was significantly superior to PKRP alone in terms of operative time, irrigation time, catheterization time, hospital stay, and hemoglobin decrease. The blood transfusion and urinary tract infection observed in the PKRP combined with 2 μm laser vaporization group was significantly less than that of the groups that received PKRP only. Both groups were similar with respect to resected tissue weight, transient incontinence, urethral stricture and retrograde ejaculation in the postoperative period. Both groups showed a significant improvement from baseline in terms of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and pulmonary vascular resistance unit (PVRU) values. However, no significant difference was found between them. PKRP combined with 2 μm laser vaporization, which combines the advantages of both PKRP and 2 μm laser, is superior for its shorter operation time, less bleeding, and better efficiency. It may be a safer and more effective method for the

  13. Scan-rescan reproducibility of CT densitometric measures of emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, D.; van Rikxoort, E. M.; Kim, H. J.; Goldin, J. G.; Brown, M. S.

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the reproducibility of HRCT densitometric measures of emphysema in patients scanned twice one week apart. 24 emphysema patients from a multicenter study were scanned at full inspiration (TLC) and expiration (RV), then again a week later for four scans total. Scans for each patient used the same scanner and protocol, except for tube current in three patients. Lung segmentation with gross airway removal was performed on the scans. Volume, weight, mean lung density (MLD), relative area under -950HU (RA-950), and 15th percentile (PD-15) were calculated for TLC, and volume and an airtrapping mask (RA-air) between -950 and -850HU for RV. For each measure, absolute differences were computed for each scan pair, and linear regression was performed against volume difference in a subgroup with volume difference emphysema treatment efficacy.

  14. Evaluating Variations of Bladder Volume Using an Ultrasound Scanner in Rectal Cancer Patients during Chemoradiation: Is Protocol-Based Full Bladder Maintenance Using a Bladder Scanner Useful to Maintain the Bladder Volume?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong In Yoon

    Full Text Available The maintenance of full bladder is important to reduce radiation-induced toxicities and maintain the therapeutic consistency in locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of protocol-based full bladder maintenance by assessing bladder volume variation using an ultrasound bladder scanner to maintain bladder volume.From March 2011 to May 2011, twenty consecutive rectal cancer patients receiving external beam RT participated in this prospective study. Protocol-based full bladder maintenance consisted of education, training and continuous biofeedback by measuring bladder volume. Bladder volume was measured by bladder scan immediately before simulation CT scan and before each treatment three times weekly during the RT period. The relative bladder volume change was calculated. Intra-patient bladder volume variations were quantified using interquartile range (IQR of relative bladder volume change in each patient. We compared intra-patient bladder volume variations obtained (n=20 with data from our previous study patients (n=20 performing self-controlled maintenance without protocol.Bladder volumes measured by bladder scan highly correlated with those on simulation CT scan (R=0.87, p<0.001. Patients from this study showed lower median IQR of relative bladder volume change compared to patients of self-controlled maintenance from our previous study, although it was not statistically significant (median 32.56% vs. 42.19%, p=0.058. Upon logistic regression, the IQR of relative bladder volume change was significantly related to protocol-based maintenance [relative risk 1.045, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.004-1.087, p=0.033]. Protocol-based maintenance included significantly more patients with an IQR of relative bladder volume change less than 37% than self-controlled maintenance (p=0.025.Our findings show that bladder volume could be maintained more consistently during

  15. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.; Shaw, Christopher S.; Lord, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years) healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate) or MICT (70% maximum heart rate) group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak), neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function. PMID:28656073

  16. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Bartlett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate or MICT (70% maximum heart rate group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak, neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function.

  17. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David B; Shepherd, Sam O; Wilson, Oliver J; Adlan, Ahmed M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S; Lord, Janet M

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years) healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate) or MICT (70% maximum heart rate) group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak), neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function.

  18. Alteration of LV end-diastolic volume by controlling the power of the continuous-flow LVAD, so it is synchronized with cardiac beat: development of a native heart load control system (NHLCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Akihide; Nishimura, Takashi; Ando, Masahiko; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Kenji; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2012-06-01

    There are many reports comparing pulsatile and continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD). But continuous-flow LVAD with the pulsatile driving technique had not been tried or discussed before our group's report. We have previously developed and introduced a power-control unit for a centrifugal LVAD (EVAHEART®; Sun Medical), which can change the speed of rotation so it is synchronized with the heart beat. By use of this unit we analyzed the end-diastolic volume (EDV) to determine whether it is possible to change the native heart load. We studied 5 goats with normal hearts and 5 goats with acute LV dysfunction because of micro-embolization of the coronary artery. We used 4 modes, "circuit-clamp", "continuous", "counter-pulse", and "co-pulse", with the bypass rate (BR) 100%. We raised the speed of rotation of the LVAD in the diastolic phase with the counter-pulse mode, and raised it in the systolic phase with the co-pulse mode. As a result, the EDV decreased in the counter-pulse mode and increased in the co-pulse mode, compared with the continuous mode (p < 0.05), in both the normal and acute-heart-failure models. This result means it may be possible to achieve favorable EDV and native heart load by controlling the rotation of continuous-flow LVAD, so it is synchronized with the cardiac beat. This novel driving system may be of great benefit to patients with end-stage heart failure, especially those with ischemic etiology.

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... concern for you. If you had an intravenous line inserted for the procedure, it will usually be ... procedure that same day that requires an intravenous line. Actual scanning time for a thyroid scan is ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  1. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  2. Codification of scan path parameters and development of perimeter scan strategies for 3D bowl-shaped laser forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, A.; Naeini, H. Moslemi; Roohi, Amir H.; Gollo, M. Hoseinpour; Shahabad, Sh. Imani

    2018-01-01

    In the 3D laser forming process, developing an appropriate laser scan pattern for producing specimens with high quality and uniformity is critical. This study presents certain principles for developing scan paths. Seven scan path parameters are considered, including: (1) combined linear or curved path; (2) type of combined linear path; (3) order of scan sequences; (4) the position of the start point in each scan; (5) continuous or discontinuous scan path; (6) direction of scan path; and (7) angular arrangement of combined linear scan paths. Regarding these path parameters, ten combined linear scan patterns are presented. Numerical simulations show continuous hexagonal, scan pattern, scanning from outer to inner path, is the optimized. In addition, it is observed the position of the start point and the angular arrangement of scan paths is the most effective path parameters. Also, further experimentations show four sequences due to creat symmetric condition enhance the height of the bowl-shaped products and uniformity. Finally, the optimized hexagonal pattern was compared with the similar circular one. In the hexagonal scan path, distortion value and standard deviation rather to edge height of formed specimen is very low, and the edge height despite of decreasing length of scan path increases significantly compared to the circular scan path. As a result, four-sequence hexagonal scan pattern is proposed as the optimized perimeter scan path to produce bowl-shaped product.

  3. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  4. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  5. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase...

  6. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  7. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P., E-mail: thessa@isi.uu.nl; Viergever, Max A. [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M. [Department of Radiology, Meander Medical Centre, 3813 TZ Amersfoort, The Netherlands and Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bozovic, Gracijela [Center for Diagnostic Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate [Cancer Imaging Laboratory, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, ES-31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Rikxoort, Eva M. van [Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brown, Matthew S. [Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Jong, Pim A. de [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Ginneken, Bram van [Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  8. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T J P; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Brown, Matthew S; de Jong, Pim A; Viergever, Max A; van Ginneken, Bram

    2014-08-01

    Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors' aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in challenging chest CT images. Both systems do

  9. Influence of time, surface-to-volume ratio, and heating process (continuous or intermittent) on the emission rates of selected carbonyl compounds during thermal oxidation of palm and soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thalita Oliveira; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula

    2008-05-14

    The aim of this work was to compare the emission rates of selected carbonyl compounds (CC) produced by palm and soybean oils when heated at 180 degrees C in the presence of air, through different time intervals and at different surface-to-volume ratios ( S/ V), in continuous and intermittent processes. The CC were collected and derivatized onto silica C18 cartridges impregnated with an acid 2,4-dinitrophenylhidrazine solution, followed by extraction with acetonitrile and analysis by HPLC-UV and, in some cases, HPLC-MS with electrospray ionization. Among the CC quantified, namely, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propanal, butanal, hexanal, 2-heptenal, and 2-octenal, acrolein was the main emission in both oils and all S/ V ratios, followed by hexanal and 2-heptenal. The soybean oil has presented greater emission rates of acrolein than palm oil. When different S/ V ratios used during the heating process of the oil were compared, the emission rates, in general, were directly related to them, although saturated and nonsaturated CC have had different behaviors toward oxidation reactions. During intermittent heating, there was a trend of increasing emission rates of saturated aldehydes, whereas the opposite was observed with unsaturated aldehydes, probably due to the reactivity of the double bond present in these compounds.

  10. Continuous axial scanning of a Gaussian beam via beam steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Pauline; Barré, Nicolas; Pinel, Olivier; Labroille, Guillaume; Treps, Nicolas

    2017-09-18

    We propose and demonstrate experimentally the transfer of one spatial degree of freedom of a laser beam onto another one. Using a multi-plane light conversion device (MPLC) and a modal analysis, we designed a passive setup with immediate response which couples a displacement and tilt in the transverse plane to a longitudinal shift of the focus point of a beam. With this design, we demonstrated a shift of the focal point of the output beam by 4 zR along the propagation axis.

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... gland evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to ... tells you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special ...

  13. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses special ... the Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a ... any. Nuclear medicine is less expensive and may yield more precise information than exploratory surgery. Risks Because ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iodine, medications and anesthetics. are breastfeeding. In the days prior to your examination, blood tests may be ... are scheduled for an additional procedure that same day that requires an intravenous line. Actual scanning time ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 hours before the scan. The radiotracer given by intravenous injection is usually given up to 30 minutes prior to the test. When ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a special camera or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and ... and with the help of a computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function ...

  7. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for ...

  9. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  11. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and ... area of your body. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an intravenous line ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for each thyroid ...

  15. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ... you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and imaging ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. ... but is often performed on hospitalized patients as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers . Depending on the type of nuclear medicine exam, the radiotracer is either injected into the body, ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are noninvasive and, with the exception of intravenous injections, are usually painless medical tests that help physicians ... before the scan. The radiotracer given by intravenous injection is usually given up to 30 minutes prior ...

  2. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for whic...

  3. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Resnick, Susan M.; Bryan, R. Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Bushnell, Cheryl D.; Shumaker, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen–based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. Methods: A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Results: Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm3/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm3/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm3/y (p = 0.88). Conclusions: Conjugated equine estrogen–based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings. PMID:24384646

  4. 2015 Workshop on Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    his volume contains the papers presented at WoC 2015, the Workshop on Continuations held at ETAPS 2015. There were four submissions. Each of them was reviewed by, on the average, three PC members. The committee decided to accept three papers. The program also includes one invited talk. It also...... documents the depth, variety, and richness of continuations with four distilled tutorials. Thanks are due to the local organizers of ETAPS 2015 for the infras- tructure and to the general chairman of WoC 2015, Ugo de'Liguoro, for initiating this workshop and making it happen...

  5. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF MULTIFOCAL STOCHASTIC SCANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIXIN LIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM has greatly improved the utilization of excitation light and imaging speed due to parallel multiphoton excitation of the samples and simultaneous detection of the signals, which allows it to perform three-dimensional fast fluorescence imaging. Stochastic scanning can provide continuous, uniform and high-speed excitation of the sample, which makes it a suitable scanning scheme for MMM. In this paper, the graphical programming language — LabVIEW is used to achieve stochastic scanning of the two-dimensional galvo scanners by using white noise signals to control the x and y mirrors independently. Moreover, the stochastic scanning process is simulated by using Monte Carlo method. Our results show that MMM can avoid oversampling or subsampling in the scanning area and meet the requirements of uniform sampling by stochastically scanning the individual units of the N × N foci array. Therefore, continuous and uniform scanning in the whole field of view is implemented.

  6. Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eric W.; Zelten, J. Peter; Wiseman, Benjamin A.

    1988-06-01

    We report on the development of a laser scanning fluorescence microscope possessing several features which facilitate its application to biological and biophysical analyses in living cells. It is built around a standard inverted microscope stand, enabling the use of standard optics, micromanipulation apparatus, and conventional (including video) microscopy in conjunction with laser scanning. The beam is scanned across the specimen by a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors, driven by a programmable controller which can operate in three modes: full raster scan, region of interest, and random-access. A full 512x512 pixel image can be acquired in one second. In region of interest mode, several subareas of the field can be selected for more rapid or detailed analysis. For those cases where the time scale of the observed phenomenon precludes full-field imaging, or where a full-field image is unnecessary, the random access mode enables an arbitrary pattern of isolated points to be selected and rapidly sequenced through. Via a graphical user interface implemented on the system's host computer, a user will be able to take a scout image either with video or a full-field laser scan, select regions or points on the scout image with a mouse, and set up experimental parameters such as detector integration times with a window-style menu. The instrument is designed to be a flexible testbed for investigating new techniques, without compromising its utility as a tool for biological research.

  7. Phase continuity and inversion in polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuai, Chengzhi; Almdal, K.; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Dual-phase continuity and phase inversion of polystyrene (PS)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends processed in a twin-screw extruder was investigated using a selective extraction technique and scanning electron microscopy. Emphasis was placed on investigating the effects of viscosity ratio......, blend composition, processing variables (mixing time and annealing) and diblock copolymer addition on the formation of bi-continuous phase structure (BPS) in PS/PMMA blends. The experimental results were compared with the volume fraction of phase inversion calculated with various semi-empirical models...... of volume fraction in which BPS exists. Quiescent annealing coarsened the structure but indicated no qualitative changes. Some model predictions for phase inversion could predict qualitative aspects of the observed windows of co-continuity but none of the models could account quantitatively for the observed...

  8. Volume 19, Issue8 (December 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Research ArticleTowards automation of palynology 1: analysis of pollen shape and ornamentation using simple geometric measures, derived from scanning electron microscope images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, W. J.; Taylor, G. E.; Flenley, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    This is the first of a series of papers on the theme of automated pollen analysis. The automation of pollen analysis could result in numerous advantages for the reconstruction of past environments, with larger data sets made practical, objectivity and fine resolution sampling. There are also applications in apiculture and medicine. Previous work on the classification of pollen using texture measures has been successful with small numbers of pollen taxa. However, as the number of pollen taxa to be identified increases, more features may be required to achieve a successful classification. This paper describes the use of simple geometric measures to augment the texture measures. The feasibility of this new approach is tested using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of 12 taxa of fresh pollen taken from reference material collected on Henderson Island, Polynesia. Pollen images were captured directly from a SEM connected to a PC. A threshold grey-level was set and binary images were then generated. Pollen edges were then located and the boundaries were traced using a chain coding system. A number of simple geometric variables were calculated directly from the chain code of the pollen and a variable selection procedure was used to choose the optimal subset to be used for classification. The efficiency of these variables was tested using a leave-one-out classification procedure. The system successfully split the original 12 taxa sample into five sub-samples containing no more than six pollen taxa each. The further subdivision of echinate pollen types was then attempted with a subset of four pollen taxa. A set of difference codes was constructed for a range of displacements along the chain code. From these difference codes probability variables were calculated. A variable selection procedure was again used to choose the optimal subset of probabilities that may be used for classification. The efficiency of these variables was again tested using a leave

  9. Scanning laser video camera/ microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. P.; Bow, R. T.

    1984-10-01

    A laser scanning system capable of scanning at standard video rate has been developed. The scanning mirrors, circuit design and system performance, as well as its applications to video cameras and ultra-violet microscopes, are discussed.

  10. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  11. Tomographic scanning imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Harald

    2009-07-06

    In tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imaging, light from a scene is focused onto a reticle mask using conical scan optics, and collected on a single element detector. Alternatively, one or several detectors replace the reticle. Tomographic processing techniques are then applied to the one-dimensional signal to reproduce a two-dimensional image. The TOSCA technique is presented in detail, including its mathematical foundations and some of its limitations. It is shown how TOSCA imaging can be used in a multispectral configuration, and compares well with more conventional alternatives both in simplicity and performance. Examples of image reconstruction using TOSCA techniques are shown.

  12. Scanning the phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Wuerzinger, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A framework to perform scans in the 19-dimensional phenomenological MSSM is developed and used to re-evaluate the ATLAS experiments' sensitivity to R-parity-conserving supersymmetry with LHC Run 2 data ($\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV), using results from 14 separate ATLAS searches. We perform a $\\tilde{t}_1$ dedicated scan, only considering models with $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<1$ TeV, while allowing both a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$) and a sneutrino ($\\tilde{\

  13. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  14. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a continuous-wave (CW) method that combines narrowband excitation and broadband detection. Sinusoidal magnetic field scans that span the entire EPR spectrum cause electron spin excitations twice during the scan period. Periodic transient RS signals are digitized and time-averaged. Deconvolution of absorption spectrum from the measured full-cycle signal is an ill-posed problem that does not have a stable solution because the magnetic field passes the same EPR line twice per sinusoidal scan during up- and down-field passages. As a result, RS signals consist of two contributions that need to be separated and postprocessed individually. Deconvolution of either of the contributions is a well-posed problem that has a stable solution. The current version of the RS EPR algorithm solves the separation problem by cutting the full-scan signal into two half-period pieces. This imposes a constraint on the experiment; the EPR signal must completely decay by the end of each half-scan in order to not be truncated. The constraint limits the maximum scan frequency and, therefore, the RS signal-to-noise gain. Faster scans permit the use of higher excitation powers without saturating the spin system, translating into a higher EPR sensitivity. A stable, full-scan algorithm is described in this paper that does not require truncation of the periodic response. This algorithm utilizes the additive property of linear systems: the response to a sum of two inputs is equal the sum of responses to each of the inputs separately. Based on this property, the mathematical model for CW RS EPR can be replaced by that of a sum of two independent full-cycle pulsed field-modulated experiments. In each of these experiments, the excitation power equals to zero during either up- or down-field scan. The full-cycle algorithm permits approaching the upper theoretical scan frequency limit; the transient spin system response must decay within the scan

  15. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you: have had any tests, such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated ... page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x- ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. You may be told not to eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the ... as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an examination ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or less. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  19. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  20. Cervical MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer in the spine Arthritis in the spine MRI works better than CT scan in diagnosing these problems ... test. The strong magnetic fields created during an MRI can cause heart pacemakers and other implants to not work as well. It can also cause a piece ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ... a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Nuclear ... medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  4. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  5. SPM: Scanning positron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Dickmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Munich scanning positron microscope, operated by the Universität der Bundeswehr München and the Technische Universität München, located at NEPOMUC, permits positron lifetime measurements with a lateral resolution in the µm range and within an energy range of 1 – 20 keV.

  6. Laser Beam Scanning Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    metal mirror. Multiple thermocouple wires attached to the rear of the mirror provide temperature (and hence beam power) information at various points...on the mirror. Scanning is achieved by means of a selector switch which sequentially samples the thermocouple outputs. The thermocouple output voltages are measured and recorded as a function of laser beam power.

  7. Using drift scans to improve astrometry with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, James G.; Carey, Sean J.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Stauffer, John R.

    2014-08-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) is the only space-based instrument currently capable of continuous long duration monitoring of brown dwarfs to detect variability and characterize their atmospheres. Any such studies are limited, however, by the accuracy to which we know the positions and distances to these targets (most of which are newly discovered and therefore do not yet have multiple epochs of astrometric data). To that end, we have begun a new initiative to adapt the astrometric drift scanning technique employed by the Hubble Space Telescope to enhance Spitzer measurements of parallaxes and proper motions of brown dwarfs and other targets. A suite of images are taken with a set of sources scanned across the array. This technique reduces random noise by coaddition, and because each target covers multiple pixels we are able to average over residual instrumental distortion and intra-pixel variations. Although these benefits can be realized with appropriate dithering, scanning is much more effcient because we can take data concurrently with the spacecraft motion, covering many pixels without waiting to reposition and settle. In this contribution we demonstrate that the observing mode works and describe our software for analyzing the observations. We outline ongoing efforts towards simultaneously solving for source position and residual distortion. Initial testing shows a factor of more than 2 improvement in the astrometric precision can be obtained with Spitzer. We anticipate being able to measure parallaxes for sources out to about 50 pc, increasing the volume surveyed by a factor of 100 and enabling luminosity measurements of the young population of brown dwarfs in the β Pictoris moving group. This observing mode will be ready for public use around Winter of 2015.

  8. UAVSAR Active Electronically Scanned Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowy, Gregory, A.; Chamberlain, Neil F.; Zawadzki, Mark S.; Brown, Kyle M.; Fisher, Charles D.; Figueroa, Harry S.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Vorperian, Vatche; Grando, Maurio B.

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a pod-based, L-band (1.26 GHz), repeatpass, interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Repeat-pass interferometric radar measurements from an airborne platform require an antenna that can be steered to maintain the same angle with respect to the flight track over a wide range of aircraft yaw angles. In order to be able to collect repeat-pass InSAR data over a wide range of wind conditions, UAVSAR employs an active electronically scanned array (AESA). During data collection, the UAVSAR flight software continuously reads the aircraft attitude state measured by the Embedded GPS/INS system (EGI) and electronically steers the beam so that it remains perpendicular to the flight track throughout the data collection

  9. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  10. Regional brain volumes, diffusivity, and metabolite changes after electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.; Magnusson, P.; Hanson, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    , and metabolite changes in 19 patients receiving ECT for severe depression. Other regions of interest included the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex, and hypothalamus. Patients received a 3T MR scan before ECT (TP1), 1 week (TP2), and 4 weeks (TP3) after ECT. Results......: Hippocampal and amygdala volume increased significantly at TP2 and continued to be increased at TP3. DLPFC exhibited a transient volume reduction at TP2. DTI revealed a reduced anisotropy and diffusivity of the hippocampus at TP2. We found no significant post-ECT changes in brain metabolite concentrations...

