WorldWideScience

Sample records for continuous variable entanglement

  1. Manipulating continuous variable photonic entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plenio, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    I will review our work on photonic entanglement in the continuous variable regime including both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states. The feasibility and efficiency of various entanglement purification protocols are discussed this context. (author)

  2. Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.

  3. Continuous variable polarization entanglement, experiment and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, Warwick P; Treps, Nicolas; Schnabel, Roman; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2003-01-01

    We generate and characterize continuous variable polarization entanglement between two optical beams. We first produce quadrature entanglement, and by performing local operations we transform it into a polarization basis. We extend two entanglement criteria, the inseparability criteria proposed by Duan et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox criteria proposed by Reid and Drummond (1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 2731), to Stokes operators; and use them to characterize the entanglement. Our results for the EPR paradox criteria are visualized in terms of uncertainty balls on the Poincare sphere. We demonstrate theoretically that using two quadrature entangled pairs it is possible to entangle three orthogonal Stokes operators between a pair of beams, although with a bound √3 times more stringent than for the quadrature entanglement

  4. Continuous variable polarization entanglement, experiment and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Warwick P [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Treps, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Schnabel, Roman [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Ralph, Timothy C [Department of Physics, Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Lam, Ping Koy [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2003-08-01

    We generate and characterize continuous variable polarization entanglement between two optical beams. We first produce quadrature entanglement, and by performing local operations we transform it into a polarization basis. We extend two entanglement criteria, the inseparability criteria proposed by Duan et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox criteria proposed by Reid and Drummond (1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 2731), to Stokes operators; and use them to characterize the entanglement. Our results for the EPR paradox criteria are visualized in terms of uncertainty balls on the Poincare sphere. We demonstrate theoretically that using two quadrature entangled pairs it is possible to entangle three orthogonal Stokes operators between a pair of beams, although with a bound {radical}3 times more stringent than for the quadrature entanglement.

  5. Continuous variable tripartite entanglement from twin nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M K; Bradley, A S

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we analyse and compare the continuous variable tripartite entanglement available from the use of two concurrent or cascaded χ (2) nonlinearities. We examine both idealized travelling-wave models and more experimentally realistic intracavity models, showing that tripartite entangled outputs are readily producible. These may be a useful resource for applications such as quantum cryptography and teleportation

  6. Bipartite entanglement in continuous variable cluster states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, Hugo; Browne, Daniel E, E-mail: cqthvc@nus.edu.s, E-mail: d.browne@ucl.ac.u [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2010-11-15

    A study of the entanglement properties of Gaussian cluster states, proposed as a universal resource for continuous variable (CV) quantum computing is presented in this paper. The central aim is to compare mathematically idealized cluster states defined using quadrature eigenstates, which have infinite squeezing and cannot exist in nature, with Gaussian approximations that are experimentally accessible. Adopting widely used definitions, we first review the key concepts, by analysing a process of teleportation along a CV quantum wire in the language of matrix product states. Next we consider the bipartite entanglement properties of the wire, providing analytic results. We proceed to grid cluster states, which are universal for the qubit case. To extend our analysis of the bipartite entanglement, we adopt the entropic-entanglement width, a specialized entanglement measure introduced recently by Van den Nest et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 150504), adapting their definition to the CV context. Finally, we consider the effects of photonic loss, extending our arguments to mixed states. Cumulatively our results point to key differences in the properties of idealized and Gaussian cluster states. Even modest loss rates are found to strongly limit the amount of entanglement. We discuss the implications for the potential of CV analogues for measurement-based quantum computation.

  7. Proposed Entanglement Swapping in Continuous Variable Systems via Braiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Hongyi; Chen Jingling; Deng Dongling; Wu Chunfeng

    2010-01-01

    We study entanglement swapping in continuous variable systems by using braiding transformations. It is found that entanglement swapping in two-mode squeezed vacuum states and squeezed coherent states can be realized based on the braiding operators. (general)

  8. Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-02-27

    We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on measurements of purity.

  9. Continuous variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Dong, Ruifang; Heersink, Joel

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate distillation of continuous variable entangled light that has undergone non-Gaussian attenuation loss. The continuous variable entanglement is generated with optical fibers and sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time. By employing simple...

  10. Optimal use of multipartite entanglement for continuous variable teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, G.; Illuminati, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this work we discuss how continuous variable teleportation takes advantage of the quadrature entanglement in different ways, depending on the preparation of the entangled state. For a given amount of the entanglement resource, we describe the best production scheme for a two-mode Gaussian state, which enables quantum teleportation with optimal fidelity. We extend this study to multiparty entangled Gaussian states and define an operative measure of multipartite entanglement related to the optimal fidelity in a quantum teleportation network experiment. This optimal fidelity is shown to be equivalent to the entanglement of formation for the standard two-user protocol, and to the multipartite localizable entanglement for the multiuser protocol. (author)

  11. An efficient source of continuous variable polarization entanglement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, R.; Heersink, J.; Yoshikawa, J.-I.

    2007-01-01

    classical excitation in Ŝ3. Polarization entanglement was generated by interfering two independent polarization squeezed fields on a symmetric beam splitter. The resultant beams exhibit strong quantum noise correlations in the dark Ŝ1-Ŝ2 polarization plane. To verify entanglement generation, we......We have experimentally demonstrated the efficient creation of highly entangled bipartite continuous variable polarization states. Exploiting an optimized scheme for the production of squeezing using the Kerr non-linearity of a glass fibre we generated polarization squeezed pulses with a mean...... was found to depend critically on the beam-splitting ratio of the entangling beam splitter. Carrying out measurements on a different set of conjugate Stokes parameters, correlations of -3.6 ±0.3 and -3.4 ±0.3 dB have been observed. This result is more robust against asymmetries in the entangling beam...

  12. Quantification and scaling of multipartite entanglement in continuous variable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-11-26

    We present a theoretical method to determine the multipartite entanglement between different partitions of multimode, fully or partially symmetric Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For such states, we determine the exact expression of the logarithmic negativity and show that it coincides with that of equivalent two-mode Gaussian states. Exploiting this reduction, we demonstrate the scaling of the multipartite entanglement with the number of modes and its reliable experimental estimate by direct measurements of the global and local purities.

  13. Extremal entanglement and mixedness in continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between mixedness and entanglement for Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. We introduce generalized entropies based on Schatten p norms to quantify the mixedness of a state and derive their explicit expressions in terms of symplectic spectra. We compare the hierarchies of mixedness provided by such measures with the one provided by the purity (defined as tr ρ 2 for the state ρ) for generic n-mode states. We then review the analysis proving the existence of both maximally and minimally entangled states at given global and marginal purities, with the entanglement quantified by the logarithmic negativity. Based on these results, we extend such an analysis to generalized entropies, introducing and fully characterizing maximally and minimally entangled states for given global and local generalized entropies. We compare the different roles played by the purity and by the generalized p entropies in quantifying the entanglement and the mixedness of continuous variable systems. We introduce the concept of average logarithmic negativity, showing that it allows a reliable quantitative estimate of continuous variable entanglement by direct measurements of global and marginal generalized p entropies

  14. Continuous Variable Entanglement and Squeezing of Orbital Angular Momentum States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2009-01-01

    We report the first experimental characterization of the first-order continuous variable orbital angular momentum states. Using a spatially nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) we produce quadrature entanglement between the two first-order Laguerre-Gauss modes. The family of orbital...

  15. Detecting faked continuous-variable entanglement using one-sided device-independent entanglement witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanchuk, B.; Arnaud, L.; Reid, M. D.

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the principle of one-sided device-independent continuous-variable (CV) quantum information. In situations of no trust, we show by enactment how the use of standard CV entanglement criteria can mislead Charlie into thinking that Alice and Bob share entanglement, when the data are actually generated classically using a local-hidden-variable theory based on the Wigner function. We distinguish between criteria that demonstrate CV entanglement, and criteria that demonstrate the CV Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering paradox. We show that the latter, but not the former, are necessarily one-sided device-independent entanglement witnesses, and can be used by Charlie to signify genuine EPR entanglement, if he trusts only Alice. A monogamy result for the EPR steering paradox confirms the security of the shared amplitude values in that case.

  16. Continuous variable tangle, monogamy inequality, and entanglement sharing in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    For continuous-variable (CV) systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the CV tangle (contangle), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex-roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three-mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric N-mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary N. For three-mode pure states, we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous CV analogues of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits: in CV systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed

  17. Continuous variable tangle, monogamy inequality, and entanglement sharing in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); CNISM and CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy); and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno (Italy); Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2006-01-15

    For continuous-variable (CV) systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the CV tangle (contangle), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex-roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three-mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric N-mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary N. For three-mode pure states, we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous CV analogues of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits: in CV systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed.

  18. An efficient source of continuous variable polarization entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ruifang; Heersink, Joel; Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Gloeckl, Oliver; Andersen, Ulrik L; Leuchs, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated the efficient creation of highly entangled bipartite continuous variable polarization states. Exploiting an optimized scheme for the production of squeezing using the Kerr non-linearity of a glass fibre we generated polarization squeezed pulses with a mean classical excitation in S-hat 3 . Polarization entanglement was generated by interfering two independent polarization squeezed fields on a symmetric beam splitter. The resultant beams exhibit strong quantum noise correlations in the dark S-hat 1 - S-hat 2 polarization plane. To verify entanglement generation, we characterized the quantum correlations of the system for two different sets of conjugate Stokes parameters. The quantum correlations along the squeezed and the anti-squeezed Stokes parameters were observed to be -4.1±0.3 and -2.6±0.3 dB below the shot noise level, respectively. The degree of correlations was found to depend critically on the beam-splitting ratio of the entangling beam splitter. Carrying out measurements on a different set of conjugate Stokes parameters, correlations of -3.6±0.3 and -3.4±0.3 dB have been observed. This result is more robust against asymmetries in the entangling beam splitter, even in the presence of excess noise

  19. Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Quantum key distribution enables two remote parties to grow a shared key, which they can use for unconditionally secure communication over a certain distance. The maximal distance depends on the loss and the excess noise of the connecting quantum channel. Several quantum key distribution schemes...... based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...... entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising...

  20. Experimental investigation of criteria for continuous variable entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, W P; Schnabel, R; Lam, P K; Ralph, T C

    2003-01-31

    We generate a pair of entangled beams from the interference of two amplitude squeezed beams. The entanglement is quantified in terms of EPR paradox and inseparability criteria, with both results clearly beating the standard quantum limit. We experimentally analyze the effect of decoherence on each criterion and demonstrate qualitative differences. We also characterize the number of required and excess photons present in the entangled beams and provide contour plots of the efficacy of quantum information protocols in terms of these variables.

  1. Teleportation of a Kind of Three-Mode Entangled States of Continuous Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum teleportation scheme to teleport a kind of tripartite entangled states of continuous variables by using a quantum channel composed of three bipartite entangled states is proposed. The joint Bell measurement is feasible because the bipartite entangled states are complete and the squeezed state has a natural representation in the entangled state basis. The calculation is greatly simplified by using the Schmidt decomposition of the entangled states.

  2. Equivalence between entanglement and the optimal fidelity of continuous variable teleportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-10-07

    We devise the optimal form of Gaussian resource states enabling continuous-variable teleportation with maximal fidelity. We show that a nonclassical optimal fidelity of N-user teleportation networks is necessary and sufficient for N-party entangled Gaussian resources, yielding an estimator of multipartite entanglement. The entanglement of teleportation is equivalent to the entanglement of formation in a two-user protocol, and to the localizable entanglement in a multiuser one. Finally, we show that the continuous-variable tangle, quantifying entanglement sharing in three-mode Gaussian states, is defined operationally in terms of the optimal fidelity of a tripartite teleportation network.

  3. Continuous variable multipartite entanglement and optical implementations of quantum communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Yimin; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi

    2007-01-01

    A variety of optical quantum information networks based on the multipartite entanglement of amplitude and phase quadratures of an electromagnetic field have been proposed and experimentally realized in recent years. The multipartite entanglement of optical continuous variables provides flexible and reliable quantum resources for developing unconditional quantum information networks. In this paper, we review the generation schemes of the multipartite entangled states of optical continuous quantum variables and some applications in the quantum communication networks with emphasis on the experimental implementations

  4. Noiseless Linear Amplifiers in Entanglement-Based Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to improve the performance of two entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols using noiseless linear amplifiers. The two entanglement-based schemes consist of an entanglement distribution protocol with an untrusted source and an entanglement swapping protocol with an untrusted relay. Simulation results show that the noiseless linear amplifiers can improve the performance of these two protocols, in terms of maximal transmission distances, when we consider small amounts of entanglement, as typical in realistic setups.

  5. Different operational meanings of continuous variable Gaussian entanglement criteria and Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, D.; Nocerino, G.; Solimeno, S.; Porzio, A.

    2014-07-01

    Entanglement, one of the most intriguing aspects of quantum mechanics, marks itself into different features of quantum states. For this reason different criteria can be used for verifying entanglement. In this paper we review some of the entanglement criteria casted for continuous variable states and link them to peculiar aspects of the original debate on the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. We also provide a useful expression for valuating Bell-type non-locality on Gaussian states. We also present the experimental measurement of a particular realization of the Bell operator over continuous variable entangled states produced by a sub-threshold type-II optical parametric oscillators (OPOs).

  6. Different operational meanings of continuous variable Gaussian entanglement criteria and Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, D; Nocerino, G; Solimeno, S; Porzio, A

    2014-01-01

    Entanglement, one of the most intriguing aspects of quantum mechanics, marks itself into different features of quantum states. For this reason different criteria can be used for verifying entanglement. In this paper we review some of the entanglement criteria casted for continuous variable states and link them to peculiar aspects of the original debate on the famous Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) paradox. We also provide a useful expression for valuating Bell-type non-locality on Gaussian states. We also present the experimental measurement of a particular realization of the Bell operator over continuous variable entangled states produced by a sub-threshold type-II optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). (paper)

  7. Application of Bipartite and Tripartite Entangled State Representations in Quantum Teleportation of Continuous Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hong-Chun; QI Kai-Guo

    2005-01-01

    We mostly investigate two schemes. One is to teleport a multi-mode W-type entangled coherent state using a peculiar bipartite entangled state as the quantum channel different from other proposals. Based on our formalism,teleporting multi-mode coherent state or squeezed state is also possible. Another is that the tripartite entangled state is used as the quantum channel of controlled teleportation of an arbitrary and unknown continuous variable in the case of three participators.

  8. General Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type entanglement of continuous variables for bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Nianquan; Zheng Yizhuang

    2006-01-01

    We show that general Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type (EPR-type) entanglement of continuous variables with arbitrary eigenvalues for bosons can be yielded. For bosons of nonzero resting mass EPR-type entangled state can be achieved by the use of atomic beam splitters in particles of a position eigenstate and n-1 momentum eigenstates. For light field in which resting mass of the photon is zero, approximate EPR-type entanglement can be experimentally generated when we apply optical beam splitters to one position-squeezed coherence state and n-1 momentum-squeezed coherence states, this approximate version tends to perfect EPR entanglement in the limit of infinite squeezing

  9. Would one rather store squeezing or entanglement in continuous variable quantum memories?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadsan-Appleby, Hulya; Serafini, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Given two quantum memories for continuous variables and the possibility to perform passive optical operations on the optical modes before or after the storage, two possible scenarios arise resulting in generally different degrees of final entanglement. Namely, one could either store an entangled state and retrieve it directly from the memory, or rather store two separate single-mode squeezed states and then combine them with a beam-splitter to generate the final entangled state. In this Letter, we analytically determine which of the two options yields more entanglement for several regions of the system's parameters, and quantify the advantage it entails. - Highlights: → We study the optimised storage of continuous variable entanglement. → Analytical conditions to determine optimal storage schemes. → Comprehensive numerical studies complementing the analytics. → Specific discussion concerning QND feedback memories included. → Results applicable to very general Gaussian channel.

  10. Teleportation of continuous variable multimode Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guangqiang; Zhang Jingtao; Zeng Guihua

    2008-01-01

    Quantum teleportation protocols of continuous variable (CV) Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states are proposed, and are generalized to teleportation of arbitrary multimode GHZ entangled states described by Van Loock and Braunstein (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3482). Each mode of a multimode entangled state is teleported using a CV EPR entangled pair and classical communication. The analytical expression of fidelity for the multimode Gaussian states which evaluates the teleportation quality is presented. The analytical results show that the fidelity is a function of both the squeezing parameter r, which characterizes the multimode entangled state to be teleported, and the channel parameter p, which characterizes the EPR pairs shared by Alice and Bob. The fidelity increases with increasing p, but decreases with increasing r, i.e., it is more difficult to teleport the more perfect multimode entangled states. The entanglement degree of the teleported multimode entangled states increases with increasing both r and p. In addition, the fact is proved that our teleportation protocol of EPR entangled states using parallel EPR pairs as quantum channels is the best case of the protocol using four-mode entangled states (Adhikari et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 012337).

  11. Continuous-variable entanglement sharing in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes-Schuller, Ivette; Ericsson, Marie

    2007-01-01

    We study the distribution of entanglement between modes of a free scalar field from the perspective of observers in uniform acceleration. We consider a two-mode squeezed state of the field from an inertial perspective, and analytically study the degradation of entanglement due to the Unruh effect, in the cases of either one or both observers undergoing uniform acceleration. We find that, for two observers undergoing finite acceleration, the entanglement vanishes between the lowest-frequency modes. The loss of entanglement is precisely explained as a redistribution of the inertial entanglement into multipartite quantum correlations among accessible and inaccessible modes from a noninertial perspective. We show that classical correlations are also lost from the perspective of two accelerated observers but conserved if one of the observers remains inertial

  12. Entanglement in continuous-variable systems: recent advances and current perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization and the scaling of bipartite entanglement in multimode Gaussian states. We then discuss recent advances in the understanding of entanglement sharing in multimode Gaussian states, including the proof of the monogamy inequality of distributed entanglement for all Gaussian states. Multipartite entanglement of Gaussian states is reviewed by discussing its qualification by different classes of separability, and the main consequences of the monogamy inequality, such as the quantification of genuine tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states, the promiscuous nature of entanglement sharing in symmetric Gaussian states and the possible coexistence of unlimited bipartite and multipartite entanglement. We finally review recent advances and discuss possible perspectives on the qualification and quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states, a field of research that is to a large extent yet to be explored

  13. Entanglement in continuous-variable systems: recent advances and current perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesso, Gerardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2007-07-13

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization and the scaling of bipartite entanglement in multimode Gaussian states. We then discuss recent advances in the understanding of entanglement sharing in multimode Gaussian states, including the proof of the monogamy inequality of distributed entanglement for all Gaussian states. Multipartite entanglement of Gaussian states is reviewed by discussing its qualification by different classes of separability, and the main consequences of the monogamy inequality, such as the quantification of genuine tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states, the promiscuous nature of entanglement sharing in symmetric Gaussian states and the possible coexistence of unlimited bipartite and multipartite entanglement. We finally review recent advances and discuss possible perspectives on the qualification and quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states, a field of research that is to a large extent yet to be explored.

  14. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael; Heersink, Joel; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different quantum-information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding, and entanglement-based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is, however, hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order nonlinearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements, and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

  15. Generating continuous variable optical quantum states and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.K.; Bowen, W.P.; Schnabel, R.; Treps, N.; Buchler, B.C.; Bachor, H.-A.; Ralph, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Quantum information research has recently been shown to have many applications in the field of communication and information processing. Quantum states and entanglement play a central role to almost all quantum information protocols, and form the basic building blocks for larger quantum information networks. We present an overview of the research activities at the quantum optics group at the ANU relating to this area. In particular, we demonstrate technology to suppress the noise on a coherent laser beam to below that of even vacuum. This quantum state of light is called 'squeezed light'. We show experimentally that by mixing two squeezed beams on a beam splitter, a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled beams can be created. This kind of entanglement exhibits below shot noise correlations between both the phase and amplitude quandratures of two beams. Our experimental results show conclusively that our entangled beams demonstrate the famous EPR paradox

  16. Continuous Variable Entanglement of Orbital Angular Momentum States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Leuchs, G.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2009-01-01

    We have generated a new quantum state of light composed of quadrature entangled Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes. For the generation we used an OPO operating in a new regime where all field parameters are degenerate except for its spatial degree of freedom for which it is two-fold degenerate. The ent...

  17. Criteria for genuine N -partite continuous-variable entanglement and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, R. Y.; Reid, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Following previous work, we distinguish between genuine N -partite entanglement and full N -partite inseparability. Accordingly, we derive criteria to detect genuine multipartite entanglement using continuous-variable (position and momentum) measurements. Our criteria are similar but different to those based on the van Loock-Furusawa inequalities, which detect full N -partite inseparability. We explain how the criteria can be used to detect the genuine N -partite entanglement of continuous variable states generated from squeezed and vacuum state inputs, including the continuous-variable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, with explicit predictions for up to N =9 . This makes our work accessible to experiment. For N =3 , we also present criteria for tripartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. These criteria provide a means to demonstrate a genuine three-party EPR paradox, in which any single party is steerable by the remaining two parties.

  18. Simulation of continuous variable quantum games without entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shang-Bin

    2011-07-01

    A simulation scheme of quantum version of Cournot's duopoly is proposed, in which there is a new Nash equilibrium that may also be Pareto optimal without any entanglement involved. The unique property of this simulation scheme is decoherence-free against the symmetric photon loss. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the asymmetric information on this simulation scheme and investigate the case of asymmetric game caused by asymmetric photon loss. A second-order phase transition-like behavior of the average profits of firms 1 and 2 in a Nash equilibrium can be observed with the change of the degree of asymmetry of the information or the degree of 'virtual cooperation'. It is also found that asymmetric photon loss in this simulation scheme plays a similar role as that with the asymmetric entangled states in the quantum game.

  19. Simulation of continuous variable quantum games without entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shangbin

    2011-01-01

    A simulation scheme of quantum version of Cournot's duopoly is proposed, in which there is a new Nash equilibrium that may also be Pareto optimal without any entanglement involved. The unique property of this simulation scheme is decoherence-free against the symmetric photon loss. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the asymmetric information on this simulation scheme and investigate the case of asymmetric game caused by asymmetric photon loss. A second-order phase transition-like behavior of the average profits of firms 1 and 2 in a Nash equilibrium can be observed with the change of the degree of asymmetry of the information or the degree of 'virtual cooperation'. It is also found that asymmetric photon loss in this simulation scheme plays a similar role as that with the asymmetric entangled states in the quantum game.

  20. Simulation of continuous variable quantum games without entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shangbin, E-mail: stephenli74@yahoo.com.cn [Research and Development Department of Amertron Optoelectronic (Kunshan) Ltd, Jingde Road 28, Kunshan, Suzhou (China)

    2011-07-22

    A simulation scheme of quantum version of Cournot's duopoly is proposed, in which there is a new Nash equilibrium that may also be Pareto optimal without any entanglement involved. The unique property of this simulation scheme is decoherence-free against the symmetric photon loss. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the asymmetric information on this simulation scheme and investigate the case of asymmetric game caused by asymmetric photon loss. A second-order phase transition-like behavior of the average profits of firms 1 and 2 in a Nash equilibrium can be observed with the change of the degree of asymmetry of the information or the degree of 'virtual cooperation'. It is also found that asymmetric photon loss in this simulation scheme plays a similar role as that with the asymmetric entangled states in the quantum game.

  1. Generating entangled states of continuous variables via cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiming [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khosa, Ashfaq H [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ikram, Manzoor [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2007-05-28

    We propose a scheme for generating entanglement of quantum states with continuous variables (coherent states and squeezed vacuum states) of electromagnetical fields. The scheme involves cross-Kerr nonlinearity. It was shown that the cross-Kerr nonlinearity required for generating the superposition and entanglement of squeezed vacuum states is smaller than that required for coherent states. It was also found that the fidelity monotonously decreases with both the increase of the amplitude of the input coherent field and the increase of the deviation of the nonlinear phase shift from {pi}.

  2. Generation of bright quadricolor continuous-variable entanglement by four-wave-mixing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y. B.; Sheng, J. T.; Xiao, M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to produce bright quadricolor continuous-variable (CV) entanglement by a four-wave mixing process (FWM) with four-level atoms inside the optical ring cavities operating above threshold. The Stokes and anti-Stokes beams are generated via the pump beam (tuned close to one atomic transition) and the coupling beam (tuned to the resonance of another atomic transition), respectively. The quadruply resonant and narrowed linewidth of the cavity fields with different frequencies are achieved and quadricolor CV entanglement among the four cavity fields is demonstrated according to the criterion proposed by van Loock and Furusawa [Phys. Rev. A 67, 052315 (2003)]. This scheme provides a way to generate bright quadricolor CV entanglement and will be significant for applications in quantum information processing and quantum networks.

  3. Non-Markovian entanglement dynamics of noisy continuous-variable quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, J.-H.; Zhang, W.-M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement dynamics of continuous-variable quantum channels in terms of an entangled squeezed state of two cavity fields in a general non-Markovian environment. Using the Feynman-Vernon influence functional theory in the coherent-state representation, we derive an exact master equation with time-dependent coefficients reflecting the non-Markovian influence of the environment. The influence of environments with different spectral densities, e.g., Ohmic, sub-Ohmic, and super-Ohmic, is numerically studied. The non-Markovian process shows its remarkable influence on the entanglement dynamics due to the sensitive time dependence of the dissipation and noise functions within the typical time scale of the environment. The Ohmic environment shows a weak dissipation-noise effect on the entanglement dynamics, while the sub-Ohmic and super-Ohmic environments induce much more severe noise. In particular, the memory of the system interacting with the environment contributes a strong decoherence effect to the entanglement dynamics in the super-Ohmic case

  4. Observation of strong continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement using shaped local oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, Ami; Hashiyama, Naoyuki; Koshio, Akane; Eto, Yujiro; Hirano, Takuya

    2016-10-01

    The continuous-variable (CV) Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and steering are demonstrated using a pulsed light source and waveguides. We shorten the duration of the local oscillator (LO) pulse by using parametric amplification to improve the temporal mode-matching between the entangled pulse and the LO pulse. After correcting for the amplifier noise, the product of the measured conditional variance of the quadrature-phase amplitudes is 0.74 EPR-Reid criterion.

  5. Enhancement of Continuous Variable Entanglement in Four-Wave Mixing due to Atomic Memory Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Zhu, Zhu; Xiang-Ming, Hu; Fei, Wang; Jing-Yan, Li

    2010-01-01

    We explore the effects of atomic memory on quantum correlations of two-mode light fields from four-wave mixing. A three-level atomic system in Λ configuration is considered, in which the atomic relaxation times are comparable to or longer than the cavity relaxation times and thus there exists the atomic memory. The quantum correlation spectrum in the output is calculated without the adiabatic elimination of atomic variables. It is shown that the continuous variable entanglement is enhanced over a wide range of the normalized detuning in the intermediate and bad cavity cases compared with the good cavity case. In some situations more significant enhancement occurs at sidebands

  6. Compact 6 dB Two-Color Continuous Variable Entangled Source Based on a Single Ring Optical Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous-variable entangled optical beams at the degenerate wavelength of 0.8 μm or 1.5 μm have been investigated extensively, but separately. The two-color entangled states of these two useful wavelengths, with sufficiently high degrees of entanglement, still lag behind. In this work, we analyze the various limiting factors that affect the entanglement degree. On the basis of this, we successfully achieve 6 dB of two-color quadrature entangled light beams by improving the escape efficiency of the nondegenerate optical amplifier, the stability of the phase-locking servo system, and the detection efficiency. Our entangled source is constructed only from a single ring optical resonator, and thus is highly compact, which is suitable for applications in long-distance quantum communication networks.

  7. Entanglement-distillation attack on continuous-variable quantum key distribution in a turbulent atmospheric channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Xie, Cailang; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Guihua; Huang, Duan

    2017-08-01

    The survival of Gaussian quantum states in a turbulent atmospheric channel is of crucial importance in free-space continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD), in which the transmission coefficient will fluctuate in time, thus resulting in non-Gaussian quantum states. Different from quantum hacking of the imperfections of practical devices, here we propose a different type of attack by exploiting the security loopholes that occur in a real lossy channel. Under a turbulent atmospheric environment, the Gaussian states are inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which would cause a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. Therefore, an eavesdropper can perform an intercept-resend attack by applying an entanglement-distillation operation on the transmitted non-Gaussian mixed states, which allows the eavesdropper to bias the estimation of the parameters and renders the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure. Our proposal highlights the practical CV QKD vulnerabilities with free-space quantum channels, including the satellite-to-earth links, ground-to-ground links, and a link from moving objects to ground stations.

  8. Coexistence of unlimited bipartite and genuine multipartite entanglement: Promiscuous quantum correlations arising from discrete to continuous-variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    Quantum mechanics imposes 'monogamy' constraints on the sharing of entanglement. We show that, despite these limitations, entanglement can be fully 'promiscuous', i.e., simultaneously present in unlimited two-body and many-body forms in states living in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Monogamy just bounds the divergence rate of the various entanglement contributions. This is demonstrated in simple families of N-mode (N≥4) Gaussian states of light fields or atomic ensembles, which therefore enable infinitely more freedom in the distribution of information, as opposed to systems of individual qubits. Such a finding is of importance for the quantification, understanding, and potential exploitation of shared quantum correlations in continuous variable systems. We discuss how promiscuity gradually arises when considering simple families of discrete variable states, with increasing Hilbert space dimension towards the continuous variable limit. Such models are somehow analogous to Gaussian states with asymptotically diverging, but finite, squeezing. In this respect, we find that non-Gaussian states (which in general are more entangled than Gaussian states) exhibit also the interesting feature that their entanglement is more shareable: in the non-Gaussian multipartite arena, unlimited promiscuity can be already achieved among three entangled parties, while this is impossible for Gaussian, even infinitely squeezed states

  9. Generation of three-mode continuous-variable entanglement by cascaded nonlinear interactions in a quasiperiodic superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y. B.; Xie, Z. D.; Yu, X. Q.; Li, H. X.; Xu, P.; Yao, H. M.; Zhu, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    The generation of three-mode continuous-variable entanglement in a quasiperiodically optical superlattice is studied theoretically in this paper. This work is based on the previous experiment result in which three-color light generated from a quasiperiodically optical superlattice through a stimulated parametric down-conversion cascaded with a sum-frequency process. The degree of quadrature phase amplitude correlations, a nonclassical characteristic, among the three mode was discussed by a sufficient inseparability criterion for continuous-variable entanglement, which was proposed by van Loock and Furusawa

  10. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-03-01

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise.

  11. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise

  12. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Many different quantum-information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding, and entanglement-based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network...

  13. Quadripartite continuous-variable entanglement via quadruply concurrent down-conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, S. L. W.; Olsen, M. K.; Bradley, A. S.; Pfister, O.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate an experimentally feasible intracavity coupled down-conversion scheme to generate quadripartite entanglement using concurrent nonlinearities. We verify that quadripartite entanglement is present in this system by calculating the output fluctuation spectra and then considering violations of optimized inequalities of the van Loock-Furusawa type. The entanglement characteristics both above and below the oscillation threshold are considered. We also present analytic solutions for the quadrature operators and the van Loock-Furusawa correlations in the undepleted pump approximation.

  14. Entanglement enhancement through multirail noise reduction for continuous-variable measurement-based quantum-information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yung-Chao; Wu, Shin-Tza

    2017-09-01

    We study theoretically the teleportation of a controlled-phase (cz) gate through measurement-based quantum-information processing for continuous-variable systems. We examine the degree of entanglement in the output modes of the teleported cz-gate for two classes of resource states: the canonical cluster states that are constructed via direct implementations of two-mode squeezing operations and the linear-optical version of cluster states which are built from linear-optical networks of beam splitters and phase shifters. In order to reduce the excess noise arising from finite-squeezed resource states, teleportation through resource states with different multirail designs will be considered and the enhancement of entanglement in the teleported cz gates will be analyzed. For multirail cluster with an arbitrary number of rails, we obtain analytical expressions for the entanglement in the output modes and analyze in detail the results for both classes of resource states. At the same time, we also show that for uniformly squeezed clusters the multirail noise reduction can be optimized when the excess noise is allocated uniformly to the rails. To facilitate the analysis, we develop a trick with manipulations of quadrature operators that can reveal rather efficiently the measurement sequence and corrective operations needed for the measurement-based gate teleportation, which will also be explained in detail.

  15. Controlled dense coding for continuous variables using three-particle entangled states

    CERN Document Server

    Jing Zhang; Kun Chi Peng; 10.1103/PhysRevA.66.032318

    2002-01-01

    A simple scheme to realize quantum controlled dense coding with a bright tripartite entangled state light generated from nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers is proposed in this paper. The quantum channel between Alice and Bob is controlled by Claire. As a local oscillator and balanced homodyne detector are not needed, the proposed protocol is easy to be realized experimentally. (15 refs)

  16. Continuous variable tripartite entanglement and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations from triple nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M K; Bradley, A S; Reid, M D

    2006-01-01

    We compare theoretically the tripartite entanglement available from the use of three concurrent χ (2) nonlinearities and three independent squeezed states mixed on beamsplitters, using an appropriate version of the van Loock-Furusawa inequalities. We also define three-mode generalizations of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox which are an alternative for demonstrating the inseparability of the density matrix

  17. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox and Entanglement 1: Signatures of EPR correlations for continuous variables

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    A generalization of the 1935 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument for measurements with continuous variable outcomes is presented to establish criteria for the demonstration of the EPR paradox, for situations where the correlation between spatially separated subsystems is not perfect. Two types of criteria for EPR correlations are determined. The first type are based on measurements of the variances of conditional probability distributions and are necessary to reflect directly the situation...

  18. Enhancing quantum entanglement for continuous variables by a coherent superposition of photon subtraction and addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Kim, Ho-Joon [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Ji, Se-Wan [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-012 (Korea, Republic of); Nha, Hyunchul [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Institute fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We investigate how the entanglement properties of a two-mode state can be improved by performing a coherent superposition operation ta+ra{sup {dagger}} of photon subtraction and addition, proposed by Lee and Nha [Phys. Rev. A 82, 053812 (2010)], on each mode. We show that the degree of entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type correlation, and the performance of quantum teleportation can be all enhanced for the output state when the coherent operation is applied to a two-mode squeezed state. The effects of the coherent operation are more prominent than those of the mere photon subtraction a and the addition a{sup {dagger}} particularly in the small-squeezing regime, whereas the optimal operation becomes the photon subtraction (case of r=0) in the large-squeezing regime.

  19. Non-Markovian dynamics, decoherence and entanglement in dissipative quantum systems with applications to quantum information theory of continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerhammer, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, non-Markovian dynamics, decoherence and entanglement in dissipative quantum systems are studied. In particular, applications to quantum information theory of continuous variable systems are considered. The non-Markovian dynamics are described by the Hu-Paz-Zhang master equation of quantum Brownian motion. In this context the focus is on non-Markovian effects on decoherence and separability time scales of various single- mode and two-mode continuous variable states. It is verified that moderate non-Markovian influences slow down the decay of interference fringes and quantum correlations, while strong non-Markovian effects resulting from an out-of-resonance bath can even accelerate the loss of coherence, compared to predictions of Markovian approximations. Qualitatively different scenarios including exponential, Gaussian or algebraic decay of the decoherence function are analyzed. It is shown that partial recurrence of coherence can occur in case of non-Lindblad-type dynamics. The time evolution of quantum correlations of entangled two-mode continuous variable states is examined in single-reservoir and two-reservoir models, representing noisy correlated or uncorrelated non-Markovian quantum channels. For this purpose the model of quantum Brownian motion is extended. Various separability criteria for Gaussian and non-Gaussian continuous variable systems are applied. In both types of reservoir models moderate non-Markovian effects prolong the separability time scales. However, in these models the properties of the stationary state may differ. In the two-reservoir model the initial entanglement is completely lost and both modes are finally uncorrelated. In a common reservoir both modes interact indirectly via the coupling to the same bath variables. Therefore, new quantum correlations may emerge between the two modes. Below a critical bath temperature entanglement is preserved even in the steady state. A separability criterion is derived, which depends

  20. Entanglement-continuous unitary transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Serkan; Orus, Roman [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk we present a new algorithm for quantum many-body systems using continuous unitary transformations (CUT) and tensor networks (TNs). With TNs we are able to approximate the solution to the flow equations that lie at the heart of continuous unitary transformations. We call this method Entanglement-Continuous Unitary Transformations (eCUT). It allows us to compute expectation values of local observables as well as tensor network representations of ground states and low-energy excited states. An implementation of the method is shown for 1d systems using matrix product operators. We show preliminary results for the 1d transverse-field Ising model to demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  1. Theoretical study and experimental scheme for the generation of a 1064-nm continuous variable entangled light source with quasi-phase-matching PPKTP crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.Y.; Bi, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning from Maxwell's equations, various factors required for the non-degenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) to operate are considered step by step. Analytic expressions are obtained, generated from the experimental parameters and through the numerical simulation of the quantum-correlated spectrum between the signal and the idler modes from the NOPA operating below threshold. On this basis, an experimental program is designed for the generation of a 1064-nm continuous variable entanglement light source with a quasi-phase-matching periodical polarized KTiOPO 4 (PPKTP) crystal through a below-threshold optical parametric down-conversion process. This will play a crucial role in subsequent experiments.

  2. Detection of two-mode compression and degree of entanglement in continuous variables in parametric scattering of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytikov, G. O.; Chekhova, M. V.

    2008-01-01

    Generation of 'twin beams' (of light with two-mode compression) in single-pass optical parametric amplifier (a crystal with a nonzero quadratic susceptibility) is considered. Radiation at the output of the nonlinear crystal is essentially multimode, which raises the question about the effect of the detection volume on the extent of suppression of noise from the difference photocurrent of the detectors. In addition, the longitudinal as well as transverse size of the region in which parametric transformation takes place is of fundamental importance. It is shown that maximal suppression of noise from difference photocurrent requires a high degree of entanglement of two-photon light at the outlet of the parametric amplifier, which is defined by Federov et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77, 032336 (2008)] as the ratio of the intensity distribution width to the correlation function width. The detection volume should be chosen taking into account both these quantities. Various modes of single-pass generation of twin beams (noncollinear frequency-degenerate and collinear frequency-nondegenerate synchronism of type I, as well as collinear frequency-degenerate synchronism of type II) are considered in connection with the degree of entanglement

  3. Non-Markovian dynamics, decoherence and entanglement in dissipative quantum systems with applications to quantum information theory of continuous variable systems; Nicht-Markovsche Dynamik, Dekohaerenz und Verschraenkung in dissipativen Quantensystemen mit Anwendung in der Quanteninformationstheorie von Systemen kontinuierlicher Variablen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerhammer, C.

    2007-11-26

    In this thesis, non-Markovian dynamics, decoherence and entanglement in dissipative quantum systems are studied. In particular, applications to quantum information theory of continuous variable systems are considered. The non-Markovian dynamics are described by the Hu-Paz-Zhang master equation of quantum Brownian motion. In this context the focus is on non-Markovian effects on decoherence and separability time scales of various single- mode and two-mode continuous variable states. It is verified that moderate non-Markovian influences slow down the decay of interference fringes and quantum correlations, while strong non-Markovian effects resulting from an out-of-resonance bath can even accelerate the loss of coherence, compared to predictions of Markovian approximations. Qualitatively different scenarios including exponential, Gaussian or algebraic decay of the decoherence function are analyzed. It is shown that partial recurrence of coherence can occur in case of non-Lindblad-type dynamics. The time evolution of quantum correlations of entangled two-mode continuous variable states is examined in single-reservoir and two-reservoir models, representing noisy correlated or uncorrelated non-Markovian quantum channels. For this purpose the model of quantum Brownian motion is extended. Various separability criteria for Gaussian and non-Gaussian continuous variable systems are applied. In both types of reservoir models moderate non-Markovian effects prolong the separability time scales. However, in these models the properties of the stationary state may differ. In the two-reservoir model the initial entanglement is completely lost and both modes are finally uncorrelated. In a common reservoir both modes interact indirectly via the coupling to the same bath variables. Therefore, new quantum correlations may emerge between the two modes. Below a critical bath temperature entanglement is preserved even in the steady state. A separability criterion is derived, which depends

  4. Continuous-variable quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Du Jiangfeng; Massar, Serge

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the quantization of games in which the players can access to a continuous set of classical strategies, making use of continuous-variable quantum systems. For the particular case of the Cournot's duopoly, we find that, even though the two players both act as 'selfishly' in the quantum game as they do in the classical game, they are found to virtually cooperate due to the quantum entanglement between them. We also find that the original Einstein-Podolksy-Rosen state contributes to the best profits that the two firms could ever attain. Moreover, we propose a practical experimental setup for the implementation of such quantum games

  5. Continuous-variable quantum erasure correcting code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Sabuncu, Metin; Huck, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a continuous variable quantum erasure-correcting code, which protects coherent states of light against complete erasure. The scheme encodes two coherent states into a bi-party entangled state, and the resulting 4-mode code is conveyed through 4 independent channels...

