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Sample records for continuous renal replacement

  1. Antibiotic Dosing in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alexander R; Mueller, Bruce A

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate antibiotic dosing is critical to improve outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. The addition of continuous renal replacement therapy makes achieving appropriate antibiotic dosing more difficult. The lack of continuous renal replacement therapy standardization results in treatment variability between patients and may influence whether appropriate antibiotic exposure is achieved. The aim of this study was to determine if continuous renal replacement therapy effluent flow rate impacts attaining appropriate antibiotic concentrations when conventional continuous renal replacement therapy antibiotic doses were used. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effect of effluent flow rate variance on pharmacodynamic target attainment for cefepime, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin, and tazobactam. Published demographic and pharmacokinetic parameters for each antibiotic were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model. Monte Carlo simulations of 5000 patients were evaluated for each antibiotic dosing regimen at the extremes of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommended effluent flow rates (20 and 35 mL/kg/h). The probability of target attainment was calculated using antibiotic-specific pharmacodynamic targets assessed over the first 72 hours of therapy. Most conventional published antibiotic dosing recommendations, except for levofloxacin, reach acceptable probability of target attainment rates when effluent rates of 20 or 35 mL/kg/h are used. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Update in continuous renal replacement techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, M; de la Cueva-Ariza, L; Delgado-Hito, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute renal failure affects 25% of patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Despite technological advances, the mortality of these patients is still high due to its associated complications. Continuous renal replacement techniques are one of the treatments for acute renal failure because they make it possible to treat the complications and decrease mortality. The nurse's knowledge and skills regarding these techniques will be decisive for the success of the therapy. Consequently, the nurse's experience and training are key components. The objective of this article is to update the knowledge on continuous renal replacement techniques. Keeping this in mind, a review has been made of the physical and chemical principles such as diffusion and convection, among others. A description of the different continuous renal replacement techniques, a presentation of the main vascular access, and a description of the nursing cares and complications related to techniques used have also been provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Citrate Anticoagulation during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

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    Ricci, Davide; Panicali, Laura; Facchini, Maria Grazia; Mancini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    During extracorporeal dialysis, some anticoagulation strategy is necessary to prevent the coagulation of blood. Heparin has historically been used as an anticoagulant because of its efficacy combined with low cost. However, a variable incidence of hemorrhagic complications (5-30%) has been documented in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with heparin as an anticoagulant. Citrate has anticoagulation properties secondary to its ability to chelate calcium, which is necessary for the coagulation cascade. Citrate may thus be used in a regional anticoagulation (RCA), limited to the extracorporeal circuit of CRRT, to avoid systemic anticoagulation. Recent meta-analysis confirmed the advantage of RCA over heparin in terms of incidence of bleeding during CRRT. Moreover, an increase in filter lifespan is documented, with a secondary advantage in reaching the prescribed dialysis dose. In our experience, we could confirm this positive effect. In fact, with a progressive increase in the proportion of CRRT with citrate as RCA, we obtained a reduction in the number of filters used for every 72 h of treatment (from 2.4 in 2011 to 1.3 in 2015), and most importantly, a reduction in the difference between the prescribed and delivered dialysis doses (from 22 to 7%). Citrate has an intense effect on the acid-base balance as well, if fully metabolized through the Krebs cycle, due to the production of bicarbonate. Even more severely ill patients, such as those with liver dysfunction, may be treated with RCA without severe complications, because modern machines for CRRT are equipped with simple systems that are able to manage the citrate infusion and control the calcium levels, with minimal risks of metabolic derangements. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Continuous renal replacement therapy for critically ill infants and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Jepsen, Søren Bruun; Toft, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an important treatment in critically ill children with acute kidney injury (AKI). Over the past decade, CRRT has been the preferred method of renal replacement therapy. We compared children with CRRT-treated adults with AKI in terms of return of kidney...

  5. Nursing procedures during continuous renal replacement therapies: a national survey.

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    Ricci, Zaccaria; Benelli, Sonia; Barbarigo, Fabio; Cocozza, Giulia; Pettinelli, Noemi; Di Luca, Emanuela; Mettifogo, Mariangela; Toniolo, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The current role of nurses in the management of critically ill patients needing continuous renal replacement therapies is clearly fundamental. The care of these complex patients is typically shared by critical care and dialysis nurses: their precise duties may vary from country to country. To clarify this issue we conducted a national-level survey at a recent Italian course on nursing practices during continuous renal replacement therapies. A total of 119 questionnaires were analysed. The participants, who were equally divided between critical care and dialysis nurses, came from 44 different hospitals and 35 Italian cities. Overall, 23% of participants answered that "the dialysis staff" were responsible for continuous renal replacement therapies in the Intensive Care Unit, while 39% answered "the critical care nurse", and 38% "a shared organization". Interestingly, less than the half of participants claimed specific continuous renal replacement therapies training was provided to employees before handling an acute dialysis machine. Finally, about 60% of participants had experience of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation machines used in conjunction with continuous renal replacement therapies. Workload coordination and management of critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapies in Italy is not standardized. At present, the duties of critical care and dialysis nurses vary significantly across the country. They frequently overlap or leave gaps in the assistance received by patients. The role of nurses involved in the care of continuous renal replacement therapies patients in Italy currently requires better organization, possibly starting with intensive standardized training and educational programs.

  6. High Phenobarbital Clearance During Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenborg, Staffan; Saraste, Lars; Wide, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phenobarbital is an old antiepileptic drug used in severe epilepsy. Despite this, little is written about the need for dose adjustments in renal replacement therapy. Most sources recommend a moderately increased dose guided by therapeutic drug monitoring. A 14 year old boy with nonketotic hyperglycinemia, a rare inborn error of metabolism, characterized by high levels of glycine, epilepsy, spasticity, and cognitive impairment, was admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure after a few days of fever and cough. The boy was unconscious at admittance and had acute renal and hepatic failure. Due to the acute respiratory infection, hypoxic hepatic and renal failure occurred and the patient had a status epilepticus. The patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Continuous renal replacement therapy was initiated. Despite increased phenobarbital doses, therapeutic levels were not reached until the dose was increased to 500 mg twice daily. Therapeutic drug monitoring was performed in plasma and dialysate. Calculations revealed that phenobarbital was almost freely dialyzed. Correct dosing of drugs in patients on renal replacement therapy may need a multidisciplinary approach and guidance by therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:25101986

  7. Continuous renal replacement therapy improves renal recovery from acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Michael J; Ivancinova, Xenia; Gibney, R T Noel

    2005-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs in up to 10% of critically ill patients, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. The optimal mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) remains controversial. This retrospective study compared continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) for RRT in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality, and renal recovery. We reviewed the records of all patients undergoing RRT for the treatment of ARF over a 12-month period. Patients were compared according to mode of RRT, demographics, physiologic characteristics, and outcomes of ICU and hospital mortality and renal recovery using the Chi square, Student's t test, and multiple logistic regression as appropriate. 116 patients with renal insufficiency underwent RRT during the study period. Of these, 93 had ARF. The severity of illness of CRRT patients was similar to that of IHD patients using APACHE II (25.1 vs 23.5, P = 0.37), but they required significantly more intensive nursing (therapeutic intervention scale 47.8 vs 37.6, P = 0.0001). Mortality was associated with lower pH at presentation (P = 0.003) and increasing age (P = 0.03). Renal recovery was significantly more frequent among patients initially treated with CRRT (21/24 vs 5/14, P = 0.0003). Further investigation to define optimal timing, dose, and duration of RRT may be beneficial. Although further study is needed, this study suggests that renal recovery may be better after CRRT than IHD for ARF. Mortality was not affected significantly by RRT mode.

  8. Discontinuation of continuous renal replacement therapy: A post hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchino, Shigehiko; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Macedo, Ettiene; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe current practice for the discontinuation of continuous renal replacement therapy in a multinational setting and to identify variables associated with successful discontinuation. The approach to discontinue continuous renal replacement therapy may affect patient outcomes.

  9. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Applications on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetimakman, Ayse Filiz; Tanyildiz, Murat; Kesici, Selman; Kockuzu, Esra; Bayrakci, Benan

    2017-06-01

    Continuous venovenous hemofiltration or hemodiafiltration is used frequently in pediatric patients, but experience of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) application on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is still limited. Among several methods used for applying CRRT on ECMO patients, we aim to share our experience on inclusion of a CRRT device in the ECMO circuit which we believe is easier and safer to apply. The data were collected on demographics, outcomes, and details of the treatment of ECMO patients who had CRRT. During the study period of 3 years, venous cannula of ECMO circuit before pump was used for CRRT access for both the filter inlet and outlet of CRRT machine to minimize the thromboembolic complications. The common indication for CRRT was fluid overload. CRRT was used in 3.68% of a total number of patients admitted and 43% of patients on ECMO. The patients have undergone renal replacement therapy for periods of time ranging between 24 h and 25 days (260 h mean). The survival rate of this group of patients with multiorgan failure was 33%. Renal recovery occurred in all of the survivors. Complications such as electrolyte imbalance, hypothermia, and bradykinin syndrome were easily managed. Adding a CRRT device on ECMO circuit is a safe and effective technique. The major advantages of this technique are easy to access, applying CRRT without extra anticoagulation process, preventing potential hemodynamic disturbances, and increased clearance of solutes and fluid overload using larger hemofilter.

  10. Factors predicting successful discontinuation of continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, S; Uchino, S; Uji, M; Ohnuma, T; Namba, Y; Kawarazaki, H; Toki, N; Takeda, K; Yasuda, H; Izawa, J; Tokuhira, N; Nagata, I

    2016-07-01

    This multicentre, retrospective observational study was conducted from January 2010 to December 2010 to determine the optimal time for discontinuing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) by evaluating factors predictive of successful discontinuation in patients with acute kidney injury. Analysis was performed for patients after CRRT was discontinued because of renal function recovery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the success or failure of CRRT discontinuation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, urine output at discontinuation, creatinine level and CRRT duration were found to be significant variables (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for urine output, 0.814). In conclusion, we found that higher urine output, lower creatinine and shorter CRRT duration were significant factors to predict successful discontinuation of CRRT.

  11. Factors associated with poor outcomes of continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chin Kao

    Full Text Available Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is one of the dialysis modalities for critically ill patients. Despite intensive dialysis care, a high mortality rate is found in these patients. Our objective was to investigate the factors associated with poor outcomes in these patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance Research Database. Records of critically ill patients who received CRRT between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved, and the patients were categorized into two groups: those with acute kidney injury (AKI and those with history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Our primary and secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and long-term survival and non-renal recovery (long-term dialysis dependence, respectively, in the AKI group. We enrolled 15,453 patients, with 13,204 and 2249 in the AKI and ESRD groups, respectively. Overall, 66.5% patients died during hospitalization. In-hospital mortality did not differ significantly between groups (adjusted odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84-1.02. Age, chronic liver disease, and cancer history were identified as independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality in both groups. Hypertension was associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with AKI. Age, coronary artery disease, and admission to the medical intensive care unit (MICU were risk factors for long-term dialysis dependence in patients with AKI. Patients with AKI and ESRD have similarly poor outcomes after CRRT. Older age and presence of chronic liver disease and cancer were associated with higher mortality. Older age, presence of coronary artery disease, and admission to MICU were associated with lower renal recovery rate in patients with AKI.

  12. Precision Fluid Management in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

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    Murugan, Raghavan; Hoste, Eric; Mehta, Ravindra L; Samoni, Sara; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Fluid management during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients is a dynamic process that encompasses 3 inter-related goals: maintenance of the patency of the CRRT circuit, maintenance of plasma electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis and regulation of patient fluid balance. In this article, we report the consensus recommendations of the 2016 Acute Disease Quality Initiative XVII conference on 'Precision Fluid Management in CRRT'. We discuss the principles of fluid management, describe various prescription methods to achieve circuit integrity and introduce the concept of integrated fluid balance for tailoring fluid balance to the needs of the individual patient. We suggest that these recommendations could serve to develop the best clinical practice and standards of care for fluid management in patients undergoing CRRT. Finally, we identify and highlight areas of uncertainty in fluid management and set an agenda for future research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Risks and benefits of citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, H P; Yan, W W; Chan, T M

    2015-04-01

    Heparin, despite its significant side-effects, is the most commonly used anticoagulant for continuous renal replacement therapy in critical care setting. In recent years, citrate has gained much popularity by improving continuous renal replacement therapy circuit survival and decreasing blood transfusion requirements. However, its complex metabolic consequences warrant modification in the design of the citrate-based continuous renal replacement therapy protocol. With thorough understanding of the therapeutic mechanism of citrate, a simple and practicable protocol can be devised. Citrate-based continuous renal replacement therapy can be safely and widely used in the clinical setting with appropriate clinical staff training.

  14. Applying lean principles to continuous renal replacement therapy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, C Brett; Brummond, Philip; Lucarotti, Andrew; Villarreal, Maria; Goodwin, Adam; Wonnacott, Rob; Talley, Cheryl; Heung, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The application of lean principles to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) processes in an academic medical center is described. A manual audit over six consecutive weeks revealed that 133 5-L bags of CRRT solution were discarded after being dispensed from pharmacy but before clinical use. Lean principles were used to examine the workflow for CRRT preparation and develop and implement an intervention. An educational program was developed to encourage and enhance direct communication between nursing and pharmacy about changes in a patient's condition or CRRT order. It was through this education program that the reordering workflow shifted from nurses to pharmacy technicians. The primary outcome was the number of CRRT solution bags delivered in the preintervention and postintervention periods. Nurses and pharmacy technicians were surveyed to determine their satisfaction with the workflow change. After implementation of lean principles, the mean number of CRRT solution bags dispensed per day of CRRT decreased substantially. Respondents' overall satisfaction with the CRRT solution preparation process increased during the postintervention period, and the satisfaction scores for each individual component of the workflow after implementation of lean principles. The decreased solution waste resulted in projected annual cost savings exceeding $70,000 in product alone. The use of lean principles to identify medication waste in the CRRT workflow and implementation of an intervention to shift the workload from intensive care unit nurses to pharmacy technicians led to reduced CRRT solution waste, improved efficiency of CRRT workflow, and increased satisfaction among staff. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Using continuous renal replacement therapy to manage patients of shock and acute renal failure

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    Soni Sachin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of acute renal failure (ARF in the hospital setting is increasing. It portends excessive morbidity and mortality and a considerable burden on hospital resources. Extracorporeal therapies show promise in the management of patients with shock and ARF. It is said that the potential of such therapy goes beyond just providing renal support. The aim of our study was to analyze the clinical setting and outcomes of critically ill ARF patients managed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Patients and Methods: Ours was a retrospective study of 50 patients treated between January 2004 and November 2005. These 50 patients were in clinical shock and had concomitant ARF. All of these patients underwent CVVHDF (continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration in the intensive care unit. For the purpose of this study, shock was defined as systolic BP < 100 mm Hg in spite of administration of one or more inotropic agents. SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score before initiation of dialysis support was recorded in all cases. CVVHDF was performed using the Diapact ® (Braun CRRT machine. The vascular access used was as follows: femoral in 32, internal jugular in 8, arteriovenous fistula (AVF in 4, and subclavian in 6 patients. We used 0.9% or 0.45% (half-normal saline as a prefilter replacement, with addition of 10% calcium gluconate, magnesium sulphate, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride in separate units, while maintaining careful monitoring of electrolytes. Anticoagulation of the extracorporeal circuit was achieved with systemic heparin in 26 patients; frequent saline flushes were used in the other 24 patients. Results: Of the 50 patients studied, 29 were males and 21 females (1.4:1. The average age was 52.88 years (range: 20-75 years. Causes of ARF included sepsis in 24 (48%, hemodynamically mediated renal failure (HMRF in 18 (36%, and acute over chronic kidney disease in 8 (16% patients. The overall mortality was

  16. [Survival in acute renal failure with conventional therapy or continuous replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibáñez-Velázquez, Martín; Sánchez-Montoya, Felipe; Alvirde-Gutiérrez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To know the survival rate in patients with RIFLE I and II stages on acute renal failure, treated with supportive care or continuous renal replacement therapy with PRISMA machine, at an intensive care unit. There were included patients of both sexes, aged 16 to 69 years, with acute renal failure in RIFLE I and II stages and score of scale APACHE II lower than 36 points. The sample studied was divided in two groups: a group was treated with supportive care, and the other group received continuous renal replacement therapy via PRISMA machine. We compared mortality between both groups and the association with the RIFLE stages with Pearson's chi-squared test. The average score of the scale APACHE I was 14 points, and the probability of death was 15 %. The patients with acute renal failure RIFLE I were 54.5 % and RIFLE II 45.5 %, with mortality of 30.4 % and 38.8 %, respectively. Patients in RIFLE I stage who received supportive care and continuous replacement therapy had non-statistical differences in mortality (p = 0.356). The mortality in patients with acute renal failure in RIFLE II stage treated with continuous replacement therapy was higher (p = 0.000). Because of its accessibility and lower mortality, supportive care should be the initial procedure in patients with acute renal failure in RIFLE I and II stages.

  17. Using continuous renal replacement therapy to manage patients of shock and acute renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sachin S; Nagarik, Amit P; Adikey, Gopal Kishan; Raman, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) in the hospital setting is increasing. It portends excessive morbidity and mortality and a considerable burden on hospital resources. Extracorporeal therapies show promise in the management of patients with shock and ARF. It is said that the potential of such therapy goes beyond just providing renal support. The aim of our study was to analyze the clinical setting and outcomes of critically ill ARF patients managed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Patients and Methods: Ours was a retrospective study of 50 patients treated between January 2004 and November 2005. These 50 patients were in clinical shock and had concomitant ARF. All of these patients underwent CVVHDF (continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration) in the intensive care unit. For the purpose of this study, shock was defined as systolic BP magnesium sulphate, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride in separate units, while maintaining careful monitoring of electrolytes. Anticoagulation of the extracorporeal circuit was achieved with systemic heparin in 26 patients; frequent saline flushes were used in the other 24 patients. Results: Of the 50 patients studied, 29 were males and 21 females (1.4:1). The average age was 52.88 years (range: 20–75 years). Causes of ARF included sepsis in 24 (48%), hemodynamically mediated renal failure (HMRF) in 18 (36%), and acute over chronic kidney disease in 8 (16%) patients. The overall mortality was 74%. The average SOFA score was 14.31. The variables influencing mortality on multivariate analysis were: age [odds ratio (OR):1.65; 95% CI: 1.35 to 1.92; P = 0.04], serum creatinine (OR:1.68; 95% CI: 1.44 to 1.86; P = 0.03), and serum bicarbonate (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.94; P = 0.01). On univariate analysis the SOFA score was found to be a useful predictor of mortality. Conclusions: Despite advances in treating critically ill patients with newer extracorporeal therapies, mortality is dismally high

  18. A new machine for continuous renal replacement therapy: from development to clinical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Salvatori, Gabriella; Bonello, Monica; Ratanarat, Ranistha; Andrikos, Emilios; Dan, Maurizio; Piccinni, Pasquale; Ronco, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    A new continuous renal replacement therapy machine has been designed to fulfill the expectations of nephrologists and intensivists operating in the common ground of critical care nephrology. The new equipment is called Prismaflex and it is the natural evolution of the PRISMA machine that has been utilized worldwide for continuous renal replacement therapy in the last 10 years. The authors performed a preliminary alpha-trial to establish the usability, flexibility and reliability of the new device. Accuracy was also tested by recording various operational parameters during different intermittent and continuous renal replacement modalities during 62 treatments. This article will describe our first experience with this new device and touch upon the historic and technologic background leading to its development.

  19. High phenobarbital clearance during continuous renal replacement therapy: a case report and pharmacokinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenborg, Staffan; Saraste, Lars; Wide, Katarina

    2014-08-01

    Phenobarbital is an old antiepileptic drug used in severe epilepsy. Despite this, little is written about the need for dose adjustments in renal replacement therapy. Most sources recommend a moderately increased dose guided by therapeutic drug monitoring.A 14 year old boy with nonketotic hyperglycinemia, a rare inborn error of metabolism, characterized by high levels of glycine, epilepsy, spasticity, and cognitive impairment, was admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure after a few days of fever and cough. The boy was unconscious at admittance and had acute renal and hepatic failure.Due to the acute respiratory infection, hypoxic hepatic and renal failure occurred and the patient had a status epilepticus.The patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Continuous renal replacement therapy was initiated. Despite increased phenobarbital doses, therapeutic levels were not reached until the dose was increased to 500 mg twice daily. Therapeutic drug monitoring was performed in plasma and dialysate. Calculations revealed that phenobarbital was almost freely dialyzed.Correct dosing of drugs in patients on renal replacement therapy may need a multidisciplinary approach and guidance by therapeutic drug monitoring.

  20. Understanding the continuous renal replacement therapy circuit for acute renal failure support: a quality issue in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Martin; Baldwin, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of renal replacement therapy is now a core competency of intensive care nursing. The safe and effective delivery of this form of therapy is a quality issue for intensive care, requiring an understanding of the principles underlying therapy and the functioning of machines used. Continuous hemofiltration, first described in 1977, used a system where blood flowed from arterial to venous cannulas through a small-volume, low-resistance, and high-flux filter. Monitoring of these early systems was limited, and without a machine interface, less nursing expertise was required. Current continuous renal replacement therapy machines offer user-friendly interfaces, cassette-style circuits, and comprehensive circuit diagnostics and monitoring. Although these machines conceal complexity behind a user-friendly interface, it remains important that nurses have sufficient knowledge for their use and the ability to compare and contrast circuit setups and functions for optimal and efficient treatment.

  1. Subgroup analysis of continuous renal replacement therapy in severely burned patients.

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    Jaechul Yoon

    Full Text Available Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is administered to critically ill patients with renal injuries as renal replacement or renal support. We aimed to identify predictors of mortality among burn patients receiving CRRT, and to investigate clinical differences according to acute kidney injury (AKI status. This retrospective observational study evaluated 216 Korean burn patients who received CRRT at a burn intensive care unit. Patients were categorized by AKI status. Data were collected regarding arterial pH, laboratory results, ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PF ratio, and urine production. Among surviving patients, CRRT duration and the sequential organ failure assessment score were 6.5 days and 4.7 in the non-AKI group and 23.4 days and 7.4 in the AKI group, respectively (p = 0.003 and p = 0.008. On logistic regression analyses, mortality was significantly associated with a pH of 5.0 mEg/L (p = 0.045, creatinine levels of >2.0 mg/dL (p = 0.011, lactate levels of >2 mmol/L (p2 mmol/L, and a platelet count of 2 mg/dL. In the non-AKI group, poor outcomes were associated with lactate levels of >1.5 mmol/L, a PF ratio of 1.2 mg/dL. Duration of the CRRT application and the requirement for either renal replacement or renal support at the initiation of CRRT application are important considerations depending on its application.

  2. Continuous renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure in patients with cancer: a well-tolerated adjunct treatment

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    Rebecca Fischler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction – Acute renal failure (ARF has a poor prognosis in patients with cancer requiring intensive care unit (ICU admission. Our aim is finding prognostic factors for hospital mortality in patients with cancer with ARF requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT. Methods – In this retrospective study, all patients with cancer with ARF treated with continuous venovenous filtration (CVVHDF in the ICU of the Institut Jules Bordet, between January 1st 2003 and December 31st 2012, were included in the study.Results – 103 patients are assessed: men/women 69/34, median age 62 years, solid/haematologic tumours 68/35, median SAPS II 56. Mortality rate was 63%. Seven patients required chronic renal dialysis. After multivariate analysis, two variables were statistically associated with hospital mortality : more than one organ failure (including kidney (OR 5.918 ; 95% CI 2.184 – 16.038 ; p<0,001 and low albumin level (OR 3.341; 95% CI 1.229 – 9.077; p=0,02. Only minor complications related to CVVHDF have been documented.Conclusions – Despite the poor prognosis associated with ARF, CVVHDF is an effective and tolerable renal replacement technique in patients with cancer admitted to the ICU. Multiple organ failure and hypoalbuminemia, two independent prognostic factors for hospital mortality have to be considered when deciding for introducing RRT.

  3. Clinical review: Optimal dose of continuous renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury.

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    Prowle, John R; Schneider, Antoine; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the preferred treatment for acute kidney injury in intensive care units (ICUs) throughout much of the world. Despite the widespread use of CRRT, controversy and center-specific practice variation in the clinical application of CRRT continue. In particular, whereas two single-center studies have suggested survival benefit from delivery of higher-intensity CRRT to patients with acute kidney injury in the ICU, other studies have been inconsistent in their results. Now, however, two large multi-center randomized controlled trials - the Veterans Affairs/National Institutes of Health Acute Renal Failure Trial Network (ATN) study and the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level (RENAL) Replacement Therapy Study - have provided level 1 evidence that effluent flow rates above 25 mL/kg per hour do not improve outcomes in patients in the ICU. In this review, we discuss the concept of dose of CRRT, its relationship with clinical outcomes, and what target optimal dose of CRRT should be pursued in light of the high-quality evidence now available.

  4. [Application of continuous renal replacement therapy in the treatment of myonephropathic metabolic syndrome caused by acute lower extremity ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianping; Wang, Tengke; Zhang, Jinglan

    2014-09-16

    To summarize the experiences of using continuous renal replacement therapy in the treatment of myonephropathic metabolic syndrome caused by acute lower limb ischemia. Retrospective study of patients diagnosed acute lower limb ischemia with surgical treatment between January 2008 and December 2013, among which 22 patients with myonephropathic metabolic syndrome received continuous renal replacement therapy. Summarize the change tendency of myoglobin, urine volume and serum creatinine levels during treatment and analysis the condition changes and prognosis of the patients. Among them, 2 patients were amputated and two died after surgery. The major causes of death were acute renal failure, metabolic acidosis, circulation failure and liver failure, etc. Myoglobin was significantly higher at Day 1 after surgery than that was before surgery (P metabolic syndrome, early targeted continuous renal replacement therapy may decrease the serum concentrations of myoglobin and CK, improve urine volume, maintain homeostasis, prevent renal function deterioration and improve the prognosis of patients. And it is highly recommended.

  5. [Long-term outcomes of children treated with continuous renal replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarza, S; Bialobrzeska, K; Casellas, M M; Santiago, M J; López-Herce, J; Toledo, B; Carrillo, Á

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze long-term outcomes and kidney function in children requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) after an acute kidney injury episode. A retrospective observational study was performed using a prospective database of 128 patients who required CRRT admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit between years 2006 and 2012. The subsequent outcomes were assessed in those surviving at hospital discharge. Of the 128 children who required RRT in the pediatric intensive care unit, 71 survived at hospital discharge (54.4%), of whom 66 (92.9%) were followed up. Three patients had chronic renal failure prior to admission to the NICU. Of the 63 remaining patients, 6 had prolonged or relapses of renal function disturbances, but only one patient with atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome developed end-stage renal failure. The rest had normal kidney function at the last check-up. Most of surviving children that required CRRT have a positive outcome later on, presenting low mortality rates and recovery of kidney function in the medium term. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Outcome and prognostic factors of critically ill patients with acute renal failure requiring continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldawood Abdulaziz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT has proved to be beneficial for the treatment of critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF. The aim of this study is to determine the outcome and identify the predictors of mortality of critically ill patients treated with CRRT for ARF in the intensive care unit (ICU. This prospective cohort study of critically ill patients with ARF requiring CRRT admitted to the ICU was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia from 2002 to 2008. A total of 644 of 7173 patients with ARF required CRRT were studied. About 9% of the ARF patients required CRRT and comprised mainly those with medical causes, carrying a mortality of 64%. Multivariate analysis found high serum creatinine as an independent factor for better outcome and requirement of mechanical ventilation (MV as an independent factor for worse outcome. In our cohort study, ARF requiring CRRT in the ICU was associated with a high mortality.

  7. Evolution of Technology for Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Forty Years of Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) was proposed in 1977 as an alternative treatment for acute renal failure in patients in whom peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis was clinically or technically precluded. In the mid-1980s, this technique was extended to infants and children. CAVH presented important advantages in the areas of hemodynamic stability, control of circulating volume, and nutritional support. However, there were serious shortcomings such as the need for arterial cannulation and limited solute clearance. These problems were solved by the introduction of continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration and continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis, where uremic control could be achieved by increasing countercurrent dialysate flow rates to 1.5 or 2 L/h as necessary, or by venovenous techniques utilizing a double-lumen central venous catheter for vascular access. Thus, continuous venovenous hemofiltration replaced CAVH because of its improved performance and safety. From the initial adoptive technology, specific machines have been designed to permit safe and reliable performance of the therapy. These new machines have progressively undergone a series of technological steps that have resulted in the evolution of highly sophisticated equipment utilized today. A significant number of advances have taken place since the time continuous renal replacement therapy was initiated. In particular, there have been successful experiments with high-volume hemofiltration and high-permeability hemofiltration. The additional and combined use of sorbent has also been tested successfully. Progress has been made in the technology as well as the understanding of the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury. Today, new biomaterials and new devices are available and new frontiers are on the horizon. Although improvements have been made, a lot remains to be done. Critical care nephrology is expected to further evolve in the near future, especially in the area of information and

  8. Flucytosine Pharmacokinetics in a Critically Ill Patient Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunka, Megan E; Cady, Elizabeth A; Woo, Heejung C; Thompson Bastin, Melissa L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A case report evaluating flucytosine dosing in a critically ill patient receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. Summary. This case report outlines an 81-year-old male who was receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) for acute renal failure and was being treated with flucytosine for the treatment of disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Due to patient specific factors, flucytosine was empirically dose adjusted approximately 50% lower than intermittent hemodialysis (iHD) recommendations and approximately 33% lower than CRRT recommendations. Peak and trough levels were obtained, which were supratherapeutic, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The patient experienced thrombocytopenia, likely due to elevated flucytosine levels, and flucytosine was ultimately discontinued. Conclusion. Despite conservative flucytosine dosing for a patient receiving CVVH, peak and trough serum flucytosine levels were supratherapeutic (120 μg/mL at 2 hours and 81 μg/mL at 11.5 hours), which increased drug-related adverse effects. The results indicate that this conservative dosing regimen utilizing the patient's actual body weight was too aggressive. This case report provides insight into flucytosine dosing in CVVH, a topic that has not been investigated previously. Further pharmacokinetic studies of flucytosine dosing in critically ill patients receiving CVVH are needed in order to optimize pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters while avoiding toxic flucytosine exposure.

  9. Flucytosine Pharmacokinetics in a Critically Ill Patient Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Kunka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A case report evaluating flucytosine dosing in a critically ill patient receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. Summary. This case report outlines an 81-year-old male who was receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH for acute renal failure and was being treated with flucytosine for the treatment of disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Due to patient specific factors, flucytosine was empirically dose adjusted approximately 50% lower than intermittent hemodialysis (iHD recommendations and approximately 33% lower than CRRT recommendations. Peak and trough levels were obtained, which were supratherapeutic, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The patient experienced thrombocytopenia, likely due to elevated flucytosine levels, and flucytosine was ultimately discontinued. Conclusion. Despite conservative flucytosine dosing for a patient receiving CVVH, peak and trough serum flucytosine levels were supratherapeutic (120 μg/mL at 2 hours and 81 μg/mL at 11.5 hours, which increased drug-related adverse effects. The results indicate that this conservative dosing regimen utilizing the patient’s actual body weight was too aggressive. This case report provides insight into flucytosine dosing in CVVH, a topic that has not been investigated previously. Further pharmacokinetic studies of flucytosine dosing in critically ill patients receiving CVVH are needed in order to optimize pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters while avoiding toxic flucytosine exposure.

  10. High cut-off membranes in acute kidney injury and continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-11-24

    Innovation in continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) utilized to treat acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis, has brought new machines and techniques. Part of these new advances are due to the availability of innovative biomaterials and the construction of membranes with larger pores and wide distribution of pore sizes. This includes the creation of a new generation of high cut-off membranes whose utilization in clinical practice is promising for the wide spectrum of solutes that are removed during extracorporeal therapies.However, the enlargement of pore diameters brings some loss of albumin during treatment and this effect is still under evaluation, since there is a possibility that this is detrimental for the patient. A thorough review of the available clinical literature is reported in this paper with a reappraisal of the potential application of these new technologies.