  11. Mammographic scanning equalization radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, J M; Soutar, I C; Plewes, D B

    1993-01-01

    It is well recognized that variations in breast thickness and parenchymal composition can produce a range of exposure which exceeds the latitude of high contrast mammographic film/screen combinations. Optimal imaging of the dense breast is desired since 30%-60% of women present with dense breasts, and they are believed to be at the highest relative risk of developing breast cancer. The application of scanning equalization radiography to mammography has been investigated through the construction and characterization of a prototype mammographic scanning equalization radiography (MSER) system, designed to image mammographic phantoms. The MSER system exposes a Min-R/MRH cassette by raster scanning a 2.0 x 1.6 cm beam of pulsed x-rays across the cassette. A scanning detector behind the cassette measures the local x-ray transmission of the breast. Feedback of the transmission information is used to modulate the duration of each x-ray pulse, to equalize the film exposure. The effective dynamic range of the MSER system is 25 times greater than that of conventional mammography. Artifact-free images of mammographic phantoms show that MSER effectively overcomes the latitude limitations of film/screen mammography, enabling high contrast imaging over a wide range of object x-ray transmission. Anthropomorphic phantom images show that MSER offers up to a sixfold increase in film contrast in the normally underexposed regions of conventional mammograms. Characterization of the entrance exposure shows that there is not a significant difference in exposure between MSER and conventional mammographic techniques, suggesting that both would pose comparable risk to the patient. Calculations show that the construction of a clinical multiple beam MSER system is feasible with minor changes to existing technology.

  12. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the object and, connected to the detector, a device for processing the detected electrons so as to form an object image, wherein a beam splitter is provided for dividing the electron beam from the electron...

  13. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  14. Scanning drop sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  15. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  16. 3-D Reconstruction of Neurons from Multichannel Confocal Laser Scanning Image Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterlood, F.G.

    2014-01-01

    A confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) collects information from a thin, focal plane and ignores out-of-focus information. Scanning of a specimen, with stepwise axial (Z-) movement of the stage in between each scan, produces Z-series of confocal images of a tissue volume, which then can be used

  17. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...... pulse wave. We performed digital photoplethysmography during sleep at night in 94 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography and 29 patients treated with nCPAP. Digital volume pulse waves were obtained independently of an investigator and were quantified using an algorithm for continuous...

  18. Sagebrush Biomass Estimation Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsoy, P.; Glenn, N. F.; Clark, P. E.; Spaete, L.; Mitchell, J.; Shrestha, R.

    2012-12-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a proven tool for inventory of many vegetation types. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been demonstrated for estimation of biomass of trees, but the relatively low number of laser points (1-10 m-2) typical of ALS datasets makes estimating biomass of shrubs and small stature vegetation challenging. This study uses terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to estimate sagebrush biomass (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) by relating destructively sampled estimates to TLS-derived volumetric estimates. At close range, TLS can commonly provide in excess of 100,000 3-D points for a single sagebrush of approximately 1 m3 in volume. In this study, thirty sagebrush were scanned and destructively sampled at 6 sites within Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho, USA. The 3-D point cloud data are converted into 1-cm voxels to give quantitative estimates of shrub volume. The accuracy of the TLS-based metrics for estimating biomass are then compared to several traditional plot sampling methods including point-intercept and simple crown dimension measurements. The findings of this study are expected to provide guidance on methods for data collection and analysis such that biomass can be accurately estimated across plot-scales (e.g., 100 m x 100 m).

  19. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include amounts...

  20. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  1. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    In 2016, the Belgian, Dutch, Luxembourg and Austrian governments declared their intention to collaborate on pharmaceutical policy (BeNeLuxA Collaboration). KCE was asked to lead a task force responsible for developing a Horizon Scanning methodology for pharmaceuticals and a possible model...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...

  2. Surface micromachined scanning mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1992-01-01

    Both aluminum cantilever and torsional scanning mirrors have been fabricated and their static and dynamic properties are studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments showed resonance frequencies in the range of 163 k-Hz - 632 kHz for cantilever beams with Q values between 5 and 11....... Torsional mirrors showed resonance frequencies in the range of 410 kHz - 667 kHz with Q values of 10 - 17. All measurements performed at atmospheric pressure. Both types of mechanical structures were deflected electrostatically at large angles (± 5°) more than 1011 times without breaking and without any...

  3. Confocal scanning Mueller polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lompado, Arthur

    2009-08-01

    We describe the design, construction, calibration and testing of a confocal scanning Mueller polarimeter. A polarization state generator and polarization state analyzer have been inserted into the optical path of a conventional confocal scanning imager to collect the reflectance Muller matrix of samples measuring up to 6.26 mm on a side. Four sources are available for sample interrogation using diode lasers centered at 532 nm, 635 nm, 670 nm, and 785 nm. The device captures all required imagery to calculate the Mueller matrix of each image pixel in approximately 90 s. These matrices are then reduced into polarization imagery such as the diattenuation, retardance and depolarization index. Oftentimes this polarization imagery is quite different and potentially more informative than a conventional intensity image. There are a number of fields that can benefit from alternative/enhanced imagery, most notably in the biomedical, discrimination, and target recognition communities. The sensor has been designed for biomedical applications aimed at improving the technique of noninvasive detection of melanoma lesions.

  4. Scanning quantum decoherence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jared H; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2009-12-09

    The use of qubits as sensitive nanoscale magnetometers has been studied theoretically and recently demonstrated experimentally. In this paper we propose a new concept, in which a scanning two-state quantum system is used to probe a sample through the subtle effects of decoherence. Mapping both the Hamiltonian and decoherence properties of a qubit simultaneously provides a unique image of the magnetic (or electric) field properties at the nanoscale. The resulting images are sensitive to the temporal as well as spatial variation in the fields created by the sample. As examples we theoretically study two applications; one from condensed matter physics, the other biophysics. The individual components required to realize the simplest version of this device (characterization and measurement of qubits, nanoscale positioning) have already been demonstrated experimentally.

  5. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    Medical ultrasound has been a widely used imaging modality in healthcare platforms for examination, diagnostic purposes, and for real-time guidance during surgery. However, despite the recent advances, medical ultrasound remains the most operator-dependent imaging modality, as it heavily relies...... on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  6. Plasma etched surface scanning inspection recipe creation based on bidirectional reflectance distribution function and polystyrene latex spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Tiffany; McGarvey, Steve; Ayres, Steve

    2014-04-01

    The continual increasing demands upon Plasma Etching systems to self-clean and continue Plasma Etching with minimal downtime allows for the examination of SiCN, SiO2 and SiN defectivity based upon Surface Scanning Inspection Systems (SSIS) wafer scan results. Historically all Surface Scanning Inspection System wafer scanning recipes have been based upon Polystyrene Spheres wafer deposition for each film stack and the subsequent creation of light scattering sizing response curves. This paper explores the feasibility of the elimination of Polystyrene Latex Sphere (PSL) and/or process particle deposition on both filmed and bare Silicon wafers prior to Surface Scanning Inspection System recipe creation. The study will explore the theoretical maximal Surface Scanning Inspection System sensitivity based on PSL recipe creation in conjunction with the maximal sensitivity derived from Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) maximal sensitivity modeling recipe creation. The surface roughness (Root Mean Square) of plasma etched wafers varies dependent upon the process film stack. Decrease of the root mean square value of the wafer sample surface equates to higher surface scanning inspection system sensitivity. Maximal sensitivity SSIS scan results from bare and filmed wafers inspected with recipes created based upon Polystyrene/Particle Deposition and recipes created based upon BRDF modeling will be overlaid against each other to determine maximal sensitivity and capture rate for each type of recipe that was created with differing recipe creation modes. A statistically valid sample of defects from each Surface Scanning Inspection system recipe creation mode and each bare wafer/filmed substrate will be reviewed post SSIS System processing on a Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (DRSEM). Native defects, Polystyrene Latex Spheres will be collected from each statistically valid defect bin category/size. The data collected from the DRSEM will be utilized to

  7. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired 3D...... T1-weighted MRIs about 8 weeks and 12 months post-injury. For comparison, 14 healthy controls with similar distribution of age, gender and education were scanned with a similar time interval. For each subject, longitudinal atrophy was estimated using SIENA, and atrophy occurring before the first...... scan time point using SIENAX. Regional distribution of atrophy was evaluated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). At the first scan time point, brain parenchymal volume was reduced by mean 8.4% in patients as compared to controls. During the scan interval, patients exhibited continued atrophy...

  8. Changes in Upper Airway Volume Following Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Lillian; Stokbro, Kasper; Aagaard, Esben; Torkov, Peter; Thygesen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Reduced volume of the internal skeletal dimensions of the face is 1 of the main causes of obstructive sleep apnea, and attention to patients' airways is necessary when planning orthognathic treatment. This study aims to describe changes in upper airway volume following virtually planned orthognathic surgery.A retrospective pilot study was designed with 30 randomly selected patients (10 men and 20 women, aged 23.1 ± 6.8 years, molar-relations: 15 neutral, 8 distal, and 7 mesial). Cone-beam computed tomography scans were performed before surgery and 1 week following surgery. The authors did total upper airway volume measurements and obtained 1-mm slices at vertical levels in the velo-, oro-, and hypopharynx and at the smallest visible cross-section.Measurements before and after surgery were compared using Student t test.After orthognathic surgery, the minimum cross-sectional area at the vertical level increased from 83 mm ± 33 before surgery to 102 mm ± 36 after surgery (P = 0.019). In patients with neutral and distal occlusions, the minimum cross-sectional slice volume increased in 87% but in only 57% with mesial occlusion.The present findings suggest that orthognathic surgery increases upper airway volume parameters, but a few patients have continued impairment of the airways following orthognathic surgery. Further studies are needed to confirm an individual surgical planning approach that potentially could bring the minimum cross sectional area out of the risk zone.

  9. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of lung volume reduction surgery in clinical practice is limited by high postoperative morbidity and stringent selection criteria. This has been the impetus for the development of bronchoscopic approaches to lung volume reduction. A range of different techniques such as endobronchial blockers, airway bypass, endobronchial valves, thermal vapor ablation, biological sealants, and airway implants have been employed on both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous emphysema. The currently available data on efficacy of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction are not conclusive and subjective benefit in dyspnoea scores is a more frequent finding than improvements on spirometry or exercise tolerance. Safety data are more promising with rare procedure-related mortality, few serious complications, and short hospital length of stay. The field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction continues to evolve as ongoing prospective randomized trials build on earlier feasibility data to clarify the true efficacy of such techniques.

  10. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  11. GPR scan assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD. The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  12. Wider horizons, wiser choices: horizon scanning for public health protection and improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Graham J; Saunders, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Systematic continuous thinking about the future helps organizations, professions and communities to both prepare for, and shape, the future. This becomes ever more critical given the accelerating rate at which new data emerge, and in some cases uncertainties around their reliability and interpretation. Businesses with the capability to filter and analyse vast volumes of data to create knowledge and insights requiring action have a competitive advantage. Similarly Government and the public sector, including public health can be more effective and efficient through the early identification of emerging issues (both threats and opportunities). Horizon scanning approaches, and the use of resulting intelligence related to health protection and improvement were reviewed. Public health horizon scanning systems have to date focussed on health technologies and infectious diseases. While these have been successful there is a major gap in terms of non-infectious hazards and health improvement. Any system to meet this need must recognize the changed environment for delivering front line public health services and the critical role of local authorities and the local democratic process. This presents opportunities and challenges and this paper explores those dynamics describing an existing environment and health horizon scanning system which could readily and rapidly be re-engineered to provide a national service.

  13. Bare-Hand Volume Cracker for Raw Volume Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bireswar Laha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of raw volume data generated from different scanning technologies faces a variety of challenges, related to search, pattern recognition, spatial understanding, quantitative estimation, and shape description. In a previous study, we found that the Volume Cracker (VC 3D interaction (3DI technique mitigated some of these problems, but this result was from a tethered glove-based system with users analyzing simulated data. Here, we redesigned the VC by using untethered bare-hand interaction with real volume datasets, with a broader aim of adoption of this technique in research labs. We developed symmetric and asymmetric interfaces for the Bare-Hand Volume Cracker (BHVC through design iterations with a biomechanics scientist. We evaluated our asymmetric BHVC technique against standard 2D and widely used 3D interaction techniques with experts analyzing scanned beetle datasets. We found that our BHVC design significantly outperformed the other two techniques. This study contributes a practical 3DI design for scientists, documents lessons learned while redesigning for bare-hand trackers, and provides evidence suggesting that 3D interaction could improve volume data analysis for a variety of visual analysis tasks. Our contribution is in the realm of 3D user interfaces tightly integrated with visualization, for improving the effectiveness of visual analysis of volume datasets. Based on our experience, we also provide some insights into hardware-agnostic principles for design of effective interaction techniques.

  14. Pattern of Ocular Pathologies Diagnosed with B-scan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... biometry for calculation of optical power of artificial lens implants is another advantage .... Loss of vision. 8. 8. Photopsia. 3. 3. Bangal, et al.: Pattern of ocular pathologies diagnosed with B-scan ultrasonography. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology ¦ Jul-Dec 2016 ¦ Volume 24 ¦ Issue 2. 73. [Downloaded free ...

  15. Pattern of Ocular Pathologies Diagnosed with B-scan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biometry for calculation of optical power of artificial lens implants is another advantage of ocular .... Loss of vision. 8. 8. Photopsia. 3. 3. Bangal, et al.: Pattern of ocular pathologies diagnosed with B-scan ultrasonography. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology ¦ Jul-Dec 2016 ¦ Volume 24 ¦ Issue 2. 73. [Downloaded free from ...

  16. Compensation of sampling error in frequency scanning interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yue; Lin, Jiarui; Yang, Linghui; Ren, Yongjie

    2018-01-01

    Absolute distance measurement techniques are of significant interest in the field of large volume metrology. Ones which could offer an ability of ADM and high accuracy will improve the efficiency and the quality of large assemblies. Frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) is a kind of ADM technique which use a variable synthetic-wavelength achieved by tuning the optical frequency continuously. FSI could offer a relative accuracy of several ppm in a range of tens of meters. In a FSI ranging system, it is necessary to get knowledge of the tuning range of optical frequency, which could be done by using of gas absorption cell, femtosecond laser comb, F-P etalon and the most used: a predicted auxiliary interferometer. As the result of the measurement is calculated by the tuning range of optical frequency, a length drift of the auxiliary interferometer will make a contribution in error of the result. Analysis of sampling error caused by the drift of the auxiliary interferometer has been done and a real-time compensation system has been proposed to minimize the drift of the auxiliary interferometer. The simulation has proved the analysis and the error has been decreased.

  17. Hyperchromatic laser scanning cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárnok, Attila; Mittag, Anja

    2007-02-01

    In the emerging fields of high-content and high-throughput single cell analysis for Systems Biology and Cytomics multi- and polychromatic analysis of biological specimens has become increasingly important. Combining different technologies and staining methods polychromatic analysis (i.e. using 8 or more fluorescent colors at a time) can be pushed forward to measure anything stainable in a cell, an approach termed hyperchromatic cytometry. For cytometric cell analysis microscope based Slide Based Cytometry (SBC) technologies are ideal as, unlike flow cytometry, they are non-consumptive, i.e. the analyzed sample is fixed on the slide. Based on the feature of relocation identical cells can be subsequently reanalyzed. In this manner data on the single cell level after manipulation steps can be collected. In this overview various components for hyperchromatic cytometry are demonstrated for a SBC instrument, the Laser Scanning Cytometer (Compucyte Corp., Cambridge, MA): 1) polychromatic cytometry, 2) iterative restaining (using the same fluorochrome for restaining and subsequent reanalysis), 3) differential photobleaching (differentiating fluorochromes by their different photostability), 4) photoactivation (activating fluorescent nanoparticles or photocaged dyes), and 5) photodestruction (destruction of FRET dyes). With the intelligent combination of several of these techniques hyperchromatic cytometry allows to quantify and analyze virtually all components of relevance on the identical cell. The combination of high-throughput and high-content SBC analysis with high-resolution confocal imaging allows clear verification of phenotypically distinct subpopulations of cells with structural information. The information gained per specimen is only limited by the number of available antibodies and by sterical hindrance.

  18. The Control of Tuberculosis: A Continuous Game of Snakes and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 8. The Control of Tuberculosis: A Continuous Game of Sankes and Ladders. T Ramakrishnan P Chandrasekhar. Classics Volume 14 Issue 8 August 2009 pp 820-834 ...

  19. Cochlear labyrinth volume in Krapina Neandertals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Michaela E; Frayer, David W; Radovčić, Jakov; Hill, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Research with extant primate taxa suggests that cochlear labyrinth volume is functionally related to the range of audible frequencies. Specifically, cochlear volume is negatively correlated with both the high and low frequency limits of hearing so that the smaller the cochlea, the higher the normal range of audible frequencies. The close anatomical relationship between the membranous cochlea and the bony cochlear labyrinth allows for the determination of cochlear size from fossil specimens. This study compares Krapina Neandertal cochlear volumes to extant taxa cochlear volumes. Cochlear volumes were acquired from high-resolution computed tomography scans of temporal bones of Krapina Neandertals, chimpanzees, gorillas, and modern humans. We find that Krapina Neandertals' cochlear volumes are similar to modern Homo sapiens and are significantly larger than chimpanzee and gorilla cochlear volumes. The measured cochlear volume in Krapina Neandertals suggests they had a range of audible frequencies similar to the modern human range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can the Day 0 CT-scan predict the post-implant scanning? Results from 136 prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Federica; Vavassori, Andrea; Comi, Stefania; Gherardi, Federica; Russo, Stefania; Orecchia, Roberto; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A

    2017-08-01

    Post-implant CT-scanning is an essential part of permanent prostate brachytherapy. However, the evaluation of post-implant CT dosimetry is not straightforward due to the edema that can modify the dose to the prostate and to the organs at risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the timing of the post-implant CT-scan on the dosimetric results and to verify if the Day 0 scan findings can predict Day 50 scanning. 136 consecutive patients who received monotherapy with I-125 implants were selected for this study. Two sets of 8 dosimetric quality parameters corresponding to 2 different CT-scans (Day 0 and Day 50) were calculated and compared. The dosimetric parameters included are the percentage volume of the post-implant prostate receiving 80%, 100% and 150% of the prescribed dose, the doses covering 80% and 90% of the prostate volume and the Dose Homogeneity Index. The values of the dose covering 1cm3 of the rectum and urethra were assessed. All the dosimetric parameters of the Day 50 were higher than those of the Day 0 scan. Linear functions were obtained that calculate D90 and V100 values at Day 50 based on the Day 0 findings. Rectal and urethral parameters tended to be underestimated on Day 0 CT-scan relative to Day 50 based dosimetry. Predicting the Day 50 dosimetry from the Day 0 scan could be a possible alternative to a Day 50 scan only in specific situations, but with a degree of uncertainty in the predicted values. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies: the WHIMS-MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Laura H; Espeland, Mark A; Hogan, Patricia E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, R Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H; Williamson, Jeff D; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Shumaker, Sally A

    2014-02-04

    To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm(3)/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm(3)/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm(3)/y (p = 0.88). Conjugated equine estrogen-based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings.

  2. Scanning tunneling microscopy III theory of STM and related scanning probe methods

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1993-01-01

    While the first two volumes on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and its related scanning probe (SXM) methods have mainly concentrated on intro­ ducing the experimental techniques, as well as their various applications in different research fields, this third volume is exclusively devoted to the theory of STM and related SXM methods. As the experimental techniques including the reproducibility of the experimental results have advanced, more and more theorists have become attracted to focus on issues related to STM and SXM. The increasing effort in the development of theoretical concepts for STM/SXM has led to considerable improvements in understanding the contrast mechanism as well as the experimental conditions necessary to obtain reliable data. Therefore, this third volume on STM/SXM is not written by theorists for theorists, but rather for every scientist who is not satisfied by just obtaining real­ space images of surface structures by STM/SXM. After a brief introduction (Chap. 1), N. D. Lang first co...

  3. Scanning Productivity in Interlibrary Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Wayne A.; Runestad, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The authors report findings of a research study conducted at the Iowa State University Library. Data was gathered on the scanning of library materials by students working in the Interlibrary Loan (ILL) unit. The goals of the study were fourfold: (1) Develop measures of scanning productivity in ILL, (2) Determine if it is more productive to scan…

  4. Scan converting video tape recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, N. I. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A video tape recorder is disclosed of sufficient bandwidth to record monochrome television signals or standard NTSC field sequential color at current European and American standards. The system includes scan conversion means for instantaneous playback at scanning standards different from those at which the recording is being made.

  5. Detectors for scanning video imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Hughes, George W.

    1993-11-01

    In scanning video imagers, a single detector sees each pixel for only 100 ns, so the bandwidth of the detector needs to be about 10 MHz. How this fact influences the choice of detectors for scanning systems is described here. Some important parametric quantities obtained from manufacturer specifications are related and it is shown how to compare detectors when specified quantities differ.

  6. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if the operator ρa of right multiplication by a is compact (weakly compact, respectively). An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) if any element a ∈ A is right completely continuous (right weakly completely con- tinuous, respectively). Left completely continuous (left weakly ...

  7. The use of scanning ion conductance microscopy to image A6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, Julia; Zhang, Yanjun; Shevchuk, Andrew I; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Sánchez, Daniel; Lab, Max J; Vodyanoy, Igor; Edwards, Christopher R W; Klenerman, David; Korchev, Yuri E

    2004-03-31

    Continuous high spatial resolution observations of living A6 cells would greatly aid the elucidation of the relationship between structure and function and facilitate the study of major physiological processes such as the mechanism of action of aldosterone. Unfortunately, observing the micro-structural and functional changes in the membrane of living cells is still a formidable challenge for a microscopist. Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM), which uses a glass nanopipette as a sensitive probe, has been shown to be suitable for imaging non-conducting surfaces bathed in electrolytes. A specialized version of this microscopy has been developed by our group and has been applied to image live cells at high-resolution for the first time. This method can also be used in conjunction with patch clamping to study both anatomy and function and identify ion channels in single cells. This new microscopy provides high-resolution images of living renal cells which are comparable with those obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Continuous 24h observations under normal physiological conditions showed how A6 kidney epithelial cells changed their height, volume, and reshaped their borders. The changes in cell area correlated with the density of microvilli on the surface. Surface microvilli density ranged from 0.5 microm(-2) for extended cells to 2.5 microm(2) for shrunk cells. Patch clamping of individual cells enabled anatomy and function to be correlated. Scanning ion conductance microscopy provides unique information about living cells that helps to understand cellular function. It has the potential to become a powerful tool for research on living renal cells.

  8. Estimation of forest resources from a country wide laser scanning survey and national forest inventory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Schumacher, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning may provide a means for assessing local forest biomass resources. In this study, national forest inventory (NFI) data was used as reference data for modeling forest basal area, volume, aboveground biomass, and total biomass from laser scanning data obtained in a countrywide...

  9. Computer Vision Tool and Technician as First Reader of Lung Cancer Screening CT Scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritchie, A.J.; Sanghera, C.; Jacobs, C.; Zhang, W.; Mayo, J.; Schmidt, H.; Gingras, M.; Pasian, S.; Stewart, L.; Tsai, S.; Manos, D.; Seely, J.M.; Burrowes, P.; Bhatia, R.; Atkar-Khattra, S.; Ginneken, B. van; Tammemagi, M.; Tsao, M.S.; Lam, S.