  6. Universal quantum entanglement between an oscillator and continuous fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Haixing; Danilishin, Stefan; Chen Yanbei

    2010-01-01

    Quantum entanglement has been actively sought in optomechanical and electromechanical systems. The simplest system is a mechanical oscillator interacting with a coherent optical field, while the oscillator also suffers from thermal decoherence. With a rigorous functional analysis, we develop a mathematical framework for treating quantum entanglement that involves infinite degrees of freedom. We show that the quantum entanglement is always present between the oscillator and continuous optical field--even when the environmental temperature is high and the oscillator is highly classical. Such a universal entanglement is also shown to be able to survive more than one mechanical oscillation period if the characteristic frequency of the optomechanical interaction is larger than that of the thermal noise. In addition, we introduce effective optical modes that are ordered by the entanglement strength to better understand the entanglement structure, analogously to the energy spectrum of an atomic system. In particular, we derive the optical mode that is maximally entangled with the mechanical oscillator, which will be useful for future quantum computing and encoding information into mechanical degrees of freedom.

  7. Continuous-variable quantum homomorphic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Shang, Tao; Liu, Jian-wei

    2017-10-01

    Quantum cryptography is believed to be unconditionally secure because its security is ensured by physical laws rather than computational complexity. According to spectrum characteristic, quantum information can be classified into two categories, namely discrete variables and continuous variables. Continuous-variable quantum protocols have gained much attention for their ability to transmit more information with lower cost. To verify the identities of different data sources in a quantum network, we propose a continuous-variable quantum homomorphic signature scheme. It is based on continuous-variable entanglement swapping and provides additive and subtractive homomorphism. Security analysis shows the proposed scheme is secure against replay, forgery and repudiation. Even under nonideal conditions, it supports effective verification within a certain verification threshold.

  8. Continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox with traveling-wave second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum entanglement are at the heart of quantum mechanics. Here we show that single-pass traveling-wave second-harmonic generation can be used to demonstrate both entanglement and the paradox with continuous variables that are analogous to the position and momentum of the original proposal

  9. Violation of Bell's Inequality Using Continuous Variable Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thearle, Oliver; Janousek, Jiri; Armstrong, Seiji; Hosseini, Sara; Schünemann Mraz, Melanie; Assad, Syed; Symul, Thomas; James, Matthew R.; Huntington, Elanor; Ralph, Timothy C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2018-01-01

    A Bell inequality is a fundamental test to rule out local hidden variable model descriptions of correlations between two physically separated systems. There have been a number of experiments in which a Bell inequality has been violated using discrete-variable systems. We demonstrate a violation of Bell's inequality using continuous variable quadrature measurements. By creating a four-mode entangled state with homodyne detection, we recorded a clear violation with a Bell value of B =2.31 ±0.02 . This opens new possibilities for using continuous variable states for device independent quantum protocols.

  10. Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some non-classicality indicators in phase space, and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wavepackets. (review article)

  11. Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, A; Paris, M G A; Illuminati, F; De Siena, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some non-classicality indicators in phase space, and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wavepackets. (review article)

  12. Quantum information and continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedke, G.K.

    2001-08-01

    This thesis treats several questions concerning quantum information theory of infinite dimensional continuous variable (CV) systems. We investigate the separability properties of Gaussian states of such systems. Both the separability and the distillability problem for bipartite Gaussian states are solved by deriving operational criteria for these properties. We consider multipartite Gaussian states and obtain a necessary and sufficient condition that allows the complete classification of three-mode tripartite states according to their separability properties. Moreover we study entanglement distillation protocols. We show that the standard protocols for qubits are robust against imperfect implementation of the required quantum operations. For bipartite Gaussian states we find a universal scheme to distill all distillable states and propose a concrete quantum optical realization. (author)

  13. Bell inequalities for continuous-variable measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.; Cavalcanti, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    Tests of local hidden-variable theories using measurements with continuous-variable (CV) outcomes are developed, and a comparison of different methods is presented. As examples, we focus on multipartite entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster states. We suggest a physical process that produces the states proposed here, and investigate experiments both with and without binning of the continuous variable. In the former case, the Mermin-Klyshko inequalities can be used directly. For unbinned outcomes, the moment-based Cavalcanti-Foster-Reid-Drummond inequalities are extended to functional inequalities by consideration of arbitrary functions of the measurements at each site. By optimizing these functions, we obtain more robust violations of local hidden-variable theories than with either binning or moments. Recent inequalities based on the algebra of quaternions and octonions are compared with these methods. Since the prime advantage of CV experiments is to provide a route to highly efficient detection via homodyne measurements, we analyze the effect of noise and detection losses in both binned and unbinned cases. The CV moment inequalities with an optimal function have greater robustness to both loss and noise. This could permit a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities.

  14. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation with non-Gaussian resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Albano, L.; Illuminati, F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate continuous variable quantum teleportation using non-Gaussian states of the radiation field as entangled resources. We compare the performance of different classes of degaussified resources, including two-mode photon-added and two-mode photon-subtracted squeezed states. We then introduce a class of two-mode squeezed Bell-like states with one-parameter dependence for optimization. These states interpolate between and include as subcases different classes of degaussified resources. We show that optimized squeezed Bell-like resources yield a remarkable improvement in the fidelity of teleportation both for coherent and nonclassical input states. The investigation reveals that the optimal non-Gaussian resources for continuous variable teleportation are those that most closely realize the simultaneous maximization of the content of entanglement, the degree of affinity with the two-mode squeezed vacuum, and the, suitably measured, amount of non-Gaussianity

  15. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Kiukas, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.kiukas@aber.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Penglais, Aberystwyth, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  16. Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel

    2008-01-01

    channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...

  17. Entanglement Growth in Quench Dynamics with Variable Range Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schachenmayer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying entanglement growth in quantum dynamics provides both insight into the underlying microscopic processes and information about the complexity of the quantum states, which is related to the efficiency of simulations on classical computers. Recently, experiments with trapped ions, polar molecules, and Rydberg excitations have provided new opportunities to observe dynamics with long-range interactions. We explore nonequilibrium coherent dynamics after a quantum quench in such systems, identifying qualitatively different behavior as the exponent of algebraically decaying spin-spin interactions in a transverse Ising chain is varied. Computing the buildup of bipartite entanglement as well as mutual information between distant spins, we identify linear growth of entanglement entropy corresponding to propagation of quasiparticles for shorter-range interactions, with the maximum rate of growth occurring when the Hamiltonian parameters match those for the quantum phase transition. Counterintuitively, the growth of bipartite entanglement for long-range interactions is only logarithmic for most regimes, i.e., substantially slower than for shorter-range interactions. Experiments with trapped ions allow for the realization of this system with a tunable interaction range, and we show that the different phenomena are robust for finite system sizes and in the presence of noise. These results can act as a direct guide for the generation of large-scale entanglement in such experiments, towards a regime where the entanglement growth can render existing classical simulations inefficient.

  18. Measurement problem and local hidden variables with entangled photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchowski Eugen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that there is no remote action with polarization measurements of photons in singlet state. A model is presented introducing a hidden parameter which determines the polarizer output. This model is able to explain the polarization measurement results with entangled photons. It is not ruled out by Bell’s Theorem.

  19. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  20. A continuous variable quantum deterministic key distribution based on two-mode squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Li-Hua; Song, Han-Chong; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Nan-Run; He, Chao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of deterministic keys is of significance in personal communications, but the existing continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols can only generate random keys. By exploiting the entanglement properties of two-mode squeezed states, a continuous variable quantum deterministic key distribution (CVQDKD) scheme is presented for handing over the pre-determined key to the intended receiver. The security of the CVQDKD scheme is analyzed in detail from the perspective of information theory. It shows that the scheme can securely and effectively transfer pre-determined keys under ideal conditions. The proposed scheme can resist both the entanglement and beam splitter attacks under a relatively high channel transmission efficiency. (paper)

  1. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation in bosonic structured environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Guangqiang; Zhang Jingtao; Zhu Jun; Zeng Guihua [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-09-15

    The effects of dynamics of continuous-variable entanglement under the various kinds of environments on quantum teleportation are quantitatively investigated. Only under assumption of the weak system-reservoir interaction, the evolution of teleportation fidelity is analytically derived and is numerically plotted in terms of environment parameters including reservoir temperature and its spectral density, without Markovian and rotating wave approximations. We find that the fidelity of teleportation is a monotonically decreasing function for Markovian interaction in Ohmic-like environments, while it oscillates for non-Markovian ones. According to the dynamical laws of teleportation, teleportation with better performances can be implemented by selecting the appropriate time.

  2. Measures of Quantum Synchronization in Continuous Variable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Didier, N.; Giovannetti, V.; Fazio, R.

    2013-09-01

    We introduce and characterize two different measures which quantify the level of synchronization of coupled continuous variable quantum systems. The two measures allow us to extend to the quantum domain the notions of complete and phase synchronization. The Heisenberg principle sets a universal bound to complete synchronization. The measure of phase synchronization is, in principle, unbounded; however, in the absence of quantum resources (e.g., squeezing) the synchronization level is bounded below a certain threshold. We elucidate some interesting connections between entanglement and synchronization and, finally, discuss an application based on quantum optomechanical systems.

  3. Developments in entanglement theory and applications to relevant physical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lamata Manuel, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This Thesis is devoted to the analysis of entanglement in relevant physical systems. Entanglement is the conducting theme of this research, though I do not dedicate to a single topic, but consider a wide scope of physical situations. I have followed mainly three lines of research for this Thesis, with a series of different works each, which are, Entanglement and Relativistic Quantum Theory, Continuous-variable entanglement, and Multipartite entanglement.

  4. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger nonlocality for continuous-variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zengbing; Zhang Yongde

    2002-01-01

    As a development of our previous work, this paper is concerned with the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) nonlocality for continuous-variable cases. The discussion is based on the introduction of a pseudospin operator, which has the same algebra as the Pauli operator, for each of the N modes of a light field. Then the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is presented for the N modes, each of which has a continuous degree of freedom. Following Mermin's argument, it is demonstrated that for N-mode parity-entangled GHZ states (in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space) of the light field, the contradictions between quantum mechanics and local realism grow exponentially with N, similarly to the usual N-spin cases

  5. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-01-01

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  6. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-10-29

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  7. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states through varied gain channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Zhang Jing; Zhang Jun-Xiang; Zhang Tian-Cai

    2006-01-01

    This paper has investigated quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states in terms of the EPR entanglement states for continuous variables. It discusses the relationship between the fidelity and the entanglement of EPR states, which is characterized by the degree of squeezing and the gain of classical channels. It shows that the quality of teleporting quantum states also depends on the characteristics of the states themselves. The properties of teleporting even and odd coherent states at different intensities are investigated. The difference of teleporting two such kinds of quantum states are analysed based on the quantum distance function.

  8. Continuous Variable Quantum Communication and Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Dong, Ruifang; Jezek, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    We use squeezed states of light to implement a robust continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme and an optical Hadamard gate based on coherent state qubits.......We use squeezed states of light to implement a robust continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme and an optical Hadamard gate based on coherent state qubits....

  9. Genuine tripartite entangled states with a local hidden-variable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Geza; Acin, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    We present a family of three-qubit quantum states with a basic local hidden-variable model. Any von Neumann measurement can be described by a local model for these states. We show that some of these states are genuine three-partite entangled and also distillable. The generalization for larger dimensions or higher number of parties is also discussed. As a by-product, we present symmetric extensions of two-qubit Werner states

  10. Entanglement properties of kaons and tests of hidden-variable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss entanglement properties of neutral kaons systems and their use for testing local realism. In particular, we analyze a Hardy-type scheme [A. Bramon and G. Garbarino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 160401 (2002)] recently suggested for performing a test of hidden-variable theories against standard quantum mechanics. Our result is that this scheme could, in principle, lead to a conclusive test of local realism, but only if higher identification efficiencies than in today's experiments will be reached

  11. Analysis of a continuous-variable quadripartite cluster state from a single optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, S. L. W.; Olsen, M. K.; Bradley, A. S.; Pfister, O.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the feasibility of generating continuous-variable multipartite entanglement in an intracavity concurrent downconversion scheme that has been proposed for the generation of cluster states by Menicucci et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 130501 (2008)]. By calculating optimized versions of the van Loock-Furusawa correlations we demonstrate genuine quadripartite entanglement and investigate the degree of entanglement present. Above the oscillation threshold the basic cluster state geometry under consideration suffers from phase diffusion. We alleviate this problem by incorporating a small injected signal into our analysis. Finally, we investigate squeezed joint operators. While the squeezed joint operators approach zero in the undepleted regime, we find that this is not the case when we consider the full interaction Hamiltonian and the presence of a cavity. In fact, we find that the decay of these operators is minimal in a cavity, and even depletion alone inhibits cluster state formation.

  12. Entangling optical and microwave cavity modes by means of a nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanjeh, Sh. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib, 81746-73441 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Science and Technology, Physics Division, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino, Macerata (Italy); Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P. [School of Science and Technology, Physics Division, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino, Macerata (Italy); Milburn, G. J. [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Saint Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    We propose a scheme that is able to generate stationary continuous-variable entanglement between an optical and a microwave cavity mode by means of their common interaction with a nanomechanical resonator. We show that when both cavities are intensely driven, one can generate bipartite entanglement between any pair of the tripartite system, and that, due to entanglement sharing, optical-microwave entanglement is efficiently generated at the expense of microwave-mechanical and optomechanical entanglement.

  13. Entangling optical and microwave cavity modes by means of a nanomechanical resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzanjeh, Sh.; Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P.; Milburn, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme that is able to generate stationary continuous-variable entanglement between an optical and a microwave cavity mode by means of their common interaction with a nanomechanical resonator. We show that when both cavities are intensely driven, one can generate bipartite entanglement between any pair of the tripartite system, and that, due to entanglement sharing, optical-microwave entanglement is efficiently generated at the expense of microwave-mechanical and optomechanical entanglement.

  14. The induction on a continuous variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingzhong.

    1989-06-01

    Mathematical induction is a useful tool. But it could be used to prove only the proposition with form P(n) for the natural number n. Could the natural number n be replaced by a continuous variable x? Yes, and then we have the continuous induction. The continuous induction is very easy to grasp by the students who have learned mathematical induction. And it can be used to prove many basic propositions in the elementary calculus. (author)

  15. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  16. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  17. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....

  18. Continuous-variable protocol for oblivious transfer in the noisy-storage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furrer, Fabian; Gehring, Tobias; Schaffner, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for oblivious transfer for optical continuous-variable systems, and prove its security in the noisy-storage model. This model allows us to establish security by sending more quantum signals than an attacker can reliably store during the protocol. The security proof is based on uncertainty relations which we...... derive for continuous-variable systems, that differ from the ones used in quantum key distribution. We experimentally demonstrate in a proof-of-principle experiment the proposed oblivious transfer protocol for various channel losses by using entangled two-mode squeezed states measured with balanced...

  19. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum States using delocalized single photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-01-01

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed...... states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can...

  20. Continuous Variables Quantum Information in Noisy Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano

    safe from the detrimental effects of noise and losses. In the present work we investigate continuous variables Gaussian quantum information in noisy environments, studying the effects of various noise sources in the cases of a quantum metrological task, an error correction scheme and discord...

  1. Continuous-variable quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.; Silberhorn, C.

    2010-01-01

    the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous-variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments...... in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum information system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single-photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection...... stage where CV information is measured using homodyne detection or photon counting....

  2. Quantitative Tomography for Continuous Variable Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier; Govia, Luke C. G.; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a continuous variable tomography scheme that reconstructs the Husimi Q function (Wigner function) by Lagrange interpolation, using measurements of the Q function (Wigner function) at the Padua points, conjectured to be optimal sampling points for two dimensional reconstruction. Our approach drastically reduces the number of measurements required compared to using equidistant points on a regular grid, although reanalysis of such experiments is possible. The reconstruction algorithm produces a reconstructed function with exponentially decreasing error and quasilinear runtime in the number of Padua points. Moreover, using the interpolating polynomial of the Q function, we present a technique to directly estimate the density matrix elements of the continuous variable state, with only a linear propagation of input measurement error. Furthermore, we derive a state-independent analytical bound on this error, such that our estimate of the density matrix is accompanied by a measure of its uncertainty.

  3. Quantitative Tomography for Continuous Variable Quantum Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier; Govia, Luke C G; Clerk, Aashish A

    2018-03-02

    We present a continuous variable tomography scheme that reconstructs the Husimi Q function (Wigner function) by Lagrange interpolation, using measurements of the Q function (Wigner function) at the Padua points, conjectured to be optimal sampling points for two dimensional reconstruction. Our approach drastically reduces the number of measurements required compared to using equidistant points on a regular grid, although reanalysis of such experiments is possible. The reconstruction algorithm produces a reconstructed function with exponentially decreasing error and quasilinear runtime in the number of Padua points. Moreover, using the interpolating polynomial of the Q function, we present a technique to directly estimate the density matrix elements of the continuous variable state, with only a linear propagation of input measurement error. Furthermore, we derive a state-independent analytical bound on this error, such that our estimate of the density matrix is accompanied by a measure of its uncertainty.

  4. Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-06-01

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding.

  5. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with photon subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xin; Huang, Peng; Bai, Dong-Yun; Wang, Shi-Yu; Bao, Wan-Su; Zeng, Gui-Hua

    2018-04-01

    It has been found that non-Gaussian operations can be applied to increase and distill entanglement between Gaussian entangled states. We show the successful use of the non-Gaussian operation, in particular, photon subtraction operation, on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) protocol. The proposed method can be implemented based on existing technologies. Security analysis shows that the photon subtraction operation can remarkably increase the maximal transmission distance of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol, which precisely make up for the shortcoming of the original CV-MDI-QKD protocol, and one-photon subtraction operation has the best performance. Moreover, the proposed protocol provides a feasible method for the experimental implementation of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol.

  6. Brownian entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahverdyan, A.E.; Khrennikov, A.; Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.

    2005-01-01

    For two classical Brownian particles an analog of continuous-variable quantum entanglement is presented: The common probability distribution of the two coordinates and the corresponding coarse-grained velocities cannot always be prepared via mixing of any factorized distributions referring to the two particles separately. This is possible for particles which have interacted in the past, but do not interact at present. Three factors are crucial for the effect: (1) separation of time scales of coordinate and momentum which motivates the definition of coarse-grained velocities; (2) the resulting uncertainty relations between the coordinate of the Brownian particle and the change of its coarse-grained velocity; (3) the fact that the coarse-grained velocity, though pertaining to a single Brownian particle, is defined on a common context of two particles. The Brownian entanglement is a consequence of a coarse-grained description and disappears for a finer resolution of the Brownian motion. Analogies with the quantum situation are discussed, as well as possibilities of experimental realization of the effect in examples of macroscopic Brownian motion

  7. Testing for entanglement with periodic coarse graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, D. S.; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Aspden, R. S.; Padgett, M. J.; Souto Ribeiro, P. H.; Walborn, S. P.

    2018-04-01

    Continuous-variable systems find valuable applications in quantum information processing. To deal with an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, one in general has to handle large numbers of discretized measurements in tasks such as entanglement detection. Here we employ the continuous transverse spatial variables of photon pairs to experimentally demonstrate entanglement criteria based on a periodic structure of coarse-grained measurements. The periodization of the measurements allows an efficient evaluation of entanglement using spatial masks acting as mode analyzers over the entire transverse field distribution of the photons and without the need to reconstruct the probability densities of the conjugate continuous variables. Our experimental results demonstrate the utility of the derived criteria with a success rate in entanglement detection of ˜60 % relative to 7344 studied cases.

  8. Entanglement detection via tighter local uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chengjie; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2010-01-01

    We propose an entanglement criterion based on local uncertainty relations (LURs) in a stronger form than the original LUR criterion introduced by Hofmann and Takeuchi [H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. A 68, 032103 (2003)]. Using arbitrarily chosen operators (A k ) and (B k ) of subsystems A and B, the tighter LUR criterion, which may be used not only for discrete variables but also for continuous variables, can detect more entangled states than the original criterion.

  9. Spacetime Symmetries and Conformal Data in the Continuous Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Vidal, G.

    2017-07-01

    The generalization of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) to continuous systems, or cMERA [Haegeman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 100402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.100402], is expected to become a powerful variational ansatz for the ground state of strongly interacting quantum field theories. In this Letter, we investigate, in the simpler context of Gaussian cMERA for free theories, the extent to which the cMERA state |ΨΛ⟩ with finite UV cutoff Λ can capture the spacetime symmetries of the ground state |Ψ ⟩. For a free boson conformal field theory (CFT) in 1 +1 dimensions, as a concrete example, we build a quasilocal unitary transformation V that maps |Ψ ⟩ into |ΨΛ⟩ and show two main results. (i) Any spacetime symmetry of the ground state |Ψ ⟩ is also mapped by V into a spacetime symmetry of the cMERA |ΨΛ⟩. However, while in the CFT, the stress-energy tensor Tμ ν(x ) (in terms of which all the spacetime symmetry generators are expressed) is local, and the corresponding cMERA stress-energy tensor Tμν Λ(x )=V Tμ ν(x )V† is quasilocal. (ii) From the cMERA, we can extract quasilocal scaling operators OαΛ(x ) characterized by the exact same scaling dimensions Δα, conformal spins sα, operator product expansion coefficients Cα β γ, and central charge c as the original CFT. Finally, we argue that these results should also apply to interacting theories.

  10. Implementation of bright six-partite entanglement by coupled intracavity sum frequency generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Le; Liu, Yuzhu; Zhang, Yanan; Wu, Hongyan; Gong, Chengxuan; Zhang, Ruofan; Zhang, Houyuan; Fan, JingYu

    2018-04-01

    Bright six-partite continuous-variable (CV) entanglement generated by the coupled intracavity sum frequency generation is investigated. The entanglement characteristics of reflected pump fields and the output sum frequency fields are discussed theoretically in symmetric and asymmetric cases by applying van Loock and Furusawa criteria for multipartite CV entanglement. Such compact tunable multipartite CV entanglement, generated from an experimentally feasible coupled system, could be used in integrated quantum communication and networks.

  11. Security bound of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states and channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong

    2009-01-01

    Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.

  12. Security bound of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states and channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong, E-mail: hongguo@pku.edu.c [CREAM Group, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks (Peking University) and Institute of Quantum Electronics, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-12-14

    Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.

  13. Spacetime replication of continuous variable quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Salton, Grant; Sanders, Barry C

    2016-01-01

    The theory of relativity requires that no information travel faster than light, whereas the unitarity of quantum mechanics ensures that quantum information cannot be cloned. These conditions provide the basic constraints that appear in information replication tasks, which formalize aspects of the behavior of information in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, we provide continuous variable (CV) strategies for spacetime quantum information replication that are directly amenable to optical or mechanical implementation. We use a new class of homologically constructed CV quantum error correcting codes to provide efficient solutions for the general case of information replication. As compared to schemes encoding qubits, our CV solution requires half as many shares per encoded system. We also provide an optimized five-mode strategy for replicating quantum information in a particular configuration of four spacetime regions designed not to be reducible to previously performed experiments. For this optimized strategy, we provide detailed encoding and decoding procedures using standard optical apparatus and calculate the recovery fidelity when finite squeezing is used. As such we provide a scheme for experimentally realizing quantum information replication using quantum optics. (paper)

  14. Continuously variable transmission (CVT) with ceramic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, A.; Stuffer, A.; Bernhardt, J. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.), IPEK Institut fuer Produktentwicklung, Kaiserstr. 10, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVTs) are a powerful alternative to automatic gearboxes for passenger cars. Some of these CVTs transmit the power via traction forces through highly loaded lubricated contacts. The aim of the presented work is to increase the capability of this system by means of appropriate engineering ceramics. The modifications are investigated on a machine element test bench. The necessary new tools for the design process and the configuration of the test bench are presented. Measurements show that the desired improvements can be achieved by using engineering ceramics but lifetime requirements have not been met yet. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Stufenlos verstellbare Getriebe sind eine leistungsfaehige Alternative zu konventionellen Stufenautomaten in Kraftfahrzeugen. Die Leistung wird bei einigen dieser stufenlosen Getriebe reibschluessig ueber hoch belastete geschmierte Friktionswirkflaechen uebertragen. Die vorgestellten Arbeiten haben das Ziel, durch den Einsatz von geeigneten Ingenieurkeramiken die Leistungsfaehigkeit des Systems weiter zu steigern. Die Modifikationen werden an einem Bauteilpruefstand untersucht. Es werden die Werkzeuge fuer den Systemdesignprozess und der Aufbau des Pruefstands vorgestellt. Messergebnisse zeigen, dass mit der eingesetzten Ingenieurkeramik die gewuenschten Verbesserungen erzielt werden koennen, die Lebensdaueraspekte werden jedoch noch nicht erfuellt. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Continuous multipartite entangled state in Wigner representation and violation of the Zukowski-Brukner inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chunfeng; Chen Jingling; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.; Xue Kang

    2005-01-01

    We construct an explicit Wigner function for the N-mode squeezed state. Based on a previous observation that the Wigner function describes correlations in the joint measurement of the phase-space displaced parity operator, we investigate the nonlocality of the multipartite entangled state by the violation of the Zukowski-Brukner N-qubit Bell inequality. We find that quantum predictions for such a squeezed state violate these inequalities by an amount that grows with the number N

  16. Unifying parameter estimation and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm for continuous variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwierz, Marcin; Perez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Kok, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    We reveal a close relationship between quantum metrology and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on continuous-variable quantum systems. We develop a general procedure, characterized by two parameters, that unifies parameter estimation and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. Depending on which parameter we keep constant, the procedure implements either the parameter-estimation protocol or the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. The parameter-estimation part of the procedure attains the Heisenberg limit and is therefore optimal. Due to the use of approximate normalizable continuous-variable eigenstates, the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm is probabilistic. The procedure estimates a value of an unknown parameter and solves the Deutsch-Jozsa problem without the use of any entanglement.

  17. Monogamy inequality for distributed gaussian entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima, Tohya; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-02-02

    We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems.

  18. Benford's law and continuous dependent random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Thealexa; Burt, David; Corcoran, Taylor C.; Greaves-Tunnell, Alec; Iafrate, Joseph R.; Jing, Joy; Miller, Steven J.; Porfilio, Jaclyn D.; Ronan, Ryan; Samranvedhya, Jirapat; Strauch, Frederick W.; Talbut, Blaine

    2018-01-01

    Many mathematical, man-made and natural systems exhibit a leading-digit bias, where a first digit (base 10) of 1 occurs not 11% of the time, as one would expect if all digits were equally likely, but rather 30%. This phenomenon is known as Benford's Law. Analyzing which datasets adhere to Benford's Law and how quickly Benford behavior sets in are the two most important problems in the field. Most previous work studied systems of independent random variables, and relied on the independence in their analyses. Inspired by natural processes such as particle decay, we study the dependent random variables that emerge from models of decomposition of conserved quantities. We prove that in many instances the distribution of lengths of the resulting pieces converges to Benford behavior as the number of divisions grow, and give several conjectures for other fragmentation processes. The main difficulty is that the resulting random variables are dependent. We handle this by using tools from Fourier analysis and irrationality exponents to obtain quantified convergence rates as well as introducing and developing techniques to measure and control the dependencies. The construction of these tools is one of the major motivations of this work, as our approach can be applied to many other dependent systems. As an example, we show that the n ! entries in the determinant expansions of n × n matrices with entries independently drawn from nice random variables converges to Benford's Law.

  19. Single-quadrature continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    Most continuous-variable quantum key distribution schemes are based on the Gaussian modulation of coherent states followed by continuous quadrature detection using homodyne detectors. In all previous schemes, the Gaussian modulation has been carried out in conjugate quadratures thus requiring two...... commercialization of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, provided that the low noise requirement can be achieved....

  20. Violation of Bell's inequality with continuous spatial variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Yarnall, Timothy; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2007-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument revealed the paradoxical properties of a two-particle system entangled continuously in the spatial parameter. Yet a direct test of quantum nonlocality exhibited by this state, via a violation of Bell's inequality, has not been forthcoming. In this paper, we identify and construct experimental arrangements comprising simple optical components, without nonlinearities or moving parts, that implement operators in the spatial-parity space of single-photon fields that correspond to the familiar Pauli spin operators. We achieve this by first establishing an isomorphism between the single-mode multiphoton electromagnetic-field space spanned by a Fock-state basis and the single-photon multimode electromagnetic-field space spanned by a spatial-eigenmode basis. We then proceed to construct a Hilbert space with a two-dimensional basis of spatial even-odd parity modes. In particular, we describe an arrangement that implements a rotation in the parity space of each photon of an entangled-photon pair, allowing for a straightforward experimental test of Bell's inequality using the EPR state. Finally, the violation of a Bell inequality is quantified in terms of the physical parameters of the two-photon source

  1. Regularized tripartite continuous variable EPR-type states with Wigner functions and CHSH violations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Sol H; Jarvis, P D

    2008-01-01

    We consider tripartite entangled states for continuous variable systems of EPR type, which generalize the famous bipartite CV EPR states (eigenvectors of conjugate choices X 1 - X 2 , P 1 + P 2 , of the systems' relative position and total momentum variables). We give the regularized forms of such tripartite EPR states in second-quantized formulation, and derive their Wigner functions. This is directly compared with the established NOPA-like states from quantum optics. Whereas the multipartite entangled states of NOPA type have singular Wigner functions in the limit of large squeezing, r → ∞, or tanh r → 1 - (approaching the EPR states in the bipartite case), our regularized tripartite EPR states show singular behaviour not only in the approach to the EPR-type region (s → 1 in our notation), but also for an additional, auxiliary regime of the regulator (s→√2). While the s → 1 limit pertains to tripartite CV states with singular eigenstates of the relative coordinates and remaining squeezed in the total momentum, the (s→√2) limit yields singular eigenstates of the total momentum, but squeezed in the relative coordinates. Regarded as expectation values of displaced parity measurements, the tripartite Wigner functions provide the ingredients for generalized CHSH inequalities. Violations of the tripartite CHSH bound (B 3 ≤ 2) are established, with B 3 ≅2.09 in the canonical regime (s → 1 + ), as well as B 3 ≅2.32 in the auxiliary regime (s→√2 + )

  2. Deterministically entangling multiple remote quantum memories inside an optical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhihui; Liu, Yanhong; Yan, Jieli; Jia, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    Quantum memory for the nonclassical state of light and entanglement among multiple remote quantum nodes hold promise for a large-scale quantum network, however, continuous-variable (CV) memory efficiency and entangled degree are limited due to imperfect implementation. Here we propose a scheme to deterministically entangle multiple distant atomic ensembles based on CV cavity-enhanced quantum memory. The memory efficiency can be improved with the help of cavity-enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency dynamics. A high degree of entanglement among multiple atomic ensembles can be obtained by mapping the quantum state from multiple entangled optical modes into a collection of atomic spin waves inside optical cavities. Besides being of interest in terms of unconditional entanglement among multiple macroscopic objects, our scheme paves the way towards the practical application of quantum networks.

  3. Entanglement in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isar, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on quantum dynamical semigroups, we solve the master equation for two independent bosonic oscillators interacting with an environment in the asymptotic long-time regime. We give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix of the quantum states of the considered system for an arbitrary Gaussian input state. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems immersed in a common environment and evolving under a Markovian, completely positive dynamics become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that their non-local quantum correlations exist in the long-time regime. (author) Key words: quantum information theory, open systems, quantum entanglement, inseparable states

  4. A novel concept for a translational continuously variable transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresscher, Douwe; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Continuously Variable Transmissions have the potential to change robotics. When used in a drive train in combination with a spring, they could significantly reduce energy consumption. However, so far these advantages have been shown in theory only. To exploit the concept of a Continuously Variable

  5. Toward demonstrating controlled-X operation based on continuous-variable four-partite cluster states and quantum teleporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Su Xiaolong; Shen Heng; Tan Aihong; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi

    2010-01-01

    One-way quantum computation based on measurement and multipartite cluster entanglement offers the ability to perform a variety of unitary operations only through different choices of measurement bases. Here we present an experimental study toward demonstrating the controlled-X operation, a two-mode gate in which continuous variable (CV) four-partite cluster states of optical modes are utilized. Two quantum teleportation elements are used for achieving the gate operation of the quantum state transformation from input target and control states to output states. By means of the optical cluster state prepared off-line, the homodyne detection and electronic feeding forward, the information carried by the input control state is transformed to the output target state. The presented scheme of the controlled-X operation based on teleportation can be implemented nonlocally and deterministically. The distortion of the quantum information resulting from the imperfect cluster entanglement is estimated with the fidelity.

  6. Realistic continuous-variable quantum teleportation with non-Gaussian resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of nonideal continuous-variable quantum teleportation implemented with entangled non-Gaussian resources. We discuss in a unified framework the main decoherence mechanisms, including imperfect Bell measurements and propagation of optical fields in lossy fibers, applying the formalism of the characteristic function. By exploiting appropriate displacement strategies, we compute analytically the success probability of teleportation for input coherent states and two classes of non-Gaussian entangled resources: two-mode squeezed Bell-like states (that include as particular cases photon-added and photon-subtracted de-Gaussified states), and two-mode squeezed catlike states. We discuss the optimization procedure on the free parameters of the non-Gaussian resources at fixed values of the squeezing and of the experimental quantities determining the inefficiencies of the nonideal protocol. It is found that non-Gaussian resources enhance significantly the efficiency of teleportation and are more robust against decoherence than the corresponding Gaussian ones. Partial information on the alphabet of input states allows further significant improvement in the performance of the nonideal teleportation protocol.

  7. Improvement of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using optical amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi-Chen; Yu, Song; Gu, Wanyi; Li, Zhengyu; Sun, Maozhu; Peng, Xiang; Guo, Hong; Weedbrook, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The imperfections of a receiver's detector affect the performance of two-way continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols and are difficult to adjust in practical situations. We propose a method to improve the performance of two-way CV-QKD by adding a parameter-adjustable optical amplifier at the receiver. A security analysis is derived against a two-mode collective entangling cloner attack. Our simulations show that the proposed method can improve the performance of protocols as long as the inherent noise of the amplifier is lower than a critical value, defined as the tolerable amplifier noise. Furthermore, the optimal performance can approach the scenario where a perfect detector is used. (paper)

  8. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with discrete modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takuya; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Oguri, Yusuke; Namiki, Ryo; Kasai, Kenta; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system that employs discrete quadrature-amplitude modulation and homodyne detection of coherent states of light. We experimentally demonstrated automated secure key generation with a rate of 50 kbps when a quantum channel is a 10 km optical fibre. The CV-QKD system utilises a four-state and post-selection protocol and generates a secure key against the entangling cloner attack. We used a pulsed light source of 1550 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 10 MHz. A commercially available balanced receiver is used to realise shot-noise-limited pulsed homodyne detection. We used a non-binary LDPC code for error correction (reverse reconciliation) and the Toeplitz matrix multiplication for privacy amplification. A graphical processing unit card is used to accelerate the software-based post-processing.

  9. Pedagogical introduction to the entropy of entanglement for Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarie, Tommaso F.

    2018-05-01

    In quantum information theory, the entropy of entanglement is a standard measure of bipartite entanglement between two partitions of a composite system. For a particular class of continuous variable quantum states, the Gaussian states, the entropy of entanglement can be expressed elegantly in terms of symplectic eigenvalues, elements that characterise a Gaussian state and depend on the correlations of the canonical variables. We give a rigorous step-by-step derivation of this result and provide physical insights, together with an example that can be useful in practice for calculations.

  10. Probabilistic Power Flow Method Considering Continuous and Discrete Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a probabilistic power flow (PPF method considering continuous and discrete variables (continuous and discrete power flow, CDPF for power systems. The proposed method—based on the cumulant method (CM and multiple deterministic power flow (MDPF calculations—can deal with continuous variables such as wind power generation (WPG and loads, and discrete variables such as fuel cell generation (FCG. In this paper, continuous variables follow a normal distribution (loads or a non-normal distribution (WPG, and discrete variables follow a binomial distribution (FCG. Through testing on IEEE 14-bus and IEEE 118-bus power systems, the proposed method (CDPF has better accuracy compared with the CM, and higher efficiency compared with the Monte Carlo simulation method (MCSM.

  11. Randomized trial of intermittent or continuous amnioinfusion for variable decelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, B K; Terrone, D A; Barrow, J H; Isler, C M; Barrilleaux, P S; Roberts, W E

    2000-10-01

    To determine whether continuous or intermittent bolus amnioinfusion is more effective in relieving variable decelerations. Patients with repetitive variable decelerations were randomized to an intermittent bolus or continuous amnioinfusion. The intermittent bolus infusion group received boluses of 500 mL of normal saline, each over 30 minutes, with boluses repeated if variable decelerations recurred. The continuous infusion group received a bolus infusion of 500 mL of normal saline over 30 minutes and then 3 mL per minute until delivery occurred. The ability of the amnioinfusion to abolish variable decelerations was analyzed, as were maternal demographic and pregnancy outcome variables. Power analysis indicated that 64 patients would be required. Thirty-five patients were randomized to intermittent infusion and 30 to continuous infusion. There were no differences between groups in terms of maternal demographics, gestational age, delivery mode, neonatal outcome, median time to resolution of variable decelerations, or the number of times variable decelerations recurred. The median volume infused in the intermittent infusion group (500 mL) was significantly less than that in the continuous infusion group (905 mL, P =.003). Intermittent bolus amnioinfusion is as effective as continuous infusion in relieving variable decelerations in labor. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether either of these techniques is associated with increased occurrence of rare complications such as cord prolapse or uterine rupture.

  12. Steady State Entanglement and Saturation Effects in Correlated Spontaneous Emission Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Wang; Xiang-Ming, Hu; Wen-Xing, Shi

    2009-01-01

    It has recently been shown that correlated spontaneous emission lasers (CEL) exhibit transient entanglement in the linear regime. Here we re-examine the quantum correlations in two-photon CEL and explore the saturation effects on continuous variable entanglement. It is shown that the steady state entanglement is obtainable in the weak or moderate saturation regime, while is washed out in the deep saturation regime. (general)

  13. A random number generator for continuous random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, V. M.; Tapia, R. A.; Thompson, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 routine is given which may be used to generate random observations of a continuous real valued random variable. Normal distribution of F(x), X, E(akimas), and E(linear) is presented in tabular form.

  14. A fast integrated discriminator with continuously variable width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghesi, A.; Goggi, G.; Nardo, R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple dc-coupled discriminator with fast switching characteristics has been realized. Both input threshold and output width are continuously variable; the ECL design allows high speed and high density with ample fanout. (Auth.)

  15. Gaussian measures of entanglement versus negativities: Ordering of two-mode Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    We study the entanglement of general (pure or mixed) two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by comparing the two available classes of computable measures of entanglement: entropy-inspired Gaussian convex-roof measures and positive partial transposition-inspired measures (negativity and logarithmic negativity). We first review the formalism of Gaussian measures of entanglement, adopting the framework introduced in M. M. Wolf et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 052320 (2004), where the Gaussian entanglement of formation was defined. We compute explicitly Gaussian measures of entanglement for two important families of nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian state: namely, the states of extremal (maximal and minimal) negativities at fixed global and local purities, introduced in G. Adesso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087901 (2004). This analysis allows us to compare the different orderings induced on the set of entangled two-mode Gaussian states by the negativities and by the Gaussian measures of entanglement. We find that in a certain range of values of the global and local purities (characterizing the covariance matrix of the corresponding extremal states), states of minimum negativity can have more Gaussian entanglement of formation than states of maximum negativity. Consequently, Gaussian measures and negativities are definitely inequivalent measures of entanglement on nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian states, even when restricted to a class of extremal states. On the other hand, the two families of entanglement measures are completely equivalent on symmetric states, for which the Gaussian entanglement of formation coincides with the true entanglement of formation. Finally, we show that the inequivalence between the two families of continuous-variable entanglement measures is somehow limited. Namely, we rigorously prove that, at fixed negativities, the Gaussian measures of entanglement are bounded from below. Moreover, we provide some strong evidence suggesting that they

  16. Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view

  17. Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-01-01

    Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and ...