  11. Comparative study of anticoagulation versus saline flushes in continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarik Amit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic heparinization during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is associated with disadvantage of risk of bleeding. This study analyses the efficacy of frequent saline flushes compared with heparin anticoagulation to maintain filter life. From January 2004 to November 2007, 65 critically ill patients with acute renal failure underwent CRRT. Continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration (CVVHDF was performed using Diapact Braun CRRT machine. 1.7% P.D. fluid was used as dialysate. 0.9% NS with addition of 10% Ca Gluconate, Magnesium Sulphate, Soda bicarbonate and Potassium Chloride added sequentially in separate units were used for replacement, carefully monitoring their levels. Anticoagulation of extracorporeal circuit was achieved with unfractionated heparin (250-500 units alternate hour in 35 patients targeting aPTT of 45-55 seconds. No anticoagulation was used in 30 patients with baseline APTT > 55 seconds and extracorporeal circuit was maintained with saline flushes at 30 min interval. 65 pa-tients including 42 males. Co-morbidities were comparable in both groups. HMARF was signifi-cantly more common in heparin group while Sepsis was comparable in both the groups. CRRT parameters were similar in both groups. Average filter life in heparin group was 26 ± 6.4 hours while it was 24.5 ± 6.36 hours in heparin free group ( P=NS. Patients receiving heparin had 16 bleeding episodes (0.45/patient while only four bleeding episodes occurred in heparin free group (0.13/patient, P< 0.05. Mortality was 71% in heparin group and 67% in heparin free group. Frequent saline flushes is an effective mode of maintainance of extracorporeal circuit in CRRT when aPTT is already on the higher side, with significantly decreased bleeding episodes.

  12. Association between mortality and replacement solution bicarbonate concentration in continuous renal replacement therapy: A propensity-matched cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Kashani

    Full Text Available Given the known deleterious effects seen with bicarbonate supplementation for acidemia, we hypothesized that utilizing high bicarbonate concentration replacement solution in continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH would be independently associated with higher mortality.In a propensity score-matched historical cohort study conducted at a single tertiary care center from December 9, 2006, through December 31, 2009, a total of 287consecutive adult critically ill patients with Stage III acute kidney injury (AKI requiring CVVH were enrolled. We excluded patients on maintenance dialysis, those who received other modalities of continuous renal replacement therapies, and patients that received a mixed of 22 and 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution pre- and post-filter. The primary outcome was in-hospital and 90-day mortality rates.Among enrollees, 68 were used 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution, and 219 received 22mEq/L bicarbonate solution for CVVH. Patients on 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution were more often non-surgical, had lower pH and bicarbonate level but had higher blood potassium and phosphorus levels in comparison with those on 22 mEq/L bicarbonate solution. After adjustment for the baseline characteristics, the use of 32 bicarbonate solution was significantly associated with increased in-hospital (HR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.02-3.79 and 90-day mortality (HR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.03-2.14. There was a significant increase in the hospital (p = .03 and 90-day (p = .04 mortality between the 22 vs. 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution groups following propensity matching.Our data showed there is a strong association between using high bicarbonate solution and mortality independent of severity of illness and comorbid conditions. These findings need to be evaluated further in prospective studies.

  13. Automated electronic monitoring of circuit pressures during continuous renal replacement therapy: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Baldwin, Ian; Zhu, Guijun; Tanaka, Aiko; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Automated electronic monitoring and analysis of circuit pressures during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has the potential to predict failure and allow intervention to optimise function. Current CRRT machines can measure and store pressure readings for downloading into databases and for analysis. We developed a procedure to obtain such data at intervals of 1 minute and analyse them using the Prismaflex CRRT machine, and we present an example of such analysis. We obtained data on pressures obtained at intervals of 1 minute in a patient with acute kidney injury and sepsis treated with continuous haemofiltration at 2 L/hour of ultrafiltration and a blood flow of 200 mL/minute. Data analysis identified progressive increases in transmembrane pressure (TMP) and prefilter pressure (PFP) from time 0 until 33 hours or clotting. TMP increased from 104 mmHg to 313 mmHg and PFP increased from from 131 mmHg to 185 mmHg. Effluent pressure showed a progressive increase in the negative pressure applied to achieve ultrafiltration from 0 mmHg to -168 mmHg. The inflection point for such changes was also identified. Blood pathway pressures for access and return remained unchanged throughout. Automated electronic monitoring of circuit pressure during CRRT is possible and provides useful information on the evolution of circuit clotting.

  14. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of circuit patency and exchange rates between 2 different continuous renal replacement therapy machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Amirhossein; Still, Mary D; White, Sharon J; Buchman, Timothy G; Connor, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an important tool in the care of critically ill patients. However, the impact of a specific CRRT machine type on the successful delivery of CRRT is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CRRT delivery with an intensive care unit (ICU) bedside nurse delivery model for CRRT while comparing circuit patency and circuit exchange rates in 2 Food and Drug Administration-approved CRRT devices. This article presents the data comparing circuit exchange rates for 2 different CRRT machines. A group of ICU nurses were selected to undergo expanded training in CRRT operation and empowered to deliver all aspects of CRRT. The ICU nurses then provided all aspects of CRRT on 2 Food and Drug Administration-approved CRRT devices for 6 months. Each device was used exclusively in the designated ICU for a 2-week run-in period followed by 3-month data collection period. The primary end point for the study was the differences in average number of filter exchanges per day during each CRRT event. A total of 45 unique patients who underwent 64 separate CRRT treatment periods were included. Four CRRT events were excluded (see text for details). Twenty-eight CRRT events occurred in the NxStage System One arm (NxStage Medical, Lawrence, Mass) and 32 events in the Gambro Prismaflex arm (Gambro Renal Products, Boulder, Colo). Average (SD) filter exchanges per day was 0.443 (0.60) for the NxStage System One machine and 0.553 (0.65) for Gambro Prismaflex machine (P = .09). There was no demonstrable difference in circuit patency as defined by the rate of filter exchanges per day of CRRT therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intermittent versus continuous renal replacement therapy in acute methanol poisoning: comparison of clinical effectiveness in mass poisoning outbreaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Rulíšek, J.; Nurieva, O.; Kotíková, K.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Komarc, M.; Pelclová, D.; Hovda, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 77. ISSN 2110-5820 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Mass poisoning outbreak * Continuous renal replacement therapy * Intermittent hemodialysis Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 3.656, year: 2016

  17. Quality indicators of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) care in critically ill patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewa, Oleksa G; Villeneuve, Pierre-Marc; Lachance, Philippe; Eurich, Dean T; Stelfox, Henry T; Gibney, R T Noel; Hartling, Lisa; Featherstone, Robin; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2017-06-01

    Renal replacement therapy is increasingly utilized in the intensive care unit (ICU), of which continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is most common. Despite CRRT being a relatively invasive and resource intensive technology, there remains wide practice variation in its application. This systematic review appraised the evidence for quality indicators (QIs) of CRRT care in critically ill patients. A comprehensive search strategy was developed and performed in five citation databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PubMed) and select grey literature sources. Two reviewers independently screened, selected, and extracted data using standardized forms. Each retrieved citation was appraised for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were summarized narratively. Our search yielded 8374 citations, of which 133 fulfilled eligibility. This included 97 cohort studies, 24 randomized controlled trials, 10 case-control studies, and 2 retrospective medical audits. The quality of retrieved studies was generally good. In total, 18 QIs were identified that were mentioned in 238 instances. Identified QIs were classified as related to structure (n = 4, 22.2 %), care processes (n = 9, 50.0 %), and outcomes (n = 5, 27.8 %). The most commonly mentioned QIs focused on filter lifespan (n = 98), small solute clearance (n = 46), bleeding (n = 30), delivered dose (n = 19), and treatment interruption (n = 5). Across studies, the definitions used for QIs evaluating similar constructs varied considerably. When identified, QIs were most commonly described as important (n = 144, 48.3 %), scientifically acceptable (n = 32, 10.7 %), and useable and/or feasible (n = 17, 5.7 %) by their primary study authors. We identified numerous potential QIs of CRRT care, characterized by heterogeneous definitions, varying quality of derivation, and limited evaluation. Further study is needed to prioritize a concise

  18. CRRTnet: a prospective, multi-national, observational study of continuous renal replacement therapy practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Michael; Bagshaw, Sean M; House, Andrew A; Juncos, Luis A; Piazza, Robin; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2017-07-06

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the recommended modality of dialysis for critically ill patients with hemodynamic instability. Yet there remains significant variability in how CRRT is prescribed and delivered, and limited evidence-basis to guide practice. This is a prospective, multi-center observational study of patients undergoing CRRT. Initial enrollment phase will occur at 4 academic medical centers in North America over 5 years, with a target enrollment of 2000 patients. All adult patients (18-89 years of age) receiving CRRT will be eligible for inclusion; patients who undergo CRRT for less than 24 h will be excluded from analysis. Data collection will include patient characteristics at baseline and at time of CRRT initiation; details of CRRT prescription and delivery, including machine-generated treatment data; and patient outcomes. The goal of this study is to establish a large comprehensive registry of critically ill adults receiving CRRT. Specific aims include describing variations in CRRT prescription and delivery across quality domains; validating quality measures for CRRT care by correlating processes and outcomes; and establishing a large registry for use in quality improvement and benchmarking efforts. For initial analyses, some particular areas of interest are anticoagulation protocols; approach to fluid overload; CRRT-related workload; and patient safety. Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov 1/10/2014: NCT02034448.

  19. [Echinocandins: searching for differences. The example of their use in patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llama-Celis, Natalia; Huarte-Lacunza, Rafael; Gómez-Baraza, Cristina; Cañamares-Orbis, Iciar; Sebastián-Aldeanueva, Manuel; Arrieta-Navarro, Raquel

    2012-12-01

    The echinocandins have a growing role in the treatment of fungal infections because of their novel mechanism of action. This is reflected in recently published management guidelines, but available in vitro data, animal studies, and clinical studies do not clearly differentiate the three agents in class. Comparative clinical efficacy among agents within the class, pharmacokinetic profiles in special populations, pharmacoeconomics justifications, and place in therapy have been largely unanswered. They share many common properties but marketing strategies of drug manufacturers are engaged in product differentiation. Although exist similarities in the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the echinocandins, limited data have been published regarding their pharmacokinetics in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) patients. The pharmacokinetics of drug removal in critically ill patients receiving CRRT is very complex, with multiple variables affecting clearance. This review outlines the basic principles that determine whether a dose adjustment is required. Two studies with data on PK parameters of micafungin and anidulafungin in CRRT patients have been published and are compared following that basic principles in the review.

  20. Simulating continuous renal replacement therapy: usefulness of a new simulator device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencía, Santiago; López, Manuel; López-Herce, Jesús; Ferrero, Luis; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Simulation allows the training of life-support procedures without patient risk. We analyzed the performance and usefulness of a new device that makes feasible the external control of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines in order to realistically generate clinical conditions and problems in simulated patients. A simple mechanical device was designed according to training needs and then hand made. This device permits the control of all monitorable pressures and therefore allows simulation of a range of clinical situations and eventual complications that might occur in real patients. We tested its performance in vitro and then during 16 high-fidelity patient-simulation scenarios included in the program of pediatric CRRT courses. Student and teacher satisfaction was assessed through an anonymous survey. Quick, accurate, real-time monitor of pressure changes, concordant with the usual clinical problems to be simulated (catheter complications, filter coagulation, inadequate CRRT device settings), were easily achieved with the new device. Instructors rated the device as user friendly and well adapted to the reality being simulated. During scenarios, students were not aware of the simulator and considered that simulated clinical conditions were realistic. Our device may be very useful for training healthcare professionals in CRRT management, thus avoiding risk to patients.

  1. Data analytics for continuous renal replacement therapy: historical limitations and recent technology advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William R; Garzotto, Francesco; Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Zaccaria, Marta; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-10-10

    Dialysis is a highly quantitative therapy involving large volumes of both clinical and technical data. While automated data collection has been implemented for chronic dialysis, this has not been done for acute kidney injury patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). After a brief review of the fundamental aspects of electronic medical records (EMRs), a new tool designed to provide clinicians with individualized CRRT treatment data is analyzed, with emphasis on its quality assurance capabilities. The first platform addressing the problem of data collection and management with current CRRT machines (Sharesource system; Baxter Healthcare) is described. The system provides connectivity for the Prismaflex CRRT machine and enables both EMR connectivity and therapy analytics with 2 basic components: the connect module and the report module. The enormous amount of data in CRRT should be collected and analyzed to enable adequate clinical decisions. Current CRRT technology presents significant limitations with consequent lack of rigorous analysis of technical data and relevant feedback. From a quality assurance perspective, these limitations preclude any systematic assessment of prescription and delivery trends that may be adversely affecting clinical outcomes. A detailed assessment of current practice limitations is provided together with several possible ways to address such limitations by a new technical tool.

  2. Effect of regional citrate anticoagulation on critical patients with continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li You

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT for critical patients. Methods: A total of 83 critical patients need CRRT in the intensive care units of our hospital from July 2012 to June 2016 were recruited in the study, and the patients were divided into two groups randomly, the patients in observation group received the RCA treatment, and the patients in control group received traditional low molecular heparin anticoagulation. The difference of safety indicators, biochemical indicators, extracorporeal circulation blood coagulation condition and complications in patients were determined between two groups. Results: Compared with control group, the patients in observation group had an elevated level of iCa2+, the level of chloride ion reduced, the use time of filter increased, the bleeding cases reduced, the concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine TNF-α , IL-1β, IL-8 and NO were all significantly downregulated, the data have a significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusions: RCA is a safe and effective method for CRRT in patients with a high risk of bleeding.

  3. Faster Blood Flow Rate Does Not Improve Circuit Life in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fealy, Nigel; Aitken, Leanne; du Toit, Eugene; Lo, Serigne; Baldwin, Ian

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether blood flow rate influences circuit life in continuous renal replacement therapy. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Single center tertiary level ICU. Critically ill adults requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Patients were randomized to receive one of two blood flow rates: 150 or 250 mL/min. The primary outcome was circuit life measured in hours. Circuit and patient data were collected until each circuit clotted or was ceased electively for nonclotting reasons. Data for clotted circuits are presented as median (interquartile range) and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Survival probability for clotted circuits was compared using log-rank test. Circuit clotting data were analyzed for repeated events using hazards ratio. One hundred patients were randomized with 96 completing the study (150 mL/min, n = 49; 250 mL/min, n = 47) using 462 circuits (245 run at 150 mL/min and 217 run at 250 mL/min). Median circuit life for first circuit (clotted) was similar for both groups (150 mL/min: 9.1 hr [5.5-26 hr] vs 10 hr [4.2-17 hr]; p = 0.37). Continuous renal replacement therapy using blood flow rate set at 250 mL/min was not more likely to cause clotting compared with 150 mL/min (hazards ratio, 1.00 [0.60-1.69]; p = 0.68). Gender, body mass index, weight, vascular access type, length, site, and mode of continuous renal replacement therapy or international normalized ratio had no effect on clotting risk. Continuous renal replacement therapy without anticoagulation was more likely to cause clotting compared with use of heparin strategies (hazards ratio, 1.62; p = 0.003). Longer activated partial thromboplastin time (hazards ratio, 0.98; p = 0.002) and decreased platelet count (hazards ratio, 1.19; p = 0.03) were associated with a reduced likelihood of circuit clotting. There was no difference in circuit life whether using blood flow rates of 250 or 150 mL/min during continuous renal replacement therapy.

  4. Effects of continuous renal replacement therapy on linezolid pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Gianluca; Di Maggio, Paola; De Gaudio, A Raffaele; Novelli, Andrea; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Fiaccadori, Enrico; Adembri, Chiara

    2016-11-19

    Major alterations in linezolid pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters might be expected in critically ill septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who are undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The present review is aimed at describing extracorporeal removal of linezolid and the main PK-PD parameter changes observed in critically ill septic patients with AKI, who are on CRRT. Citations published on PubMed up to January 2016 were systematically reviewed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. All authors assessed the methodological quality of the studies and consensus was used to ensure studies met inclusion criteria. In-vivo studies in adult patients with AKI treated with linezolid and on CRRT were considered eligible for the analysis only if operational settings of the CRRT machine, membrane type, linezolid blood concentrations and main PK-PD parameters were all clearly reported. Among 68 potentially relevant articles, only 9 were considered eligible for the analysis. Across these, 53 treatments were identified among the 49 patients included (46 treated with high-flux and 3 with high cut-off membranes). Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) was the most frequent treatment performed amongst the studies. The extracorporeal clearance values of linezolid across the different modalities were 1.2-2.3 L/h for CVVH, 0.9-2.2 L/h for hemodiafiltration and 2.3 L/h for hemodialysis, and large variability in PK/PD parameters was reported. The optimal area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) ratio was reached for pathogens with an MIC of 4 mg/L in one study only. Wide variability in linezolid PK/PD parameters has been observed across critically ill septic patients with AKI treated with CRRT. Particular attention should be paid to linezolid therapy in order to avoid antibiotic failure in these patients. Strategies to improve the effectiveness of

  5. Reductions in red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration during continuous renal replacment therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpa; Brugnara, Carlo; Betensky, Rebecca A; Waikar, Sushrut S

    2015-01-07

    Hypophosphatemia is a frequent complication during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), a dialytic technique used to treat AKI in critically ill patients. This study sought to confirm that phosphate depletion during CRRT may decrease red blood cell (RBC) concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), a crucial allosteric effector of hemoglobin's (Hgb's) affinity for oxygen, thereby leading to impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Phosphate mass balance studies were performed in 20 patients with severe AKI through collection of CRRT effluent. RBC concentrations of 2,3-DPG, venous blood gas pH, and oxygen partial pressure required for 50% hemoglobin saturation (P50) were measured at CRRT initiation and days 2, 4, and 7. Similar measurements were obtained on days 0 and 2 in a reference group of 10 postsurgical patients, most of whom did not have AKI. Associations of 2,3-DPG with laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes were examined using mixed-effects and Cox regression models. Mean 2,3-DPG levels decreased from a mean (±SD) of 13.4±3.4 µmol/g Hgb to 11.0±3.1 µmol/g Hgb after 2 days of CRRT (Plevels decreased from 29.7±4.4 mmHg to 26.7±4.0 mmHg (Plevels after 2 days of CRRT were not significantly lower than those in the reference group on day 2. Among patients receiving CRRT, 2,3-DPG decreased by 0.53 µmol/g Hgb per 1 g phosphate removed (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.68 µmol/g Hgb; P<0.001). Greater reductions in 2,3-DPG were associated with higher risk for death (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.88; P=0.01). CRRT-induced phosphate depletion is associated with measurable reductions in RBC 2,3-DPG concentration and a shift in the O2:Hgb affinity curve even in the absence of overt hypophosphatemia. 2,3-DPG reductions may be associated with higher risk for in-hospital death and represent a potentially avoidable complication of CRRT. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. [Effect of continuous renal replacement therapy on the plasma concentration of imipenem in severe infection patients with acute renal injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Liu, Lixia; Xing, Dong; Zhao, Congcong; Hu, Zhenjie

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the extracorporeal clearance rate of imipenem in severe infection patients in the mode of continuous vena-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), in order to approach if the concentration of imipenem in plasma could achieve effective levels of anti-infection, and to explore the effect of time and anticoagulation measure on imipenem clearance during CRRT treatment. A prospective observational study was conducted. All adult severe infection patients complicating acute kidney injury (AKI) in the Department of Critical Care Medicine of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University from March 2013 to September 2014, who were prescribed imipenem as part of their required medical care, and CRRT for treatment of AKI were enrolled. 0.5 g doses of imipenem was administered intravenously every 6 hours or 8 hours according to random number table, and infused over 0.5 hour. The unfractionated heparin was used for anticoagulation in the patients without contraindications, and no anticoagulation strategy was used in the patients with high risk of bleeding. At 24 hours after first time of administration, postfilter venous blood and ultrafiltrate samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 5, 6, and 8 hours after imipenem administration. The concentration of imipenem in above samples was determined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). A total of 25 patients were enrolled. Thirteen patients received imipenem intravenously every 6 hours, and 12 patients, every 8 hours. The anticoagulation was conducted with heparin in 13 cases, and 12 cases without anticoagulation. The intra-day precision, inter-day precision, matrix effect, and recovery rate in low, medium, and high concentration of plasma and ultrafiltrate, and the stability of samples under different conditions showed a good result, the error of accuracy was controlled in the range of ±15%. With the application of Prismaflex

  7. Acute treatment of hyperammonemia by continuous renal replacement therapy in a newborn patient with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jeong Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC deficiency is well known as the most common inherited disorder of the urea cycle, and 1 of the most common causes of hyperammonemia in newborns. We experienced a case of a 3-day-old boy with OTC deficiency who appeared healthy in the first 2 days of life but developed lethargy and seizure soon afterwards. His serum ammonia level was measured as &gt;1700 μg/dL (range, 0 to 45 μg/dL. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT in the mode of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration was immediately applied to correct the raised ammonia level. No seizure occurred after the elevated ammonia level was reduced. Therefore, CRRT should be included as 1 of the treatment modalities for newborns with inborn errors of metabolism, especially hyperammonemia. Here, we report 1 case of successful treatment of hyperammonemia by CRRT in a neonate with OTC deficiency.

  8. The optimal timing of continuous renal replacement therapy for patients with sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huanhuan; Sun, Ting; Hao, Dong; Wang, Tao; Li, Zhi; Han, Shasha; Qi, Zhijiang; Dong, Zhaoju; Lv, Changjun; Wang, Xiaozhi

    2014-10-01

    High mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) is probably associated with sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study is to explore which stage of AKI may be the optimal timing for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). A retrospective analysis of 160 critically ill patients with septic AKI, treated with or without CRRT was performed in Binzhou medical college affiliated hospital ICU. The parameters including 28-days mortality rate, renal recovery, ventilation time and ICU stay between CRRT group and control group were assessed. Renal recovery, defined as independence from dialysis at discharge, was documented for 64/76 (84.2 %) of the surviving patients (48.1 % of total subjects included in the study). The mortality rate increased proportionally with acute kidney injury Network stages in CRRT subgroups (P = 0.001) and control groups (P = 0.029). CRRT initiation at stage 2 of AKI significantly reduced the 28-day mortality (P = 0.048) and increased the 28-day survival rate (P = 0.036) compared with those in control group. In addition, the ICU stay and ventilation time were shorter in CRRT group than that of control group in stage 2 of AKI. The stage 2 AKI might be the optimal timing for performing CRRT.

  9. [Critical care nurse learning of continuous renal replacement therapy: the efficacy of a self-learning manual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Li-Ling

    2011-02-01

    Many nurses have difficulty learning to use the complex, non-traditional, and regularly-updated critical care equipment. Failure to use such equipment properly can seriously compromise treatment and endanger patient health and lives. New self-learning materials for novice nurses are necessary to provide essential and effective guidance as a part of formal nursing training. Such materials can enhance the capabilities of critical care nurses and, thus, improve the general quality of critical care. The purpose of this research was to develop a continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)-themed self-learning manual that would provide easily absorbed and understood knowledge in an easy-to-carry format for ICU nursing staff. This study also investigated CCRT skill learning efficacy. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with pretests and posttests. Purposive sampling generated a sample of 66 critical care nurses currently working at one hospital in Taipei City. Participants submitted a completed self-assessment survey that rated their command of continuous renal replacement therapy before and after the self-learning manual intervention. Survey data were analyzed using SPSS Version 17.0 for Windows. The two major findings derived from the study included: (1) The mean response score from the self-assessment survey filled out after the intervention was 91.06 and 79.75 (SD = 9.49 and 11.65), respectively, for experimental and control groups. Such demonstrated significant difference. (2) The mean posttest score after the intervention for the experimental group was 91.06 ± 9.49. This represents a significant increase of 10.35 ± 10.35 over their mean pretest score (80.71 ± 11.82). The experimental group showed other significant differences in terms of the CRRT self-assessment survey posttest. Self-learning manuals may be introduced in nursing education as useful aids and catalysts to achieve more effective and satisfying learning experiences.

  10. Successful treatment of thyroid storm presenting as recurrent cardiac arrest and subsequent multiorgan failure by continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Soo Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a rare and potentially life-threatening medical emergency. We experienced a case of thyroid storm associated with sepsis caused by pneumonia, which had a catastrophic course including recurrent cardiac arrest and subsequent multiple organ failure (MOF. A 22-year-old female patient with a 10-year history of Graves’ disease was transferred to our emergency department (ED. She had a cardiac arrest at her home and a second cardiac arrest at the ED. Her heart recovered after 20 min of cardiac resuscitation. She was diagnosed with thyroid storm associated with hyperthyroidism complicated by pneumonia and sepsis. Although full conventional medical treatment was given, she had progressive MOF and hemodynamic instability consisting of hyperthermia, tachycardia and hypotension. Because of hepatic and renal failure with refractory hypotension, we reduced the patient’s dose of beta-blocker and antithyroid drug, and she was started on continuous veno-venous renal replacement therapy (CRRT with intravenous albumin and plasma supplementation. Subsequently, her body temperature and pulse rate began to stabilize within 1 h, and her blood pressure reached 120/60 mmHg after 6 h. We discontinued antithyroid drug 3 days after admission because of aggravated hyperbilirubinemia. The patient exhibited progressive improvement in thyroid function even after cessation of antithyroid drug, and she successfully recovered from thyroid storm and MOF. This is the first case of thyroid storm successfully treated by CRRT in a patient considered unfit for antithyroid drug treatment.

  11. Development of the New Kibou® Equipment for Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy from Scratch to the Final Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Brendolan, Alessandra; Garzotto, Francesco; Ferrari, Fiorenza; De Rosa, Silvia; Bonato, Raffaele; Villa, Gianluca; Bazzano, Simona; D''Ippoliti, Fiorella; Ricci, Zaccaria; La Manna, Gaetano; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A new technology has recently appeared in the area of extracorporeal therapies for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. The International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza was involved from the beginning in the development of a new continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) equipment with peculiar characteristics. We report the overall experience from design of the new machine to its in vitro and in vivo testing. Kibou® (Asahi Kasei Kuraray Medical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) is a new multifunctional machine designed for delivering RRT. Kibou® carries out many features of the fourth generation CRRT machines including the possibility of a dynamic prescription and reduction of nursing workload. We describe our first experience with this new device, focusing on several usability and performance parameters. A specific in vitro protocol was designed to analyze the various characteristics and accuracy of performance of the machine. Furthermore, a preliminary in vivo alpha trial with 12 CRRT sessions was performed to test, characterize and evaluate the machine in terms of usability, flexibility and reliability. The in vitro evaluation confirmed an adequate design and a good usability of the machine with accurate delivery of prescribed parameters. No adverse events were observed during the in vivo test that confirmed usability and safety together with accuracy of treatment delivery in different modalities. In general, the machine was rated by physicians and nurses involved in the evaluation as practical and easy to use, although a specific training is required to familiarize with the equipment. A large-scale multicenter beta trial is required to confirm the results reported in this preliminary evaluation in terms of safety, accuracy and performance of Kibou®. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A safe procedure for connecting a continuous renal replacement therapy device into an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Natsumi; Matsumura, Yosuke; Abe, Ryuzo; Hattori, Noriyuki; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Oda, Shigeto

    2017-06-01

    Patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) often require continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The intra-circuit pressure of adult ECMO usually deviates from the physiological range. We investigated the use of CRRT connected to an ECMO circuit with physiological intra-circuit pressures (0-150 mmHg, defined as the "safety range") using an in vitro experiment involving a water-filled ECMO circuit. The intra-circuit pressure pre-pump, post-pump, and post-oxygenator were measured while varying the height of the pump or ECMO flow. The bypass conduit pressure and distance from the post-oxygenator port were measured to find the "safety point", where the bypass pressure remained within the safety range. Both drainage and return limbs of the CRRT machine were connected to the safety point and the inlet and outlet pressures of the hemofilter were recorded while varying the ECMO and CRRT flow. The pre-pump pressure only remained within the safety range for heights >75 cm (ECMO flow = 4 L/min) or ECMO flow machine safely under physiological pressures in adult patients receiving ECMO.

  13. Building and validation of a prognostic model for predicting extracorporeal circuit clotting in patients with continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xia; Liang, Xinling; Song, Li; Huang, Huigen; Wang, Jing; Chen, Yuanhan; Zhang, Li; Quan, Zilin; Shi, Wei

    2014-04-01

    To develop a predictive model for circuit clotting in patients with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). A total of 425 cases were selected. 302 cases were used to develop a predictive model of extracorporeal circuit life span during CRRT without citrate anticoagulation in 24 h, and 123 cases were used to validate the model. The prediction formula was developed using multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis, from which a risk score was assigned. The mean survival time of the circuit was 15.0 ± 1.3 h, and the rate of circuit clotting was 66.6 % during 24 h of CRRT. Five significant variables were assigned a predicting score according to the regression coefficient: insufficient blood flow, no anticoagulation, hematocrit ≥0.37, lactic acid of arterial blood gas analysis ≤3 mmol/L and APTT R (2) = 0.232; P = 0.301). A risk score that includes the five above-mentioned variables can be used to predict the likelihood of extracorporeal circuit clotting in patients undergoing CRRT.

  14. What is this chocolate milk in my circuit? A cause of acute clotting of a continuous renal replacement circuit: Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakajiwala, Aadil; Chiotos, Kathleen; Brothers, Julie; Lederman, April; Amaral, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    One of the greatest problems associated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the early clotting of filters. A literature search revealed three case reports of lipemic blood causing recurrent clotting and reduced CRRT circuit survival time in adult patients, but no reports of cases in children. A 23-month-old male infant with Martinez-Frias syndrome and multivisceral transplant was admitted to the hospital with severe sepsis and hemolytic anemia. He developed acute kidney injury, fluid overload and electrolyte imbalances requiring CRRT and was also administered total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and fat emulsion. The first circuit lasted 60 h before routine change was required. The second circuit showed acute clotting after only 18 h, and brownish-milky fluid was found in the circuit tubing layered between the clotted blood. The patient's serum triglyceride levels were elevated at 988 mg/dL. The lipid infusion was stopped and CRRT restarted. Serum triglyceride levels improved to 363 mg/dL. The new circuit lasted 63 h before routine change was required. Clotting of CRRT circuits due to elevated triglyceride levels is rare and has not been reported in the pediatric population. Physicians should be mindful of this risk in patients receiving TPN who have unexpected clotting of CRRT circuits.

  15. Body mass index is inversely associated with mortality in patients with acute kidney injury undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungnae Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many epidemiologic studies have reported on the controversial concept of the obesity paradox. The presence of acute kidney injury (AKI can accelerate energy-consuming processes, particularly in patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether obesity can provide a survival benefit in this highly catabolic condition. Methods: We conducted an observational study in 212 patients who had undergone CRRT owing to various causes of AKI between 2010 and 2014. The study end point was defined as death that occurred within 30 days after the initiation of CRRT. Results: Patients were categorized into three groups according to tertiles of body mass index (BMI. During ≥30 days after the initiation of CRRT, 39 patients (57.4% in the highest tertile died, as compared with 58 patients (78.4% in the lowest tertile (P = 0.02. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for cofounding factors, the highest tertile of BMI was significantly associated with a decreased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37–0.87; P = 0.01. This significant association remained unaltered for 60-day (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.94; P = 0.03 and 90-day mortality (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44–0.97; P = 0.03. Conclusion: This study showed that a higher BMI confer a survival benefit over a lower BMI in AKI patients undergoing CRRT.

  16. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the 2012 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org) with a specific focus on older patients (defined as ≥65 years). METHODS: Data provided by 45 national or regional renal...... disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) and renal transplantation rates for 2012 are presented. RESULTS: In 2012, the overall unadjusted incidence rate of patients with ESRD receiving RRT was 109.6 per million population (pmp) (n = 69 035), ranging from 219.9 pmp in Portugal to 24.2 pmp...... to 32% between countries. The overall renal transplantation rate in 2012 was 28.3 pmp (n = 15 673), with the highest rate seen in the Spanish region of Catalonia. The proportion of patients ≥65 years receiving a transplant ranged from 0 to 35%. Five-year adjusted survival for all RRT patients was 59...

  17. Is proBNP a Reliable Marker for the Evaluation of Fluid Load in Patients Undergoing Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy?

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    Seher Erdogan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pro-B type natriuretic peptide (proBNP has been defined as a volume marker in hemodialysis patients. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the role of serum proBNP levels to indicate fluid load in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT due to overhydration. Material and Method: Patients who were admitted to a tertiary 7-bed pediatric intensive care unit and underwent CRRT due to overhydration were included in the study. Results: The study was conducted with 15 girls (53.6% and 13 boys (46.4%. The mean age was 61.46±56.13 months (range, 2-183 months; the mean CRRT administration time was 20.8±14.9 hours (range, 5-60 hours; and the mean percentage of fluid extracted from the body was 8.43 ± 4.51% (range, 2.5-20%. CRRT was administered to 12 patients because of fluid overload (42.9% and to 12 (57.1% because of fluid load accompanied by uremia.. There was a statistically significant difference between body weight, urea, and creatinine levels of patients before and after treatment (p= 0.001. The mean proBNP level was 23.306 ± 13.943 pg/mL immediately before CRRT and the mean proBNP after CRRT was 22.178 ± 15.473 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference between the initial and final proBNP levels (p= 0.756. With the exception of serum sodium levels, there was no correlation between the final proBNP levels and body weight, urea, and creatinine (p>0.05. Similarly, there was also no correlation between initial proBNP levels and fluid load (p= 0.602 or between the percentage of extracted fluid and final proBNP levels (p= 0.155. Discussion: There was no significant correlation between the fluid load and initial proBNP levels or with the extracted fluid percentage and final proBNP levels in patients undergoing CRRT because of fluid overload.In conclusion, no appropriate marker was determined to evaluate cumulative fluid load and the extracted liquid volume.