    2016-01-01

    To implement a cost-effective low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening program at the population level, accurate and efficient interpretation of a large volume of LDCT scans is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate a workflow strategy to identify abnormal LDCT scans in

  10. Computed tomography scanning techniques for the evaluation of cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terry E

    2007-08-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners allow diagnosis and monitoring of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease at substantially lower radiation doses than with prior scanners. Complete spiral chest CT scans are accomplished in less than 10 seconds and scanner advances now allow the acquisition of comprehensive volumetric datasets for three-dimensional reconstruction of the lungs and airways. There are two types of CT scanning protocols currently used to assess CF lung disease: (1) high-resolution CT (HRCT) imaging, in which thin 0.5-1.5-mm slices are obtained every 0.5, 1, or 2 cm from apex to base for inspiratory scans, and limited, spaced HRCT slices obtained for expiratory scans; and (2) complete spiral CT imaging covering the entire lung for inspiratory and expiratory scanning. These scanning protocols allow scoring of CF lung disease and provide CT datasets to quantify airway and air-trapping measurements. CF CT scoring systems typically assess bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, mucus plugging, and atelectasis/consolidation from inspiratory scans, whereas air trapping is scored from expiratory imaging. Recently, CT algorithms have been developed for both HRCT and complete spiral CT imaging to quantify several airway indices, to determine the volume and density of the lung, and to assess regional and global air trapping. CT scans are currently acquired by either controlled-volume scanning techniques (controlled-ventilation infant CT scanning or spirometer-controlled CT scanning in children and adults) or by voluntary breath holds at full inflation and deflation.

  11. Lung volume assessments in normal and surfactant depleted lungs: agreement between bedside techniques and CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Gergely; Petak, Ferenc; Zand, Tristan; Hallbäck, Magnus; Wallin, Mats; Habre, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Bedside assessment of lung volume in clinical practice is crucial to adapt ventilation strategy. We compared bedside measures of lung volume by helium multiple-breath washout technique (EELVMBW,He) and effective lung volume based on capnodynamics (ELV) to those assessed from spiral chest CT scans (EELVCT) under different PEEP levels in control and surfactant-depleted lungs. Lung volume was assessed in anaesthetized mechanically ventilated rabbits successively by measuring i) ELV by analyzing CO2 elimination traces during the application of periods of 5 consecutive alterations in inspiratory/expiratory ratio (1:2 to 1.5:1), ii) measuring EELVMBW,He by using helium as a tracer gas, and iii) EELVCT from CT scan images by computing the normalized lung density. All measurements were performed at PEEP of 0, 3 and 9 cmH2O in random order under control condition and following surfactant depletion by whole lung lavage. Variables obtained with all techniques followed sensitively the lung volume changes with PEEP. Excellent correlation and close agreement was observed between EELVMBW,He and EELVCT (r = 0.93, p lungs, whereas this difference was not evidenced following surfactant depletion. These findings resulted in somewhat diminished but still significant correlations between ELV and EELVCT (r = 0.58, p Lung volume assessed with bedside techniques allow the monitoring of the changes in the lung aeration with PEEP both in normal lungs and in a model of acute lung injury. Under stable pulmonary haemodynamic condition, ELV allows continuous lung volume monitoring, whereas EELVMBW,He offers a more accurate estimation, but intermittently.

  12. Scanning tomographic particle image velocimetry applied to a turbulent jet

    KAUST Repository

    Casey, T. A.

    2013-02-21

    We introduce a modified tomographic PIV technique using four high-speed video cameras and a scanning pulsed laser-volume. By rapidly illuminating adjacent subvolumes onto separate video frames, we can resolve a larger total volume of velocity vectors, while retaining good spatial resolution. We demonstrate this technique by performing time-resolved measurements of the turbulent structure of a round jet, using up to 9 adjacent volume slices. In essence this technique resolves more velocity planes in the depth direction by maintaining optimal particle image density and limiting the number of ghost particles. The total measurement volumes contain between 1 ×106 and 3 ×106 velocity vectors calculated from up to 1500 reconstructed depthwise image planes, showing time-resolved evolution of the large-scale vortical structures for a turbulent jet of Re up to 10 000.

  13. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  14. The influence of scanner parameters on the extraction of tree metrics from FARO Photon 120 terrestrial laser scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Pyare

    2013-04-01

    In the present study the influence of the scanner parameters, scan resolution (angular step size), scan speed (number of laser pulses per second), and pulse duration, on tree stem detection, stem diameter and volume extraction from phase-shift FARO Photon 120 TLS data was assessed. Additionally the effects of a data post processing (filtering of raw scan data) were investigated. All analyses were carried out based on single and merged scan data. It could be shown that scan speed, pulse duration and data filtering only marginally affect stem detection rates and stem diameter and volume estimation accuracies. By contrast scan resolution was found to have an effect, the magnitude of which, however, is range-dependent. For example mean stem detection rates for the three different scan resolutions tested were found to be equal in near range, but decreased more strongly for the lower scan resolutions in far range. With regard to the stem diameter extraction, scan resolution did not affect stem diameter at breast height (DBH) estimation accuracy, but limited the range within which DBH could be reliably extracted. The root mean squared error (RMSE) for DBH extracted from the single scan data was found to be significantly larger compared to the RMSE for DBH extracted from the merged scan data. Single scan data yielded stem volume estimates with lower accuracies, too. This study demonstrated that it is possible to maximize sampling efficiency by using scanner parameter sets with low scanning times (i.e., low scan resolution, high scan speed) without significantly losing estimation accuracy. If maximum accuracy is desired for both DBH and stem volume, the acquisition of multiple scans with a subsequent data merging is required.

  15. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.

  16. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad R. Issa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP, composite nodal volumes (GTVN and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance.

  17. Continuous Microbiological Transformation of Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, F.; Koepsell, H. J.; Savage, G. M.

    1961-01-01

    Continuous fermentation trials on the bioconversions of pregnadiene to pregnatriene by Septomyxa affinis and progesterone to 11α-hydroxyprogesterone by Rhizopus nigricans were conducted successfully in an eight-stage pilot plant reactor. The first stage was used as the mycelial growth stage while the steroid solutions were added continuously to stage 2, thus using the remaining stages as conversion vessels. Recoveries of 50 to 60% oxidized steroid (based on total steroid supplied) were obtained in both cases upon a contact time of 5 hr between mycelium and steroid. Longer contact times resulted in a gradual net loss of steroid. It was concluded that two-stage reactors (one growth stage and one conversion stage) were adequate for efficient continuous operation of such processes. The reaction volumes of both stages have to be kept in proper balance to insure optimal holdup times for both the cell growth and conversion steps. PMID:13740999

  18. The Enhancement of 3D Scans Depth Resolution Obtained by Confocal Scanning of Porous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martisek Dalibor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction of simple structured materials using a confocal microscope is widely used in many different areas including civil engineering. Nonetheless, scans of porous materials such as concrete or cement paste are highly problematic. The well-known problem of these scans is low depth resolution in comparison to the horizontal and vertical resolution. The degradation of the image depth resolution is caused by systematic errors and especially by different random events. Our method is focused on the elimination of such random events, mainly the additive noise. We use an averaging method based on the Lindeberg-Lévy theorem that improves the final depth resolution to a level comparable with horizontal and vertical resolution. Moreover, using the least square method, we also precisely determine the limit value of a depth resolution. Therefore, we can continuously evaluate the difference between current resolution and the optimal one. This substantially simplifies the scanning process because the operator can easily determine the required number of scans.

  19. Obstacles to Industrial Implementation of Scanning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders Astrom; Olog Broman; John Graffman; Anders Gronlund; Armas Jappinene; Jari Luostarinen; Jan Nystrom; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Initially the group discussed what is meant by scanning systems. An operational definition was adopted to consider scanning system in the current context to be nontraditional scanning. Where, traditional scanning is defined as scanning that has been industrially operational and relatively common for several years-a mature technology. For example,...

  20. Remotely scanned multiphoton temporal focusing by axial grism scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Hod; Shoham, Shy

    2012-07-15

    A simple technique for remote scanning of the focal plane in temporal focusing multiphoton microscopy is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. A new on-axis light propagation optical setup design enables this scanning, which was considered not feasible in previous studies. The focal plane is axially displaced by the movement of a remote optical device, consisting of a double prism grating, and optionally a cylindrical lens. The displacement is linear, and its slope is inversely proportional to the square of the optical system's magnification.

  1. Prospective motion correction improves diagnostic utility of pediatric MRI scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, Joshua M.; Ahmadi, Mazyar E.; Erhart, Matthew J.; White, Nathan S.; Roddey, J.C. [University of California, San Diego, Multimodal Imaging Laboratory, La Jolla, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, La Jolla, CA (United States); Brown, Timothy T. [University of California, San Diego, Multimodal Imaging Laboratory, La Jolla, CA (United States); Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Rochester, MN (United States); Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Han, Eric T. [Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rettmann, Dan [University of California, San Diego, Department of Neurosciences, La Jolla, CA (United States); Dale, Anders M. [University of California, San Diego, Multimodal Imaging Laboratory, La Jolla, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, La Jolla, CA (United States); Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A new technique for prospectively correcting head motion (called PROMO) during acquisition of high-resolution MRI scans has been developed to reduce motion artifacts. To evaluate the efficacy of PROMO, four T1-weighted image volumes (two with PROMO enabled, two uncorrected) were acquired for each of nine children. A radiologist, blind to whether PROMO was used, rated image quality and artifacts on all sagittal slices of every volume. These ratings were significantly better in scans collected with PROMO relative to those collected without PROMO (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.0001). The use of PROMO, especially in motion-prone patients, should improve the accuracy of measurements made for clinical care and research, and potentially reduce the need for sedation in children. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of solid–liquid interface profile during continuous casting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 24; Issue 4. Evaluation of solid–liquid interface profile during continuous casting by a spline based formalism. S K Das. Metals and Alloys Volume ... Keywords. Continuous casting; solidification; solid–liquid interface; front tracking algorithm; phase change; heat transfer.

  3. The boundary-scan handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at electronics industry professionals, this 4th edition of the Boundary Scan Handbook describes recent changes to the IEEE1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. This updated edition features new chapters on the possible effects of the changes on the work of the practicing test engineers and the new 1149.8.1 standard. Anyone needing to understand the basics of boundary scan and its practical industrial implementation will need this book. Provides an overview of the recent changes to the 1149.1 standard and the effect of the changes on the work of test engineers;   Explains the new IEEE 1149.8.1 subsidiary standard and applications;   Describes the latest updates on the supplementary IEEE testing standards. In particular, addresses: IEEE Std 1149.1                      Digital Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.4                      Analog Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.6                      Advanced I/O Testing IEEE Std 1149.8.1           �...

  4. Modal Testing Using Impact Excitation and a Scanning LDV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Stanbridge

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available If a laser Doppler vibrometer is used in a continuously-scanning mode to measure the response of a vibrating structure, its output spectrum contains side-bands from which the response mode shape, as defined along the scan line, may be obtained. With impact excitation, the response is the summation of a set of exponentially-decaying sinusoids which, in the frequency domain, has peaks at the natural frequencies and at `sideband' pseudo-natural frequencies, spaced at multiples of the scan frequency. Techniques are described for deriving natural mode shapes from these, using standard modal analysis procedures. Some limitations as to the types of mode which can be analysed are described. The process is simple and speedy, even when compared with a normal point-by-point impact test survey. Information may also be derived, using a circular scan, on the direction of vibration, and angular vibration, at individual points.

  5. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard...... silicon processing. Using a microgripper they were detached from an array and fixed to a standard pyramidal AFM probe or alternatively inserted into a tipless cantilever equipped with a narrow slit. The nanobit-enhanced probes were used for imaging of deep trenches, without visible deformation, wear...... or dislocation of the tips of the nanobit after several scans. This approach allows an unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of scanning probe tips to the surface topology or to the specific application....

  6. Footwear scanning systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Justin L.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2017-07-25

    Methods and apparatus for scanning articles, such as footwear, to provide information regarding the contents of the articles are described. According to one aspect, a footwear scanning system includes a platform configured to contact footwear to be scanned, an antenna array configured to transmit electromagnetic waves through the platform into the footwear and to receive electromagnetic waves from the footwear and the platform, a transceiver coupled with antennas of the antenna array and configured to apply electrical signals to at least one of the antennas to generate the transmitted electromagnetic waves and to receive electrical signals from at least another of the antennas corresponding to the electromagnetic waves received by the others of the antennas, and processing circuitry configured to process the received electrical signals from the transceiver to provide information regarding contents within the footwear.

  7. Evaluation strategies in CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In this talk, dimensional measurement results using different measuring strategies applied in different inspection software packages for volume and surface data analysis are presented. The influence of the strategy on the dimensional measurement is determined by calculating the measurement uncert...

  8. Rotational Dove prism scanning dual angle Doppler OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Cedric; Coquoz, Séverine; Grajciar, Branislav; Singh, Amardeep S. G.; Werkmeister, René M.; Schmetterer, Leopold; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2013-03-01

    Traditional Doppler OCT is highly sensitive to motion artifacts due to the dependence on the Doppler angle. This limits its reproducibility in clinical practice. To overcome this limitation, we use a bidirectional technique with a novel rotating scanning scheme. The volume is probed simultaneously from two distinct illumination directions with variable controlled orientations, allowing reconstruction of the true flow velocity, independently of the vessel orientation. A Dove prism in the sample arm permits a rotation of the illumination directions that can be synchronized with the standard beam steering device. The principle is implemented with Swept Source OCT at 1060nm with 100,000 A-Scans/s. We apply the system to human retinal absolute blood velocity measurement by performing segment and circumpapillary time series scans around the optic nerve head. We also demonstrate microvasculature imaging by calculation of squared intensity differences between successive tomograms.

  9. Temporal evaluation of computed tomographic scans at a Level 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Time is a precious commodity, especially in the trauma setting, which requires continuous evaluation to ensure streamlined service delivery, quality patient care and employee efficiency. Objectives: The present study analyses the authors' institution's multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan process ...

  10. Appendicitis: a continuing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K M; Khan, A

    1998-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency in urban setting, of a developing country. The computerised hospital patient database at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, was utilised to obtain records of all adults with a histologically proven diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A review of patients treated over a 18 month period was undertaken. One hundred and three appendicectomies were performed for acute appendicitis during this period. The diagnosis was clinical in all cases. Investigations like leucocyte count and lower abdominal ultrasound scan were used to improve diagnostic accuracy without a clear advantage. A number of routine investigations like, haemoglobin estimation and urea, creatinine, electrolyte measurements, did not provide additional information. The duration of antibiotic treatment in acute simple appendicitis was empiric and could be reduced to a single preoperative dose. Peritoneal fluid culture studies had a poor yield (26%) and results were not found to effect management in acute simple appendicitis. The routine use of Ampicillin in all cases of bacterial peritonitis needs re-evaluation, as a high incidence (73%) of resistance was seen. Studies to define the role and duration of treatment, with a single antibiotic, in acute simple appendicitis should be undertaken. Acute appendicitis is probably the most frequently considered surgical differential diagnosis at any hospital dealing with acute surgical conditions. The established treatment continues to be surgical removal of the inflamed organ. The diagnosis and decision to operate both are accepted to be based on clinical judgement, though a number of investigative manoeuvres have been described to reduce the negative appendicectomy rate. Other areas of debate are the number and length of antibiotic treatment and use of bacterial culture studies in cases of simple acute appendicitis. To analyse present practice and identify areas for study and change, a retrospective study was

  11. RPC High Voltage Scan 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    During the LS1 the CMS RPC system has been upgraded with 144 new chambers installed on the forth endcap stations. An annual HV (RPC efficiency vs HV) scan for the entire RPC system has been performed during the Run2 data taking period in 2015. The obtained results have been compared to the HV scans performed in 2011 and 2012. No significant differences are observed in the compared results. The optimal HV working points for the newly installed chambers have been evaluated for the first time with collision data.

  12. Pyrophosphate heart scan in cardiomyopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Kubicek, J.; Vizda, J.; Kafka, P.; Blaha, V.; Nesvadba, Z.; Zdansky, P. (Karlova Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1982-01-01

    Scintigraphic examination of the heart with pyrophosphate labelled sup(99m)Tc was made in 26 patients with cardiomyopathies of different etiology. From a total of 11 children with secondary affections of the myocardium in myodystrophia musculorum progressiva a positive scintigraphic finding was only obtained in two cases. 12 patients with primary non-obstructive cardiomyopathies the scan was positive in nine cases. One positive scintigraphic finding was shown in examinating three patients with obstructive cardiomyopathies (subvalvular aortic stenosis). The positive scan suggests acute progress of the pathological process in the heart.

  13. Integrated micromachined scanning display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelin, Paul M.; Krishnamoorthy, Uma; Conant, Robert A.; Muller, Richard S.; Lau, Kam Y.; Solgaard, Olav

    1999-07-01

    We describe a raster-scanning display system comprised of two tilt-up micromachined polysilicon mirrors that rotate about orthogonal axes. We have demonstrated a resolution of 102 X 119 pixels. The optical efficiency of our two- mirror micro-optical raster-scanning system is comparable to that of micromachined display systems developed by Texas Instruments and Silicon Light Machines. Ease of integration with on-chip light sources and lenses has the potential to reduce packaging size, complexity and cost of the display system and makes it well suited for head-mounted display applications.

  14. Advantage of CT scan in muscular pathology. Personal cases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, M.; Rousseau, H.; Mazieres, B.; Bonafe, A.; Joffre, F.; Arlet, J.

    1989-05-01

    The advantage of CT scans in muscular pathology is studied. The scan, in addition to the diagnosis of tumors and muscular abscesses, permits to differentiate primary myopathies from neurogenic atrophies: in the course of myopathies, the muscle volume is preserved and they appear as a hypodensity; in neurogenic atrophies, the muscle volume is reduced with preserved density. The CT scan permits to determine the extension of these lesions. In the course of polymyositis, certain forms of rheumatid arthritis, the scan discloses a trabecular and 'worm-eaten' aspect of the muscles. This is also observed after long-term steroid therapy and other endocrine diseases (hyperthyroidism, osteomalacia) indicating an infra-clinical myopathy. In vertebral osteoporosis with fractures and patients with chronic lumbalgia, very ofter, an atrophy of the spinal muscle is observed. Finally, in the course of acquired kyphosis of the adult patient (camptocormia), the CT scan suggest an isolated myopathy, with late manifestations, of the paravertebral muscles.

  15. Prostate volume measurement by TRUS using heights obtained by transaxial and midsagittal scaning: comparison with specimen volume following radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bung Bin; Kim, Jae Kyun; Choi, Sung Hoon; Noh, Han Na; Ji, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyoung Sik [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, when measuring prostate volume by TRUS, whether height is more accurately determined by transaxial or midsagittal scanning. Sixteen patients who between March 1995 and March 1998 underwent both preoperative TRUS and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were included in this study. Using prolate ellipse volume calculation (height x length x width x {pi}/6), TRUS prostate volume was determined, and was compared with the measured volume of the specimen. Prostate volume measured by TRUS, regardless of whether height was determined transaxially or midsagittally, correlated closely with real specimen volume. When height was measured in one of these planes, a paired t test revealed no significant difference between TRUS prostate volume and real specimen volume (p = .411 and p = .740, respectively), nor were there significant differences between the findings of transaxial and midsagittal scanning (p = .570). A paired sample test, however, indicated that TRUS prostate volumes determined transaxially showed a higher correlation coefficient (0.833) and a lower standard deviation (9.04) than those determined midsagittally (0.714 and 11.48, respectively). Prostate volume measured by TRUS closely correlates with real prostate volume. Furthermore, we suggest that when measuring prostate volume in this way, height is more accurately determined by transaxial than by midsagittal scanning.

  16. Infrared Scanning For Electrical Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbath, Steven E.

    1983-03-01

    Given the technological age that we have now entered, the purpose of this paper is to relate how infrared scanning can be used for an electrical preventative maintenance program. An infrared scanner is able to produce an image because objects give off infrared radiation in relationship to their temperature. Most electrical problems will show up as an increase in temperature, thereby making the infrared scanner a useful preventative maintenance tool. Because of the sensitivity of most of the scanners, .1 to .2 of a degree, virtually all electrical problems can be pinpointed long before they become a costly failure. One of the early uses of infrared scanning was to check the power company's electrical distribution system. Most of this was performed via aircraft or truck mounted scanning devices which necessitated its semi-permanent mounting. With the advent of small hand held infrared imagers, along with more portability of the larger systems, infrared scanning has gained more popularity in checking electrical distribution systems. But the distribution systems are now a scaled down model, mainly the in-plant electrical systems. By in-plant, I mean any distribution of electricity; once it leaves the power company's grid. This can be in a hospital, retail outlet, warehouse or manufacturing facility.

  17. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aseyev, S.A.; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting...

  18. High Resolution Scanning Ion Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the thesis is the following. The first chapter is an introduction to scanning microscopy, where the path that led to the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is described and the main differences between electrons and ion beams are highlighted. Chapter 2 is what is normally referred to (which I

  19. Phase sensitive scanning optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungerman, R.L.; Hobbs, P.C.D.; Kino, G.S.

    1984-10-15

    An electronically scanned optical microscope which quantitatively measures amplitude and phase is described. The system is insenstive to mechanical vibrations. The phase infromation makes it possible to measure surface height variations with an accuracy of better than 100 A and can also be used to improve the lateral resolution.

  20. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  1. Introduction to scanning tunneling microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Julian

    2008-01-01

    The scanning tunneling and the atomic force microscope, both capable of imaging individual atoms, were crowned with the Physics Nobel Prize in 1986, and are the cornerstones of nanotechnology today. This is a thoroughly updated version of this 'bible' in the field.