  18. Improving the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states using a noiseless amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Yu, Song; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Gu, Wanyi; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    By employing a nondeterministic noiseless linear amplifier, we propose to increase the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states. With the covariance matrix transformation, the expression of secret key rate under reverse reconciliation is derived against collective entangling cloner attacks. We show that the noiseless linear amplifier can compensate the detrimental effect of the preparation noise with an enhancement of the maximum transmission distance and the noise resistance. - Highlights: • Noiseless amplifier is applied in noisy coherent state quantum key distribution. • Negative effect of preparation noise is compensated by noiseless amplification. • Maximum transmission distance and noise resistance are both enhanced

  19. Optimality of Gaussian attacks in continuous-variable quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascués, Miguel; Grosshans, Frédéric; Acín, Antonio

    2006-11-10

    We analyze the asymptotic security of the family of Gaussian modulated quantum key distribution protocols for continuous-variables systems. We prove that the Gaussian unitary attack is optimal for all the considered bounds on the key rate when the first and second momenta of the canonical variables involved are known by the honest parties.

  20. Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.

  1. Coherent feedback control of multipartite quantum entanglement for optical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Coherent feedback control (CFC) of multipartite optical entangled states produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier is theoretically studied. The features of the quantum correlations of amplitude and phase quadratures among more than two entangled optical modes can be controlled by tuning the transmissivity of the optical beam splitter in the CFC loop. The physical conditions to enhance continuous variable multipartite entanglement of optical fields utilizing the CFC loop are obtained. The numeric calculations based on feasible physical parameters of realistic systems provide direct references for the design of experimental devices.

  2. Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B

    2016-09-02

    Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.

  3. Generalizing entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding

    2017-12-01

    The expected indefinite causal structure in quantum gravity poses a challenge to the notion of entanglement: If two parties are in an indefinite causal relation of being causally connected and not, can they still be entangled? If so, how does one measure the amount of entanglement? We propose to generalize the notions of entanglement and entanglement measure to address these questions. Importantly, the generalization opens the path to study quantum entanglement of states, channels, networks, and processes with definite or indefinite causal structure in a unified fashion, e.g., we show that the entanglement distillation capacity of a state, the quantum communication capacity of a channel, and the entanglement generation capacity of a network or a process are different manifestations of one and the same entanglement measure.

  4. Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2007-01-01

    The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones

  5. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Noisy Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    Existing experimental implementations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution require shot-noise limited operation, achieved with shot-noise limited lasers. However, loosening this requirement on the laser source would allow for cheaper, potentially integrated systems. Here, we implement...... a theoretically proposed prepare-and-measure continuous-variable protocol and experimentally demonstrate the robustness of it against preparation noise stemming for instance from technical laser noise. Provided that direct reconciliation techniques are used in the post-processing we show that for small distances...

  6. Entanglement and squeezing in a two-mode system: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josse, V; Dantan, A; Bramati, A; Giacobino, E

    2004-01-01

    We report on the generation of non-separable beams produced via the interaction of a linearly polarized beam with a cloud of cold caesium atoms placed in an optical cavity. We convert the squeezing of the two linear polarization modes into quadrature entanglement and show how to find the best entanglement generated in a two-mode system using the inseparability criterion for continuous variables (Duan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722). We verify this method experimentally with a direct measurement of the inseparability using two homodyne detectors. We then map this entanglement into a polarization basis and achieve polarization entanglement

  7. Entanglement detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstrasse 21A, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: otfried.guehne@uibk.ac.at; Toth, Geza [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque-Basque Foundation for Science, Alameda Urquijo 36, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain); ICFO-Institute of Photonic Sciences, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-04-15

    How can one prove that a given quantum state is entangled? In this paper we review different methods that have been proposed for entanglement detection. We first explain the basic elements of entanglement theory for two or more particles and then entanglement verification procedures such as Bell inequalities, entanglement witnesses, the determination of nonlinear properties of a quantum state via measurements on several copies, and spin squeezing inequalities. An emphasis is given to the theory and application of entanglement witnesses. We also discuss several experiments, where some of the presented methods have been implemented.

  8. Gain tuning and fidelity in continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.; Furusawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2002-01-01

    The fidelity of continuous-variable teleportation can be optimized by changing the gain in the modulation of the output field. We discuss the gain dependence of fidelity for coherent, vacuum, and one-photon inputs and propose optimal gain tuning strategies for corresponding input selections

  9. Control of a hydraulically actuated continuously variable transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesgens, M.F.M.; Vroemen, B.G.; Stouten, B.; Veldpaus, F.E.; Steinbuch, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular drivelines with hierarchical powertrain control require good component controller tracking, enabling the main controller to reach the desired goals. This paper focuses on the development of a transmission ratio controller for a hydraulically actuated metal push-belt continuously variable

  10. High-performance control of continuously variable transmissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der S.H.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, developments with respect to the pushbelt continuously variable transmission (CVT) are mainly directed towards a reduction of the fuel consumption of a vehicle. The fuel consumption of a vehicle is affected by the variator of the CVT, which transfers the torque and varies the transmission

  11. On Association Measures for Continuous Variables and Correction for Chance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies correction for chance for association measures for continuous variables. The set of linear transformations of Pearson's product-moment correlation is used as the domain of the correction for chance function. Examples of measures in this set are Tucker's congruence coefficient,

  12. Continuous measurement of heart rate variability following carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Previous studies of autonomic nervous system activity through analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) have demonstrated increased sympathetic activity during positive-pressure pneumoperitoneum. We employed an online, continuous method for rapid HRV analysis (MemCalc™, Tarawa, Suwa Trust, Tokyo, ...

  13. Continuous-variable quantum computing on encrypted data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, Kevin; Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Schäfermeier, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    in the sense that they are dependent on a hacker's computational power. Here we theoretically investigate, and experimentally demonstrate with Gaussian displacement and squeezing operations, a quantum solution that achieves the security of a user's privacy using the practical technology of continuous variables...

  14. Establishing and storing of deterministic quantum entanglement among three distant atomic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhihui; Wu, Liang; Jia, Xiaojun; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2017-09-28

    It is crucial for the physical realization of quantum information networks to first establish entanglement among multiple space-separated quantum memories and then, at a user-controlled moment, to transfer the stored entanglement to quantum channels for distribution and conveyance of information. Here we present an experimental demonstration on generation, storage, and transfer of deterministic quantum entanglement among three spatially separated atomic ensembles. The off-line prepared multipartite entanglement of optical modes is mapped into three distant atomic ensembles to establish entanglement of atomic spin waves via electromagnetically induced transparency light-matter interaction. Then the stored atomic entanglement is transferred into a tripartite quadrature entangled state of light, which is space-separated and can be dynamically allocated to three quantum channels for conveying quantum information. The existence of entanglement among three released optical modes verifies that the system has the capacity to preserve multipartite entanglement. The presented protocol can be directly extended to larger quantum networks with more nodes.Continuous-variable encoding is a promising approach for quantum information and communication networks. Here, the authors show how to map entanglement from three spatial optical modes to three separated atomic samples via electromagnetically induced transparency, releasing it later on demand.

  15. Impact of quantum–classical correspondence on entanglement enhancement by single-mode squeezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Sijo K.; Chew, Lock Yue; Sanjuán, Miguel A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum entanglement between two field modes can be achieved through the collective squeezing of the two respective modes. If single-mode squeezing is performed prior to such a two-mode squeezing, an enhancement of entanglement production can happen. Interestingly, the occurrence of this enhancement can be implicitly linked to the local classical dynamical behavior via the paradigm of quantum–classical correspondence. In particular, the entanglement generated through quantum chaos is found to be hardly enhanced by prior squeezing, since it is bounded by the saturation value of the maximally entangled Schmidt state with fixed energy. These results illustrate that entanglement enhancement via initial squeezing can serve as a useful indicator of quantum chaotic behaviour. - Highlights: • Continuous-variable entanglement is explored in the Pullen–Edmonds Hamiltonian. • The local phase-space structure and the entanglement enhancement are related. • Entanglement enhancement via squeezing is smaller for the chaotic orbit. • Entanglement enhancement via squeezing is higher for the regular orbit. • The magnitude of the entanglement enhancement serves as a quantum-chaos indicator

  16. Modular entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  17. Quantum Interference and Entanglement Induced by Multiple Scattering of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, Asger; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We report on the effects of quantum interference induced by the transmission of an arbitrary number of optical quantum states through a multiple-scattering medium. We identify the role of quantum interference on the photon correlations and the degree of continuous variable entanglement between two...... output modes. It is shown that quantum interference survives averaging over all ensembles of disorder and manifests itself as increased photon correlations due to photon antibunching. Furthermore, the existence of continuous variable entanglement correlations in a volume speckle pattern is predicted. Our...

  18. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian source noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yujie; Peng Xiang; Yang Jian; Guo Hong

    2011-01-01

    Source noise affects the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) and is difficult to analyze. We propose a model to characterize Gaussian source noise through introducing a neutral party (Fred) who induces the noise with a general unitary transformation. Without knowing Fred's exact state, we derive the security bounds for both reverse and direct reconciliations and show that the bound for reverse reconciliation is tight.

  19. Analysis on electronic control unit of continuously variable transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuanggui

    Continuously variable transmission system can ensure that the engine work along the line of best fuel economy, improve fuel economy, save fuel and reduce harmful gas emissions. At the same time, continuously variable transmission allows the vehicle speed is more smooth and improves the ride comfort. Although the CVT technology has made great development, but there are many shortcomings in the CVT. The CVT system of ordinary vehicles now is still low efficiency, poor starting performance, low transmission power, and is not ideal controlling, high cost and other issues. Therefore, many scholars began to study some new type of continuously variable transmission. The transmission system with electronic systems control can achieve automatic control of power transmission, give full play to the characteristics of the engine to achieve optimal control of powertrain, so the vehicle is always traveling around the best condition. Electronic control unit is composed of the core processor, input and output circuit module and other auxiliary circuit module. Input module collects and process many signals sent by sensor and , such as throttle angle, brake signals, engine speed signal, speed signal of input and output shaft of transmission, manual shift signals, mode selection signals, gear position signal and the speed ratio signal, so as to provide its corresponding processing for the controller core.

  20. Power Split Based Dual Hemispherical Continuously Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe Dresscher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a new continuously variable transmission concept: the Dual-Hemi Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT. It is designed to have properties we believe are required to apply continuously variable transmissions in robotics to their full potential. These properties are a transformation range that includes both positive and negative ratios, back-drivability under all conditions, kinematically decoupled reconfiguration, high efficiency of the transmission, and a reconfiguration mechanism requiring little work for changing the transmission ratio. The design of the Dual-Hemi CVT and a prototype realisation are discussed in detail. We show that the Dual-Hemi CVT has the aforementioned desired properties. Experiments show that the efficiency of the CVT is above 90% for a large part of the range of operation of the CVT. Significant stiction in the transmission, combined with a relatively low bandwidth for changing the transmission ratio, may cause problems when applying the DH-CVT as part of an actuator in a control loop.

  1. Exploration of continuous variability in collections of 3D shapes

    KAUST Repository

    Ovsjanikov, Maks; Li, Wilmot; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2011-01-01

    As large public repositories of 3D shapes continue to grow, the amount of shape variability in such collections also increases, both in terms of the number of different classes of shapes, as well as the geometric variability of shapes within each class. While this gives users more choice for shape selection, it can be difficult to explore large collections and understand the range of variations amongst the shapes. Exploration is particularly challenging for public shape repositories, which are often only loosely tagged and contain neither point-based nor part-based correspondences. In this paper, we present a method for discovering and exploring continuous variability in a collection of 3D shapes without correspondences. Our method is based on a novel navigation interface that allows users to explore a collection of related shapes by deforming a base template shape through a set of intuitive deformation controls. We also help the user to select the most meaningful deformations using a novel technique for learning shape variability in terms of deformations of the template. Our technique assumes that the set of shapes lies near a low-dimensional manifold in a certain descriptor space, which allows us to avoid establishing correspondences between shapes, while being rotation and scaling invariant. We present results on several shape collections taken directly from public repositories. © 2011 ACM.

  2. Exploration of continuous variability in collections of 3D shapes

    KAUST Repository

    Ovsjanikov, Maks

    2011-07-01

    As large public repositories of 3D shapes continue to grow, the amount of shape variability in such collections also increases, both in terms of the number of different classes of shapes, as well as the geometric variability of shapes within each class. While this gives users more choice for shape selection, it can be difficult to explore large collections and understand the range of variations amongst the shapes. Exploration is particularly challenging for public shape repositories, which are often only loosely tagged and contain neither point-based nor part-based correspondences. In this paper, we present a method for discovering and exploring continuous variability in a collection of 3D shapes without correspondences. Our method is based on a novel navigation interface that allows users to explore a collection of related shapes by deforming a base template shape through a set of intuitive deformation controls. We also help the user to select the most meaningful deformations using a novel technique for learning shape variability in terms of deformations of the template. Our technique assumes that the set of shapes lies near a low-dimensional manifold in a certain descriptor space, which allows us to avoid establishing correspondences between shapes, while being rotation and scaling invariant. We present results on several shape collections taken directly from public repositories. © 2011 ACM.

  3. Entangled entanglement: A construction procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Gabriele, E-mail: Gabriele.Uchida@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Computer Science, Währinger Strasse 29, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bertlmann, Reinhold A., E-mail: Reinhold.Bertlmann@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiesmayr, Beatrix C., E-mail: Beatrix.Hiesmayr@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-30

    The familiar Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states can be rewritten by entangling the Bell states for two qubits with a third qubit state, which is dubbed entangled entanglement. We show that in a constructive way we obtain all eight independent GHZ states that form the simplex of entangled entanglement, the magic simplex. The construction procedure allows a generalization to higher dimensions both, in the degrees of freedom (considering qudits) as well as in the number of particles (considering n-partite states). Such bases of GHZ-type states exhibit a cyclic geometry, a Merry Go Round, that is relevant for experimental and quantum information theoretic applications.

  4. Inverse Ising problem in continuous time: A latent variable approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Christian; Opper, Manfred

    2017-12-01

    We consider the inverse Ising problem: the inference of network couplings from observed spin trajectories for a model with continuous time Glauber dynamics. By introducing two sets of auxiliary latent random variables we render the likelihood into a form which allows for simple iterative inference algorithms with analytical updates. The variables are (1) Poisson variables to linearize an exponential term which is typical for point process likelihoods and (2) Pólya-Gamma variables, which make the likelihood quadratic in the coupling parameters. Using the augmented likelihood, we derive an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate of network parameters. Using a third set of latent variables we extend the EM algorithm to sparse couplings via L1 regularization. Finally, we develop an efficient approximate Bayesian inference algorithm using a variational approach. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithms on data simulated from an Ising model. For data which are simulated from a more biologically plausible network with spiking neurons, we show that the Ising model captures well the low order statistics of the data and how the Ising couplings are related to the underlying synaptic structure of the simulated network.

  5. Improving Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Multipartite Quantum Communication with Optical Amplifiers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Wei; Li, Fei; Huang, Duan; Liao, Qin; Xie, Cai-Lang

    2017-08-01

    The developing tendency of continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum cryptography is to cope with the practical issue of implementing scalable quantum networks. Up to now, most theoretical and experimental researches on CV-MDI QKD are focused on two-party protocols. However, we suggest a CV-MDI multipartite quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol use the EPR states coupled with optical amplifiers. More remarkable, QSS is the real application in multipartite CV-MDI QKD, in other words, is the concrete implementation method of multipartite CV-MDI QKD. It can implement a practical quantum network scheme, under which the legal participants create the secret correlations by using EPR states connecting to an untrusted relay via insecure links and applying the multi-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analysis at relay station. Even if there is a possibility that the relay may be completely tampered, the legal participants are still able to extract a secret key from network communication. The numerical simulation indicates that the quantum network communication can be achieved in an asymmetric scenario, fulfilling the demands of a practical quantum network. Additionally, we illustrate that the use of optical amplifiers can compensate the partial inherent imperfections of detectors and increase the transmission distance of the CV-MDI quantum system.

  6. Continuous-variable Measurement-device-independent Quantum Relay Network with Phase-sensitive Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum cryptography is now heading towards solving the practical problem of implementing scalable quantum networks. In this paper, we show that a solution can come from deploying an optical amplifier in the CV-MDI system, aiming to establish a high-rate quantum network. We suggest an improved CV-MDI protocol using the EPR states coupled with optical amplifiers. It can implement a practical quantum network scheme, where the legal participants create the secret correlations by using EPR states connecting to an untrusted relay via insecure links and applying the multi-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analysis at relay station. Despite the possibility that the relay could be completely tampered with and imperfect links are subject to the powerful attacks, the legal participants are still able to extract a secret key from network communication. The numerical simulation indicates that the quantum network communication can be achieved in an asymmetric scenario, fulfilling the demands of a practical quantum network. Furthermore, we show that the use of optical amplifiers can compensate the inherent imperfections and improve the secret key rate of the CV-MDI system.

  7. Four-State Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Photon Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Wang, Yijun; Liao, Qin; Guo, Ying

    2018-06-01

    Four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) is one of the discretely modulated CVQKD which generates four nonorthogonal coherent states and exploits the sign of the measured quadrature of each state to encode information rather than uses the quadrature \\hat {x} or \\hat {p} itself. It has been proven that four-state CVQKD is more suitable than Gaussian modulated CVQKD in terms of transmission distance. In this paper, we propose an improved four-state CVQKD using an non-Gaussian operation, photon subtraction. A suitable photon-subtraction operation can be exploited to improve the maximal transmission of CVQKD in point-to-point quantum communication since it provides a method to enhance the performance of entanglement-based (EB) CVQKD. Photon subtraction not only can lengthen the maximal transmission distance by increasing the signal-to-noise rate but also can be easily implemented with existing technologies. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can lengthen the maximum transmission distance. Furthermore, by taking finite-size effect into account we obtain a tighter bound of the secure distance, which is more practical than that obtained in the asymptotic limit.

  8. Gaussian entanglement revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lami, Ludovico; Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2018-02-01

    We present a novel approach to the separability problem for Gaussian quantum states of bosonic continuous variable systems. We derive a simplified necessary and sufficient separability criterion for arbitrary Gaussian states of m versus n modes, which relies on convex optimisation over marginal covariance matrices on one subsystem only. We further revisit the currently known results stating the equivalence between separability and positive partial transposition (PPT) for specific classes of Gaussian states. Using techniques based on matrix analysis, such as Schur complements and matrix means, we then provide a unified treatment and compact proofs of all these results. In particular, we recover the PPT-separability equivalence for: (i) Gaussian states of 1 versus n modes; and (ii) isotropic Gaussian states. In passing, we also retrieve (iii) the recently established equivalence between separability of a Gaussian state and and its complete Gaussian extendability. Our techniques are then applied to progress beyond the state of the art. We prove that: (iv) Gaussian states that are invariant under partial transposition are necessarily separable; (v) the PPT criterion is necessary and sufficient for separability for Gaussian states of m versus n modes that are symmetric under the exchange of any two modes belonging to one of the parties; and (vi) Gaussian states which remain PPT under passive optical operations can not be entangled by them either. This is not a foregone conclusion per se (since Gaussian bound entangled states do exist) and settles a question that had been left unanswered in the existing literature on the subject. This paper, enjoyable by both the quantum optics and the matrix analysis communities, overall delivers technical and conceptual advances which are likely to be useful for further applications in continuous variable quantum information theory, beyond the separability problem.

  9. Robust Concurrent Remote Entanglement Between Two Superconducting Qubits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Narla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Entangling two remote quantum systems that never interact directly is an essential primitive in quantum information science and forms the basis for the modular architecture of quantum computing. When protocols to generate these remote entangled pairs rely on using traveling single-photon states as carriers of quantum information, they can be made robust to photon losses, unlike schemes that rely on continuous variable states. However, efficiently detecting single photons is challenging in the domain of superconducting quantum circuits because of the low energy of microwave quanta. Here, we report the realization of a robust form of concurrent remote entanglement based on a novel microwave photon detector implemented in the superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics platform of quantum information. Remote entangled pairs with a fidelity of 0.57±0.01 are generated at 200 Hz. Our experiment opens the way for the implementation of the modular architecture of quantum computation with superconducting qubits.

  10. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution Using Polarized Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidiella-Barranco, A.; Borelli, L. F. M.

    We discuss a continuous variables method of quantum key distribution employing strongly polarized coherent states of light. The key encoding is performed using the variables known as Stokes parameters, rather than the field quadratures. Their quantum counterpart, the Stokes operators Ŝi (i=1,2,3), constitute a set of non-commuting operators, being the precision of simultaneous measurements of a pair of them limited by an uncertainty-like relation. Alice transmits a conveniently modulated two-mode coherent state, and Bob randomly measures one of the Stokes parameters of the incoming beam. After performing reconciliation and privacy amplification procedures, it is possible to distill a secret common key. We also consider a non-ideal situation, in which coherent states with thermal noise, instead of pure coherent states, are used for encoding.

  11. Continuous-Variable Instantaneous Quantum Computing is Hard to Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douce, T; Markham, D; Kashefi, E; Diamanti, E; Coudreau, T; Milman, P; van Loock, P; Ferrini, G

    2017-02-17

    Instantaneous quantum computing is a subuniversal quantum complexity class, whose circuits have proven to be hard to simulate classically in the discrete-variable realm. We extend this proof to the continuous-variable (CV) domain by using squeezed states and homodyne detection, and by exploring the properties of postselected circuits. In order to treat postselection in CVs, we consider finitely resolved homodyne detectors, corresponding to a realistic scheme based on discrete probability distributions of the measurement outcomes. The unavoidable errors stemming from the use of finitely squeezed states are suppressed through a qubit-into-oscillator Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill encoding of quantum information, which was previously shown to enable fault-tolerant CV quantum computation. Finally, we show that, in order to render postselected computational classes in CVs meaningful, a logarithmic scaling of the squeezing parameter with the circuit size is necessary, translating into a polynomial scaling of the input energy.

  12. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  13. Spherical reconciliation for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhao; Shi Jian-Hong; Li Feng-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Information reconciliation is a significant step for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. We propose a reconciliation method that allows two authorized parties to extract a consistent and secure binary key in a CV-QKD protocol, which is based on Gaussian-modulated coherent states and homodyne detection. This method named spherical reconciliation is based on spherical quantization and non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. With the suitable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and code rate of non-binary LDPC codes, spherical reconciliation algorithm has a high efficiency and can extend the transmission distance of CV-QKD. (paper)

  14. LINTAB, Linear Interpolable Tables from any Continuous Variable Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LINTAB is designed to construct linearly interpolable tables from any function. The program will start from any function of a single continuous variable... FUNKY(X). By user input the function can be defined, (1) Over 1 to 100 X ranges. (2) Within each X range the function is defined by 0 to 50 constants. (3) At boundaries between X ranges the function may be continuous or discontinuous (depending on the constants used to define the function within each X range). 2 - Method of solution: LINTAB will construct a table of X and Y values where the tabulated (X,Y) pairs will be exactly equal to the function (Y=FUNKY(X)) and linear interpolation between the tabulated pairs will be within any user specified fractional uncertainty of the function for all values of X within the requested X range

  15. Quantum entanglement via nilpotent polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandilara, Aikaterini; Akulin, Vladimir M.; Smilga, Andrei V.; Viola, Lorenza

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general method for introducing extensive characteristics of quantum entanglement. The method relies on polynomials of nilpotent raising operators that create entangled states acting on a reference vacuum state. By introducing the notion of tanglemeter, the logarithm of the state vector represented in a special canonical form and expressed via polynomials of nilpotent variables, we show how this description provides a simple criterion for entanglement as well as a universal method for constructing the invariants characterizing entanglement. We compare the existing measures and classes of entanglement with those emerging from our approach. We derive the equation of motion for the tanglemeter and, in representative examples of up to four-qubit systems, show how the known classes appear in a natural way within our framework. We extend our approach to qutrits and higher-dimensional systems, and make contact with the recently introduced idea of generalized entanglement. Possible future developments and applications of the method are discussed

  16. Continuous-Variable Quantum Computation of Oracle Decision Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Mark R. A.

    Quantum information processing is appealing due its ability to solve certain problems quantitatively faster than classical information processing. Most quantum algorithms have been studied in discretely parameterized systems, but many quantum systems are continuously parameterized. The field of quantum optics in particular has sophisticated techniques for manipulating continuously parameterized quantum states of light, but the lack of a code-state formalism has hindered the study of quantum algorithms in these systems. To address this situation, a code-state formalism for the solution of oracle decision problems in continuously-parameterized quantum systems is developed. Quantum information processing is appealing due its ability to solve certain problems quantitatively faster than classical information processing. Most quantum algorithms have been studied in discretely parameterized systems, but many quantum systems are continuously parameterized. The field of quantum optics in particular has sophisticated techniques for manipulating continuously parameterized quantum states of light, but the lack of a code-state formalism has hindered the study of quantum algorithms in these systems. To address this situation, a code-state formalism for the solution of oracle decision problems in continuously-parameterized quantum systems is developed. In the infinite-dimensional case, we study continuous-variable quantum algorithms for the solution of the Deutsch--Jozsa oracle decision problem implemented within a single harmonic-oscillator. Orthogonal states are used as the computational bases, and we show that, contrary to a previous claim in the literature, this implementation of quantum information processing has limitations due to a position-momentum trade-off of the Fourier transform. We further demonstrate that orthogonal encoding bases are not unique, and using the coherent states of the harmonic oscillator as the computational bases, our formalism enables quantifying

  17. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-30

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  18. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  19. An improved two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol with added noise in homodyne detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Maozhu; Peng Xiang; Guo Hong

    2013-01-01

    We propose an improved two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) protocol by adding proper random noise on the receiver’s homodyne detection, the security of which is analysed against general collective attacks. The simulation result under the collective entangling cloner attack indicates that despite the correlation between two-way channels decreasing the secret key rate relative to the uncorrelated channels slightly, the performance of the two-way protocol is still far beyond that of the one-way protocols. Importantly, the added noise in detection is beneficial for the secret key rate and the tolerable excess noise of this two-way protocol. With the reasonable reconciliation efficiency of 90%, the two-way CV QKD with added noise allows the distribution of secret keys over 60 km fibre distance. (paper)

  20. The Continuing Search for Variability Among Cool White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, J. J.; Oswalt, T. D.; Johnston, K. B.; Rudkin, M.; Heinz, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Continuing Search for Variability Among Cool White Dwarfs Justin J. Schaefer University of Wyoming Department of Physics and Astronomy P.O. Box 3905 Laramie, Wyoming 82071 USA (schaefju@uwyo.edu) Terry D. Oswalt, Kyle Johnston, Merissa Rudkin, Tamalyn Heinz Florida Institute of Technology and the SARA Observatory Department of Physics & Space Sciences 150 West University Boulevard Melbourne, Florida 32901 USA (oswalt@luyten.astro.fit.edu, kyjohnst@fit.edu, mrudkin@astro.fit.edu, theinz@fit.edu) ABSTRACT We present BVRI photometry of eleven binaries with white dwarf (WD) components. The observations were obtained at the SARA 0.9-meter telescope on Kitt Peak during the summer of 2002. Standard system (B-V), (V-R) and (R-I) color indices of four white dwarfs were determined. This data will be used to estimate the WD cooling ages in wide WD+dM binaries, as part of our ongoing research program to determine the chromospheric activity-age relation for M dwarf stars. Time-series differential photometry was also collected for eight cool white dwarfs as part of a program to explore the variability in the low luminosity, low temperature regime of the WD cooling track. We failed to detect any variability greater than ~0.04 magnitudes in these stars. Several nights of differential photometry data were collected on the DAO WD + K dwarf short-period variable HS1136+6646. From the light variations we determined a likely orbital period of 0.825 +/-0.009 days. Strong evidence is presented for two other possible periods within this light curve, possibly indicative of rotational modulation by the WD component. We gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation, which funds the SARA Research Experiences for Undergraduates program via grant AST-0097616 to Florida Tech. One of us (TDO) also acknowledges partial support for this work from NASA (subcontract Y701296) and the NSF (AST 0206115).

  1. Generic entangling through quantum indistinguishability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quantum systems (methods such as entanglement swapping [5] fall in this ... continued till the particles anti-bunch, in which case they are entangled. 2. .... in the context of the scattering of ballistic electrons from a magnetic impurity in a semi-.

  2. Entropy-driven phase transitions of entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2013-05-01

    We study the behavior of bipartite entanglement at fixed von Neumann entropy. We look at the distribution of the entanglement spectrum, that is, the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix of a quantum system in a pure state. We report the presence of two continuous phase transitions, characterized by different entanglement spectra, which are deformations of classical eigenvalue distributions.

  3. Continuous-variable quantum computing on encrypted data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kevin; Jacobsen, Christian S.; Schäfermeier, Clemens; Gehring, Tobias; Weedbrook, Christian; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to perform computations on encrypted data is a powerful tool for protecting a client's privacy, especially in today's era of cloud and distributed computing. In terms of privacy, the best solutions that classical techniques can achieve are unfortunately not unconditionally secure in the sense that they are dependent on a hacker's computational power. Here we theoretically investigate, and experimentally demonstrate with Gaussian displacement and squeezing operations, a quantum solution that achieves the security of a user's privacy using the practical technology of continuous variables. We demonstrate losses of up to 10 km both ways between the client and the server and show that security can still be achieved. Our approach offers a number of practical benefits (from a quantum perspective) that could one day allow the potential widespread adoption of this quantum technology in future cloud-based computing networks.

  4. Quantum correlations for bipartite continuous-variable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruifen; Hou, Jinchuan; Qi, Xiaofei; Wang, Yangyang

    2018-04-01

    Two quantum correlations Q and Q_P for (m+n)-mode continuous-variable systems are introduced in terms of average distance between the reduced states under the local Gaussian positive operator-valued measurements, and analytical formulas of these quantum correlations for bipartite Gaussian states are provided. It is shown that the product states do not contain these quantum correlations, and conversely, all (m+n)-mode Gaussian states with zero quantum correlations are product states. Generally, Q≥ Q_{P}, but for the symmetric two-mode squeezed thermal states, these quantum correlations are the same and a computable formula is given. In addition, Q is compared with Gaussian geometric discord for symmetric squeezed thermal states.

  5. Continuous-variable quantum computing on encrypted data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kevin; Jacobsen, Christian S; Schäfermeier, Clemens; Gehring, Tobias; Weedbrook, Christian; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2016-12-14

    The ability to perform computations on encrypted data is a powerful tool for protecting a client's privacy, especially in today's era of cloud and distributed computing. In terms of privacy, the best solutions that classical techniques can achieve are unfortunately not unconditionally secure in the sense that they are dependent on a hacker's computational power. Here we theoretically investigate, and experimentally demonstrate with Gaussian displacement and squeezing operations, a quantum solution that achieves the security of a user's privacy using the practical technology of continuous variables. We demonstrate losses of up to 10 km both ways between the client and the server and show that security can still be achieved. Our approach offers a number of practical benefits (from a quantum perspective) that could one day allow the potential widespread adoption of this quantum technology in future cloud-based computing networks.

  6. Limitations on continuous variable quantum algorithms with Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, Mark R A; Hoeyer, Peter; Sanders, Barry C

    2009-01-01

    We study quantum algorithms implemented within a single harmonic oscillator, or equivalently within a single mode of the electromagnetic field. Logical states correspond to functions of the canonical position, and the Fourier transform to canonical momentum serves as the analogue of the Hadamard transform for this implementation. This continuous variable version of quantum information processing has widespread appeal because of advanced quantum optics technology that can create, manipulate and read Gaussian states of light. We show that, contrary to a previous claim, this implementation of quantum information processing has limitations due to a position-momentum trade-off of the Fourier transform, analogous to the famous time-bandwidth theorem of signal processing.

  7. Bilingualism and age are continuous variables that influence executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T

    2018-05-01

    We analyzed the effects of bilingualism and age on executive function. We examined these variables along a continuum, as opposed to dichotomizing them. We investigated the impact that bilingualism and age have on two measures of executive control (Stroop and Flanker). The mouse-tracking paradigm allowed us to examine the continuous dynamics of the responses as participants completed each trial. First, we found that the Stroop effect was reduced with younger age and higher levels of bilingualism; however, no Bilingualism by Age interaction emerged. Second, after controlling for baseline, the Flanker effect was not influenced by bilingualism or age. These results support the notion that bilingualism is one way of enhancing some aspects of executive function - specifically those related to the Stroop task - across the adult life span. In sum, different levels of bilingualism, and different ages, result in varying degrees of executive function as measured by the Stroop task.

  8. Ancilla-driven quantum computation for qudits and continuous variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Timothy; Giulian, Melissa; Korolkova, Natalia; Andersson, Erika; Kendon, Viv

    2017-05-01

    Although qubits are the leading candidate for the basic elements in a quantum computer, there are also a range of reasons to consider using higher-dimensional qudits or quantum continuous variables (QCVs). In this paper, we use a general "quantum variable" formalism to propose a method of quantum computation in which ancillas are used to mediate gates on a well-isolated "quantum memory" register and which may be applied to the setting of qubits, qudits (for d >2 ), or QCVs. More specifically, we present a model in which universal quantum computation may be implemented on a register using only repeated applications of a single fixed two-body ancilla-register interaction gate, ancillas prepared in a single state, and local measurements of these ancillas. In order to maintain determinism in the computation, adaptive measurements via a classical feed forward of measurement outcomes are used, with the method similar to that in measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC). We show that our model has the same hybrid quantum-classical processing advantages as MBQC, including the power to implement any Clifford circuit in essentially one layer of quantum computation. In some physical settings, high-quality measurements of the ancillas may be highly challenging or not possible, and hence we also present a globally unitary model which replaces the need for measurements of the ancillas with the requirement for ancillas to be prepared in states from a fixed orthonormal basis. Finally, we discuss settings in which these models may be of practical interest.

  9. A nano continuous variable transmission system from nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kun; Shi, Jiao; Xie, Yi Min; Qin, Qing H.

    2018-02-01

    A nano continuous variable transmission (nano-CVT) system is proposed by means of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The dynamic behavior of the CNT-based nanosystem is assessed using molecular dynamics simulations. The system contains a rotary CNT-motor and a CNT-bearing. The tube axes of the nanomotor and the rotor in the bearing are laid in parallel, and the distance between them is known as the eccentricity of the rotor with a diameter of d. By changing the eccentricity (e) of the rotor from 0 to d, some interesting rotation transmission phenomena are discovered, whose procedures can be used to design various nanodevices. This might include the failure of rotation transmission—i.e. the rotor has no rotation—when e ≥ d at an extremely low temperature, or when the edges of the two tubes are orthogonal at their intersections in any condition. This hints that the state of the nanosystem can be used as an on/off switch or breaker. For a system with e = d and a high temperature, the rotor rotates in the reverse direction of the motor. This means that the output signal (rotation) is the reverse of the input signal. When changing the eccentricity from 0 to d continuously, the output signal gradually decreases from a positive value to a negative value; as a result a nano-CVT system is obtained.

  10. Squashed entanglement in infinite dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse two possible definitions of the squashed entanglement in an infinite-dimensional bipartite system: direct translation of the finite-dimensional definition and its universal extension. It is shown that the both definitions produce the same lower semicontinuous entanglement measure possessing all basis properties of the squashed entanglement on the set of states having at least one finite marginal entropy. It is also shown that the second definition gives an adequate lower semicontinuous extension of this measure to all states of the infinite-dimensional bipartite system. A general condition relating continuity of the squashed entanglement to continuity of the quantum mutual information is proved and its corollaries are considered. Continuity bound for the squashed entanglement under the energy constraint on one subsystem is obtained by using the tight continuity bound for quantum conditional mutual information (proved in the Appendix by using Winter’s technique). It is shown that the same continuity bound is valid for the entanglement of formation. As a result the asymptotic continuity of the both entanglement measures under the energy constraint on one subsystem is proved.

  11. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement of Narrow-Band Photons from Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chan; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement introduced in 1935 deals with two particles that are entangled in their positions and momenta. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of EPR position-momentum entanglement of narrow-band photon pairs generated from cold atoms. By using two-photon quantum ghost imaging and ghost interference, we demonstrate explicitly that the narrow-band photon pairs violate the separability criterion, confirming EPR entanglement. We further demonstrate continuous variable EPR steering for positions and momenta of the two photons. Our new source of EPR-entangled narrow-band photons is expected to play an essential role in spatially multiplexed quantum information processing, such as, storage of quantum correlated images, quantum interface involving hyperentangled photons, etc.

  12. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement of Narrow-Band Photons from Cold Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chan; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-12-16

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement introduced in 1935 deals with two particles that are entangled in their positions and momenta. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of EPR position-momentum entanglement of narrow-band photon pairs generated from cold atoms. By using two-photon quantum ghost imaging and ghost interference, we demonstrate explicitly that the narrow-band photon pairs violate the separability criterion, confirming EPR entanglement. We further demonstrate continuous variable EPR steering for positions and momenta of the two photons. Our new source of EPR-entangled narrow-band photons is expected to play an essential role in spatially multiplexed quantum information processing, such as, storage of quantum correlated images, quantum interface involving hyperentangled photons, etc.

  13. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  14. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes

  15. Entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states: characterization and experimental production and manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurat, Julien [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Case 74, Universite Pierre et Marie curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Keller, Gaelle [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Case 74, Universite Pierre et Marie curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Oliveira-Huguenin, Jose Augusto [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Case 74, Universite Pierre et Marie curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Fabre, Claude [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Case 74, Universite Pierre et Marie curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Coudreau, Thomas [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Case 74, Universite Pierre et Marie curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, Case 7021, Universite Denis Diderot, 2 Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France); Serafini, Alessio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno (Italy); CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy); and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Adesso, Gerardo [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno (Italy); CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy); and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno (Italy) and CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy) and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    A powerful theoretical structure has emerged in recent years on the characterization and quantification of entanglement in continuous-variable systems. After reviewing this framework, we will illustrate it with an original set-up based on a type-II OPO (optical parametric oscillator) with adjustable mode coupling. Experimental results allow a direct verification of many theoretical predictions and provide a sharp insight into the general properties of two-mode Gaussian states and entanglement resource manipulation.

  16. Entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states: characterization and experimental production and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurat, Julien; Keller, Gaelle; Oliveira-Huguenin, Jose Augusto; Fabre, Claude; Coudreau, Thomas; Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    A powerful theoretical structure has emerged in recent years on the characterization and quantification of entanglement in continuous-variable systems. After reviewing this framework, we will illustrate it with an original set-up based on a type-II OPO (optical parametric oscillator) with adjustable mode coupling. Experimental results allow a direct verification of many theoretical predictions and provide a sharp insight into the general properties of two-mode Gaussian states and entanglement resource manipulation

  17. Entanglement and purity of two-mode Gaussian states in noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio; Paris, Matteo G.A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the evolution of purity, entanglement, and total correlations of general two-mode continuous variable Gaussian states in arbitrary uncorrelated Gaussian environments. The time evolution of purity, von Neumann entropy, logarithmic negativity, and mutual information is analyzed for a wide range of initial conditions. In general, we find that a local squeezing of the bath leads to a faster degradation of purity and entanglement, while it can help to preserve the mutual information between the modes

  18. Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Qin, Hao; Alléaume, Romain

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of continuous variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) in dense-wavelength-division multiplexing networks (DWDM), where QKD will typically have to coexist with several co-propagating (forward or backward) C-band classical channels whose launch power is around 0 dBm. We have conducted experimental tests of the coexistence of CV-QKD multiplexed with an intense classical channel, for different input powers and different DWDM wavelengths. Over a 25 km fiber, a CV-QKD operated over the 1530.12 nm channel can tolerate the noise arising from up to 11.5 dBm classical channel at 1550.12 nm in the forward direction (9.7 dBm in backward). A positive key rate (0.49 kbits s −1 ) can be obtained at 75 km with classical channel power of respectively −3 and −9 dBm in forward and backward. Based on these measurements, we have also simulated the excess noise and optimized channel allocation for the integration of CV-QKD in some access networks. We have, for example, shown that CV-QKD could coexist with five pairs of channels (with nominal input powers: 2 dBm forward and 1 dBm backward) over a 25 km WDM-PON network. The obtained results demonstrate the outstanding capacity of CV-QKD to coexist with classical signals of realistic intensity in optical networks. (paper)

  19. Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Systems: Terminology and Present Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of continuously variable transmission systems in many different areas such as aerospace, robotics, machinery and automotive industries as an alternative to conventional speed changers with constant ratio becomes widely.Especially in the automotive industry, these systems have been used increasingly, since they enable that internal combustion engines in vehicles run at optimal speeds, and consequently provide considerable fuel savings and therefore lower emission values and also they provide powerful acceleration and quiet working. CVT systems have several constructive variants such as belted, chained, balled, toroidal etc. In this paper, toroidal CVT systems based on elastohydrodynamic principles are concerned with, and fundamental works of last two decades in this field are reviewed. However, the relevant terminology and dynamics along with the control of these systems are briefly treated for better understanding of the literature mentioned. Attention is drawn to the lack of some significant issues in present research works, and potential future works are pointed out. This paper, to the authors’ knowledge, will be the first review on toroidal CVT systems in Turkish literature

  20. Strong monogamy of bipartite and genuine multipartite entanglement: the Gaussian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-12

    We demonstrate the existence of general constraints on distributed quantum correlations, which impose a trade-off on bipartite and multipartite entanglement at once. For all N-mode Gaussian states under permutation invariance, we establish exactly a monogamy inequality, stronger than the traditional one, that by recursion defines a proper measure of genuine N-partite entanglement. Strong monogamy holds as well for subsystems of arbitrary size, and the emerging multipartite entanglement measure is found to be scale invariant. We unveil its operational connection with the optimal fidelity of continuous variable teleportation networks.