  18. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang SP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Ping Jiang,1 Zheng-Yi Zhu,2 Xiao-Liang Wu,3 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Xing-Guo Zhang,1 Bao-Hua Wu1 1Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT on drug removal is complicated; pharmacist dosing adjustment for these patients may be advantageous. This study aims to describe the development and implementation of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving CRRT and to examine the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions. Methods: A comparative study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients receiving CRRT in the intervention group received specialized pharmacy dosing service from pharmacists, whereas patients in the no-intervention group received routine medical care without pharmacist involvement. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome of pharmacist dosing adjustment. Results: The pharmacist carried out 233 dosing adjustment recommendations for patients receiving CRRT, and 212 (90.98% of the recommendations were well accepted by the physicians. Changes in CRRT-related variables (n=144, 61.81% were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, whereas antibiotics (n=168, 72.10% were the medications most commonly associated with dosing errors. Pharmacist dosing adjustment resulted in a US$2,345.98 ICU cost savings per critically ill patient receiving CRRT. Suspected adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the preintervention group (35 in 27 patients versus [vs] 18 in eleven patients, P<0.001. However, there was no significant difference between length of ICU stay and mortality after pharmacist dosing adjustment, which

  19. Continuous renal replacement therapy in neonates and small infants: development and first-in-human use of a miniaturised machine (CARPEDIEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio; Garzotto, Francesco; Brendolan, Alessandra; Zanella, Monica; Bellettato, Massimo; Vedovato, Stefania; Chiarenza, Fabio; Ricci, Zaccaria; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2014-05-24

    Peritoneal dialysis is the renal replacement therapy of choice for acute kidney injury in neonates, but in some cases is not feasible or effective. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines are used off label in infants smaller than 15 kg and are not designed specifically for small infants. We aimed to design and create a CRRT machine specifically for neonates and small infants. We prospectively planned a 5-year project to conceive, design, and create a miniaturised Cardio-Renal Pediatric Dialysis Emergency Machine (CARPEDIEM), specifically for neonates and small infants. We created the new device and assessed it with in-vitro laboratory tests, completed its development to meet regulatory requirements, and obtained a licence for human use. Once approved, we used the machine to treat a critically ill neonate The main characteristics of CARPEDIEM are the low priming volume of the circuit (less than 30 mL), miniaturised roller pumps, and accurate ultrafiltration control via calibrated scales with a precision of 1 g. In-vitro tests confirmed that both hardware and software met the specifications. We treated a 2·9 kg neonate with haemorrhagic shock, multiple organ dysfunction, and severe fluid overload for more than 400 h with the CARPEDIEM, using continuous venovenous haemofiltration, single-pass albumin dialysis, blood exchange, and plasma exchange. The patient's 65% fluid overload, raised creatinine and bilirubin concentrations, and severe acidosis were all managed safely and effectively. Despite the severity of the illness, organ function was restored and the neonate survived and was discharged from hospital with only mild renal insufficiency that did not require renal replacement therapy. The CARPEDIEM CRRT machine can be used to provide various treatment modalities and support for multiple organ dysfunction in neonates and small infants. The CARPEDIEM could reduce the range of indications for peritoneal dialysis, widen the range of indications for CRRT

  20. Clinical Validation of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Imipenem in Spent Effluent in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Aiping; Li, Zhe; Yu, Junxian; Li, Ren; Cheng, Sheng; Duan, Meili; Bai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether the therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem could be performed with spent effluent instead of blood sampling collected from critically ill patients under continuous renal replacement therapy. A prospective open-label study was conducted in a real clinical setting. Both blood and effluent samples were collected pairwise before imipenem administration and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h after imipenem administration. Plasma and effluent imipenem concentrations were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of blood and effluent samples were calculated. Eighty-three paired plasma and effluent samples were obtained from 10 patients. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the imipenem concentrations in plasma and effluent was 0.950 (Pimipenem concentration ratio was 1.044 (95% confidence interval, 0.975 to 1.114) with Bland-Altman analysis. No statistically significant difference was found in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters tested in paired plasma and effluent samples with Wilcoxon test. Spent effluent of continuous renal replacement therapy could be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem instead of blood sampling in critically ill patients.

  1. CA.R.PE.DI.E.M. (Cardio-Renal Pediatric Dialysis Emergency Machine): evolution of continuous renal replacement therapies in infants. A personal journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio; Garzotto, Francesco; Ricci, Zaccaria

    2012-08-01

    Pedriatric acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-described clinical syndrome that is characterized by a reduction of both the urine output and glomerular filtration rate. AKI in critically ill children is typically associated with multiple organ dysfunction. A dramatic increase in the incidence of AKI in pediatric intensive care units has been observed in the last 10 years. Unfortunately, the absence of sufficiently effective preventive and therapeutic measures at the present time has limited significant improvements in AKI care. Morality in patients with severe AKI remains unacceptably high (>50 %), with renal replacement therapy (RRT) remaining the most effective form of support for these patients. Despite technological advances during the last 10 years which have resulted in the development of the so-called "third-generation dialysis machines" that are characterized by the highest level of safety and accuracy, a truly pedriatric RRT system has never been developed. Consequently, dialysis/hemofiltration in critically ill children is currently performed by adapting adult systems to the much smaller pediatric patients. In particular, research in this field should focus on children weighing less than 10 kg for whom the delivery of RRT is a clinical and technological challenge. We describe here the evolution of pediatric RRT during the last 30 years and report in detail on the CARPEDIEM project, which has recently been established to finally provide neonates and infants with a reliable dialysis machine that is specifically designed for this age group.

  2. Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K

    2013-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Safety Management of a Clinical Process Using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis: Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Molano-Alvarez, Esteban; Saez-de la Fuente, Ignacio; Maynar-Moliner, Javier; Marín-Mateos, Helena; Chacón-Alves, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) may improve the safety of the continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in the intensive care unit. We use this tool in three phases: 1) Retrospective observational study. 2) A process FMEA, with implementation of the improvement measures identified. 3) Cohort study after FMEA. We included 54 patients in the pre-FMEA group and 72 patients in the post-FMEA group. Comparing the risks frequencies per patient in both groups, we got less cases of under 24 hours of filter survival time in the post-FMEA group (31 patients 57.4% vs. 21 patients 29.6%; p FMEA, there were several improvements in the management of intensive care unit patients receiving CRRT, and we consider it a useful tool for improving the safety of critically ill patients.

  4. Regional citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy in severe burns-a retrospective analysis of a protocol-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Jochen; Sablotzki, Armin; Malcharek, Michael; Raff, Thomas; Mogk, Martin; Parentin, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    For critically ill patients, the use of regional citrate anticoagulation as part of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has become increasingly common in recent years. However, there are scarce data on the use of this technique in patients with burns. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness, feasibility and complications of regional citrate anticoagulation for CRRT in burn patients, as well as the effects on coagulation and the electrolyte and acid-base balance. This retrospective study included all patients who received renal replacement therapy with citrate anticoagulation to treat acute kidney injury (AKI) between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2009 at the burn unit of St. Georg Hospital GmbH in Leipzig. During the examination period, 18 patients were treated using CRRT with regional citrate anticoagulation (CVVHDF in the pre-dilution mode). The median patient age was 64 years (49.5; 71), with a median TBSA of 42.5% (33.25; 52.5) and a median ABSI score of 10 (9; 10). The CRRT was initiated on a median of 6 days (4; 8.75) after admission to the hospital and continued for a median duration of 7 days (5; 8). The median dialysis dose was 38.2mlkgBW(-1)h(-1) (31.8; 42.1). The median effective filter operation time was 67h (46; 72). No relevant disorders associated with acid-base balance, electrolytes or coagulation occurred, and there were no bleeding complications. In terms of bleeding risk and electrolyte and acid-base balance, regional citrate anticoagulation may be considered to be an effective, safe and user-friendly procedure for patients with severe burns and AKI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Renal Replacement Therapy Modality in the ICU and Renal Recovery at Hospital Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnassieux, Martin; Duclos, Antoine; Schneider, Antoine G; Schmidt, Aurélie; Bénard, Stève; Cancalon, Charlotte; Joannes-Boyau, Olivier; Ichai, Carole; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Kellum, John A; Rimmelé, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy is a major concern in ICUs. Initial renal replacement therapy modality, continuous renal replacement therapy or intermittent hemodialysis, may impact renal recovery. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of initial renal replacement therapy modality on renal recovery at hospital discharge. Retrospective cohort study of all ICU stays from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013, with a "renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury" code using the French hospital discharge database. Two hundred ninety-one ICUs in France. A total of 1,031,120 stays: 58,635 with renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury and 25,750 included in the main analysis. None. PPatients alive at hospital discharge were grouped according to initial modality (continuous renal replacement therapy or intermittent hemodialysis) and included in the main analysis to identify predictors of renal recovery. Renal recovery was defined as greater than 3 days without renal replacement therapy before hospital discharge. The main analysis was a hierarchical logistic regression analysis including patient demographics, comorbidities, and severity variables, as well as center characteristics. Three sensitivity analyses were performed. Overall mortality was 56.1%, and overall renal recovery was 86.2%. Intermittent hemodialysis was associated with a lower likelihood of recovery at hospital discharge; odds ratio, 0.910 (95% CI, 0.834-0.992) p value equals to 0.0327. Results were consistent across all sensitivity analyses with odds/hazards ratios ranging from 0.883 to 0.958. In this large retrospective study, intermittent hemodialysis as an initial modality was associated with lower renal recovery at hospital discharge among patients with acute kidney injury, although the difference seems somewhat clinically limited.

  6. Renal replacement therapy in sepsis-induced acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse Senaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a common complication of sepsis and carries a high mortality. Renal replacement therapy (RRT during the acute stage is the mainstay of therapy. Va-rious modalities of RRT are available. Continuous RRT using convective methods are preferred in sepsis-induced ARF, especially in hemodynamically unstable patients, although clear evidence of benefit over intermittent hemodialysis is still not available. Peritoneal dialysis is clearly inferior, and is not recommended. Early initiation of RRT is probably advantageous, although the optimal timing of dialysis is yet unknown. Higher doses of RRT are more likely to be beneficial. Use of bio-compatible membranes and bicarbonate buffer in the dialysate are preferred. Anticoagulation during dialysis must be carefully adjusted and monitored.

  7. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    the Mediterranean Sea were used. From 27 registries, individual patient data were received, whereas 17 registries contributed data in aggregated form. We present the incidence and prevalence of RRT, and renal transplant rates in 2011. In addition, survival probabilities and expected remaining lifetimes were....... The overall unadjusted prevalence of RRT for ESRD on 31 December 2011 was 692 pmp (n = 425 824). The highest prevalence was reported by Portugal (1662 pmp) and the lowest by Ukraine (131 pmp). Among all registries, a total of 22 814 renal transplantations were performed (37 pmp). The highest overall.......6-47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2-39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2-87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6-95.0) for kidneys from living donors....

  8. Utility of Volume Assessment Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hyun Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Fluid overload prior to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is an important prognostic factor. Thus, precise evaluation of fluid status is necessary to treat such patients. In this study, we investigated whether fluid assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA can predict outcomes in critically ill patients requiring CRRT. Methods A prospective observational study was performed in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit and who required CRRT. BIA was conducted before CRRT; then, the ratio of extracellular water to total body water (ECW/TBW was derived to estimate volume status. Results A total of 31 patients treated with CRRT were included. There were 18 men (58.1%, and the median age was 67 years (interquartile range, 51 to 78 years. Fourteen patients (45.2% died within 28 days after CRRT initiation. Patients were divided into 16 with ECW/TBW ≥0.41 and 15 with ECW/TBW <0.41. Survival rate within 28 days was different between the two groups (P = 0.044. Cox regression analysis revealed a relationship between ECW/TBW ≥0.41 and 28-day mortality, but it was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 9.8; P = 0.061. Lastly, the area under the curve of ECW/TBW for 28-day mortality was analyzed. The area under the curve of ECW/TBW was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.92, and this was significant (P = 0.037. Conclusions Fluid status can be assessed using BIA in critically ill patients requiring CRRT, and BIA can predict mortality. Further large trials are needed to confirm the usefulness of BIA in critically ill patients.

  9. Phosphate is a potential biomarker of disease severity and predicts adverse outcomes in acute kidney injury patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Young Jung

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, and is common in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI; however, its clinical implication in these patients is unknown. We conducted an observational study in 1144 patients (mean age, 63.2 years; male, 705 [61.6%] with AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT between January 2009 and September 2016. Phosphate levels were measured before (0 h and 24 h after CRRT initiation. We assessed disease severity using various clinical parameters. Phosphate at 0 h positively correlated with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II; P < 0.001 and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA; P < 0.001 scores, and inversely with mean arterial pressure (MAP; P = 0.02 and urine output (UO; P = 0.01. In a fully adjusted linear regression analysis for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI, MAP, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, higher 0 h phosphate level was significantly associated with high APACHE II (P < 0.001 and SOFA (P = 0.04 scores, suggesting that phosphate represents disease severity. A multivariable Cox model also showed that hyperphosphatemia was significantly associated with increased 28-day (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08, P = 0.001 and 90-day (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08, P = 0.001 mortality. Furthermore, patients with increased phosphate level during 24 h were at higher risk of death than those with stable or decreased phosphate levels. Finally, c-statistics significantly increased when phosphate was added to a model that included age, sex, CCI, body mass index, eGFR, MAP, hemoglobin, serum albumin, C-reactive protein, and APACHE II score. This study shows that phosphate is a potential biomarker that can reflect disease severity and predict mortality in critically ill patients receiving CRRT.

  10. Transfusion requirements and clinical outcome in intensive care patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: comparison of prostacyclin vs. heparin prefilter administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis Agerlin; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Perner, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) analogous are potent antithrombotics recommended as prefilter infusion during renal replacement therapy (RRT) when heparin is contraindicated. It is debated whether PGI(2) administration during RRT affects transfusion requirements and outcome. Retrospective cohort study of all......: before, during and after CRRT. For each time period, laboratory values were analysed as changes/day and blood transfusion requirements as absolute values. Organ failures during the ICU stay and 1 year all-cause mortality were registered. During CRRT the PGI(2) group had a higher incidence of disseminated...

  11. Non anti-coagulant factors associated with filter life in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Matthew; Winson, Elizabeth; Roodenburg, Owen; McNeil, John

    2017-02-20

    Optimising filter life and performance efficiency in continuous renal replacement therapy has been a focus of considerable recent research. Larger high quality studies have predominantly focussed on optimal anticoagulation however CRRT is complex and filter life is also affected by vascular access, circuit and management factors. We performed a systematic search of the literature to identify and quantify the effect of vascular access, circuit and patient factors that affect filter life and presented the results as a meta-analysis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching Pubmed (MEDLINE) and Ovid EMBASE libraries from inception to 29 th February 2016 for all studies with a comparator or independent variable relating to CRRT circuits and reporting filter life. Included studies documented filter life in hours with a comparator other than anti-coagulation intervention. All studies comparing anticoagulation interventions were searched for regression or hazard models pertaining to other sources of variation in filter life. Eight hundred nineteen abstracts were identified of which 364 were selected for full text analysis. 24 presented data on patient modifiers of circuit life, 14 on vascular access modifiers and 34 on circuit related factors. Risk of bias was high and findings are hypothesis generating. Ranking of vascular access site by filter longevity favours: tunnelled semi-permanent catheters, femoral, internal jugular and subclavian last. There is inconsistency in the difference reported between femoral and jugular catheters. Amongst published literature, modality of CRRT consistently favoured continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHD-F) with an associated 44% lower failure rate compared to CVVH. There was a trend favouring higher blood flow rates. There is insufficient data to determine advantages of haemofilter membranes. Patient factors associated with a statistically significant worsening of filter life included mechanical

  12. Clinical effect of combined ulinastatin and continuous renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the effect of a combination of ulinastatin and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for the treatment of severe sepsis with acute kidney injury (SAKI). Methods: Clinical data for 106 patients diagnosed with SAKI from April 2013 to May 2015 in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Affiliated Hospital of ...

  13. Lifetime risk of renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Jan A J G; Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S

    2017-01-01

    Background: Upcoming KDIGO guidelines for the evaluation of living kidney donors are expected to move towards a personal risk-based evaluation of potential donors. We present the age and sex-specific lifetime risk of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease in 10 European...

  14. Familial LCAT deficiency: from renal replacement to enzyme replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoekenbroek, R. M.; van den Bergh Weerman, M. A.; Hovingh, G. K.; Potter van Loon, B. J.; Siegert, C. E. H.; Holleboom, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Familial LCAT deficiency (FLD) is a recessive lipid disorder ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We present two brothers with considerable variation in the age at which they developed ESRD. Kidney biopsies revealed both tubular and glomerular pathology. To date, no causal therapy

  15. Continuous vasopressin replacement in diabetes insipidus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, C; Butt, W

    1990-01-01

    Five children who developed diabetes insipidus as a manifestation of severe brain injury received continuous intravenous treatment with a solution containing both aqueous vasopressin and appropriate crystalloid replacement. Polyuria, hypernatraemia, and decreased urine osmolalities were safely corrected in all patients within eight to 28 hours.

  16. [Successful continuous renal replacement therapy in a neonate with early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schnakenburg, C; Hufnagel, M; Superti-Furga, A; Rieger-Fackeldey, E; Berner, R

    2009-01-01

    Group B streptococcal early-onset sepsis (GBS EOS) in neonates has a mortality rate of approximately 5%, particularly in the presence of multi-organ dysfunction. Fluid management is crucial in these patients, and continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) should be considered a therapeutic option even in newborn babies. After an uneventful pregnancy within hours after birth, a female term infant presented with dyspnoea, irritability and cyanosis. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) progressed to multi-organ dysfunction with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), impaired myocardial contractility, pulmonary hypertension and fluid overload. The maximum PRISM score was 51. The child required maximal respiratory and inotropic support with high volume intravenous fluid administration. However, only by using of CVVH from day 5 to 14, we successfully resolved progressive pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction. The child improved directly after initiation of fluid removal, was extubated on day 17 and discharged without obvious sequelae on day 57. All microbiology studies revealed GBS. Perinatal GBS-infections remain a major life-threatening event for newborn babies. CVVH should be considered an option for reversing fluid overload even in neonates with overwhelming SIRS. Alternatively, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is discussed.

  17. Calculating evidence-based renal replacement therapy - Introducing an excel-based calculator to improve prescribing and delivery in renal replacement therapy - A before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Daniel; Mousdale, Stephen; Waqar-Uddin, Haroon; Tully, Redmond; Taylor, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Transferring the theoretical aspect of continuous renal replacement therapy to the bedside and delivering a given "dose" can be difficult. In research, the "dose" of renal replacement therapy is given as effluent flow rate in ml kg -1  h -1 . Unfortunately, most machines require other information when they are initiating therapy, including blood flow rate, pre-blood pump flow rate, dialysate flow rate, etc. This can lead to confusion, resulting in patients receiving inappropriate doses of renal replacement therapy. Our aim was to design an excel calculator which would personalise patient's treatment, deliver an effective, evidence-based dose of renal replacement therapy without large variations in practice and prolong filter life. Our calculator prescribes a haemodialfiltration dose of 25 ml kg -1  h -1 whilst limiting the filtration fraction to 15%. We compared the episodes of renal replacement therapy received by a historical group of patients, by retrieving their data stored on the haemofiltration machines, to a group where the calculator was used. In the second group, the data were gathered prospectively. The median delivered dose reduced from 41.0 ml kg -1  h -1 to 26.8 ml kg -1  h -1 with reduced variability that was significantly closer to the aim of 25 ml kg -1 .h -1 ( p  < 0.0001). The median treatment time increased from 8.5 h to 22.2 h ( p  = 0.00001). Our calculator significantly reduces variation in prescriptions of continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration and provides an evidence-based dose. It is easy to use and provides personal care for patients whilst optimizing continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration delivery and treatment times.

  18. Acute renal insufficiency and renal replacement therapy after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kist-van Holthe tot Echten, J. E.; Goedvolk, C. A.; Doornaar, M. B.; van der Vorst, M. M.; Bosman-Vermeeren, J. M.; Brand, R.; van der Heijden, A. J.; Schoof, P. H.; Hazekamp, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate renal function and renal replacement therapy after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in children. Patient characteristics (sex, age, diagnosis), operation type, and death were listed. The study was performed retrospectively using serum creatinine level before,

  19. Seeking optimal renal replacement therapy delivery in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Marinka; Brunet, Fabrice P

    2010-01-01

    Globally, critical care environments within health care organizations strive to provide optimal quality renal replacement therapy (RRT), an artificial replacement for lost kidney function. Examination of RRT delivery model literature and a case study review of the multidisciplinary-mixed RRT delivery model utilized within a closed medical surgical intensive care unit illustrates the organizational and clinical management of specialized resource and multidisciplinary roles. The successful utilization of a specific RRT delivery model is dependent upon resource availability.

  20. Stabilized incidence of diabetic patients referred for renal replacement therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V R; Hansen, P M; Heaf, J

    2006-01-01

    Despite an improvement in diabetes care during the last 20 years, the number of diabetic patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) has continued to increase in the Western world. The aim was to study the incidence of patients starting RRT in Denmark from 1990 to 2004. Data were obtained f...

  1. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-08-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI ( r 2 0.86; P chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated risk factors. PD is still an underutilized strategy for RRT in the region. Even though renal Tx is feasible, its growth rate is still not as fast as it should be in order to compensate for the increased prevalence of patients on waiting lists. Diagnostic and prevention programs for hypertension and diabetes, appropriate policies promoting the expansion of PD and organ procurement as well as transplantation as cost-effective forms of RRT are needed in the region. Regional cooperation among Latin American countries, allowing the more developed to

  2. Understanding cost of care for patients on renal replacement therapy: looking beyond fixed tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bernadette; Cairns, John A; Fotheringham, James; Tomson, Charles R; Forsythe, John L; Watson, Christopher; Metcalfe, Wendy; Fogarty, Damian G; Draper, Heather; Oniscu, Gabriel C; Dudley, Christopher; Johnson, Rachel J; Roderick, Paul; Leydon, Geraldine; Bradley, J Andrew; Ravanan, Rommel

    2015-10-01

    In a number of countries, reimbursement to hospitals providing renal dialysis services is set according to a fixed tariff. While the cost of maintenance dialysis and transplant surgery are amenable to a system of fixed tariffs, patients with established renal failure commonly present with comorbid conditions that can lead to variations in the need for hospitalization beyond the provision of renal replacement therapy. Patient-level cost data for incident renal replacement therapy patients in England were obtained as a result of linkage of the Hospital Episodes Statistics dataset to UK Renal Registry data. Regression models were developed to explore variations in hospital costs in relation to treatment modality, number of years on treatment and factors such as age and comorbidities. The final models were then used to predict annual costs for patients with different sets of characteristics. Excluding the cost of renal replacement therapy itself, inpatient costs generally decreased with number of years on treatment for haemodialysis and transplant patients, whereas costs for patients receiving peritoneal dialysis remained constant. Diabetes was associated with higher mean annual costs for all patients irrespective of treatment modality and hospital setting. Age did not have a consistent effect on costs. Combining predicted hospital costs with the fixed costs of renal replacement therapy showed that the total cost differential for a patient continuing on dialysis rather than receiving a transplant is considerable following the first year of renal replacement therapy, thus reinforcing the longer-term economic advantage of transplantation over dialysis for the health service. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  3. Renal Replacement Therapy Resources in Africa | Matri | Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there is a general impression that it is at least three to four times more frequent than in more developed countries Methods: a survey on renal replacement therapy in Africa was conducted in the context of the African Association of Nephrology (AFRAN) Congress 2007. A questionnaire was sent to leading African ...

  4. Renal replacement lipomatosis and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Frederico R.; Pilati, Roberto; Brenny Filho, Thadeu; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda Sales Ferreira; Silva, Antonio de Padua Gomes; Cravo, Marco Aurelio

    2011-01-01

    Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is a relatively uncommon entity, although misdiagnosis - mainly with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) - due to lack of awareness by urologists, radiologists, and pathologists may be responsible for underreporting. We illustrate a case of RRL that was initially misdiagnosed as XGP, and compare it with a classic case of XGP, underscoring the similarities and the differences between them. (author)

  5. Renal replacement lipomatosis and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Frederico R. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Pilati, Roberto; Brenny Filho, Thadeu; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda Sales Ferreira [Hospital Sao Vicente de Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Silva, Antonio de Padua Gomes [Centro de Citopatologia Parana Ltda. (Citopar), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cravo, Marco Aurelio [Laboratorio de Patologia e Citologia (Consulpat), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is a relatively uncommon entity, although misdiagnosis - mainly with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) - due to lack of awareness by urologists, radiologists, and pathologists may be responsible for underreporting. We illustrate a case of RRL that was initially misdiagnosed as XGP, and compare it with a classic case of XGP, underscoring the similarities and the differences between them. (author)

  6. Exploring the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-25

    May 25, 2011 ... This article described a qualitative study that investigated the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement ... of the exodus of health professionals affecting the medical fraternity, as .... and interpret the meanings and effects of specific phenomena. ... as an early indicator of topic and location selection by.

  7. Risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Basim Kamil; Sahlström, Arne; Dessau, Ram Benny Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Renal injury and dysfunction are serious complications after major surgery, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of our study was to identify the possible risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement surger...... creatinine. Smoking, diabetes mellitus, high BMI, gender, and duration of surgery were not identified as significant risk factors........ METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted among 599 consecutive primary hip joint replacements performed between January 2011 and December 2013. According to the RIFLE criteria, increased postoperative serum creatinine was considered indicative of postoperative renal injury. The Welch two-sample test......, hypertension, general anesthesia, high ASA scores, low intra-operative systolic BP, and prophylactic dicloxacillin as significant risk factors. Low baseline systolic BP, low baseline diastolic blood pressure, and hip fracture diagnosis were independent risk factors for postoperative increase in serum...

  8. Renal function after elective total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI and the prevale......Background and purpose - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI...... and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an elective population of orthopedic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement, hypothesizing that chronic kidney disease predisposes to AKI. Patients and methods - This was a single-center, population-based, retrospective, registry-based cohort study...... involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013...

  9. Demographics of paediatric renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Schaefer, Franz

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on European children with end-stage renal disease receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) who are listed on national and regional renal registries in Europe. In this paper we report on the analysis of demographic data collected from 2009...... to 2011. METHODS: Data on primary renal disease, incidence, prevalence, 4-year survival, transplantation rate and causes of death in paediatric patients receiving RRT were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry for 37 European countries. RESULTS: The incidence of RRT in paediatric patients in Europe...... during the study period was 5.5 cases per million age-related population (pmarp) in patients aged 0-14 years and varied markedly between countries (interquartile range 3.4-7.0 years). The prevalence of RRT was 27.9 pmarp and increased with age, with 67 % of prevalent patients living with a functioning...

  10. An experience of renal replacement therapy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, A.; Ramzan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of renal failure in children requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT), the types of RRT being performed, problems encountered during the procedure and the outcome of the RRT in pediatric age group. Design: It was a retrospective study on pediatric patients with renal failure undergoing RRT. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at National Institute of Child Health (N. I. C. H) covering a period of four years. Subjects and Methods: The study included all pediatric patients of acute renal failure, chronic renal failure and end stage renal disease who underwent RRT at N. I. C. H. Results: 17% of the patients with renal disease came in renal failure. A total of 65. 04 % patients received RT. Out of these, 84.7% underwent peritoneal dialysis (PD) while 15.3 % required hemodialysis and 2 were successfully transplanted. High cost of the RRT was the most commonly encountered problem during the procedure. Peritonitis was the commonest complication faced during the peritoneal dialysis while hypotension and complications related to vascular access were commonest during hemodialysis. About 50% of the patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis were left with persistent renal impairment while hemodialysis revealed a mortality of 37%. The two transplanted patients were doing well. Conclusion: The study showed that renal failure was a fairly common problem in pediatric age group and the prospects of successful RRT in Pakistan were quite high with a little effort on the part of medical professionals along with some financial assistance from the affluent of the country. (author)

  11. Calculating evidence-based renal replacement therapy – Introducing an excel-based calculator to improve prescribing and delivery in renal replacement therapy – A before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Cottle, Daniel; Mousdale, Stephen; Waqar-Uddin, Haroon; Tully, Redmond; Taylor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Transferring the theoretical aspect of continuous renal replacement therapy to the bedside and delivering a given “dose” can be difficult. In research, the “dose” of renal replacement therapy is given as effluent flow rate in ml kg−1 h−1. Unfortunately, most machines require other information when they are initiating therapy, including blood flow rate, pre-blood pump flow rate, dialysate flow rate, etc. This can lead to confusion, resulting in patients receiving inappropriate doses...

  12. Predictors of renal function recovery among patients undergoing renal replacement therapy following orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Maria Claudia Cruz; Souza, Nádia Karina Guimarães de; Ammirati, Adriano Luiz; Matsui, Thais Nemoto; Carneiro, Fabiana Dias; Ramos, Ana Claudia Mallet de Souza; Iizuca, Ilson Jorge; Coelho, Maria Paula Vilela; Afonso, Rogério Carballo; Ferraz-Neto, Ben-Hur; Almeida, Marcio Dias de; Durão, Marcelino; Batista, Marcelo Costa; Monte, Julio Cesar; Pereira, Virgílio Gonçalves; Santos, Oscar Pavão Dos; Santos, Bento Cardoso Dos

    2017-01-01

    Renal dysfunction frequently occurs during the periods preceding and following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and in many cases, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. Information regarding the duration of RRT and the rate of kidney function recovery after OLT is crucial for transplant program management. We evaluated a sample of 155 stable patients undergoing post-intensive care hemodialysis (HD) from a patient population of 908 adults who underwent OLT. We investigated the average time to renal function recovery (duration of RRT required) and determined the risk factors for remaining on dialysis > 90 days after OLT. Log-rank tests were used for univariate analysis, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with the risk of remaining on HD. The results of our analysis showed that of the 155 patients, 28% had pre-OLT diabetes mellitus, 21% had pre-OLT hypertension, and 40% had viral hepatitis. Among the patients, the median MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score was 27 (interquartile range [IQR] 22-35). When they were listed for liver transplantation, 32% of the patients had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD, and 50% had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD at the time of OLT. Of the transplanted patients, 25% underwent pre-OLT intermittent HD, and 14% and 41% underwent continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) pre-OLT and post-OLT, respectively. At 90 days post-OLT, 118 (76%) patients had been taken off dialysis, and 16 (10%) patients had died while undergoing HD. The median recovery time of these post-OLT patients was 33 (IQR 27-39) days. In the multivariate analysis, fulminant hepatic failure as the cause of liver disease (prenal function after OLT, and those who were diagnosed with fulminant hepatic failure, had no pre-OLT hypertension, received a lower transfused volume of intraoperative FFP and did not undergo pre-OLT intermittent HD had a higher probability

  13. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhui; Li, Yingchuan; Sheng, Xiaohua; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Dongsheng; Jian, Guihua; Li, Yongguang; Feng, Liang; Wang, Niansong

    2018-03-29

    Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR) can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS) was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012). Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372), APACHE II score (OR = 1.187), age (OR = 1.028) and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Methods: Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012. Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372, APACHE II score (OR = 1.187, age (OR = 1.028 and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130 were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion: Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI.

  15. History of renal replacement therapy in Baltic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Rosenberg, Mai; Cernevskis, Harijs; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne

    2011-01-01

    The history of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the 3 Baltic countries can be divided into 2 periods: the Soviet period (1944-1991) with strict central regulation and isolation from Western countries, and the period of independence (1991 to the present). Between 1963 and 1967, hemodialysis was used in cases of acute kidney injury and later in chronic renal failure, but only for patients suitable for kidney transplantation. The first renal transplant was performed in 1968, in Tartu, Estonia, and shortly thereafter, in Lithuania and Latvia. During the period of independence, development of RRT has been extremely rapid, and now this field of the health system has no major differences from that in other developed countries.

  16. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r2 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r2 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r2 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The

  17. Risk of fracture in adults on renal replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ditte; Olesen, Jonas B; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients on dialysis treatment or living with a transplanted kidney have several risk factors for bone fracture, especially disturbances in mineral metabolism and immunosuppressive therapy. We describe the incidence of fracture in this retrospective national Danish cohort study and ex....... Differences in age, gender, drug use and comorbidity only partly explain this increased risk. Further studies are warranted to explore the reason for this increased fracture risk in patients on renal replacement therapy....