  2. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  3. Long-range laser scanning and 3D imaging for the Gneiss quarries survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Spataro, Alessio; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Ambrosi, Christian; Cannata, Massimiliano; Günther, Felix; Corboud, Federico

    2016-04-01

    In Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland), the exploitation of natural stone, mostly gneisses, is an important activity of valley's economies. Nowadays, these economic activities are menaced by (i) the exploitation costs related to geological phenomena such as fractures, faults and heterogeneous rocks that hinder the processing of the stone product, (ii) continuously changing demand because of the evolving natural stone fashion and (iii) increasing administrative limits and rules acting to protect the environment. Therefore, the sustainable development of the sector for the next decades needs new and effective strategies to regulate and plan the quarries. A fundamental step in this process is the building of a 3D geological model of the quarries to constrain the volume of commercial natural stone and the volume of waste. In this context, we conducted Terrestrial Laser Scanning surveys of the quarries in the Maggia Valley to obtain a detailed 3D topography onto which the geological units were mapped. The topographic 3D model was obtained with a long-range laser scanning Riegl VZ4000 that can measure from up to 4 km of distance with a speed of 147,000 points per second. It operates with the new V-line technology, which defines the surface relief by sensing differentiated signals (echoes), even in the presence of obstacles such as vegetation. Depending on the esthetics of the gneisses, we defined seven types of natural stones that, together with faults and joints, were mapped onto the 3D models of the exploitation sites. According to the orientation of the geological limits and structures, we projected the different rock units and fractures into the excavation front. This way, we obtained a 3D geological model from which we can quantitatively estimate the volume of the seven different natural stones (with different commercial value) and waste (with low commercial value). To verify the 3D geological models and to quantify exploited rock and waste volumes the same

  4. Development of energy-efficient comfort ventilation plants with air quality controlled volume flow rate and continuous detection of the status of the windows aperture. Part 3. Final report with documentation of the field test; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 3. Endbericht mit Dokumentation des Feldtests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Hacke, Ulrike [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-10-25

    Residential ventilation systems with a heat recovery contribute to the improvement of the air quality and to the reduction of heat losses caused by ventilation. An additional opening of the windows in residential buildings results in a clearly increasing consumption of thermal heat because the thermal heat of the out coming air cannot be utilized furthermore. Continuous information on the energetic effects of the opening of windows is helpful. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the development of energy efficient comfort ventilation systems with an air quality controlled volume flow rate and continuous detection of the status of the windows aperture. The contribution under consideration is the third part of a project concerning to this theme. This part encompasses a field test with four single-family houses in which the air quality control as well as the detection of the status of the windows aperture is tested and optimized for a long period. This contribution also contains the results of the second part of the project. The second project investigate the technical implementation of a air quality regulation at prototypes and test facilities.

  5. Scanning Micromirror Platform Based on MEMS Technology for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eakkachai Pengwang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This topical review discusses recent development and trends on scanning micromirrors for biomedical applications. This also includes a biomedical micro robot for precise manipulations in a limited volume. The characteristics of medical scanning micromirror are explained in general with the fundamental of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS for fabrication processes. Along with the explanations of mechanism and design, the principle of actuation are provided for general readers. In this review, several testing methodology and examples are described based on many types of actuators, such as, electrothermal actuators, electrostatic actuators, electromagnetic actuators, pneumatic actuators, and shape memory alloy. Moreover, this review provides description of the key fabrication processes and common materials in order to be a basic guideline for selecting micro-actuators. With recent developments on scanning micromirrors, performances of biomedical application are enhanced for higher resolution, high accuracy, and high dexterity. With further developments on integrations and control schemes, MEMS-based scanning micromirrors would be able to achieve a better performance for medical applications due to small size, ease in microfabrication, mass production, high scanning speed, low power consumption, mechanical stable, and integration compatibility.

  6. Pair Scanning: Integrating the Student Sonographer Without Impacting Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Marcia A; Foran, Kathleen E; Burnett-Roy, Susan; May, Samantha

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasound departments in Canada frequently reduce patient bookings to support student training, which impacts not only patient care but also revenue generation. Therefore, physicians and employers are reluctant to host student sonographers, and educational programs struggle to find sufficient clinical placements for their students. Two research questions were investigated: (1) Can a pair scanning technique effectively integrate the student sonographer into the workplace without impacting patient volumes? (2) Does the pair scanning technique prepare the student sonographer for entry-level practice faster than traditional practice? This research project was divided into 2 phases. The first phase used action research to develop the pair scanning protocol at a single site with a single preceptor and student. The second phase used a mixed methods approach to test the transferability of the pair scanning protocol across multiple sites, preceptors, and students. In phase 1, the student sonographer performed a greater number of total examinations than the rest of her cohort (who were at different placement sites), and the higher performance of independent examinations by the student sonographer under the pair scanning technique was statistically significant [H(4)  = 36.297; P student sonographer into the work flow without impacting patient care. It prepares the student sonographer for entry-level practice equally with traditional practice and may be most effective with the weak to average student. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Giant Volume Change of Active Gels under Continuous Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    example, Beebe reported the use of gels as a component for self-regulated flow control9 and adaptive liquid microlenses,5 Kumacheva14 and Seiffert12 used...Yamaguchi, T.; Ichijo, H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 5134. (5) Dong, L.; Agarwal, A. K.; Beebe , D. J.; Jiang, H. R. Nature 2006, 442, 551. (6) Zhang, Y...Vanag, V. K.; Epstein, I. R. Science 2011, 331, 1309. (9) Beebe , D. J.; Moore, J. S.; Bauer, J. M.; Yu, Q.; Liu, R. H.; Devadoss, C.; Jo, B. H. Nature

  8. Volume management for fault-tolerant continuous-flow microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander Rüdiger; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    in the control-as well as the flow channel, some common causes being environmental particles, imperfections in molds or bubbles in the PDMS gel. While some faults may be detected before the execution of an application by introducing a test run, other faults occur only during runtime as a result of deterioration...

  9. Human Performance in Continuous Operations: Volume 1. Human Performance Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    34 Develop coding schemes which makes sense to the user. * Us( re-dundanc v to inc cease me mory . * AMemqory loss that ocuirs as a function of time may be...rnative XX ill take XX eli over haltt a se-cond w ith sex l2n of- morie alter(natives. 1 In many fli’lig situations, reaction t ilfies required wlli he of...ationships bettcuen a t ritical ability and onei of thl uniquet st SsOl’S Oi cOntiflUOUs O)€’atIOUS arVe presented in the previous chapIe " on Ithe

  10. Regional brain volume reductions relate to facial dysmorphology and neurocognitive function in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussotte, Florence F; Sulik, Kathleen K; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Adnams, Colleen M; May, Philip A; O'Connor, Mary J; Narr, Katherine L; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2012-04-01

    Individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can experience significant deficits in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and alterations in brain structure that persist into adulthood. In this report, data from 99 participants collected across three sites (Los Angeles and San Diego, California, and Cape Town, South Africa) were analyzed to examine relationships between brain structure, neurocognitive function, facial morphology, and maternal reports of quantities of alcohol consumption during the first trimester. Across study sites, we found highly significant volume reductions in the FASD group for all of the brain regions evaluated. After correcting for scan location, age, and total brain volume, these differences remained significant in some regions of the basal ganglia and diencephalon. In alcohol-exposed subjects, we found that smaller palpebral fissures were significantly associated with reduced volumes in the ventral diencephalon bilaterally, that greater dysmorphology of the philtrum predicted smaller volumes in basal ganglia and diencephalic structures, and that lower IQ scores were associated with both smaller basal ganglia volumes and greater facial dysmorphology. In subjects from South Africa, we found a significant negative correlation between intracranial volume and total number of drinks per week in the first trimester. These results corroborate previous reports that prenatal alcohol exposure is particularly toxic to basal ganglia and diencephalic structures. We extend previous findings by illustrating relationships between specific measures of facial dysmorphology and the volumes of particular subcortical structures, and for the first time show that continuous measures of maternal alcohol consumption during the first trimester relates to overall brain volume reduction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Papers, Volume 1 1962-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this Volume 1 of “Papers”, 20 papers published from 1962 to 1985 are presented. The papers are reproduced by using scanning techniques and retyping of equations. During this work, small modifications and corrections have been made. Unfortunately, new errors may have been introduced. This is my...

  12. Papers, Volume 2 1986-1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this Volume 2 of “Papers”, 20 papers published in 1986 - 1989 are presented. The papers are reproduced by using scanning techniques and retyping of equations. During this work, small modifications and corrections have been made. Unfortunately, new errors may have been introduced. This is my re...

  13. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  14. Scanning of Markov Random Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Function of most electronic devices is based on the microprocessor control. A microprocessor must scan and evaluate function of many controlled equipment that can be transformed into 2 statuses - "free" or "busy". Microprocessors in a digital exchange are the typical example of that. It can be said the microprocessors are in a discrete dialogue with the controlled parts. They ascertain in regular time intervals whether the status of the controlled equipment has changed. 1 or more "busy" statuses may exist in the same time. As the changes from "free" to "busy" and from "busy" to "free" occur randomly, the state of i busy statuses lasts for a random period too. If the changes have pro-perties of Markov process, the probability which each change will be detected with and hence the scanning rate needed can be derived.

  15. Providing Continuous Assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, Jonne; Hulstijn, Joris

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that continuous assurance can be attained by combining continuous monitoring by management, with continuous auditing of data streams and the effectiveness of internal controls by an external auditor. However, we find that in existing literature the final step to continuous

  16. ceramics by differential scanning calorimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    YbxGd2–xZr2O7 (x = 0, 1, 2) ceramics were pressureless-sintered using ceramic powders acquired by chemical-coprecipitation and calcination methods. Heat capacities of YbxGd2–xZr2O7 were measured with a heat flux-type differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range of 298–1200 K. At 298 K, the heat.

  17. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital c...

  18. New Snail Mail Scanning Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Modernisation does not stop at the CERN postal service (GS/PS). “With more and more digitisation and the prevalence of e-mail throughout the site, we were hoping to provide more timely delivery of letters and make further saving in resources”, said Tueri Datta, head of GS/PS.   Instead of the standard delivery to your P.O. box, the CERN postal service will digitally scan all letters and books up to 100 pages on reception. These scans will subsequently be sent via e-mail to the corresponding recipient as PDF (Portable Data Format - you will need to install “Acrobat Reader” on your PC). Express mail will be handled with priority. Users without a valid CERN mailbox can register at mail.scan.service@cern.ch in order to have their letters read to them via the phone line (we are currently investigating whether we can use the voices of the last five DGs).   This service will start on 1st April 2012 on the Meyrin site and will gradually replace th...

  19. A COURSE IN URDU, VOLUME TWO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, MUHAMMAD ABD AL RAHMAN; AND OTHERS

    VOLUME TWO, UNITS 16 THROUGH 25, CONTINUE THIS INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN URDU. THE GENERAL FORMAT IN THE FIRST FIVE UNITS IS CONSISTENT WITH VOLUME ONE (IN WHICH THE SOUNDS, BASIC STRUCTURES, AND WRITING SYSTEM WERE INTRODUCED). THE LAST FIVE UNITS BEGIN WITH AN ESSAY WRITTEN IN URDU SCRIPT FOLLOWED BY A VOCABULARY SECTION, WHICH TOGETHER REPLACE THE…

  20. 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains research results presented at the 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining, ISCSM Aachen 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers in the lignite mining industry and practitioners in this field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  1. Comparing laser printing and barcode scanning designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Thomas D.

    1991-02-01

    A comparison of requirements and designs for barcode and non-impact printer scanners reveals similarities and differences that may be useful in leading to new solutions for barcode scanner problems. The non-impact printer scanner has been in volume production for over 10 years successfully achieving low cost high performance and high quality targets. Where requirements are found to overlap solutions already implemented and proven for printer applications may fmd further application in bar code scanners. Typical technologies used for printing include flying spot scanners liquid crystal shutters scophony scanners and LED arrays. Of primary concern in measuring figure of merit are such critical parameters as cost lifetime reliability conformance to regulatory standards environmental ruggedness power consumption compactness insensitivity to orientation acoustic noise produced modularity spot size depth of field exposure level and uniformity data rate scan length and uniformity and many more. A comparison of printing technologies their capabilities and their limitations with those used in barcode scanners may reveal common problems where we can take advantage of work already completed in similar application where requirements are found to overlap.

  2. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  3. Contour scanning for penumbra improvement in pencil beam scanned proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, G.; Leiser, D.; Besson, R.; Mayor, A.; Safai, S.; Weber, D. C.; Lomax, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    Proton therapy, especially in the form of pencil beam scanning (PBS), allows for the delivery of highly conformal dose distributions for complex tumor geometries. However, due to scattering of protons inside the patient, lateral dose gradients cannot be arbitrarily steep, which is of importance in cases with organs at risk (OARs) in close proximity to, or overlapping with, planning target volumes (PTVs). In the PBS approach, physical pencil beams are planned using a regular grid orthogonal to the beam direction. In this work, we propose an alternative to this commonly used approach where pencil beams are placed on an irregular grid along concentric paths based on the target contour. Contour driven pencil beam placement is expected to improve dose confirmation by allowing the optimizer to best enhance the penumbra of irregularly shaped targets using edge enhancement. Its effectiveness has been shown to improve dose confirmation to the target volume and reduce doses to OARs in head-and-neck planning studies. Furthermore, the deliverability of such plans, as well as the dosimetric improvements over conventional grid-based plans, have been confirmed in first phantom based verifications.

  4. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  5. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Scanning mirror for infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. H.; Bernstein, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    A high resolution, long life angle-encoded scanning mirror, built for application in an infrared attitude sensor, is described. The mirror uses a Moire' fringe type optical encoder and unique torsion bar suspension together with a magnetic drive to meet stringent operational and environmental requirements at a minimum weight and with minimum power consumption. Details of the specifications, design, and construction are presented with an analysis of the mirror suspension that allows accurate prediction of performance. The emphasis is on mechanical design considerations, and brief discussions are included on the encoder and magnetic drive to provide a complete view of the mirror system and its capabilities.

  7. Organocatalysis in continuous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous flow chemistry is an enabling technique in organic chemistry. Advantages include extremely fast mixing and heat transfer capabilities as well as rapid screening of reaction conditions. Combining continuous flow chemistry with solid-supported organocatalysis presents challenges that have

  8. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  9. Effectiveness and usability of Scanning Wizard software: a tool for enhancing switch scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Heidi Horstmann; Simpson, Richard C

    2017-11-24

    Scanning Wizard software helps scanning users improve the setup of their switch and scanning system. This study evaluated Scanning Wizard's effectiveness and usability. Ten people who use switch scanning and ten practitioners used Scanning Wizard in the initial session. Usability was high, based on survey responses averaging over 4.5 out of 5, and qualitative feedback was very positive. Five switch users were able to complete the multi-week protocol, using settings on their own scanning system that were recommended from the Scanning Wizard session. Using these revised settings, text entry rates improved by an average of 71%, ranging from 29% to 172% improvement. Results suggest that Scanning Wizard is a useful tool for improving the configuration of scanning systems for people who use switch scanning to communicate. Implications for Rehabilitation Some individuals with severe physical impairments use switch scanning for spoken and written communication. Scanning Wizard software helps scanning users improve the setup of their switch and scanning system. This study demonstrated high usability of Scanning Wizard (with 10 switch userpractitioner teams) and increased text entry rate by an average of 71% (for five switch users). Results suggest that Scanning Wizard is a useful tool for improving the configuration of scanning systems for people who use switch scanning to communicate.

  10. Continuity of transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    1991-01-01

    Let u be a continuous function from Re to Re. Let f be a transformation (which in our terminology does not have to be bijective) from the range of u to Re. v = f(u(.)) is the composition of f and u. It is well-known that continuity of f implies continuity of v. We consider the reversed question:

  11. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Perry, David; Unwin, Patrick R

    2017-04-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential-time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science.

  12. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emery Aidan M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Natural History Museum (NHM is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL. This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE, resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities.

  13. SU-F-I-32: Organ Doses from Pediatric Head CT Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H; Liu, Q; Qiu, J; Zhuo, W [Institute of Radiation Medicine Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Majer, M; Knezevic, Z; Miljanic, S [Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Hrsak, H [Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the organ doses of pediatric patients who undergoing head CT scan using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and compare it with measurements in anthropomorphic child phantom.. Methods: A ten years old children voxel phantom was developed from CT images, the voxel size of the phantom was 2mm*2mm*2mm. Organ doses from head CT scan were simulated using MCNPX software, 180 detectors were placed in the voxel phantom to tally the doses of the represented tissues or organs. When performing the simulation, 120 kVp and 88 mA were selected as the scan parameters. The scan range covered from the top of the head to the end of the chain, this protocol was used at CT simulator for radiotherapy. To validate the simulated results, organ doses were measured with radiophotoluminescence (RPL) detectors, placed in the 28 organs of the 10 years old CIRS ATOM phantom. Results: The organ doses results matched well between MC simulation and phantom measurements. The eyes dose was showed to be as expected the highest organ dose: 28.11 mGy by simulation and 27.34 mGy by measurement respectively. Doses for organs not included in the scan volume were much lower than those included in the scan volume, thymus doses were observed more than 10 mGy due the CT protocol for radiotherapy covered more body part than routine head CT scan. Conclusion: As the eyes are superficial organs, they may receive the highest radiation dose during the CT scan. Considering the relatively high radio sensitivity, using shielding material or organ based tube current modulation technique should be encouraged to reduce the eye radiation risks. Scan range was one of the most important factors that affects the organ doses during the CT scan. Use as short as reasonably possible scan range should be helpful to reduce the patient radiation dose. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(11475047)

  14. Scanning tunneling microscopy I general principles and applications to clean and adsorbate-covered surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesendanger, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy I provides a unique introduction to a novel and fascinating technique that produces beautiful images of nature on an atomic scale. It is the first of three volumes that together offer a comprehensive treatment of scanning tunneling microscopy, its diverse applications, and its theoretical treatment. In this volume the reader will find a detailed description of the technique itself and of its applications to metals, semiconductors, layered materials, adsorbed molecules and superconductors. In addition to the many representative results reviewed, extensive references to original work will help to make accessible the vast body of knowledge already accumulated in this field.

  15. 3D Scanning technology for offshore purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Morten Thoft

    2005-01-01

    New scanning technology makes for construction of precision 3D models of production plants and offshore production facilities......New scanning technology makes for construction of precision 3D models of production plants and offshore production facilities...

  16. CDMP Scan Task Production Flow Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Database Modernization Program contractor documentation of batches scanned. Details include the name of the operator, time/date of scans, duplicates,...

  17. Ultrafast Photon Counting Applied to Resonant Scanning STED Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xundong; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico; Wu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Summary To take full advantage of fast resonant scanning in super-resolution STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy, we have developed an ultrafast photon counting system based on a multi-giga-sample per second analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) chip that delivers an unprecedented 450 MHz pixel clock (2.2 ns pixel dwell time in each scan). The system achieves a large field of view (~50 × 50 μm) with fast scanning that reduces photobleaching, and advances the time-gated continuous wave (CW) STED technology to the usage of resonant scanning with hardware based time-gating. The assembled system provides superb signal-to-noise ratio and highly linear quantification of light that result in superior image quality. Also, the system design allows great flexibility in processing photon signals to further improve the dynamic range. In conclusion, we have constructed a frontier photon counting image acquisition system with ultrafast readout rate, excellent counting linearity, and with the capacity of realizing resonant-scanning CW-STED microscopy with on-line time-gated detection. PMID:25227160

  18. Modular Scanning Confocal Microscope with Digital Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianjun; McCluskey, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    In conventional confocal microscopy, a physical pinhole is placed at the image plane prior to the detector to limit the observation volume. In this work, we present a modular design of a scanning confocal microscope which uses a CCD camera to replace the physical pinhole for materials science applications. Experimental scans were performed on a microscope resolution target, a semiconductor chip carrier, and a piece of etched silicon wafer. The data collected by the CCD were processed to yield images of the specimen. By selecting effective pixels in the recorded CCD images, a virtual pinhole is created. By analyzing the image moments of the imaging data, a lateral resolution enhancement is achieved by using a 20 × / NA = 0.4 microscope objective at 532 nm laser wavelength.

  19. Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Hanfei; Ge, Mingyuan; Öztürk, Hande; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2017-07-01

    We report our experiences with conducting ptychography simultaneously with the X-ray fluorescence measurement using the on-the-fly mode for efficient multi-modality imaging. We demonstrate that the periodic artifact inherent to the raster scan pattern can be mitigated using a sufficiently fine scan step size to provide an overlap ratio of >70%. This allows us to obtain transmitted phase contrast images with enhanced spatial resolution from ptychography while maintaining the fluorescence imaging with continuous-motion scans on pixelated grids. This capability will greatly improve the competence and throughput of scanning probe X-ray microscopy.

  20. Knowledge Discovery of Port Scans from Darknet

    OpenAIRE

    Lagraa, Sofiane; Francois, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Port scanning is widely used in Internet prior for attacks in order to identify accessible and potentially vulnerable hosts. In this work, we propose an approach that allows to discover port scanning behavior patterns and group properties of port scans. This approach is based on graph modelling and graph mining. It provides to security analysts relevant information of what services are jointly targeted, and the relationship of the scanned ports. This is helpful to asse...

  1. Parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope for retinal imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienola, Kari V.; Damodaran, Mathi; Braaf, Boy; Vermeer, Koenraad A.; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To visualize retinal structures using a newly developed parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope (PLSO). Methods: A PLSO was built using a digital micromirror device (DMD) instead of traditional scanning mirrors to scan lines over the field of view (FOV). The DMD consists of 912 × 1140

  2. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1995-03-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  3. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for ... what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to ...

  4. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for ... what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to ...

  5. Continuous Flushing of the Bladder in Rodents Reduces Artifacts and Improves Quantification in Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Deleye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the partial volume effect (PVE of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG tracer accumulation in the bladder on the positron emission tomographic (PET image quantification in mice and rats suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To improve the accuracy, we implemented continuous bladder flushing procedures. Female mice and rats were scanned using microPET/computed tomography (CT at baseline and after induction of acute colitis by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS intrarectally. During the scans, the bladder was continuously flushed in one group, whereas in the other group, no bladder flushing was performed. As a means of in vivo and ex vivo validation of the inflammation, animals also underwent colonoscopy and were sacrificed for gamma counting (subpopulation and to score the colonic damage both micro- and macroscopically as well as biochemically. At baseline, the microPET signal in the colon of both mice and rats was significantly higher in the nonflushed group compared to the flushed group, caused by the PVE of tracer activity in the bladder. Hence, the colonoscopy and postmortem analyses showed no significant differences at baseline between the flushed and nonflushed animals. TNBS induced significant colonic inflammation, as revealed by colonoscopic and postmortem scores, which was not detected by microPET in the mice without bladder flushing, again because of spillover of bladder activity in the colonic area. MicroPET in bladder-flushed animals did reveal a significant increase in 18F-FDG uptake. Correlations between microPET and colonoscopy, macroscopy, microscopy, and myeloperoxidase yielded higher Spearman rho values in mice with continuously flushed bladders during imaging. Comparable, although somewhat less pronounced, results were shown in the rat. Continuous bladder flushing reduced image artifacts and is mandatory for accurate image quantification in the pelvic region for both mice

  6. Note: Assessment of the SCAN+rVV10 functional for the structure of liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Julia; Ambrosio, Francesco; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2017-12-07

    The performance of the SCAN+rVV10 functional in modeling the structural properties of liquid water is studied through constant-volume ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with both classical and quantum nuclei. The radial distribution functions are found to be slightly overstructured with respect to experiment, but overall similar to those achieved with the bare SCAN and the rVV10 functionals. From the pressures calculated during the dynamics, it is inferred that the SCAN+rVV10 functional leads to a noticeable overestimation of the density of liquid water.