  1. Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, C.; Aiello, A.; Zhong, W.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum systems such as, for example, photons, atoms, or Bose-Einstein condensates, prepared in complex states where entanglement between distinct degrees of freedom is present, may display several intriguing features. In this Letter we introduce the concept of such complex quantum states...... generates entanglement between these two different degrees of freedom. Experimentally we demonstrate amplitude squeezing of an azimuthally polarized mode by exploiting the nonlinear Kerr effect in a specially tailored photonic crystal fiber. These results display that such novel continuous......-variable entangled systems can, in principle, be realized.© 2011 American Physical Society....

  2. Quantum entanglement in polarization and space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Peter Sing Kin

    2006-01-01

    One of the most intriguing concepts of quantum mechanics is quantum entanglement. Two physical systems are said to be entangled with respect to a certain variable, if their individual outcomes of the variable are undetermined before measurement, but strictly correlated. Measurement of the variable

  3. Dynamics of Entanglement in Jaynes–Cummings Nodes with Nonidentical Qubit-Field Coupling Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tuo Shen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How to analytically deal with the general entanglement dynamics of separate Jaynes–Cummings nodes with continuous-variable fields is still an open question, and few analytical approaches can be used to solve their general entanglement dynamics. Entanglement dynamics between two separate Jaynes–Cummings nodes are examined in this article. Both vacuum state and coherent state in the initial fields are considered through the numerical and analytical methods. The gap between two nonidentical qubit-field coupling strengths shifts the revival period and changes the revival amplitude of two-qubit entanglement. For vacuum-state fields, the maximal entanglement is fully revived after a gap-dependence period, within which the entanglement nonsmoothly decreases to zero and partly recovers without exhibiting sudden death phenomenon. For strong coherent-state fields, the two-qubit entanglement decays exponentially as the evolution time increases, exhibiting sudden death phenomenon, and the increasing gap accelerates the revival period and amplitude decay of the entanglement, where the numerical and analytical results have an excellent coincidence.

  4. Quantum communication network utilizing quadripartite entangled states of optical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Heng; Su Xiaolong; Jia Xiaojun; Xie Changde

    2009-01-01

    We propose two types of quantum dense coding communication networks with optical continuous variables, in which a quadripartite entangled state of the optical field with totally three-party correlations of quadrature amplitudes is utilized. In the networks, the exchange of information between any two participants can be manipulated by one or two of the remaining participants. The channel capacities for a variety of communication protocols are numerically calculated. Due to the fact that the quadripartite entangled states applied in the communication systems have been successfully prepared already in the laboratory, the proposed schemes are experimentally accessible at present.

  5. Investigating Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering of continuous-variable bipartite states by non-Gaussian pseudospin measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Xu, Buqing; Mišta, Ladislav; Tufarelli, Tommaso; He, Qiongyi; Adesso, Gerardo

    2017-10-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is an asymmetric form of correlations which is intermediate between quantum entanglement and Bell nonlocality, and can be exploited as a resource for quantum communication with one untrusted party. In particular, steering of continuous-variable Gaussian states has been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally, as a fundamental manifestation of the EPR paradox. While most of these studies focused on quadrature measurements for steering detection, two recent works revealed that there exist Gaussian states which are only steerable by suitable non-Gaussian measurements. In this paper we perform a systematic investigation of EPR steering of bipartite Gaussian states by pseudospin measurements, complementing and extending previous findings. We first derive the density-matrix elements of two-mode squeezed thermal Gaussian states in the Fock basis, which may be of independent interest. We then use such a representation to investigate steering of these states as detected by a simple nonlinear criterion, based on second moments of the correlation matrix constructed from pseudospin operators. This analysis reveals previously unexplored regimes where non-Gaussian measurements are shown to be more effective than Gaussian ones to witness steering of Gaussian states in the presence of local noise. We further consider an alternative set of pseudospin observables, whose expectation value can be expressed more compactly in terms of Wigner functions for all two-mode Gaussian states. However, according to the adopted criterion, these observables are found to be always less sensitive than conventional Gaussian observables for steering detection. Finally, we investigate continuous-variable Werner states, which are non-Gaussian mixtures of Gaussian states, and find that pseudospin measurements are always more effective than Gaussian ones to reveal their steerability. Our results provide useful insights on the role of non

  6. The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... entanglement between the two atoms changes periodically and undergoes the entanglement sudden death (ESD) and sudden birth at some time. The entanglement properties between the field and the atom insidethe cavity are dependent on the photon number. Most interestingly, the entanglement between the field and ...

  7. The added value of lifestyle variables : The search continues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: People’s preferences for residential environments have long been predicted on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics alone. Recently, however, some researchers argue that these variables no longer suffice to explain and predict preferences and that they should be supplemented

  8. Continuous measurement of heart rate variability following carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-16

    Jul 16, 2010 ... Power spectral analysis of the electrocardiographic R-R interval [heart rate variability: (HRV)] is a well known, non- invasive method for assessing autonomic nervous activity.1. Studies using HRV analysis during positive-pressure pneumoperitoneum (PPP) have demonstrated increased sympathetic ...

  9. Studying entanglement-assisted entanglement transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu Liyi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study catalysis of entanglement transformations for n-level pure entangled states. We propose an algorithm of finding the required catalystic entanglement. We introduce several examples by way of demonstration. We evaluate the lower and upper bound of the required inequalities for deciding whether there are m-level appropriate catalyst states for entanglement transformations for two n-level pure entangled states

  10. State-independent quantum contextuality for continuous variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastino, Angel R.; Cabello, Adan

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that nature violates noncontextual inequalities regardless of the state of the physical system. So far, all these inequalities involve measurements of dichotomic observables. We show that state-independent quantum contextuality can also be observed in the correlations between measurements of observables with genuinely continuous spectra, highlighting the universal character of the effect.

  11. Dynamics of a pulsed continuous-variable quantum memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Cviklinski, Jean; Pinard, Michel

    2006-01-01

    We study the transfer dynamics of nonclassical fluctuations of light to the ground-state collective spin components of an atomic ensemble during a pulsed quantum memory sequence, and evaluate the relevant physical quantities to be measured in order to characterize such a quantum memory. We show...... in particular that the fluctuations stored into the atoms are emitted in temporal modes which are always different from those of the readout pulse, but which can nevertheless be retrieved efficiently using a suitable temporal mode-matching technique. We give a simple toy model—a cavity with variable...... transmission—that accounts for the behavior of the atomic quantum memory....

  12. Entanglement, EPR steering, and Bell-nonlocality criteria for multipartite higher-spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    We develop criteria to detect three classes of nonlocality that have been shown by Wiseman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] to be nonequivalent: entanglement, EPR steering, and the failure of local hidden-variable theories. We use the approach of Cavalcanti et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210405 (2007)] for continuous variables to develop the nonlocality criteria for arbitrary spin observables defined on a discrete Hilbert space. The criteria thus apply to multisite qudits, i.e., systems of fixed dimension d, and take the form of inequalities. We find that the spin moment inequalities that test local hidden variables (Bell inequalities) can be violated for arbitrary d by optimized highly correlated nonmaximally entangled states provided the number of sites N is high enough. On the other hand, the spin inequalities for entanglement are violated and thus detect entanglement for such states, for arbitrary d and N, and with a violation that increases with N. We show that one of the moment entanglement inequalities can detect the entanglement of an arbitrary generalized multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Because they involve the natural observables for atomic systems, the relevant spin-operator correlations should be readily observable in trapped ultracold atomic gases and ion traps.

  13. Entanglement characteristics of subharmonic modes reflected from a cavity for type-II second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Zehui; Li Yongming; Gao Jiangrui

    2004-01-01

    Quantum fluctuation and quantum entanglement of the pump fields reflected from an optical cavity for type-II second-harmonic generation are theoretically analyzed. The correlation spectra of quadrature components between the reflected subharmonic fields are interpreted in terms of pump parameter, intracavity losses, and normalized frequency. High correlation of both amplitude and phase quadratures can be accessed in a triple resonant cavity before the pitchfork bifurcation occurs. The two reflected subharmonic fields are in an entangled state with quantum correlation of phase quadratures and anticorrelation of amplitude quadratures. The proposed system can be exploited as a source for generating entangled states of continuous variables

  14. Dynamical preparation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in two-well Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanchuk, B.; He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.

    2012-08-01

    We propose to generate Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement between groups of atoms in a two-well Bose-Einstein condensate using a dynamical process similar to that employed in quantum optics. A local nonlinear S-wave scattering interaction has the effect of creating spin squeezing at each well, while a tunneling coupling, analogous to a beam splitter in optics, introduces an interference between these fields that causes interwell entanglement. We consider two internal modes at each well so that the entanglement can be detected by measuring a reduction in the variances of the sums of local Schwinger spin observables. As is typical of continuous variable (CV) entanglement, the entanglement is predicted to increase with atom number. It becomes sufficiently strong at higher numbers of atoms so that the EPR paradox and steering nonlocality can be realized. The entanglement is predicted using an analytical approach and, for larger atom numbers, using stochastic simulations based on a truncated Wigner function approximation. We find generally that strong tunneling is favorable, and that entanglement persists and is even enhanced in the presence of realistic nonlinear losses.

  15. Virtual continuity of the measurable functions of several variables, and Sobolev embedding theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Vershik, Anatoly; Zatitskiy, Pavel; Petrov, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    Classical Luzin's theorem states that the measurable function of one variable is "almost" continuous. This is not so anymore for functions of several variables. The search of right analogue of the Luzin theorem leads to a notion of virtually continuous functions of several variables. This probably new notion appears implicitly in the statements like embeddings theorems and traces theorems for Sobolev spaces. In fact, it reveals their nature as theorems about virtual continuity. This notion is...

  16. Unitarily localizable entanglement of Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    We consider generic (mxn)-mode bipartitions of continuous-variable systems, and study the associated bisymmetric multimode Gaussian states. They are defined as (m+n)-mode Gaussian states invariant under local mode permutations on the m-mode and n-mode subsystems. We prove that such states are equivalent, under local unitary transformations, to the tensor product of a two-mode state and of m+n-2 uncorrelated single-mode states. The entanglement between the m-mode and the n-mode blocks can then be completely concentrated on a single pair of modes by means of local unitary operations alone. This result allows us to prove that the PPT (positivity of the partial transpose) condition is necessary and sufficient for the separability of (m+n)-mode bisymmetric Gaussian states. We determine exactly their negativity and identify a subset of bisymmetric states whose multimode entanglement of formation can be computed analytically. We consider explicit examples of pure and mixed bisymmetric states and study their entanglement scaling with the number of modes

  17. The Integration of Continuous and Discrete Latent Variable Models: Potential Problems and Promising Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Curran, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    Structural equation mixture modeling (SEMM) integrates continuous and discrete latent variable models. Drawing on prior research on the relationships between continuous and discrete latent variable models, the authors identify 3 conditions that may lead to the estimation of spurious latent classes in SEMM: misspecification of the structural model,…

  18. The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Entanglement is an important resource for quantum information processing. [1–3] and also one of the most important nonclassical properties in quantum theory. ... consideration, which consists of two entangled two-level atoms A and B with ...

  19. Charcterization of multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Bo

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle τ (T) to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle τ (T) from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)

  20. Charcterization of multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Bo

    2006-06-23

    In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)

  1. A Geometrical Framework for Covariance Matrices of Continuous and Categorical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernizzi, Graziano; Nakai, Miki

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a categorical random variable can be represented geometrically by a simplex. Accordingly, several measures of association between categorical variables have been proposed and discussed in the literature. Moreover, the standard definitions of covariance and correlation coefficient for continuous random variables have been…

  2. Typical entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-05-01

    Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.

  3. On the problem of non-zero word error rates for fixed-rate error correction codes in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Sarah J; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, T C

    2017-01-01

    The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates. (paper)

  4. Entanglement dynamics in quantum information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, T.S.

    2007-03-29

    This thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement dynamics, that is, the behaviour of entanglement in systems that are evolving with time. Progressively more complex multipartite systems are considered, starting with low-dimensional tripartite systems, whose entanglement dynamics can nonetheless display surprising properties, progressing through larger networks of interacting particles, and finishing with infinitely large lattice models. Firstly, what is perhaps the most basic question in entanglement dynamics is considered: what resources are necessary in order to create entanglement between distant particles? The answer is surprising: sending separable states between the parties is sufficient; entanglement can be created without it being carried by a ''messenger'' particle. The analogous result also holds in the continuous-time case: two particles interacting indirectly via a common ancilla particle can be entangled without the ancilla ever itself becoming entangled. The latter result appears to discount any notion of entanglement flow. However, for pure states, this intuitive idea can be recovered, and even made quantitative. A ''bottleneck'' inequality is derived that relates the entanglement rate of the end particles in a tripartite chain to the entanglement of the middle one. In particular, no entanglement can be created if the middle particle is not entangled. However, although this result can be applied to general interaction networks, it does not capture the full entanglement dynamics of these more complex systems. This is remedied by the derivation of entanglement rate equations, loosely analogous to the rate equations describing a chemical reaction. A complete set of rate equations for a system reflects the full structure of its interaction network, and can be used to prove a lower bound on the scaling with chain length of the time required to entangle the ends of a chain. Finally, in contrast with these more

  5. Entanglement dynamics in quantum information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubitt, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement dynamics, that is, the behaviour of entanglement in systems that are evolving with time. Progressively more complex multipartite systems are considered, starting with low-dimensional tripartite systems, whose entanglement dynamics can nonetheless display surprising properties, progressing through larger networks of interacting particles, and finishing with infinitely large lattice models. Firstly, what is perhaps the most basic question in entanglement dynamics is considered: what resources are necessary in order to create entanglement between distant particles? The answer is surprising: sending separable states between the parties is sufficient; entanglement can be created without it being carried by a ''messenger'' particle. The analogous result also holds in the continuous-time case: two particles interacting indirectly via a common ancilla particle can be entangled without the ancilla ever itself becoming entangled. The latter result appears to discount any notion of entanglement flow. However, for pure states, this intuitive idea can be recovered, and even made quantitative. A ''bottleneck'' inequality is derived that relates the entanglement rate of the end particles in a tripartite chain to the entanglement of the middle one. In particular, no entanglement can be created if the middle particle is not entangled. However, although this result can be applied to general interaction networks, it does not capture the full entanglement dynamics of these more complex systems. This is remedied by the derivation of entanglement rate equations, loosely analogous to the rate equations describing a chemical reaction. A complete set of rate equations for a system reflects the full structure of its interaction network, and can be used to prove a lower bound on the scaling with chain length of the time required to entangle the ends of a chain. Finally, in contrast with these more abstract results, the entanglement and

  6. Quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiivanov, L.; Todorov, I.

    2015-01-01

    Expository paper providing a historical survey of the gradual transformation of the 'philosophical discussions' between Bohr, Einstein and Schrödinger on foundational issues in quantum mechanics into a quantitative prediction of a new quantum effect, its experimental verification and its proposed (and loudly advertised) applications. The basic idea of the 1935 paper of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) was reformulated by David Bohm for a finite dimensional spin system. This allowed John Bell to derive his inequalities that separate the prediction of quantum entanglement from its possible classical interpretation. We reproduce here their later (1971) version, reviewing on the way the generalization (and mathematical derivation) of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations (due to Weyl and Schrödinger) needed for the passage from EPR to Bell. We also provide an improved derivation of the quantum theoretic violation of Bell's inequalities. Soon after the experimental confirmation of the quantum entanglement (culminating with the work of Alain Aspect) it was Feynman who made public the idea of a quantum computer based on the observed effect

  7. Entangled states in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruža, Jānis

    2010-01-01

    In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.

  8. High performance continuously variable transmission control through robust-control-relevant model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, T.A.E.; Meulen, van der S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal operation of continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) is essential to meet tightening emission and fuel consumption requirements. This is achieved by accurately tracking a prescribed transmission ratio reference and simultaneously optimizing the internal efficiency of the CVT. To reduce

  9. Remote entanglement distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.C.; Gour, G.; Meyer, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Shared bipartite entanglement is a crucial shared resource for many quantum information tasks such as teleportation, entanglement swapping, and remote state preparation. In general different nodes of a quantum network share an entanglement resource, such as ebits, that are consumed during the task. In practice, generating entangled states is expensive, but here we establish a protocol by which a quantum network requires only a single supplier of entanglement to all nodes who, by judicious measurements and classical communication, provides the nodes with a unique pair wise entangled state independent of the measurement outcome. Furthermore, we extend this result to a chain of suppliers and nodes, which enables an operational interpretation of concurrence. In the special case that the supplier shares bipartite states with two nodes, and such states are pure and maximally entangled, our protocol corresponds to entanglement swapping. However, in the practical case that initial shared entanglement between suppliers and nodes involves partially entangled or mixed states, we show that general local operations and classical communication by all parties (suppliers and nodes) yields distributions of entangled states between nodes. In general a distribution of bipartite entangled states between any two nodes will include states that do not have the same entanglement; thus we name this general process remote entanglement distribution. In our terminology entanglement swapping with partially entangled states is a particular class of remote entanglement distribution protocols. Here we identify which distributions of states that can or cannot be created by remote entanglement distribution. In particular we prove a powerful theorem that establishes an upper bound on the entanglement of formation that can be produced between two qubit nodes. We extend this result to the case of a linear chain of parties that play the roles of suppliers and nodes; this extension provides

  10. Improvement of two-way continuous variable quantum cryptography by using additional noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Minjie; Pan Wei

    2010-01-01

    The performance of quantum key distribution such as one-way continuous variable protocols, can be increased by adding some noise on the reference side of error correction in the error-correction phase. For this reason, we here study this possibility in the case of two-way continuous variable system. Finally, the numerical results show that the using of additional noise gives two-way schemes better security performance in terms of secret key rates and resistance to channel excess noise.

  11. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  12. Entanglement branching operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an entanglement branching operator to split a composite entanglement flow in a tensor network which is a promising theoretical tool for many-body systems. We can optimize an entanglement branching operator by solving a minimization problem based on squeezing operators. The entanglement branching is a new useful operation to manipulate a tensor network. For example, finding a particular entanglement structure by an entanglement branching operator, we can improve a higher-order tensor renormalization group method to catch a proper renormalization flow in a tensor network space. This new method yields a new type of tensor network states. The second example is a many-body decomposition of a tensor by using an entanglement branching operator. We can use it for a perfect disentangling among tensors. Applying a many-body decomposition recursively, we conceptually derive projected entangled pair states from quantum states that satisfy the area law of entanglement entropy.

  13. Active locking and entanglement in type II optical parametric oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquín; de Valcárcel, Germán J.; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Type II optical parametric oscillators are amongst the highest-quality sources of quantum-correlated light. In particular, when pumped above threshold, such devices generate a pair of bright orthogonally-polarized beams with strong continuous-variable entanglement. However, these sources are of limited practical use, because the entangled beams emerge with different frequencies and a diffusing phase difference. It has been proven that the use of an internal wave-plate coupling the modes with orthogonal polarization is capable of locking the frequencies of the emerging beams to half the pump frequency, as well as reducing the phase-difference diffusion, at the expense of reducing the entanglement levels. In this work we characterize theoretically an alternative locking mechanism: the injection of a laser at half the pump frequency. Apart from being less invasive, this method should allow for an easier real-time experimental control. We show that such an injection is capable of generating the desired phase locking between the emerging beams, while still allowing for large levels of entanglement. Moreover, we find an additional region of the parameter space (at relatively large injections) where a mode with well defined polarization is in a highly amplitude-squeezed state.

  14. Entanglement, nonlocality and multi-particle quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Margaret D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper contributes to the proceedings of the Latin-American School of Physics (ELAF-2017) on Quantum Correlations, and is a brief review of quantum entanglement and nonlocality. In such a brief review, only some topics can be covered. The emphasis is on those topics relevant that may be relevant to detecting multi-particle quantum correlations arising in atomic and Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) experiments. The paper is divided into five sections. In the first section, the historical papers of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR), Bell, Schrodinger and Greenberger-Zeilinger-Horne (GHZ) are described in a tutorial fashion. This is followed by an introduction to entanglement and density operators. A discussion of the classes of nonlocality is given in the third section, including the modern interpretation of the correlations of the EPR paradox experiments, known as EPR steering correlations. The fourth section covers the detection and generation of so-called continuous variable entanglement and EPR steering. Various known criteria are derived with the details of the proofs given for tutorial purposes. The final section focuses on the criteria and methods that have been useful to detect quantum correlation in BEC or atomic systems. Recent results relating spin squeezing with quantum correlations, including entanglement and EPR steering, are summarised.

  15. Continuity in Λ-variation of functions of several variables and convergence of multiple Fourier series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhvalov, A N

    2002-01-01

    The behaviour of rectangular partial sums of the Fourier series of functions of several variables having bounded Λ-variation is considered. It is proved that if a continuous function is also continuous in harmonic variation, then its Fourier series uniformly converges in the sense of Pringsheim. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that in dimensions greater than 2 there always exists a continuous function of bounded harmonic variation with Fourier series divergent over cubes at the origin

  16. Entanglement without nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt-Horsman, C.; Vedral, V.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the characterization of entanglement from the perspective of a Heisenberg formalism. We derive a two-party generalized separability criterion, and from this describe a physical understanding of entanglement. We find that entanglement may be considered as fundamentally a local effect, and therefore as a separate computational resource from nonlocality. We show how entanglement differs from correlation physically, and explore the implications of this concept of entanglement for the notion of classicality. We find that this understanding of entanglement extends naturally to multipartite cases

  17. Entangled spins and ghost-spins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep P. Jatkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study patterns of quantum entanglement in systems of spins and ghost-spins regarding them as simple quantum mechanical toy models for theories containing negative norm states. We define a single ghost-spin as in [20] as a 2-state spin variable with an indefinite inner product in the state space. We find that whenever the spin sector is disentangled from the ghost-spin sector (both of which could be entangled within themselves, the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over all the ghost-spins gives rise to positive entanglement entropy for positive norm states, while negative norm states have an entanglement entropy with a negative real part and a constant imaginary part. However when the spins are entangled with the ghost-spins, there are new entanglement patterns in general. For systems where the number of ghost-spins is even, it is possible to find subsectors of the Hilbert space where positive norm states always lead to positive entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins. With an odd number of ghost-spins however, we find that there always exist positive norm states with negative real part for entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins.

  18. Measurement-Device Independency Analysis of Continuous-Variable Quantum Digital Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Shang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the practical implementation of continuous-variable quantum cryptographic protocols, security problems resulting from measurement-device loopholes are being given increasing attention. At present, research on measurement-device independency analysis is limited in quantum key distribution protocols, while there exist different security problems for different protocols. Considering the importance of quantum digital signature in quantum cryptography, in this paper, we attempt to analyze the measurement-device independency of continuous-variable quantum digital signature, especially continuous-variable quantum homomorphic signature. Firstly, we calculate the upper bound of the error rate of a protocol. If it is negligible on condition that all measurement devices are untrusted, the protocol is deemed to be measurement-device-independent. Then, we simplify the calculation by using the characteristics of continuous variables and prove the measurement-device independency of the protocol according to the calculation result. In addition, the proposed analysis method can be extended to other quantum cryptographic protocols besides continuous-variable quantum homomorphic signature.

  19. Design and FPGA Implementation of Variable Cutoff Frequency Filter based on Continuously Variable Fractional Delay Structure and Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedh Dhabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and FPGA implementation of interpolated continuously variable fractional delay structure based filter (ICVFD filter with fine control over the cutoff frequency. In the ICVFD filter, each unit delay of the prototype lowpass filter is replaced by a continuously variable fractional delay (CVFD element proposed in this paper. The CVFD element requires the same number of multiplications as that of the second-order fractional delay structure used in the existing fractional delay structure based variable filter (FDS based filter, however it provides fractional delays corresponding to the higher-order fractional delay structures. Hence, the proposed ICVFD filter provides wider cutoff frequency range compared to the FDS based filter. The ICVFD filter is also capable of providing variable bandpass and highpass responses. We use two-stage approach for the FPGA implementation of the ICVFD filter. First, we use pipelining stages to shorten the critical path and improve the operating frequency. Then, we make use of specific hardware resource, i.e. RAM-based Shift Register (SRL to further improve the operating frequency and resource usage.

  20. Entanglement evolution for quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsberger, S; Spehner, D

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement is a key resource in quantum information. It can be destroyed or sometimes created by interactions with a reservoir. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to the phenomena of entanglement sudden death and sudden birth, i.e., the sudden disappearance or revival of entanglement at finite times resulting from a coupling of the quantum system to its environment. We investigate the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. Because of these measurements, the qubits remain at all times in a pure state, which evolves randomly. To each measurement result (or 'realization') corresponds a quantum trajectory in the Hilbert space of the qubits. We show that for two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, the average of the qubits' concurrence over all quantum trajectories is either constant or decays exponentially. The corresponding decay rate depends on the measurement scheme only. This result contrasts with the entanglement sudden death phenomenon exhibited by the qubits' density matrix in the absence of measurements. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump dynamics (photon counting) as well as to quantum state diffusion (homodyne or heterodyne detections) in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect the entanglement of the qubits. We also analyze the case of two qubits coupled to a common bath. Then, the average concurrence can vanish at discrete times and may coincide with the concurrence of the density matrix. The results explained in this article have been presented during the 'Fifth International Workshop DICE2010' by the first author and have been the subject of a prior publication.

  1. Polychotomization of continuous variables in regression models based on the overall C index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bax Leon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When developing multivariable regression models for diagnosis or prognosis, continuous independent variables can be categorized to make a prediction table instead of a prediction formula. Although many methods have been proposed to dichotomize prognostic variables, to date there has been no integrated method for polychotomization. The latter is necessary when dichotomization results in too much loss of information or when central values refer to normal states and more dispersed values refer to less preferable states, a situation that is not unusual in medical settings (e.g. body temperature, blood pressure. The goal of our study was to develop a theoretical and practical method for polychotomization. Methods We used the overall discrimination index C, introduced by Harrel, as a measure of the predictive ability of an independent regressor variable and derived a method for polychotomization mathematically. Since the naïve application of our method, like some existing methods, gives rise to positive bias, we developed a parametric method that minimizes this bias and assessed its performance by the use of Monte Carlo simulation. Results The overall C is closely related to the area under the ROC curve and the produced di(polychotomized variable's predictive performance is comparable to the original continuous variable. The simulation shows that the parametric method is essentially unbiased for both the estimates of performance and the cutoff points. Application of our method to the predictor variables of a previous study on rhabdomyolysis shows that it can be used to make probability profile tables that are applicable to the diagnosis or prognosis of individual patient status. Conclusion We propose a polychotomization (including dichotomization method for independent continuous variables in regression models based on the overall discrimination index C and clarified its meaning mathematically. To avoid positive bias in

  2. Stable Graphical Model Estimation with Random Forests for Discrete, Continuous, and Mixed Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Fellinghauer, Bernd; Bühlmann, Peter; Ryffel, Martin; von Rhein, Michael; Reinhardt, Jan D.

    2011-01-01

    A conditional independence graph is a concise representation of pairwise conditional independence among many variables. Graphical Random Forests (GRaFo) are a novel method for estimating pairwise conditional independence relationships among mixed-type, i.e. continuous and discrete, variables. The number of edges is a tuning parameter in any graphical model estimator and there is no obvious number that constitutes a good choice. Stability Selection helps choosing this parameter with respect to...

  3. Elimination of mode coupling in multimode continuous-variable key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, Radim; Mista, Ladislav; Marek, Petr

    2005-01-01

    A multimode channel can be utilized to substantially increase the capacity of quantum continuous-variable key distribution. Beyond losses in the channel, an uncontrollable coupling between the modes of the channel typically degrades the capacity of multimode channels. For the key distribution protocol with simultaneous measurement of both complementary quadratures we propose a feasible method to eliminate any undesirable mode coupling by only the receiver's appropriate measurement and data manipulation. It can be used to substantially increase the capacity of the channel, which has an important application in practical continuous-variable quantum cryptography

  4. Universal continuous-variable quantum computation: Requirement of optical nonlinearity for photon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Stephen D.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2002-01-01

    Although universal continuous-variable quantum computation cannot be achieved via linear optics (including squeezing), homodyne detection, and feed-forward, inclusion of ideal photon-counting measurements overcomes this obstacle. These measurements are sometimes described by arrays of beam splitters to distribute the photons across several modes. We show that such a scheme cannot be used to implement ideal photon counting and that such measurements necessarily involve nonlinear evolution. However, this requirement of nonlinearity can be moved ''off-line,'' thereby permitting universal continuous-variable quantum computation with linear optics

  5. Entanglement criterion for tripartite systems based on local sum uncertainty relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Kourbolagh, Y.; Azhdargalam, M.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a sufficient criterion for the entanglement of tripartite systems based on local sum uncertainty relations for arbitrarily chosen observables of subsystems. This criterion generalizes the tighter criterion for bipartite systems introduced by Zhang et al. [C.-J. Zhang, H. Nha, Y.-S. Zhang, and G.-C. Guo, Phys. Rev. A 81, 012324 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.012324] and can be used for both discrete- and continuous-variable systems. It enables us to detect the entanglement of quantum states without having a complete knowledge of them. Its utility is illustrated by some examples of three-qubit, qutrit-qutrit-qubit, and three-mode Gaussian states. It is found that, in comparison with other criteria, this criterion is able to detect some three-qubit bound entangled states more efficiently.

  6. Two Schemes for Generation of Entanglement for Vibronic Collective States of Multiple Trapped Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenxing; Li Jiahua; Zheng Anshou

    2007-01-01

    We propose two schemes to prepare entanglement for the vibronic collective states of multiple trapped ions. The first scheme aims to generating multipartite entanglement for vibrational modes of trapped ions, which only requires a single laser beam tuned to the ionic carrier frequency. Our scheme works in the mediated excitation regime, in which the corresponding Rabi frequency is equal to the trap frequency. Beyond their fundamental importance, these states may be of interest for experimental studies on decoherence since the present scheme operates in a fast way. The second scheme aims to preparing the continuous variable multimode maximally Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. The distinct advantage is that the operation time is only limited by the available laser intensity, not by the inherent mechanisms such as off-resonant excitations. This makes it promising to obtain entanglement of multiple coherent and squeezing states with desired amplitudes in a reasonable time.

  7. Quadripartite cluster and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger entangled light via cascade interactions with separated atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xing; Hu Xiangming

    2012-01-01

    It has been known that two-mode entangled light can possibly be generated by employing near-resonant interaction with an ensemble of two-level atoms. The responsible mechanism is the absorption of two photons from the strong driving field and the emission of two new photons into the cavity field. Here, we generalize such a mechanism to three separated atomic ensembles and establish cascade interactions for four nondegenerate fields. It is shown that the quadripartite cluster and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger entangled states occur for continuous variables. The advantage of the present scheme for the multipartite entanglement lies in that the coupling strengths are much larger due to the near resonances than for far-off-resonance-based parametric processes. (paper)

  8. When non-Gaussian states are Gaussian: Generalization of nonseparability criterion for continuous variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Derek; Buzek, Vladimir; Ziman, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of non-Gaussian two-mode continuous-variable states for which the separability criterion for Gaussian states can be employed to detect whether they are separable or not. These states reduce to the two-mode Gaussian states as a special case

  9. Quantum error correction of continuous-variable states against Gaussian noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, T. C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    We describe a continuous-variable error correction protocol that can correct the Gaussian noise induced by linear loss on Gaussian states. The protocol can be implemented using linear optics and photon counting. We explore the theoretical bounds of the protocol as well as the expected performance given current knowledge and technology.

  10. Model-based servo hydraulic control of a continuously variable transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, S.J.M.; Veenhuizen, P.A.; Pauwelussen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    In order to reduce the power consumption of a transmission, maximum tracking accuracy should be achieved of both ratio and pressures in the variator. A control strategy is proposed to steer a variator, actuated with a newly developed hydraulic system, of a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT).

  11. GY SAMPLING THEORY AND GEOSTATISTICS: ALTERNATE MODELS OF VARIABILITY IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the sampling theory developed by Pierre Gy, sample variability is modeled as the sum of a set of seven discrete error components. The variogram used in geostatisties provides an alternate model in which several of Gy's error components are combined in a continuous mode...

  12. Multivariate normal maximum likelihood with both ordinal and continuous variables, and data missing at random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritikin, Joshua N; Brick, Timothy R; Neale, Michael C

    2018-04-01

    A novel method for the maximum likelihood estimation of structural equation models (SEM) with both ordinal and continuous indicators is introduced using a flexible multivariate probit model for the ordinal indicators. A full information approach ensures unbiased estimates for data missing at random. Exceeding the capability of prior methods, up to 13 ordinal variables can be included before integration time increases beyond 1 s per row. The method relies on the axiom of conditional probability to split apart the distribution of continuous and ordinal variables. Due to the symmetry of the axiom, two similar methods are available. A simulation study provides evidence that the two similar approaches offer equal accuracy. A further simulation is used to develop a heuristic to automatically select the most computationally efficient approach. Joint ordinal continuous SEM is implemented in OpenMx, free and open-source software.

  13. Validation of a new control system for Elekta accelerators facilitating continuously variable dose rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Anders; Lorenzen, Ebbe L; Brink, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    ) as well as BVDR. Using CVDR opposed to BVDR for VMAT has the potential of reducing the treatment time but may lead to lower dosimetric accuracy due to faster moving accelerator parts. Using D7 and a test version of Integrity, differences in ability to control the accelerator, treatment efficiency......Elekta accelerators controlled by the current clinically used accelerator control system, Desktop 7.01 (D7), uses binned variable dose rate (BVDR) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The next version of the treatment control system (Integrity) supports continuously variable dose rate (CVDR...

  14. Entangled biphoton source - property and preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Yanhua

    2003-01-01

    One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distance particles. Even though there are still questions regarding the fundamental issues of quantum theory, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in practical engineering applications such as quantum information processing, quantum metrology, quantum imaging and quantum lithography. Two-photon states have been the most popular entangled states in fundamental and applied research. Using spontaneous parametric down conversion as an example, this review introduces the concept of biphoton wavepacket and emphasizes the very different physics associated with the entangled two-photon system (pure state) and with the 'individual' subsystems (statistical mixture). Experimental approaches for Bell state preparation, pumped by continuous wave and ultrashort pulse are discussed

  15. Entangled biphoton source - property and preparation

    CERN Document Server

    Shih, Y

    2003-01-01

    One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distance particles. Even though there are still questions regarding the fundamental issues of quantum theory, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in practical engineering applications such as quantum information processing, quantum metrology, quantum imaging and quantum lithography. Two-photon states have been the most popular entangled states in fundamental and applied research. Using spontaneous parametric down conversion as an example, this review introduces the concept of biphoton wavepacket and emphasizes the very different physics associated with the entangled two-photon system (pure state) and with the 'individual' subsystems (statistical mixture). Experimental approaches for Bell state preparation, pumped by continuous wave and ultrashort pulse are discussed.

  16. Majorana entanglement bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, Stephan; Zazunov, Alex; Sodano, Pasquale; Egger, Reinhold

    2015-06-01

    We study the concurrence of entanglement between two quantum dots in contact to Majorana bound states on a floating superconducting island. The distance between the Majorana states, the charging energy of the island, and the average island charge are shown to be decisive parameters for the efficiency of entanglement generation. We find that long-range entanglement with basically distance-independent concurrence is possible over wide parameter regions, where the proposed setup realizes a "Majorana entanglement bridge." We also study the time-dependent concurrence obtained after one of the tunnel couplings is suddenly switched on, which reveals the time scales for generating entanglement. Accurate analytical expressions for the concurrence are derived both for the static and the time-dependent cases. Our results indicate that entanglement formation in interacting Majorana devices can be fully understood in terms of an interplay of elastic cotunneling (also referred to as "teleportation") and crossed Andreev reflection processes.

  17. Faithful test of nonlocal realism with entangled coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok; Paternostro, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the violation of Leggett's inequality for nonlocal realism using entangled coherent states and various types of local measurements. We prove mathematically the relation between the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell's inequality and Leggett's one when tested by the same resources. For Leggett inequalities, we generalize the nonlocal realistic bound to systems in Hilbert spaces larger than bidimensional ones and introduce an optimization technique that allows one to achieve larger degrees of violation by adjusting the local measurement settings. Our work describes the steps that should be performed to produce a self-consistent generalization of Leggett's original arguments to continuous-variable states.

  18. One-step generation of continuous-variable quadripartite cluster states in a circuit QED system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-peng; Li, Zhen; Ma, Sheng-li; Li, Fu-li

    2017-07-01

    We propose a dissipative scheme for one-step generation of continuous-variable quadripartite cluster states in a circuit QED setup consisting of four superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators and a gap-tunable superconducting flux qubit. With external driving fields to adjust the desired qubit-resonator and resonator-resonator interactions, we show that continuous-variable quadripartite cluster states of the four resonators can be generated with the assistance of energy relaxation of the qubit. By comparison with the previous proposals, the distinct advantage of our scheme is that only one step of quantum operation is needed to realize the quantum state engineering. This makes our scheme simpler and more feasible in experiment. Our result may have useful application for implementing quantum computation in solid-state circuit QED systems.

  19. Genuine multipartite entanglement of symmetric Gaussian states: Strong monogamy, unitary localization, scaling behavior, and molecular sharing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the structural aspects of genuine multipartite entanglement in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. Generalizing the results of Adesso and Illuminati [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150501 (2007)], we analyze whether the entanglement shared by blocks of modes distributes according to a strong monogamy law. This property, once established, allows us to quantify the genuine N -partite entanglement not encoded into 2,…,K,…,(N-1) -partite quantum correlations. Strong monogamy is numerically verified, and the explicit expression of the measure of residual genuine multipartite entanglement is analytically derived, by a recursive formula, for a subclass of Gaussian states. These are fully symmetric (permutation-invariant) states that are multipartitioned into blocks, each consisting of an arbitrarily assigned number of modes. We compute the genuine multipartite entanglement shared by the blocks of modes and investigate its scaling properties with the number and size of the blocks, the total number of modes, the global mixedness of the state, and the squeezed resources needed for state engineering. To achieve the exact computation of the block entanglement, we introduce and prove a general result of symplectic analysis: Correlations among K blocks in N -mode multisymmetric and multipartite Gaussian states, which are locally invariant under permutation of modes within each block, can be transformed by a local (with respect to the partition) unitary operation into correlations shared by K single modes, one per block, in effective nonsymmetric states where N-K modes are completely uncorrelated. Due to this theorem, the above results, such as the derivation of the explicit expression for the residual multipartite entanglement, its nonnegativity, and its scaling properties, extend to the subclass of non-symmetric Gaussian states that are obtained by the unitary localization of the multipartite entanglement of symmetric states. These findings provide strong

  20. Experimental demonstration of continuous variable cloning with phase-conjugate inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of continuous variable cloning of phase-conjugate coherent states as proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)]. In contrast to this proposal, the cloning transformation is accomplished using only linear optical components......, homodyne detection, and feedforward. As a result of combining phase conjugation with a joint measurement strategy, superior cloning is demonstrated with cloning fidelities reaching 89%....