  18. Role of telehealth in renal replacement therapy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkina, Anna; Tuot, Delphine S

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of end-stage renal disease is rising in the United States, which bears high financial and public health burden. The most common modality of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the United States is in-center hemodialysis. Many patients report lack of comprehensive and timely education about their treatment options, which may preclude them from participating in home-based dialysis therapies and kidney transplantation evaluation. While RRT education has traditionally been provided in-person, the rise of telehealth has afforded new opportunities to improve upon the status quo. For example, technology-augmented RRT education has recently been implemented into telehealth nephrology clinics, informational websites and mobile applications maintained by professional organizations, patient-driven forums on social media, and multimodality programs. The benefits of technology in RRT education are increased access for geographically isolated and/or medically frail patients, versatility of content delivery, information repetition to enhance knowledge retention, and interpersonal connection for educational content and emotional support. Challenges center around privacy and accuracy of information sharing, in addition to differential access to technology due to age and socioeconomic status. A review of available scholarly and social media resources suggests that technology-aided delivery of education about treatment options for end-stage renal disease provides an important alternative and/or supplemental resource for patients and families. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Predictors of Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Koziolek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Criteria that may guide early renal replacement therapy (RRT initiation in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI currently do not exist. Methods: In 120 consecutive patients with AKI, clinical and laboratory data were analyzed on admittance. The prognostic power of those parameters which were significantly different between the two groups was analyzed by receiver operator characteristic curves and by leave-1-out cross validation. Results: Six parameters (urine albumin, plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, daily urine output, fluid balance and plasma sodium were combined in a logistic regression model that estimates the probability that a particular patient will need RRT. Additionally, a second model without daily urine output was established. Both models yielded a higher accuracy (89 and 88% correct classification rate, respectively than the best single parameter, cystatin C (correct classification rate 74%. Conclusions: The combined models may help to better predict the necessity of RRT using clinical and routine laboratory data in patients with AKI.

  20. Renouncement of renal replacement therapy: withdrawal and refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrade Moura Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Renouncement of renal replacement therapy (RRT is a medical dilemma. This review covers the concept, the magnitude, the prognosis, and discusses strategies and management approaches about this subject in patients with CKD and AKI. Evidence suggests that refusal is more frequent and carries a more guarded prognosis than withdrawal of RRT. When RRT is not expected to be beneficial in terms of survival or quality of life, conservative treatment and palliative care are alternatives. We review the historical evolution of guidelines about renouncement of RRT and palliative care, and highlight the absence of specific recommendations in Brazil. However renouncement of RRT may be ethically and legally accepted in Brazil, as the right to a dignified death. Longer life expectancy, economic pressures, and greater awareness will require a more detailed discussion about indications and sustainable use of RRT, and possibly the elaboration of national guidelines.

  1. Patients' perceptions of information and education for renal replacement therapy: an independent survey by the European Kidney Patients' Federation on information and support on renal replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Biesen, Wim; van der Veer, Sabine N.; Murphey, Mark; Loblova, Olga; Davies, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Selection of an appropriate renal replacement modality is of utmost importance for patients with end stage renal disease. Previous studies showed provision of information to and free modality choice by patients to be suboptimal. Therefore, the European Kidney Patients' Federation (CEAPIR) explored

  2. Arteriovenous thrombosis in chronic renal failure patients receving renal replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoaib, M.; Naz, A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of thrombotic complications and to identify factors associated with arteriovenous thrombosis in patients of chronic renal failure receiving renal replacement therapy. Of the 3000 patients evaluated, 61 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on regular dialysis, having recent renal transplant, were selected for the study after informed consent. These patients had arteriovenous thrombosis with temporary central lines thrombosis and vascular access problems. Cases of congenital or acquired thrombotic disorders, e.g. with malignancy, DIC, liver disease, systemic lupus erythematosus or other immunologic diseases, pregnancy or women using oral contraceptives, were excluded. Similarly, patients taking any type of anticoagulant therapy during the preceding one week were not included in the study. Findings were recorded in a structured questionnaire. Laboratory analysis was done after clinical and radiological evaluation. Thrombophilia screening included antithrombin, protein C, protein S deficiencies and lupus anticoagulant. Forty-seven out of 61 patients selected were positive for thrombophilia screening with protein C deficiency in 26.2%, protein S deficiency in 16.3%, antithrombin in 5%, lupus anticoagulant in 13.1% and combined deficiency was observed in 16.3%. Of the 3000 patients, 61 with frequency of 2% were found to be deficient in one or had combined deficiency of these. Thus, the study of ESRD patients presenting with arteriovenous thromboembolism emphasizes the need to reconsider the perception that this clinical entity is rare and requires further studies. (author)

  3. Discrete-continuous analysis of optimal equipment replacement

    OpenAIRE

    YATSENKO, Yuri; HRITONENKO, Natali

    2008-01-01

    In Operations Research, the equipment replacement process is usually modeled in discrete time. The optimal replacement strategies are found from discrete (or integer) programming problems, well known for their analytic and computational complexity. An alternative approach is represented by continuous-time vintage capital models that explicitly involve the equipment lifetime and are described by nonlinear integral equations. Then the optimal replacement is determined via the opt...

  4. Update on Renal Replacement Therapy: Implantable Artificial Devices and Bioengineered Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Chiara; Latancia, Marcela T; Otterbein, Leo E; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are now joining forces in the areas of organ transplantation and bioengineering to solve continued challenges for patients with end-stage renal disease. The waiting lists for those needing a transplant continue to exceed demand. Dialysis, while effective, brings different challenges, including quality of life and susceptibility to infection. Unfortunately, the majority of research outputs are far from delivering satisfactory solutions. Current efforts are focused on providing a self-standing device able to recapitulate kidney function. In this review, we focus on two remarkable innovations that may offer significant clinical impact in the field of renal replacement therapy: the implantable artificial renal assist device (RAD) and the transplantable bioengineered kidney. The artificial RAD strategy utilizes micromachining techniques to fabricate a biohybrid system able to mimic renal morphology and function. The current trend in kidney bioengineering exploits the structure of the native organ to produce a kidney that is ready to be transplanted. Although these two systems stem from different technological approaches, they are both designed to be implantable, long lasting, and free standing to allow patients with kidney failure to be autonomous. However, for both of them, there are relevant issues that must be addressed before translation into clinical use and these are discussed in this review.

  5. The changing trends and outcomes in renal replacement therapy: data from the ERA-EDTA Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pippias, Maria; Jager, Kitty J.; Kramer, Anneke; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Sánchez, Manuel Benítez; Caskey, Fergus J.; Collart, Frederic; Couchoud, Cécile; Dekker, Friedo W.; Finne, Patrik; Fouque, Denis; Heaf, James G.; Hemmelder, Marc H.; Kramar, Reinhard; de Meester, Johan; Noordzij, Marlies; Palsson, Runolfur; Pascual, Julio; Zurriaga, Oscar; Wanner, Christoph; Stel, Vianda S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the time trends in incidence, prevalence, patient and kidney allograft survival and causes of death (COD) in patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Europe. Eighteen national or regional renal registries providing data to the European Renal Association-European

  6. Aortic Valve Replacement for Infective Endocarditis in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masmoudi Sayda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplant recipients are more prone to developing infections. We report a 37-year old renal transplant recipient who developed infective endocarditis of the aortic valve, heart failure and renal allograft dysfunction. He underwent aortic valve replacement which was followed by improvement in cardiac as well as allograft function.

  7. Patient perspectives on the optimal start of renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Shayna L; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine; Garcia Delgadillo, Jazmine; Mihara, Nichole K; Rutkowski, Mark P

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare systems and providers are encouraged to prepare their patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) for a planned start to renal replacement therapies (RRT). Less well understood are the socioemotional experiences surrounding the optimal start of RRT versus suboptimal haemodialysis (HD) starts with a central catheter. To characterise the experiences of patients beginning RRT. Qualitative, semi-structured phone interviews. A total of 168 patients with stage 5 CKD initiating RRT in an integrated, capitated learning healthcare system. Qualitative data from patients were collected as part of a quality improvement initiative to better understand patient-reported themes concerning preparation for RRT, patients' perceptions of their transition to dialysis and why sub-optimal starts for RRT occur within our healthcare system. Dual review and verification was used to identify key phrases and themes within and across each domain, using both deductive a priori codes generated by the interview guide and grounded discovery of emergent themes. From the patient perspective, preparing for RRT is an experience rooted in deep feelings of fear. In addition, a number of key factors contributed to patients' preparation (or failure to prepare) for RRT. While the education provided by our system was viewed as adequate overall, patients often felt that their emotional and psychosocial needs went unmet, regardless of whether or not, they experienced an optimal dialysis start. Future efforts should incorporate additional strategies for helping patients with advanced CKD achieve emotional and psychological safety while preparing for RRT. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  8. The integrated management for renal replacement therapy in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Anabela P; Sá, Helena O; Diniz, José A; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Portugal was the first European country to introduce an integrated management of end-stage renal disease (IM ESRD). This new program integrates various dialysis services and products, which are reimbursed at a fixed rate/patient/week called "comprehensive price payment." This initiative restructured the delivery of dialysis services, the monitoring of outcomes, and the funding of renal replacement therapy. This article described the implementation of a new model of comprehensive provision of hemodialysis (HD) services and aimed to assess its impact on dialysis care. Quality assessments and reports of patient satisfaction, produced by the Ministry of Health since 2008, as well as national registries and reports, provided the data for this review. Indicators of HD services in all continental facilities show positive results that have successively improved along the period of 2009-2011, in spite of an average annual growth of 3% of the population under HD treatment. Mortality rates for HD patients were 12.7%, 12%, and 11%, respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011; annual hospitalization rates were 4.9%, 3.8%, and 4.4% for the same years; key performance indicators showed averages above the reference values such as hemoglobin, serum phosphorus, eKt/V, water quality, number of days of hospitalization per patient per year, and number of weekly dialysis sessions. The financing analysis of IM ESRD demonstrates a sustained control of global costs, without compromising quality. The IM ERSD program is an innovative and quality-driven approach that benefits both dialysis patients and providers, contributing toward the rationalization of service provision and the efficient use of resources. © 2013 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  9. Suicidal intoxication with potassium chlorate successfully treated with renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal liver support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Barwina, Małgorzata; Zajac, Maciej; Kaletha, Krystian

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of a 22-year-old male who, in a suicide attempt, ingested approximately 200 g of potassium chlorate. Upon admission to the hospital, he presented in full respiratory failure with cyanosis. Methylene blue antidote was given but found to be ineffective. The patient was intubated and mechanical ventilation was initiated. Because of renal failure with anuria, intermittent haemodialysis (iHD) followed by continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) was performed. His hospital stay was also complicated by hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and atrial fibrillation. Transfusions of packed red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma were necessary to correct the deficits. He also developed liver failure and required two sessions of molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) therapy. On day 14 of his hospitalization, he regained consciousness, as well as full respiratory and circulatory function. There are no controlled studies addressing management of potassium chlorate poisoning. We suggest that early renal replacement therapy should be strongly considered.

  10. The use of renal replacement therapy in acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Suneel M; Murray, Patrick T

    2009-01-01

    The worsening of renal function in the context of decompensated heart failure is an increasingly common clinical scenario, dubbed the cardiorenal syndrome. Its development is not completely understood; however, it results from the hemodynamic and neurohumoral alterations that occur in the setting of left ventricular pressure and volume overload with poor cardiac output. Diuretics have been the mainstay of treatment; however, they are often unsuccessful in reversing the vicious cycle of volume overload, worsening cardiac function, and azotemia. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the form of isolated or continuous ultrafiltration (UF) with or without a component of solute clearance (hemofiltration or hemodialysis) has been increasingly utilized as a therapeutic tool in this setting. Initial clinical trial data on the use of UF have demonstrated promising cardiac outcomes with regard to fluid removal and symptom relief without worsening renal function. The addition of a component of solute clearance may provide additional benefits in these patients with varying degrees of renal impairment. The exact clinical setting in which the various forms of RRT should be applied as initial or early therapy for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) remains unknown. More research examining the use of RRT in ADHF is necessary; however, it appears that the patients with the most severe clinical presentations have the best chance of benefiting from the early application of RRT.

  11. Technological advances in renal replacement therapy: five years and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Anjay; Nissenson, Allen R

    2009-12-01

    The worldwide epidemic of chronic kidney disease shows no signs of abating in the near future. Current dialysis forms of renal replacement therapy (RRT), even though successful in sustaining life and improving quality of life somewhat for patients with ESRD, have many limitations that result in still unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. Transplantation is an excellent option but is limited by the scarcity of organs. An ideal form of RRT would mimic the functions of natural kidneys and be transparent to the patient, as well as affordable to society. Recent advances in technology, although generally in early stages of development, might achieve these goals. The application of nanotechnology, microfluidics, bioreactors with kidney cells, and miniaturized sorbent systems to regenerate dialysate makes clinical reality seem closer than ever before. Finally, stem cells hold much promise, both for kidney disease and as a source of tissues and organs. In summary, nephrology is at an exciting crossroad with the application of innovative and novel technologies to RRT that hold considerable promise for the near future.

  12. Impact of computerized order entry and pre-mixed dialysis solutions for continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration on selection of therapy for acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadulla, Lawand; Reeves, W Brian; Irey, Brittany; Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the impacts of availability of pre-mixed solutions and computerized order entry on nephrologists' choice of the initial mode of renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure. We studied 898 patients with acute renal failure in 3 consecutive eras: era 1 (custom-mixed solution; n = 309), era 2 (pre-mixed commercial solution; n = 324), and era 3 (post-computerized order entry; n = 265). The proportion of patients treated with renal replacement therapy and the time from consult to initiation of continuous renal replacement therapy was similar in the 3 eras. Following introduction of the pre-mixed solution, the proportion of patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapy increased (20% vs. 33%; p mixed solution increases the likelihood of initiating continuous renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure, initiating it at a lower creatinine and for older patients, use of continuous veno-venous hemodialysis and higher prescribed continuous renal replacement therapy dose. Computerized order entry implementation is associated with an additional increase in the use of continuous veno-venous hemodialysis, higher total prescribed dialysis dose, and use of CRRT among an increasing number of patients not on mechanical ventilation. The effect of these changes on patient survival is not significant.

  13. Steam generator replacement: a story of continuous improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, M.S.; Wilkerson, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the history of steam generator replacement in the US focusing on the last five years. From the early replacements in the 1980s, there have been major technology improvements resulting in dramatically shorter outages and reduced radiological exposure for workers. Even though the changes for the last five years have been less dramatic, the improvement trend continues. No two steam generator replacement (SGR) projects are the same and there are some major differences including; the access path for the components to containment (is a construction opening in containment required), type of containment, number of steam generators, one piece or two piece replacement, plant type (Westinghouse, CE or B and W) and plant layout. These differences along with other variables such as delays due to plant operations and other activities not related to the steam generator replacement make analysis of performance data difficult. However, trends in outage performance and owner expectations can be identified. How far this trend will go is also discussed. Along with the trend of improved performance, there is also a significant variation in performance. Some of the contributors to this variation are identified. This paper addresses what is required for a successful outage, meeting the increasing expectations and setting new records. The authors will discuss various factors that contribute to the success of a steam generator replacement. These factors include technical issues and, equally important, organizational interface and the role the customer plays. Recommendations are provided for planning a successful steam generator replacement outage. (author)

  14. Renal replacement lipomatosis: multidetector-row computed tomography findings in one case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisir, C.; Can, C.; Kebapci, M.

    2007-01-01

    Replacement lipomatosis of the kidney is the result of severe atrophy of the renal parenchyma often caused by chronic calculus disease with secondary marked benign proliferation of fibrofatty tissue replacing atrophied renal parenchyma. Different radiological modalities have been used to illustrate this entity, with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, intravenous pyelogram, and computed tomography (CT) used most frequently. We report multidedector CT (MDCT) findings of replacement lipomatosis in a 50-year-old woman. We think that it accurately provides a complete one-step diagnostic workup and appropriate pre-surgical planning for patients for whom there is a suspicion of replacement lipomatosis

  15. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prior to chronic renal replacement therapy initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Fosbøl, Emil L; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be associated with severe renal complications, including acute renal failure, reduced glomerular filtration rate and interstitial nephritis. Caution against NSAIDs is therefore recommended in advanced chronic kidney disease. In this study......, we examined NSAID use, aetiology and comorbidity among a national cohort of patients before the initiation of chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT). METHODS: Patients initiated on chronic RRT in the period 1997-2006 were identified in the Danish National Registry on Regular Dialysis...

  16. Characteristics and survival of young adults who started renal replacement therapy during childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Anneke; Stel, Vianda S.; Tizard, Jane; Verrina, Enrico; Rönnholm, Kai; Pálsson, Runólfur; Maxwell, Heather; Jager, Kitty J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the group of children on renal replacement therapy (RRT) who reach the age of 18 years and are transferred from paediatric to adult nephrology services. The aim of this study was to describe patient demographics, primary renal diseases, treatment history and

  17. Effect of renal replacement therapy on viscosity in end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, M; Kimmel, P L; Kurantsin-Mills, J; Bosch, J P

    1992-02-01

    Viscosity, an important determinant of microcirculatory hemodynamics, is related to hematocrit (HCT), and may be altered by renal failure or its treatment. To assess these factors, we studied the effect of dialysis on the viscosity of whole blood, plasma, and reconstituted 70% HCT blood of eight continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and nine hemodialysis (HD) patients under steady shear flow conditions at different shear rates, before and after dialysis, compared with nine normal subjects. The density of the red blood cells (RBCs), a marker of cell hydration, was measured in HD patients by a nonaqueous differential floatation technique. Whole blood viscosity was higher in controls than patients, and correlated with HCT before treatment (P less than 0.05) at shear rates of 11.5 to 230 s-1) in HD patients, and 23 to 230 s-1 in all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In contrast, whole blood viscosity correlated with HCT in CAPD patients only at the lowest shear rates (2.3 and 5.75 s-1, P less than 0.05). Plasma viscosity was higher in CAPD patients than both HD patients before treatment and controls (P less than 0.05, analysis of variance [ANOVA]), despite lower plasma total protein, albumin, and similar fibrinogen concentration compared with HD patients. When all samples were reconstituted to 70% HCT, CAPD patients had higher whole blood viscosity than control subjects'. The high HCT blood viscosity of the ESRD patients was higher than control subjects' at capillary shear rates, suggesting increased RBC aggregation and decreased RBC deformability in patients with renal disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Prevalence of patients receiving renal replacement therapy in El Salvador in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Trujillo, Zulma; Colorado, Ana Verónica; Magaña Mercado, Salvador; Henríquez, Carlos Atilio

    El Salvador has the highest renal failure mortality rate in the Americas. Five healthcare providers offer renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the country. The national RRT prevalence has never been reported. To determine the RRT prevalence in El Salvador and some basic characteristics. The association of nephrology coordinated a nationwide cross-sectional survey during the third quarter of 2014. 31 renal centres participated in the survey, covering 99.5% of patients. National RRT prevalence: 595 per million population (pmp), N=3807, average age 50.4 years, 67.5% male. By modality: peritoneal dialysis (PD) 289 pmp, haemodialysis (HD) 233 pmp, with functioning kidney transplantation 74 pmp (living donor only). Social security covers 25% of the population but treats 49.7% of RRT patients. Generally, higher prevalence was observed in municipalities with renal centres or located on the coast or lowlands. Ninety-five percent of HD patients receive fewer than 3 weekly sessions. Of PD patients, 59% do not belong to a continuous outpatient or automated programme, and 25% still use rigid catheter. Aetiology of chronic kidney disease: unavailable/undetermined 50%, hypertension 21.1%, diabetes 18.9%, glomerulonephritis 6.7%, obstructive causes 1.2%, tubulointerstitial 0.9%, polycystic 0.4% and other 0.7%. Despite the increase in RRT services, the prevalence is lower than the Latin American average (660 pmp). Three quarters of HD and PD patients are under-dialysed. Obsolete RRT techniques are still used. The presence of Mesoamerican nephropathy influences the demographic characteristics (many young patients, two-thirds male, high prevalence in lowlands and coastlands). Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous hemofiltration dose calculation in a newborn patient with congenital heart disease and preoperative renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Z; Polito, A; Giorni, C; Di Chiara, L; Ronco, C; Picardo, S

    2007-03-01

    To report a case of a newborn patient with renal failure due to polycystic kidneys requiring renal replacement therapy, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return requiring major cardiosurgical intervention. Pediatric cardiosurgery operatory room and pediatric cardiologic intensive care. A 6-day-old newborn child weighing 3.1 kg. Renal function (creatinine value and urine output) was monitored during the course of the operation and intraoperative renal replacement therapy was not initiated. Serum creatinine concentration decreased from 4.4 to 3 mg/dL at cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) start and to 1.5 at the end of surgery: the creatinine decrease was provided by the dilutional effect of CPB priming and the infusion of fresh blood from transfusions together with an adequate filtration rate (800 m/L in about 120 minutes). After the operation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for ventricular dysfunction and continuous hemofiltration for anuria refractory to medical therapy were prescribed. The hemofiltration machine was set in parallel with the ECMO machine at a blood flow rate of 60 ml/min and a predilution replacement solution infusion of 600 ml/h (4.5 ml/min of creatinine clearance once adjusted on extracorporeal circuits; 3000 mL/m2 hemofiltration): after a single hemofiltration session lasting 96 hours, serum creatinine reached optimal steady state levels around 0.5 mg/dL on postoperative day 2 and 3. Administration of intraoperative continuous hemofiltration is not mandatory in the case of a 3-kg newborn patient with established renal failure needing major cardiosurgery: hemodilution secondary to CPB, transfusion of hemoderivates, and optimal UF rate appear to be effective methods for achieving solute removal. If postoperative continuous hemofiltration is started, however, a "dialytic dose" of 4.5 ml/min allows an adequate creatinine clearance, quick achievement of a steady state of serum creatinine concentration and an eventual acceptable rate of

  20. Continuous quality improvement program for hip and knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Deborah A; Christiansen, Tanya; Smith, Christopher; Squire Howden, Jane; Werle, Jason; Faris, Peter; Frank, Cy

    2015-01-01

    Improving quality of care and maximizing efficiency are priorities in hip and knee replacement, where surgical demand and costs increase as the population ages. The authors describe the integrated structure and processes from the Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) Program for Hip and Knee Replacement Surgical Care and summarize lessons learned from implementation. The Triple Aim framework and 6 dimensions of quality care are overarching constructs of the CQI program. A validated, evidence-based clinical pathway that measures quality across the continuum of care was adopted. Working collaboratively, multidisciplinary experts embedded the CQI program into everyday practices in clinics across Alberta. Currently, 83% of surgeons participate in the CQI program, representing 95% of the total volume of hip and knee surgeries. Biannual reports provide feedback to improve care processes, infrastructure planning, and patient outcomes. CQI programs evaluating health care services inform choices to optimize care and improve efficiencies through continuous knowledge translation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Kidney transplantation in the context of renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Todd E

    2009-12-01

    Kidney transplantation has dramatically evolved from a life-saving yet unproven therapy for patients with renal failure to a mature field that is the preferred treatment for those suffering from ESRD. Patients who receive a transplant experience a 68% lower risk of death compared with those waiting on dialysis for a transplant. This benefit is afforded to all patient subgroups including the elderly (> or =70 yr), and diabetics, who can gain 11 yr of extra life with transplantation. Prolonged transplant wait times result in a higher risk of death but this can be ameliorated with preemptive transplantation. Future challenges will focus on appropriate organ allocation and addressing long-term renal function and comorbid conditions so patients can enjoy the full benefits of transplantation.

  2. Better prevention than cure: optimal patient preparation for renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2014-03-01

    A generous proportion of end-stage renal disease patients may not be adequately prepared for initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Here we review potential benefits of early patient referral to nephrologists and optimal preparation for RRT. We place this evidence in the context of the epidemiological study by Kurella Tamura et al., which shows that voluntary community kidney disease screening and education is associated with better patient preparation and, importantly, improved survival upon initiation of RRT.

  3. Language continuity despite population replacement in Remote Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posth, Cosimo; Nägele, Kathrin; Colleran, Heidi; Valentin, Frédérique; Bedford, Stuart; Kami, Kaitip W; Shing, Richard; Buckley, Hallie; Kinaston, Rebecca; Walworth, Mary; Clark, Geoffrey R; Reepmeyer, Christian; Flexner, James; Maric, Tamara; Moser, Johannes; Gresky, Julia; Kiko, Lawrence; Robson, Kathryn J; Auckland, Kathryn; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Hill, Adrian V S; Mentzer, Alexander J; Zech, Jana; Petchey, Fiona; Roberts, Patrick; Jeong, Choongwon; Gray, Russell D; Krause, Johannes; Powell, Adam

    2018-04-01

    Recent genomic analyses show that the earliest peoples reaching Remote Oceania-associated with Austronesian-speaking Lapita culture-were almost completely East Asian, without detectable Papuan ancestry. However, Papuan-related genetic ancestry is found across present-day Pacific populations, indicating that peoples from Near Oceania have played a significant, but largely unknown, ancestral role. Here, new genome-wide data from 19 ancient South Pacific individuals provide direct evidence of a so-far undescribed Papuan expansion into Remote Oceania starting ~2,500 yr BP, far earlier than previously estimated and supporting a model from historical linguistics. New genome-wide data from 27 contemporary ni-Vanuatu demonstrate a subsequent and almost complete replacement of Lapita-Austronesian by Near Oceanian ancestry. Despite this massive demographic change, incoming Papuan languages did not replace Austronesian languages. Population replacement with language continuity is extremely rare-if not unprecedented-in human history. Our analyses show that rather than one large-scale event, the process was incremental and complex, with repeated migrations and sex-biased admixture with peoples from the Bismarck Archipelago.

  4. The drama of the continuous increase in end-stage renal failure in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlík, I; Miltenberger-Miltenyi, G; Ritz, E

    1998-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus has become the leading cause of end-stage renal failure in many countries of Western Europe. In all European countries, even in those with a relatively low prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, the number of patients with type II diabetes mellitus admitted for renal replacement therapy has recently increased continuously. Survival and medical rehabilitation of patients with type II diabetes on renal replacement therapy is significantly worse than in non-diabetic patients. It is obvious that in order to stem the tide, intense efforts are necessary (i) to inform the medical community about the renal risk of type II diabetes and the striking effectiveness of preventive measures, (ii) to provide better care for diabetic patients, and (iii) to reduce the high prevalence of diabetes in the population by modification of the Western life style.

  5. Delay in onset of metabolic alkalosis during regional citrate anti-coagulation in continous renal replacement therapy with calcium-free replacement solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Kay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional citrate anti-coagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy chelates calcium to produce the anti- coagulation effect. We hypothesise that a calcium-free replacement solution will require less citrate and produce fewer metabolic side effects. Fifty patients, in a Medical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary teaching hospital (25 in each group, received continuous venovenous hemofiltration using either calcium-containing or calcium-free replacement solutions. Both groups had no significant differences in filter life, metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypercalcemia. However, patients using calcium-containing solution developed metabolic alkalosis earlier, compared to patients using calcium-free solution (mean 24.6 hours,CI 0.8-48.4 vs. 37.2 hours, CI 9.4-65, P = 0.020. When calcium-containing replacement solution was used, more citrate was required (mean 280ml/h, CI 227.2-332.8 vs. 265ml/h, CI 203.4-326.6, P = 0.069, but less calcium was infused (mean 21.2 ml/h, CI 1.2-21.2 vs 51.6ml/h, CI 26.8-76.4, P ≤ 0.0001.

  6. Using the renal pelvis flap to replace the whole hypoplastic ureter: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Hypoplastic ureter is a rare condition usually associated with hypoplastic kidney, and it ends with nephrectomy in most of the cases. Many techniques have been described as ureteric substitutes in the literature. Here, we describe a new technique using the renal pelvis flap to replace the whole hypoplastic ...

  7. The epidemic of aging in renal replacement therapy: an update on elderly patients and their outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, K. J.; van Dijk, P. C. W.; Dekker, F. W.; Stengel, B.; Simpson, K.; Briggs, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    Background: In the past 2 decades, a rapid growth has occurred in the number of patients over 65 years of age accepted for renal replacement therapy (RRT) with an increasing need for dialysis resources as a consequence. The aim of this study is to describe the trends in incidence, treatment and

  8. Renal replacement therapy registries--time for a structured data quality evaluation programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couchoud, Cécile; Lassalle, Mathilde; Cornet, Ronald; Jager, Kitty J.

    2013-01-01

    Registries in the area of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are intended to be a tool for epidemiological research, health care planning and improvement of quality of care. In this perspective, the value of a population-based RRT registry and its ability to achieve its goals rely heavily on the

  9. Eccentric LVH healing after starting renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertolli, Ugo; Lupia, Mario; Naso, Agostino

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are commonly associated in patients with CRF starting RDT. We report a case of eccentric LVH with marked dilatation and subsequent mitral incompetence of +3/4 that disappeared after three months of standard hemodialysis. Mrs SN, 62 years old, starting HD, had an echocardiography because of dyspnoea; the echo showed: dilated left atrium (78 ml/m2), moderately dilated left ventricle with normal systolic function (TDV 81 ml/m2, EF 66%), an increased ventricular mass (120 gr/m2) and a high grade mitral incompetence +3/4. After three months standard RDT and a dry weight only 2 kg less, the patients was normotensive without therapy, a cardiac angiogram with a hemodynamic study was performed as a pre-transplant workout: a normal left ventricle was found with normal systolic function (TDV 66, TSV 17, GS 49, EF 75%), and a perfectly competent mitral valve (reflux disappeared). The coronary angiography did not reveal critical stenosis. A new echocardiography confinned the data of the hemodynamic study: hypertensive cardiomiopathy with normal systolic function. After one year the patient has been transplanted, with a good renal function and the cardiac echo unchanged. Relieving uremic toxicity ameliorated the cardiac performance in this particular patient.

  10. Mortality risk disparities in children receiving chronic renal replacement therapy for the treatment of end-stage renal disease across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C; Schaefer, Franz; Bonthuis, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    HR) and the explained variation were modelled for patient-level and country-level factors with multilevel Cox regression. The primary outcome studied was all-cause mortality while on renal replacement therapy. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2013, the overall 5 year renal replacement therapy mortality rate......BACKGROUND: We explored the variation in country mortality rates in the paediatric population receiving renal replacement therapy across Europe, and estimated how much of this variation could be explained by patient-level and country-level factors. METHODS: In this registry analysis, we extracted...... patient data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry for 32 European countries. We included incident patients younger than 19 years receiving renal replacement therapy. Adjusted hazard ratios (a...

  11. Access to and coverage of renal replacement therapy in minorities and ethnic groups in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellorin-Font, Ezequiel; Pernalete, Nidia; Meza, Josefina; Milanes, Carmen Luisa; Carlini, Raul G

    2005-08-01

    Access to and coverage of renal replacement therapy in minorities and ethnic groups in Venezuela. Numerous studies have documented the presence of racial and minority disparities regarding the impact of renal disease and access to renal replacement therapy (RRT). This problem is less well documented in Latin America. Venezuela, like most countries in the region, is subject to severe constraints in the allocation of resources for high-cost chronic diseases, which limits the access of patients with chronic kidney disease to RRT. Although access to health care is universal, there is both a deficit in coverage and disparity in the access to RRT, largely as a result of socioeconomic limitations and budget constrains. With current rising trends of the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and costs of medical technology, the long-term goal of complete RRT coverage will become increasingly out of reach. Current evidence suggests that prevention of progression of renal disease is possible at relatively low cost and broad coverage. Based on this evidence, the Ministry of Health has redesigned its policy with respect to renal disease based on 4 elements: 1. Prevention by means of early detection and referral to multidisciplinary health teams, as well as promotion of health habits in the community. 2. Prevention of progression of renal disease by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic means. 3. An increase in the rate of coverage and reduction of disparities in the access to dialysis. 4. An increase in the rates of renal transplantation through better organ procurement programs and reinforcement of transplant centers. However, the projected increase in the number of patients with ESKD receiving RRT will represent a serious burden to the health care system. Therefore, implementation of these policies will require the involvement of international agencies as well as an adequate partnership between nephrologists and health care planners, so that meeting the increasing demands

  12. Acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy independently predict mortality in neonatal and pediatric noncardiac patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenazi, David J; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Hamilton, Kiya; Cutter, Gary; Laney, Debbie; Kaslow, Richard; Georgeson, Keith; Barnhart, Douglas C; Dimmitt, Reed A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the independent impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) and renal replacement therapy (RRT) in infants and children who receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Despite continued expertise/technological advancement, patients who receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have high mortality. AKI and RRT portend poor outcomes independent of comorbidities and illness severity in several critically ill populations. Retrospective cohort study. The primary variables explored are AKI (categorical complication code for serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Revision 9 for acute renal failure), and RRT (complication/Current Procedural Terminology code for dialysis or hemofiltration). Multiple variables previously associated with mortality in this population were controlled, using logistic stepwise regression. Decision tree modeling was performed to determine optimal variables and cut points to predict mortality. Critically ill neonates (0-30 days old) and children (> 30 days but optimizing the timing/delivery of RRT may positively impact survival.