  7. Open source deformable image registration system for treatment planning and recurrence CT scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukauskaite, Ruta; Brink, Carsten; Hansen, Christian Rønn

    2016-01-01

    CT) images of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients was evaluated. PATIENTS AND MATERIALS: Twenty patients treated with definitive IMRT for HNSCC in 2010-2012 were included. For each patient, a pCT and an rCT scan were used. Median interval between the scans was 8.5 months. One observer...... on pCT. DSC for DIR varied between 0.58 and 0.79 for soft tissues and was 0.79 or higher for bony structures, and correlated with the volumes of ROIs (r = 0.5, p CT scans is feasible...

  8. QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Krog Raarup

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  9. Scanning strategies for imaging arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Attila

    2008-07-01

    Large-format (sub)millimeter wavelength imaging arrays are best operated in scanning observing modes rather than traditional position-switched (chopped) modes. The choice of observing mode is critical for isolating source signals from various types of noise interference, especially for ground-based instrumentation operating under a bright atmosphere. Ideal observing strategies can combat 1/f noise, resist instrumental defects, sensitively recover emission on large scales, and provide an even field coverage - all under feasible requirements of telescope movement. This work aims to guide the design of observing patterns that maximize scientific returns. It also compares some of the popular choices of observing modes for (sub)millimeter imaging, such as random, Lissajous, billiard, spiral, On-The-Fly (OTF), DREAM, chopped and stare patterns. Many of the conclusions are also applicable other imaging applications and imaging in one dimension (e.g. spectroscopic observations).

  10. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-11-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  11. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  12. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of individual cultured living cells, with an emphasis on topographical and functional imaging of neuronal and secretory cells of the nervous and endocrine system. The basic principles of biological SECM and associated negative amperometric-feedback and generator/collector-mode SECM imaging are discussed, and successful use of the methodology for screening soft and fragile membranous objects is outlined. The drawbacks of the constant-height mode of probe movement and the benefits of the constant-distance mode of SECM operation are described. Finally, representative examples of constant-height and constant-distance mode SECM on a variety of live cells are highlighted to demonstrate the current status of single-cell SECM in general and of SECM in neuroscience in particular.

  13. Transmittance measurement using scanning LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Yao; Mohan, Rosmin Elsa; Lau, Gih-Keong; Asundi, Anand Krishna

    2017-06-01

    In order to measure the transmittance for a large field of view (FOV), a system based on scanning LED is developed. The system mainly consists of tunable LEDs, a glass diffuser and a camera. The LED panel would display different colors in the CIE color space. An algorithm of converting the light wavelength to the RGB values is adopted. The images are captured using a monochrome camera. Depending on the number of colors displayed, the transmittance map for the entire spread of visible colors can be determined. Results are compared with those measured through a spectrometer. The spectral transmittance for the two methods exhibit good similarity. The system provides a means of measuring transmittance with no moving parts and can be extended to other hyperspectral imaging applications.

  14. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Dada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL. White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  15. Scanning Probe Microscopy of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautz, Pamela

    2011-10-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to study the unusual electronic properties of graphene. In an effort to support the graphene with minimal interaction with the substrate, we used a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) substrate. To minimize contaminants between the CVD graphene and boron nitride, the graphene samples were cleaned with distilled water and isopropanol prior to transfer to hBN substrate. We have also examined the growth of graphene flakes by chemical vapor deposition. In particular, we examined the relationship between the orientations of the first and second layer of CVD grown graphene. We found the growth mechanism preferentially resulted in rotations of 9^o or less indicating flakes with first and second layers aligned.

  16. A Structured Light-based System for Scanning Subcutaneous Tumors in Laboratory Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Girit, Ibrahim Cem; Jure-Kunkel, Maria; McIntyre, Kim W

    2008-01-01

    Tumor size or volume is often the primary endpoint in preclinical efficacy studies of anticancer drugs. Efficient and accurate measurement of such tumors is crucial to rapid evaluation of novel drug candidates. Currently available techniques for acquiring high-throughput data on tumor volume are time-consuming and prone to various inaccuracies and errors. The laser-scanning technology we describe here provides a convenient, high-throughput system for tumor measurement that reduces interoperat...

  17. Advanced Scanning Electron Microscopy and X Ray Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsley, David

    This text is the third in a group that evolved from a short course taught annually at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa., since 1972. Chapters on magnetic contrast a nd electron channeling, dropped from the second volume for reasons of space, are included here along with new topics such as image processing. The first seven chapters should be oT value to those geologists interested in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microanalysis. Chapters 8 and 9, concerned with specimen preparation for biological SEM a nd cryomicroscopy, make up about one third of the text.

  18. The utility of bone scans in rheumatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, I.; Dorai-Raj, A.; Khoo, K.; Tymans, K.; Brook, A. [The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT, (Australia)

    1997-09-01

    Full text: Introduction: Bone scans are the commonest diagnostic imaging services requested by Australian rheumatologists. Medicare figures suggest that an average rheumatologist orders about $50 000 (AUS) of bone scans annually. Aims: To ascertain the reasons why rheumatologists request bone scans and how it affects their patient management. Methods: A two-part prospective survey was administered before and after every bone scan ordered by four rheumatologists over a six-month period in 1996. Results: A total of 136 bone scans were requested (66.2% whole body; 33.8% regional; 6% SPECT). The primary indications for scanning were (1) to confirm a clinical diagnosis (38%); (2) to exclude a diagnosis (34%); (3) to localize site of pain (17%); and (4) to assist in management (6%). The common diseases that rheumatologists were attempting to confirm/exclude with bone scanning were inflammatory arthritis, malignancy, and fracture. However, the commonest provisional and final diagnosis was soft tissue rheumatism (18%) followed by inflammatory arthritis (15%) and osteoarthritis (11%). In 24% of patients with a provisional diagnosis of soft tissue rheumatism the diagnosis was changed by the bone scan. The scan was successful in excluding a diagnosis in 88 per cent where this was the primary indication for the test. It was successful in confirming a diagnosis in 79 per cent where this was the primary indication. In 32 per cent the bone scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 43 per cent it altered management. The bone scan result prevented further investigations in 60 per cent. Conclusions: The commonest pre-scan and post-scan diagnosis is soft tissue rheumatism. Rheumatologists predominantly request bone scanning to confirm or exclude their clinical suspicion of inflammatory arthritis, malignancy, and fracture. Bone scans were successful in achieving these objectives in at least 79 per cent of cases.

  19. Spiral scanning method for atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shao-Kang

    2010-07-01

    A spiral scanning method is proposed for atomic force microscopy with thoroughgoing analysis and implementation. Comparing with the traditional line-by-line scanning method, the spiral scanning method demonstrates higher imaging speed, minor image distortion, and lower acceleration, which can damage the piezoelectric scanner. Employing the spiral scanning method to replace the line-by-line scanning method, the experiment shows that the time to complete an imaging cycle can be reduced from 800 s to 314 s without sacrificing the image resolution.

  20. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  1. A new and validated CT-Based method for the calculation of orbital soft tissue volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regensburg, Noortje I.; Kok, Pauline H. B.; Zonneveld, Frans W.; Baldeschi, Lelio; Saeed, Peerooz; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Mourits, Maarten P.

    PURPOSE. There is no consensus as how to calculate orbital soft tissue volume based on CT or MRI scans. The authors sought to validate their technique and to assess the intraobserver and interobserver variability of their calculations of bony orbital volume (OV), orbital fat volume (FV), and

  2. Chestwall segmentation in 3D breast ultrasound using a deformable volume model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, H.J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2007-01-01

    A deformable volume segmentation method is proposed to detect the breast parenchyma in frontal scanned 3D whole breast ultrasound. Deformable volumes are a viable alternative to the deformable surface paradigm in noisy images with poorly defined object boundaries. A deformable ultrasound volume

  3. Cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting: Generating reliable, optimized scanning paths and processing parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    Selective laser melting is yet to become a standardized industrial manufacturing technique. The process continues to suffer from defects such as distortions, residual stresses, localized deformations and warpage caused primarily due to the localized heating, rapid cooling and high temperature...... gradients that occur during the process. While process monitoring and control of selective laser melting is an active area of research, establishing the reliability and robustness of the process still remains a challenge.In this paper, a methodology for generating reliable, optimized scanning paths...... and process parameters for selective laser melting of a standard sample is introduced. The processing of the sample is simulated by sequentially coupling a calibrated 3D pseudo-analytical thermal model with a 3D finite element mechanical model.The optimized processing parameters are subjected to a Monte Carlo...

  4. History of geophysics: Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This second volume in the AGU History of Geophysics Series continues the general aims of presenting articles concerning the social and intellectual history of the geophysical sciences. The articles are collected from peer-reviewed material that has appeared in Eos and several other AGU journals. The series is intended for a broad and diverse audience, including professional scientists, students, historians, and those concerned with policy studies.

  5. Mid-ventilation CT scan construction from four-dimensional respiration-correlated CT scans for radiotherapy planning of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthaus, Jochem W H; Schneider, Christoph; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel; Belderbos, José S A; Rossi, Maddalena M G; Lebesque, Joos V; Damen, Eugène M F

    2006-08-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) respiration-correlated imaging techniques can be used to obtain (respiration) artifact-free computed tomography (CT) images of the thorax. Current radiotherapy planning systems, however, do not accommodate 4D-CT data. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, new concept to incorporate patient-specific motion information, using 4D-CT scans, in the radiotherapy planning process of lung cancer patients to enable smaller error margins. A single CT scan was selected from the 4D-CT data set. This scan represented the tumor in its time-averaged position over the respiratory cycle (the mid-ventilation CT scan). To select the appropriate CT scan, two methods were used. First, the three-dimensional tumor motion was analyzed semiautomatically to calculate the mean tumor position and the corresponding respiration phase. An alternative automated method was developed to select the correct CT scan using the diaphragm motion. Owing to hysteresis, mid-ventilation selection using the three-dimensional tumor motion had a tumor position accuracy (with respect to the mean tumor position) better than 1.1 +/- 1.1 mm for all three directions (inhalation and exhalation). The accuracy in the diaphragm motion method was better than 1.1 +/- 1.1 mm. Conventional free-breathing CT scanning had an accuracy better than 0 +/- 3.9 mm. The mid-ventilation concept can result in an average irradiated volume reduction of 20% for tumors with a diameter of 40 mm. Tumor motion and the diaphragm motion method can be used to select the (artifact-free) mid-ventilation CT scan, enabling a significant reduction of the irradiated volume.

  6. Testing and validation of multi-lidar scanning strategies for wind energy applications: Testing and validation of multi-lidar scanning strategies for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer F. [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; Current affiliation: National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado USA; Bonin, Timothy A. [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; Current affiliation: Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder Colorado USA; Klein, Petra M. [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; Wharton, Sonia [Atmospheric, Earth and Energy Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California USA; Newsom, Rob K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-03-16

    Several factors cause lidars to measure different values of turbulence than an anemometer on a tower, including volume averaging, instrument noise, and the use of a scanning circle to estimate the wind field. One way to avoid the use of a scanning circle is to deploy multiple scanning lidars and point them toward the same volume in space to collect velocity measurements and extract high-resolution turbulence information. This paper explores the use of two multi-lidar scanning strategies, the tri-Doppler technique and the virtual tower technique, for measuring 3-D turbulence. In Summer 2013, a vertically profiling Leosphere WindCube lidar and three Halo Photonics Streamline lidars were operated at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site to test these multi-lidar scanning strategies. During the first half of the field campaign, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every second. Next, all three scanning lidars were used to build a “virtual tower” above the WindCube lidar. Results indicate that the tri-Doppler technique measures higher values of horizontal turbulence than the WindCube lidar under stable atmospheric conditions, reduces variance contamination under unstable conditions, and can measure highresolution profiles of mean wind speed and direction. The virtual tower technique provides adequate turbulence information under stable conditions but cannot capture the full temporal variability of turbulence experienced under unstable conditions because of the time needed to readjust the scans.

  7. Performance scan thermal climate. Assessment of the energy performance level; Performance scan thermisch klimaat. Beoordeling energieprestatieniveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouleaux, W. [DHV Bouw en Industrie, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    By means of the performance scan the indoor climate and the energetic performance level of a building can be assessed. The most important outcome of the scan is increase of the productivity. [Dutch] Met de performance scan kan het binnenklimaat en het energetisch prestatieniveau van een gebouw worden beoordeeld. De belangrijkste uitkomst van de scan is verhoging van de productiviteit.

  8. Horizon scanning for new genomic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Marta; Grossniklaus, Daurice A; Yu, Wei; Melillo, Stephanie; Wulf, Anja; Flome, Jennifer; Dotson, W David; Khoury, Muin J

    2011-02-01

    The development of health-related genomic tests is decentralized and dynamic, involving government, academic, and commercial entities. Consequently, it is not easy to determine which tests are in development, currently available, or discontinued. We developed and assessed the usefulness of a systematic approach to identifying new genomic tests on the Internet. We devised targeted queries of Web pages, newspaper articles, and blogs (Google Alerts) to identify new genomic tests. We finalized search and review procedures during a pilot phase that ended in March 2010. Queries continue to run daily and are compiled weekly; selected data are indexed in an online database, the Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Finder. After the pilot phase, our scan detected approximately two to three new genomic tests per week. Nearly two thirds of all tests (122/188, 65%) were related to cancer; only 6% were related to hereditary disorders. Although 88 (47%) of the tests, including 2 marketed directly to consumers, were commercially available, only 12 (6%) claimed United States Food and Drug Administration licensure. Systematic surveillance of the Internet provides information about genomic tests that can be used in combination with other resources to evaluate genomic tests. The Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Finder makes this information accessible to a wide group of stakeholders.

  9. Respiratory concerts revealed by scanning microrespirography in a termite Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláma, K; Sobotník, J; Hanus, R

    2007-04-01

    Respiratory metabolism of different developmental stages (larvae, pseudergates, nymphs, soldiers, neotenic reproductives; 0.6-4.5 mg body mass) of Prorhinotermes simplex was individually monitored by scanning respirographic method sensitive to subnanoliter amounts of O(2) consumption or CO(2) output per minute. Specimens exposed to dry air after removal from the colony performed enormously large, discontinuous bursts of CO(2) lasting usually 2 min. The volume of CO(2) produced during the burst often surpassed the volume of the whole body and it was 10- to 20-fold in excess of the air-filled endogenous tracheal volume. The initial velocity of CO(2) production during the burst was more than 90-fold faster in comparison to O(2) consumption. In the presence of enough moisture within the respiratory vessel, the termites breathed continuously without any larger outburst of CO(2). This fact fully corroborates validity of the so-called water retention theory in discontinuous CO(2) release. The highest rates of O(2) consumption were found in the second instar larvae (0.9 mg, 1000-2000 microl O(2)/g/h), the soldier caste was intermediate (700 microl O(2)/g/h) while pseudergates and neotenic reproductives consumed between 300 and 600 microl O(2)/g/h, at 25 degrees C. All developmental stages feeding on a cellulose diet had CO(2)/O(2) values (RQ) over 1 (1.2-1.4, i.e. carbohydrate metabolism), pigmented soldiers fed by the workers had RQ around 0.75 (predominating lipid or protein metabolism). The unusually large, sudden eruptions of CO(2) in specimens exposed to dry air allow us to make the following conclusions: (1) the bursts were due to special chemical processes, such as by enzymatic hydration of carbonic acid by carbonic anhydrase and; (2) the bulk of chemically evolved gaseous CO(2) escaped from the body by a mass flow supported by active ventilation, not by a passive diffusion. These results demonstrated that the periodic emissions of CO(2) and the associated

  10. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in

  11. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 88 ...

  12. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which is a positive, self-adjoint, invertible operator on H with A · IdH ≤ SWω ≤ B · IdH. 2. Main result. For establishing a relationship between discrete and continuous frame of subspaces, we generalize the concept of continuous frame and resolution of identity to arbitrary Hilbert space H. For this purpose, we introduce the ...

  13. Sex Assessment from the Volume of the First Metatarsal Bone: A Comparison of Linear and Volume Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Cummaudo, Marco; Mattia, Mirko; Cappella, Annalisa; Mazzarelli, Debora; Zago, Matteo; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a crucial characteristic of skeleton. In the last years, volumetric and surface 3D acquisition systems have enabled anthropologists to assess surfaces and volumes, whose potential still needs to be verified. This article aimed at assessing volume and linear parameters of the first metatarsal bone through 3D acquisition by laser scanning. Sixty-eight skeletons underwent 3D scan through laser scanner: Seven linear measurements and volume from each bone were assessed. A cutoff value of 13,370 mm(3) was found, with an accuracy of 80.8%. Linear measurements outperformed volume: metatarsal length and mediolateral width of base showed higher cross-validated accuracies (respectively, 82.1% and 79.1%, raising at 83.6% when both of them were included). Further studies are needed to verify the real advantage for sex assessment provided by volume measurements. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Exploring diffusion of ultrasonically consolidated aluminum and copper films through scanning and transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietins, Jennifer Mueller

    Ultrasonic consolidation (UC) is a promising manufacturing method for metal matrix composite pre-preg tapes or foils that utilizes a layer build-up technique. The process involves three main variables: applied load, oscillation amplitude, and rolling speed. A main advantage of this process is the ability to manufacture multi-material parts at lower processing temperatures compared to other metal matrix composites processes. A major disadvantage, however, is a lack of understanding of diffusion during the ultrasonic consolidation process, which is expected to affect the microstructure, bond quality, and strength within the interface region. The role of diffusion during the low temperature, short duration ultrasonic consolidation process was explored. First, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) was used to measure concentration profiles of ultrasonically consolidated high purity aluminum and copper through which the interdiffusion coefficients were calculated. It was found that the experimental accelerating voltage had a significant impact on the measurement of the concentration profiles, and associated interdiffusion coefficients, due to the interaction volume interference. The effect of the interaction volume on the concentration profiles was confirmed through Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories, and the error due the interaction volume was quantified. The results showed the diffusion distance was too small for accurate measurements with SEM XEDS even at low accelerating voltages. To significantly reduce the error due to the interaction volume, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples were prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) to ensure a uniform thickness. The TEM XEDS concentration profile and images revealed intermetallic phase transformations that occurred during the welding process. TEM images also showed dislocation pile-up located at the subgrain/bulk aluminum interface. This microstructural

  15. Scanning electron microscopy of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.

  16. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  17. Design and fabrication of a differential scanning nanocalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lei; Chen, Xiaoming; Yu, Shifeng; Lu, Ming

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of a differential scanning nanocalorimeter that significantly reduces the sample volume to microliters and can potentially improve the temperature sensitivity to 10 µK. The nanocalorimeter consists of a polymeric freestanding membrane, four high-sensitive low-noise thermistors based on silicon carbide (SiC), and a platinum heater and temperature sensor. With the integrated heater and sensors, temperature scanning and power compensation can be achieved for calorimetric measurement. Temperature sensing SiC film was prepared by using sintered SiC target and DC magnetron sputtering under different gas pressures and sputtering power. The SiC sensing material is characterized through the measurement of current-voltage curves and noise levels. The thermal performance of a fabricated nanocalorimeter is studied in simulation and experiment. The experiment results show the device has excellent thermal isolation to hold thermal energy. The noise test together with the simulation show the device is promising for micro 10 µK temperature sensitivity and nanowatt resolution which will lead to low-volume ultra-sensitive nanocalorimetry for biological processes, such as protein folding and ligand binding.

  18. EDITORIAL: Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-07-01

    The development of scanning probe microscopy repositioned modern physics. When Rohrer and Binnig first used electronic tunnelling effects to image atoms and quantum states they did more than pin down theoretical hypotheses to real-world observables; the scanning tunnelling microscope fed imaginations, prompting researchers to consider new directions and possibilities [1]. As Rohrer once commented, 'We could show that you can easily manipulate or position something small in space with an accuracy of 10 pm.... When you can do that, you simply have ideas of what you can do' [2]. The development heralded a cavalry of scanning probe techniques—such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) [3-5], scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) [6-8] and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) [9, 10]—that still continue to bring nanomaterials and nanoscale phenomena into fresh focus. Not long after the development of scanning tunnelling microscopy, Binnig, Quate and Gerber collaborating in California in the US published work on a new type of microscope also capable of atomic level resolution [3]. The original concept behind scanning tunnelling microscopy uses electrical conductance, which places substantial limitations on the systems that it can image. Binnig, Quate and Gerber developed the AFM to 'feel' the topology of surfaces like the needle of an old fashioned vinyl player. In this way insulators could be imaged as well. The development of a force modulation mode AFM extended the tool's reach to soft materials making images of biological samples accessible with the technique [4]. There have now been a number of demonstrations of image capture at rates that allow dynamics at the nanoscale to be tracked in real time, opening further possibilities in applications of the AFM as described in a recent review by Toshio Ando at Kanazawa University [5]. Researchers also found a way to retrieve optical information at 'super-resolution' [6, 7]. Optical microscopy provides spectral

  19. Registration Procedures for Terrestrial Laser Scanning in Geomorphologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B. D.; Kayen, R.; Minasian, D.

    2006-12-01

    Terrestrial based laser scanning, from either vehicle or tripod mounts allows the collection of geomorphologic data at previously unprecedented detail and volume. However, despite the ease of collecting this data in many settings, post-processing datasets collected without laser-visible reflectors within individual scans can lead to difficulties in both registration and georeferencing procedures. We have been actively involved in gathering data sets from a number of different environments and have been developing various techniques to post-process the data using surface registration methods. These methods use the point cloud or model surface to find a best-fit of the three-dimensional terrain. Recently, we have collected laser scan data of levee breaches in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina, a glacial cirque basin in the Canadian Rockies, a deep-seated landslide mass in Ventura County, California, rapidly evolving coastal bluffs in Central California, and sand bars and archeological sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. In each of these projects, setting up accurately surveyed reflectors was impractical due to the locations dynamic and fairly inaccessible setting. Robust surface registration procedures were therefore needed to provide accurate terrain models. We have used laser scanning results from these projects to assess the efficiency of the various post- processing methodologies for obtaining final registered and georeferenced point clouds and surface models. We compared registration results obtained both with and without accurate GPS coordinates for the laser scanner origin (Ventura and coastal landslides), use of a supporting total station unit (Grand Canyon), and collection of DGPS data on targets imaged in the LIDAR data after the scanning process (Katrina Levees). In many of these settings, the model fit improved by four times, from a root mean square error of 20 cm to 5cm when accurately surveyed coordinates were utilized for the laser scan

  20. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... of the exponentially distributed random variables that characterize the duration of the labeled transitions of a CMP. In this paper we present weak and strong complete axiomatizations for CML and prove a series of metaproperties, including the finite model property and the construction of canonical models. CML...