  1. Security of continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent states: Decline of postselection advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the security of continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) using coherent states in the presence of quadrature excess noise. We consider an eavesdropping attack that uses a linear amplifier and a beam splitter. This attack makes a link between the beam-splitting attack and the intercept-resend attack (classical teleportation attack). We also show how postselection loses its efficiency in a realistic channel

  2. The continuous-variable Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm using realistic quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Rob C; Kendon, Viv M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a study of the continuous-variable Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm. First, we review an existing version of the algorithm for qunat states (Pati and Braunstein 2002 arXiv:0207108v1), and then, we present a realistic version of the Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm for continuous variables, which can be implemented in a physical quantum system given the appropriate oracle. Under these conditions, we have a probabilistic algorithm for deciding the function with a very high success rate with a single call to the oracle. Finally, we look at the effects of errors in both of these continuous-variable algorithms and how they affect the chances of success. We find that the algorithm is generally robust for errors in initialization and the oracle, but less so for errors in the measurement apparatus and the Fourier transform. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)

  3. Geometric multipartite entanglement measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive

  4. Remarks on entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Daegene

    2004-01-01

    In two partially entangled states, entanglement swapping by Bell measurement will yield the weaker entanglement of the two. This scheme is optimal because the average entanglement cannot increase under local operation and classical communication. However, for more than two states, this scheme does not always yield the weakest link. We consider projective measurements other than Bell-type measurement and show, numerically, that while Bell measurement may not be unique, it is indeed optimal among these projective measurements. We also discuss the non-uniqueness of Bell measurements. (letter to the editor)

  5. Design of Electro-Mechanical Dual-Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Tawi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulley-based continuously variable transmission (CVT with a metal pushing V-belt is fast becoming the preferred choice for global carmakers due to its potential particularly in terms of fuel efficiency thanks to its continuous and wide ratio range. Nevertheless, the existing CVTs still face the issues of high power consumption from the engine because of the application of an electro-hydro-mechanical (EHM actuation system for its ratio changing process and clamping force mechanism. To address this issue, researchers from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia have successfully developed the prototype of an electro-mechanical dual-acting pulley continuously variable transmission (EMDAP CVT for automotive applications. The prototype of EMDAP CVT is developed for a maximum input torque of 160 Nm with the application of a metal pushing V-belt. The results from the testing prove that the prototype can vary its ratio from 2.8 to 0.6 and no continuous power is required to maintain a constant CVT ratio. These results suggest that the prototype is workable and future testing in a real car is possible.

  6. Variable Camber Continuous Aerodynamic Control Surfaces and Methods for Active Wing Shaping Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamic control apparatus for an air vehicle improves various aerodynamic performance metrics by employing multiple spanwise flap segments that jointly form a continuous or a piecewise continuous trailing edge to minimize drag induced by lift or vortices. At least one of the multiple spanwise flap segments includes a variable camber flap subsystem having multiple chordwise flap segments that may be independently actuated. Some embodiments also employ a continuous leading edge slat system that includes multiple spanwise slat segments, each of which has one or more chordwise slat segment. A method and an apparatus for implementing active control of a wing shape are also described and include the determination of desired lift distribution to determine the improved aerodynamic deflection of the wings. Flap deflections are determined and control signals are generated to actively control the wing shape to approximate the desired deflection.

  7. Entanglement in the harmonic chain and quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofler, J.; Vedral, V.; Brukner, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Relativistic field theory is a natural basis for the theoretical investigation of quantum entanglement, since the concept of locality and causality is inherently included. Vacuum entanglement of relativistic fields manifests itself in Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect. But it also is encountered in the linear harmonic chain, which - in the continuum limit and if generalized to three spatial dimensions - becomes the real scalar Klein-Gordon field. One can define average position and momentum operators for two separated blocks of oscillators in the harmonic chain and investigate the entanglement - by means of a separability criterion - between these blocks as a function of their distance and the coupling between the oscillators. This motivated us to rewrite the general separability conditions for continuous variables into the language of quantum field theory, where the position and momentum operator become integrals of the Klein-Gordon field and the conjugate momentum field, respectively. The role of the modes (or particles) is then merely played by the space(-time) regions over which the integration takes (author)

  8. Measurement-Device-Independent Approach to Entanglement Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Farid; Hall, Michael J. W.; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2017-04-01

    Within the context of semiquantum nonlocal games, the trust can be removed from the measurement devices in an entanglement-detection procedure. Here, we show that a similar approach can be taken to quantify the amount of entanglement. To be specific, first, we show that in this context, a small subset of semiquantum nonlocal games is necessary and sufficient for entanglement detection in the local operations and classical communication paradigm. Second, we prove that the maximum payoff for these games is a universal measure of entanglement which is convex and continuous. Third, we show that for the quantification of negative-partial-transpose entanglement, this subset can be further reduced down to a single arbitrary element. Importantly, our measure is measurement device independent by construction and operationally accessible. Finally, our approach straightforwardly extends to quantify the entanglement within any partitioning of multipartite quantum states.

  9. Continuous performance task in ADHD: Is reaction time variability a key measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Florence; Pipingas, Andrew; Harris, Elizabeth V; Farrow, Maree; Silberstein, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    To compare the use of the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) reaction time variability (intraindividual variability or standard deviation of reaction time), as a measure of vigilance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and stimulant medication response, utilizing a simple CPT X-task vs an A-X-task. Comparative analyses of two separate X-task vs A-X-task data sets, and subgroup analyses of performance on and off medication were conducted. The CPT X-task reaction time variability had a direct relationship to ADHD clinician severity ratings, unlike the CPT A-X-task. Variability in X-task performance was reduced by medication compared with the children's unmedicated performance, but this effect did not reach significance. When the coefficient of variation was applied, severity measures and medication response were significant for the X-task, but not for the A-X-task. The CPT-X-task is a useful clinical screening test for ADHD and medication response. In particular, reaction time variability is related to default mode interference. The A-X-task is less useful in this regard.

  10. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  11. Multi-photon entanglements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, M.L.

    2000-09-01

    The motivation of this thesis was to create higher-order entanglements. The first experimental observation of a four-photon entanglement was presented in the experiment of this thesis. And the visibility of this entanglement was 0.79+-0.06, which is sufficient to make claims of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics. This therefore lays a foundation for experiments showing the nonlocality of teleportation, and the purification of entanglement. The work of this thesis brings together a lot of earlier work done by the Zeilinger Group, and lays a foundation for future experiments. Earlier experiments such as teleportation together with entanglement swapping, which are 'complete teleportation' in as much as the state teleported is entirely undefined, can be combined and re-done with this four-photon entanglement. This result would be the first demonstration of complete, nonlocal teleportation. Also this experiment can be slightly modified and used to perform the first experimental quantum purification of entanglement, which is of vital importance to the fields of quantum information, and also is interesting for fundamental experiments on entanglement. Another direct application of this experiment is to perform the first 'event-ready' testing of Bell's Inequality. Here the four-photon entanglement can be used as a source of entangled photons, whereby the photons have no common source. This would enable an even more stringent testing of Bells theorem. Finally this experiment can be used for the demonstration and investigation of many practical, directly applicable quantum information schemes. For instance quantum cryptography, error correction, and computing. (author)

  12. Integration of quantum key distribution and private classical communication through continuous variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyi; Gong, Feng; Lu, Anjiang; Zhang, Damin; Zhang, Zhengping

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme that integrates quantum key distribution and private classical communication via continuous variables. The integrated scheme employs both quadratures of a weak coherent state, with encrypted bits encoded on the signs and Gaussian random numbers encoded on the values of the quadratures. The integration enables quantum and classical data to share the same physical and logical channel. Simulation results based on practical system parameters demonstrate that both classical communication and quantum communication can be implemented over distance of tens of kilometers, thus providing a potential solution for simultaneous transmission of quantum communication and classical communication.

  13. Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.

  14. Quantum cryptography with a predetermined key, using continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. D.

    2000-12-01

    Correlations of the type discussed by EPR in their original 1935 paradox for continuous variables exist for the quadrature phase amplitudes of two spatially separated fields. These correlations were first experimentally reported in 1992. We propose to use such EPR beams in quantum cryptography, to transmit with high efficiency messages in such a way that the receiver and sender may later determine whether eavesdropping has occurred. The merit of the new proposal is in the possibility of transmitting a reasonably secure yet predetermined key. This would allow relay of a cryptographic key over long distances in the presence of lossy channels.

  15. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  16. Comparative study on performances of a continuously variable transmission used in two different powertrain architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibiceanu, A. R.; Ivan, F.; Nicolae, V.; Iorga, A.; Cioroianu, C.

    2017-08-01

    Given the importance of reducing carbon emissions from road transport, price and security of oil supply, hybrid electric vehicle can provide a viable alternative solution to conventional vehicles, equipped with thermal engines, which use fossil fuels. Based on the growing trends of new vehicles sales, which include hybrid and electric vehicles closely associated with their use in terms of harmful emissions, strict regulations are established. In this paper were created models of thermal and hybrid electric powertrains groups, using computer simulation program AVL Cruise, making a comparative study using petroleum fuels for continuously variable transmission. The results obtained highlights both fuel consumption as well as pollutant emissions.

  17. Fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computing with continuous-variable cluster states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Nicolas C

    2014-03-28

    A long-standing open question about Gaussian continuous-variable cluster states is whether they enable fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation. The answer is yes. Initial squeezing in the cluster above a threshold value of 20.5 dB ensures that errors from finite squeezing acting on encoded qubits are below the fault-tolerance threshold of known qubit-based error-correcting codes. By concatenating with one of these codes and using ancilla-based error correction, fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation of theoretically indefinite length is possible with finitely squeezed cluster states.

  18. Continuous-variable quantum computing in optical time-frequency modes using quantum memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Peter C; Kolthammer, W Steven; Nunn, Joshua; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2014-09-26

    We develop a scheme for time-frequency encoded continuous-variable cluster-state quantum computing using quantum memories. In particular, we propose a method to produce, manipulate, and measure two-dimensional cluster states in a single spatial mode by exploiting the intrinsic time-frequency selectivity of Raman quantum memories. Time-frequency encoding enables the scheme to be extremely compact, requiring a number of memories that are a linear function of only the number of different frequencies in which the computational state is encoded, independent of its temporal duration. We therefore show that quantum memories can be a powerful component for scalable photonic quantum information processing architectures.

  19. Continuous variable transmission and regenerative braking devices in bicycles utilizing magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2013-04-01

    The use of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in vehicles has been gaining popular recently due to its controllable nature, which gives automotive designers more dimensions of freedom in functional designs. However, not much attention has been paid to apply it to bicycles. This paper is aimed to study the feasibility of applying MR fluids in different dynamic parts of a bicycle such as the transmission and braking systems. MR continuous variable transmission (CVT) and power generator assisted in braking systems were designed and analyzed. Both prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate their performances. Experimental results showed that the proposed designs are promising to be used in bicycles.

  20. Continuous multi-parameter heart rate variability analysis heralds onset of sepsis in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ahmad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of sepsis enables timely resuscitation and antibiotics and prevents subsequent morbidity and mortality. Clinical approaches relying on point-in-time analysis of vital signs or lab values are often insensitive, non-specific and late diagnostic markers of sepsis. Exploring otherwise hidden information within intervals-in-time, heart rate variability (HRV has been documented to be both altered in the presence of sepsis, and correlated with its severity. We hypothesized that by continuously tracking individual patient HRV over time in patients as they develop sepsis, we would demonstrate reduced HRV in association with the onset of sepsis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We monitored heart rate continuously in adult bone marrow transplant (BMT patients (n = 21 beginning a day before their BMT and continuing until recovery or withdrawal (12+/-4 days. We characterized HRV continuously over time with a panel of time, frequency, complexity, and scale-invariant domain techniques. We defined baseline HRV as mean variability for the first 24 h of monitoring and studied individual and population average percentage change (from baseline over time in diverse HRV metrics, in comparison with the time of clinical diagnosis and treatment of sepsis (defined as systemic inflammatory response syndrome along with clinically suspected infection requiring treatment. Of the 21 patients enrolled, 4 patients withdrew, leaving 17 patients who completed the study. Fourteen patients developed sepsis requiring antibiotic therapy, whereas 3 did not. On average, for 12 out of 14 infected patients, a significant (25% reduction prior to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of sepsis was observed in standard deviation, root mean square successive difference, sample and multiscale entropy, fast Fourier transform, detrended fluctuation analysis, and wavelet variability metrics. For infected patients (n = 14, wavelet HRV demonstrated a 25% drop from

  1. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity and Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es, E-mail: jonathan.shock@uct.ac.za, E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  2. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse

  3. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  4. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with virtual photon subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijia; Zhang, Yichen; Xu, Bingjie; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2018-04-01

    The method of improving the performance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols by postselection has been recently proposed and verified. In continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocols, the measurement results are obtained from untrusted third party Charlie. There is still not an effective method of improving CV-MDI QKD by the postselection with untrusted measurement. We propose a method to improve the performance of coherent-state CV-MDI QKD protocol by virtual photon subtraction via non-Gaussian postselection. The non-Gaussian postselection of transmitted data is equivalent to an ideal photon subtraction on the two-mode squeezed vacuum state, which is favorable to enhance the performance of CV-MDI QKD. In CV-MDI QKD protocol with non-Gaussian postselection, two users select their own data independently. We demonstrate that the optimal performance of the renovated CV-MDI QKD protocol is obtained with the transmitted data only selected by Alice. By setting appropriate parameters of the virtual photon subtraction, the secret key rate and tolerable excess noise are both improved at long transmission distance. The method provides an effective optimization scheme for the application of CV-MDI QKD protocols.

  5. Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution via a Gaussian de Finetti Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Establishing the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks in a realistic finite-size regime is an outstanding open problem in the field of theoretical quantum cryptography if we restrict our attention to protocols that rely on the exchange of coherent states. Indeed, techniques based on the uncertainty principle are not known to work for such protocols, and the usual tools based on de Finetti reductions only provide security for unrealistically large block lengths. We address this problem here by considering a new type of Gaussian de Finetti reduction, that exploits the invariance of some continuous-variable protocols under the action of the unitary group U (n ) (instead of the symmetric group Sn as in usual de Finetti theorems), and by introducing generalized S U (2 ,2 ) coherent states. Crucially, combined with an energy test, this allows us to truncate the Hilbert space globally instead as at the single-mode level as in previous approaches that failed to provide security in realistic conditions. Our reduction shows that it is sufficient to prove the security of these protocols against Gaussian collective attacks in order to obtain security against general attacks, thereby confirming rigorously the widely held belief that Gaussian attacks are indeed optimal against such protocols.

  6. A bivariate measurement error model for semicontinuous and continuous variables: Application to nutritional epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Victor; Freedman, Laurence S; Carroll, Raymond J; Midthune, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Semicontinuous data in the form of a mixture of a large portion of zero values and continuously distributed positive values frequently arise in many areas of biostatistics. This article is motivated by the analysis of relationships between disease outcomes and intakes of episodically consumed dietary components. An important aspect of studies in nutritional epidemiology is that true diet is unobservable and commonly evaluated by food frequency questionnaires with substantial measurement error. Following the regression calibration approach for measurement error correction, unknown individual intakes in the risk model are replaced by their conditional expectations given mismeasured intakes and other model covariates. Those regression calibration predictors are estimated using short-term unbiased reference measurements in a calibration substudy. Since dietary intakes are often "energy-adjusted," e.g., by using ratios of the intake of interest to total energy intake, the correct estimation of the regression calibration predictor for each energy-adjusted episodically consumed dietary component requires modeling short-term reference measurements of the component (a semicontinuous variable), and energy (a continuous variable) simultaneously in a bivariate model. In this article, we develop such a bivariate model, together with its application to regression calibration. We illustrate the new methodology using data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (Schatzkin et al., 2001, American Journal of Epidemiology 154, 1119-1125), and also evaluate its performance in a simulation study. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Continuously variable rating: a new, simple and logical procedure to evaluate original scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha e Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Impact Factors (IF are widely used surrogates to evaluate single articles, in spite of known shortcomings imposed by cite distribution skewness. We quantify this asymmetry and propose a simple computer-based procedure for evaluating individual articles. METHOD: (a Analysis of symmetry. Journals clustered around nine Impact Factor points were selected from the medical ‘‘Subject Categories’’ in Journal Citation Reports 2010. Citable items published in 2008 were retrieved and ranked by granted citations over the Jan/2008 - Jun/2011 period. Frequency distribution of cites, normalized cumulative cites and absolute cites/decile were determined for each journal cluster. (b Positive Predictive Value. Three arbitrarily established evaluation classes were generated: LOW (1.33.9. Positive Predictive Value for journal clusters within each class range was estimated. (c Continuously Variable Rating. An alternative evaluation procedure is proposed to allow the rating of individually published articles in comparison to all articles published in the same journal within the same year of publication. The general guiding lines for the construction of a totally dedicated software program are delineated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Skewness followed the Pareto Distribution for (1Continuously Variable Rating is shown to be a simple computer based procedure capable of accurately providing a valid rating for each article within the journal and time frame in which it was published.

  8. Revisiting relationships between sex-related variables and continuation in counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Gregory T; Park, Heather L

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between three sex-related variables (client sex, therapist sex, and dyad matching on sex) and continuation in counseling. 245 college students who were clients at three university counseling centers participated. Consistent with previous studies, women comprised 68.2% of the clients seeking services at these counseling centers. Clients' sex was significantly related to counseling duration, explaining 2.2% of the common variance. Female clients, on the average, attended 1.8 more sessions than male clients. However, neither the therapists' sex nor dyad matching on sex was significantly related to the duration of counseling. None of the sex-related variables correlated with premature termination of counseling. The results have implications for providing counseling and outreach services to male students. Despite relatively equivalent rates in the incidence of mental health problems, female students continue to comprise the majority of clients. Therefore, university counseling centers need to communicate their services better to male students in need of mental health services.

  9. Invisible transmission in quantum cryptography using continuous variables: A proof of Eve's vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navez, Patrick; Gatti, Alessandra; Lugiato, Luigi A.

    2002-01-01

    By analogy to classical cryptography, we develop a quantum cryptographic scheme in which the two public and private keys consist in each of two entangled beams of squeezed light. An analog secret information is encrypted by modulating the phase of the beam sent in public. The knowledge of the degree of nonclassical correlation between the beam quadratures measured in private and in public allows only the receiver to decrypt the secret information. Finally, in a view towards absolute security, we formally prove that any external intervention of an eavesdropper makes him vulnerable to any subsequent detection

  10. Mean of continuous variables observable via measurement on a single qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodecki, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the mean value of any observable with a bounded spectrum can be uniquely determined from binary statistics of the measurement performed on a single-qubit ancilla coupled to a given system. The corresponding positive operator-valued measure fully encodes the observable structure. The method is generalized to the case of distant-laboratory paradigm and is considered in the context of entanglement detection with few local measurements. The results are also discussed in the context of quantum programming

  11. Mutual preservation of entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitia, Andrzej; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Wong, Chee Wei

    2012-01-01

    We study a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings (JC) model where two entangled pairs of two-level atoms interact indirectly. We show that there exist initial states of the qubit system so that two entangled pairs are available at all times. In particular, the minimum entanglement in the pairs as a function of the initial state is studied. Finally, we extend our findings to a model consisting of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. We use a non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to obtain the steady-state density matrix for the qubits. We show that the multi-mode model also displays dynamical preservation of entanglement. -- Highlights: ► Entanglement dynamics is studied in a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings model. ► We show that for certain initial states, the atoms remain entangled at all times. ► We extend the results to the case of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. ► The model suggest that indirect interaction may help to preserve entanglement.

  12. Proof-of-principle test of coherent-state continuous variable quantum key distribution through turbulent atmosphere (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a

  13. Multiple-copy entanglement transformation and entanglement catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Runyao; Feng Yuan; Li Xin; Ying Mingsheng

    2005-01-01

    We prove that any multiple-copy entanglement transformation [S. Bandyopadhyay, V. Roychowdhury, and U. Sen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052315 (2002)] can be implemented by a suitable entanglement-assisted local transformation [D. Jonathan and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566 (1999)]. Furthermore, we show that the combination of multiple-copy entanglement transformation and the entanglement-assisted one is still equivalent to the pure entanglement-assisted one. The mathematical structure of multiple-copy entanglement transformations then is carefully investigated. Many interesting properties of multiple-copy entanglement transformations are presented, which exactly coincide with those satisfied by the entanglement-assisted ones. Most interestingly, we show that an arbitrarily large number of copies of state should be considered in multiple-copy entanglement transformations

  14. A meta-analysis of variability in continuous-culture ruminal fermentation and digestibility data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Hristova, R; Huhtanen, P; Firkins, J L

    2012-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to compare ruminal fermentation and digestibility data and variability between continuous-culture (CC) experiments and in vivo data. One hundred eighty CC studies representing 1,074 individual treatments, published in refereed journals between 1980 and 2010 were used in this analysis. Studies were classified into 2 groups based on the type of CC used: CC systems specified as rumen simulation techniques (RUSITEC) and non-RUSITEC CC systems (non-RUSITEC). The latter was a diverse group of systems, all of which were termed CC by the investigators. The CC data were compared with a data set of in vivo trials with ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows (data from a total of 366 individual cows). The reported neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration of the diets fed in the 3 data sets was, on average (dry matter basis), 44, 34, and 32%, respectively. The average total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration for the RUSITEC and non-RUSITEC data sets was 67 and 80% (respectively) of the total VFA concentration in vivo. The average concentration of acetate was also lower for the CC data sets compared with in vivo and that of propionate was considerably lower for RUSITEC compared with in vivo, but butyrate concentrations were similar between the CC and in vivo data sets. Variability in the VFA data was generally the highest (higher coefficients of variation and variance) for the non-RUSITEC data set, followed by RUSITEC, and was the lowest for in vivo. Digestibilities of NDF and particularly organic matter were lower in the CC data sets compared with in vivo; the average NDF digestibility was 34.2, 45.5, and 53.0% for RUSITEC, non-RUSITEC, and in vivo, respectively. Variability in nutrient digestibility data followed the pattern of variability of the VFA data: highest variability for the non-RUSITEC data set, followed by RUSITEC, and the lowest for in vivo. This analysis showed that CC systems are generally characterized by lower total VFA

  15. Cord entanglement in monoamniotic twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyndrup, J; Schouenborg, Lars Øland

    1987-01-01

    Monoamniotic twin pregnancy involves a heavy risk of fatal umbilical cord entanglement. Two cases are reported. In the first case, both twins were found dead in the 36th week, and the monoamnionicity was recognized at birth. In the second case, the monoamnionicity was discovered during an ultraso...... an ultrasound examination, and cord entanglement was suspected in the 35th week on the basis of a non-stress test (NST) with variable decelerations. Cesarean section was performed and two healthy children were delivered....

  16. Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    We review the developments in the past decade on holographic entanglement entropy, a subject that has garnered much attention owing to its potential to teach us about the emergence of spacetime in holography. We provide an introduction to the concept of entanglement entropy in quantum field theories, review the holographic proposals for computing the same, providing some justification for where these proposals arise from in the first two parts. The final part addresses recent developments linking entanglement and geometry. We provide an overview of the various arguments and technical developments that teach us how to use field theory entanglement to detect geometry. Our discussion is by design eclectic; we have chosen to focus on developments that appear to us most promising for further insights into the holographic map. This is a preliminary draft of a few chapters of a book which will appear sometime in the near future, to be published by Springer. The book in addition contains a discussion of application o...

  17. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  18. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Blasone, M.

    2009-01-01

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  19. Witnessing entanglement by proxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Bruß, Dagmar; Kampermann, Hermann; Huber, Marcus; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement is a ubiquitous feature of low temperature systems and believed to be highly relevant for the dynamics of condensed matter properties and quantum computation even at higher temperatures. The experimental certification of this paradigmatic quantum effect in macroscopic high temperature systems is constrained by the limited access to the quantum state of the system. In this paper we show how macroscopic observables beyond the mean energy of the system can be exploited as proxy witnesses for entanglement detection. Using linear and semi-definite relaxations we show that all previous approaches to this problem can be outperformed by our proxies, i.e. entanglement can be certified at higher temperatures without access to any local observable. For an efficient computation of proxy witnesses one can resort to a generalised grand canonical ensemble, enabling entanglement certification even in complex systems with macroscopic particle numbers. (paper)

  20. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can......Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  1. Deterministic Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Dense Coding and Continuous Variable Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lianfang; Chen Yueming; Yuan Hao

    2009-01-01

    We propose a deterministic quantum secure direct communication protocol by using dense coding. The two check photon sequences are used to check the securities of the channels between the message sender and the receiver. The continuous variable operations instead of the usual discrete unitary operations are performed on the travel photons so that the security of the present protocol can be enhanced. Therefore some specific attacks such as denial-of-service attack, intercept-measure-resend attack and invisible photon attack can be prevented in ideal quantum channel. In addition, the scheme is still secure in noise channel. Furthermore, this protocol has the advantage of high capacity and can be realized in the experiment. (general)

  2. Continuous-variable geometric phase and its manipulation for quantum computation in a superconducting circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Zheng, Shi-Biao; Zhang, Pengfei; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Libo; Guo, Qiujiang; Liu, Wuxin; Xu, Da; Deng, Hui; Huang, Keqiang; Zheng, Dongning; Zhu, Xiaobo; Wang, H

    2017-10-20

    Geometric phase, associated with holonomy transformation in quantum state space, is an important quantum-mechanical effect. Besides fundamental interest, this effect has practical applications, among which geometric quantum computation is a paradigm, where quantum logic operations are realized through geometric phase manipulation that has some intrinsic noise-resilient advantages and may enable simplified implementation of multi-qubit gates compared to the dynamical approach. Here we report observation of a continuous-variable geometric phase and demonstrate a quantum gate protocol based on this phase in a superconducting circuit, where five qubits are controllably coupled to a resonator. Our geometric approach allows for one-step implementation of n-qubit controlled-phase gates, which represents a remarkable advantage compared to gate decomposition methods, where the number of required steps dramatically increases with n. Following this approach, we realize these gates with n up to 4, verifying the high efficiency of this geometric manipulation for quantum computation.

  3. Violation of Continuous-Variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering with Discrete Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous-variable systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details of the measurement apparatus. We use this inequality to witness EPR steering between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We examine the asymmetry between parties in this inequality, and show that this asymmetry can be used to reduce the technical requirements of experimental setups intended to demonstrate the EPR paradox. Furthermore, we develop a more stringent steering inequality that is symmetric between parties, and use it to show that the down-converted photon pairs also exhibit symmetric EPR steering.

  4. Real-time Continuous Assessment Method for Mental and Physiological Condition using Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is necessary to monitor the daily health condition for preventing stress syndrome. In this study, it was proposed the method assessing the mental and physiological condition, such as the work stress or the relaxation, using heart rate variability at real time and continuously. The instantanuous heart rate (HR), and the ratio of the number of extreme points (NEP) and the number of heart beats were calculated for assessing mental and physiological condition. In this method, 20 beats heart rate were used to calculate these indexes. These were calculated in one beat interval. Three conditions, which are sitting rest, performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie, were assessed using our proposed algorithm. The assessment accuracies were 71.9% and 55.8%, when performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie respectively. In this method, the mental and physiological condition was assessed using only 20 regressive heart beats, so this method is considered as the real time assessment method.

  5. High performance reconciliation for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with LDPC code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dakai; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-03-01

    Reconciliation is a significant procedure in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. It is employed to extract secure secret key from the resulted string through quantum channel between two users. However, the efficiency and the speed of previous reconciliation algorithms are low. These problems limit the secure communication distance and the secure key rate of CV-QKD systems. In this paper, we proposed a high-speed reconciliation algorithm through employing a well-structured decoding scheme based on low density parity-check (LDPC) code. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is reduced obviously. By using a graphics processing unit (GPU) device, our method may reach a reconciliation speed of 25 Mb/s for a CV-QKD system, which is currently the highest level and paves the way to high-speed CV-QKD.

  6. High-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, ZengLiang; Wang, XuYang; Yang, ShenShen; Li, YongMin

    2016-01-01

    Efficient reconciliation is a crucial step in continuous variable quantum key distribution. The progressive-edge-growth (PEG) algorithm is an efficient method to construct relatively short block length low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. The qua-sicyclic construction method can extend short block length codes and further eliminate the shortest cycle. In this paper, by combining the PEG algorithm and qua-si-cyclic construction method, we design long block length irregular LDPC codes with high error-correcting capacity. Based on these LDPC codes, we achieve high-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation with slice recon-ciliation based on multilevel coding/multistage decoding with an efficiency of 93.7%.

  7. Design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for automotive vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-30

    Work accomplished between July 1974 and October 1978 in a program directed toward the design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT) for an automotive vehicle is reported. The following major accomplishments were achieved: the laboratory and mathematical projections establishing the viability of the program and the predicted attainment of the primary goal of fuel economy were verified; the proposed Concept Demonstration prototype hydromechanical transmission (HMT) was completed from design to operation; the HMT was thoroughly tested in the laboratory and on the road and its in-vehicle performance was verified by independent testing laboratories; and design of a second generation Pre-Production HMT has proceeded to the point of confirming the practicality of the automotive HMT size and weight; most of the necessary information has been generated which could permit its production cost/competitiveness to be evaluated. (LCL)

  8. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution in uniform fast-fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Panagiotis; Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the performance of several continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols in the presence of uniform fading channels. These are lossy channels whose transmissivity changes according to a uniform probability distribution. We assume the worst-case scenario where an eavesdropper induces a fast-fading process, where she chooses the instantaneous transmissivity while the remote parties may only detect the mean statistical effect. We analyze coherent-state protocols in various configurations, including the one-way switching protocol in reverse reconciliation, the measurement-device-independent protocol in the symmetric configuration, and its extension to a three-party network. We show that, regardless of the advantage given to the eavesdropper (control of the fading), these protocols can still achieve high rates under realistic attacks, within reasonable values for the variance of the probability distribution associated with the fading process.

  9. Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossier, S; Debuisschert, T; Diamanti, E; Villing, A; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and realized a prototype that implements a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol based on coherent states and reverse reconciliation. The system uses time and polarization multiplexing for optimal transmission and detection of the signal and phase reference, and employs sophisticated error-correction codes for reconciliation. The security of the system is guaranteed against general coherent eavesdropping attacks. The performance of the prototype was tested over preinstalled optical fibres as part of a quantum cryptography network combining different QKD technologies. The stable and automatic operation of the prototype over 57 h yielded an average secret key distribution rate of 8 kbit s -1 over a 3 dB loss optical fibre, including the key extraction process and all quantum and classical communication. This system is therefore ideal for securing communications in metropolitan size networks with high-speed requirements.

  10. Quantum key distribution using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, L. F. M.; Aguiar, L. S.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we present a quantum key distribution protocol using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states, homodyne detection and post-selection. The employed signal states are the photon added then subtracted coherent states (PASCS) in which one photon is added and subsequently one photon is subtracted from the field. We analyze the performance of our protocol, compared with a coherent state-based protocol, for two different attacks that could be carried out by the eavesdropper (Eve). We calculate the secret key rate transmission in a lossy line for a superior channel (beam-splitter) attack, and we show that we may increase the secret key generation rate by using the non-Gaussian PASCS rather than coherent states. We also consider the simultaneous quadrature measurement (intercept-resend) attack, and we show that the efficiency of Eve's attack is substantially reduced if PASCS are used as signal states.

  11. Self-referenced continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Wang, Xudong; Li, Jiawei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Ying

    2018-05-01

    We propose a scheme to remove the demand of transmitting a high-brightness local oscillator (LO) in continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocol, which we call as the self-referenced (SR) CV-MDI QKD. We show that our scheme is immune to the side-channel attacks, such as the calibration attacks, the wavelength attacks and the LO fluctuation attacks, which are all exploiting the security loopholes introduced by transmitting the LO. Besides, the proposed scheme waives the necessity of complex multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can greatly simplify the QKD processes and improve the transmission efficiency. The numerical simulations under collective attacks show that all the improvements brought about by our scheme are only at the expense of slight transmission distance shortening. This scheme shows an available method to mend the security loopholes incurred by transmitting LO in CV-MDI QKD.

  12. Finite-size analysis of continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Yichen; Zhao, Yijia; Wang, Xiangyu; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2017-10-01

    We study the impact of the finite-size effect on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocol, mainly considering the finite-size effect on the parameter estimation procedure. The central-limit theorem and maximum likelihood estimation theorem are used to estimate the parameters. We also analyze the relationship between the number of exchanged signals and the optimal modulation variance in the protocol. It is proved that when Charlie's position is close to Bob, the CV-MDI QKD protocol has the farthest transmission distance in the finite-size scenario. Finally, we discuss the impact of finite-size effects related to the practical detection in the CV-MDI QKD protocol. The overall results indicate that the finite-size effect has a great influence on the secret-key rate of the CV-MDI QKD protocol and should not be ignored.

  13. Practical security analysis of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with jitter in clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cailang; Guo, Ying; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-03-01

    How to narrow the gap of security between theory and practice has been a notoriously urgent problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we analyze and provide experimental evidence of the clock jitter effect on the practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. The clock jitter is a random noise which exists permanently in the clock synchronization in the practical CV-QKD system, it may compromise the system security because of its impact on data sampling and parameters estimation. In particular, the practical security of CV-QKD with different clock jitter against collective attack is analyzed theoretically based on different repetition frequencies, the numerical simulations indicate that the clock jitter has more impact on a high-speed scenario. Furthermore, a simplified experiment is designed to investigate the influence of the clock jitter.

  14. Practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution without finite sampling bandwidth effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huasheng; Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-09-05

    In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system, finite sampling bandwidth of the employed analog-to-digital converter at the receiver's side may lead to inaccurate results of pulse peak sampling. Then, errors in the parameters estimation resulted. Subsequently, the system performance decreases and security loopholes are exposed to eavesdroppers. In this paper, we propose a novel data acquisition scheme which consists of two parts, i.e., a dynamic delay adjusting module and a statistical power feedback-control algorithm. The proposed scheme may improve dramatically the data acquisition precision of pulse peak sampling and remove the finite sampling bandwidth effects. Moreover, the optimal peak sampling position of a pulse signal can be dynamically calibrated through monitoring the change of the statistical power of the sampled data in the proposed scheme. This helps to resist against some practical attacks, such as the well-known local oscillator calibration attack.

  15. Transplanckian entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Darwin; Chu, C.-S.; Lin Fengli

    2004-01-01

    The entanglement entropy of the event horizon is known to be plagued by the UV divergence due to the infinitely blue-shifted near horizon modes. In this Letter we calculate the entanglement entropy using the transplanckian dispersion relation, which has been proposed to model the quantum gravity effects. We show that, very generally, the entropy is rendered UV finite due to the suppression of high energy modes effected by the transplanckian dispersion relation

  16. Temporal variability of tidal and gravity waves during a record long 10-day continuous lidar sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Kathrin; Gerding, Michael; Baumgarten, Gerd; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2018-01-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) as well as solar tides are a key driving mechanism for the circulation in the Earth's atmosphere. The propagation of gravity waves is strongly affected by tidal waves as they modulate the mean background wind field and vice versa, which is not yet fully understood and not adequately implemented in many circulation models. The daylight-capable Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar at Kühlungsborn (54° N, 12° E) typically provides temperature data to investigate both wave phenomena during one full day or several consecutive days in the middle atmosphere between 30 and 75 km altitude. Outstanding weather conditions in May 2016 allowed for an unprecedented 10-day continuous lidar measurement, which shows a large variability of gravity waves and tides on timescales of days. Using a one-dimensional spectral filtering technique, gravity and tidal waves are separated according to their specific periods or vertical wavelengths, and their temporal evolution is studied. During the measurement period a strong 24 h wave occurs only between 40 and 60 km and vanishes after a few days. The disappearance is related to an enhancement of gravity waves with periods of 4-8 h. Wind data provided by ECMWF are used to analyze the meteorological situation at our site. The local wind structure changes during the observation period, which leads to different propagation conditions for gravity waves in the last days of the measurement period and therefore a strong GW activity. The analysis indicates a further change in wave-wave interaction resulting in a minimum of the 24 h tide. The observed variability of tides and gravity waves on timescales of a few days clearly demonstrates the importance of continuous measurements with high temporal and spatial resolution to detect interaction phenomena, which can help to improve parametrization schemes of GWs in general circulation models.

  17. Entanglement of Gaussian states and the applicability to quantum key distribution over fading channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, Vladyslav C; Filip, Radim; Heim, Bettina; Peuntinger, Christian; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement properties of Gaussian states of light as well as the security of continuous variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian states in free-space fading channels are studied. These qualities are shown to be sensitive to the statistical properties of the transmittance distribution in the cases when entanglement is strong or when channel excess noise is present. Fading, i.e. transmission fluctuations, caused by beam wandering due to atmospheric turbulence, is a frequent challenge in free-space communication. We introduce a method of fading discrimination and subsequent post-selection of the corresponding sub-states and show that it can improve the entanglement resource and restore the security of the key distribution over a realistic fading link. Furthermore, the optimal post-selection strategy in combination with an optimized entangled resource is shown to drastically increase the protocol's robustness to excess noise, which is confirmed for experimentally measured fading channel characteristics. The stability of the result against finite data ensemble size and imperfect channel estimation is also addressed. (paper)

  18. Multipartite entanglement and firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengqiao; Stoltenberg, Henry; Albrecht, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Black holes offer an exciting area to explore the nature of quantum gravity. The classic work on Hawking radiation indicates that black holes should decay via quantum effects, but our ideas about how this might work at a technical level are incomplete. Recently Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully (AMPS) have noted an apparent paradox in reconciling fundamental properties of quantum mechanics with standard beliefs about black holes. One way to resolve the paradox is to postulate the existence of a "firewall" inside the black hole horizon which prevents objects from falling smoothly toward the singularity. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as "monogamy" plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and black holes. Using the multipartite entanglement measure called negativity, we identify an example which could change the AMPS accounting of quantum entanglement and perhaps eliminate the need for a firewall. Specifically, we constructed a toy model for black hole decay which has different entanglement behavior than that assumed by AMPS. We discuss the additional steps that would be needed to bring lessons from our toy model to our understanding of realistic black holes.

  19. Pseudo-transient Continuation Based Variable Relaxation Solve in Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Chen

    2009-12-07

    Efficient and robust Variable Relaxation Solver, based on pseudo-transient continuation, is developed to solve nonlinear anisotropic thermal conduction arising from fusion plasma simulations. By adding first and/or second order artificial time derivatives to the system, this type of method advances the resulting time-dependent nonlinear PDEs to steady state, which is the solution to be sought. In this process, only the stiffness matrix itself is involved so that the numerical complexity and errors can be greatly reduced. In fact, this work is an extension of integrating efficient linear elliptic solvers for fusion simulation on Cray XIE. Two schemes are derived in this work, first and second order Variable Relaxations. Four factors are observed to be critical for efficiency and preservation of solution's symmetric structure arising from periodic boundary condition: refining meshes in different coordinate directions, initializing nonlinear process, varying time steps in both temporal and spatial directions, and accurately generating nonlinear stiffness matrix. First finer mesh scale should be taken in strong transport direction; Next the system is carefully initialized by the solution with linear conductivity; Third, time step and relaxation factor are vertex-based varied and optimized at each time step; Finally, the nonlinear stiffness matrix is updated by just scaling corresponding linear one with the vector generated from nonlinear thermal conductivity.

  20. Pseudo-transient Continuation Based Variable Relaxation Solve in Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Efficient and robust Variable Relaxation Solver, based on pseudo-transient continuation, is developed to solve nonlinear anisotropic thermal conduction arising from fusion plasma simulations. By adding first and/or second order artificial time derivatives to the system, this type of method advances the resulting time-dependent nonlinear PDEs to steady state, which is the solution to be sought. In this process, only the stiffness matrix itself is involved so that the numerical complexity and errors can be greatly reduced. In fact, this work is an extension of integrating efficient linear elliptic solvers for fusion simulation on Cray XIE. Two schemes are derived in this work, first and second order Variable Relaxations. Four factors are observed to be critical for efficiency and preservation of solution's symmetric structure arising from periodic boundary condition: refining meshes in different coordinate directions, initializing nonlinear process, varying time steps in both temporal and spatial directions, and accurately generating nonlinear stiffness matrix. First finer mesh scale should be taken in strong transport direction; Next the system is carefully initialized by the solution with linear conductivity; Third, time step and relaxation factor are vertex-based varied and optimized at each time step; Finally, the nonlinear stiffness matrix is updated by just scaling corresponding linear one with the vector generated from nonlinear thermal conductivity.