  13. Urea kinetics during sustained low-efficiency dialysis in critically ill patients requiring renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark R; Golper, Thomas A; Shaver, Mary J; Alam, Muhammad G; Chatoth, Dinesh K

    2002-03-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapies have practical and theoretical advantages compared with conventional intermittent hemodialysis in hemodynamically unstable or severely catabolic patients with acute renal failure (ARF). Sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) is a hybrid modality introduced July 1998 at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences that involves the application of a conventional hemodialysis machine with reduced dialysate and blood flow rates for 12-hour nocturnal treatments. Nine critically ill patients with ARF were studied during a single SLED treatment to determine delivered dialysis dose and the most appropriate model for the description of urea kinetics during treatment. Five patients were men, mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 28.9 and mean weight was 92.5 kg. Kt/V was determined by the reference method of direct dialysate quantification (DDQ) combined with an equilibrated postdialysis plasma water urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration and four other methods that were either blood or dialysate based, single or double pool, or model independent (whole-body kinetic method). Solute removal indices (SRIs) were determined from net urea removal and urea distribution volume supplied from DDQ (reference method) and by mass balance using variables supplied from blood-based formal variable-volume single-pool (VVSP) urea kinetic modeling. Equivalent renal urea clearances (EKRs) were calculated from urea generation rates and time-averaged concentrations for PUN based on weekly mass balance with kinetic variables supplied by either DDQ (reference method) or formal blood-based VVSP modeling. Mean Kt/V determined by the reference method was 1.40 and not significantly different when determined by formal VVSP modeling, DDQ using an immediate postdialysis PUN, or the whole-body kinetic method. Correction of single-pool Kt/V by a Daugirdas rate equation did not yield plausible results. Mean SRI and EKR by the

  14. We Offer Renal Replacement Therapy to Patients Who Are Not Benefitted by It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Jean L

    2016-07-01

    Nephrologists offer renal replacement therapy (RRT) to patients who are unlikely to benefit in part because of our discomfort discussing goals of care in the setting of an uncertain prognosis for a given individual. Permanent neurological impairment, terminal illness (life expectancy <6 months), medical conditions precluding the safe delivery of dialysis, elderly patients with poor prognosis, and those who begin "early" RRT are categories of patients for whom dialysis may not be beneficial. Successful use of time-limited trials of dialysis may reduce the number of patients who are started on RRT without significant benefit. However, clear achievable milestones and goals need to be incorporated into plans for time-limited trials to ensure that continuing RRT beyond the trial period is appropriate. The lack of information on outcomes and symptom management using a "palliative approach" to dialysis suggests this should not be a clinical option until additional study is done and efficacy data available. Clinical practice guidelines are available to assist nephrologists in the appropriate withholding of RRT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Empirical relationships among oliguria, creatinine, mortality, and renal replacement therapy in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Tal; Lee, Joon; Scott, Daniel J; Mark, Roger G; Malhotra, Atul; Howell, Michael D; Talmor, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The observation periods and thresholds of serum creatinine and urine output defined in the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria were not empirically derived. By continuously varying creatinine/urine output thresholds as well as the observation period, we sought to investigate the empirical relationships among creatinine, oliguria, in-hospital mortality, and receipt of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Using a high-resolution database (Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II), we extracted data from 17,227 critically ill patients with an in-hospital mortality rate of 10.9 %. The 14,526 patients had urine output measurements. Various combinations of creatinine/urine output thresholds and observation periods were investigated by building multivariate logistic regression models for in-hospital mortality and RRT predictions. For creatinine, both absolute and percentage increases were analyzed. To visualize the dependence of adjusted mortality and RRT rate on creatinine, the urine output, and the observation period, we generated contour plots. Mortality risk was high when absolute creatinine increase was high regardless of the observation period, when percentage creatinine increase was high and the observation period was long, and when oliguria was sustained for a long period of time. Similar contour patterns emerged for RRT. The variability in predictive accuracy was small across different combinations of thresholds and observation periods. The contour plots presented in this article complement the AKIN definition. A multi-center study should confirm the universal validity of the results presented in this article.

  16. [Residual renal function and nutritional status in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Natasa; Lausević, Mirjana; Stojimirović, Biljana

    2005-01-01

    During the last years, an increasing number of patients with end-stage renal failure caused by various underlying diseases, all over the world, is treated by renal replacement therapy. NUTRITIONAL STATUS: Malnutrition is often found in patients affected by renal failure; it is caused by reduced intake of nutritional substances due to anorexia and dietary restrictions hormonal and metabolic disorders, comorbid conditions and loss of proteins, amino-acids, and vitamins during the dialysis procedure itself. Nutritional status significantly affects the outcome of patients on chronic dialysis treatment. Recent epiodemiological trials have proved that survival on chronic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis program depends more on residual renal function (RRF) than on peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of RRF on common biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutrition in 32 patients with end-stage renal failure with various underlying diseases during the first 6 months on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The mean residual creatinine clearance was 8,3 ml/min and the mean RRF was 16,24 l/week in our patients at the beginning of the chronic peritoneal dialysis treatment. During the follow-up, the RRF slightly decreased, while the nutritional status of patients significantly improved. Gender and age, as well as the leading disease and peritonitis didn't influence the RRF during the first 6 months of CAPD treatment. We found several positive correlations between RRF and laboratory and anthropometric markers of nutrition during the follow-up, proving the positive influence of RRF on nutritional status of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

  17. Health status, renal function, and quality of life after multiorgan failure and acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulhaber-Walter R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Faulhaber-Walter,1,2 Sebastian Scholz,1,3 Herrmann Haller,1 Jan T Kielstein,1,* Carsten Hafer1,4,* 1Department of Renal and Hypertensive Disease, Medical School Hannover, Hannover, Germany; 2Facharztzentrum Aarberg, Waldshut-Tiengen, Germany; 3Sanitaetsversorgungszentrum Wunstorf, Wunstorf, Germany; 4HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI in need of renal replacement therapy (RRT may have a protracted and often incomplete rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome has rarely been investigated. Study design: Survivors of the HANnover Dialysis OUTcome (HANDOUT study were evaluated after 5 years for survival, health status, renal function, and quality of life (QoL. The HANDOUT study had examinded mortality and renal recovery of patients with AKI receiving either standard extendend or intensified dialysis after multi organ failure. Results: One hundred fifty-six former HANDOUT participants were analyzed. In-hospital mortality was 56.4%. Five-year survival after AKI/RRT was 40.1% (86.5% if discharged from hospital. Main causes of death were cardiovascular complications and sepsis. A total of 19 survivors presented to the outpatient department of our clinic and had good renal recovery (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 72.5±30 mL/min/1.73 m2; mean proteinuria 89±84 mg/d. One person required maintenance dialysis. Seventy-nine percent of the patients had a pathological kidney sonomorphology. The Charlson comorbidity score was 2.2±1.4 and adjusted for age 3.3±2.1 years. Numbers of comorbid conditions averaged 2.38±1.72 per patient (heart failure [52%] > chronic kidney disease/myocardial infarction [each 29%]. Median 36-item short form health survey (SF-36™ index was 0.657 (0.69 physical health/0.66 mental health. Quality-adjusted life-years after 5 years were 3.365. Conclusion: Mortality after severe AKI is higher than

  18. Acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit: impact on prognostic assessment for shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert F; Gustin, Jillian

    2011-07-01

    A 69-year-old female was receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) for acute renal failure (ARF) in an intensive care unit (ICU). Consultation was requested from the palliative medicine service to facilitate a shared decision-making process regarding goals of care. Clinician responsibility in shared decision making includes the formulation and expression of a prognostic assessment providing the necessary perspective for a spokesperson to match patient values with treatment options. For this patient, ARF requiring RRT in the ICU was used as a focal point for preparing a prognostic assessment. A prognostic assessment should include the outcomes of most importance to a discussion of goals of care: mortality risk and survivor functional status, in this case including renal recovery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to document published data regarding these outcomes for adult patients receiving RRT for ARF in the ICU. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The combined mean values for short-term mortality, long-term mortality, renal-function recovery of short-term survivors, and renal-function recovery of long-term survivors were 51.7%, 68.6%, 82.0%, and 88.4%, respectively. This case example illustrates a process for formulating and expressing a prognostic assessment for an ICU patient requiring RRT for ARF. Data from the literature review provide baseline information that requires adjustment to reflect specific patient circumstances. The nature of the acute primary process, comorbidities, and severity of illness are key modifiers. Finally, the prognostic assessment is expressed during a family meeting using recommended principles of communication.

  19. Can computed tomography volumetry of the renal cortex replace MAG3-scintigraphy in all patients for determining split renal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbois, Christian; Haneder, Stefan; Merkt, Martin; Morelli, John N; Schmidt, Matthias; Hellmich, Martin; Mueller, Roman-Ulrich; Wahba, Roger; Maintz, David; Puesken, Michael

    2018-06-01

    The current gold standard for determination of split renal function (SRF) is Tc-99m-mercapto-acetyltriglycin (MAG3) scintigraphy. Initial studies comparing MAG3-scintigraphy and CT-based renal cortex volumetry (RCV) for calculation of SRF have shown similar results in highly selected patient collectives with normal renal function (i.e. living kidney donors). This study aims to compare MAG3-scintigraphy and CT-RCV within a large unselected patient collective including patients with impaired renal function. For this assessment, 279 datasets (131 men, 148 women; mean age: 54.2 ± 12.9 years, range: 24-84 years) of patients who underwent MAG3-scintigraphy and contrast-enhanced abdominal CT within two weeks were retrospectively analyzed. Two independent readers assessed the CT-RCV in all CT datasets using a semi-automated volumetry tool. The MAG3-scintigraphy and CT-RCV methods were compared, stratified for the eGFR. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics as well as inter- observer agreement. The absolute mean difference between the percentage contribution of the left and the right kidneys in total MAG3-clearance was 8.6%. Independent of eGFR, an overall sufficient agreement between both methods was established in all patients. A relatively small, tolerable systemic error resulted in an underestimation (max. 2%) of the left renal contribution to overall RCV. The results demonstrate that CT-RCV is a potential clinical replacement for MAG3-scintigraphy for calculation of SRF: CT-RCV demonstrates clinically tolerable differences with MAG3-scintigraphy, independent of patient eGFR. The relative complexity of the RCV method utilized is a potential limitation and may have contributed to the acceptable but only fair to moderate level of intra-reader reliability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuation of cinacalcet immediately after renal transplantation: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalten, J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: cinacalcet is used for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients, but it is currently unknown whether it can safely be continued immediately after renal transplantation. METHODS: we prospectively studied renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism who

  1. Incidence of Renal Failure Requiring Hemodialysis Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladia, Vatsal; Panchal, Hemang B; O׳Neil, Terrence J; Sitwala, Puja; Bhatheja, Samit; Patel, Rakeshkumar; Ramu, Vijay; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Mahmud, Ehtisham; Paul, Timir K

    2016-09-01

    Studies have shown that iodinated radiocontrast use is associated with acute renal failure especially in the presence of chronic kidney disease and multiple factors modulate this risk. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare the incidence of renal failure requiring hemodialysis between transfemoral (TF) and transapical (TA) transcatheter aortic valve replacement using the Edwards valve. The PubMed database was searched from January 2000 through December 2014. A total of 10 studies (n = 2,459) comparing TF (n = 1,268) and TA (n = 1,191) TAVR procedures using the Edwards valve were included. Variables of interest were baseline logistic EuroSCORE, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, chronic kidney disease and amount of contrast used. The primary endpoint was incidence of renal failure requiring hemodialysis. The odds ratio and 95% CI were computed and P renal failure requiring hemodialysis was higher with the Edwards valve. This suggests that the incidence of renal failure requiring hemodialysis after TAVR is associated with baseline comorbidities in the TA-TAVR group rather than the volume of contrast used. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intra-procedural continuous dialysis to facilitate interventional catheterization in pediatric patients with severe renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opina, Angeline D; Qureshi, Athar M; Brewer, Eileen; Elenberg, Ewa; Swartz, Sarah; Michael, Mini; Justino, Henri

    2017-11-01

    Interventional catheterization procedures may be needed for patients with severe renal failure who are dependent on dialysis. To avoid the risk of fluid overload and electrolyte derangement during complex procedures in this oliguric/anuric patient population, we performed intra-procedural dialysis, either continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or continous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). We performed a retrospective review of a cohort of pediatric patients, ages 0-18 years, with dialysis-dependent renal failure who received CRRT or CCPD during catheterization procedures from January 2013 to March 2016. Eight patients underwent a total of nine interventional catheterization procedures while receiving intra-procedural dialysis. Median age was 4.5 years (range 8 months to 17 years) and weight, 11.6 kg (11.2-62.6 kg). Six patients had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and two patients had acute kidney injury (AKI), one due to hepatorenal syndrome and one due to multifactorial causes associated with congenital heart disease. The most common reason for catheterization was occlusive venous thrombosis requiring recanalization. CRRT was used during five cases and CCPD during four cases. Median procedure time was 337 min (95-651 min) and median contrast dose 4.2 mL kg -1 (1.2-8.2 mL kg -1 ). Euvolemia was maintained based on pre- and post-catheterizations weights, and no significant electrolyte abnormalities occurred based on lab monitoring during and post-procedure. Intra-procedural dialysis using CRRT or CCPD enables even small pediatric patients with severe renal failure to undergo long and complex interventional catheterizations by reducing the risk of fluid overload and electrolyte abnormalities. Collaboration between nephrology, cardiology, and dialysis teams is necessary for successful management of this challenging patient population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An update on renal replacement therapy in Europe: ERA-EDTA Registry data from 1997 to 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Anneke; Stel, Vianda; Zoccali, Carmine; Heaf, James; Ansell, David; Grönhagen-Riska, Carola; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Simpson, Keith; Pálsson, Runólfur; Postorino, Maurizio; Jager, Kitty

    2009-01-01

    Background. Recent studies have indicated a stabilization in the incidence rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a number of European countries. The aim of this study was to provide an update on the incidence, prevalence and outcomes of RRT in Europe over the

  4. Early identification of risk factors for refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with long-term renal replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorna, Francisca Hillegonda; Tobe, TJM; Huisman, RM; de Jong, PE; Plukker, JTM; Stegeman, CA

    Background. Secondary hyperparathyroidism can complicate renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with end-stage renal disease. Current medical therapies often result in hypercalcaemia and fail to correct hyperparathyroidism, but might be more effective at an early stage of disease. The aim of

  5. Differences and inequalities in relation to access to renal replacement therapy in the BRICS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fábio Humberto Ribeiro Paes; Rodrigues, Cibele Isaac Saad; Gatto, Giuseppe Cesare; Sá, Natan Monsores de

    2017-07-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries due to the high level of economic resources needed to maintain patients in the different programs that make up renal replacement therapy (RRT). To analyze the differences and inequalities involved in access to RRT in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa). This is an applied, descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study, with documentary analysis and a literature review. The sources of data were from national censuses and scientific publications regarding access to RRT in the BRICS countries. There is unequal access to RRT in all the BRICS countries, as well as the absence of information regarding dialysis and transplants (India), the absence of effective legislation to inhibit the trafficking of organs (India and South Africa) and the use of deceased prisoners as donors for renal transplants (China). The construction of mechanisms to promote the sharing of benefits and solidarity in the field of international cooperation in the area of renal health involves the recognition of bioethical issues related to access to RRT in the BRICS countries.

  6. Mortality risk disparities in children receiving chronic renal replacement therapy for the treatment of end-stage renal disease across Europe: an ESPN-ERA/EDTA registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C; Schaefer, Franz; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Holman, Rebecca; Baiko, Sergey; Baskın, Esra; Bjerre, Anna; Cloarec, Sylvie; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A M; Espinosa, Laura; Heaf, James; Stone, Rosário; Shtiza, Diamant; Zagozdzon, Ilona; Harambat, Jérôme; Jager, Kitty J; Groothoff, Jaap W; van Stralen, Karlijn J

    2017-05-27

    We explored the variation in country mortality rates in the paediatric population receiving renal replacement therapy across Europe, and estimated how much of this variation could be explained by patient-level and country-level factors. In this registry analysis, we extracted patient data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry for 32 European countries. We included incident patients younger than 19 years receiving renal replacement therapy. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and the explained variation were modelled for patient-level and country-level factors with multilevel Cox regression. The primary outcome studied was all-cause mortality while on renal replacement therapy. Between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2013, the overall 5 year renal replacement therapy mortality rate was 15·8 deaths per 1000 patient-years (IQR 6·4-16·4). France had a mortality rate (9·2) of more than 3 SDs better, and Russia (35·2), Poland (39·9), Romania (47·4), and Bulgaria (68·6) had mortality rates more than 3 SDs worse than the European average. Public health expenditure was inversely associated with mortality risk (per SD increase, aHR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52-0·91) and explained 67% of the variation in renal replacement therapy mortality rates between countries. Child mortality rates showed a significant association with renal replacement therapy mortality, albeit mediated by macroeconomics (eg, neonatal mortality reduced from 1·31 [95% CI 1·13-1·53], p=0·0005, to 1·21 [0·97-1·51], p=0·10). After accounting for country distributions of patient age, the variation in renal replacement therapy mortality rates between countries increased by 21%. Substantial international variation exists in paediatric renal replacement therapy mortality rates across Europe, most of which was explained by disparities in public health expenditure, which seems to limit the availability and

  7. A population approach to renal replacement therapy epidemiology: lessons from the EVEREST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Fergus J; Jager, Kitty J

    2014-08-01

    The marked variation that exists in renal replacement therapy (RRT) epidemiology between countries and within countries requires careful systematic examination if the root causes are to be understood. While individual patient-level studies are undoubtedly important, there is a complementary role for more population-level, area-based studies--an aetiological approach. The EVEREST Study adopted such an approach, bringing RRT incidence rates, survival and modality mix together with macroeconomic factors, general population factors and renal service organizational factors for up to 46 countries. This review considers the background to EVEREST, its key results and then the main methodological lessons and their potential application to ongoing work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Stage progression and need for renal replacement therapy in a renal protection programme in Colombia. A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes Delgado, Carlos Enrique; Pérez Dávila, Sara; Montoya Jaramillo, Marcela; Orrego Orozco, Beatriz Elena

    Due to the global burden represented by chronic kidney disease (CKD), the World Health Organization encouraged the implementation of renal protection programmes (RPP) to affect its incidence through prevention and control measures. To assess the effectiveness of a Colombian RPP in terms of its effect on the stage progression of CKD and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). An analytical study that monitored 2cohorts of patients diagnosed with CKD. The study compares the behaviour of clinical and renal impairment indicators from patients exposed to a RPP with that of patients following conventional treatment (CT). The population of both intervention groups was considered when determining the sample size. The incidence rate was calculated as well as patient survival (Kaplan Meier). In addition, a multivariate analysis (Cox) was used to calculate the influence that exposure to the RPP had on the outcomes of the patients following the RPP and those following CT. The patients exposed to the RPP took longer to advance to the next CKD stage and require RRT. The incidence rate for progression is higher for the patients following CT (0.050, IC 95%: 0.040-0.064) compared to those in the RPP (0.034, IC 95%: 0.030-0.039). The ratio of incidence rates was 1.480 (IC 95% 1.21-1.90). The hazard of progression was lower for the RPP (HR: 0.855, IC 95%: 0.74- 0.98), as was the hazard of requiring RRT (HR: 0.797, IC 95%: 0.606-1.049). The RPP is a secondary prevention strategy against CKD which has an effect on the stage progression of CKD and the need for RRT. Early patient detection has a positive effect on the outcomes studied. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute kidney injury due to rhabdomyolysis and renal replacement therapy: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis, a clinical syndrome caused by damage to skeletal muscle and release of its breakdown products into the circulation, can be followed by acute kidney injury (AKI) as a severe complication. The belief that the AKI is triggered by myoglobin as the toxin responsible appears to be oversimplified. Better knowledge of the pathophysiology of rhabdomyolysis and following AKI could widen treatment options, leading to preservation of the kidney: the decision to initiate renal replacement therapy in clinical practice should not be made on the basis of the myoglobin or creatine phosphokinase serum concentrations. PMID:25043142

  10. Effect of renal replacement therapy on retinol-binding protein 4 isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Simone K; Henze, Andrea; Nagl, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are elevated in the serum of patients with kidney dysfunction. We recently showed that RBP4 isoforms including apo-RBP4 (RBP4 not bound to retinol) and RBP4 truncated at the C-terminus (RBP4-L, RBP4-LL) are increased in the serum of patients with kidney dis...... diseases but not in serum of patients with various liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of renal replacement therapy on RBP4 isoforms....

  11. Patients' perceptions of information and education for renal replacement therapy: an independent survey by the European Kidney Patients' Federation on information and support on renal replacement therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Biesen

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate renal replacement modality is of utmost importance for patients with end stage renal disease. Previous studies showed provision of information to and free modality choice by patients to be suboptimal. Therefore, the European Kidney Patients' Federation (CEAPIR explored European patients' perceptions regarding information, education and involvement on the modality selection process.CEAPIR developed a survey, which was disseminated by the national kidney patient organisations in Europe.In total, 3867 patients from 36 countries completed the survey. Respondents were either on in-centre haemodialysis (53% or had a functioning graft (38% at the time of survey. The majority (78% evaluated the general information about kidney disease and treatment as helpful, but 39% did not recall being told about alternative treatment options than their current one. Respondents were more often satisfied with information provided on in-centre haemodialysis (90% and transplantation (87% than with information provided on peritoneal dialysis (79% or home haemodialysis (61%, and were more satisfied with information from health care professionals vs other sources such as social media. Most (75% felt they had been involved in treatment selection, 29% perceived they had no free choice. Involvement in modality selection was associated with enhanced satisfaction with treatment (OR 3.13; 95% CI 2.72-3.60. Many respondents (64% could not remember receiving education on how to manage their kidney disease in daily life. Perceptions on information seem to differ between countries.Kidney patients reported to be overall satisfied with the information they received on their disease and treatment, although information seemed mostly to have been focused on one modality. Patients involved in modality selection were more satisfied with their treatment. However, in the perception of the patients, the freedom to choose an alternative modality showed room for

  12. [Mobile single-pass batch hemodialysis system in intensive care medicine. Reduction of costs and workload in renal replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, H-B; Hochscherf, M; Jehmlich, M; Leischik, M; Ritter, J

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the introduction of a single-pass batch hemodialysis system for renal replacement therapy in a 14 bed intensive care unit. The goals were to reduce the workload of intensive care unit physicians using an alternative and simpler method compared to continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and to reduce the costs of hemofiltrate solutions (80,650 EUR per year in our clinic in 2005). We describe and evaluate the process of implementation of the system as well as the achieved and prospective savings. We conclude that a close cooperation of all participants (physicians, nurses, economists, technicians) of a hospital can achieve substantial benefits for patients and employees as well as reduce the economic burden of a hospital.

  13. Ten-years trends in renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease in mainland France: Lessons from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneau, Cécile; Kolko, Anne; Stengel, Bénédicte; Jacquelinet, Christian; Landais, Paul; Rieu, Philippe; Bayat, Sahar; Couchoud, Cécile

    2017-06-01

    The incidence rate of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is decreasing in several countries, but not in France. We studied the RRT trends in mainland France from 2005 to 2014 to understand the reasons for this discrepancy and determine the effects of ESRD management changes. Data were extracted from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network registry. Time trends of RRT incidence and prevalence rates, patients' clinical and treatment characteristics were analysed using the Joinpoint regression program and annual percentage changes. Survival within the first year of RRT was analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimates for 4 periods of time. The overall age- and gender-adjusted RRT incidence rate increased from 144 to 159 individuals per million inhabitants (pmi) (+0.8% per year; 95% CI: 0.5-1.2) and the prevalence from 903 to 1141 pmi (+2.4% per year; 95% CI: 2.2-2.7). This increase concerned exclusively ESRD associated with type 2 diabetes (+4.0%; 3.4-4.6) and mostly elderly men. Despite patient aging and increasing comorbidity burden and a persistent 30% rate of emergency dialysis start, the one-year survival rate slightly improved from 82.1% (81.4-82.8) to 83.8% (83.3-84.4). Pre-emptive wait listing for renal transplantation and the percentage of wait-listed patients within one year after dialysis start strongly increased (from 5.6% to 15.5% and from 29% to 39%, respectively). Kidney transplantation and survival significantly improved despite the heavier patient burden. However, the rise in type 2 diabetes-related ESRD and the stable high rate of emergency dialysis start remain major issues. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of changes in LVEF and renal function on the prognosis of ICD patients after elective device replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberk, Bert; Robyns, Tomas; Garweg, Christophe; Floré, Vincent; Foulon, Stefaan; Voros, Gabor; Ector, Joris; Willems, Rik

    2017-10-01

    A proportion of patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in prevention of sudden cardiac death will only receive their first appropriate ICD therapy (AT) after device replacement. Clinical reassessment at the time of replacement could be helpful to guide the decision to replace or not in the future. All patients with an ICD for primary or secondary prevention in ischemic (ICM) or nonischemic cardiomyopathy were included in a single-center retrospective registry. The association of changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; cut-off at 35%), worsening renal function (decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate > 15 mL/min), and worsening New York Heart Association class at elective device replacement with mortality and AT was analyzed using adjusted Cox regression analysis. A total of 238 (33%) out of 727 patients received elective device replacement (86.1% male, 74.4% ICM, 42.9% primary prevention). During this replacement 20.2% received a device upgrade. The mean time to replacement was 6.4 ± 2.0 years and mean follow-up after replacement was 3.4 ± 3.0 years. Of patients who did not receive AT before replacement 23.1% received their first AT after replacement. Worsening renal function (hazard ratio [HR] 2.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-5.18) and a consistently LVEF ≤35% compared to a consistently LVEF >35% (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.10-4.19) at the time of replacement were independent predictors of mortality. Independent predictors of first AT after replacement could not be identified. Although reassessment of LVEF and renal function at replacement can be helpful in predicting total mortality, the clinical utility to guide reimplantation seemed limited. Our experience indicates that approximately 25% of patients received their first AT only after replacement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A specially tailored vancomycin continuous infusion regimen for renally impaired critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Mohamed Bahgat Eldemiry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vancomycin remains the gold standard for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Specially designed continuous infusion of vancomycin leads to better therapy. Methodology: A total of 40 critically ill patients who suffered from pneumonia susceptible to vancomycin, had serum creatinine >1.4 mg%, and oliguria <0.5 mL/kg/h for 6 h were included in the study with respiratory culture sensitivity to vancomycin ≤2 mg/L. Patients’ clinical, microbiological, and biological data were obtained by retrospective analysis of the corresponding medical files before and after vancomycin treatment. Patients with serum creatinine level ≥4 mg% and patients who received renal replacement therapy during the treatment period were excluded. The patients were divided into two groups—group 1 (intermittent dosing and group 2 (continuous infusion based on the following formula: rate of vancomycin continuous infusion (g/day = [0.0205 creatinine clearance (mL/min + 3.47] × [target vancomycin concentration at steady state (µg/mL] × (24/1000. Trough vancomycin serum levels were also assessed using high-performance liquid chromatographic technique. Patients’ outcomes such as clinical improvement, adverse events, and 15-day mortality were reported. Results: Group 2 showed significant reduction in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine serum levels, white blood cells, partial carbon dioxide pressure, body temperature, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, while significant increase in partial oxygen pressure and saturated oxygen was also observed. A significantly shorter duration of treatment with a comparable vancomycin serum levels was also reported with group 2. Conclusion: After treatment, comparison in patients’ criteria supports the superiority of using continuous infusion of vancomycin according to this equation in renally impaired patients.

  16. UK Renal Registry 11th Annual Report (December 2008): Chapter 13 Demography of the UK paediatric renal replacement therapy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Malcolm A; Shaw, Joanne; Sinha, Manish; Adalat, Shazia; Hussain, Farida; Inward, Carol

    2009-01-01

    To describe the demographics of the paediatric RRT population in the UK and analyse changes in demographics with time. Extraction and analysis of data from the UK paediatric Renal Registry. The UK paediatric established renal failure (ERF) population in April 2008 was 875 patients. The prevalence under the age of 16 years was 55 per million age related population (pmp) and the incidence 7.92 pmp. The incidence and prevalence for South Asian and Other ethnic groups were 3 times that of the White and Black populations. Renal dysplasia was the most common cause of ERF accounting for 33% of prevalent cases. Diseases with autosomal recessive inheritance were more common in patients from ethnic minority groups. The spectrum of diseases seen has changed over a generation. Overall 5 year survival for children with ERF was 91.8%. Five year survival of infants starting dialysis was just 62%. Transplanted patients accounted for 74% of the current population. The proportion with grafts from living donors has steadily risen to 34%. Children from ethnic minority groups were less likely to have an allograft and living donation was less frequent in this population. For those on dialysis, 57% were receiving peritoneal dialysis. This was the main treatment modality for patients under 4 years of age. The paediatric ERF population continued to expand slowly. Incidence and prevalence rates were stable and similar to other developed nations. The high incidence in patients from ethnic minority groups will lead to a greater proportion of the population being from these groups in time. To maintain the high proportion of engrafted patients it will be necessary to encourage living donation in the ethnic minority population. The spectrum of diseases seen has already changed over a generation with the treatment of young children with diseases such as congenital nephrosis. The incidence of cystinosis causing ERF was reduced, probably reflecting better early treatment. Copyright 2009 S. Karger

  17. Renal function predicts long-term outcome on enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, Malte; Schmitz, Boris; Stypmann, Jörg; Duning, Thomas; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Kurschat, Christine; Brand, Eva

    2017-12-01

    Renal and cardiac involvement is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in Fabry disease (FD). We analysed the incidence of FD-related renal, cardiac and neurologic end points in patients with FD on long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from two German FD centres was performed. The impact of renal and cardiac function at ERT-naïve baseline on end point development despite ERT was analysed. Fifty-four patients (28 females) receiving ERT (mean 81 ± 21 months) were investigated. Forty per cent of patients were diagnosed with clinical end points before ERT initiation and 50% of patients on ERT developed new clinical end points. In patients initially diagnosed with an end point before ERT initiation, the risk for an additional end point on ERT was increased {hazard ratio [HR] 3.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-9.08]; P = 0.0023}. A decreased glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤75 mL/min/1.73 m2 in ERT-naïve patients at baseline was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular end points [HR 3.59 (95% CI 1.15-11.18); P = 0.0273] as well as for combined renal, cardiac and neurologic end points on ERT [HR 4.77 (95% CI 1.93-11.81); P = 0.0007]. In patients with normal kidney function, left ventricular hypertrophy at baseline predicted a decreased end point-free survival [HR 6.90 (95% CI 2.04-23.27); P = 0.0018]. The risk to develop an end point was independent of sex. In addition to age, even moderately impaired renal function determines FD progression on ERT. In patients with FD, renal and cardiac protection is warranted to prevent patients from deleterious manifestations of the disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. Analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Guo Tan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement. Methods: Patients who received unilateral total knee replacement in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were included for study and randomly divided into experimental group who received continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia and control group who received continuous femoral nerve block, and then the co...

  19. Clinical effect of combined ulinastatin and continuous renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress level, kidney and blood coagulation functions were assayed ... each year, accounting for 0.3 % of the total population, and ..... inflammation in chronic renal failure patients and its role.

  20. Trends in Renal Replacement Therapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Resić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal Registry (RR of Bosnia and Herzegovina was established in 2002, with aim to follow up the trends of Renal Replacement Therapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The prevalence of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT in Bosnia and Herzegovina is rising steadily. One reason for this is an increasing number of patients starting RRT. The aim is to present the epidemiology and treatment of all aspects of RRT in Bosnia and Herzegovina in period 2002-2008. Centre-related and patient-related questionnaires were sent to all 25 dialysis centres in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The demographic data, prevalence and incidence, type of renal replacement therapy, cause of ESRD, erythropoietin administration, cause of death, and type of vascular access were obtained from the questionnaires. Collected data were analysed using SPSS statistics. The number of patients treated by Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT increased steadily from 1,531 patients in 2002 to the 2,206 at the 2008 (43%. The prevalence has increased from 399 pmp in 2002 to 696 pmp. in 2008. Incidence (new patients in 2002 was 110 pmp and incidence rate in 2008 was 163, and there were 249 new patients (day 1. The mean age for new patients increased from 60 years in 2002 to 63.5 years in 2008 and the population over 75 years rate from 8.79% to 11.3%. Most ESRD patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina are undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (92%, while some patients (8% are treated by peritoneal dialysis and transplantation. The most significant cause of ESRD in 2008 was chronic glomerulonephritis (421 patients, 19.2%, followed by pyelonephritis (414 patients, 18.9%, BEN (14.7% and Diabetes mellitus (12.2%. Hepatitis B and C virus infections had 397 (16.3% patients, out of them 22 had both type of infections and 98 patients had B type infection. Only 10.5% of patients were tested on MRSA and 3 patients were positive on MRSA. There were no HIV-positive patients on RRT. The most common type of vascular access was AV fistula

  1. Renal Replacement Therapy in End-Stage Sickle Cell Nephropathy: Presentation of Two Cases and Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mueilo, Samir H.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic renal failure develops in 4-18% of patients with sickle cell anemia. Hemodialysis and kidney transplant are viable options in the management of end-stage renal disease in patients with sickle cell diseases (SCD). Information on kidney disease among Saudi patients with SCD is non-existing. In this report, the clinical course of two adult males with end-stage sickle cell nephropathy from Eastern Saudi Arabia is described. Literature on renal replacement therapy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is discussed. (author)

  2. Long-term outcome on renal replacement therapy in patients who previously received a keto acid-supplemented very-low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Philippe; Couzi, Lionel; Vendrely, Benoit; de Précigout, Valérie; Combe, Christian; Fouque, Denis; Aparicio, Michel

    2009-10-01

    The consequences of a supplemented very-low-protein diet remain a matter of debate with regard to patient outcome before or after the onset of renal replacement therapy. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcome during maintenance dialysis and/or transplantation in patients who previously received a supplemented very-low-protein diet. We assessed the outcome of 203 patients who received a supplemented very-low-protein diet for >3 mo (inclusion period: 1985-2000) and started dialysis after a mean diet duration of 33.1 mo (4-230 mo). The survival rate in the whole cohort was 79% and 63% at 5 and 10 y, respectively. One hundred two patients continued with chronic dialysis during the entire follow-up, and 101 patients were grafted at least once. Patient outcomes were similar to those of the French Dialysis Registry patients for the dialysis group and similar to the 865 patients who were transplanted in Bordeaux during the same period for the transplant group. There was no correlation between death rate and duration of diet. The lack of correlation between death rate and duration of diet and the moderate mortality rate observed during the first 10 y of renal replacement therapy confirm that a supplemented very-low-protein diet has no detrimental effect on the outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease who receive renal replacement therapy.