  1. A Visualization Methodology for Characterization of Network Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muelder, C W; Ma, K; Bartoletti, A

    2005-12-15

    Many methods have been developed for monitoring network traffic, both using visualization and statistics. Most of these methods focus on the detection of suspicious or malicious activities. But what they often fail to do refine and exercise measures that contribute to the characterization of such activities and their sources, once they are detected. In particular, many tools exist that detect network scans or visualize them at a high level, but not very many tools exist that are capable of categorizing and analyzing network scans. This paper presents a means of facilitating the process of characterization by using visualization and statistics techniques to analyze the patterns found in the timing of network scans through a method of continuous improvement in measures that serve to separate the components of interest in the characterization so the user can control separately for the effects of attack tool employed, performance characteristics of the attack platform, and the effects of network routing in the arrival patterns of hostile probes. The end result is a system that allows large numbers of network scans to be rapidly compared and subsequently identified.

  2. In-Space Networking on NASA's SCAN Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David E.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Clark, Gilbert J.; Johnson, Sandra K.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed, an external payload onboard the International Space Station, is equipped with three software defined radios and a flight computer for supporting in-space communication research. New technologies being studied using the SCaN Testbed include advanced networking, coding, and modulation protocols designed to support the transition of NASAs mission systems from primarily point to point data links and preplanned routes towards adaptive, autonomous internetworked operations needed to meet future mission objectives. Networking protocols implemented on the SCaN Testbed include the Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) link-layer protocol, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Encapsulation Packets, Internet Protocol (IP), Space Link Extension (SLE), CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), and Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) protocols including the Bundle Protocol (BP) and Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP). The SCaN Testbed end-to-end system provides three S-band data links and one Ka-band data link to exchange space and ground data through NASAs Tracking Data Relay Satellite System or a direct-to-ground link to ground stations. The multiple data links and nodes provide several upgradable elements on both the space and ground systems. This paper will provide a general description of the testbeds system design and capabilities, discuss in detail the design and lessons learned in the implementation of the network protocols, and describe future plans for continuing research to meet the communication needs for evolving global space systems.

  3. An electron beam linear scanning mode for industrial limited-angle nano-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxiang; Zeng, Li; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Lingli; Guo, Yumeng; Gong, Changcheng

    2018-01-01

    Nano-computed tomography (nano-CT), which utilizes X-rays to research the inner structure of some small objects and has been widely utilized in biomedical research, electronic technology, geology, material sciences, etc., is a high spatial resolution and non-destructive research technique. A traditional nano-CT scanning model with a very high mechanical precision and stability of object manipulator, which is difficult to reach when the scanned object is continuously rotated, is required for high resolution imaging. To reduce the scanning time and attain a stable and high resolution imaging in industrial non-destructive testing, we study an electron beam linear scanning mode of nano-CT system that can avoid mechanical vibration and object movement caused by the continuously rotated object. Furthermore, to further save the scanning time and study how small the scanning range could be considered with acceptable spatial resolution, an alternating iterative algorithm based on ℓ0 minimization is utilized to limited-angle nano-CT reconstruction problem with the electron beam linear scanning mode. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the electron beam linear scanning mode of nano-CT system.

  4. Networking of three dimensional sonography volume data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwil, A; Lee, A; Schoisswohl, A

    2000-09-01

    Three-dimensioned (3D) sonography enables the examiner to store, instead of copies from single B-scan planes, a volume consisting of 300 scan planes. The volume is displayed on a monitor in form of three orthogonal planes--longitudinal, axial and coronal. Translation and rotation facilitates anatomical orientation and provides any arbitrary plane within the volume to generate organ optimized scan planes. Different algorithms allow the extraction of different information such as surface, or bone structures by maximum mode, or fluid filled structures, such as vessels by the minimum mode. The volume may contain as well color information of vessels. The digitized information is stored on a magnetic optical disc. This allows virtual scanning in absence of the patient under the same conditions as the volume was primarily stored. The volume size is dependent on different, examiner-controlled settings. A volume may need a storage capacity between 2 and 16 MB of 8-bit gray level information. As such huge data sets are unsuitable for network transfer, data compression is of paramount interest. 100 stored volumes were submitted to JPEG, MPEG, and biorthogonal wavelet compression. The original and compressed volumes were randomly shown on two monitors. In case of noticeable image degradation, information on the location of the original and compressed volume and the ratio of compression was read. Numerical values for proving compression fidelity as pixel error calculation and computation of square root error have been unsuitable for evaluating image degradation. The best results in recognizing image degradation were achieved by image experts. The experts disagreed on the ratio where image degradation became visible in only 4% of the volumes. Wavelet compression ratios of 20:1 or 30:1 could be performed without discernible information reduction. The effect of volume compression is reflected both in the reduction of transfer time and in storage capacity. Transmission time for a

  5. Laser line scan performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kevin L.; Schofield, Oscar; Kerfoot, John; Giddings, Tom; Shirron, Joe; Twardowski, Mike

    2007-09-01

    The effectiveness of sensors that use optical measurements for the laser detection and identification of subsurface mines is directly related to water clarity. The primary objective of the work presented here was to use the optical data collected by UUV (Slocum Glider) surveys of an operational areas to estimate the performance of an electro-optical identification (EOID) Laser Line Scan (LLS) system during RIMPAC 06, an international naval exercise off the coast of Hawaii. Measurements of optical backscattering and beam attenuation were made with a Wet Labs, Inc. Scattering Absorption Meter (SAM), mounted on a Rutgers University/Webb Research Slocum glider. The optical data universally indicated extremely clear water in the operational area, except very close to shore. The beam-c values from the SAM sensor were integrated to three attenuation lengths to provide an estimate of how well the LLS would perform in detecting and identifying mines in the operational areas. Additionally, the processed in situ optical data served as near-real-time input to the Electro-Optic Detection Simulator, ver. 3 (EODES-3; Metron, Inc.) model for EOID performance prediction. Both methods of predicting LLS performance suggested a high probability of detection and probability of identification. These predictions were validated by the actual performance of the LLS as the EOID system yielded imagery from which reliable mine identification could be made. Future plans include repeating this work in more optically challenging water types to demonstrate the utility of pre-mission UUV surveys of operational areas as a tactical decision aid for planning EOID missions.

  6. Continuous-time signals

    CERN Document Server

    Shmaliy, Yuriy

    2006-01-01

    Gives a modern description of continuous-time deterministic signals Signal formation techniquesTime vs. frequency and frequency vs. time analysisCorrelation and energy analysisNarrowband signals and sampling.

  7. Continuous cultures of phytoplankton

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baron, Ron; Davie, Alexander; Gaines, Alec; Grant, Darren; Okay, Oya; Ozsoy, Emin

    2014-01-01

    The development of cultures of phytoplankton adapting throughout several days in an axenic, continuous-flow chemostat to yield a steady kinetic state of competing species is described mathematically...

  8. Human Digital Modeling & Hand Scanning Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory incorporates specialized scanning equipment, computer workstations and software applications for the acquisition and analysis of digitized models of...

  9. Influence of scanning strategies on the accuracy of digital intraoral scanning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, A; Mehl, A

    2013-01-01

    The digital intraoral impression is a central part in today's CAD/CAM dentistry. With its possibilities, new treatment options for the patient is provided and the prosthetic workflow is accelerated. Nowadays, the major issue with intraoral scanning systems is to gain more accuracy especially for larger scan areas and to simplify clinical handling for the dentist. The aim of this study was to investigate different scanning strategies regardingtheir accuracy with full arch scans in an in-vitro study design. A reference master model was used for the digital impressions with the Lava COS, the Cerec Bluecam and a powderfree intraoral scanning system, Cadent iTero. The trueness and precision of each scanning protocol was measured. Lava COS provides the a trueness of 45.8 microm with the scanning protocol recommended from the manufacturer. A different scanning protocol shows significantly lower accuracy (trueness +/- 90.2 microm). Cerec Bluecam also benefits from an optimal scanning protocol with a trueness of +/- 23.3 microm compared to +/- 52.5 microm with a standard protocol. The powderfree impression system Cadent iTero shows also a high accurate full-arch scan with a trueness of +/- 35.0 microm and a precision of +/- 30.9 microm. With the current intraoral scanning systems, full arch dental impressions are possible with a high accuracy, if adequate scan strategies are used. The powderfree scanning system provides the same level of accuracy compared to scanning systems with surface pretreatment.

  10. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in type 1 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-14

    Jan 14, 2013 ... Guidelines: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump therapy in type 1 diabetes. 15. 2013 Volume 18 No 1. JEMDSA. Introduction. The first external insulin pump device to deliver continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII or “insulin pump”) therapy was used more than 30 years ago.

  11. Continuous rearrangement and symmetry of solutions of elliptic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 110; Issue 2. Continuous Rearrangement and Symmetry ... There are proved some functional inequalities, e.g. for Dirichlet-type integrals and convolutions and also continuity properties in Sobolev spaces 1, . Further it is shown that the local minimizers of ...

  12. Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Michael Dominic

    A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was designed and built to operate at liquid helium temperature and was used to measure highly localized electron tunneling spectroscopy. Several instruments were built, all capable of operating in many different environments: air, vacuum, liquid helium and in a transfer gas. An adaptation of one particular design was made into an atomic force microscope capable of operating at low temperatures. Using a low temperature STM, three adsorbed molecular species (liquid crystals, sorbic acid, and carbon monoxide), deposited on a graphite substrate, have been imaged at 4.2K. The inelastic tunneling spectra of these adsorbates show strong peaks in dI/dV vs V curves at energies that correspond to known vibrational modes. The increase in conductance at the onset of inelastic tunneling was measured to be as high as 100 times. The spatial variation of the spectra was measured and was seen to change dramatically on the scale of angstroms, suggesting that individual molecular bonds could be measured. A theoretical model is presented to explain the contrast seen in the STM images of adsorbed molecules, thereby explaining why adsorbed molecules appear to be more conductive than the background. The microscope proved very useful for measuring the energy gap of high temperature superconductors. These materials often have submicron grain sizes. For LaSrCuO, YBaCuO, and BiCaSrCuO, the conductance curves showed a large energy gap suggesting a strongly coupled superconductor. The conductance curves also indicated that intergrain tunneling may occur and that the background conductance varied linearly with the applied voltage. The crystalline structure of rm Bi_2 Sr_2 CaCu_2 O_ {8 + delta} was imaged by an STM operating in air and in ultra-high vacuum. From the STM images the bulk crystal structure model for this material was refined. Finally, the STM was used to make holes reproducibly on a graphite surface with diameters less than 40A. Because the

  13. A continuous OSL scanning method for analysis of radiation depth-dose profiles in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.; Poolton, N.R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the development of a method for directly measuring radiation depth-dose profiles from brick, tile and porcelain cores, without the need for sample separation techniques. For the brick cores, examples are shown of the profiles generated by artificial irradiation using...... the different photon energies from Cs-137 and Co-60 gamma sources; comparison is drawn with both the theoretical calculations derived from Monte Carlo simulations, as well as experimental measurements made using more conventional optically stimulated luminescence methods of analysis....

  14. Enhanced scanning agility using a double pair of Risley prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Gilles; Cao, Xiaoying; Bernier, Robert; Roy, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Scanners with one pair of Risley prisms are robust and precise and they can be operated continuously. In this paper, we present a new scanner based on the use of two pairs of Risley prisms. The concept was driven by the need to add flexibility to Risley prism scanners used for lidar 3D mapping applications, while maintaining compactness and robustness. The first pair covers a FOV narrower than the second pair. The second pair is used to position the first Risley pair scan pattern anywhere within its own, larger, FOV. Doing so, it becomes possible, without additional scanner components, to increase the sampling point density at a specific location, to increase the sampling uniformity of the scanned area, and, while in motion, to maintain the sampling of a specific area of interest.

  15. Translation reinitiation and leaky scanning in plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabova, Lyubov A; Pooggin, Mikhail M; Hohn, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    While translation of mRNAs in eukaryotic cells in general follows strict rules, viruses infecting these cells break those rules in various ways. Viruses are under high selection pressure to compete with the host, to economize genome size, and to accommodate signals for replication, virus assembly, etc., on their RNAs as well as using them for translation. The cornucopia of extraordinary translation strategies, such as leaky scanning, internal initiation of translation, ribosome shunt, and virus-controlled reinitiation of translation, evolved by viruses continues to surprise and inform our understanding of general translation mechanisms. While internal initiation is treated in another section of this issue, we concentrate on leaky scanning, shunt and reinitiation, with emphasis on plant pararetroviruses.

  16. Scan image compression-encryption hardware system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbakis, Nikolaos G.; Brause, R.; Alexopoulos, C.

    1995-04-01

    This paper deals with the hardware design of an image compression/encryption scheme called SCAN. The scheme is based on the principles and ideas reflected by the specification of the SCAN language. SCAN is a fractal based context-free language which accesses sequentially the data of a 2D array, by describing and generating a wide range (near (nxn)) of space filling curves (or SCAN patterns) from a short set of simple ones. The SCAN method uses the algorithmic description of each 2D image as SCAN patterns combinations for the compression and encryption of the image data. Note that each SCAN letter or word accesses the image data with a different order (or sequence), thus the application of a variety of SCAN words associated with the compression scheme will produce various compressed versions of the same image. The compressed versions are compared in memory size and the best of them with the smallest size in bits could be used for the image compression/encryption. Note that the encryption of the image data is a result of the great number of possible space filling curves which could be generated by SCAN. Since the software implementation of the SCAN compression/encryption scheme requires some time, the hardware design and implementation of the SCAN scheme is necessary in order to reduce the image compression/encryption time to the real-time one. The development of such an image compression encryption system will have a significant impact on the transmission and storage of images. It will be applicable in multimedia and transmission of images through communication lines.

  17. Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, Ted W; Chan, H-P; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Zhou Chuan; Chughtai, Aamer [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)], E-mail: tway@umich.edu

    2008-03-07

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of CT scanning and reconstruction parameters on automated segmentation and volumetric measurements of nodules in CT images. Phantom nodules of known sizes were used so that segmentation accuracy could be quantified in comparison to ground-truth volumes. Spherical nodules having 4.8, 9.5 and 16 mm diameters and 50 and 100 mg cc{sup -1} calcium contents were embedded in lung-tissue-simulating foam which was inserted in the thoracic cavity of a chest section phantom. CT scans of the phantom were acquired with a 16-slice scanner at various tube currents, pitches, fields-of-view and slice thicknesses. Scans were also taken using identical techniques either within the same day or five months apart for study of reproducibility. The phantom nodules were segmented with a three-dimensional active contour (3DAC) model that we previously developed for use on patient nodules. The percentage volume errors relative to the ground-truth volumes were estimated under the various imaging conditions. There was no statistically significant difference in volume error for repeated CT scans or scans taken with techniques where only pitch, field of view, or tube current (mA) were changed. However, the slice thickness significantly (p < 0.05) affected the volume error. Therefore, to evaluate nodule growth, consistent imaging conditions and high resolution should be used for acquisition of the serial CT scans, especially for smaller nodules. Understanding the effects of scanning and reconstruction parameters on volume measurements by 3DAC allows better interpretation of data and assessment of growth. Tracking nodule growth with computerized segmentation methods would reduce inter- and intraobserver variabilities.

  18. Effect of CT scanning parameters on volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules by 3D active contour segmentation: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Ted W.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Zhou, Chuan; Chughtai, Aamer

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of CT scanning and reconstruction parameters on automated segmentation and volumetric measurements of nodules in CT images. Phantom nodules of known sizes were used so that segmentation accuracy could be quantified in comparison to ground-truth volumes. Spherical nodules having 4.8, 9.5 and 16 mm diameters and 50 and 100 mg cc-1 calcium contents were embedded in lung-tissue-simulating foam which was inserted in the thoracic cavity of a chest section phantom. CT scans of the phantom were acquired with a 16-slice scanner at various tube currents, pitches, fields-of-view and slice thicknesses. Scans were also taken using identical techniques either within the same day or five months apart for study of reproducibility. The phantom nodules were segmented with a three-dimensional active contour (3DAC) model that we previously developed for use on patient nodules. The percentage volume errors relative to the ground-truth volumes were estimated under the various imaging conditions. There was no statistically significant difference in volume error for repeated CT scans or scans taken with techniques where only pitch, field of view, or tube current (mA) were changed. However, the slice thickness significantly (p < 0.05) affected the volume error. Therefore, to evaluate nodule growth, consistent imaging conditions and high resolution should be used for acquisition of the serial CT scans, especially for smaller nodules. Understanding the effects of scanning and reconstruction parameters on volume measurements by 3DAC allows better interpretation of data and assessment of growth. Tracking nodule growth with computerized segmentation methods would reduce inter- and intraobserver variabilities.

  19. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWMM is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. The runoff component of SWMM operates on a collection of subcatchment areas that receive precipitation and generate runoff and pollutant loads. The routing portion of SWMM transports this runoff through a system of pipes, channels, storage/treatment devices, pumps, and regulators. SWMM tracks the quantity and quality of runoff generated within each subcatchment, and the flow rate, flow depth, and quality of water in each pipe and channel during a simulation period comprised of multiple time steps. The reference manual for this edition of SWMM is comprised of three volumes. Volume I describes SWMM’s hydrologic models, Volume II its hydraulic models, and Volume III its water quality and low impact development models. Reference manual presenting underlying mathematics of the Storm Water Management Model - Volume III Water Quality Modules

  20. Multivariate volume rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  1. Correlation between metabolic tumor volume and pathologic tumor volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James D.; Chisholm, Karen M.; Daly, Megan E.; Wiegner, Ellen A.; Truong, Daniel; Iagaru, Andre; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Graves, Edward E.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Kong, Christina; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To explore the relationship between pathologic tumor volume and volume estimated from different tumor segmentation techniques on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in oral cavity cancer. Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue had PET-CT scans before definitive surgery. Pathologic tumor volume was estimated from surgical specimens. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was defined from PET-CT scans as the volume of tumor above a given SUV threshold. Multiple SUV thresholds were explored including absolute SUV thresholds, relative SUV thresholds, and gradient-based techniques. Results Multiple MTV's were associated with pathologic tumor volume; however the correlation was poor (R2 range 0.29–0.58). The ideal SUV threshold, defined as the SUV that generates an MTV equal to pathologic tumor volume, was independently associated with maximum SUV (p=0.0005) and tumor grade (p=0.024). MTV defined as a function of maximum SUV and tumor grade improved the prediction of pathologic tumor volume (R2 = 0.63). Conclusions Common SUV thresholds fail to predict pathologic tumor volume in head and neck cancer. The optimal technique that allows for integration of PET-CT with radiation treatment planning remains to be defined. Future investigation should incorporate biomarkers such as tumor grade into definitions of MTV. PMID:21665308

  2. A Video Rate Confocal Laser Beam Scanning Light Microscope Using An Image Dissector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Seth R.; Hubin, Thomas; Rosenthal, Scott; Washburn, Clayton

    1989-12-01

    A video rate confocal reflected light microscope with no moving parts has been developed. Return light from an acousto-optically raster scanned laser beam is imaged from the microscope stage onto the photocathode of an Image Dissector Tube (IDT). Confocal operation is achieved by appropriately raster scanning with the IDT x and y deflection coils so as to continuously "sample" that portion of the photocathode that is being instantaneously illuminated by the return image of the scanning laser spot. Optimum IDT scan parameters and geometric distortion correction parameters are determined under computer control within seconds and are then continuously applied to insure system alignment. The system is operational and reflected light images from a variety of objects have been obtained. The operating principle can be extended to fluorescence and transmission microscopy.

  3. Security scanning of Web sites at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    As of early 2010, the CERN Computer Security Team will start regular scanning of all Web sites and Web applications at CERN, visible on the Internet, or on the General Purpose Network (office network). The goal of this scanning is to improve the quality of CERN Web sites. All deficits found will be reported by e-mail to the relevant Web site owners, and must be fixed in a timely manner. Web site owners may also request one-off scans of their Web site or Web application, by sending an e-mail to Computer.Security@cern.ch. These Web scans are designed to limit the impact on the scanned Web sites. Nevertheless, in very rare cases scans may cause undesired side-effects, e.g. generate a large number of log entries, or cause particularly badly designed or less robust Web applications to crash. If a Web site is affected by these security scans, it will also be susceptible to any more aggressive scan that can be performed any time by a malicious attacker. Such Web applications should be fixed, and also additionally...

  4. Multibeam scanning electron microscope : Experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi-Gheidari, A.; Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present the first results obtained with their multibeam scanning electron microscope. For the first time, they were able to image 196 (array of 14×14) focused beams of a multielectron beam source on a specimen using single beam scanning electron microscope (SEM) optics. The system

  5. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  6. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feeling Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  7. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I Help a Kid Who's Bullied? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  8. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía ...

  9. Optimal stimulation settings for CMAP scan registrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Maathuis (Ellen); R.D. Henderson (Robert); J. Drenthen (Judith); N.M. Hutchinson (Nicole); J.R. Daube (Jasper); J.H. Blok (Joleen); G.H. Visser (Gerhard Henk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The CMAP (Compound Muscle Action Potential) scan is a non-invasive electrodiagnostic tool, which provides a quick and visual assessment of motor unit potentials as electrophysiological components that together constitute the CMAP. The CMAP scan records the electrical activity

  10. Towards high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Femke Chantal

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, two routes towards high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are described. The first possibility for high-speed scanning that is discussed is the use of MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems) devices as high-speed add-ons in STM microscopes. The functionality of these devices

  11. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You Go to School? Breast Cancer Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  12. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters in epidemiologic data. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set...

  13. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This article shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of a set of confocal elliptic...