  1. Entanglement model of homeopathy as an example of generalized entanglement predicted by weak quantum theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walach, H

    2003-08-01

    Homeopathy is scientifically banned, both for lack of consistent empirical findings, but more so for lack of a sound theoretical model to explain its purported effects. This paper makes an attempt to introduce an explanatory idea based on a generalized version of quantum mechanics (QM), the weak quantum theory (WQT). WQT uses the algebraic formalism of QM proper, but drops some restrictions and definitions typical for QM. This results in a general axiomatic framework similar to QM, but more generalized and applicable to all possible systems. Most notably, WQT predicts entanglement, which in QM is known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlatedness within quantum systems. According to WQT, this entanglement is not only tied to quantum systems, but is to be expected whenever a global and a local variable describing a system are complementary. This idea is used here to reconstruct homeopathy as an exemplification of generalized entanglement as predicted by WQT. It transpires that homeopathy uses two instances of generalized entanglement: one between the remedy and the original substance (potentiation principle) and one between the individual symptoms of a patient and the general symptoms of a remedy picture (similarity principle). By bringing these two elements together, double entanglement ensues, which is reminiscent of cryptographic and teleportation applications of entanglement in QM proper. Homeopathy could be a macroscopic analogue to quantum teleportation. This model is exemplified and some predictions are derived, which make it possible to test the model. Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  2. Observer variability and optimal criteria of transient ischemia during ST monitoring with continuous 12-lead ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernberg, Tomas; Cronblad, Jörgen; Lindahl, Bertil; Wallentin, Lars

    2002-07-01

    ST monitoring with continuous 12-lead ECG is a well-established method in patients with unstable coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the method lacks documentation on optimal criteria for episodes of transient ischemia and on observer variability. Observer variability was evaluated in 24-hour recordings from 100 patients with unstable CAD with monitoring in the coronary care unit. Influence on ST changes by variations in body position were evaluated by monitoring 50 patients in different body positions. Different criteria of transient ischemia and their predictive importance were evaluated in 630 patients with unstable CAD who underwent 12 hours of monitoring and thereafter were followed for 1 to13 months. Two sets of criteria were tested: (1) ST deviation > or = 0.1 mV for at least 1 minute, and (2) ST depression > or = 0.05 mV or elevation > or = 0.1 mV for at least 1 minute. When the first set of criteria were used, the interobserver agreement was good (kappa = 0.72) and 8 (16%) had significant ST changes in at least one body position. Out of 100 patients with symptoms suggestive of unstable CAD and such ischemia, 24 (24%) had a cardiac event during follow-up. When the second set of criteria were used, the interobserver agreement was poor (kappa = 0.32) and 21 (42%) had significant ST changes in at least one body position. Patients fulfilling the second but not the first set of criteria did not have a higher risk of cardiac event than those without transient ischemia (5.3 vs 4.3%). During 12-lead ECG monitoring, transient ischemic episodes should be defined as ST deviations > or = 0.1 mV for at least 1 minute, based on a low observer variability, minor problems with postural ST changes and an important predictive value.

  3. Joint weak value for all order coupling using continuous variable and qubit probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asmita; Pan, Alok Kumar; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2017-11-01

    The notion of weak measurement in quantum mechanics has gained a significant and wide interest in realizing apparently counterintuitive quantum effects. In recent times, several theoretical and experimental works have been reported for demonstrating the joint weak value of two observables where the coupling strength is restricted to the second order. In this paper, we extend such a formulation by providing a complete treatment of joint weak measurement scenario for all-order-coupling for the observable satisfying A 2 = 𝕀 and A 2 = A, which allows us to reveal several hitherto unexplored features. By considering the probe state to be discrete as well as continuous variable, we demonstrate how the joint weak value can be inferred for any given strength of the coupling. A particularly interesting result we pointed out that even if the initial pointer state is uncorrelated, the single pointer displacement can provide the information about the joint weak value, if at least third order of the coupling is taken into account. As an application of our scheme, we provide an all-order-coupling treatment of the well-known Hardy paradox by considering the continuous as well as discrete meter states and show how the negative joint weak probabilities emerge in the quantum paradoxes at the weak coupling limit.

  4. Enhancing energy recovery in the steel industry: Matching continuous charge with off-gas variability smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Magro, Fabio; Meneghetti, Antonella; Nardin, Gioacchino; Savino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A system based on phase change material is inserted into the off-gas-line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace. • The off-gas temperature profile after scrap preheating is smoothed. • A heat transfer fluid through phase change material containers allows to control overheating issues. • The smoothed off-gas profiles enable efficient downstream power generation. • The recovery system investment cost is decreased due to lower sizes of components. - Abstract: In order to allow an efficient energy recovery from off-gas in the steel industry, the high variability of heat flow should be managed. A temperature smoothing device based on phase change materials at high temperatures is inserted into the off-gas line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace process with scrap preheating. To address overheating issues, a heat transfer fluid flowing through containers is introduced and selected by developing an analytical model. The performance of the smoothing system is analyzed by thermo-fluid dynamic simulations. The reduced maximum temperature of off-gas allows to reduce the size and investment cost of the downstream energy recovery system, while the increased minimum temperature enhances the steam turbine load factor, thus increasing its utilization. Benefits on environmental issues due to dioxins generation are also gained

  5. Breakdown of entanglement during the teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinfeng; Wang Yuming; Li Xueqian

    2005-01-01

    The teleportation may become an important means for remote distance communications in the future, and the mechanism is based on entanglement of quantum states. But the entanglement is fragile. As the state is disturbed by the environment the entanglement may be broken down. In this work, authors choose the electron-positron pair in an entangled state of spin 0 as an example to investigate the rate of breaking down of the entanglement by the Compton scattering with the background radiation photons or Bremsstrahlung with strong magnetic fields of some astronomical objects which the electron or positron passes by. Since the spin projection of single electron (positron) is not physically measurable and the electron beams cannot keep its shape for long because of the Coulomb repulsion among the charged particles in the beam, the only way is to shoot one electron-positron pair each time and continuously repeat the processes. With all the restraints this study has only pedagogic meaning, but may shed light on further studies where other information messages are chosen. (authors)

  6. Initial conditions and entanglement sudden death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Eberly, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    We report results bearing on the behavior of non-local decoherence and its potential for being managed or even controlled. The decoherence process known as entanglement sudden death (ESD) can drive prepared entanglement to zero at the same time that local coherences and fidelity remain non-zero. For a generic ESD-susceptible Bell superposition state, we provide rules restricting the occurrence and timing of ESD, amounting to management tools over a continuous variation of initial conditions. These depend on only three parameters: initial purity, entanglement and excitation. Knowledge or control of initial phases is not needed. -- Highlights: ► We study the possibility of managing disentanglement through initial conditions. ► The initial parameters are the amount of entanglement, excitation, and purity. ► Entanglement sudden death (ESD) free and ESD susceptible phases are identified. ► ESD onset time is also presented in the ESD susceptible phase. ► Our results may guide experiments to prepare ESD free or delayed ESD states.

  7. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups

  8. Probing renormalization group flows using entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Mezei, Márk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we continue the study of renormalized entanglement entropy introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2013)162. In particular, we investigate its behavior near an IR fixed point using holographic duality. We develop techniques which, for any static holographic geometry, enable us to extract the large radius expansion of the entanglement entropy for a spherical region. We show that for both a sphere and a strip, the approach of the renormalized entanglement entropy to the IR fixed point value contains a contribution that depends on the whole RG trajectory. Such a contribution is dominant, when the leading irrelevant operator is sufficiently irrelevant. For a spherical region such terms can be anticipated from a geometric expansion, while for a strip whether these terms have geometric origins remains to be seen

  9. Quantum tele-amplification with a continuous-variable superposition state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Eto, Yujiro; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2013-01-01

    -enhanced functions such as coherent-state quantum computing (CSQC), quantum metrology and a quantum repeater could be realized in the networks. Optical cat states are now routinely generated in laboratories. An important next challenge is to use them for implementing the aforementioned functions. Here, we......Optical coherent states are classical light fields with high purity, and are essential carriers of information in optical networks. If these states could be controlled in the quantum regime, allowing for their quantum superposition (referred to as a Schrödinger-cat state), then novel quantum...... demonstrate a basic CSQC protocol, where a cat state is used as an entanglement resource for teleporting a coherent state with an amplitude gain. We also show how this can be extended to a loss-tolerant quantum relay of multi-ary phase-shift keyed coherent states. These protocols could be useful in both...

  10. Entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Xin-Hua; Guo Jie-Rong; Nie Jian-Jun; Jia Jin-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The proposals on entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states are presented.In these proposals,the entanglement between two coherent states,|α〉and |-α〉,with the same amplitude but a phase difference of π is utilized as a quantum channel.The processes of the entanglement diversion and the teleportation are achieved by using the 5050 symmetric beam splitters,the phase shifters and the photodetectors with the help of classical information.

  11. Device-independent entanglement certification of all entangled states

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Joseph; Šupić, Ivan; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Acín, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We present a method to certify the entanglement of all bipartite entangled quantum states in a device-independent way. This is achieved by placing the state in a quantum network and constructing a correlation inequality based on an entanglement witness for the state. Our method is device-independent, in the sense that entanglement can be certified from the observed statistics alone, under minimal assumptions on the underlying physics. Conceptually, our results borrow ideas from the field of s...

  12. Quantum hacking on a practical continuous-variable quantum cryptosystem by inserting an external light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alleaume, Romain

    2015-10-01

    We report here a new side channel attack on a practical continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Inspired by blinding attack in discrete-variable QKD, we formalize an attack strategy by inserting an external light into a CV QKD system implemented Gaussian-modulated coherent state protocol and show that our attack can compromise its practical security. In this attack, we concern imperfections of a balanced homodyne detector used in CV QKD. According to our analysis, if one inserts an external light into Bob's signal port, due to the imperfect subtraction from the homodyne detector, the leakage of the external light contributes a displacement on the homodyne signal which causes detector electronics saturation. In consequence, Bob's quadrature measurement is not linear with the quadrature sent by Alice. By considering such vulnerability, a potential Eve can launch a full intercept-resend attack meanwhile she inserts an external light into Bob's signal port. By selecting proper properties of the external light, Eve actively controls the induced displacement value from the inserted light which results saturation of homodyne detection. In consequence, Eve can bias the excess noise due to the intercept-resend attack and the external light, such that Alice and Bob believe their excess noise estimation is below the null key threshold and they can still share a secret key. Our attack shows that the detector loopholes also exist in CV QKD, and it seems influence all the CV QKD systems using homodyne detection, since all the practical detectors have finite detection range.

  13. High glycemic variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring after surgical treatment of obesity by gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaire, Helene; Bertrand, Monelle; Guerci, Bruno; Anduze, Yves; Guillaume, Eric; Ritz, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Obesity surgery elicits complex changes in glucose metabolism that are difficult to observe with discontinuous glucose measurements. We aimed to evaluate glucose variability after gastric bypass by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in a real-life setting. CGM was performed for 4.2 ± 1.3 days in three groups of 10 subjects each: patients who had undergone gastric bypass and who were referred for postprandial symptoms compatible with mild hypoglycemia, nonoperated diabetes controls, and healthy controls. The maximum interstitial glucose (IG), SD of IG values, and mean amplitude of glucose excursions (MAGE) were significantly higher in operated patients and in diabetes controls than in healthy controls. The time to the postprandial peak IG was significantly shorter in operated patients (42.8 ± 6.0 min) than in diabetes controls (82.2 ± 11.1 min, P = 0.0002), as were the rates of glucose increase to the peak (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 mg/mL/min; P = 0.041). True hypoglycemia (glucose fasting state and 2 h postmeal. Glucose variability is exaggerated after gastric bypass, combining unusually high and early hyperglycemic peaks and rapid IG decreases. This might account for postprandial symptoms mimicking hypoglycemia but often seen without true hypoglycemia. Early postprandial hyperglycemia might be underestimated if glucose measurements are done 2 h postmeal.

  14. Cosmological quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Menicucci, Nicolas C

    2012-01-01

    We review recent literature on the connection between quantum entanglement and cosmology, with an emphasis on the context of expanding universes. We discuss recent theoretical results reporting on the production of entanglement in quantum fields due to the expansion of the underlying spacetime. We explore how these results are affected by the statistics of the field (bosonic or fermionic), the type of expansion (de Sitter or asymptotically stationary), and the coupling to spacetime curvature (conformal or minimal). We then consider the extraction of entanglement from a quantum field by coupling to local detectors and how this procedure can be used to distinguish curvature from heating by their entanglement signature. We review the role played by quantum fluctuations in the early universe in nucleating the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures through their conversion into classical density anisotropies during and after inflation. We report on current literature attempting to account for this transition in a rigorous way and discuss the importance of entanglement and decoherence in this process. We conclude with some prospects for further theoretical and experimental research in this area. These include extensions of current theoretical efforts, possible future observational pursuits, and experimental analogues that emulate these cosmic effects in a laboratory setting. (paper)

  15. Optimization of entanglement witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewenstein, M.; Kraus, B.; Cirac, J. I.; Horodecki, P.

    2000-11-01

    An entanglement witness (EW) is an operator that allows the detection of entangled states. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such operators to be optimal, i.e., to detect entangled states in an optimal way. We show how to optimize general EW, and then we particularize our results to the nondecomposable ones; the latter are those that can detect positive partial transpose entangled states (PPTES's). We also present a method to systematically construct and optimize this last class of operators based on the existence of ``edge'' PPTES's, i.e., states that violate the range separability criterion [Phys. Lett. A 232, 333 (1997)] in an extreme manner. This method also permits a systematic construction of nondecomposable positive maps (PM's). Our results lead to a sufficient condition for entanglement in terms of nondecomposable EW's and PM's. Finally, we illustrate our results by constructing optimal EW acting on H=C2⊗C4. The corresponding PM's constitute examples of PM's with minimal ``qubit'' domains, or-equivalently-minimal Hermitian conjugate codomains.

  16. Quantum Entanglements: Selected Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannetto, E

    2005-01-01

    This book is a sort of tribute to Rob Clifton (1964-2002), Associate Professor of Philosophy and Associate Director of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh, philosopher of physics and editor of the journal Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, who tragically died of cancer. It contains fourteen papers by Clifton, for the most part written in collaboration with other authors (Jeffrey Bub (2), Sheldon Goldstein, Michael Dickson, Hans Halvorson (6), Adrian Kent (2)), published between 1995 and 2002. The choice of papers made by the editors is very impressive. They concern the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Among the issues discussed are the modal interpretations of quantum mechanics, the problems of hidden variables theories, non-locality, Bell's inequality, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, Lorentz invariance, de-coherence, non-contextuality, complementarity, entanglement and quantum information. A consequence of such investigations is that non-separability is a more complex issue than violation of Bell's inequality. Apart from the perspective one can follow-whether one agrees or not with Clifton-these papers are effective contributions to an understanding of the problems involved in the foundations of quantum mechanics. The most interesting parts, in my opinion, are related to the extension of the discussion of foundational problems to quantum field theory: on the algebraic approach, and on the twin concepts of particle and vacuum. Non-locality appears to be 'worse' in relativistic quantum field theory than in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. All the papers deal with relevant epistemological and even historical aspects of quantum mechanics interpretations, but all the issues are discussed from a technical, logical and mathematical approach. A complete bibliography of Clifton's papers is given at the end of the volume. (book review)

  17. Quantum hacking: Saturation attack on practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alléaume, Romain

    2016-07-01

    We identify and study a security loophole in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) implementations, related to the imperfect linearity of the homodyne detector. By exploiting this loophole, we propose an active side-channel attack on the Gaussian-modulated coherent-state CVQKD protocol combining an intercept-resend attack with an induced saturation of the homodyne detection on the receiver side (Bob). We show that an attacker can bias the excess noise estimation by displacing the quadratures of the coherent states received by Bob. We propose a saturation model that matches experimental measurements on the homodyne detection and use this model to study the impact of the saturation attack on parameter estimation in CVQKD. We demonstrate that this attack can bias the excess noise estimation beyond the null key threshold for any system parameter, thus leading to a full security break. If we consider an additional criterion imposing that the channel transmission estimation should not be affected by the attack, then the saturation attack can only be launched if the attenuation on the quantum channel is sufficient, corresponding to attenuations larger than approximately 6 dB. We moreover discuss the possible countermeasures against the saturation attack and propose a countermeasure based on Gaussian postselection that can be implemented by classical postprocessing and may allow one to distill the secret key when the raw measurement data are partly saturated.

  18. Development of Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Performance Adaptive Aeroelastic Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Kaul, Upender; Lebofsky, Sonia; Ting, Eric; Chaparro, Daniel; Urnes, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent development of an adaptive aeroelastic wing shaping control technology called variable camber continuous trailing edge flap (VCCTEF). As wing flexibility increases, aeroelastic interactions with aerodynamic forces and moments become an increasingly important consideration in aircraft design and aerodynamic performance. Furthermore, aeroelastic interactions with flight dynamics can result in issues with vehicle stability and control. The initial VCCTEF concept was developed in 2010 by NASA under a NASA Innovation Fund study entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept," which showed that highly flexible wing aerodynamic surfaces can be elastically shaped in-flight by active control of wing twist and bending deflection in order to optimize the spanwise lift distribution for drag reduction. A collaboration between NASA and Boeing Research & Technology was subsequently funded by NASA from 2012 to 2014 to further develop the VCCTEF concept. This paper summarizes some of the key research areas conducted by NASA during the collaboration with Boeing Research and Technology. These research areas include VCCTEF design concepts, aerodynamic analysis of VCCTEF camber shapes, aerodynamic optimization of lift distribution for drag minimization, wind tunnel test results for cruise and high-lift configurations, flutter analysis and suppression control of flexible wing aircraft, and multi-objective flight control for adaptive aeroelastic wing shaping control.

  19. Quantum energy teleportation with an electromagnetic field: discrete versus continuous variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that usual quantum teleportation protocols cannot transport energy. Recently, new protocols called quantum energy teleportation (QET) have been proposed, which transport energy by local operations and classical communication with the ground states of many-body quantum systems. In this paper, we compare two different QET protocols for transporting energy with the electromagnetic field. In the first protocol, a 1/2 spin (a qubit) is coupled with the quantum fluctuation in the vacuum state and measured in order to obtain one-bit information about the fluctuation for the teleportation. In the second protocol, a harmonic oscillator is coupled with the fluctuation and measured in order to obtain continuous-variable information about the fluctuation. In the spin protocol, the amount of teleported energy is suppressed by an exponential damping factor when the amount of input energy increases. This suppression factor becomes power damping in the case of the harmonic oscillator protocol. Therefore, it is concluded that obtaining more information about the quantum fluctuation leads to teleporting more energy. This result suggests a profound relationship between energy and quantum information.

  20. Pilot-multiplexed continuous-variable quantum key distribution with a real local oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yingming; Liu, Weiqi; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-01-01

    We propose a pilot-multiplexed continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) scheme based on a local local oscillator (LLO). Our scheme utilizes time-multiplexing and polarization-multiplexing techniques to dramatically isolate the quantum signal from the pilot, employs two heterodyne detectors to separately detect the signal and the pilot, and adopts a phase compensation method to almost eliminate the multifrequency phase jitter. In order to analyze the performance of our scheme, a general LLO noise model is constructed. Besides the phase noise and the modulation noise, the photon-leakage noise from the reference path and the quantization noise due to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) are also considered, which are first analyzed in the LLO regime. Under such general noise model, our scheme has a higher key rate and longer secure distance compared with the preexisting LLO schemes. Moreover, we also conduct an experiment to verify our pilot-multiplexed scheme. Results show that it maintains a low level of the phase noise and is expected to obtain a 554-Kbps secure key rate within a 15-km distance under the finite-size effect.

  1. Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  2. Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  3. Universal entanglement transformations without communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, Wim van; Hayden, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We show that in the presence of finite catalysts, any pure bipartite entangled state can be converted into any other, to unlimited accuracy, without the use of any communication, quantum or classical. We call this process embezzling entanglement because it involves removing a small amount of entanglement from the catalyst in a physically unnoticeable way

  4. Quantum Statistics and Entanglement Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Trainor, L. E. H.; Lumsden, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Interpretations of quantum measurement theory have been plagued by two questions, one concerning the role of observer consciousness and the other the entanglement phenomenon arising from the superposition of quantum states. We emphasize here the remarkable role of quantum statistics in describing the entanglement problem correctly and discuss the relationship to issues arising from current discussions of intelligent observers in entangled, decohering quantum worlds.

  5. Entanglement concentration and purification of two-mode squeezed microwave photons in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2018-04-01

    We present a theoretical proposal for a physical implementation of entanglement concentration and purification protocols for two-mode squeezed microwave photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). First, we give the description of the cross-Kerr effect induced between two resonators in circuit QED. Then we use the cross-Kerr media to design the effective quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement on microwave-photon number. By using the QND measurement, the parties in quantum communication can accomplish the entanglement concentration and purification of nonlocal two-mode squeezed microwave photons. We discuss the feasibility of our schemes by giving the detailed parameters which can be realized with current experimental technology. Our work can improve some practical applications in continuous-variable microwave-based quantum information processing.

  6. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Lewkowycz, Aitor [Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-07

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  7. Quantum entanglement for systems of identical bosons: II. Spin squeezing and other entanglement tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B J; Goold, J; Garraway, B M; Reid, M D

    2017-01-01

    entanglement is also derived. Thus we show that spin squeezing becomes a rigorous test for entanglement in a system of massive bosons, when viewed as a test for entanglement between two modes. In addition, other previously proposed tests for entanglement involving spin operators are considered, including those based on the sum of the variances for two spin components. All of the tests are still valid when the present concept of entanglement based on the symmetrization and SSR criteria is applied. These tests also apply in cases of multi-mode entanglement, though with restrictions in the case of sub-systems each consisting of pairs of modes. Tests involving quantum correlation functions are also considered and for global SSR compliant states these are shown to be equivalent to tests involving spin operators. A new weak correlation test is derived for entanglement based on local SSR compliance for separable states, complementing the stronger correlation test obtained previously when this is ignored. The Bloch vector test is equivalent to one case of this weak correlation test. Quadrature squeezing for single modes is also examined but not found to yield a useful entanglement test, whereas two mode quadrature squeezing proves to be a valid entanglement test, though not as useful as the Bloch vector test. The various entanglement tests are considered for well-known entangled states, such as binomial states, relative phase eigenstates and NOON states—sometimes the new tests are satisfied while than those obtained in other papers are not. The present paper II then outlines the theory for a simple two mode interferometer showing that such an interferometer can be used to measure the mean values and covariance matrix for the spin operators involved in entanglement tests for the two mode bosonic system. The treatment is also generalized to cover multi-mode interferometry. The interferometer involves a pulsed classical field characterized by a phase variable and an area variable

  8. Quantum entanglement for systems of identical bosons: II. Spin squeezing and other entanglement tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, B. J.; Goold, J.; Garraway, B. M.; Reid, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    entanglement is also derived. Thus we show that spin squeezing becomes a rigorous test for entanglement in a system of massive bosons, when viewed as a test for entanglement between two modes. In addition, other previously proposed tests for entanglement involving spin operators are considered, including those based on the sum of the variances for two spin components. All of the tests are still valid when the present concept of entanglement based on the symmetrization and SSR criteria is applied. These tests also apply in cases of multi-mode entanglement, though with restrictions in the case of sub-systems each consisting of pairs of modes. Tests involving quantum correlation functions are also considered and for global SSR compliant states these are shown to be equivalent to tests involving spin operators. A new weak correlation test is derived for entanglement based on local SSR compliance for separable states, complementing the stronger correlation test obtained previously when this is ignored. The Bloch vector test is equivalent to one case of this weak correlation test. Quadrature squeezing for single modes is also examined but not found to yield a useful entanglement test, whereas two mode quadrature squeezing proves to be a valid entanglement test, though not as useful as the Bloch vector test. The various entanglement tests are considered for well-known entangled states, such as binomial states, relative phase eigenstates and NOON states—sometimes the new tests are satisfied while than those obtained in other papers are not. The present paper II then outlines the theory for a simple two mode interferometer showing that such an interferometer can be used to measure the mean values and covariance matrix for the spin operators involved in entanglement tests for the two mode bosonic system. The treatment is also generalized to cover multi-mode interferometry. The interferometer involves a pulsed classical field characterized by a phase variable and an area variable

  9. Images in quantum entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-28

    A system for classifying and quantifying entanglement in spin 1/2 pure states is presented based on simple images. From the image point of view, an entangled state can be described as a linear superposition of separable object wavefunction {psi}{sub O} plus a portion of its own inverse image. Bell states can be defined in this way: {psi}= 1/{radical}2 ({psi}{sub O}{+-}{psi}{sub I} ). Using the method of images, the three-spin 1/2 system is discussed in some detail. This system can exhibit exclusive three-particle {nu}{sub 123} entanglement, two-particle entanglements {nu}{sub 12}, {nu}{sub 13}, {nu}{sub 23} and/or mixtures of all four. All four image states are orthogonal both to each other and to the object wavefunction. In general, five entanglement parameters {nu}{sub 12}, {nu}{sub 13}, {nu}{sub 23}, {nu}{sub 123} and {phi}{sub 123} are required to define the general entangled state. In addition, it is shown that there is considerable scope for encoding numbers, at least from the classical point of view but using quantum-mechanical principles. Methods are developed for their extraction. It is shown that concurrence can be used to extract even-partite, but not odd-partite information. Additional relationships are also presented which can be helpful in the decoding process. However, in general, numerical methods are mandatory. A simple roulette method for decoding is presented and discussed. But it is shown that if the encoder chooses to use transcendental numbers for the angles defining the target function ({alpha}{sub 1}, {beta}{sub 1}), etc, the method rapidly turns into the Devil's roulette, requiring finer and finer angular steps.

  10. Images in quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G J

    2009-01-01

    A system for classifying and quantifying entanglement in spin 1/2 pure states is presented based on simple images. From the image point of view, an entangled state can be described as a linear superposition of separable object wavefunction Ψ O plus a portion of its own inverse image. Bell states can be defined in this way: Ψ= 1/√2 (Ψ O ±Ψ I ). Using the method of images, the three-spin 1/2 system is discussed in some detail. This system can exhibit exclusive three-particle ν 123 entanglement, two-particle entanglements ν 12 , ν 13 , ν 23 and/or mixtures of all four. All four image states are orthogonal both to each other and to the object wavefunction. In general, five entanglement parameters ν 12 , ν 13 , ν 23 , ν 123 and φ 123 are required to define the general entangled state. In addition, it is shown that there is considerable scope for encoding numbers, at least from the classical point of view but using quantum-mechanical principles. Methods are developed for their extraction. It is shown that concurrence can be used to extract even-partite, but not odd-partite information. Additional relationships are also presented which can be helpful in the decoding process. However, in general, numerical methods are mandatory. A simple roulette method for decoding is presented and discussed. But it is shown that if the encoder chooses to use transcendental numbers for the angles defining the target function (α 1 , β 1 ), etc, the method rapidly turns into the Devil's roulette, requiring finer and finer angular steps.

  11. Kilovoltage energy imaging with a radiotherapy linac with a continuously variable energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D A; Hansen, V N; Thompson, M G; Poludniowski, G; Niven, A; Seco, J; Evans, P M

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the effect on image quality of significantly reducing the primary electron energy of a radiotherapy accelerator is investigated using a novel waveguide test piece. The waveguide contains a novel variable coupling device (rotovane), allowing for a wide continuously variable energy range of between 1.4 and 9 MeV suitable for both imaging and therapy. Imaging at linac accelerating potentials close to 1 MV was investigated experimentally and via Monte Carlo simulations. An imaging beam line was designed, and planar and cone beam computed tomography images were obtained to enable qualitative and quantitative comparisons with kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging systems. The imaging beam had an electron energy of 1.4 MeV, which was incident on a water cooled electron window consisting of stainless steel, a 5 mm carbon electron absorber and 2.5 mm aluminium filtration. Images were acquired with an amorphous silicon detector sensitive to diagnostic x-ray energies. The x-ray beam had an average energy of 220 keV and half value layer of 5.9 mm of copper. Cone beam CT images with the same contrast to noise ratio as a gantry mounted kilovoltage imaging system were obtained with doses as low as 2 cGy. This dose is equivalent to a single 6 MV portal image. While 12 times higher than a 100 kVp CBCT system (Elekta XVI), this dose is 140 times lower than a 6 MV cone beam imaging system and 6 times lower than previously published LowZ imaging beams operating at higher (4-5 MeV) energies. The novel coupling device provides for a wide range of electron energies that are suitable for kilovoltage quality imaging and therapy. The imaging system provides high contrast images from the therapy portal at low dose, approaching that of gantry mounted kilovoltage x-ray systems. Additionally, the system provides low dose imaging directly from the therapy portal, potentially allowing for target tracking during radiotherapy treatment. There is the scope with such a tuneable system

  12. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2010-01-01

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  13. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2010-02-01

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  14. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.facchi@ba.infn.it

    2010-02-15

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  15. Entanglement in miscible blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    The entanglement length Le of polymer chains (corresponding to the entanglement molecular weight Me) is not an intrinsic material parameter but changes with the interaction with surrounding chains. For miscible blends of cis-polyisoprene (PI) and poly(tert-butyl styrene) (PtBS), changes of Le on blending was examined. It turned out that the Le averaged over the number fractions of the Kuhn segments of the components (PI and PtBS) satisfactorily describes the viscoelastic behavior of pseudo-monodisperse blends in which the terminal relaxation time is the same for PI and PtBS.

  16. Wormholes and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John C Baez; Vicary, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Maldacena and Susskind have proposed a correspondence between wormholes and entanglement, dubbed ER=EPR. We study this in the context of three-dimensional topological quantum field theory (TQFT), where we show that the formation of a wormhole is the same process as creating a particle–antiparticle pair. A key feature of the ER=EPR proposal is that certain apparently entangled degrees of freedom turn out to be the same. We name this phenomenon ‘fake entanglement’, and show how it arises in our TQFT model. (paper)

  17. Multi-particle entanglement via two-party entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Mor, Tal

    2001-09-01

    Entanglement between n particles is a generalization of the entanglement between two particles, and a state is considered entangled if it cannot be written as a mixture of tensor products of the n particles' states. We present the key notion of semi-separability, used to investigate n-particle entanglement by looking at two-party entanglement between its various subsystems. We provide necessary conditions for n-particle separability (that is, sufficient conditions for n-particle entanglement). We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions in the case of pure states. By surprising examples, we show that such conditions are not sufficient for separability in the case of mixed states, suggesting entanglement of a strange type.

  18. Entanglement verification and its applications in quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseler, Hauke

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the uses of entanglement and its verification in quantum communication. The main object here is to develop a verification procedure which is adaptable to a wide range of applications, and whose implementation has low requirements on experimental resources. We present such a procedure in the form of the Expectation Value Matrix. The structure of this thesis is as follows: Chapters 1 and 2 give a short introduction and background information on quantum theory and the quantum states of light. In particular, we discuss the basic postulates of quantum mechanics, quantum state discrimination, the description of quantum light and the homodyne detector. Chapter 3 gives a brief introduction to quantum information and in particular to entanglement, and we discuss the basics of quantum key distribution and teleportation. The general framework of the Expectation Value Matrix is introduced. The main matter of this thesis is contained in the subsequent three chapters, which describe different quantum communication protocols and the corresponding adaptation of the entanglement verification method. The subject of Chapter 4 is quantum key distribution, where the detection of entanglement is a means of excluding intercept-resend attacks, and the presence of quantum correlations in the raw data is a necessary precondition for the generation of secret key. We investigate a continuous-variable version of the two-state protocol and develop the Expectation Value Matrix method for such qubit-mode systems. Furthermore, we analyse the role of the phase reference with respect to the security of the protocol and raise awareness of a corresponding security threat. For this, we adapt the verification method to different settings of Stokes operator measurements. In Chapter 5, we investigate quantum memory channels and propose a fundamental benchmark for these based on the verification of entanglement. After describing some physical effects which can be used for the

  19. Quantifying temporal glucose variability in diabetes via continuous glucose monitoring: mathematical methods and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatchev, Boris P; Clarke, William L; Breton, Marc; Brayman, Kenneth; McCall, Anthony

    2005-12-01

    Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) collect detailed blood glucose (BG) time series, which carry significant information about the dynamics of BG fluctuations. In contrast, the methods for analysis of CGM data remain those developed for infrequent BG self-monitoring. As a result, important information about the temporal structure of the data is lost during the translation of raw sensor readings into clinically interpretable statistics and images. The following mathematical methods are introduced into the field of CGM data interpretation: (1) analysis of BG rate of change; (2) risk analysis using previously reported Low/High BG Indices and Poincare (lag) plot of risk associated with temporal BG variability; and (3) spatial aggregation of the process of BG fluctuations and its Markov chain visualization. The clinical application of these methods is illustrated by analysis of data of a patient with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who underwent islet transplantation and with data from clinical trials. Normative data [12,025 reference (YSI device, Yellow Springs Instruments, Yellow Springs, OH) BG determinations] in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who underwent insulin and glucose challenges suggest that the 90%, 95%, and 99% confidence intervals of BG rate of change that could be maximally sustained over 15-30 min are [-2,2], [-3,3], and [-4,4] mg/dL/min, respectively. BG dynamics and risk parameters clearly differentiated the stages of transplantation and the effects of medication. Aspects of treatment were clearly visualized by graphs of BG rate of change and Low/High BG Indices, by a Poincare plot of risk for rapid BG fluctuations, and by a plot of the aggregated Markov process. Advanced analysis and visualization of CGM data allow for evaluation of dynamical characteristics of diabetes and reveal clinical information that is inaccessible via standard statistics, which do not take into account the temporal structure of the data. The use of such methods improves the

  20. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-10-20

    We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.

  1. Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work in one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of sites as a function...... of the geometry of the configuration and the strength of the interactions. As our measure of entanglement we use the logarithmic negativity, supplemented by an algorithmic check for bound entanglement where appropiate. The short-range entanglement is found to grow approximately linearly with the group sizes...

  2. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverrier, A; Karpov, E; Cerf, N J; Grangier, P

    2009-01-01

    Proving the unconditional security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for continuous-variable QKD as the Hilbert space where the protocol is described is infinite dimensional. A possible strategy to address this problem is to make an extensive use of the symmetries of the protocol. In this paper, we investigate a rotation symmetry in phase space that is particularly relevant to continuous-variable QKD, and explore the way towards a new quantum de Finetti theorem that would exploit this symmetry and provide a powerful tool to assess the security of continuous-variable protocols. As a first step, a single-party asymptotic version of this quantum de Finetti theorem in phase space is derived.

  3. Continuous-variable quantum Gaussian process regression and quantum singular value decomposition of nonsparse low-rank matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Siopsis, George; Weedbrook, Christian

    2018-02-01

    With the significant advancement in quantum computation during the past couple of decades, the exploration of machine-learning subroutines using quantum strategies has become increasingly popular. Gaussian process regression is a widely used technique in supervised classical machine learning. Here we introduce an algorithm for Gaussian process regression using continuous-variable quantum systems that can be realized with technology based on photonic quantum computers under certain assumptions regarding distribution of data and availability of efficient quantum access. Our algorithm shows that by using a continuous-variable quantum computer a dramatic speedup in computing Gaussian process regression can be achieved, i.e., the possibility of exponentially reducing the time to compute. Furthermore, our results also include a continuous-variable quantum-assisted singular value decomposition method of nonsparse low rank matrices and forms an important subroutine in our Gaussian process regression algorithm.

  4. Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J; Alfano, Robert R

    2016-12-20

    Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness.

  5. Experimental test of entangled histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Duan, Lu-Ming; Hou, Pan-Yu; Wilczek, Frank; Xu, Da; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Zu, Chong

    2017-12-01

    Entangled histories arise when a system partially decoheres in such a way that its past cannot be described by a sequence of states, but rather a superposition of sequences of states. Such entangled histories have not been previously observed. We propose and demonstrate the first experimental scheme to create entangled history states of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) type. In our experiment, the polarization states of a single photon at three different times are prepared as a GHZ entangled history state. We define a GHZ functional which attains a maximum value 1 on the ideal GHZ entangled history state and is bounded above by 1 / 16 for any three-time history state lacking tripartite entanglement. We have measured the GHZ functional on a state we have prepared experimentally, yielding a value of 0 . 656 ± 0 . 005, clearly demonstrating the contribution of entangled histories.

  6. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  7. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears

  8. Facets of tripartite entanglement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum mechanical correlations between results of measurments on entangled ..... It is interesting that motivation underpinning Einstein locality is not the relativistic re- quirement of no faster-than-light signalling but rather a consideration related .... of the relevant studies see, for instance, D Home, Conceptual foundations.

  9. Entanglements in Practice: Performing Anonymity Through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Susan V.; Orlikowski, Wanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems researchers have shown an increasing interest in the notion of sociomateriality. In this paper, we continue this exploration by focusing specifically on entanglement: the inseparability of meaning and matter. Our particular approach is differentiated by its grounding in a relational and performative ontology, and its use of agential realism. We explore some of the key ideas of entanglement through a comparison of two phenomena in the travel sector: an institutionalized acc...

  10. Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erven, Chris; Ma Xiongfeng; Laflamme, Raymond; Weihs, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme that utilizes a biased basis choice in order to increase the efficiency of the scheme. The optimal bias between the two measurement bases, a more refined error analysis and finite key size effects are all studied in order to assure the security of the final key generated with the system. We then implement the scheme in a local entangled QKD system that uses polarization entangled photon pairs to securely distribute the key. A 50/50 non-polarizing beamsplitter (BS) with different optical attenuators is used to simulate a variable BS in order to allow us to study the operation of the system for different biases. Over 6 h of continuous operation with a total bias of 0.9837/0.0163 (Z/X), we were able to generate 0.4567 secure key bits per raw key bit as compared to 0.2550 secure key bits per raw key bit for the unbiased case. This represents an increase in the efficiency of the key generation rate by 79%.

  11. Multipartite entangled quantum states: Transformation, Entanglement monotones and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei

    Entanglement is one of the fundamental features of quantum information science. Though bipartite entanglement has been analyzed thoroughly in theory and shown to be an important resource in quantum computation and communication protocols, the theory of entanglement shared between more than two parties, which is called multipartite entanglement, is still not complete. Specifically, the classification of multipartite entanglement and the transformation property between different multipartite states by local operators and classical communications (LOCC) are two fundamental questions in the theory of multipartite entanglement. In this thesis, we present results related to the LOCC transformation between multipartite entangled states. Firstly, we investigate the bounds on the LOCC transformation probability between multipartite states, especially the GHZ class states. By analyzing the involvement of 3-tangle and other entanglement measures under weak two-outcome measurement, we derive explicit upper and lower bound on the transformation probability between GHZ class states. After that, we also analyze the transformation between N-party W type states, which is a special class of multipartite entangled states that has an explicit unique expression and a set of analytical entanglement monotones. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for a known upper bound of transformation probability between two N-party W type states to be achieved. We also further investigate a novel entanglement transformation protocol, the random distillation, which transforms multipartite entanglement into bipartite entanglement ii shared by a non-deterministic pair of parties. We find upper bounds for the random distillation protocol for general N-party W type states and find the condition for the upper bounds to be achieved. What is surprising is that the upper bounds correspond to entanglement monotones that can be increased by Separable Operators (SEP), which gives the first set of

  12. Universal Quantum Computing with Measurement-Induced Continuous-Variable Gate Sequence in a Loop-Based Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira

    2017-09-22

    We propose a scalable scheme for optical quantum computing using measurement-induced continuous-variable quantum gates in a loop-based architecture. Here, time-bin-encoded quantum information in a single spatial mode is deterministically processed in a nested loop by an electrically programmable gate sequence. This architecture can process any input state and an arbitrary number of modes with almost minimum resources, and offers a universal gate set for both qubits and continuous variables. Furthermore, quantum computing can be performed fault tolerantly by a known scheme for encoding a qubit in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of a single light mode.