  3. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional differences in renal replacement therapy in northern Norway 2000–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Eriksen, Bjørn Odvar; Skår, Siw; Fagerheim, Anne; Reisæter, Anna Varberg

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distance from residence location to a centre for renal replacement therapy (RRT) may influence patients’ quality of life and prognosis. Northern Norway constitutes 45% of Norway's landmass, but has less than 10% of the population. Methods In this study, we analysed all patients in northern Norway consecutively registered in the Norwegian Renal Registry during 2000–2012. A total of 634 patients (Nordland County 321 patients, Troms County 215 patients and Finnmark County 98 patients) were investigated. Results There were more smokers (31% vs. 22%) and patients with diabetes (32% vs. 22%) in Finnmark, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Patients undergoing RRT and living in Finnmark County had a significantly worse outcome (P=0.03). The median survivals after initiation of RRT were 3.8 years (Finnmark), 6.4 years (Troms) and 5.4 years (Nordland), respectively. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease (53%), infections (16%), withdrawal from therapy (15%) and malignancy (13%). In a Cox analysis, age (P<0.0001), diabetes (P=0.008) and smoking at any time (P<0.004) were individual factors correlated with inferior prognosis. Conclusion Age, smoking and diabetes were prognostic factors. Residents of the northernmost county (Finnmark) experienced an inferior prognosis. Long distance from residence location to hospital may be another factor, but this could not be documented. Preventive strategies should be improved. PMID:25672881

  5. Regional differences in renal replacement therapy in northern Norway 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Eriksen, Bjørn Odvar; Skår, Siw; Fagerheim, Anne; Reisæter, Anna Varberg

    2015-01-01

    Distance from residence location to a centre for renal replacement therapy (RRT) may influence patients' quality of life and prognosis. Northern Norway constitutes 45% of Norway's landmass, but has less than 10% of the population. In this study, we analysed all patients in northern Norway consecutively registered in the Norwegian Renal Registry during 2000-2012. A total of 634 patients (Nordland County 321 patients, Troms County 215 patients and Finnmark County 98 patients) were investigated. There were more smokers (31% vs. 22%) and patients with diabetes (32% vs. 22%) in Finnmark, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Patients undergoing RRT and living in Finnmark County had a significantly worse outcome (P=0.03). The median survivals after initiation of RRT were 3.8 years (Finnmark), 6.4 years (Troms) and 5.4 years (Nordland), respectively. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease (53%), infections (16%), withdrawal from therapy (15%) and malignancy (13%). In a Cox analysis, age (P<0.0001), diabetes (P=0.008) and smoking at any time (P<0.004) were individual factors correlated with inferior prognosis. Age, smoking and diabetes were prognostic factors. Residents of the northernmost county (Finnmark) experienced an inferior prognosis. Long distance from residence location to hospital may be another factor, but this could not be documented. Preventive strategies should be improved.

  6. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    1. Renal haemodynamics, lithium and sodium clearance were measured in 14 patients treated with recombinant interleukin-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Patients were studied before and after 72 h of continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 (18x10(6) i.u..24 h-1.m-2) a...... effect. Changes in renal prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the decrease in renal blood flow. The lithium clearance data suggest that an increased proximal tubular reabsorption rate may contribute to the decreased sodium clearance during recombinant interleukin-2 treatment....

  7. Hepatic and renal function with successful long-term support on a continuous flow left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Salil V; Sharma, Vikas; Altarabsheh, Salah E; Hasin, Tal; Dillon, John; Shah, Ishan K; Durham, Lucian A; Stulak, John M; Daly, Richard C; Joyce, Lyle D; Park, Soon J

    2014-03-01

    Data regarding the long-term clinical effects of a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) on hepato-renal function is limited. Hence our aim was to assess changes in hepato-renal function over a one-year period in patients supported on a CF-LVAD. During the study period 126 patients underwent CF-LVAD implant. Changes in hepato-renal laboratory parameters were studied in 61/126 patients successfully supported on a CF-LVAD for period of one year. A separate cohort of a high-risk group (HCrB) of patients (56/126) with a serum creat>1.9 mg/dL (168 μmol/L) (75th percentile) or a serum bil>1.5 mg/dL (25.65 μmol/L) (75th percentile) was created. Changes in serum creatinine and bilirubin were analysed at regular intervals for this group along with the need for renal replacement therapy. Baseline creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) for the entire cohort was 1.4[1.2,1.9 mg/dL] [123.7(106,168) μmol/L) and 27[20,39.5 mg/dL] [9.6(7.1,14.1) mmol/L] respectively. After an initial reduction at the end of one month [1(0.8,1.2) mg/dL; 88(70,105) μmol/L] (passist device support for one year. High-risk patients demonstrate a higher 30-day mortality and temporary need for renal replacement therapy. Yet even in this cohort, improvement is present over a period of one year on the device, with a minimal need for permanent haemodialysis. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The acid-base effects of continuous hemofiltration with lactate or bicarbonate buffered replacement fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H K; Uchino, S; Bellomo, R

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate, quantify and compare the effects of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with lactate or bicarbonate-buffered replacement fluids on acid-base balance. Randomized double crossover study. Intensive Care Unit of Tertiary Medical Center. Eight patients with severe acute renal failure. Random allocation to either 2 hours of isovolemic lactate-buffered (treatment A) CVVH or 2 hours of bicarbonate-buffered (treatment B) CVVH with cross over and with same procedure repeated the following day (double cross over). Timed collections of arterial blood and ultrafiltrate (UF), measurement of blood and UF gases and lactate concentrations and calculation of buffer-base mass balance. At baseline, both groups of patients had a similar, slight metabolic alkalosis (pH: 7.45 vs. 7.45; BE 3.9 mEq/L for treatment A and 4.0 for treatment B) and a serum bicarbonate of 28.1 mmol/L for treatment A vs. 28.3 mmol/L for treatment B; all NS. This alkalosis was present despite slight hyperlactatemia in both groups (A: 2.4 mmol/L vs. B 2.8 mmol/; NS). Within 60 minutes of treatment, however, treatment A led to a significantly higher lactate concentration (3.9 vs 2.5 mmol/L; p = 0.0011), a significantly lower BE (2.3 vs 4.1 mEq/L; p = 0.0019) and a significantly lower bicarbonate concentration (26.7 vs. 28.3 mmol/L; p = 0.0038) in the presence of an unchanged PaCO2. These differences persisted during the study period. The UF of patients receiving treatment A contained more lactate (10.2 vs 2.9 mmol/L; p buffer-base balance of +20.4 mEq/h compared to -2.6 mEq/h for treatment B; p buffered replacement fluids induces iatrogenic hyperlactatemia. Such hyperlactatemia is associated with an acidifying effect despite a positive buffer-base balance.

  9. Impact of Renal Replacement Therapy in Childhood on Long-Term Socioprofessional Outcomes: A 30-year Follow-Up Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjaden, Lidwien A.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Jager, Kitty J.; Groothoff, Jaap W.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate socioprofessional outcomes after 30 years of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and explore predictors of these outcomes. The cohort comprised all Dutch patients, born before 1979, who started RRT at age <15 years in 1972-1992. Outcomes including family life, educational attainment, and

  10. Mortality from infections and malignancies in patients treated with renal replacement therapy: data from the ERA-EDTA registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, Judith L.; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Noordzij, Marlies; Diez, Jose Abad; Carrero, Juan J.; Couchoud, Cecile; Dekker, Friedo W.; Finne, Patrik; Fouque, Denis; Heaf, James G.; Hoitsma, Andries; Leivestad, Torbjørn; de Meester, Johan; Metcalfe, Wendy; Palsson, Runolfur; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Vanholder, Raymond; Wallner, Manfred; Wanner, Christoph; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Jager, Kitty J.

    2015-01-01

    Infections and malignancies are the most common non-cardiovascular causes of death in patients on chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT). Here, we aimed to quantify the mortality risk attributed to infections and malignancies in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients when compared with

  11. Mortality from infections and malignancies in patients treated with renal replacement therapy: data from the ERA-EDTA registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.L.; Stralen, K.J. van; Noordzij, M.; Diez, J.A.; Carrero, J.J.; Couchoud, C.; Dekker, F.W.; Finne, P.; Fouque, D.; Heaf, J.G.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Leivestad, T.; Meester, J. de; Metcalfe, W.; Palsson, R.; Postorino, M.; Ravani, P.; Vanholder, R.; Wallner, M.; Wanner, C.; Groothoff, J.W.; Jager, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections and malignancies are the most common non-cardiovascular causes of death in patients on chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT). Here, we aimed to quantify the mortality risk attributed to infections and malignancies in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients when

  12. A comparison of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Farhat, Maha R; Sajjad, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the impact of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis were used in this study. PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web ...

  13. Timing of renal replacement therapy and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagshaw, Sean M.; Uchino, Shigehiko; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Macedo, Ettiene; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A.; French, Craig; Mulder, John; Pinder, Mary; Roberts, Brigit; Botha, John; Mudholkar, Pradeen; Holt, Andrew; Hunt, Tamara; Honoré, Patrick Maurice; Clerbaux, Gaetan; Schetz, Miet Maria; Wilmer, Alexander; Yu, Luis; Macedo, Ettiene V.; Laranja, Sandra Maria; Rodrigues, Cassio José; Suassuna, José Hermógenes Rocco; Ruzany, Frederico; Campos, Bruno; Leblanc, Martine; Senécal, Lynne; Gibney, R. T. Noel; Johnston, Curtis; Brindley, Peter; Tan, Ian K. S.; Chen, Hui De; Wan, Li; Rokyta, Richard; Krouzecky, Ales; Neumayer, Hans-Helmut; Detlef, Kindgen-Milles; Mueller, Eckhard; Tsiora, Vicky; Sombolos, Kostas; Mustafa, Iqbal; Suranadi, Iwayan; Bar-Lavie, Yaron; Nakhoul, Farid; Ceriani, Roberto; Bortone, Franco; Zamperetti, Nereo; Pappalardo, Federico; Marino, Giovanni; Calabrese, Prospero; Monaco, Francesco; Liverani, Chiara; Clementi, Stefano; Coltrinari, Rosanna; Marini, Benedetto; Fuke, Nobuo; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Kurasako, Toshiaki; Hirasaw, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Tanigawa, Koichi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Oudemans-van Straaten, Helena Maria; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie J. M.; Bugge, Jan Frederik; Riddervold, Fridtjov; Nilsen, Paul Age; Julsrud, Joar; Teixeira e Costa, Fernando; Marcelino, Paulo; Serra, Isabel Maria; Yaroustovsky, Mike; Grigoriyanc, Rachik; Lee, Kang Hoe; Loo, Shi; Singh, Kulgit; Barrachina, Ferran; Llorens, Julio; Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Toral-Vazquez, Darío; Wizelius, Ivar; Hermansson, Dan; Gaspert, Tomislav; Maggiorini, Marco; Davenport, Andrew; Lombardi, Raúl; Llopart, Teresita; Venkataraman, Ramesh; Kellum, John; Murray, Patrick; Trevino, Sharon; Benjamin, Ernest; Hufanda, Jerry; Paganini, Emil; Warnock, David; Guirguis, Nabil

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between timing of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in severe acute kidney injury and clinical outcomes. This was a prospective multicenter observational study conducted at 54 intensive care units (ICUs) in 23 countries enrolling 1238 patients.

  14. Use of Renal Replacement Therapy May Influence Graft Outcomes following Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure: A Propensity-Score Matched Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Stephen R; Oniscu, Gabriel C; Devey, Luke; Simpson, Kenneth J; Wigmore, Stephen J; Harrison, Ewen M

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is associated with a poor prognosis in acute liver failure but little is known of outcomes in patients undergoing transplantation for acute liver failure who require renal replacement therapy. A retrospective analysis of the United Kingdom Transplant Registry was performed (1 January 2001-31 December 2011) with patient and graft survival determined using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were used together with propensity-score based full matching on renal replacement therapy use. Three-year patient and graft survival for patients receiving renal replacement therapy were 77.7% and 72.6% compared with 85.1% and 79.4% for those not requiring renal replacement therapy (Prenal replacement therapy was a predictor of both patient death (hazard ratio (HR) 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.50, P = 0.044) but not graft loss (HR 1.39, 95% CI 0.92-2.10, P = 0.114). In groups fully matched on baseline covariates, those not receiving renal replacement therapy with a serum creatinine greater than 175 μmol/L had a significantly worse risk of graft failure than those receiving renal replacement therapy. In patients being transplanted for acute liver failure, use of renal replacement therapy is a strong predictor of patient death and graft loss. Those not receiving renal replacement therapy with an elevated serum creatinine may be at greater risk of early graft failure than those receiving renal replacement therapy. A low threshold for instituting renal replacement therapy may therefore be beneficial.

  15. Low-flow CO₂ removal integrated into a renal-replacement circuit can reduce acidosis and decrease vasopressor requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Christian; Schriewer, Jens; John, Stefan; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Willam, Carsten

    2013-07-24

    Lung-protective ventilation in patients with ARDS and multiorgan failure, including renal failure, is often paralleled with a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis. We assessed the effectiveness of a hollow-fiber gas exchanger integrated into a conventional renal-replacement circuit on CO₂ removal, acidosis, and hemodynamics. In ten ventilated critically ill patients with ARDS and AKI undergoing renal- and respiratory-replacement therapy, effects of low-flow CO₂ removal on respiratory acidosis compensation were tested by using a hollow-fiber gas exchanger added to the renal-replacement circuit. This was an observational study on safety, CO₂-removal capacity, effects on pH, ventilator settings, and hemodynamics. CO₂ elimination in the low-flow circuit was safe and was well tolerated by all patients. After 4 hours of treatment, a mean reduction of 17.3 mm Hg (-28.1%) pCO₂ was observed, in line with an increase in pH. In hemodynamically instable patients, low-flow CO₂ elimination was paralleled by hemodynamic improvement, with an average reduction of vasopressors of 65% in five of six catecholamine-dependent patients during the first 24 hours. Because no further catheters are needed, besides those for renal replacement, the implementation of a hollow-fiber gas exchanger in a renal circuit could be an attractive therapeutic tool with only a little additional trauma for patients with mild to moderate ARDS undergoing invasive ventilation with concomitant respiratory acidosis, as long as no severe oxygenation defects indicate ECMO therapy.

  16. Timing of renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery: a retrospective multicenter Spanish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Nuria; Pérez-Valdivieso, José Ramón; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Vives, Marc; Lavilla, Javier; Herreros, Jesús; Monedero, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The optimal time to initiate renal replacement therapy (RRT) in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is unknown. Evidence suggests that the early use of RRT in critically ill patients is associated with improved outcomes. We studied the effects of time to initiation of RRT on outcome in patients with CSA-AKI. This was a retrospective observational multicenter study (24 Spanish hospitals). We analyzed data on 203 patients who required RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007. The cohort was divided into 2 groups based on the time at which RRT was initiated: in the early RRT group, therapy was initiated within the first 3 days after cardiac surgery; in the late group, RRT was begun after the 3rd day. Multivariate nonconditional logistic and linear regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the late RRT group compared with early RRT patients (80.4 vs. 53.2%; p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio of 4.1, 95% CI: 1.6-10.0). Also, patients in the late RRT group had longer adjusted hospital stays by 11.6 days (95% CI: 1.4-21.9) and higher adjusted percentage increases in creatinine at discharge compared with baseline by 67.7% (95% CI: 28.5-106.4). Patients who undergo early initiation of RRT after CSA-AKI have improved survival rates and renal function at discharge and decreased lengths of hospital stay. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effects of Estrogen Replacement Therapy to the Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women

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    Setenay Arzu Yılmaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To asses the effect of estrogen replacement therapy to the renal functions in postmenopausal women following the surgery. Design: This is prospestive randomised cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Gazi University School Of Medicine Obstetrics and Gynecology Department between October 2000 through July 2001 Patients: Fifty-eight patients who had been undergone total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy due to benign gynecologic disorders were enrolled in this present study. Interventions: Breast and pelvic examination had been before operation. Cervical smear, blood glucose, lipid profile, liver and renal functional tests, complete blood count and urine analysis revelaed. Mammography and pelvic ultrasonography applied to all patients. Main outcome measures: Body mass index (BMI has been measured with patient’s weight (kg and heights by the formula ‘weight(kg /height (m2. Obese patients defined as boy mass index over 30. The patients who can use ERT randomised as two groups. Group I received transdermal estrogen (Climara TTS or oral conjugated estrogen (Premarin 0,625 mg, group II did not. Microalbuminuria, creatinine clearance in 24 hour urine specimen were compared preoperatively and postoperative 1st and 6 th months respectively. Results: At the end of six month of observation in the group who were in surgical menopause and given ERT, statistically significant decline in microalbuminuria was observed. However, in the group who were in surgically menopause and did not receive ERT, level of microalbuminuria did not change significantly. In the group who were oopherectomised following naturel menopause, microalbuminuria level changed clinically after ERT but was not stastistically significant. Whereas in the group who were not given ERT, decline in the level of microalbuminuria was seen and this finding is stastistically significant (p<0,05. Conclusion: We concluded that ERT is protective on

  18. Psychosocial issues and quality of life in patients on renal replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulou, Alkioni; Hardalias, Andreas; Fourtounas, Costas; Berati, Stavroula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate psychosocial variables related to objective and subjective indicators of quality of life in a single center cohort study of patients undergoing in-center hemodialysis (Hd), Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and renal transplant recipients (RTx). We studied 40 HD patients, 36 CAPD, and 48 RTx patients by a special questionnaire examining demographics, functional status, employment status, and impact of therapy on psychosocial issues such as anxiety and depression. The RTx patients disclosed a better functional and employment status than the CAPD and the HD patients. They were also more compliant and satisfied with their therapy and their relationship with the medical and nursing personnel. The CAPD patients were also more satisfied, more compliant, better motivated, and less anxious and depressed compared with the HD patients who scored low in every aspect studied. Successful renal transplantation is a superior modality of therapy than HD or CAPD regarding psychosocial and quality of life issues. However these results can partially be explained by some selection bias, as RTx patients are usually younger and CAPD patients are selected for this modality after examining functional and social status. (author)

  19. Blood loss associated with Ring uncemented total knee replacement: comparison between continuous and intermittent suction drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, F W; Ring, P A

    1984-01-01

    In a retrospective comparison of blood loss following uncemented total knee replacement, in which either continuous or intermittent suction drainage was used, measured blood loss was significantly greater with continuous drainage. However, a method of calculating actual blood loss demonstrated no significant difference. With intermittent drainage, more blood remains undetected around the knee joint; this technique should therefore be abandoned in favour of continuous suction drainage. PMID:6747978

  20. Effects of early changes in organ dysfunctions on the outcomes of critically ill patients in need of renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maccariello

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury usually develops in critically ill patients in the context of multiple organ dysfunctions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of changes in associated organ dysfunctions over the first three days of renal replacement therapy on the outcomes of patients with acute kidney injury. METHODS: Over a 19-month period, we evaluated 260 patients admitted to the intensive care units of three tertiary-care hospitals who required renal replacement therapy for > 48 h. Organ dysfunctions were evaluated by SOFA score (excluding renal points on the first (D1 and third (D3 days of renal replacement therapy. Absolute (A-SOFA and relative (D-SOFA changes in SOFA scores were also calculated. RESULTS: Hospital mortality rate was 75%. Organ dysfunctions worsened (A-SOFA>0 in 53%, remained unchanged (A-SOFA=0 in 17% and improved (A-SOFA<0 in 30% of patients; and mortality was lower in the last group (80% vs. 84% vs. 61%, p=0.003. SOFA on D1 (p<0.001, SOFA on D3 (p<0.001, A-SOFA (p=0.019 and D-SOFA (p=0.016 were higher in non-survivors. However, neither A-SOFA nor D-SOFA discriminated survivors from non-survivors on an individual basis. Adjusting for other covariates (including SOFA on D1, A-SOFA and D-SOFA were associated with increased mortality, and patients in whom SOFA scores worsened or remained unchanged had poorer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to baseline values, early changes in SOFA score after the start of renal replacement therapy were associated with hospital mortality. However, no prognostic score should be used as the only parameter to predict individual outcomes.

  1. Comparison of survival analysis and palliative care involvement in patients aged over 70 years choosing conservative management or renal replacement therapy in advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Jamilla A; Mooney, Andrew; Russon, Lynne

    2013-10-01

    There are limited data on the outcomes of elderly patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing renal replacement therapy or conservative management. We aimed to compare survival, hospital admissions and palliative care access of patients aged over 70 years with chronic kidney disease stage 5 according to whether they chose renal replacement therapy or conservative management. Retrospective observational study. Patients aged over 70 years attending pre-dialysis clinic. In total, 172 patients chose conservative management and 269 chose renal replacement therapy. The renal replacement therapy group survived for longer when survival was taken from the time estimated glomerular filtration rate management, in patients older than 80 years or with a World Health Organization performance score of 3 or more. There was also a significant reduction in the effect of renal replacement therapy on survival in patients with high Charlson's Comorbidity Index scores. The relative risk of an acute hospital admission (renal replacement therapy vs conservative management) was 1.6 (p management patients died in hospital, compared to 69% undergoing renal replacement therapy (Renal Registry data). Seventy-six percent of the conservative management group accessed community palliative care services compared to 0% of renal replacement therapy patients. For patients aged over 80 years, with a poor performance status or high co-morbidity scores, the survival advantage of renal replacement therapy over conservative management was lost at all levels of disease severity. Those accessing a conservative management pathway had greater access to palliative care services and were less likely to be admitted to or die in hospital.

  2. Development and application of novelty pretreatment method for the concurrent quantitation of eleven water-soluble B vitamins in ultrafiltrates after renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkus, Dorota; Jakubus, Aleksandra; Owczuk, Radosław; Stepnowski, Piotr; Paszkiewicz, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Continous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is particularly recommended for septic shock patients in intensive care units. The CRRT technique used most frequently is high volume continuous veno-venous haemofiltration. It provides a high rate of clearance of uremic toxins and inflammatory cytokines. However, it should also be taken into account that substances important for homeostasis may be concurrently unintentionally removed. Accordingly, water-soluble vitamins can be removed during continuous renal replacement therapy, and the estimate of the loss is critical to ensure appropriate supplementation. The aim of this work was to develop a simple methodology for a purification step prior to the LC-MS/MS determination of water-soluble vitamins in ultrafiltrate samples. For this purpose, two types of resin and a mix of resins were used as sorbents for the purification step. Moreover, parameters such as the amount of resin and the extraction time were optimized. The LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for final determination of 11 vitamins. The results demonstrated the high purification capability of DEAE Sephadex resin with recoveries between 65 and 101% for water-soluble vitamins from ultrafiltrate samples. An optimized method was applied to assess the loss of B-group vitamins in patients after 24h of renal replacement therapy. The loss of vitamins B2, B6 pyridoxamine, B6 pyridoxal, B7, B1, and B5 in ultrafiltrates was similar in all patients. In the native ultrafiltrates, vitamins B6 pyridoxine, B9 and B12 were not detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Is there a risk of permanent renal dysfunction after primary total hip and knee joint replacements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Basim Kamil; Dessau, Ram Benny; Sahlström, Arne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Permanent renal dysfunction is considered as being a serious complication which may occur after major surgery and which furthermore may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of long-term postoperative renal dysfunction after...... permanent renal dysfunction up to 1 year after the index surgery....

  4. Circadian variation of blood pressure in patients with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Ladefoged, Jens

    1995-01-01

    The circadian pattern of blood pressure variation was investigated in 10 patients with advanced chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and in an age-matched group of controls without renal disease with similar office blood pressure level. Monitoring was done using....... In patients with chronic renal failure undergoing CAPD, an otherwise unnoticed 24-h hypertension and nocturnal blood pressure elevation can be discovered by use of 24-h blood pressure monitoring and this may indicate a need of earlier start of antihypertensive treatment in CAPD patients with borderline...

  5. Cisplatin-Induced Renal Salt Wasting Requiring over 12 Liters of 3% Saline Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong-Chi Pham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is known to induce Fanconi syndrome and renal salt wasting (RSW. RSW typically only requires transient normal saline (NS support. We report a severe RSW case that required 12 liters of 3% saline. A 57-year-old woman with limited stage small cell cancer was admitted for cisplatin (80 mg/m2 and etoposide (100 mg/m2 therapy. Patient’s serum sodium (SNa decreased from 138 to 133 and 125 mEq/L within 24 and 48 hours of cisplatin therapy, respectively. A diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH was initially made. Despite free water restriction, patient’s SNa continued to decrease in association with acute onset of headaches, nausea, and dizziness. Three percent saline (3%S infusion with rates up to 1400 mL/day was required to correct and maintain SNa at 135 mEq/L. Studies to evaluate Fanconi syndrome revealed hypophosphatemia and glucosuria in the absence of serum hyperglycemia. The natriuresis slowed down by 2.5 weeks, but 3%S support was continued for a total volume of 12 liters over 3.5 weeks. Attempts of questionable benefits to slow down glomerular filtration included the administration of ibuprofen and benazepril. To our knowledge, this is the most severe case of RSW ever reported with cisplatin.

  6. Management of hypercalcaemic crisis in adults: Current role of renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentata, Yassamine; El Maghraoui, H; Benabdelhak, M; Haddiya, I

    2018-06-01

    Neoplasms and hematologic diseases are the predominant etiologies of hypercalcemic crisis in adults and the immediate treatment is mainly medical and symptomatic. The use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is often necessary to correct the hypercalcemia, uremia and electrolyte disturbances related to Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). The aim of this work was to determine the etiologies and the place of RRT in treating patients with hypercalcaemic crisis. We conducted a retrospective study for 36months at the Nephrology Unit, University Hospital, Oujda, eastern of Morocco. We included all adult patients diagnosed with hypercalcemic crisis that was defined as corrected total serum calcium of >3.5mmol/l. 12 patients were collected. All patients were female and 5 patients were elderly (≥65years). Three patients had a serum calcium value of >4mmol/l and the highest calcium value was 5.8mmol/l. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were observed in 8 cases. AKI was observed in 8 cases. Three patients had chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Neoplasm was noted in 9 cases. All patients received venous rehydration, glucocorticoids and biphosphonates. The use of RRT with low calcium dialysate was performed in 11 cases. Three patients died during the first 24h of hospitalization. RRT must play its full role as first line treatment of hypercalcemia crisis. Improvements in hemodialysis techniques and the use of low calcium or calcium-free dialysates currently allows this therapeutic measure to be prescribed safely, and the benefit-risk balance is positive for the great benefit provided by dialysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Renal replacement therapy for diabetic end-stage renal disease: Data from 10 registries in Europe (1991-2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Paul C. W.; Jager, Kitty J.; Stengel, Bénédicte; Grönhagen-Riska, Carola; Feest, Terry G.; Briggs, J. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Background. There is concern about the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and of the resultant nephropathy. This study uses data from the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry to provide information on the epidemiology and outcome of

  8. Application of model of incremental haemodialysis, based on residual renal function, at the initiation of renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Merino

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Incremental HD treatment, with twice-weekly HD, may be an alternative in selected patients. This approach can largely preserve residual renal function at least for the first year. Although this pattern probably is not applicable to all patients starting RRT, it can and should be an initial alternative to consider.

  9. Outcomes of renal replacement therapy in boys with prune belly syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As outcome data for prune belly syndrome (PBS) complicated by end-stage renal disease are scarce, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of children with PBS using the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association...

  10. Outcomes of renal replacement therapy in boys with prune belly syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As outcome data for prune belly syndrome (PBS) complicated by end-stage renal disease are scarce, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of children with PBS using the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (...

  11. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  12. Analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Tan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement. Methods: Patients who received unilateral total knee replacement in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were included for study and randomly divided into experimental group who received continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia and control group who received continuous femoral nerve block, and then the contents of postoperative serum pain-promoting-related mediators, painsuppressing-related mediators and pain-related signal molecules were detected. Results: Serum CGRP, PS, Hist, 5-HT, AM and BK contents of experimental group were significantly lower than those of control group, AEA, β-EP, RvE1, LXA4 and LXB4 contents were significantly higher than those of control group, and P2X2, P2X7, P2X3, P2X4, P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y 13, P2Y14, p38MAPK and PI3K contents were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusions: Continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement can increase the generation of pain-suppressing mediators, decrease the generation of pain-promoting mediators and achieve more exact analgesic effect.

  13. Association of blood pressure with decline in renal function and time until the start of renal replacement therapy in pre-dialysis patients: a cohort study

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    Sijpkens Yvo WJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether high blood pressure accelerates renal function decline in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD, we studied the association of systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP with decline in renal function and time until the start of renal replacement therapy (RRT in patients with CKD stages IV-V on pre-dialysis care. Methods In the PREPARE-1 cohort 547 incident pre-dialysis patients, referred as part of the usual care to outpatient clinics of eight Dutch hospitals, were included between 1999 and 2001 and followed until the start of RRT, mortality, or end of follow-up (January 1st 2008. Main outcomes were rate of decline in renal function, estimated as the slope of available eGFR measurements, and time until the start of RRT. Results A total of 508 patients, 57% men and median (IQR age of 63 (50-73 years, were available for analyses. Mean (SD decline in renal function was 0.35 (0.75 ml/min/1.73 m2/month. Every 10 mmHg increase in SBP or DBP resulted in an accelerated decline in renal function (adjusted additional decline 0.04 (0.02;0.07 and 0.05 (0.00;0.11 ml/min/1.73 m2/month respectively and an earlier start of RRT (adjusted HR 1.09 (1.04;1.14 and 1.16 (1.05;1.28 respectively. Furthermore, patients with SBP and DBP above the BP target goal of 2/month and an earlier start of RRT (adjusted HR 2.08 (1.25;3.44, compared to patients who achieved the target goal (11%. Comparing the decline in renal function and risk of starting RRT between patients with only SBP above the target (≥ 130 mmHg and patients with both SBP and DBP below the target (2/month and adjusted HR 2.24 (1.26;3.97. Therefore, it seems that especially having SBP above the target is harmful. Conclusions In pre-dialysis patients with CKD stages IV-V, having blood pressure (especially SBP above the target goal for CKD patients (

  14. The Concordance between Patients' Renal Replacement Therapy Choice and Definitive Modality: Is It a Utopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Velasco, Mario; Quiros, Pedro; Remon, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    It is desirable for patients to play active roles in the choice of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Patient decision aid tools (PDAs) have been developed to allow the patients to choose the option best suited to their individual needs. An observational, prospective registry was conducted in 26 Spanish hospitals between September 2010 and May 2012. The results of the patients' choice and the definitive RRT modality were registered through the progressive implementation of an Education Process (EP) with PDAs designed to help Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients choose RRT. Patients included in this study: 1044. Of these, 569 patients used PDAs and had made a definitive choice by the end of registration. A total of 88.4% of patients chose dialysis [43% hemodialysis (HD) and 45% peritoneal dialysis (PD)] 3.2% preemptive living-donor transplant (TX), and 8.4% conservative treatment (CT). A total of 399 patients began RRT during this period. The distribution was 93.4% dialysis (53.6% HD; 40% PD), 1.3% preemptive TX and 5.3% CT. The patients who followed the EP changed their mind significantly less often [kappa value of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.86-0.95)] than those who did not follow it, despite starting unplanned treatment [kappa value of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75-0.95]. A higher agreement between the final choice and a definitive treatment was achieved by the EP and planned patients [kappa value of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89-0.98)]. Those who did not go through the EP had a much lower index of choosing PD and changed their decision more frequently when starting definitive treatment [kappa value of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.55-0.91)]. Free choice, assisted by PDAs, leads to a 50/50 distribution of PD and HD choice and an increase in TX choice. The use of PDAs, even with an unplanned start, achieved a high level of concordance between the chosen and definitive modality.