  14. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Stepparents Be a Green Kid Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  15. Ultrasonic scanning for pallet part grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed F. Kabir; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Mark E. Schafer; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Sorting and grading of wooden pallet parts are key factors for pallet manufacturing quality and pallet durability. The feasibility of ultrasonic scanning for defect detection in pallet manufacturing is examined in this report. Scanning was conducted by two pressure-contact rolling transducers in a pitch-catch arrangement. Pallet part deckboards were fed through the...

  16. Gender, environmental scanning and performance of micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current business environment for micro enterprises in South Africa is very competitive, turbulent and constantly changing. Micro entrepreneurs need to gain knowledge of the business environment through environmental scanning. The study examined the frequency of environmental scanning practices by micro ...

  17. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to School? Breast Cancer Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that ...

  18. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Is an Intellectual Disability? Movie: Endocrine System Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía ...

  19. New Designs for NMR Core Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemich, B.; Anferova, S.; Talnishnikh, E.; Arnold, J.; Clauser, C.

    2006-12-01

    Within the last ten years, mobile magnetic resonance has moved from the oil field to many new areas of application. While the focus of mobile NMR in the past was on single-sided or inside-out NMR, the advent of tube-shaped Halbach magnets has introduced the conventional outside-in NMR concept to mobile NMR where the object is inside a magnet. Our Halbach magnet is constructed from small magnet blocks at light weight and low cost with a magnetic field sufficiently homogeneous. To automatize NMR measurements, the Halbach magnet is mounted on a sliding table to scan long core sections without human interaction. In homogeneous magnetic fields, the longitudinal relaxation time T1 and even the transverse relaxation time T2 are proportional to the pore diameters of rocks. Hence, the T1 and T2 signals map the pore-size distribution of the studied rock cores. For fully saturated samples the integral of the distribution curve is proportional to porosity. The porosity values from NMR measurements with the Halbach magnet are used to estimate permability. The Halbach magnet can be used for certain sample geometries in combination with exchangeable radio frequency (rf) coils with different diameters from 24 mm up to 80 mm. To measure standard Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) cores, which have a standard diameter of 60 mm and are split lengthwise after recovery, we use a surface figure-8 rf coil with an inner diameter of 60 mm. Besides 1D T2 measurements, we perform relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments, where T1 and T2 are measured in parallel. In this way, the influence of diffusion on the shape of the T2 distribution function is probed. A gradient coil system was designed to perform Pulsed Field Gradients (PFG) experiments. As the gradient coils restrict the axial access to the magnet, only cylindrical core plugs with 20 mm in diameter can be analysed by PFG NMR methods. The homogeneity of the magnetic field in the sensitive volume

  20. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  1. Significance of leukocyte scanning in infected endoprostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Pasurka, B.; Boerner, W.

    1989-03-01

    31 patients with suspected septic loosening of an endoprosthesis (hip endoprosthesis n=30; knee endoprosthesis n=1) were examined with leukocyte scans (10 MBq /sup 111/In-oxine: n=22; 300 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO: n=9). The results were compared with results of the bacterial growth (n=22), the histology (n=12) and of the bone scans (/sup 99m/Tc-MDP: n=20) which were performed within 4 days. The sensitivity of the bone scan was 100%, the specificity 30% and the diagnostic accuracy regarding a septic loosening of the arthroplasty was 55%. For the leukocyte scans a comparable sensitivity of 100%, but a higher specificity (86%) and accuracy (91%) could be calculated. A false positive leukocyte scan could be observed in a periprosthetic granuloma, an ossifying periarthritis and in a patient with negative bacterial growth with the histological proof of an inflammation.

  2. Speckle suppression in scanning laser display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurlov, Victor; Lapchuk, Anatoly; Yun, Sangkyeong; Song, Jonghyeong; Yang, Haengseok

    2008-01-10

    The theory of speckle noise in a scanning beam is presented. The general formulas for the calculation of speckle contrast, which apply to any scanning display, are obtained. It is shown that the main requirement for successful speckle suppression in a scanning display is a narrow autocorrelation peak and low sidelobe level in the autocorrelation function of the complex amplitude distribution across a scanning light beam. The simple formulas for speckle contrast for a beam with a narrow autocorrelation function peak were obtained. It was shown that application of a diffractive optical element (DOE) with a Barker code phase shape could use only natural display scanning motion for speckle suppression. DOE with a Barker code phase shape has a small size and may be deposited on the light modulator inside the depth of the focus of the reflected beam area, and therefore, it does not need an additional image plane and complicated relay optics.

  3. Commissioning and cross-comparison of four scanning water tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saenz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Water scanning systems are commonly used for data collection to characterize dosimetric properties of photon and electron beams, and the commissioning of such systems has been previously described. The aim in this study, however, was to investigate tank-specific dependencies as well as conduct a dosimetric comparison between four distinct water scanning systems.Methods: Four water scanning systems were studied including the PTW MP3-M Phantom Tank, the Standard Imaging DoseView 3D, the IBA Blue Phantom, and the Sun Nuclear 3D Scanner. Mechanical accuracy and reproducibility was investigated by driving the chamber holder to nominal positions relative to a zero point and using a leveled caliper with 30 cm range to measure the actual position. Dosimetric measurements were also performed not only to compare percent-depth-dose (PDD curves and profiles between tanks but also to assess dependencies such as directionality, scanning speed, and reproducibility for each tank individually. A PTW Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber with a sensitive volume of 0.125 cc was used at a Varian Clinac 2300 linear accelerator.Results: Mechanical precision was ensured to within 0.1 mm with the standard deviation (SD of reproducibility <0.1 mm for measurements made with calipers. Dependencies on scanning direction and speed are presented. 6 MV PDDs between tanks agreed to within 0.6% relative to an averaged PDD beyond dmax and within 2.5% in the build-up region. Specifically, the maximum difference was 1.0% between MP3-M and Blue Phantom at 6.1 cm depth. Lateral profiles agreed between tanks within 0.5% in the central 80% of the field. 6 MeV PDD maximum difference was 1.3% occurring at the steepest portion, where the R50 was nevertheless within 0.6 mm across tanks. Setup uncertainties estimated at ≤1 mm are presumed to have contributed some of the difference between water tank data.Conclusion: Modern water scanning systems have achieved high accuracy across

  4. Development and comparison of algorithms for generating a scan sequence for a random access scanner. [ZAP (and flow charts for ZIP and SCAN), in FORTRAN for DEC-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eason, R. O.

    1980-09-01

    Many data acquisition systems incorporate high-speed scanners to convert analog signals into digital format for further processing. Some systems multiplex many channels into a single scanner. A random access scanner whose scan sequence is specified by a table in random access memory will permit different scan rates on different channels. Generation of this scan table can be a tedious manual task when there are many channels (e.g. 50), when there are more than a few scan rates (e.g. 5), and/or when the ratio of the highest scan rate to the lowest scan rate becomes large (e.g. 100:1). An algorithm is developed which will generate these scan sequences for the random access scanner and implements the algorithm on a digital computer. Application of number theory to the mathematical statement of the problem led to development of several algorithms which were implemented in FORTRAN. The most efficient of these algorithms operates by partitioning the problem into a set of subproblems. Through recursion they solve each subproblem by partitioning it repeatedly into even smaller parts, continuing until a set of simple problems is created. From this process, a pictorial representation or wheel diagram of the problem can be constructed. From the wheel diagram and a description of the original problem, a scan table can be constructed. In addition, the wheel diagram can be used as a method of storing the scan sequence in a smaller amount of memory. The most efficient partitioning algorithm solved most scan table problems in less than a second of CPU time. Some types of problems, however, required as much as a few minutes of CPU time. 26 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Editorial: Change and continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roncaglia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The short editorial introduces the new volume and provides information on the new composition of the board of editors. Starting from this issue, the main responsibility for editing the two journals "Moneta e Credito" and "PSL Quarterly Review" shifts from Alessandro Roncaglia to Carlo D’Ippoliti. Roncaglia, chairman of Economia Civile, which publishes both journals, remains on the board as co-editor. The present introduction explains the main reasons for this change, and shortly recalls the recent history of the Review.

  6. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  7. Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen D; Kraus, Martin F; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan J; Choi, Woojhon; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Hornegger, Joachim; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2013-12-20

    We developed an ultrahigh speed, handheld swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) ophthalmic instrument using a 2D MEMS mirror. A vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at 1060 nm center wavelength yielded a 350 kHz axial scan rate and 10 µm axial resolution in tissue. The long coherence length of the VCSEL enabled a 3.08 mm imaging range with minimal sensitivity roll-off in tissue. Two different designs with identical optical components were tested to evaluate handheld OCT ergonomics. An iris camera aided in alignment of the OCT beam through the pupil and a manual fixation light selected the imaging region on the retina. Volumetric and high definition scans were obtained from 5 undilated normal subjects. Volumetric OCT data was acquired by scanning the 2.4 mm diameter 2D MEMS mirror sinusoidally in the fast direction and linearly in the orthogonal slow direction. A second volumetric sinusoidal scan was obtained in the orthogonal direction and the two volumes were processed with a software algorithm to generate a merged motion-corrected volume. Motion-corrected standard 6 x 6 mm(2) and wide field 10 x 10 mm(2) volumetric OCT data were generated using two volumetric scans, each obtained in 1.4 seconds. High definition 10 mm and 6 mm B-scans were obtained by averaging and registering 25 B-scans obtained over the same position in 0.57 seconds. One of the advantages of volumetric OCT data is the generation of en face OCT images with arbitrary cross sectional B-scans registered to fundus features. This technology should enable screening applications to identify early retinal disease, before irreversible vision impairment or loss occurs. Handheld OCT technology also promises to enable applications in a wide range of settings outside of the traditional ophthalmology or optometry clinics including pediatrics, intraoperative, primary care, developing countries, and military medicine.

  8. Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen D.; Kraus, Martin F.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan J.; Choi, WooJhon; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E.; Hornegger, Joachim; Duker, Jay S.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an ultrahigh speed, handheld swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) ophthalmic instrument using a 2D MEMS mirror. A vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at 1060 nm center wavelength yielded a 350 kHz axial scan rate and 10 µm axial resolution in tissue. The long coherence length of the VCSEL enabled a 3.08 mm imaging range with minimal sensitivity roll-off in tissue. Two different designs with identical optical components were tested to evaluate handheld OCT ergonomics. An iris camera aided in alignment of the OCT beam through the pupil and a manual fixation light selected the imaging region on the retina. Volumetric and high definition scans were obtained from 5 undilated normal subjects. Volumetric OCT data was acquired by scanning the 2.4 mm diameter 2D MEMS mirror sinusoidally in the fast direction and linearly in the orthogonal slow direction. A second volumetric sinusoidal scan was obtained in the orthogonal direction and the two volumes were processed with a software algorithm to generate a merged motion-corrected volume. Motion-corrected standard 6 x 6 mm2 and wide field 10 x 10 mm2 volumetric OCT data were generated using two volumetric scans, each obtained in 1.4 seconds. High definition 10 mm and 6 mm B-scans were obtained by averaging and registering 25 B-scans obtained over the same position in 0.57 seconds. One of the advantages of volumetric OCT data is the generation of en face OCT images with arbitrary cross sectional B-scans registered to fundus features. This technology should enable screening applications to identify early retinal disease, before irreversible vision impairment or loss occurs. Handheld OCT technology also promises to enable applications in a wide range of settings outside of the traditional ophthalmology or optometry clinics including pediatrics, intraoperative, primary care, developing countries, and military medicine. PMID:24466495

  9. Automatic segmentation and quantification of the cardiac structures from non-contrast-enhanced cardiac CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Rahil; Bos, Daniel; Budde, Ricardo P. J.; Pellikaan, Karlijn; Niessen, Wiro J.; van der Lugt, Aad; van Walsum, Theo

    2017-05-01

    Early structural changes to the heart, including the chambers and the coronary arteries, provide important information on pre-clinical heart disease like cardiac failure. Currently, contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is the preferred modality for the visualization of the cardiac chambers and the coronaries. In clinical practice not every patient undergoes a CCTA scan; many patients receive only a non-contrast-enhanced calcium scoring CT scan (CTCS), which has less radiation dose and does not require the administration of contrast agent. Quantifying cardiac structures in such images is challenging, as they lack the contrast present in CCTA scans. Such quantification would however be relevant, as it enables population based studies with only a CTCS scan. The purpose of this work is therefore to investigate the feasibility of automatic segmentation and quantification of cardiac structures viz whole heart, left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, right ventricle and aortic root from CTCS scans. A fully automatic multi-atlas-based segmentation approach is used to segment the cardiac structures. Results show that the segmentation overlap between the automatic method and that of the reference standard have a Dice similarity coefficient of 0.91 on average for the cardiac chambers. The mean surface-to-surface distance error over all the cardiac structures is 1.4+/- 1.7 mm. The automatically obtained cardiac chamber volumes using the CTCS scans have an excellent correlation when compared to the volumes in corresponding CCTA scans, a Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of 0.95 is obtained. Our fully automatic method enables large-scale assessment of cardiac structures on non-contrast-enhanced CT scans.

  10. A Novel Scan Architecture for Low Power Scan-Based Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mojtabavi Naeini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Test power has been turned to a bottleneck for test considerations as the excessive power dissipation has serious negative effects on chip reliability. In scan-based designs, rippling transitions caused by test patterns shifting along the scan chain not only elevate power consumption but also introduce spurious switching activities in the combinational logic. In this paper, we propose a novel area-efficient gating scan architecture that offers an integrated solution for reducing total average power in both scan cells and combinational part during shift mode. In the proposed gating scan structure, conventional master/slave scan flip-flop has been modified into a new gating scan cell augmented with state preserving and gating logic that enables average power reduction in combinational logic during shift mode. The new gating scan cells also mitigate the number of transitions during shift and capture cycles. Thus, it contributes to average power reduction inside the scan cell during scan shifting with low impact on peak power during capture cycle. Simulation results have shown that the proposed gating scan cell saves 28.17% total average power compared to conventional scan cell that has no gating logic and up to 44.79% compared to one of the most common existing gating architectures.

  11. Basketball training increases striatum volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Kea Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Won Teak; Park, Kyung Ah; Rhyu, Im Joo

    2011-02-01

    The striatum is associated with the learning and retention of motor skills. Several studies have shown that motor learning induces neuronal changes in the striatum. We investigated whether macroscopic change in striatum volume occurs in a segment of the human population who learned basketball-related motor skills and practiced them throughout their entire athletic life. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging volumetry was performed in basketball players and healthy controls, and striatum volumes were compared based on basketball proficiency, region and side. We identified morphological enlargement in the striatum of basketball players in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that continued practice and repetitive performance of basketball-related motor skills may induce plastic structural changes in the human striatum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review article willintroduce readers to the educational subject matter, along with one-page summarises (in print) of additional articles that may be accessed in full online. We will continue to offer topical and up-to-date CME material. Readers are encouraged to register with samj.org.za to receive future notifications of new ...

  13. Continuous digital health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halteren, Aart; Gay, Vaĺerie

    2015-01-01

    A transformation is underway regarding how we deal with our health, not only because mobile Internet technology has made it possible to have continuous access to personal health information, but also because breaking the trend of ever-growing healthcare costs is increasingly necessary. Connectivity,

  14. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  15. Continuous venovenous haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Bistrup, C; Pedersen, R S

    1996-01-01

    A simple three-pump-based system for the performance of continuous venovenous haemodialysis is described. The method employs access to the circulation via a double-lumen catheter, and by means of a standard extracorporeal peristaltic pump the blood is circulated through a haemofiltration filter. ...

  16. Measurement of Translational and Angular Vibration Using a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Stanbridge

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental procedure for obtaining angular and translational vibration in one measurement, using a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, is described. Sinusoidal scanning, in a straight line, enables one angular vibration component to be measured, but by circular scanning, two principal angular vibrations and their directions can be derived directly from the frequency response sidebands. Examples of measurements on a rigid cube are given. Processes of narrow-band random excitation and modal analysis are illustrated with reference to measurements on a freely suspended beam. Sideband frequency response references are obtained by using multiplied excitation force and mirror-drive signals.

  17. STED microscopy with continuous wave beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, Katrin I; Harke, Benjamin; Medda, Rebecca; Hell, Stefan W

    2007-11-01

    We report stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence microscopy with continuous wave (CW) laser beams. Lateral fluorescence confinement from the scanning focal spot delivered a resolution of 29-60 nm in the focal plane, corresponding to a 5-8-fold improvement over the diffraction barrier. Axial spot confinement increased the axial resolution by 3.5-fold. We observed three-dimensional (3D) subdiffraction resolution in 3D image stacks. Viable for fluorophores with low triplet yield, the use of CW light sources greatly simplifies the implementation of this concept of far-field fluorescence nanoscopy.

  18. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and brain volume in older adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Erickson, Kirk I; Espeland, Mark A; Smith, J Carson; Tindle, Hilary A; Rapp, Stephen R

    2014-11-01

    We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who continued annual neuropsychological assessments by telephone and completed a concurrent questionnaire of cognitive activities and MRI scans were included (mean age = 81.4 years; N = 393). Cognitive performance was measured by tests of attention, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and memory. Cognitive activity was measured by self-reported participation in a variety of cognitive activities (e.g., reading books, playing games, computer activities; N = 11 items) during the previous 12 months. MRI measures included gray and white matter normal and white matter lesion volumes. SEM demonstrated a significant association between cognitive activity and baseline cognitive performance but not change over 2-3 years. Gray and white matter was associated with cognitive performance but not cognitive activity. All effects remained significant after modeling covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, WHIMS intervention assignment, and intracranial volume). Cognitive activity benefits current cognitive performance but is not associated with change over 2-3 years. Cognitive activity and MRI volumes are independently associated with cognitive performance, suggesting distinct cognitive and brain reserve constructs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Optimal stimulation settings for CMAP scan registrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maathuis Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CMAP (Compound Muscle Action Potential scan is a non-invasive electrodiagnostic tool, which provides a quick and visual assessment of motor unit potentials as electrophysiological components that together constitute the CMAP. The CMAP scan records the electrical activity of the muscle (CMAP in response to transcutaneous stimulation of the motor nerve with gradual changes in stimulus intensity. Large MUs, including those that result from collateral reinnervation, appear in the CMAP scan as so-called steps, i.e., clearly visible jumps in CMAP amplitude. The CMAP scan also provides information on nerve excitability. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the stimulation protocol used on the CMAP scan and its quantification. Methods The stimulus frequency (1, 2 and 3 Hz, duration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.3 ms, or number (300, 500 and 1000 stimuli in CMAP scans of 23 subjects was systematically varied while the other two parameters were kept constant. Pain was measured by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS. Non-parametric paired tests were used to assess significant differences in excitability and step variables and VAS scores between the different stimulus parameter settings. Results We found no effect of stimulus frequency on CMAP scan variables or VAS scores. Stimulus duration affected excitability variables significantly, with higher stimulus intensity values for shorter stimulus durations. Step variables showed a clear trend towards increasing values with decreasing stimulus number. Conclusions A protocol delivering 500 stimuli at a frequency of 2 Hz with a 0.1 ms pulse duration optimized CMAP scan quantification with a minimum of subject discomfort, artefact and duration of the recording. CMAP scan variables were influenced by stimulus duration and number; hence, these need to be standardized in future studies.

  20. [Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepari, G; Inguaggiato, P; Gigliola, G; Bainotti, S; Formica, M

    2006-01-01

    Several techniques are currently available in the continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) spectrum, adhering to different clinical conditions and illness severity. Commercially available machines have become more user-friendly, even for non-dialysis staff however, nephrologists need specific knowledge to give an adequate prescription that must be different from chronic hemodialysis. Competence and experience in the technical possibilities of CRRT lead to an individual ultra-filtration and treatment dose prescription. Clearances of solutes with different molecular weight can be modulated by coupling (combining) diffusion and convection, and by changing the fluid infusion rate. In addition, CRRT has an important impact on metabolism with its cooling effect, removal of nourishing substances and modification of electrolytic and acid-base balance. In septic patients standard CRRT has no specific indications in the absence of acute renal failure. Other extracorporeal therapies, such as high volume hemofiltration coupled with plasma filtration-adsorption (CPFA), have been developed aiming for a major influence on sepsis evolution. The versatility of CRRT has great value not only in adapting the treatment schedule to clinical conditions, but also in performing extracorporeal therapies in a wide array of logistical circumstances.

  1. Clinical applications of Genome Polymorphism Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber James L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Applications of Genome Polymorphism Scans range from the relatively simple such as gender determination and confirmation of biological relationships, to the relatively complex such as determination of autozygosity and propagation of genetic information throughout pedigrees. Unlike nearly all other clinical DNA tests, the Scan is a universal test – it covers all people and all genes. In balance, I argue that the Genome Polymorphism Scan is the most powerful, affordable clinical DNA test available today. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Scott Weiss (nominated by Neil Smalheiser, Roberta Pagon (nominated by Jerzy Jurka and Val Sheffield (nominated by Neil Smalheiser.

  2. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan. They are fixed at one end (called common end. A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY-scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  3. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Guo, Tengfei; Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Jing; Meng, Wenjie; Lu, Qingyou

    2017-01-01

    A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans) coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan). They are fixed at one end (called common end). A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY-scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  4. Olfactory bulb volume in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriever, Valentin A; Reither, Nicole; Gerber, Johannes; Iannilli, Emilia; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The study aimed to investigate the volume of the olfactory bulb in smokers. Specifically, we wanted to see whether environmental influences may exert a negative influence on OB structure. Twenty-one smokers and 59 non-smokers, matched for age and sex, underwent olfactory testing by means of the Sniffin' Sticks testing device (measurement of odor threshold and identification abilities). In addition, they underwent an MR scan with 2-mm-thick T2-weighted fast spin-echo images without interslice gap in the coronal plane covering the anterior and middle segments of the base of the skull. Olfactory function was not different between the 2 groups; however, olfactory bulb volumes were smaller in smokers than in non-smokers (p = 0.006). The deficit seen at the level of the OB did not correlate with the duration of smoking. The current data indicate that smoking may have a negative effect on the olfactory system before this becomes obvious in terms of a decreased olfactory function.