  13. Robust control system for belt continuously variable transmission; Robust seigyo wo tekiyoshita mudan hensokuki no hensokuhi servo kei no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, K; Wakahara, T; Shimanaka, S; Yamamoto, M; Oshidari, T [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The continuously variable transmission control system consists of generation of a desired gear ratio and a servo gear ratio system. The servo gear ratio system must provide the desired response at all times without being influenced by external disturbances. These include oil pressure as well as variation in performance due to operating conditions or changes occurring with us. We have developed the servo gear ratio system incorporating a robust model matching method, which enables the belt continuously variable transmission to satisfy this performance requirement. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  14. A 3-D Computational Study of a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) Spanwise Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Upender K.; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2015-01-01

    Results of a computational study carried out to explore the effects of various elastomer configurations joining spanwise contiguous Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) segments are reported here. This research is carried out as a proof-of-concept study that will seek to push the flight envelope in cruise with drag optimization as the objective. The cruise conditions can be well off design such as caused by environmental conditions, maneuvering, etc. To handle these off-design conditions, flap deflection is used so when the flap is deflected in a given direction, the aircraft angle of attack changes accordingly to maintain a given lift. The angle of attack is also a design parameter along with the flap deflection. In a previous 2D study,1 the effect of camber was investigated and the results revealed some insight into the relative merit of various camber settings of the VCCTEF. The present state of the art has not advanced sufficiently to do a full 3-D viscous analysis of the whole NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) wing with VCCTEF deployed with elastomers. Therefore, this study seeks to explore the local effects of three contiguous flap segments on lift and drag of a model devised here to determine possible trades among various flap deflections to achieve desired lift and drag results. Although this approach is an approximation, it provides new insights into the "local" effects of the relative deflections of the contiguous spanwise flap systems and various elastomer segment configurations. The present study is a natural extension of the 2-D study to assess these local 3-D effects. Design cruise condition at 36,000 feet at free stream Mach number of 0.797 and a mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) based Reynolds number of 30.734x10(exp 6) is simulated for an angle of attack (AoA) range of 0 to 6 deg. In the previous 2-D study, the calculations revealed that the parabolic arc camber (1x2x3) and circular arc camber (VCCTEF222) offered the best L

  15. Robust transmission of non-Gaussian entanglement over optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    We show how the entanglement in a wide range of continuous variable non-Gaussian states can be preserved against decoherence for long-range quantum communication through an optical fiber. We apply protection via decoherence-free subspaces and quantum dynamical decoupling to this end. The latter is implemented by inserting phase shifters at regular intervals Δ inside the fiber, where Δ is roughly the ratio of the speed of light in the fiber to the bath high-frequency cutoff. Detailed estimates of relevant parameters are provided using the boson-boson model of system-bath interaction for silica fibers and Δ is found to be on the order of a millimeter

  16. Probabilistic Teleportation of the Three-Particle Entangled State viaEntanglement Swapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路洪

    2001-01-01

    A scheme of teleportation of a three-particle entangled state via entanglement swapping is proposed. It is shown that if a two-particle entangled state and a three-particle entangled state (both are not maximum entangled states) are used as quantum channels, probabilistic teleportation of the three-particle entangled state can be realized.

  17. Entanglement reactivation in separable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Combining two entanglement-breaking channels into a correlated-noise environment restores the distribution of entanglement. Surprisingly, this reactivation can be induced by the injection of separable correlations from the composite environment. In any dimension (finite or infinite), we can construct classically correlated ‘twirling’ environments which are entanglement-breaking in the transmission of single systems but entanglement-preserving when two systems are transmitted. Here entanglement is simply preserved by the existence of decoherence-free subspaces. Remarkably, even when such subspaces do not exist, a fraction of the input entanglement can still be distributed. This is found in separable Gaussian environments, where distillable entanglement is able to survive the two-mode transmission, despite being broken in any single-mode transmission by the strong thermal noise. In the Gaussian setting, entanglement restoration is a threshold process, occurring only after a critical amount of correlations has been injected. Such findings suggest new perspectives for distributing entanglement in realistic environments with extreme decoherence, identifying separable correlations and classical memory effects as physical resources for ‘breaking entanglement-breaking’. (paper)

  18. Modeling and control of a Continuously Variable Transmission in a constant speed power take-off application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aladagli, Irmak; Hofman, Theo; Steinbuch, Maarten; Vroemen, Bas

    2012-01-01

    Traditional control design techniques like manual tuning are widely employed within the Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) industry. However, manual tuning comprises of trial and error and is therefore time consuming. Moreover, the results are likely far from optimal in the sense of some

  19. Braiding transformation, entanglement swapping, and Berry phase in entanglement space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Ge Molin; Xue Kang

    2007-01-01

    We show that braiding transformation is a natural approach to describe quantum entanglement by using the unitary braiding operators to realize entanglement swapping and generate the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as well as the linear cluster states. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary R i,i+1 (θ,φ) matrix, where φ=ωt is time-dependent while θ is time-independent. This in turn allows us to investigate the Berry phase in the entanglement space

  20. The entanglement purification for entangled multi-particle states

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Liu; Guo Guang Can

    2002-01-01

    We present two purification schemes for nonmaximally entangled states. We first show that two parties, Alice and Bob, start with shared less-entangled three-particle states to probabilistically produce a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state by Bell state measurements and positive operator valued measure (POVM) or a unitary transformation. Then, by a straightforward generalization of the schemes, the purification of a multi-particle entangled state can be realized. 25 Refs. --- 35 --- AN

  1. Generation of atom-photon entangled states in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Leman; Zhou Lan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to generate continuous-variable-type entangled states between photons and atoms in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The proposed method involves an atomic BEC with three internal states, a weak quantized probe laser, and a strong classical coupling laser, which form a three-level Λ-shaped BEC system. We consider a situation where the BEC is in electromagnetically induced transparency with the coupling laser being much stronger than the probe laser. In this case, the upper and intermediate levels are unpopulated, so that their adiabatic elimination enables an effective two-mode model involving only the atomic field at the lowest internal level and the quantized probe laser field. Atom-photon quantum entanglement is created through laser-atom and interatomic interactions, and two-photon detuning. We show how to generate atom-photon entangled coherent states and entangled states between photon (atom) coherent states and atom-(photon-) macroscopic quantum superposition (MQS) states, and between photon-MQS and atom-MQS states

  2. A New Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Method Accounting for Discrete and Continuous Variables under Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhong Huang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Various uncertainties are inevitable in complex engineered systems and must be carefully treated in design activities. Reliability-Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (RBMDO has been receiving increasing attention in the past decades to facilitate designing fully coupled systems but also achieving a desired reliability considering uncertainty. In this paper, a new formulation of multidisciplinary design optimization, namely RFCDV (random/fuzzy/continuous/discrete variables Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (RFCDV-MDO, is developed within the framework of Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment (SORA to deal with multidisciplinary design problems in which both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are present. In addition, a hybrid discrete-continuous algorithm is put forth to efficiently solve problems where both discrete and continuous design variables exist. The effectiveness and computational efficiency of the proposed method are demonstrated via a mathematical problem and a pressure vessel design problem.

  3. Entanglement between two interacting CFTs and generalized holographic entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollabashi, Ali; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss behaviors of entanglement entropy between two interacting CFTs and its holographic interpretation using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We explicitly perform analytical calculations of entanglement entropy between two free scalar field theories which are interacting with each other in both static and time-dependent ways. We also conjecture a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy between two interacting N=4 super Yang-Mills theories by introducing a minimal surface in the S 5 direction, instead of the AdS 5 direction. This offers a possible generalization of holographic entanglement entropy

  4. Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, N., E-mail: nmohamed31@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.

  5. Finite entanglement entropy and spectral dimension in quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzano, Michele [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (Italy); Calcagni, Gianluca [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia

    2017-12-15

    What are the conditions on a field theoretic model leading to a finite entanglement entropy density? We prove two very general results: (1) Ultraviolet finiteness of a theory does not guarantee finiteness of the entropy density; (2) If the spectral dimension of the spatial boundary across which the entropy is calculated is non-negative at all scales, then the entanglement entropy cannot be finite. These conclusions, which we verify in several examples, negatively affect all quantum-gravity models, since their spectral dimension is always positive. Possible ways out are considered, including abandoning the definition of the entanglement entropy in terms of the boundary return probability or admitting an analytic continuation (not a regularization) of the usual definition. In the second case, one can get a finite entanglement entropy density in multi-fractional theories and causal dynamical triangulations. (orig.)

  6. Finite entanglement entropy and spectral dimension in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzano, Michele; Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    What are the conditions on a field theoretic model leading to a finite entanglement entropy density? We prove two very general results: (1) Ultraviolet finiteness of a theory does not guarantee finiteness of the entropy density; (2) If the spectral dimension of the spatial boundary across which the entropy is calculated is non-negative at all scales, then the entanglement entropy cannot be finite. These conclusions, which we verify in several examples, negatively affect all quantum-gravity models, since their spectral dimension is always positive. Possible ways out are considered, including abandoning the definition of the entanglement entropy in terms of the boundary return probability or admitting an analytic continuation (not a regularization) of the usual definition. In the second case, one can get a finite entanglement entropy density in multi-fractional theories and causal dynamical triangulations. (orig.)

  7. Finite entanglement entropy and spectral dimension in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-12-01

    What are the conditions on a field theoretic model leading to a finite entanglement entropy density? We prove two very general results: (1) Ultraviolet finiteness of a theory does not guarantee finiteness of the entropy density; (2) If the spectral dimension of the spatial boundary across which the entropy is calculated is non-negative at all scales, then the entanglement entropy cannot be finite. These conclusions, which we verify in several examples, negatively affect all quantum-gravity models, since their spectral dimension is always positive. Possible ways out are considered, including abandoning the definition of the entanglement entropy in terms of the boundary return probability or admitting an analytic continuation (not a regularization) of the usual definition. In the second case, one can get a finite entanglement entropy density in multi-fractional theories and causal dynamical triangulations.

  8. Entangled network and quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, Nasser, E-mail: Nmetwally@gmail.com [Math. Dept., Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Math. Dept., College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2011-11-21

    A theoretical scheme is introduced to generate entangled network via Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction. The dynamics of entanglement between different nodes, which is generated by direct or indirect interaction, is investigated. It is shown that, the direction of (DM) interaction and the locations of the nodes have a sensational effect on the degree of entanglement. The minimum entanglement generated between all the nodes is quantified. The upper and lower bounds of the entanglement depend on the direction of DM interaction, and the repetition of the behavior depends on the strength of DM. The generated entangled nodes are used as quantum channel to perform quantum teleportation, where it is shown that the fidelity of teleporting unknown information between the network members depends on the locations of the members.

  9. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2010-01-01

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  10. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowker, J S, E-mail: dowker@man.ac.u [Theory Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-05

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  11. Inter-Universal Quantum Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, S. J.; González-Díaz, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The boundary conditions to be imposed on the quantum state of the whole multiverse could be such that the universes would be created in entangled pairs. Then, interuniversal entanglement would provide us with a vacuum energy for each single universe that might be fitted with observational data, making testable not only the multiverse proposal but also the boundary conditions of the multiverse. Furthermore, the second law of the entanglement thermodynamics would enhance the expansion of the single universes.

  12. Global entanglement in multiparticle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, David A.; Wallach, Nolan R.

    2002-01-01

    We define a polynomial measure of multiparticle entanglement which is scalable, i.e., which applies to any number of spin-(1/2) particles. By evaluating it for three particle states, for eigenstates of the one dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet and on quantum error correcting code subspaces, we illustrate the extent to which it quantifies global entanglement. We also apply it to track the evolution of entanglement during a quantum computation

  13. Gravity as Quantum Entanglement Force

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2010-01-01

    We conjecture that the total quantum entanglement of matter and vacuum in the universe tends to increase with time, like entropy, and that an effective force is associated with this tendency. We also suggest that gravity and dark energy are types of quantum entanglement forces, similar to Verlinde's entropic force, and give holographic dark energy with an equation of state comparable to current observational data. This connection between quantum entanglement and gravity could give some new in...

  14. Experimental Entanglement Distribution by Separable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Christina E.; Schulze, Daniela; Eberle, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of entanglement between macroscopically separated parties is crucial for future quantum information networks. Surprisingly, it has been theoretically shown that two distant systems can be entangled by sending a third system that is not entangled with either of them. Here, we experimentally distribute entanglement and successfully prove that our transmitted light beam is indeed not entangled with the parties’ local systems. Our work demonstrates an unexpected variant of entanglement distribution and improves the understanding necessary to engineer multipartite quantum networks.

  15. Error exponents for entanglement concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Koashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Keiji; Morikoshi, Fumiaki; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Consider entanglement concentration schemes that convert n identical copies of a pure state into a maximally entangled state of a desired size with success probability being close to one in the asymptotic limit. We give the distillable entanglement, the number of Bell pairs distilled per copy, as a function of an error exponent, which represents the rate of decrease in failure probability as n tends to infinity. The formula fills the gap between the least upper bound of distillable entanglement in probabilistic concentration, which is the well-known entropy of entanglement, and the maximum attained in deterministic concentration. The method of types in information theory enables the detailed analysis of the distillable entanglement in terms of the error rate. In addition to the probabilistic argument, we consider another type of entanglement concentration scheme, where the initial state is deterministically transformed into a (possibly mixed) final state whose fidelity to a maximally entangled state of a desired size converges to one in the asymptotic limit. We show that the same formula as in the probabilistic argument is valid for the argument on fidelity by replacing the success probability with the fidelity. Furthermore, we also discuss entanglement yield when optimal success probability or optimal fidelity converges to zero in the asymptotic limit (strong converse), and give the explicit formulae for those cases

  16. Entanglement in a parametric converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Qamar, Shahid; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk, E-mail: zubairy@physics.tamu.edu

    2008-07-28

    In this paper, we consider a parametric converter as a source of entangled radiation. We examine recently derived conditions (Hillery and Zubairy 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 050503, Duan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) for determining when the two output modes in a parametric converter are entangled. We show that for different initial field states, the two criteria give different conditions that ensure that the output states are entangled. We also present an input-output calculation for the entanglement of the output field.

  17. Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shih, Yanhua

    1999-01-01

    The project 'Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation' concerns a series of experimental and theoretical investigations on multi-photon entangled states and the applications, for example...

  18. Absolutely continuous functions of two variables in the sense of Carathéodory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šremr, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 154 (2010), s. 1-11 ISSN 1072-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : absolutely continuous function * Carathéodory sense * integral representation * derivative of double integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. Standard forms and entanglement engineering of multimode Gaussian states under local operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the action of local unitary operations on multimode (pure or mixed) Gaussian states and single out the minimal number of locally invariant parameters which completely characterize the covariance matrix of such states. For pure Gaussian states, central resources for continuous-variable quantum information, we investigate separately the parameter reduction due to the additional constraint of global purity, and the one following by the local-unitary freedom. Counting arguments and insights from the phase-space Schmidt decomposition and in general from the framework of symplectic analysis, accompany our description of the standard form of pure n-mode Gaussian states. In particular, we clarify why only in pure states with n ≤ 3 modes all the direct correlations between position and momentum operators can be set to zero by local unitary operations. For any n, the emerging minimal set of parameters contains complete information about all forms of entanglement in the corresponding states. An efficient state engineering scheme (able to encode direct correlations between position and momentum operators as well) is proposed to produce entangled multimode Gaussian resources, its number of optical elements matching the minimal number of locally invariant degrees of freedom of general pure n-mode Gaussian states. Finally, we demonstrate that so-called 'block-diagonal' Gaussian states, without direct correlations between position and momentum, are systematically less entangled, on average, than arbitrary pure Gaussian states

  20. Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hong-Xin; Bao Wan-Su; Li Hong-Wei; Chou Chun

    2016-01-01

    We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. (paper)

  1. Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xin; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Chou, Chun

    2016-08-01

    We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304397 and 61505261).

  2. Continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Jing

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics. The quantum cloning machine yields M identical optimal clones from N replicas of a coherent state and N replicas of its phase conjugate. This scheme can be straightforwardly implemented with the setups accessible at present since its optical implementation only employs simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. Compared with the original scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning with phase-conjugate input modes proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)], which utilized a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier, our scheme loses the output of phase-conjugate clones and is regarded as irreversible quantum cloning

  3. Security proof of continuous-variable quantum key distribution using three coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brádler, Kamil; Weedbrook, Christian

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a ternary quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol and asymptotic security proof based on three coherent states and homodyne detection. Previous work had considered the binary case of two coherent states and here we nontrivially extend this to three. Our motivation is to leverage the practical benefits of both discrete and continuous (Gaussian) encoding schemes creating a best-of-both-worlds approach; namely, the postprocessing of discrete encodings and the hardware benefits of continuous ones. We present a thorough and detailed security proof in the limit of infinite signal states which allows us to lower bound the secret key rate. We calculate this is in the context of collective eavesdropping attacks and reverse reconciliation postprocessing. Finally, we compare the ternary coherent state protocol to other well-known QKD schemes (and fundamental repeaterless limits) in terms of secret key rates and loss.

  4. Partial recovery of entanglement in bipartite-entanglement transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani; Vatan, Farrokh

    2002-01-01

    Any deterministic bipartite-entanglement transformation involving finite copies of pure states and carried out using local operations and classical communication (LOCC) results in a net loss of entanglement. We show that for almost all such transformations, partial recovery of lost entanglement is achievable by using 2x2 auxiliary entangled states, no matter how large the dimensions of the parent states are. For the rest of the special cases of deterministic LOCC transformations, we show that the dimension of the auxiliary entangled state depends on the presence of equalities in the majorization relations of the parent states. We show that genuine recovery is still possible using auxiliary states in dimensions less than that of the parent states for all patterns of majorization relations except only one special case

  5. An innovative statistical approach for analysing non-continuous variables in environmental monitoring: assessing temporal trends of TBT pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José António; Galante-Oliveira, Susana; Barroso, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    The current work presents an innovative statistical approach to model ordinal variables in environmental monitoring studies. An ordinal variable has values that can only be compared as "less", "equal" or "greater" and it is not possible to have information about the size of the difference between two particular values. The example of ordinal variable under this study is the vas deferens sequence (VDS) used in imposex (superimposition of male sexual characters onto prosobranch females) field assessment programmes for monitoring tributyltin (TBT) pollution. The statistical methodology presented here is the ordered logit regression model. It assumes that the VDS is an ordinal variable whose values match up a process of imposex development that can be considered continuous in both biological and statistical senses and can be described by a latent non-observable continuous variable. This model was applied to the case study of Nucella lapillus imposex monitoring surveys conducted in the Portuguese coast between 2003 and 2008 to evaluate the temporal evolution of TBT pollution in this country. In order to produce more reliable conclusions, the proposed model includes covariates that may influence the imposex response besides TBT (e.g. the shell size). The model also provides an analysis of the environmental risk associated to TBT pollution by estimating the probability of the occurrence of females with VDS ≥ 2 in each year, according to OSPAR criteria. We consider that the proposed application of this statistical methodology has a great potential in environmental monitoring whenever there is the need to model variables that can only be assessed through an ordinal scale of values.

  6. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2009-02-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.

  7. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-02-06

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.

  8. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics

  9. Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougouffa, Smail; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four-qubit system and we demonstrate the conditions under which the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of non-zero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. Complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes, with transfer to the other pairs being limited to 50%. We find that complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of qubits may take place if the initial state is not the maximally entangled state and the atoms couple to the cavity modes with unequal strengths. Depending on the ratio between the coupling strengths, optimal entanglement can be created between the atoms and one of the cavity modes.

  10. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  11. Spin-photon entangling diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control of t...

  12. A simple technique for continuous measurement of time-variable gas transfer in surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Craig R.; Bohlke, John Karl; Harvey, Judson W.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2009-01-01

    Mass balance models of dissolved gases in streams, lakes, and rivers serve as the basis for estimating wholeecosystem rates for various biogeochemical processes. Rates of gas exchange between water and the atmosphere are important and error-prone components of these models. Here we present a simple and efficient modification of the SF6 gas tracer approach that can be used concurrently while collecting other dissolved gas samples for dissolved gas mass balance studies in streams. It consists of continuously metering SF6-saturated water directly into the stream at a low rate of flow. This approach has advantages over pulse injection of aqueous solutions or bubbling large amounts of SF6 into the stream. By adding the SF6 as a saturated solution, we minimize the possibility that other dissolved gas measurements are affected by sparging and/or bubble injecta. Because the SF6 is added continuously we have a record of changing gas transfer velocity (GTV) that is contemporaneous with the sampling of other nonconservative ambient dissolved gases. Over a single diel period, a 30% variation in GTV was observed in a second-order stream (Sugar Creek, Indiana, USA). The changing GTV could be attributed in part to changes in temperature and windspeed that occurred on hourly to diel timescales.

  13. Intergenerational continuity in attitudes: A latent variable family fixed-effects approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Abraham, W Todd

    2017-12-01

    Attitudes are associated with behavior. Adolescents raised by parents who endorse particular attitudes are relatively more likely to endorse those same attitudes. The present study addresses conditions that would moderate intergenerational continuity in attitudes across 6 domains: authoritative parenting, conventional life goals, gender egalitarianism, deviancy, abortion, and sexual permissiveness. Hypothesized moderators included the attitudes of the other parent, and adolescent sex. Data come from a 2-generation study of a cohort of 451 adolescents (52% female), a close-aged sibling, and their parents. After employing a novel specification in which family fixed-effect models partitioned out variation at the between-family level, hypotheses were tested on the within-family variance. Unlike typical family fixed-effect models, this specification accounted for measurement error. Intergenerational continuity was not significant (deviancy), negative (sexual permissiveness), and conditional on the attitudes of the coparent (authoritative parenting, conventional life goals, and gender egalitarianism). Adolescent age, sex, and conscientiousness were accounted for in all analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Entanglement and co-tunneling of two equivalent protons in hydrogen bond pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedarchina, Zorka; Siebrand, Willem; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    A theoretical study is reported of a system of two identical symmetric hydrogen bonds, weakly coupled such that the two mobile protons can move either separately (stepwise) or together (concerted). It is modeled by two equivalent quartic potentials interacting through dipolar and quadrupolar coupling terms. The tunneling Hamiltonian has two imaginary modes (reaction coordinates) and a potential with a single maximum that may turn into a saddle-point of second order and two sets of (inequivalent) minima. Diagonalization is achieved via a modified Jacobi-Davidson algorithm. From this Hamiltonian the mechanism of proton transfer is derived. To find out whether the two protons move stepwise or concerted, a new tool is introduced, based on the distribution of the probability flux in the dividing plane of the transfer mode. While stepwise transfer dominates for very weak coupling, it is found that concerted transfer (co-tunneling) always occurs, even when the coupling vanishes since the symmetry of the Hamiltonian imposes permanent entanglement on the motions of the two protons. We quantify this entanglement and show that, for a wide range of parameters of interest, the lowest pair of states of the Hamiltonian represents a perfect example of highly entangled quantum states in continuous variables. The method is applied to the molecule porphycene for which the observed tunneling splitting is calculated in satisfactory agreement with experiment, and the mechanism of double-proton tunneling is found to be predominantly concerted. We show that, under normal conditions, when they are in the ground state, the two porphycene protons are highly entangled, which may have interesting applications. The treatment also identifies the conditions under which such a system can be handled by conventional one-instanton techniques.

  15. Entanglement entropy and duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radičević, Ðorđe [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    Using the algebraic approach to entanglement entropy, we study several dual pairs of lattice theories and show how the entropy is completely preserved across each duality. Our main result is that a maximal algebra of observables in a region typically dualizes to a non-maximal algebra in a dual region. In particular, we show how the usual notion of tracing out external degrees of freedom dualizes to a tracing out coupled to an additional summation over superselection sectors. We briefly comment on possible extensions of our results to more intricate dualities, including holographic ones.

  16. High dimensional entanglement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info McLaren_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2190 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name McLaren_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 High dimensional... entanglement M. McLAREN1,2, F.S. ROUX1 & A. FORBES1,2,3 1. CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 2. School of Physics, University of the Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 7602, Matieland 3. School of Physics, University of Kwazulu...

  17. Spacetime equals entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasunori [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Salzetta, Nico, E-mail: nsalzetta@berkeley.edu [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We study the Hilbert space structure of classical spacetimes under the assumption that entanglement in holographic theories determines semiclassical geometry. We show that this simple assumption has profound implications; for example, a superposition of classical spacetimes may lead to another classical spacetime. Despite its unconventional nature, this picture admits the standard interpretation of superpositions of well-defined semiclassical spacetimes in the limit that the number of holographic degrees of freedom becomes large. We illustrate these ideas using a model for the holographic theory of cosmological spacetimes.

  18. Saddlepoint expansions for sums of Markov dependent variables on a continuous state space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the conjugate kernel studied in Iscoe et al. (1985) we derive saddlepoint expansions for either the density or distribution function of a sum f(X1)+...+f(Xn), where the Xi's constitute a Markov chain. The chain is assumed to satisfy a strong recurrence condition which makes the results...... here very similar to the classical results for i.i.d. variables. In particular we establish also conditions under which the expansions hold uniformly over the range of the saddlepoint. Expansions are also derived for sums of the form f(X1, X0)+f(X2, X1)+...+f(Xn, Xn-1) although the uniformity result...

  19. Raw material variability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and its relevance for processability in secondary continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, F; Vanhoorne, V; Pilcer, G; Chavez, P-F; Rome, S; Schubert, M A; Aerts, L; De Beer, T

    2018-06-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) raw material variability is not always thoroughly considered during pharmaceutical process development, mainly due to low quantities of drug substance available. However, synthesis, crystallization routes and production sites evolve during product development and product life cycle leading to changes in physical material attributes which can potentially affect their processability. Recent literature highlights the need for a global approach to understand the link between material synthesis, material variability, process and product quality. The study described in this article aims at explaining the raw material variability of an API using extensive material characterization on a restricted number of representative batches using multivariate data analysis. It is part of a larger investigation trying to link the API drug substance manufacturing process, the resulting physical API raw material attributes and the drug product continuous manufacturing process. Eight API batches produced using different synthetic routes, crystallization, drying, delumping processes and processing equipment were characterized, extensively. Seventeen properties from seven characterization techniques were retained for further analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Three principal components (PCs) were sufficient to explain 92.9% of the API raw material variability. The first PC was related to crystal length, agglomerate size and fraction, flowability and electrostatic charging. The second PC was driven by the span of the particle size distribution and the agglomerates strength. The third PC was related to surface energy. Additionally, the PCA allowed to summarize the API batch-to-batch variability in only three PCs which can be used in future drug product development studies to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the API raw material variability upon the drug product process. The approach described in this article could be applied to any

  20. Association between the extent of urinary albumin excretion and glycaemic variability indices measured by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S-M; Kim, T-H; Oh, S; Baek, J; Joung, J Y; Park, S-M; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Lee, M-S; Lee, M-K; Kim, J H

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of glycaemic variability to the microvascular complication of diabetes has not been established. We examined whether there is an independent association between indices of glycaemic variability in continuous glucose monitoring and extent of albuminuria. A total of 173 patients with Type 2 diabetes (without insulin therapy, n = 96; with insulin therapy, n = 77) who had unexplained large fluctuations in blood glucose values underwent three-day continuous glucose monitoring. We used a multinomial logistic regression model to determine whether the indices of glycaemic variability independently affected the odds of having a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g and ≥ 300 mg/g. Higher standard deviation (P = 0.002), mean of daily differences (P = 0.023) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (P = 0.043) significantly increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g. In multivariable analysis, only higher standard deviation, but not mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion and mean of daily differences, independently increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g (P = 0.025). Coefficient of variation (sd/mean) was not associated with the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 or ≥ 300 mg/g. The independent association between standard deviation and the extent of albuminuria was lost when the measures were normalized by mean glucose level. At least in terms of relative measures of glycaemic variability, we failed to demonstrate an independent association between glycaemic variability and albuminuria extent in patients with inadequately controlled Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  1. The VSPA Foot: A Quasi-Passive Ankle-Foot Prosthesis With Continuously Variable Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Max K; Rouse, Elliott J

    2017-12-01

    Most commercially available prosthetic feet do not exhibit a biomimetic torque-angle relationship, and are unable to modulate their mechanics to assist with other mobility tasks, such as stairs and ramps. In this paper, we present a quasi-passive ankle-foot prosthesis with a customizable torque-angle curve and an ability to quickly modulate ankle stiffness between tasks. The customizable torque-angle curve is obtained with a cam-based transmission and a fiberglass leaf spring. To achieve variable stiffness, the leaf spring's support conditions can be actively modulated by a small motor, shifting the torque-angle curve to be more or less stiff. We introduce the design, characterize the available torque-angle curves, and present kinematics from a transtibial amputee subject performing level-ground walking, stair ascent/descent, and ramp ascent/descent. The subject exhibited a more normative range of motion on stairs and ramps at lower stiffness levels, and preferred different stiffness levels for each task. Paired with an appropriate intent recognition system, our novel ankle prosthesis could improve gait biomechanics during walking and many other mobility tasks.

  2. Experimental verification and comparison of the rubber V- belt continuously variable transmission models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegożek, W.; Dobaj, K.; Kot, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper includes the analysis of the rubber V-belt cooperation with the CVT transmission pulleys. The analysis of the forces and torques acting in the CVT transmission was conducted basing on calculated characteristics of the centrifugal regulator and the torque regulator. The accurate estimation of the regulator surface curvature allowed for calculation of the relation between the driving wheel axial force, the engine rotational speed and the gear ratio of the CVT transmission. Simplified analytical models of the rubber V-belt- pulley cooperation are based on three basic approaches. The Dittrich model assumes two contact regions on the driven and driving wheel. The Kim-Kim model considers, in addition to the previous model, also the radial friction. The radial friction results in the lack of the developed friction area on the driving pulley. The third approach, formulated in the Cammalleri model, assumes variable sliding angle along the wrap arch and describes it as a result the belt longitudinal and cross flexibility. Theoretical torque on the driven and driving wheel was calculated on the basis of the known regulators characteristics. The calculated torque was compared to the measured loading torque. The best accordance, referring to the centrifugal regulator range of work, was obtained for the Kim-Kim model.

  3. Entanglements in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Renxuan; Lee, Youngmin; Aplan, Melissa; Caggiano, Nick; Gomez, Enrique; Colby, Ralph

    Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and poly-((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (PFTBT), are widely used as hole and electron transport materials in a variety of electronic devices. However, fundamental knowledge regarding chain entanglements and nematic-to-isotropic transition is still lacking and are crucial to maximize charge transport properties. A systematic melt rheology study on P3HT with various molecular weights and regio regularities was performed. We find that the entanglement molecular weight Me is 5.0 kg/mol for regiorandom P3HT, but the apparent Me for regioregular P3HT is significantly higher. The difference is postulated to arise from the presence of a nematic phase only in regioregular P3HT. Analogously, PFTBT shows a clear rheological signature of the nematic-to-isotropic transition as a reversible sharp transition at 278 C. Shearing of this nematic phase leads to anisotropic crystalline order in PFTBT. We postulate that aligning the microstructure will impact charge transport and thereby advance the field of conducting polymers. National Science Foundation.

  4. Quantum separability and entanglement detection via entanglement-witness search and global optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou, Lawrence M.; Travaglione, Benjamin C.

    2006-01-01

    We focus on determining the separability of an unknown bipartite quantum state ρ by invoking a sufficiently large subset of all possible entanglement witnesses given the expected value of each element of a set of mutually orthogonal observables. We review the concept of an entanglement witness from the geometrical point of view and use this geometry to show that the set of separable states is not a polytope and to characterize the class of entanglement witnesses (observables) that detect entangled states on opposite sides of the set of separable states. All this serves to motivate a classical algorithm which, given the expected values of a subset of an orthogonal basis of observables of an otherwise unknown quantum state, searches for an entanglement witness in the span of the subset of observables. The idea of such an algorithm, which is an efficient reduction of the quantum separability problem to a global optimization problem, was introduced by [Ioannou et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 060303(R)], where it was shown to be an improvement on the naive approach for the quantum separability problem (exhaustive search for a decomposition of the given state into a convex combination of separable states). The last section of the paper discusses in more generality such algorithms, which, in our case, assume a subroutine that computes the global maximum of a real function of several variables. Despite this, we anticipate that such algorithms will perform sufficiently well on small instances that they will render a feasible test for separability in some cases of interest (e.g., in 3x3 dimensional systems)

  5. Teleporting entanglement during black hole evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brustein, Ram [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Medved, A.J.M. [Department of Physics & Electronics, Rhodes University,Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP),Western Cape 7602 (South Africa)

    2016-10-06

    The unitary evaporation of a black hole (BH) in an initially pure state must lead to the eventual purification of the emitted radiation. It follows that the late radiation has to be entangled with the early radiation and, as a consequence, the entanglement among the Hawking pair partners has to decrease continuously from maximal to vanishing during the BH’s life span. Starting from the basic premise that both the horizon radius and the center of mass of a finite-mass BH are fluctuating quantum mechanically, we show how this process is realized. First, it is shown that the horizon fluctuations induce a small amount of variance in the total linear momentum of each created pair. This is in contrast to the case of an infinitely massive BH, for which the total momentum of the produced pair vanishes exactly on account of momentum conservation. This variance leads to a random recoil of the BH during each emission and, as a result, the center of mass of the BH undergoes a quantum random walk. Consequently, the uncertainty in its momentum grows as the square root of the number of emissions. We then show that this uncertainty controls the amount of deviation from maximal entanglement of the produced pairs and that this deviation is determined by the ratio of the cumulative number of emitted particles to the initial BH entropy. Thus, the interplay between the horizon and center-of-mass fluctuations provides a mechanism for teleporting entanglement from the pair partners to the BH and the emitted radiation.

  6. Teleporting entanglement during black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The unitary evaporation of a black hole (BH) in an initially pure state must lead to the eventual purification of the emitted radiation. It follows that the late radiation has to be entangled with the early radiation and, as a consequence, the entanglement among the Hawking pair partners has to decrease continuously from maximal to vanishing during the BH’s life span. Starting from the basic premise that both the horizon radius and the center of mass of a finite-mass BH are fluctuating quantum mechanically, we show how this process is realized. First, it is shown that the horizon fluctuations induce a small amount of variance in the total linear momentum of each created pair. This is in contrast to the case of an infinitely massive BH, for which the total momentum of the produced pair vanishes exactly on account of momentum conservation. This variance leads to a random recoil of the BH during each emission and, as a result, the center of mass of the BH undergoes a quantum random walk. Consequently, the uncertainty in its momentum grows as the square root of the number of emissions. We then show that this uncertainty controls the amount of deviation from maximal entanglement of the produced pairs and that this deviation is determined by the ratio of the cumulative number of emitted particles to the initial BH entropy. Thus, the interplay between the horizon and center-of-mass fluctuations provides a mechanism for teleporting entanglement from the pair partners to the BH and the emitted radiation.

  7. Graphical Classification of Entangled Qutrits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Honda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A multipartite quantum state is entangled if it is not separable. Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in many applications of quantum information theory, such as quantum teleportation. Stochastic local quantum operations and classical communication (SLOCC cannot essentially change quantum entanglement without destroying it. Therefore, entanglement can be classified by dividing quantum states into equivalence classes, where two states are equivalent if each can be converted into the other by SLOCC. Properties of this classification, especially in the case of non two-dimensional quantum systems, have not been well studied. Graphical representation is sometimes used to clarify the nature and structural features of entangled states. SLOCC equivalence of quantum bits (qubits has been described graphically via a connection between tripartite entangled qubit states and commutative Frobenius algebras (CFAs in monoidal categories. In this paper, we extend this method to qutrits, i.e., systems that have three basis states. We examine the correspondence between CFAs and tripartite entangled qutrits. Using the symmetry property, which is required by the definition of a CFA, we find that there are only three equivalence classes that correspond to CFAs. We represent qutrits graphically, using the connection to CFAs. We derive equations that characterize the three equivalence classes. Moreover, we show that any qutrit can be represented as a composite of three graphs that correspond to the three classes.

  8. Entanglement in a Dimerized Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Xiang; Zhu, Shiqun

    2008-01-01

    The entanglement properties in an antiferromagnetic dimerized Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain are investigated. The entanglement gap, which is the difference between the ground-state energy and the minimal energy that any separable state can attain, is calculated to detect the entanglement. It is found that the entanglement gap can be increased by varying the alternation parameter. Through thermal energy, the witness of the entanglement can determine a characteristic temperature below that an entan...

  9. Local cloning of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  10. Discrete factor approximations in simultaneous equation models: estimating the impact of a dummy endogenous variable on a continuous outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, T A

    1999-10-01

    This paper contains a Monte Carlo evaluation of estimators used to control for endogeneity of dummy explanatory variables in continuous outcome regression models. When the true model has bivariate normal disturbances, estimators using discrete factor approximations compare favorably to efficient estimators in terms of precision and bias; these approximation estimators dominate all the other estimators examined when the disturbances are non-normal. The experiments also indicate that one should liberally add points of support to the discrete factor distribution. The paper concludes with an application of the discrete factor approximation to the estimation of the impact of marriage on wages.

  11. Design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for an automotive vehicle. Phase IV. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-31

    Progress in the design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for an automotive vehicle is reported. The Major automotive hydromechanical transmission development problem continues to be the reduction of hydrostatic noise and the project plan, therefore, concentrated on the new hydrostatic module. The potential for achieving acceptably low noise levels in the second generation hydromechanical transmission is to be assessed by comparing the noise levels of the hydrostatic modules for the first and second generation transmissions. A set of twelve test points was selected comprising of road load steady state and wide-open-throttle acceleration at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mph. The module operating conditions for the two transmissions at each of these twelve points were calculated. Baseline noise data was measured on the first generation module. The results are given testing of co-axial hydrostatic module for second generation hydromechanical transmission will be emphasized. (LCL)

  12. Zero modes and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-04-26

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  13. Slow Images and Entangled Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swordy, Simon

    2007-01-01

    I will discuss some recent experiments using slow light and entangled photons. We recently showed that it was possible to map a two dimensional image onto very low light level signals, slow them down in a hot atomic vapor while preserving the amplitude and phase of the images. If time remains, I will discuss some of our recent work with time-energy entangled photons for quantum cryptography. We were able to show that we could have a measurable state space of over 1000 states for a single pair of entangled photons in fiber.

  14. Teleportation of Squeezed Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-Yun; ZHOU Nan-Run

    2007-01-01

    Based on the coherent entangled state |α, x> we introduce the squeezed entangled state (SES). Then we propose a teleportation protocol for the SES by using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state |η>as a quantum channel.The calculation is greatly simplified by virtue of the Schmidt decompositions of both |α, x>and |η>. Any bipartite states that can be expanded in terms of |α, x>may be teleported in this way due to the completeness of |α, x>.

  15. Bound entanglement and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Zukowski, Marek; Gnacinski, Piotr

    2002-01-01

    We show using a numerical approach, which gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of local realism, that the bound entangled state presented in Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)] admits a local and realistic description. We also find the lowest possible amount of some appropriate entangled state that must be ad-mixed to the bound entangled state so that the resulting density operator has no local and realistic description and as such can be useful in quantum communication and quantum computation

  16. "The relationship between pharmacokinetic variables and pharmacodynamic profiles of bolus versus continuous infusion of furosemide in critically ill patients"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the pharmacokinetic variables of continuous infusion and intermittent bolus injection of furosemide and the possible relationship between its pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacodynamic profile among intensive care unit (ICU patients were studied. In this prospective, randomized, clinical trial, twelve patients received IV bolus of 20 mg of the drug during 3 hours period and, the drug dose was doubled, when the urine output was less than 1 ml/kg/h (group 1. The other nine patients received a continuous intravenous furosemide infusion at the rate of 0.1 mg/kg/h (group 2. The amount of furosemide in serum was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results showed a positive correlation between plasma clearance of furosemide and its diuretic activity (P=0.01. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Vd (l, CL (ml/min, Ke (min-1 and t½ (min in continuous infusion patients were not significantly differed from the bolus patients (P-values 0.5, 0.9, 0.9,0.9, respectively. Nevertheless the observed plasma clearance of drug in the continuous infusion group was clinically higher than bolus injection group and as a result the cumulative urine output per hour per mg of furosemide in a continuous infusion was observed to be higher than bolus(P=0.2. Changes in serum sodium and potassium were similar for both groups, but bolus injection patients were associated with higher potassium depletion (P=0.001. Therefore, continuous infusion seems to be better means of diuretic therapy in critically ill patients.