  15. Optimal timing of renal replacement therapy initiation in acute kidney injury: the elephant felt by the blindmen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Chih-Chung; Huang, Tao-Min; Spapen, Herbert D; Honore, Patrick M; Wu, Vin-Cent

    2017-06-20

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a key component in the management of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. Many cohort studies, meta-analyses, and two recent large randomized prospective trials which evaluated the relationship between the timing of RRT initiation and patient outcome remain inconclusive due to substantial differences in study design, patient population, AKI definition, and RRT indication. A cause-specific diagnosis of AKI based on current staging criteria plus a sensitive biomarker (panel) that allows creating a homogeneous study population is definitely needed to assess the impact of early versus late initiation of RRT on patient outcome.

  16. Mortality from infections and malignancies in patients treated with renal replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelzang, Judith L; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Noordzij, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    .9 times higher in dialysis patients and 1.7 times higher in transplant recipients than in the general population. Cancer and multisystem disease as primary causes of end-stage renal disease were associated with higher mortality from malignancies. CONCLUSION: Infection-related mortality is highly increased...

  17. Can duplex Doppler ultrasound replace computerized tomography in staging patients with renal cell carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, SD; Mensink, HJA

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of duplex Doppler ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT) in staging patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Sixty-six patients were evaluated pre-operatively with duplex Doppler ultrasound and CT. The results were

  18. Outcomes of renal replacement therapy in boys with prune belly syndrome: findings from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Baiko, Sergey; Chehade, Hassib; Maxwell, Heather; Montini, Giovanni; Rönnholm, Kai; Sørensen, Søren Schwartz; Ulinski, Tim; Verrina, Enrico; Weber, Stefanie; Harambat, Jérôme; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J; Groothoff, Jaap W

    2018-01-01

    As outcome data for prune belly syndrome (PBS) complicated by end-stage renal disease are scarce, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of children with PBS using the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry data. Data were available for 88 male PBS patients aged <20 years who started renal replacement therapy (RRT) between 1990 and 2013 in 35 European countries. Patient characteristics, survival, and transplantation outcomes were compared with those of male patients requiring RRT due to congenital obstructive uropathy (COU) and renal hypoplasia or dysplasia (RHD). Median age at onset of RRT in PBS was lower [7.0; interquartile range (IQR) 0.9-12.2 years] than in COU (9.6; IQR: 3.0-14.1 years) and RHD (9.4; IQR: 2.7-14.2 years). Unadjusted 10-year patient survival was 85% for PBS, 94% for COU, and 91% for RHD. After adjustment for country, period, and age, PBS mortality was similar to that of RHD but higher compared with COU [hazard ratio (HR) 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-3.74]. Seventy-four PBS patients (84%) received a first kidney transplant after a median time on dialysis of 8.4 (IQR 0.0-21.1) months. Outcomes with respect to time on dialysis before transplantation, chance of receiving a first transplant within 2 years after commencing RRT, and death-censored, adjusted risk of graft loss were similar for all groups. This study in the largest cohort of male patients with PBS receiving RRT to date demonstrates that outcomes are comparable with other congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, except for a slightly higher mortality risk compared with patients with COU.

  19. Testing a Theoretical Model Predicting Uncertainty and Depression in Patients Undergoing Renal Replacement Therapy in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeyoung Lee, PhD, APRN

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: The effectiveness of social support in relieving experiences of uncertainty and consequently depression was shown in this study. Moreover, depression in this population could be predicted by direct social support, economic status, and frequency of admission. The study was needed to investigate the relationship between depression and experiences of uncertainty with time covariates, as well as to find the factors that influence depression in patients with chronic renal failure.

  20. The analgesic efficacy of continuous transversus abdominis plane block in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Kandarp Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for operations where parietal pain is a major cause of pain. Renal transplant recipients are ideally suited to gain maximum benefit from TAP block as the incision classically involves the lower abdomen. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of continuous TAP block in transplant recipients. Material and Methods: In a prospective double-blind study, 40 chronic renal failure patients undergoing open renal transplant were randomly divided into two groups. At the end of surgery during closure, a multiorifice epidural catheter was placed in TAP plane. Study group (Group S received Inj bupivacaine bolus 1 mg/kg (0.25% followed by infusion 0.25 mg/kg (0.125% through the catheter, whereas control group (Group C received normal saline through the catheter. Inj pentazocine (0.3 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analogue score (VAS > 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS, time of first rescue analgesic, and total analgesic consumption in 24 h. Results: Patients in Group S had significant lower VAS scores, longer time to first rescue analgesic (270 ± 347.96 vs. 42.85 ± 32.27 min and lower pentazocine consumption (9.75 ± 13.95 vs. 56.42 ± 12.46 mg in 24 h. There was significant sedation in Group C. Conclusion: The TAP catheter technique for postoperative pain control after renal transplant has proved to be effective in relieving the postoperative pain after renal transplant with less pentazocine requirement and less sedation.

  1. Renal Replacement Therapy: Purifying Efficiency of Automated Peritoneal Dialysis in Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Patients

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    Nicanor Vega-Diaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD, a minimal level of small-solute clearances as well as a sodium and water balance are needed. The peritoneal dialysis solutions used in combination have reduced the complications and allow for a long-time function of the peritoneal membrane, and the preservation of residual renal function (RRF in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD is crucial for the maintenance of life quality and long-term survival. This retrospective cohort study reviews our experience in automatic peritoneal dialysis (APD patients, with end-stage renal disease (ESRD secondary to diabetic nephropathy (DN in comparison to non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN, using different PD solutions in combination. Design: Fifty-two patients, 29 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic, were included. The follow-up period was 24 months, thus serving as their own control. Results: The fraction of renal urea clearance (Kt relative to distribution volume (V (or total body water (Kt/V, or creatinine clearance relative to the total Kt/V or creatinine clearance (CrCl decreases according to loss of RRF. The loss of the slope of RRF is more pronounced in DN than in NDN patients, especially at baseline time interval to 12 months (loss of 0.29 mL/month vs. 0.13 mL/month, respectively, and is attenuated in the range from 12 to 24 months (loss of 0.13 mL/month vs. 0.09 mL/month, respectively. Diabetic patients also experienced a greater decrease in urine output compared to non-diabetic, starting from a higher baseline urine output. The net water balance was adequate in both groups during the follow up period. Regarding the balance sodium, no inter-group differences in sodium excretion over follow up period was observed. In addition, the removal of sodium in the urine output decreases with loss of renal function. The average concentration of glucose increase in the cycler in both groups (DN: baseline 1.44 ± 0

  2. Association of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With 30-Day Renal Function and 1-Year Outcomes Among Patients Presenting With Compromised Baseline Renal Function: Experience From the PARTNER 1 Trial and Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beohar, Nirat; Doshi, Darshan; Thourani, Vinod; Jensen, Hanna; Kodali, Susheel; Zhang, Feifan; Zhang, Yiran; Davidson, Charles; McCarthy, Patrick; Mack, Michael; Kapadia, Samir; Leon, Martin; Kirtane, Ajay

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of baseline renal impairment among high-risk and inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and the effect of TAVR on subsequent renal function are, to our knowledge, unknown. To determine the effect of TAVR among patients with baseline renal impairment. This substudy of patients with baseline renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 mL/min) and paired baseline and 30-day measures of renal function undergoing TAVR in the PARTNER 1 trial and continued access registries was conducted in 25 centers in the United States and Canada. Patients were categorized with improved eGFR (30-day follow-up eGFR≥10% higher than baseline pre-TAVR), worsened eGFR (≥10% lower), or no change in renal function (neither). Baseline characteristics, 30-day to 1-year all-cause mortality, and repeat hospitalization were compared. Multivariable models were constructed to identify predictors of 1-year mortality and of improvement/worsening in eGFR. Of the 821 participants, 401 (48.8%) were women and the mean (SD) age for participants with improved, unchanged, or worsening eGFR was 84.90 (6.91) years, 84.37 (7.13) years, and 85.39 (6.40) years, respectively. The eGFR was 60 mL/min or lower among 821 patients (72%), of whom 345 (42%) improved, 196 (24%) worsened, and 280 (34%) had no change at 30 days. There were no differences in baseline age, body mass index, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, renal or liver disease, New York Heart Association III/IV symptoms, transaortic gradient, left ventricular ejection fraction, or procedural characteristics. The group with improved eGFR had more women, nonsmokers, and a lower cardiac index. Those with worsening eGFR had a higher median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score and left ventricle mass. From 30 days to 1 year, those with improved e

  3. Can selective pharmaco-angiography of renal tumor replace the examination under surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, C.H.; Bach, D.; Koop, H.; Impekoven, P.

    1996-01-01

    Can primary nephrectomy be performed without preliminary sample excision of the tumor if pharmaco-angiography of the kidney has demonstrated the typical tumor vascularization? To clarify this question in 32 patients with 'displacing mass' of the kidney, verified in sonography and computer-tomography, or hematuria of unknown origin, we prospectively performed an additional pharmaco-angiography of the respective kidney. In 18 patients with tumor vascularization in the pharmaco-angiography, intraoperatively we found 15 malignant renal cell carcinomas, 1 patient with transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis, 1 leiomyosarcoma, and 1 high-differentiated tumor of only 2 cm in diameter with unclear dignity, which was treated by enucleation. In cases of an intrarenal lesion of more than 3 cm in diameter and additional tumor vascularization seen in selective pharmaco-angiography, the kidney undoubtedly can be removed by primary nephrectomy without a preliminary sample excision to confirm the diagnosis. For tumors with a diameter of less than 3 cm and additional tumor-vascularization, the option should be enucleation. If there is a 'tumor' without typical malignant vascularization, the exploration by sample excision should be performed. Depending on the histological result the tumor should be removed by enucleation or nephrectomy. (orig.) [de

  4. Impact of Renal Replacement Therapy in Childhood on Long-Term Socioprofessional Outcomes: A 30-year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Lidwien A; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Jager, Kitty J; Groothoff, Jaap W

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate socioprofessional outcomes after 30 years of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and explore predictors of these outcomes. The cohort comprised all Dutch patients, born before 1979, who started RRT at age regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of socioprofessional outcomes. Mean age and time on RRT in 2010 were 40.6 years (range 32.1-52.4) and 28.9 years (range 18.1-39.7), respectively. Patients were less likely to be employed (62.5% vs 81.0%) and have children (28.8% vs 64.8%) compared with the age-matched general population. Comorbidities, dialysis, short stature, and fewer milestones on autonomy were associated with adverse outcomes. Compared with 2000, in 2010 more patients lived with a partner (68.8% vs 43.0%), and more patients had completed a high level educational degree (22.5% vs 13.9%). However, more patients were unable to work on medical grounds in 2010 (36.3% vs 16.3%). Survivors of pediatric end-stage renal disease may gain social autonomy and optimal educational attainment at an older age compared with their general population counterparts. Awareness among health care professionals of the potential of these children and tailored psychosocial interventions might improve socioprofessional development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Type of Referral, Dialysis Start and Choice of Renal Replacement Therapy Modality in an International Integrated Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrón, Belén; Ostrowski, Janusz; Török, Marietta; Timofte, Delia; Orosz, Attila; Kosicki, Andrzej; Całka, Alicja; Moro, Daniela; Kosa, Dezider; Redl, Jenö; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Divino-Filho, Jose Carolino

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Care Settings (ICS) provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT), offering at least both types of dialysis. To analyze which factors determine type of referral, modality provision and dialysis start on final RRT in ICS clinics. Retrospective analysis of 626 patients starting dialysis in 25 ICS clinics in Poland, Hungary and Romania during 2012. Scheduled initiation of dialysis with a permanent access was considered as planned RRT start. Modality information (80% of patients) and renal education (87%) were more frequent (pregression analysis, P start (p≤0.05) was associated with early referral, eGFR >8.2 ml/min, >2 months between information and RRT initiation and with vascular etiology after adjustment for age and gender. "Optimal care," defined as ICS follow-up >12 months plus modality information and P start, occurred in 23%. Despite the high rate of late referrals, information and education were widely provided. However, NP start was high and related to late referral and may explain the low frequency of PD.

  6. Type of Referral, Dialysis Start and Choice of Renal Replacement Therapy Modality in an International Integrated Care Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Marrón

    Full Text Available Integrated Care Settings (ICS provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT, offering at least both types of dialysis.To analyze which factors determine type of referral, modality provision and dialysis start on final RRT in ICS clinics.Retrospective analysis of 626 patients starting dialysis in 25 ICS clinics in Poland, Hungary and Romania during 2012. Scheduled initiation of dialysis with a permanent access was considered as planned RRT start.Modality information (80% of patients and renal education (87% were more frequent (p8.2 ml/min, >2 months between information and RRT initiation and with vascular etiology after adjustment for age and gender. "Optimal care," defined as ICS follow-up >12 months plus modality information and P start, occurred in 23%.Despite the high rate of late referrals, information and education were widely provided. However, NP start was high and related to late referral and may explain the low frequency of PD.

  7. Mammographic changes in postmenopausal women : comparative effects between continuous combined hormone and single estrogen replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sug; Choi, Jong Tae; Jung, Kyoon Soon; Jung, Seung Hye [Jeil Women' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    As the use of hormone replacement therapy for the menopausal women increases, some caution is advised, since there is an increased risk of breast cancer. Accordingly, the importance of regular mammography has been addressed. This cross-setional study analyzed the effects of different hormone therapies on mammographic density. Sixty-seven postemenopausal women who had completed one year of hormone therapy and had undergone follow-up mammography, were divided into two groups : Group I : continuous conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625mg, plus continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5mg (n=48), Group II : continuous conjugated equine estrogen 0.625mg (n=19). The mammograms were read by two radiologists. With regard to the radiologists involved, interobserver reliabillity (kappa) was 0.70 and intraobserver reliability (kappa) was 0.51 and 0.67. Before hormone therapy, factors related to decreased mammographic density were age and number of full term pregnancies (p<0.05). After one year of hormone therapy, body fat showed a significant increase (p<0.05), but in spite of this, increased mammographic density induced by hormone therapy remained significantly high (p<0.05). Compared with Group II, Group I showed a significant increase in mammographic density (p<0.05). In Group I, mammographic density increased from P2 to DY pattern in two cases, but there was no such change in Group II. The increase of mammographic density seen in Group II was much more significant statistically than that seen in Group I. The mammograms of women who have undergone continuous combined hormone therapy should therefore be interpreted very cautiously.

  8. Mammographic changes in postmenopausal women : comparative effects between continuous combined hormone and single estrogen replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sug; Choi, Jong Tae; Jung, Kyoon Soon; Jung, Seung Hye

    1997-01-01

    As the use of hormone replacement therapy for the menopausal women increases, some caution is advised, since there is an increased risk of breast cancer. Accordingly, the importance of regular mammography has been addressed. This cross-setional study analyzed the effects of different hormone therapies on mammographic density. Sixty-seven postemenopausal women who had completed one year of hormone therapy and had undergone follow-up mammography, were divided into two groups : Group I : continuous conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625mg, plus continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5mg (n=48), Group II : continuous conjugated equine estrogen 0.625mg (n=19). The mammograms were read by two radiologists. With regard to the radiologists involved, interobserver reliabillity (kappa) was 0.70 and intraobserver reliability (kappa) was 0.51 and 0.67. Before hormone therapy, factors related to decreased mammographic density were age and number of full term pregnancies (p<0.05). After one year of hormone therapy, body fat showed a significant increase (p<0.05), but in spite of this, increased mammographic density induced by hormone therapy remained significantly high (p<0.05). Compared with Group II, Group I showed a significant increase in mammographic density (p<0.05). In Group I, mammographic density increased from P2 to DY pattern in two cases, but there was no such change in Group II. The increase of mammographic density seen in Group II was much more significant statistically than that seen in Group I. The mammograms of women who have undergone continuous combined hormone therapy should therefore be interpreted very cautiously

  9. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of

  10. Scintigraphic diagnosis of infectious complications in renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or renal transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María García Vicente

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with end-stage renal disease have two therapeutic options, dialysis and renal transplantation. Infectious complications occurring in such patients will not only condition the effectiveness of such treatments, but are among the main causes of morbidity and mortality in such cases. Knowledge of the advantages and limitations of nuclear techniques is essential for management of these conditions.Pacientes em estágio final de doença renal têm duas opções terapêuticas, diálise e transplante renal. Complicações infecciosas que ocorrem em cada paciente são as principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade nestes casos. Conhecimentos das vantagens e limitações de técnicas nucleares são essenciais para o acompanhamento nestas condições.

  11. Mortality from infections and malignancies in patients treated with renal replacement therapy: data from the ERA-EDTA registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzang, Judith L; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Noordzij, Marlies; Diez, Jose Abad; Carrero, Juan J; Couchoud, Cecile; Dekker, Friedo W; Finne, Patrik; Fouque, Denis; Heaf, James G; Hoitsma, Andries; Leivestad, Torbjørn; de Meester, Johan; Metcalfe, Wendy; Palsson, Runolfur; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Vanholder, Raymond; Wallner, Manfred; Wanner, Christoph; Groothoff, Jaap W; Jager, Kitty J

    2015-06-01

    Infections and malignancies are the most common non-cardiovascular causes of death in patients on chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT). Here, we aimed to quantify the mortality risk attributed to infections and malignancies in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients when compared with the general population by age group and sex. We followed 168 156 patients included in the ERA-EDTA registry who started RRT in 1993-2007 until 1 January 2012. Age- and cause-specific mortality rates per 1000 person-years (py) and mortality rate ratios (MRRs) compared with the European general population (WHO) were calculated. To identify risk factors, we used Cox regression. Infection-related mortality was increased 82-fold in dialysis patients and 32-fold in transplant recipients compared with the general population. Female sex, diabetes, cancer and multisystem disease were associated with an increased risk of infection-related mortality. The sex difference was most pronounced for dialysis patients aged 0-39 years, with women having a 32% (adjusted HR 1.32 95% CI 1.09-1.60) higher risk of infection-related mortality than men. Mortality from malignancies was 2.9 times higher in dialysis patients and 1.7 times higher in transplant recipients than in the general population. Cancer and multisystem disease as primary causes of end-stage renal disease were associated with higher mortality from malignancies. Infection-related mortality is highly increased in dialysis and kidney transplant patients, while the risk of malignancy-related death is moderately increased. Young women on dialysis may deserve special attention because of their high excess risk of infection-related mortality. Further research into the mechanisms, prevention and optimal treatment of infections in this vulnerable population is required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Fernandez Nuria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI. Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery.

  13. Is the Rise in the Prevalence of Renal Replacement Therapy at Older Ages the Price for Living Longer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Peters

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRenal replacement therapy (RRT is one of the most expensive in renal medicine. Cross-sectional studies suggest that life expectancy increases in the general population are associated with a higher burden of RRT. This study tests this hypothesis in a prospective setting among people aged 75+ living in Western Europe.MethodsWe gathered sex-specific data for 11 Western European countries in 2005–2014. RRT prevalence on country level was extracted from the ERA-EDTA registry, while data on population size and life expectancy for the 75+ age group came from the Eurostat database. GDP per capita was extracted from the OECD database. To measure the association between RRT prevalence and life expectancy, we performed Poisson regression models separately for each country and for all countries combined. To adjust for confounding, GDP per capita as well as time and country-fixed effects were included.ResultsOur analysis revealed that living longer coincides with rising RRT prevalence at ages 75+ in Western Europe between 2005 and 2014. On average, a 1-year increase in life expectancy was associated with a roughly 20% increase in RRT prevalence [(95% CI 21–23% in men and 19–22% in women]. However, after adjustments for confounding were made, the association became insignificant among women and became weaker among men, falling to a level of 11% [(95% CI 6–17%].ConclusionLiving longer was not necessarily associated with a higher burden of RRT in Western European countries.

  14. Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome Associated with Interrupted Left Inferior Vena Cava with Azygos Continuation and Retroaortic Right Renal Vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xiao Li; Zhou, Xiao Dong [Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi (China); Qian, Gen Nian; Xiao, Hui; Zhao, Chun Lei [Fuzhou General Hospital, Fujian (China)

    2012-06-15

    Various anatomic anomalies have been considered the causes of nutcracker syndrome (NCS). Posterior NCS refers to the condition, in which vascular narrowing was secondary to the compression of the retroaortic left renal vein while it is crossing between the aorta and the vertebral column. Here, we report an unusual case of posterior NCS associated with a complicated malformation of the interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein, diagnosed by both color Doppler ultrasonography and CT angiography.

  15. Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome Associated with Interrupted Left Inferior Vena Cava with Azygos Continuation and Retroaortic Right Renal Vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xiao Li; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Qian, Gen Nian; Xiao, Hui; Zhao, Chun Lei

    2012-01-01

    Various anatomic anomalies have been considered the causes of nutcracker syndrome (NCS). Posterior NCS refers to the condition, in which vascular narrowing was secondary to the compression of the retroaortic left renal vein while it is crossing between the aorta and the vertebral column. Here, we report an unusual case of posterior NCS associated with a complicated malformation of the interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein, diagnosed by both color Doppler ultrasonography and CT angiography.

  16. Using the renal pelvis flap to replace the whole hypoplastic ureter: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polyglycolic absorbable suture after checking its viability. Tubulization was performed in a continuous ... technique in shown in Fig. 7. (2) The ureteral stent, the pyelostomy tube, and the perinephric periureteric drain were left. Removal of the stent, the tube, and the drain was performed on days 7, 8, and 9, respectively.

  17. Effect of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis on a British renal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A G; Burden, R P

    1986-10-11

    Experience in the use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for the treatment of end stage renal failure in Nottingham was reviewed. During six years 150 patients aged from 11 to 73 received this type of treatment. At three years patient actuarial survival was 69% and CAPD technique survival was 41%. Although CAPD was satisfactory as a first treatment for many patients, its long term use was possible in only a few. Actuarial survival of patients who changed to haemodialysis was 64% at one year after the change, suggesting that unsuccessful CAPD increased the risk of death. Hospital haemodialysis was the only suitable form of treatment for most patients in whom CAPD had been abandoned. British renal units have adopted CAPD to a much greater extent than those in Europe, but care in the selection of patients is necessary to reduce mortality, and many patients may eventually need hospital haemodialysis. Greater numbers of hospital haemodialysis places will probably have to be made available to meet this extra demand.

  18. The optimal time of initiation of renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kaiping; Fu, Shufang; Fang, Weidong; Xu, Gaosi

    2017-09-15

    The impact on the timing of renal replacement therapy (RRT) initiation on clinical outcomes for patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) remains controversial. We searched the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PubMed, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Web of Science. We included 49 studies involving 9698 patients. Pooled analysis of 5408 critically ill patients with AKI showed that early RRT was significantly associated with reduced mortality compared to late RRT [odds ratio (OR), 0.40; 95% confidential intervals (CI), 0.32 - 0.48; I 2 , 50.2%]. For 4290 non-critically ill patients with AKI, there was no statistically significant difference in the risk of mortality between early and late RRT (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.79 - 1.45; I 2 , 73.0%). Early RRT was markedly associated with shortened intensive care units (ICU) length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS compared to late RRT in both critically ill and non-critically ill patients with AKI. Early RRT probably reduce the mortality, ICU and hospital LOS in critically ill patients with AKI. Inversely, early RRT in non-critically ill patients with AKI did not decrease the mortality, but shortened the ICU and hospital LOS.

  19. Strategies for the optimal timing to start renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Wald, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is increasingly utilized to support critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The question of whether and when to start RRT for a critically ill patient with AKI has long troubled clinicians. When severe complications of AKI develop, the need to commence RRT is unambiguous. In the absence of such complications but in the presence of severe AKI, the optimal time and thresholds for starting RRT are uncertain. The majority of existing data have largely been derived from observational studies. These have been limited due to confounding by indication, considerable heterogeneity in case mix and illness severity, and variably applied definitions for both AKI and for how "timing" was anchored relative to starting RRT. It is unclear whether a preemptive or earlier strategy of RRT initiation aimed largely at avoiding complications related to AKI or a more conservative strategy where RRT is started in response to developing complications leads to better patient-centered outcomes and health services use. This question has been the focus of 2 recently completed randomized trials. In this review, we provide an appraisal of available evidence, discuss existing knowledge gaps, and provide perspective on future research that will better inform the optimal timing of RRT initiation in AKI. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Renal Replacement Therapy in Children with Diarrhea-Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Single Center 16 Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Grisaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is becoming more prevalent among hospitalized children, its etiologies are shifting, and new treatment modalities are evolving; however, diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS remains the most common primary disease causing AKI in young children. Little has been published about acute renal replacement therapy (ARRT and its challenges in this population. We describe our single center's experience managing 134 pediatric patients with D+HUS out of whom 58 (43% required ARRT over the past 16 years. In our cohort, all but one patient were started on peritoneal dialysis (PD. Most patients, 47 (81%, received acute PD on a pediatric inpatient ward. The most common recorded complications in our cohort were peritoneal fluid leaks 13 (22%, peritonitis 11 (20%, and catheter malfunction 5 (9%. Nine patients (16% needed surgical revision of their PD catheters. There were no bleeding events related to PD despite a mean platelets count of 40.9 (±23.5 × 103/mm3 and rare use of platelets infusions. Despite its methodological limitations, this paper adds to the limited body of evidence supporting the use of acute PD as the primary ARRT modality in children with D+HUS.

  1. Seventy years of continuous encroachment substantially increases 'blue carbon' capacity as mangroves replace intertidal salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleway, Jeffrey J; Saintilan, Neil; Macreadie, Peter I; Skilbeck, Charles G; Zawadzki, Atun; Ralph, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Shifts in ecosystem structure have been observed over recent decades as woody plants encroach upon grasslands and wetlands globally. The migration of mangrove forests into salt marsh ecosystems is one such shift which could have important implications for global 'blue carbon' stocks. To date, attempts to quantify changes in ecosystem function are essentially constrained to climate-mediated pulses (30 years or less) of encroachment occurring at the thermal limits of mangroves. In this study, we track the continuous, lateral encroachment of mangroves into two south-eastern Australian salt marshes over a period of 70 years and quantify corresponding changes in biomass and belowground C stores. Substantial increases in biomass and belowground C stores have resulted as mangroves replaced salt marsh at both marine and estuarine sites. After 30 years, aboveground biomass was significantly higher than salt marsh, with biomass continuing to increase with mangrove age. Biomass increased at the mesohaline river site by 130 ± 18 Mg biomass km(-2)  yr(-1) (mean ± SE), a 2.5 times higher rate than the marine embayment site (52 ± 10 Mg biomass km(-2) yr(-1) ), suggesting local constraints on biomass production. At both sites, and across all vegetation categories, belowground C considerably outweighed aboveground biomass stocks, with belowground C stocks increasing at up to 230 ± 62 Mg C km(-2) yr(-1) (± SE) as mangrove forests developed. Over the past 70 years, we estimate mangrove encroachment may have already enhanced intertidal biomass by up to 283 097 Mg and belowground C stocks by over 500 000 Mg in the state of New South Wales alone. Under changing climatic conditions and rising sea levels, global blue carbon storage may be enhanced as mangrove encroachment becomes more widespread, thereby countering global warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Incidence and outcome of patients starting renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease due to multiple myeloma or light-chain deposit disease: an ERA-EDTA Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakiris, D.J.; Stel, V.S.; Finne, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Information on demographics and survival of patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to multiple myeloma (MM) or light-chain deposit disease (LCDD) is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, characteristics, causes...... causes (non-MM) was observed overtime. Patient survival on RRT was examined, unadjusted and adjusted for age and gender. Results. Of the 159 637 patients on RRT, 2453 (1.54%) had MM or LCDD. The incidence of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD, adjusted for age and gender, increased from 0.70 pmp in 1986...

  3. High-Dose Estradiol-Replacement Therapy Enhances the Renal Vascular Response to Angiotensin II via an AT2-Receptor Dependent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Safari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological levels of estrogen appear to enhance angiotensin type 2 receptor- (AT2R- mediated vasodilatation. However, the effects of supraphysiological levels of estrogen, analogous to those achieved with high-dose estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, remain unknown. Therefore, we pretreated ovariectomized rats with a relatively high dose of estrogen (0.5 mg/kg/week for two weeks. Subsequently, renal hemodynamic responses to intravenous angiotensin II (Ang II, 30–300 ng/kg/min were tested under anesthesia, while renal perfusion pressure was held constant. The role of AT2R was examined by pretreating groups of rats with PD123319 or its vehicle. Renal blood flow (RBF decreased in a dose-related manner in response to Ang II. Responses to Ang II were enhanced by pretreatment with estradiol. For example, at 300 ng kg−1 min−1, Ang II reduced RBF by 45.7±1.9% in estradiol-treated rats but only by 27.3±5.1% in vehicle-treated rats. Pretreatment with PD123319 blunted the response of RBF to Ang II in estradiol-treated rats, so that reductions in RBF were similar to those in rats not treated with estradiol. We conclude that supraphysiological levels of estrogen promote AT2R-mediated renal vasoconstriction. This mechanism could potentially contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with hormone replacement therapy using high-dose estrogen.

  4. Bench-to-bedside review: Treating acid–base abnormalities in the intensive care unit – the role of renal replacement therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Naka, Toshio; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2004-01-01

    Acid–base disorders are common in critically ill patients. Metabolic acid–base disorders are particularly common in patients who require acute renal replacement therapy. In these patients, metabolic acidosis is common and multifactorial in origin. Analysis of acid–base status using the Stewart–Figge methodology shows that these patients have greater acidemia despite the presence of hypoalbuminemic alkalosis. This acidemia is mostly secondary to hyperphosphatemia, hyperlactatemia, and the accu...

  5. Renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system blockers and time to renal replacement therapy in children with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alison G; Betoko, Aisha; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Pierce, Christopher; Furth, Susan L; Warady, Bradley A; Muñoz, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    Clinical care decisions to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a growing child must often be made without the benefit of evidence from clinical trials. We used observational data from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort to estimate the effectiveness of renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system blockade (RAAS) to delay renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children with CKD. A total of 851 participants (median age: 11 years, median glomerular filtration rate [GFR]: 52 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , median urine protein to creatinine ratio: 0.35 mg/mg) were included. RAAS use was reported at annual study visits. Both Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying RAAS exposure and Cox marginal structural models (MSM) were used to evaluate the effect of RAAS use on time to RRT. Analyses were adjusted or weighted to control for age, male sex, glomerular diagnosis, GFR, nephrotic range proteinuria, anemia, elevated blood pressure, acidosis, elevated phosphate and elevated potassium. There were 217 RRT events over a 4.1-year median follow-up. At baseline, 472 children (55 %) were prevalent RAAS users, who were more likely to be older, have a glomerular etiology, have higher urine protein, be anemic, have elevated serum phosphate and potassium, take more medications, but less likely to have elevated blood pressure, compared with non-users. RAAS use was found to reduce the risk of RRT by 21 % (hazard ratio: 0.79) to 37 % (hazard ratio: 0.63) from standard regression adjustment and MSM models, respectively. These results support inferences from adult studies of a substantial benefit of RAAS use in pediatric CKD patients.

  6. Use of Monte Carlo Simulations to Determine Optimal Carbapenem Dosing in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Susan J; Kays, Michael B; Mueller, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses with Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) can be used to integrate prior information on model parameters into a new renal replacement therapy (RRT) to develop optimal drug dosing when pharmacokinetic trials are not feasible. This study used MCSs to determine initial doripenem, imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem dosing regimens for critically ill patients receiving prolonged intermittent RRT (PIRRT). Published body weights and pharmacokinetic parameter estimates (nonrenal clearance, free fraction, volume of distribution, extraction coefficients) with variability were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model. MCS of 5000 patients evaluated multiple regimens in 4 different PIRRT effluent/duration combinations (4 L/h × 10 hours or 5 L/h × 8 hours in hemodialysis or hemofiltration) occurring at the beginning or 14-16 hours after drug infusion. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was calculated using ≥40% free serum concentrations above 4 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the first 48 hours. Optimal doses were defined as the smallest daily dose achieving ≥90% PTA in all PIRRT combinations. At the MIC of 2 mg/L for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, optimal doses were doripenem 750 mg every 8 hours, imipenem 1 g every 8 hours or 750 mg every 6 hours, and meropenem 1 g every 12 hours or 1 g pre- and post-PIRRT. Ertapenem 500 mg followed by 500 mg post-PIRRT was optimal at the MIC of 1 mg/L for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Incorporating data from critically ill patients receiving RRT into MCS resulted in markedly different carbapenem dosing regimens in PIRRT from those recommended for conventional RRTs because of the unique drug clearance characteristics of PIRRT. These results warrant clinical validation. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. Should we start and continue growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults has been described as a clinical syndrome. Central features of this entity include increased fat mass, reduced muscle and bone mass, as well as impaired exercise capacity and quality of life. GH replacement therapy has been initiated

  8. Outcomes of renal replacement therapy in boys with prune belly syndrome: findings from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Baiko, Sergey; Chehade, Hassib; Maxwell, Heather; Montini, Giovanni; Rönnholm, Kai; Sørensen, Søren Schwartz; Ulinski, Tim; Verrina, Enrico; Weber, Stefanie; Harambat, Jérôme; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J.; Groothoff, Jaap W.