  5. Safety Campaign Continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/

  6. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  7. Evolution of MEMS scanning mirrors for laser projection in compact consumer electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, Jason; Davis, Wyatt O.; Brown, Dean; Ellis, Matt; Ma, Yunfei; Sherwood, Michael E.; Bowman, David; Helsel, Mark P.; Lee, Sung; Coy, John Wyatt

    2010-02-01

    The applicability of MOEMS scanning mirrors towards the creation of "flying spot" scanned laser displays is well established. The extension of this concept towards compact embedded pico-projectors has required an evolution of scanners and packaging to accommodate the needs of the consumer electronics space. This paper describes the progression of the biaxial MOEMS scanning mirrors developed by Microvision over recent years. Various aspects of the individual designs are compared. Early devices used a combination of magnetic quasistatic actuation and resonant electrostatic operation in an evacuated atmosphere to create a projection engine for retinal scanned displays. Subsequent designs realized the elimination of both the high voltage electrostatic drive and the vacuum package, and a simplification of the actuation scheme through proprietary technical advances. Additional advances have doubled the scan angle capability and greatly miniaturized the MOEMS component while not incurring significant increase in power consumption, making it an excellent fit for the consumer pico-projector application. The simplicity of the scanned laser-based pico-projector optical design enables high resolution and a large effective image size in a thin projection engine, all of which become critical both to the viability of the technology and adoption by consumers. Microvision's first scanned laser pico-projector is built around a MOEMS scanning mirror capable of projecting 16:9 aspect ratio, WVGA display within a 6.6 mm high package. Further evolution on this path promises continued improvement in resolution, size, and power.

  8. Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Soetikno, Brian; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-09-01

    Accurate quantification of microvasculature remains of interest in fundamental pathophysiological studies and clinical trials. Current photoacoustic microscopy can noninvasively quantify properties of the microvasculature, including vessel density and diameter, with a high spatial resolution. However, the depth range of focus (i.e., focal zone) of optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is often insufficient to encompass the depth variations of features of interest-such as blood vessels-due to uneven tissue surfaces. Thus, time-consuming image acquisitions at multiple different focal planes are required to maintain the region of interest in the focal zone. We have developed continuous three-dimensional motorized contour-scanning OR-PAM, which enables real-time adjustment of the focal plane to track the vessels' profile. We have experimentally demonstrated that contour scanning improves the signal-to-noise ratio of conventional OR-PAM by as much as 41% and shortens the image acquisition time by 3.2 times. Moreover, contour-scanning OR-PAM more accurately quantifies vessel density and diameter, and has been applied to studying tumors with uneven surfaces.

  9. Usefulness of 3D-image of ossicles with helical scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makihata, Hiroshi; Kimura, Hideaki; Hanaguri, Katsurou; Fukushima, Noriyuki; Oda, Yukari [Chugoku Rousai Hospital, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    It is important to understand the abnormalities of ossicles (continuity, destruction and malformation) in clinical practice of middle ear diseases. Multidirection exposures were needed to visualize ossicles with the conventional CT scanning, because they are visualized in 2D images. It was difficult to make patients hold the posture and to settle the problems such as an increase in X-ray dose. We created 3D images of ossicles with a helical scanning, and examined the visualization of the normal and abnormal ear (otitis media cholesteatoma) especially in terms of continuity in each of 20 patients. We would here like to report the favorable results together with some literature review. (author).

  10. SCAN secure processor and its biometric capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannavara, Raghudeep; Mertoguno, Sukarno; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the design of the SCAN secure processor and its extended instruction set to enable secure biometric authentication. The SCAN secure processor is a modified SparcV8 processor architecture with a new instruction set to handle voice, iris, and fingerprint-based biometric authentication. The algorithms for processing biometric data are based on the local global graph methodology. The biometric modules are synthesized in reconfigurable logic and the results of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) synthesis are presented. We propose to implement the above-mentioned modules in an off-chip FPGA co-processor. Further, the SCAN-secure processor will offer a SCAN-based encryption and decryption of 32 bit instructions and data.

  11. Can Scans Predict Some Autism Cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167668.html Can Scans Predict Some Autism Cases? When the disorder is caused by a ... News) -- People with a particular genetic cause of autism show structural abnormalities in the brain that are ...

  12. Intelligent Classification and Visualization of Network Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L; Muelder, C; Ma, K; Bartoletti, A

    2007-03-01

    Network scans are a common first step in a network intrusion attempt. In order to gain information about a potential network intrusion, it is beneficial to analyze these network scans. Statistical methods such as wavelet scalogram analysis have been used along with visualization techniques in previous methods. However, applying these statistical methods to reduce the data causes a substantial amount of data loss. This paper presents a study of using associative memory learning techniques to directly compare network scans in order to create a classification which can be used by itself or in conjunction with existing visualization techniques to better characterize the sources of these scans. This produces an integrated system of visual and intelligent analysis which is applicable to real world data.

  13. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids for Teens Search Kids Home How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Recipes & Cooking ... computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll ...

  14. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, I H; Yin, G C; Wei, D H; Juang, J M; Dann, T E; Klauser, R; Chuang, T J; Chen, C T; Tsang, K L

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  15. A Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fan; Taylor, Stephen F; Turner, Richard W; Lev, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity, high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented DC-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides a 100x improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity over previous atomic scanning probe magnetometers. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnet...

  16. EO Scanned Micro-LADAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this phase II SBIR we will design, build, test, and deliver new scanning based micro-ladar sensors with unprecedented small size, weight, and power (SWaP),...

  17. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to do is hold ... All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  18. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Weight for Me? What Is an Intellectual Disability? Movie: Endocrine System Getting a ... Translated, that means a scanner takes computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll ...

  19. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For ...

  20. EO Scanned Micro-LADAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program we will develop, design and build new scanning based micro-ladar sensors with unprecedented small size, weight, and power (SWaP), thereby...

  1. Slow-Scan TV Bibliography, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Video, Inc., Boulder.

    This 175-item bibliography on slow-scan television lists journal articles, monographs, research reports, and conference proceedings under the following headings: (1) Instructional Applications; (2) Medical Applications; and (3) General Applications. (MES)

  2. Analysing magnetism using scanning SQUID microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, P; Renshaw Wang, X; Hilgenkamp, H

    2017-12-01

    Scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy (SSM) is a scanning probe technique that images local magnetic flux, which allows for mapping of magnetic fields with high field and spatial accuracy. Many studies involving SSM have been published in the last few decades, using SSM to make qualitative statements about magnetism. However, quantitative analysis using SSM has received less attention. In this work, we discuss several aspects of interpreting SSM images and methods to improve quantitative analysis. First, we analyse the spatial resolution and how it depends on several factors. Second, we discuss the analysis of SSM scans and the information obtained from the SSM data. Using simulations, we show how signals evolve as a function of changing scan height, SQUID loop size, magnetization strength, and orientation. We also investigated 2-dimensional autocorrelation analysis to extract information about the size, shape, and symmetry of magnetic features. Finally, we provide an outlook on possible future applications and improvements.

  3. Multicolor Scanning Laser Imaging in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad S Z; Carrim, Zia Iqbal

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in individuals younger than 60 years. Screening for retinopathy is undertaken using conventional color fundus photography and relies on the identification of hemorrhages, vascular abnormalities, exudates, and cotton-wool spots. These can sometimes be difficult to identify. Multicolor scanning laser imaging, a new imaging modality, may have a role in improving screening outcomes, as well as facilitating treatment decisions. Observational case series comprising two patients with known diabetes who were referred for further examination after color fundus photography revealed abnormal findings. Multicolor scanning laser imaging was undertaken. Features of retinal disease from each modality were compared. Multicolor scanning laser imaging provides superior visualization of retinal anatomy and pathology, thereby facilitating risk stratification and treatment decisions. Multicolor scanning laser imaging is a novel imaging technique offering the potential for improving the reliability of screening for diabetic retinopathy. Validation studies are warranted.

  4. Immunolabeling for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Martin W

    2008-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a high resolution surface imaging technique. Many biological process and structures occur at surfaces and if antibodies are available, their components can be located within the surface structure. This is usually done in a similar way to immuno-fluorescence, using an unconjugated primary antibody followed by a tagged secondary antibody against the primary. In this case the tag is usually a colloidal gold particle instead of a fluorophore. Therefore it is quite straightforward to adapt an immuno-fluorescence procedure for SEM, as long as certain precautions are followed, as discussed here. Progressing from immuno-fluorescence, which essentially only indicates the position of a protein within the volume of a cell, to immuno-SEM, puts the labeling into the context of cellular structures. The principles and practices of sample preparation, labeling and imaging are described here.

  5. Scanning Electron Microscopy in modern dentistry research

    OpenAIRE

    Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Unesp-FOSJC; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Unesp-FOSJC

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the usage of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in dentistry research nowadays, through a careful and updated literature review. By using the key-words Scanning Electron Microscopy and one of the following areas of research in dentistry (Endodontics, Periodontics and Implant), in international database (PubMed), in the year of 2012 (from January to September), a total of 112 articles were found. This data was tabled and the articles were classified ac...

  6. [Preoperative CT Scan in middle ear cholesteatoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethom, Anissa; Akkari, Khemaies; Dridi, Inès; Tmimi, S; Mardassi, Ali; Benzarti, Sonia; Miled, Imed; Chebbi, Mohamed Kamel

    2011-03-01

    To compare preoperative CT scan finding and per-operative lesions in patients operated for middle ear cholesteatoma, A retrospective study including 60 patients with cholesteatoma otitis diagnosed and treated within a period of 5 years, from 2001 to 2005, at ENT department of Military Hospital of Tunis. All patients had computed tomography of the middle and inner ear. High resolution CT scan imaging was performed using millimetric incidences (3 to 5 millimetres). All patients had surgical removal of their cholesteatoma using down wall technic. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan comparing otitic damages and CT finding, in order to examine the real contribution of computed tomography in cholesteatoma otitis. CT scan analysis of middle ear bone structures shows satisfaction (with 83% of sensibility). The rate of sensibility decrease (63%) for the tympanic raff. Predictive value of CT scan for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was low. However, we have noticed an excellent sensibility in the analysis of ossicular damages (90%). Comparative frontal incidence seems to be less sensible for the detection of facial nerve lesions (42%). But when evident on CT scan findings, lesions of facial nerve were usually observed preoperatively (spécificity 78%). Predictive value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulae (FL) was low. In fact, CT scan imaging have showed FL only for four patients among eight. Best results can be obtained if using inframillimetric incidences with performed high resolution computed tomography. Preoperative computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis and the evaluation of chronic middle ear cholesteatoma in order to show extending lesion and to detect complications. This CT analysis and surgical correlation have showed that sensibility, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan depend on the anatomic structure implicated in cholesteatoma damages.

  7. Differential-concentration scanning ion conductance microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, David; Page, Ashley; Chen, Baoping; Frenguelli, Bruno G.; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based scanning probe microscopy technique that utilizes the ionic current flowing between an electrode inserted inside a nanopipette probe containing electrolyte solution and a second electrode placed in a bulk electrolyte bath, to provide information on a substrate of interest. For most applications to date, the composition and concentration of the electrolyte inside and outside the nanopipette is identical, but it is shown herein t...

  8. Annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) tomography of polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kangbo; Sourty, Erwan; Loos, Joachim

    2010-08-01

    We have utilized bright-field conventional transmission electron microscopy tomography and annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) tomography to characterize a well-defined carbon black (CB)-filled polymer nanocomposite with known CB volume concentration. For both imaging methods, contrast can be generated between the CB and the surrounding polymer matrix. The involved contrast mechanisms, in particular for ADF-STEM, will be discussed in detail. The obtained volume reconstructions were analysed and the CB volume concentrations were carefully determined from the reconstructed data. For both imaging modes, the measured CB volume concentrations are substantially different and only quantification based on the ADF-STEM data revealed about the same value as the known CB loading. Moreover, when applying low-convergence angles for imaging ADF-STEM tomography, data can be obtained of micrometre-thick samples.

  9. Galvanometer scanning technology for laser additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Li, Jin; Lucas, Mark

    2017-02-01

    A galvanometer laser beam scanning system is an essential element in many laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technologies including Stereolithography (SLA), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Understanding the laser beam scanning techniques and recent innovations in this field will greatly benefit the 3D laser printing system integration and technology advance. One of the challenges to achieve high quality 3D printed parts is due to the non-uniform laser power density delivered on the materials caused by the acceleration and deceleration movements of the galvanometer at ends of the hatching and outlining patterns. One way to solve this problem is to modulate the laser power as the function of the scanning speed during the acceleration or deceleration periods. Another strategy is to maintain the constant scanning speed while accurately coordinating the laser on and off operation throughout the job. In this paper, we demonstrate the high speed, high accuracy and low drift digital scanning technology that incorporates both techniques to achieve uniform laser density with minimal additional process development. With the constant scanning speed method, the scanner not only delivers high quality and uniform results, but also a throughput increase of 23% on a typical LAM job, compared to that of the conventional control method that requires galvanometer acceleration and deceleration movements.

  10. Role of bone scan in rheumatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Rheumatic diseases can be categorized by pathology into several specific types of musculoskeletal problems, including synovitis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), enthesopathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) and cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis). Skeletal radiographs have contributed to the diagnosis of these articular diseases, and some disease entities need typical radiographic changes as a factor of the diagnostic criteria. However, they sometimes show normal radiographic findings in the early stage of disease, when there is demineralization of less than 30-50%. Bone scans have also been used in arthritis, but not widely because the findings are nonspecific and it is thought that bone scans do not add significant information to routine radiography. Bone scans do however play a different role than simple radiography, and it is a complementary imaging method in the course of management of arthritis. The image quality of bone scans can be improved by obtaining regional views and images under al pin-hole collimator, and through a variety of scintigraphic techniques including the three phase bone scan and bone SPECT. Therefore, bone scans could improve the diagnostic value, and answer multiple clinical questions, based on the pathophysiology of various forms of arthritis.

  11. Radar Scan Methods in Modern Multifunctional Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Skosyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered urgent task of organizing the review space in modern multifunctional radar systems shall review the space in a wide range of elevation angles from minus 5 to 60-80 degrees and 360 degrees azimuth. MfRLS this type should provide an overview of the zone for a limited time (2-3 sec, detecting a wide range of subtle high and low-flying targets. The latter circumstance requires the organization to select targets against the background of reflections from the underlying surface and local objects (MP. When providing an overview of the space taken into account the need to increase not only the noise immunity, and survivability.Two variants of the review of space in the elevation plane in the solid-state AESA radar. In the first case the overview space narrow beam by one beam. In the second - the transfer of DNA is formed, covering the whole sector of responsibility in elevation and at the reception beam is formed in spetsvychislitele (CB as a result of the signal processing of digitized after emitters antenna web. The estimations of the parameters specific to the multifunction radar SAM air and missile defense. It is shown that in a number of practically important cases, preference should be given clearly one of the methods described review of space.The functional scheme with AESA radar for both variants of the review. Necessary to analyze their differences. Contains the problem of increasing the cost of MfRLS with digital beamforming DNA with increasing bandwidth probing signal being processed.Noted drawbacks of MfRLS with digital beamforming beam. Including: reduced accuracy of the coordinates at low elevation angles, the complexity of the organization of thermal regime of the solid element base using quasi-continuous signal with a low duty cycle. Shows their fundamentally unavoidable in the steppe and desert areas with uneven terrain (Kazakhstan, China, the Middle East.It is shown that for MfRLS working in strong clutter, more preferably

  12. To Be Continued

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlmann, Anita; Harrison, Madaline

    2018-01-01

    The article explores the representation of Michael J. Fox’s Parkinson’s disease in the TV-series The Good Wife and The Michael J. Fox Show. We suggest that serial narration may offer intriguing ways to rethink the function and meaning of narratives in health contexts and that the episodic narrative...... structure of TV-series may afford insights into the structure of medical encounters. More specifically, we examine to what extent serial narration with its focus on continuity and repetition might help reimagine the typical narrative of decline, which is implicit in the terminology of neurodegeneration...

  13. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...... from 23:00 to 07:00 h for plasma glucose (PG) measurements (gold standard). Results: Valid data were obtained in 217 nights. The sensitivity of CGM was 65% (95% confidence interval, 53-77%) below 4 mmol/L, 40% (24-56%) below 3 mmol/L, and 17% (0-47%) below 2.2 mmol/L. PG and CGM readings correlated...

  14. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Continuous Integration in CFMGR

    CERN Document Server

    Frohlingsdorf, David

    2017-01-01

    Cfmgr is a managing tool for network devices. At the moment there is no way to automatically check the working behaviour of the tool, meaning that a lot of effort is spend into manually testing the tool after an update. During my stay at CERN I developed a black-box testing framework for Cfmgr according to Continuous Integration practices and successfully deployed the framework using Jenkins and Docker. This report discusses in detail how the framework works and how it can be configured, and equally gives a broad problem description and outlines future work directions.

  16. High-throughput microfluidic line scan imaging for cytological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Joshua A.; Powless, Amy J.; Majid, Aneeka A.; Claycomb, Adair; Fritsch, Ingrid; Balachandran, Kartik; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Imaging cells in a microfluidic chamber with an area scan camera is difficult due to motion blur and data loss during frame readout causing discontinuity of data acquisition as cells move at relatively high speeds through the chamber. We have developed a method to continuously acquire high-resolution images of cells in motion through a microfluidics chamber using a high-speed line scan camera. The sensor acquires images in a line-by-line fashion in order to continuously image moving objects without motion blur. The optical setup comprises an epi-illuminated microscope with a 40X oil immersion, 1.4 NA objective and a 150 mm tube lens focused on a microfluidic channel. Samples containing suspended cells fluorescently stained with 0.01% (w/v) proflavine in saline are introduced into the microfluidics chamber via a syringe pump; illumination is provided by a blue LED (455 nm). Images were taken of samples at the focal plane using an ELiiXA+ 8k/4k monochrome line-scan camera at a line rate of up to 40 kHz. The system's line rate and fluid velocity are tightly controlled to reduce image distortion and are validated using fluorescent microspheres. Image acquisition was controlled via MATLAB's Image Acquisition toolbox. Data sets comprise discrete images of every detectable cell which may be subsequently mined for morphological statistics and definable features by a custom texture analysis algorithm. This high-throughput screening method, comparable to cell counting by flow cytometry, provided efficient examination including counting, classification, and differentiation of saliva, blood, and cultured human cancer cells.

  17. QuickTox Kit for QuickScan DON (Vomitoxin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Andre L; Champoux, Phillip D; Davis, Alan H

    2013-01-01

    The QuickTox Kit for QuickScan DON (Vomitoxin) uses lateral flow technology and a reader-based system for the quantification of deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) residues in cereal grain commodities. The present work was performed to obtain AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested MethodsM certification for testing wheat, maize, wheat bran, wheat flour, and barley samples with DON contamination levels as high as 5 ppm. Assay performance was examined using naturally contaminated and spiked samples in internal and independent laboratory evaluations and was compared to previously established acceptance criteria. Performance was evaluated with direct regard to linearity, matrix, selectivity, robustness, and stability. All data points in all studies were within the ranges defined in the acceptance criteria. The assay exhibited a linear dose response over the range tested, 0-5.0 ppm, with R2 values exceeding 0.97. RSD of repeatability, or RSDr, values for results ranged from 3.12 to 16.01% across all tested commodities and levels. Assay results were not affected by the presence of other common mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, or zearalenone. Selectivity for modified DON was examined, specifically 15-acetyl DON, 3-acetyl DON, DON-3-glucoside, and another tricothecene, nivalenol; all were detected. The assay produced acceptable results in robustness studies when assay timing, temperature, and volume were covaried. The QuickTox Kit for QuickScan DON (Vomitoxin) assay is a convenient and reliable method for determination of DON in grain commodities.

  18. Environmental scanning: allied health leaders' selection of strategic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Elizabeth; Bamberg, Richard; Campbell, Carol; Wark, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    In environmental scanning, deans and directors of allied health units face the task of making sense of volumes of information from their internal and external environments. A study was conducted to detail the information processing of 108 allied health deans and directors of institutional members of the Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions. The study was a survey that included basic demographic questions and two scenarios, each representing a strategic situation. Respondents (n = 56, 52%) rated their general perceptions of the two strategic situations and their projected use of eight types of information cues to clarify the situations. Results indicated that deans and directors had high use of all types of information cues in both strategic situations. The results for the strategic situation based on a scenario about program closure showed that use of negative information cues was associated with proportionally greater use of internal, external, and formal information cues (Pearson correlation coefficients r = 0.72, 0.80, and 0.77, respectively, all with p < 0.005). Some differences were found in types of information used by respondents in academic health centers versus non-academic health centers. The results of this study provide insights on how allied health deans and directors process information in environmental scanning.

  19. Abrasion of 6 dentifrices measured by vertical scanning interference microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    PASCARETTI-GRIZON, Florence; MABILLEAU, Guillaume; CHAPPARD, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The abrasion of dentifrices is well recognized to eliminate the dental plaque. The aims of this study were to characterize the abrasive powders of 6 dentifrices (3 toothpastes and 3 toothpowders) and to measure the abrasion on a test surface by Vertical Scanning Interference microscopy (VSI). Material and Methods Bright field and polarization microscopy were used to identify the abrasive particles on the crude dentifrices and after prolonged washes. Scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis characterized the shape and nature of the particles. Standardized and polished blocks of poly(methylmethacrylate) were brushed with a commercial electric toothbrush with the dentifrices. VSI quantified the mean roughness (Ra) and illustrated in 3D the abraded areas. Results Toothpastes induced a limited abrasion. Toothpowders induced a significantly higher roughness linked to the size of the abrasive particles. One powder (Gencix® produced a high abrasion when used with a standard testing weight. However, the powder is based on pumice particles covered by a plant homogenate that readily dissolves in water. When used in the same volume, or after dispersion in water, Ra was markedly reduced. Conclusion Light and electron microscopy characterize the abrasive particles and VSI is a new tool allowing the analysis of large surface of abraded materials. PMID:24212995

  20. Abrasion of 6 dentifrices measured by vertical scanning interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Chappard, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The abrasion of dentifrices is well recognized to eliminate the dental plaque. The aims of this study were to characterize the abrasive powders of 6 dentifrices (3 toothpastes and 3 toothpowders) and to measure the abrasion on a test surface by Vertical Scanning Interference microscopy (VSI). Bright field and polarization microscopy were used to identify the abrasive particles on the crude dentifrices and after prolonged washes. Scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis characterized the shape and nature of the particles. Standardized and polished blocks of poly(methylmethacrylate) were brushed with a commercial electric toothbrush with the dentifrices. VSI quantified the mean roughness (Ra) and illustrated in 3D the abraded areas. Toothpastes induced a limited abrasion. Toothpowders induced a significantly higher roughness linked to the size of the abrasive particles. One powder (Gencix® produced a high abrasion when used with a standard testing weight. However, the powder is based on pumice particles covered by a plant homogenate that readily dissolves in water. When used in the same volume, or after dispersion in water, Ra was markedly reduced. Light and electron microscopy characterize the abrasive particles and VSI is a new tool allowing the analysis of large surface of abraded materials.