  17. Marital stability, satisfaction and well-being in old age: variability and continuity in long-term continuously married older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margelisch, Katja; Schneewind, Klaus A; Violette, Jeanine; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina

    2017-04-01

    Recent research shows that the well-documented positive effects of marital stability on well-being and health outcomes are conditional upon the quality of marriage. To date, few studies have explored the relationship between marital satisfaction, well-being and health among very long-term married individuals. This study aims at identifying groups of long-term married persons with respect to marital satisfaction and comparing them longitudinally concerning their well-being outcomes, marital stressors, personality and socio-demographic variables. Data are derived from a survey (data collection 2012 and 2014) with 374 continuously married individuals at wave 1 (mean age: 74.2 years, length of marriage: 49.2 years) and 252 at wave 2. Cluster analyses were performed comparing the clusters with regard to various well-being outcomes. The predictive power of cluster affiliation and various predictors at wave 1 on well-being outcomes at wave 2 was tested using regression analyses. Two groups were identified, one happily the other unhappily married, with the happily married scoring higher on all well-being and health outcomes. Regression analyses revealed that group affiliation at wave 1 was not any longer predictive of health, emotional loneliness and hopelessness two years later, when taking into account socio-demographic variables, psychological resilience and marital strain, whereas it remained an important predictor of life satisfaction and social loneliness. Marital satisfaction is associated with health and well-being in older couples over time, whereas psychological resilience and marital strain are major predictors explaining the variance of these outcomes.

  18. Formulation and solutions of fractional continuously variable order mass–spring–damper systems controlled by viscoelastic and viscous–viscoelastic dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saha Ray

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the formulation and a new approach to find analytic solutions for fractional continuously variable order dynamic models, namely, fractional continuously variable order mass–spring–damper systems. Here, we use the viscoelastic and viscous–viscoelastic dampers for describing the damping nature of the oscillating systems, where the order of fractional derivative varies continuously. Here, we handle the continuous changing nature of fractional order derivative for dynamic systems, which has not been studied yet. By successive recursive method, here we find the solution of fractional continuously variable order mass–spring–damper systems and then obtain closed-form solutions. We then present and discuss the solutions obtained in the cases with continuously variable order of damping for oscillator through graphical plots.

  19. Trends and interventions in large whale entanglement along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generalised linear models with a Poisson or quasi-Poisson distribution were used to describe the relationship between the number of incidents and time. Taking into account the combined length of shark-net installations per year as an offset variable, entanglement of humpback whales in shark nets increased at 15.1% per ...

  20. A dualism in entanglement and testing quantum identicity of macroscopic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.; Home, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Identical quantum objects are known to behave very differently from their classical counterparts by exhibiting bosonic/fermionic statistics. We present another consequence of the impossibility of distinguishing identical quantum objects through their superselected innate attributes. If two quantum objects distinguished through a dynamical variable A are entangled in another dynamical variable B, then (under certain conditions) they are also entangled in variable A when distinguished from each other by variable B. This dualism is independent of and more general than quantum statistics. We formulate a general scheme to test this dualism through polarization entangled photons. The dualism enables one to use prior entanglement to avoid scattering while probing the identicity of two mutually interacting, even macroscopic objects. It thus opens the way for studying the quantum to classical transition of identicity. (author)

  1. Qutrits and ququarts in spontaneous parametric down-conversion, correlations and entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. V., E-mail: fedorovmv@gmail.com; Volkov, P. A.; Milhailova, J. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-15

    We investigate features of biphoton qutrits and ququarts with the symmetry of biphoton wavefunctions fully taken into account. Entanglement quantifiers of such states are found as functions of qutrit and ququart parameters. For biphoton qutrits, a general relation between degrees of entanglement and polarization is established. In the case of biphoton ququarts, photon frequencies are considered as variables independent of polarization variables, with both polarization and frequency degrees of freedom equally contributing to the total ququart entanglement. Averaging over one of these two degrees of freedom is shown to reduce pure ququart states to mixed two-qubit states. The degree of polarization and degrees of correlations in mixed polarization states are investigated.

  2. Entangled Bessel-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available by performing a Bell-type experiment and showing a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition, we use quantum state tomography to indicate higher-dimensional entanglement in terms of BG modes....

  3. Gaussian entanglement distribution via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In this work we analyze three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme, the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the tradeoff between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation.

  4. Quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distance particles. The ''ghost'' interference and the ''ghost'' image experiments demonstrated the astonishing nonlocal behavior of an entangled photon pair. Even though we still have questions in regard to fundamental issues of the entangled quantum systems, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in quantum information and quantum computation. Quantum teleportation is one of the hot topics. We have demonstrated a quantum teleportation experiment recently. The experimental results proved the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary quantum state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that the complete set of Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a quantum state can thus occur with certainty in principle. (orig.)

  5. Entanglement scaling in lattice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, K M R [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Cramer, M [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Eisert, J [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    We review some recent rigorous results on scaling laws of entanglement properties in quantum many body systems. More specifically, we study the entanglement of a region with its surrounding and determine its scaling behaviour with its size for systems in the ground and thermal states of bosonic and fermionic lattice systems. A theorem connecting entanglement between a region and the rest of the lattice with the surface area of the boundary between the two regions is presented for non-critical systems in arbitrary spatial dimensions. The entanglement scaling in the field limit exhibits a peculiar difference between fermionic and bosonic systems. In one-spatial dimension a logarithmic divergence is recovered for both bosonic and fermionic systems. In two spatial dimensions in the setting of half-spaces however we observe strict area scaling for bosonic systems and a multiplicative logarithmic correction to such an area scaling in fermionic systems. Similar questions may be posed and answered in classical systems.

  6. Transverse correlations in multiphoton entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the transverse correlation in multiphoton entanglement. The generalization of quantum ghost imaging is extended to the N-photon state. The Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is generalized to the N-photon case

  7. Entanglement distribution in quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perseguers, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a

  8. Entanglement distribution in quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perseguers, Sebastien

    2010-04-15

    This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a

  9. Estimating localizable entanglement from witnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, David; Müller, Markus; Pal, Amit Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Computing localizable entanglement for noisy many-particle quantum states is difficult due to the optimization over all possible sets of local projection measurements. Therefore, it is crucial to develop lower bounds, which can provide useful information about the behaviour of localizable entanglement, and which can be determined by measuring a limited number of operators, or by performing least number of measurements on the state, preferably without performing a full state tomography. In thi...

  10. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Huangjun; Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2009-01-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic c...

  11. Analysis of transverse vibration and stability issues of discrete-continuous elastic systems with nonlinearly variable parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroszewicz Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to methods of analysis of vibrations and stability of discrete-continuous, multi-parameter models of beams, shafts, rotors, vanes, converting to homogeneous and one-dimensional. The properties of Cauchy's influence function and the characteristic series method were used to solve the boundary problem. It has been shown that the methods are an effective tool for solving boundary problems described by ordinary fourth-and second-order differential equations with variable parameters. Particular attention should be paid to the solution of the border problem of two-parameter elastic systems with variable distribution of parameters. Universal beam-specific equations with typical support conditions including vertical support, which do not depend on beam shape and axial load type, are recorded. The shape and type of load are considered in the form of an impact function that corresponds to any change in cross-section of the support and continuous axial load, so that the functions describing the stiffness, the mass and the continuous load are complete. As a result of the solution of the boundary vibration problem of freely bent support and any change in its cross-section, loaded with any longitudinal load, arranged on the resilient substrate, strict relations between the own frequency parameters and the load parameters were derived. Using the methods, simple calculations were made, easy to use in engineering practice and conditions of use were given. Experimental studies have confirmed the high accuracy of theoretical calculations using the proposed methods and formulas.

  12. Entanglement as a signature of quantum chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ghose, Shohini; Sanders, Barry C; Hu, Bambi

    2004-01-01

    We explore the dynamics of entanglement in classically chaotic systems by considering a multiqubit system that behaves collectively as a spin system obeying the dynamics of the quantum kicked top. In the classical limit, the kicked top exhibits both regular and chaotic dynamics depending on the strength of the chaoticity parameter kappa in the Hamiltonian. We show that the entanglement of the multiqubit system, considered for both the bipartite and the pairwise entanglement, yields a signature of quantum chaos. Whereas bipartite entanglement is enhanced in the chaotic region, pairwise entanglement is suppressed. Furthermore, we define a time-averaged entangling power and show that this entangling power changes markedly as kappa moves the system from being predominantly regular to being predominantly chaotic, thus sharply identifying the edge of chaos. When this entangling power is averaged over all states, it yields a signature of global chaos. The qualitative behavior of this global entangling power is similar to that of the classical Lyapunov exponent.

  13. Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. → We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. → We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. → We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.

  14. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  15. Polarization squeezing and entanglement produced by a frequency doubler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben

    2003-01-01

    The quantum mechanical polarization properties of a nondegenerate second harmonic generator, where a nonlinear type II crystal is placed inside a cavity, are investigated theoretically. We demonstrate the possibility of strong squeezing of the continuous Stokes parameters as well as strong...... entanglement between them....

  16. Spatial EPR entanglement in atomic vapor quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parniak, Michal; Dabrowski, Michal; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    Spatially-structured quantum states of light are staring to play a key role in modern quantum science with the rapid development of single-photon sensitive cameras. In particular, spatial degree of freedom holds a promise to enhance continous-variable quantum memories. Here we present the first demonstration of spatial entanglement between an atomic spin-wave and a photon measured with an I-sCMOS camera. The system is realized in a warm atomic vapor quantum memory based on rubidium atoms immersed in inert buffer gas. In the experiment we create and characterize a 12-dimensional entangled state exhibiting quantum correlations between a photon and an atomic ensemble in position and momentum bases. This state allows us to demonstrate the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in its original version, with an unprecedented delay time of 6 μs between generation of entanglement and detection of the atomic state.

  17. Universal analytical scattering form factor for shell-, core-shell, or homogeneous particles with continuously variable density profile shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tobias

    2011-09-01

    A novel analytical and continuous density distribution function with a widely variable shape is reported and used to derive an analytical scattering form factor that allows us to universally describe the scattering from particles with the radial density profile of homogeneous spheres, shells, or core-shell particles. Composed by the sum of two Fermi-Dirac distribution functions, the shape of the density profile can be altered continuously from step-like via Gaussian-like or parabolic to asymptotically hyperbolic by varying a single "shape parameter", d. Using this density profile, the scattering form factor can be calculated numerically. An analytical form factor can be derived using an approximate expression for the original Fermi-Dirac distribution function. This approximation is accurate for sufficiently small rescaled shape parameters, d/R (R being the particle radius), up to values of d/R ≈ 0.1, and thus captures step-like, Gaussian-like, and parabolic as well as asymptotically hyperbolic profile shapes. It is expected that this form factor is particularly useful in a model-dependent analysis of small-angle scattering data since the applied continuous and analytical function for the particle density profile can be compared directly with the density profile extracted from the data by model-free approaches like the generalized inverse Fourier transform method. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Quantum entanglement of identical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yu

    2003-01-01

    We consider entanglement in a system with a fixed number of identical particles. Since any operation should be symmetrized over all the identical particles and there is the precondition that the spatial wave functions overlap, the meaning of identical-particle entanglement is fundamentally different from that of distinguishable particles. The identical-particle counterpart of the Schmidt basis is shown to be the single-particle basis in which the one-particle reduced density matrix is diagonal. But it does not play a special role in the issue of entanglement, which depends on the single-particle basis chosen. The nonfactorization due to (anti)symmetrization is naturally excluded by using the (anti)symmetrized basis or, equivalently, the particle number representation. The natural degrees of freedom in quantifying the identical-particle entanglement in a chosen single-particle basis are occupation numbers of different single-particle basis states. The entanglement between effectively distinguishable spins is shown to be a special case of the occupation-number entanglement

  19. Thermodynamic entanglement of magnonic condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, H. Y.; Yung, Man-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been achieved to create Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of magnetic excitations, i.e., magnons, at room temperature, which is a novel quantum many-body system with a strong spin-spin correlation, and contains potential applications in magnonic spintronics. For quantum information science, the magnonic condensates can become an attractive source of quantum entanglement, which plays a central role in most of the quantum information processing tasks. Here we theoretically study the entanglement properties of a magnon gas above and below the condensation temperature. We show that the thermodynamic entanglement of the spins is a manifestation of the off-diagonal long-range order; the entanglement of the condensate does not vanish, even if the spins are separated by an infinitely long distance, which is fundamentally distinct from the normal magnetic ordering below the Curie temperature. In addition, the phase-transition point occurs when the derivative of the entanglement changes abruptly. These results provide a theoretical foundation for a future investigation of the magnon BEC in terms of quantum entanglement.

  20. Multipartite geometric entanglement in finite size XY model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Giampaolo, Salvatore Marco; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the behavior of the multipartite entanglement in the finite size XY model by means of the hierarchical geometric measure of entanglement. By selecting specific components of the hierarchy, we study both global entanglement and genuinely multipartite entanglement.

  1. Association of glycaemic variability evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Ming; Zhao, Li-Hua; Zhang, Xiu-Lin; Cai, Hong-Li; Huang, Hai-Yan; Xu, Feng; Chen, Tong; Wang, Xue-Qin; Guo, Ai-Song; Li, Jian-An; Su, Jian-Bin

    2018-05-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), a common microvascular complication of diabetes, is linked to glycaemic derangements. Glycaemic variability, as a pattern of glycaemic derangements, is a key risk factor for diabetic complications. We investigated the association of glycaemic variability with DPN in a large-scale sample of type 2 diabetic patients. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 982 type 2 diabetic patients who were screened for DPN and monitored by a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system between February 2011 and January 2017. Multiple glycaemic variability parameters, including the mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE), mean of daily differences (MODD), standard deviation of glucose (SD), and 24-h mean glucose (24-h MG), were calculated from glucose profiles obtained from CGM. Other possible risks for DPN were also examined. Of the recruited type 2 diabetic patients, 20.1% (n = 197) presented with DPN, and these patients also had a higher MAGE, MODD, SD, and 24-h MG than patients without DPN (p diabetic duration, HOMA-IR, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were found to be independent contributors to DPN, and the corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 4.57 (3.48-6.01), 1.10 (1.03-1.17), 1.24 (1.09-1.41), and 1.33 (1.15-1.53), respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the optimal MAGE cutoff value for predicting DPN was 4.60 mmol/L; the corresponding sensitivity was 64.47%, and the specificity was 75.54%. In addition to conventional risks including diabetic duration, HOMA-IR and HbA1c, increased glycaemic variability assessed by MAGE is a significant independent contributor to DPN in type 2 diabetic patients.

  2. Quantum entanglement and teleportation in pulsed cavity optomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Sebastian G. [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Gravitational Physics, Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Wieczorek, Witlef; Aspelmeyer, Markus [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hammerer, Klemens [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Gravitational Physics, Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Entangling a mechanical oscillator with an optical mode is an enticing and yet a very challenging goal in cavity optomechanics. Here we consider a pulsed scheme to create Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type entanglement between a traveling-wave light pulse and a mechanical oscillator. The entanglement can be verified unambiguously by a pump-probe sequence of pulses. In contrast to schemes that work in a steady-state regime under a continuous-wave drive, this protocol is not subject to stability requirements that normally limit the strength of achievable entanglement. We investigate the protocol's performance under realistic conditions, including mechanical decoherence, in full detail. We discuss the relevance of a high mechanical Qf product for entanglement creation and provide a quantitative statement on which magnitude of the Qf product is necessary for a successful realization of the scheme. We determine the optimal parameter regime for its operation and show it to work in current state-of-the-art systems.

  3. Optimal simulation of a perfect entangler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Nengkun; Duan Runyao; Ying Mingsheng

    2010-01-01

    A 2 x 2 unitary operation is called a perfect entangler if it can generate a maximally entangled state from some unentangled input. We study the following question: How many runs of a given two-qubit entangling unitary operation are required to simulate some perfect entangler with one-qubit unitary operations as free resources? We completely solve this problem by presenting an analytical formula for the optimal number of runs of the entangling operation. Our result reveals an entanglement strength of two-qubit unitary operations.

  4. Minimal Entanglement Witness from Electrical Current Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, F; Malkoc, O; Samuelsson, P

    2017-01-20

    Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and noncollinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be detected with only two measurements, except the maximally entangled states, which require three. Moreover, detector settings for optimal entanglement witnessing are presented.

  5. Optimal entanglement witnesses for qubits and qutrits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Krammer, Philipp

    2005-11-01

    We study the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states) and entanglement witness in terms of a generalized Bell inequality which distinguishes between entangled and separable states. A method for checking the nearest separable state to a given entangled one is presented. We illustrate the general results by considering isotropic states, in particular two-qubit and two-qutrit states—and their generalizations to arbitrary dimensions—where we calculate the optimal entanglement witnesses explicitly.

  6. Optimal entanglement witnesses for qubits and qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Krammer, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    We study the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states) and entanglement witness in terms of a generalized Bell inequality which distinguishes between entangled and separable states. A method for checking the nearest separable state to a given entangled one is presented. We illustrate the general results by considering isotropic states, in particular two-qubit and two-qutrit states--and their generalizations to arbitrary dimensions--where we calculate the optimal entanglement witnesses explicitly

  7. Minimal Entanglement Witness from Electrical Current Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, F.; Malkoc, O.; Samuelsson, P.

    2017-01-01

    Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and noncollinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be detected with only two measurements, except the maximally entangled states, which require three. Moreover, detector settings for optimal entanglement witnessing are presented.

  8. Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement from Type-II Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Todd Butler

    The concept of two (or more) particle entanglement lies at the heart of many fascinating questions concerning the foundations of quantum mechanics. The counterintuitive nonlocal behavior of entangled states led Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) to ask their famous 1935 question, "Can quantum mechanical description of reality be considered complete?". Although the debate has been raging on for more than 60 years, there is still no absolutely conclusive answer to this question. For if entangled states exist and can be observed, then accepting quantum mechanics as a complete theory requires a drastic overhaul of one's physical intuition with regards to the common sense notions of locality and reality put forth by EPR. Contained herein are the results of research investigating various non-classical features of the two-photon entangled states produced in Type-II Spontaneous Parametric Down -Conversion (SPDC). Through a series of experiments we have manifest the nonlocal nature of the quantum mechanical "two-photon effective wavefunction" (or Biphoton) realized by certain photon-counting coincidence measurements performed on these states. In particular, we examine a special double entanglement, in which the states are seen to be simultaneously entangled in both spin and space-time variables. The observed phenomena based on this double entanglement lead to many interesting results which defy classical explanation, but are well described within the framework of quantum mechanics. The implications provide a unique perspective concerning the nature of the photon, and the concept of quantum entanglement.

  9. NUMBER OF SUCCESSIVE CYCLES NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE STABILITY OF SELECTED GROUND REACTION FORCE VARIABLES DURING CONTINUOUS JUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmes M.W. Brownjohn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of inherent variability in all human cyclical movements, such as walking, running and jumping, data collected across a single cycle might be atypical and potentially unable to represent an individual's generalized performance. The study described here was designed to determine the number of successive cycles due to continuous, repetitive countermovement jumping which a test subject should perform in a single experimental session to achieve stability of the mean of the corresponding continuously measured ground reaction force (GRF variables. Seven vertical GRF variables (period of jumping cycle, duration of contact phase, peak force amplitude and its timing, average rate of force development, average rate of force relaxation and impulse were extracted on the cycle-by-cycle basis from vertical jumping force time histories generated by twelve participants who were jumping in response to regular electronic metronome beats in the range 2-2.8 Hz. Stability of the selected GRF variables across successive jumping cycles was examined for three jumping rates (2, 2.4 and 2.8 Hz using two statistical methods: intra-class correlation (ICC analysis and segmental averaging technique (SAT. Results of the ICC analysis indicated that an average of four successive cycles (mean 4.5 ± 2.7 for 2 Hz; 3.9 ± 2.6 for 2.4 Hz; 3.3 ± 2.7 for 2.8 Hz were necessary to achieve maximum ICC values. Except for jumping period, maximum ICC values took values from 0.592 to 0.991 and all were significantly (p < 0.05 different from zero. Results of the SAT revealed that an average of ten successive cycles (mean 10.5 ± 3.5 for 2 Hz; 9.2 ± 3.8 for 2.4 Hz; 9.0 ± 3.9 for 2.8 Hz were necessary to achieve stability of the selected parameters using criteria previously reported in the literature. Using 10 reference trials, the SAT required standard deviation criterion values of 0.49, 0.41 and 0.55 for 2 Hz, 2.4 Hz and 2.8 Hz jumping rates, respectively, in order to approximate

  10. Practical performance of real-time shot-noise measurement in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yingming; Liu, Weiqi; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-01-01

    In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system, real-time shot-noise measurement (RTSNM) is an essential procedure for preventing the eavesdropper exploiting the practical security loopholes. However, the performance of this procedure itself is not analyzed under the real-world condition. Therefore, we indicate the RTSNM practical performance and investigate its effects on the CVQKD system. In particular, due to the finite-size effect, the shot-noise measurement at the receiver's side may decrease the precision of parameter estimation and consequently result in a tight security bound. To mitigate that, we optimize the block size for RTSNM under the ensemble size limitation to maximize the secure key rate. Moreover, the effect of finite dynamics of amplitude modulator in this scheme is studied and its mitigation method is also proposed. Our work indicates the practical performance of RTSNM and provides the real secret key rate under it.

  11. Security analysis of orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution with imperfect modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Mao, Yu; Huang, Duan; Li, Jiawei; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Ying

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a reliable scheme for continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) by using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). As a spectrally efficient multiplexing technique, OFDM allows a large number of closely spaced orthogonal subcarrier signals used to carry data on several parallel data streams or channels. We place emphasis on modulator impairments which would inevitably arise in the OFDM system and analyze how these impairments affect the OFDM-based CV-QKD system. Moreover, we also evaluate the security in the asymptotic limit and the Pirandola-Laurenza-Ottaviani-Banchi upper bound. Results indicate that although the emergence of imperfect modulation would bring about a slight decrease in the secret key bit rate of each subcarrier, the multiplexing technique combined with CV-QKD results in a desirable improvement on the total secret key bit rate which can raise the numerical value about an order of magnitude.

  12. Recurrent neural network approach to quantum signal: coherent state restoration for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weizhao; Huang, Chunhui; Hou, Kun; Shi, Liting; Zhao, Huihui; Li, Zhengmei; Qiu, Jianfeng

    2018-05-01

    In continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD), weak signal carrying information transmits from Alice to Bob; during this process it is easily influenced by unknown noise which reduces signal-to-noise ratio, and strongly impacts reliability and stability of the communication. Recurrent quantum neural network (RQNN) is an artificial neural network model which can perform stochastic filtering without any prior knowledge of the signal and noise. In this paper, a modified RQNN algorithm with expectation maximization algorithm is proposed to process the signal in CV-QKD, which follows the basic rule of quantum mechanics. After RQNN, noise power decreases about 15 dBm, coherent signal recognition rate of RQNN is 96%, quantum bit error rate (QBER) drops to 4%, which is 6.9% lower than original QBER, and channel capacity is notably enlarged.

  13. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Haendchen, Vitus; Duhme, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State......-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our...... with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components....

  14. Detecting quantum entanglement. Entanglement witnesses and uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guehne, O.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with methods of the detection of entanglement. After recalling some facts and definitions concerning entanglement and separability, we investigate two methods of the detection of entanglement. In the first part of this thesis we consider so-called entanglement witnesses, mainly in view of the detection of multipartite entanglement. Entanglement witnesses are observables for which a negative expectation value indicates entanglement. We first present a simple method to construct these witnesses. Since witnesses are nonlocal observables, they are not easy to measure in a real experiment. However, as we will show, one can circumvent this problem by decomposing the witness into several local observables which can be measured separately. We calculate the local decompositions for several interesting witnesses for two, three and four qubits. Local decompositions can be optimized in the number of measurement settings which are needed for an experimental implementation. We present a method to prove that a given local decomposition is optimal and discuss with this the optimality of our decompositions. Then we present another method of designing witnesses which are by construction measurable with local measurements. Finally, we shortly report on experiments where some of the witnesses derived in this part have been used to detect three- and four-partite entanglement of polarized photons. The second part of this thesis deals with separability criteria which are written in terms of uncertainty relations. There are two different formulations of uncertainty relations since one can measure the uncertainty of an observable by its variance as well as by entropic quantities. We show that both formulations are useful tools for the derivation of separability criteria for finite-dimensional systems and investigate the resulting criteria. Our results in this part exhibit also some more fundamental properties of entanglement: We show how known separability criteria for

  15. Automatic control: the vertebral column of dogfish sharks behaves as a continuously variable transmission with smoothly shifting functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marianne E; Ewoldt, Randy H; Long, John H

    2016-09-15

    During swimming in dogfish sharks, Squalus acanthias, both the intervertebral joints and the vertebral centra undergo significant strain. To investigate this system, unique among vertebrates, we cyclically bent isolated segments of 10 vertebrae and nine joints. For the first time in the biomechanics of fish vertebral columns, we simultaneously characterized non-linear elasticity and viscosity throughout the bending oscillation, extending recently proposed techniques for large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) characterization to large-amplitude oscillatory bending (LAOB). The vertebral column segments behave as non-linear viscoelastic springs. Elastic properties dominate for all frequencies and curvatures tested, increasing as either variable increases. Non-linearities within a bending cycle are most in evidence at the highest frequency, 2.0 Hz, and curvature, 5 m -1 Viscous bending properties are greatest at low frequencies and high curvatures, with non-linear effects occurring at all frequencies and curvatures. The range of mechanical behaviors includes that of springs and brakes, with smooth transitions between them that allow for continuously variable power transmission by the vertebral column to assist in the mechanics of undulatory propulsion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Quadrature entanglement and photon-number correlations accompanied by phase-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, H. H.; Manvelyan, S. B.; Adamyan, N. H.; Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate quantum properties of phase-locked light beams generated in a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (NOPO) with an intracavity waveplate. This investigation continues our previous analysis presented in Phys. Rev. A 69, 053814 (2004), and involves problems of continuous-variable quadrature entanglement in the spectral domain, photon-number correlations as well as the signatures of phase-locking in the Wigner function. We study the role of phase-localizing processes on the quantum correlation effects. The peculiarities of phase-locked NOPO in the self-pulsing instability operational regime are also cleared up. The results are obtained in the P-representation as a quantum-mechanical calculation in the framework of stochastic equations of motion, as well as by numerical simulation based on the method of quantum state diffusion

  17. Modelos de regresión para variables expresadas como una proporción continua Regression models for variables expressed as a continuous proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir algunas de las alternativas estadísticas disponibles para el estudio de proporciones continuas y comparar los distintos modelos que existen para evidenciar sus ventajas y desventajas, mediante su aplicación a un ejemplo práctico del ámbito de la salud pública. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Con base en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Reproductiva realizada en el año 2003, se modeló la proporción de cobertura individual en el programa de planificación familiar -propuesta en un estudio previo realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública en Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (2005- mediante el uso de los modelos de regresión normal, gama, beta y de quasi-verosimilitud. La variante del criterio de información de Akaike (AIC que propusieron McQuarrie y Tsai se utilizó para definir el mejor modelo. A continuación, y mediante simulación (enfoque Monte Carlo/cadenas de Markov, se generó una variable con distribución beta para evaluar el comportamiento de los cuatro modelos al variar el tamaño de la muestra desde 100 hasta 18 000 observaciones. RESULTADOS: Los resultados muestran que la mejor opción estadística para el análisis de proporciones continuas es el modelo de regresión beta, de acuerdo con sus supuestos y el valor de AIC. La simulación mostró que a medida que aumenta el tamaño de la muestra, el modelo gama y, en especial, el modelo de quasi-verosimilitud se aproximan en grado significativo al modelo beta. CONCLUSIONES: Para la modelación de proporciones continuas se recomienda emplear el enfoque paramétrico de la regresión beta y evitar el uso del modelo normal. Si se tiene un tamaño de muestra grande, el uso del enfoque de quasi-verosimilitud representa una buena alternativa.OBJECTIVE: To describe some of the statistical alternatives available for studying continuous proportions and to compare them in order to show their advantages and disadvantages by means of their application in a practical example of

  18. A Systematic Review of Statistical Methods Used to Test for Reliability of Medical Instruments Measuring Continuous Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafdzah Zaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Reliability measures precision or the extent to which test results can be replicated. This is the first ever systematic review to identify statistical methods used to measure reliability of equipment measuring continuous variables. This studyalso aims to highlight the inappropriate statistical method used in the reliability analysis and its implication in the medical practice.   Materials and Methods: In 2010, five electronic databases were searched between 2007 and 2009 to look for reliability studies. A total of 5,795 titles were initially identified. Only 282 titles were potentially related, and finally 42 fitted the inclusion criteria. Results: The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC is the most popular method with 25 (60% studies having used this method followed by the comparing means (8 or 19%. Out of 25 studies using the ICC, only 7 (28% reported the confidence intervals and types of ICC used. Most studies (71% also tested the agreement of instruments. Conclusion: This study finds that the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient is the most popular method used to assess the reliability of medical instruments measuring continuous outcomes. There are also inappropriate applications and interpretations of statistical methods in some studies. It is important for medical researchers to be aware of this issue, and be able to correctly perform analysis in reliability studies.

  19. Entangled spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salberger, Olof; Korepin, Vladimir

    We introduce a new model of interacting spin 1/2. It describes interactions of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of Fredkin gates. The Fredkin gate (also known as the controlled swap gate) is a computational circuit suitable for reversible computing. Our construction generalizes the model presented by Peter Shor and Ramis Movassagh to half-integer spins. Our model can be solved by means of Catalan combinatorics in the form of random walks on the upper half plane of a square lattice (Dyck walks). Each Dyck path can be mapped on a wave function of spins. The ground state is an equally weighted superposition of Dyck walks (instead of Motzkin walks). We can also express it as a matrix product state. We further construct a model of interacting spins 3/2 and greater half-integer spins. The models with higher spins require coloring of Dyck walks. We construct a SU(k) symmetric model (where k is the number of colors). The leading term of the entanglement entropy is then proportional to the square root of the length of the lattice (like in the Shor-Movassagh model). The gap closes as a high power of the length of the lattice [5, 11].

  20. Teleportation of N-particle entangled W state via entanglement swapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan You-Bang

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for teleporting an unknown N-particle entangled W state is proposed via entanglement swapping. In this scheme, N maximally entangled particle pairs are used as quantum channel. As a special case, the teleportation of an unknown four-particle entangled W state is studied.

  1. Quantum optical coherence can survive photon losses using a continuous-variable quantum erasure-correcting code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Sabuncu, Metin; Huck, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for enabling fault-tolerant quantum information processing is an efficient quantum error-correcting code that robustly protects the involved fragile quantum states from their environment. Just as classical error-correcting codes are indispensible in today's information...... technologies, it is believed that quantum error-correcting code will play a similarly crucial role in tomorrow's quantum information systems. Here, we report on the experimental demonstration of a quantum erasure-correcting code that overcomes the devastating effect of photon losses. Our quantum code is based...... on linear optics, and it protects a four-mode entangled mesoscopic state of light against erasures. We investigate two approaches for circumventing in-line losses, and demonstrate that both approaches exhibit transmission fidelities beyond what is possible by classical means. Because in-line attenuation...

  2. Protecting single-photon entanglement with practical entanglement source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Ou-Yang, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Single-photon entanglement (SPE) is important for quantum communication and quantum information processing. However, SPE is sensitive to photon loss. In this paper, we discuss a linear optical amplification protocol for protecting SPE. Different from the previous protocols, we exploit the practical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source to realize the amplification, for the ideal entanglement source is unavailable in current quantum technology. Moreover, we prove that the amplification using the entanglement generated from SPDC source as auxiliary is better than the amplification assisted with single photons. The reason is that the vacuum state from SPDC source will not affect the amplification, so that it can be eliminated automatically. This protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communications.

  3. From entanglement witness to generalized Catalan numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.; Hansen, T.; Itzhaki, N.

    2016-07-01

    Being extremely important resources in quantum information and computation, it is vital to efficiently detect and properly characterize entangled states. We analyze in this work the problem of entanglement detection for arbitrary spin systems. It is demonstrated how a single measurement of the squared total spin can probabilistically discern separable from entangled many-particle states. For achieving this goal, we construct a tripartite analogy between the degeneracy of entanglement witness eigenstates, tensor products of SO(3) representations and classical lattice walks with special constraints. Within this framework, degeneracies are naturally given by generalized Catalan numbers and determine the fraction of states that are decidedly entangled and also known to be somewhat protected against decoherence. In addition, we introduce the concept of a “sterile entanglement witness”, which for large enough systems detects entanglement without affecting much the system’s state. We discuss when our proposed entanglement witness can be regarded as a sterile one.

  4. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Zuppardo, Margherita; Gillett, Geoff; Broome, Matthew; de Almeida, Marcelo; Paternostro, Mauro; White, Andrew; Paterek, Tomasz

    2014-03-01

    Quantum networks will allow us to overcome distance limitations in quantum communication, and to share quantum computing tasks between remote quantum processors. The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without directly being communicated between nodes. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here we report an experiment in which two communicating parties who share three initially separable photonic qubits are entangled by exchange of a carrier photon that is not entangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement over noisy environments.

  5. Separability criteria for genuine multiparticle entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guhne, O.; Seevinck, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304847399

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to derive separability criteria for different classes of multiparticle entanglement, especially genuine multiparticle entanglement. The resulting criteria are necessary and sufficient for certain families of states. This, for example, completely solves the problem of classifying

  6. Separability Criteria for Genuine Multiparticle Entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guehne, O.; Seevinck, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to derive separability criteria for different classes of multiparticle entanglement, especially genuine multiparticle entanglement. The resulting criteria are necessary and sufficient for certain families of states. This, for example, completely solves the problem of classifying

  7. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglement data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals in marine debris. The data set comprises records of seals entangled by derelict fishing...

  8. Relay entanglement and clusters of correlated spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, S. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2018-06-01

    Considering a spin-1/2 chain, we suppose that the entanglement passes from a given pair of particles to another one, thus establishing the relay transfer of entanglement along the chain. Therefore, we introduce the relay entanglement as a sum of all pairwise entanglements in a spin chain. For more detailed studying the effects of remote pairwise entanglements, we use the partial sums collecting entanglements between the spins separated by up to a certain number of nodes. The problem of entangled cluster formation is considered, and the geometric mean entanglement is introduced as a characteristic of quantum correlations in a cluster. Generally, the lifetime of a cluster decreases with an increase in its size.

  9. Design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for an automotive vehicle, Phase IV. Quarterly progress report, December 1977--February 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-28

    Progress in developing and testing a continuously variable ratio hydraulic transmission unit for automobiles is reported. Major emphasis was placed on the development of a co-axial hydrostatic module.

  10. Entanglement properties between two atoms in the binomial optical field interacting with two entangled atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tang-Kun; Zhang Kang-Long; Tao Yu; Shan Chuan-Jia; Liu Ji-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the degree of entanglement between two atoms in a system of the binomial optical field interacting with two arbitrary entangled atoms is investigated. The influence of the strength of the dipole–dipole interaction between two atoms, probabilities of the Bernoulli trial, and particle number of the binomial optical field on the temporal evolution of the atomic entanglement are discussed. The result shows that the two atoms are always in the entanglement state. Moreover, if and only if the two atoms are initially in the maximally entangled state, the entanglement evolution is not affected by the parameters, and the degree of entanglement is always kept as 1. (paper)

  11. Quantum entanglement and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Yoshihisa

    2008-01-01

    Quantum entanglement was suggested by Einstein to indicate that quantum mechanics was incomplete. However, against Einstein's expectation, the phenomenon due to quantum entanglement has been verified by experiments. Recently, in quantum information theory, it has been also treated as a resource for quantum teleportation and so on. In around 2000, it is recognized that quantum correlations between two particles of one pair state in an entangled spin-state are affected by the non-trivial effect due to the successive Lorentz transformation. This relativistic effect is called the Wigner rotation. The Wigner rotation has to been taken into account when we observe spin-correlation of moving particles in a different coordinate frame. In this paper, first, we explain quantum entanglement and its modification due to the Wigner rotation. After that, we introduce an extended model instead of one pair state model. In the extended model, quantum entanglement state is prepared as a superposition state of various pair states. We have computed the von Neumann entropy and the Shannon entropy to see the global behavior of variation for the spin correlation due to the relativistic effect. We also discuss distinguishability between the two particles of the pair. (author)

  12. Quantum walks with entangled coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas-Andraca, S E; Ball, J L; Burnett, K; Bose, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a mathematical formalism for the description of un- restricted quantum walks with entangled coins and one walker. The numerical behaviour of such walks is examined when using a Bell state as the initial coin state, with two different coin operators, two different shift operators, and one walker. We compare and contrast the performance of these quantum walks with that of a classical random walk consisting of one walker and two maximally correlated coins as well as quantum walks with coins sharing different degrees of entanglement. We illustrate that the behaviour of our walk with entangled coins can be very different in comparison to the usual quantum walk with a single coin. We also demonstrate that simply by changing the shift operator, we can generate widely different distributions. We also compare the behaviour of quantum walks with maximally entangled coins with that of quantum walks with non-entangled coins. Finally, we show that the use of different shift operators on two and three qubit coins leads to different position probability distributions in one- and two-dimensional graphs

  13. Communication cost of entanglement transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Patrick; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    We study the amount of communication needed for two parties to transform some given joint pure state into another one, either exactly or with some fidelity. Specifically, we present a method to lower bound this communication cost even when the amount of entanglement does not increase. Moreover, the bound applies even if the initial state is supplemented with unlimited entanglement in the form of EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) pairs and the communication is allowed to be quantum mechanical. We then apply the method to the determination of the communication cost of asymptotic entanglement concentration and dilution. While concentration is known to require no communication whatsoever, the best known protocol for dilution, discovered by H.-K. Lo and S. Popescu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1459 (1999)], requires exchange of a number of bits that is of the order of the square root of the number of EPR pairs. Here we prove a matching lower bound of the same asymptotic order, demonstrating the optimality of the Lo-Popescu protocol up to a constant factor and establishing the existence of a fundamental asymmetry between the concentration and dilution tasks. We also discuss states for which the minimal communication cost is proportional to their entanglement, such as the states recently introduced in the context of 'embezzling entanglement' (W. van Dam and P. Hayden, e-print quant-ph/0201041)

  14. Entanglement in mutually unbiased bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesniak, M; Zeilinger, A [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology (VCQ), Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Paterek, T, E-mail: tomasz.paterek@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-05-15

    One of the essential features of quantum mechanics is that most pairs of observables cannot be measured simultaneously. This phenomenon manifests itself most strongly when observables are related to mutually unbiased bases. In this paper, we shed some light on the connection between mutually unbiased bases and another essential feature of quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement. It is shown that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases of a bipartite system contains a fixed amount of entanglement, independent of the choice of the set. This has implications for entanglement distribution among the states of a complete set. In prime-squared dimensions we present an explicit experiment-friendly construction of a complete set with a particularly simple entanglement distribution. Finally, we describe the basic properties of mutually unbiased bases composed of product states only. The constructions are illustrated with explicit examples in low dimensions. We believe that the properties of entanglement in mutually unbiased bases may be one of the ingredients to be taken into account to settle the question of the existence of complete sets. We also expect that they will be relevant to applications of bases in the experimental realization of quantum protocols in higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces.

  15. Energy entanglement relation for quantum energy teleportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, Masahiro, E-mail: hotta@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.j [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2010-07-26

    Protocols of quantum energy teleportation (QET), while retaining causality and local energy conservation, enable the transportation of energy from a subsystem of a many-body quantum system to a distant subsystem by local operations and classical communication through ground-state entanglement. We prove two energy-entanglement inequalities for a minimal QET model. These relations help us to gain a profound understanding of entanglement itself as a physical resource by relating entanglement to energy as an evident physical resource.

  16. Minimal Entanglement Witness From Electrical Current Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Brange, F.; Malkoc, O.; Samuelsson, P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and non-collinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be ...

  17. The minimal entanglement of bipartite decompositions as a witness of strong entanglement in a quantum system

    OpenAIRE

    Zenchuk, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    We {characterize the multipartite entanglement in a quantum system by the quantity} which vanishes if only the quantum system may be decomposed into two weakly entangled subsystems, unlike measures of multipartite entanglement introduced before. We refer to this {quantity} as the minimal entanglement of bipartite decompositions (MEBD). Big MEBD means that the system may not be decomposed into two weakly entangled subsystems. MEBD allows one to define, for instance, whether the given quantum s...

  18. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  19. Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped ...

  20. Universal distortion-free entanglement concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keiji; Hayashi, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new protocol of universal entanglement concentration, which converts many copies of an unknown pure state to an exact maximally entangled state. The yield of the protocol, which is outputted as a classical information, is probabilistic, and achieves the entropy rate with high probability, just as nonuniversal entanglement concentration protocols do