    2018-01-01

    As outcome data for prune belly syndrome (PBS) complicated by end-stage renal disease are scarce, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of children with PBS using the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA)

  9. Timing of renal replacement therapy and long-term risk of chronic kidney disease and death in intensive care patients with acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Søren; Christensen, Steffen; Pedersen, Lars; Gammelager, Henrik; Layton, J Bradley; Brookhart, M Alan; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2017-12-28

    The optimal time to initiate renal replacement therapy (RRT) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) is unclear. We examined the impact of early RRT on long-term mortality, risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This cohort study included all adult patients treated with continuous RRT in the ICU at Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark (2005-2015). Data were obtained from a clinical information system and population-based registries. Early treatment was defined as RRT initiation at AKI stage 2 or below, and late treatment was defined as RRT initiation at AKI stage 3. Inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weights were computed from propensity scores. The IPT-weighted cumulative risk of CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate regression. The mortality, CKD, and ESRD analyses included 1213, 303, and 617 patients, respectively. The 90-day mortality in the early RRT group was 53.6% compared with 46.0% in the late RRT group (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.48). The 90-day to 5-year mortality was 37.7% and 41.5% in the early and late RRT groups, respectively (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). The 5-year risk of CKD was 35.9% in the early RRT group and 44.9% in the late RRT group (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.46-1.18). The 5-year risk of ESRD was 13.3% in the early RRT group and 16.7% in the late RRT group (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.47-1.32). Early initiation was associated with increased 90-day mortality. In patients surviving to day 90, early initiation was not associated with a major impact on long-term mortality or risk of CKD and ESRD. Despite potential residual confounding due to the observational design, our findings do not support that early RRT initiation is superior to late initiation.

  10. Seeking an optimal renal replacement therapy for the chronic kidney disease epidemic: the case for on-line hemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Emanuele; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be expected to increase dramatically in the foreseeable future, with suggestions that it has already reached epidemic proportions. The inadequate supply of donor organs, aggravated by an aging patient population, necessitates provision of sustainable dialysis treatment modalities. These treatment modalities must not only be of established clinical efficacy and effectiveness, but must simultaneously circumvent any potential treatment disparities due to geographical, social or other concurring factors. Home therapies might represent a partial solution to the complex issue of seeking optimal strategies to cope with the CKD epidemic. However, self-care renal replacement therapy (RRT), such as peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home therapies, can only be applied to a limited portion of the CKD population. Consequently, in preparation for coping with this CKD epidemic, specific large-scale plans need to be made that involve optimization of treatments already in use for the majority of the population requiring RRT, e.g. hemodialysis (HD). Extracorporeal chronic HD relies heavily on technology for its clinical success. Like the choice of the treatment modality and the complete medical approach to CKD patient care, the particular selection of the various components of the extracorporeal circuit has a significant impact on the well-being and survival of the patients. We present a medical-technological assessment of how best to treat vast numbers of dialysis patients under the financial restraints that are predicted to become even more severe as CKD entrenches itself as a more 'permanent epidemic'. A treatment modality is proposed that optimally addresses--and resolves--the debilitating effects of uremia, as well as of key clinical conditions closely linked to it. This treatment modality successfully tackles the issues of patient well-being, efficacy, effectiveness, safety and patient-nursing staff convenience--all in relation to

  11. Continuation rate of hormone replacement therapy in Hong Kong public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K Y; Ling, M; Tang, G W K

    2004-12-10

    To assess the 1-year continuation rate of HRT prescribed in Hong Kong public health sector and to identify factors affecting this continuation rate. All women who received at least one dispensed prescription of estrogens between January 1998 and December 2000 from 36 specialist outpatient clinics of the Hospital Authority were selected, and observed for at least 2 years and at most 3 years. The duration of use and variables including age, types of hormones, routes of delivery, dose of estrogen, and prescribing specialty were retrieved from the central prescription database of the Hospital Authority. Of 12,711 incident users of HRT, more than half were aged 50-59. Most (78.5%) of the users took conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) 0.625 mg or related products. Only a small proportion (3.0%) of women used CEE 0.3 mg. Initial estrogen prescriptions were written by gynaecologists in 86.7%. The overall 1-year continuation rate was 68.3%. The highest and lowest continuation rates were observed in women aged 40-49 and the two extreme age groups (35-39 and 70-79), respectively. Better continuation rate was observed in women taking estrogen-only therapy such as CEE or estradiol (overall 76.3%) than in women using continuous combined therapy (58.6%), sequential combined therapy (64.8%), or transdermal estrogen (60.6%). In the age group 60-69, the use of CEE 0.3 mg was associated with better continuation rate than CEE 0.625 mg. Better continuation rate at 1 year was associated with age younger than 60, oral route of HRT and hysterectomy.

  12. Renal angiomyolipoma bleeding in a patient with TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome after 17 years of renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlano, Mónica; Barreiro, Yaima; Martí, Teresa; Facundo, Carme; Ruiz-García, César; DaSilva, Iara; Ayasreh, Nadia; Cabrera-López, Cristina; Ballarín, José; Ars, Elisabet; Torra, Roser

    We report the case of a 32-year-old male diagnosed with TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome, presenting with tuberous sclerosis (TS) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease simultaneously. He progressed to end-stage renal disease and received a kidney transplant at the age of 12. The native kidneys presented angiomyolipomas (AML), which are common benign tumours in patients with TS. Seventeen years after transplantation, he presented with abdominal pain, anaemia and a retroperitoneal haematoma, the latter caused by renal AML bleeding. Selective embolisation was performed. Our patient could have benefited from the administration of mTOR inhibitors at transplant. This therapy is immunosuppressive and reduces the size of benign tumours in TS as well as the risk of rupture and bleeding. This patient did not receive mTOR inhibitors at the time of the transplant because the relationship between mTOR inhibitors and TS was unknown at that time. This case confirms the persistent risk of renal AML bleeding for both transplanted patients and patients on dialysis. As a result, we would recommend routine check-ups of native kidneys and nephrectomy assessment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Arterial Transit Time-corrected Renal Blood Flow Measurement with Pulsed Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Tsuchiyama, Katsuki; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirohiko

    2017-01-10

    The importance of arterial transit time (ATT) correction for arterial spin labeling MRI has been well debated in neuroimaging, but it has not been well evaluated in renal imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) MRI with multiple post-labeling delay (PLD) acquisition for measuring ATT-corrected renal blood flow (ATC-RBF). A total of 14 volunteers were categorized into younger (n = 8; mean age, 27.0 years) and older groups (n = 6; 64.8 years). Images of pcASL were obtained at three different PLDs (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 s), and ATC-RBF and ATT were calculated using a single-compartment model. To validate ATC-RBF, a comparative study of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) measured by 99m Tc-MAG3 scintigraphy was performed. ATC-RBF was corrected by kidney volume (ATC-cRBF) for comparison with ERPF. The younger group showed significantly higher ATC-RBF (157.68 ± 38.37 mL/min/100 g) and shorter ATT (961.33 ± 260.87 ms) than the older group (117.42 ± 24.03 mL/min/100 g and 1227.94 ± 226.51 ms, respectively; P renal ASL-MRI as debated in brain imaging.

  14. Short and long-term effects of continuous versus intermittent loop diuretics treatment in acute heart failure with renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzuoli, Alberto; Pellegrini, Marco; Franci, Beatrice; Beltrami, Matteo; Ruocco, Gaetano; Gonnelli, Stefano; Angelini, Gianni D; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2015-02-01

    Intravenous loop diuretics are still the cornerstone of therapy in acute decompensated heart failure, however, the optimal dosage and administration strategies remain poorly defined particularly in patients with an associated renal dysfunction. This is a single-center, pilot, randomized trial involving patients with acute HF and renal dysfunction. Patients were assigned to receive continuous furosemide infusion (cIV) or bolus injections of furosemide (iIV). Primary end points were the evaluation of urine output volumes, renal function, and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels during treatment time. Secondary end point included: weight loss, length of hospitalization, differences in plasma electrolytes, need for additional treatment, and evaluation of cardiac events during follow-up period. 57 patients were included in the study. The cIV group showed an increase in urine output (2,505 ± 796 vs 2140 ± 468 ml/day, p diuretics are responsible for worsening renal function and to define the best modality of administration.

  15. STUDY OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED CONTINUOUS FEMORAL NERVE BLOCKADE WITH EPIDURAL ANALGESIA FOR PAIN RELIEF AFTER TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rapolu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Total knee replacement causes moderate-to-severe pain requiring effective analgesia. With use of ultrasound guidance, we may prove a more suitable approach compared with the epidural technique. Aim of this study is the comparison between Continuous Epidural Analgesia (CEA and Continuous Femoral Block (CFB techniques in Total Knee Replacement surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted on 60 adult male and female patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery for a period of 2 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group - 1: Continuous epidural analgesia patients, Group - 2: Continuous femoral blockage patients. All patients were assessed clinically preoperatively and investigated to rule out any systemic disease. RESULTS The mean age of patient in Group - 1 was 66.54 ± 4.98 and in Group - 2 was 66.98 ± 5.02 years. P value was > 0.05, which was not significant. No significant differences in gender is observed between the groups. VAS scores were significantly high (P < 0.05 in the femoral group at 6 h, after which there was a declining trend and scores were essentially similar from 24 h. The use of rescue analgesic was also higher in the femoral group. Analysis of side-effects showed that all the five common sideeffects were twice as common in the epidural group than in the femoral study group. Only one patient in the femoral group had urinary retention when compared with four in the epidural group. The differences were not statistically significant. Muscle power at 48 h, time getting out of the bed and time stay in hospital (days are significant in comparison in 2 groups, range of movement is insignificant in groups. Patient satisfaction score was measured on a scale of 1 - 10. Patients in the Femoral group were slightly more satisfied with a mean ± SD score of 8.1 ± 1.2 when compared with the epidural group 7.3 ± 1.01. CONCLUSION Continuous femoral blockade using US guidance provides equivalent analgesia

  16. Full protein alimentation and nitrogen equilibrium in a renal failure patient treated with continuous hemodiafiltration: a case report of 67 days of continuous hemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, H N; Borg, U; Frankenfield, D

    1992-01-01

    Standard care for patients with renal failure while in an intensive care unit involves traditional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and protein restriction. We present a case of a patient with renal failure supported with continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration with dialysis (CAVH-D) who was given full protein alimentation. Total daily urea clearance was measured from the CAVH-D output. Protein load was 196 +/- 34 g/day while receiving total parenteral nutrition and 164 +/- 30 g/day while receiving enteral alimentation. Serum blood urea nitrogen was controlled between 40 and 75 mg/dL, except during septic episodes. Nitrogen balance was estimated based upon known alimentation protein load and measurable and estimated nitrogenous losses. The patient was potentially in nitrogen equilibrium during most of the dialysis period. The cumulative nitrogen balance was positive by 5.2 g after 67 days of dialysis. Volume of alimentation was 3.49 +/- 0.7 liters/day. With CAVH-D, the renal failure patient can receive full alimentation without volume or protein load limitations. Furthermore, nitrogen balances can be estimated easily while the patient is on CAVH-D.

  17. Can MRI replace DMSA in the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children with urinary tract infections?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Ryan, Stephanie; McCourbrey, Siobhan; O' Connor, Rachel; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Awan, Atif [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-03-01

    Renal parenchymal defects may be a consequence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood. MRI is a non-radiation imaging modality compared with DMSA scanning. To compare DMSA with MRI for the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children presenting for radiological investigation after a first UTI. Both DMSA and MRI were performed at the same appointment in 37 children (aged 4 months-13 years; mean 4.5 years) with a history of UTI. Both planar and SPECT DMSA were performed. MRI of the kidneys employed axial and coronal T1-, T2- and fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) sequences. Some children had imaging after IV contrast medium. The coronal fat-saturated T1-W sequence was the best sequence and it detected all the findings on MRI. MRI had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 87% for the detection of a scarred kidney using DMSA as the gold standard. MRI diagnosed pyelonephritis in two children that had been interpreted as scarring on DMSA. Renal MRI using a single, coronal, fat-saturated T1-W sequence is a rapid, accurate and minimally invasive technique for the detection of renal scarring that does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  18. Can MRI replace DMSA in the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children with urinary tract infections?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Ryan, Stephanie; McCourbrey, Siobhan; O'Connor, Rachel; Donoghue, Veronica; Awan, Atif

    2005-01-01

    Renal parenchymal defects may be a consequence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood. MRI is a non-radiation imaging modality compared with DMSA scanning. To compare DMSA with MRI for the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children presenting for radiological investigation after a first UTI. Both DMSA and MRI were performed at the same appointment in 37 children (aged 4 months-13 years; mean 4.5 years) with a history of UTI. Both planar and SPECT DMSA were performed. MRI of the kidneys employed axial and coronal T1-, T2- and fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) sequences. Some children had imaging after IV contrast medium. The coronal fat-saturated T1-W sequence was the best sequence and it detected all the findings on MRI. MRI had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 87% for the detection of a scarred kidney using DMSA as the gold standard. MRI diagnosed pyelonephritis in two children that had been interpreted as scarring on DMSA. Renal MRI using a single, coronal, fat-saturated T1-W sequence is a rapid, accurate and minimally invasive technique for the detection of renal scarring that does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  19. Neurotoxicity and bony diseases caused by the continuous contamination with aluminum of solutions of renal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquero Quiros, M.; Vargas Rojas, R.; Blanco Saenz, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the principal evidences about aluminum neurotoxicity in vitro, and some evidences in brain tissues of Alzheimer patients; and also show some studies realized with human that suffer renal deficiencies, dealing whit the principal osteodystrophy. The problem of analyzing low aluminum concentration in human fluids is overcome with very sensitive analytical methods as electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAS) and voltammetric methods as Anodic Striping Voltammetry with complexing agents that easing adsorption over solid electrodes or mercury hanging drops. Is a vital question to know with accuracy the aluminum concentration in water used in hemodialysis or in fluids used in ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, as a first stage to prevent contamination by aluminum. So the prevention of contamination during sapling storage and analysis of biological fluids should be the first need and the sources of water used in renal dialysis keep be as clean as possible of aluminum contamination. (Author) [es

  20. Health promotion behaviors and related factors in end stage renal disease patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechpradit, Apinya; Thaiyuenwong, Jutiporn; Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak

    2011-09-01

    To present study health promotion behaviors and related factors in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Questionnaires of Pender to evaluate health promotion behaviors which measure 5 aspects of health-affected behaviors were examined in 90 CAPD patients at dialysis unit of Udornthani Hospital. Results were categorized into 3 groups according to Bloom's scale as follows: high, moderate, and low levels. The data were displayed as ranges or means +/- standard deviation, according to the characteristics of each variable, with a 5% (p cherish health behaviors of the patients.

  1. Problems Associated With Access to Renal Replacement Therapy: Experience of the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, Farida; Nizam, Naveeda; Fatima, Nazia; Siraj, Sana; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of end-stage renal disease is increasing worldwide. It is also one of the main health problems in Pakistan. Currently, hemodialysis represents the main mode of treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease in this country. Despite 24-hour free dialysis at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (Karachi, Pakistan), a significant number of patients do not turn up for regular dialysis or miss regular sessions of dialysis. We conducted this study to identify and highlight the factors leading to poor compliance with regular hemodialysis treatment despite free dialysis treatment offered at our center. In 2014, 4565 patients with end-stage renal disease were registered at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation. Among these, 610 patients (13.4%) missed more than 2 sessions of dialysis and were included in the present study. Patients provided written informed consent before study participation. Data were collected from a questionnaire survey and analyzed by SPSS software (SPSS: An IBM Company, version 20.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Despite 24-hour dialysis facilities, the patient drop-out rate (779; 18%) was high. In addition, a significant minority of patients (610; 13.4%) was erratic in adherence to maintenance hemodialysis schedules, with > 2 missed appointments. The mean age of these 610 patients was 33.4 ± 7.4 years, and 345 patients (57%) were males. The main factors leading to poor compliance included cost of travel (33.2%), lack of affordable lodging and boarding facilities near dialysis center (30.9%), long distances from dialysis center (20.1%), and lack of family support (15.6%). This study shows that there is significant drop-out and poor compliance rates for regular dialysis despite free dialysis facilities.

  2. An update on renal replacement therapy in Europe: ERA-EDTA Registry data from 1997 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Anneke; Stel, Vianda; Zoccali, Carmine

    2009-01-01

    the past decade. METHODS: Nineteen European national or regional renal registries with registry data from 1997 to 2006 participated in the study. Incidence and prevalence trends were analysed with Poisson and Joinpoint regression. Cox regression methods were used to examine patient survival. RESULTS...... linearly at 2.7% per year. Between the periods 1997-2001 and 2002-2006, the risk of death decreased for all treatment modalities, with the most substantial improvement in patients starting peritoneal dialysis [19% (95% CI 15-22%)] and in patients receiving a kidney transplant [17% (95% CI 11...

  3. Symptom Prevalence and the Negative Emotional States in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients with or without Renal Replacement Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Zukiman, Wan Zul Haikal; Yaakup, Hayati; Zakaria, Nor Fadhlina; Shah, Shamsul Azhar Bin

    2017-10-01

    Limited comparative data are available on the symptom severity and burden of dialyzed versus nondialyzed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and their association with negative emotional states. To investigate the prevalence of symptom burden and severity of ESRD patients and correlate the findings with their psychological status. This was a cross-sectional study of dialyzed (N = 87) and nondialyzed (N = 100) patients. The symptom burden and severity were determined using the Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI) and the psychological assessment using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21). Symptom severity evaluated using the DSI was comparable in both groups with fatigue as the most common symptom (n = 141, 75.4%), followed by sleep-related, sexual dysfunction, and dry skin problems. The symptom burden for worrying, dry skin and mouth, decreased appetite, numbness, and leg swelling were significant in not dialyzed group (p symptom burden regardless of their treatment options (p symptom burden and severity, irrespective of the type of treatment. Psychological disturbances were associated with higher symptom burden and severity and, therefore, should be screened thoroughly to achieve optimal ESRD management.

  4. The dynamic process of adherence to a renal therapeutic regimen: perspectives of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lai Wah; Lee, Diana T F; Shiu, Ann T Y

    2014-06-01

    The nature of end-stage renal disease and the need for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis require patients to manage various aspects of the disease, its symptoms and treatment. After attending a training programme, patients are expected to adhere to the renal therapeutic regimen and manage their disease with the knowledge and skills learned. While patients are the stakeholders of their health and related behaviour, their perceptions of adherence and how they adhere to their renal therapeutic regimen remains unexplored. To understand adherence from patients' perspectives and to describe changes in adherence to a therapeutic regimen among patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. This study used a mixed methods design with two phases - a survey in phase I and semi-structured interviews in phase II. This paper presents phase II of the study. The study was conducted at a renal unit of an acute hospital in Hong Kong. Based on the phase I survey results, maximum variation sampling was employed to purposively recruit 36 participants of different genders (18 males, 18 females), ages (35-76 years), and lengths of dialysis experience (11-103 months) for the phase II interviews. Data were collected by tape-recorded semi-structured interviews. Content analysis was employed to analyse the transcribed data. Data collection and analysis were conducted simultaneously. Adherence was a dynamic process with three stages. At the stage of initial adherence, participants attempted to follow instructions but found that strict persistent adherence was impossible. After the first 2-6 months of dialysis, participants entered the stage of subsequent adherence, when they adopted selective adherence through experimenting, monitoring and making continuous adjustments. The stage of long-term adherence commenced after 3-5 years of dialysis, when participants were able to assimilate the modified therapeutic regimen into everyday life. The process of adherence was

  5. Determinants of anxiety in patients with advanced somatic disease: differences and similarities between patients undergoing renal replacement therapies and patients suffering from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewska, Justyna; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Gołębiewska, Justyna; Majkowicz, Mikołaj; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety is the most frequent emotional reaction to the chronic somatic disease. However, little is known about anxiety and coping strategies in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing renal replacement therapies (RRTs). The purpose of the study was to assess the intensity and determinants of anxiety in patients treated with different RRTs in comparison with end-stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The study involved (1) ESRD patients undergoing different RRTs: 32 renal transplant recipients, 31 maintenance haemodialysis and 21 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients, (2) women with end-stage breast cancer (n = 25) and (3) healthy persons (n = 55). We used State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Scale of Personal Religiousness, Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale, Rotterdam Symptom Checklist with reference to medical history. The data thus obtained were analysed using the analysis of variance, the Tukey's HSD post hoc test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Both ESRD and breast cancer patients revealed higher level of anxiety state and trait than healthy controls; however, there was no statistically significant difference found between both findings. There was a tendency towards higher levels of anxiety state in breast cancer patients when compared to ESRD patients undergoing the RRT treatment and for both groups non-constructive coping strategies correlated with the levels of anxiety state. With ESRD patients undergoing RRTs, the intensity of anxiety state did not depend on the mode of treatment but on the correlation between the levels of anxiety and the general quality of their life, psychological condition and social activity. In patients with advanced somatic disease (ESRD and end-stage breast cancer), non-constructive strategies of coping with the disease require further evaluation and possibly psychological support.

  6. Lifetime risk of renal replacement therapy in Europe: a population-based study using data from the ERA-EDTA Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, Jan A J G; Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Caskey, Fergus J; Collart, Frederic; Finne, Partik; Heaf, James; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Kramar, Reinhard; Massy, Ziad A; De Meester, Johan; Traynor, Jamie P; Reisæter, Anna Varberg; Wetzels, Jack F M; Jager, Kitty J

    2017-02-01

    Upcoming KDIGO guidelines for the evaluation of living kidney donors are expected to move towards a personal risk-based evaluation of potential donors. We present the age and sex-specific lifetime risk of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease in 10 European countries. We defined lifetime risk of RRT as the cumulative incidence of RRT up to age 90 years. We obtained RRT incidence rates per million population by 5-year age groups and sex using data from the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry, and used these to estimate the cumulative incidence of RRT, adjusting for competing mortality risk. Lifetime risk of RRT varied from 0.44% to 2.05% at age 20 years and from 0.17% to 1.59% at age 70 years across countries, and was twice as high in men as in women. Lifetime RRT risk decreased with age, ranging from an average of 0.77% to 0.44% in 20- to- 70-year-old women, and from 1.45% to 0.96% in 20- to- 70-year-old men. The lifetime risk of RRT increased slightly over the past decade, more so in men than in women. However, it appears to have stabilized or even decreased slightly in more recent years. The lifetime risk of RRT decreased with age, was lower in women as compared with men of equal age and varied considerably throughout Europe. Given the substantial differences in lifetime risk of RRT between the USA and Europe, country-specific estimates should be used in the evaluation and communication of the risk of RRT for potential living kidney donors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum lactate level and mortality in metformin-associated lactic acidosis requiring renal replacement therapy: a systematic review of case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Chieh; Ting, I-Wen; Tsai, Ching-Wei; Wu, Jenn-Yu; Kuo, Chin-Chi

    2017-07-10

    The current practice concerning timing, mode, and dose of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) with renal failure remains unknown. To investigate whether serum lactate level and prescription pattern of RRT are associated with mortality in patients with MALA requiring RRT. We searched PubMed/Medline and EMBASE from inception to Sep 2014 and applied predetermined exclusion criteria. Case-level data including case's demographics and clinical information related to MALA were abstracted. Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to examine the predictors of mortality. A total of 253 unique cases were identified with cumulative mortality of 17.2%. Eighty-seven percent of patients had acute kidney injury. Serum lactate level was significantly higher in non-survivors (median 22.5 mmol/L) than in survivors (17.0 mmol/L, p-value optimal prescription of RRT in MALA, we recommend fostering an international consortium to support prospective research and large-scale standardized case collection.

  8. Early beneficial effect of preservation of papillo-annular continuity in mitral valve replacement on left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilip, D; Chandra, A; Rajashekhar, D; Padmanabhan, M

    2001-05-01

    Impairment of left ventricular (LV) function after mitral valve replacement (MVR) has been the most important factor to determine morbidity and mortality. With this in mind, LV performance in the postoperative period was assessed with and without preservation of papillo-annular continuity in MVR. Between March 1994 and August 1998, a total of 383 valve prostheses (202 MVR, 65 AVR, 58 MVR+AVR) were implanted in 325 patients, 177 of whom underwent MVR with Starr Edwards ball cage prostheses (the study group). Of these 177 patients, 105 had MVR with preservation of the posterior mitral leaflet (group I), and 72 had conventional MVR (group II). Predominant lesions were mitral stenosis in 81, mitral regurgitation in 42, and mixed mitral lesion (MS/MR) in 54. Concomitant tricuspid valve annuloplasty was performed in 13, and atrial septal defect repair in five. Sixteen patients underwent MVR for mitral restenosis. In-vivo performance of the prostheses and LV function was evaluated by M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. At 3-6 months clinical improvement was seen in NYHA class, with reduction in cardiothoracic ratio among patients with preserved papillo-annular continuity, irrespective of lesion type. Significant reductions (p versus 44.64 +/- 8.54 postop.; p versus 41.21 +/- 7.16 postop.; p versus 28.81 +/- 5.79 postop.; p versus 64.47 +/- 7.93; p <0.05). Further analysis of data in group I patients showed significant reductions in left atrial dimensions, LVESD and peak gradient, along with improved ejection fraction compared with conventional (group II) patients. Deterioration in LV function in patients undergoing conventional MVR indicates chordal resection as a putative mechanism. This study supports the concept that maintenance of continuity between the mitral annulus and papillary muscles has a beneficial effect on postoperative LV function, and is particularly important in patients with mitral stenosis with depressed preoperative LV systolic function.

  9. Replacing Phosphorus-Containing Food Additives With Foods Without Additives Reduces Phosphatemia in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fornasari, Margareth Lage Leite; Dos Santos Sens, Yvoty Alves

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to verify the effects of replacing phosphorus-containing food additives with foods without additives on phosphatemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Randomized clinical trial. Adult patients on hemodialysis for ≥6 months at a single center. A total of 134 patients with phosphorus levels of >5.5 mg/dL were included and were randomized into an intervention group (n = 67) and a control group (n = 67). The IG received individual orientation to replace processed foods that have phosphorus additives with foods of similar nutritional value without these additives. The CG received only the nutritional orientation given before the study. Clinical laboratory data, nutritional status, energy and protein intake, and normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA) were evaluated at the beginning of the study and after 90 days. There was no initial difference between the groups in terms of serum phosphorus levels, nutritional status, and energy intake. After 3 months, there was a decline in phosphorus levels in the IG (from 7.2 ± 1.4 to 5.0 ± 1.3 mg/dL, P food additives with foods without additives reduced serum phosphorus without interfering in the nutritional status of ESRD patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parenteral nutrition in patients with renal failure – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druml, W.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Partial EN (enteral nutrition should always be aimed for in patients with renal failure that require nutritional support. Nevertheless PN (parenteral nutrition may be necessary in renal failure in patient groups with acute or chronic renal failure (ARF or CRF and additional acute diseases but without extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, or in patients with ARF or CRF with additional acute diseases on extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis therapy (HD, peritoneal dialysis (PD or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT, or in patients on HD therapy with intradialytic PN. Patients with renal failure who show marked metabolic derangements and changes in nutritional requirements require the use of specifically adapted nutrient solutions. The substrate requirements of acutely ill, non-hypercatabolic patients with CRF correspond to those of patients with ARF who are not receiving any renal replacement patients therapy (utilisation of the administered nutrients has to be monitored carefully. In ARF patients and acutely ill CRF patients on renal replacement therapy, substrate requirements depend on disease severity, type and extent/frequency of extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, nutritional status, underlying disease and complications occurring during the course of the disease. Patients under HD have a higher risk of developing malnutrition. Intradialytic PN (IDPN should be used if causes of malnutrition cannot be eliminated and other interventions fail. IDPN should only be carried out when modifiable causes of malnutrition are excluded and enhanced oral (like i.e. additional energy drinks or enteral supply is unsuccessful or cannot be carried out.

  11. Effect of Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease and Renal Replacement Therapies on Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Uremic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadja Fatima Tbahriti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD. In this study, we determined the effect of different stages of CKD and substitutive therapies on oxidative stress. One hundred sixty-seven patients (age: 44±06 years; male/female: 76/91 with CKD were divided into 6 groups according to the National Kidney Foundation classification. Prooxidant status was assessed by assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, and protein carbonyls. Antioxidant defence was performed by analysis of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, vitamin E, Iron, and bilirubin. TBARS and LPO were higher in HD patients compared to other groups (P<0.001, while protein carbonyls were more increased in PD patients. The antioxidant enzymes were declined already at severe stage of CKD and they were declined notably in HD patients (P<0.001. Similar observation was found for vitamin E, Fe, and bilirubin where we observed a significant decrease in the majority of study groups, especially in HD patients (P<0.001. The evolution of CKD was associated with elevated OS. HD accentuates lipid, while PD aggravates protein oxidation. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by impaired renal function and by both dialysis treatments.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Derived Renal Oxygenation and Perfusion During Continuous, Steady-State Angiotensin-II Infusion in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bel, René; Coolen, Bram F; Nederveen, Aart J; Potters, Wouter V; Verberne, Hein J; Vogt, Liffert; Stroes, Erik S G; Krediet, C T Paul

    2016-03-28

    The role of kidney hypoxia is considered pivotal in the progression of chronic kidney disease. A widely used method to assess kidney oxygenation is blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but its interpretation remains problematic. The BOLD-MRI signal is the result of kidney oxygen consumption (a proxy of glomerular filtration) and supply (ie, glomerular perfusion). Therefore, we hypothesized that with pharmacological modulation of kidney blood flow, renal oxygenation, as assessed by BOLD-MRI, correlates to filtration fraction (ie, glomerular filtration rate/effective renal plasma flow) in healthy humans. Eight healthy volunteers were subjected to continuous angiotensin-II infusion at 0.3, 0.9, and 3.0 ng/kg per minute. At each dose, renal oxygenation and blood flow were assessed using BOLD and phase-contrast MRI. Subsequently, "gold standard" glomerular filtration rate/effective renal plasma flow measurements were performed under the same conditions. Renal plasma flow decreased dose dependently from 660±146 to 467±103 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (F[3, 21]=33.3, PMRI, we showed that cortical oxygenation measured by BOLD MRI relates poorly to glomerular filtration rate but is associated with filtration fraction. For future studies, there may be a need to include renal plasma flow measurements when employing renal BOLD-MRI. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Baseline albumin is associated with worsening renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Megan M; Dorsch, Michael P; Kim, Susie; Aaronson, Keith D; Koelling, Todd M; Bleske, Barry E

    2013-06-01

    To identify baseline predictors of worsening renal function (WRF) in an acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) patient population receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics. Retrospective observational analysis. Academic tertiary medical center. A total of 177 patients with ADHF receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics from January 2006 through June 2009. The mean patient age was 61 years, 63% were male, ~45% were classified as New York Heart Association functional class III, and the median length of loop diuretic infusion was 4 days. Forty-eight patients (27%) developed WRF, and 34 patients (19%) died during hospitalization. Cox regression time-to-event analysis was used to determine the time to WRF based on different demographic and clinical variables. Baseline serum albumin 3 g/dl or less was the only significant predictor of WRF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-5.16, p=0.0004), which remained significant despite adjustments for other covariates. Serum albumin 3 g/dl or less is a practical baseline characteristic associated with the development of WRF in patients with ADHF receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  14. Perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes em terapia renal substitutiva no Brasil, 2000-2004 Perfil epidemiológico de los pacientes en terapia renal substitutiva en Brasil, 2000-2004 Epidemiological profile of patients on renal replacement therapy in Brazil, 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Leal Cherchiglia

    2010-08-01

    femenino, residentes en la región Norte y Noreste y sin transplante renal presentan mayor riesgo de muerte.OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients under renal replacement therapies, identifying risk factors for death. METHODS: This is a non-concurrent cohort study of data for 90,356 patients in the National Renal Replacement Therapies Database. A deterministic-probabilistic linkage was performed using the Authorization System for High Complexity/Cost Procedures and the Mortality Information System databases. All patients who started dialysis between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2004 were included and followed until death or the end of 2004. Age, sex, region of residence, primary renal disease and causes of death were analyzed. A proportional hazards model was used to identify factors associated with risk of death. RESULTS: The prevalence of patients under renal replacement therapies increased an average of 5.5%, while incidence remained stable during the period. Hemodialysis was the predominant initial modality (89%. The patients were majority male with mean age 53 years, residents of the Southeast region and presented unknown causes as the main cause of chronic renal disease, followed by hypertension, diabetes and glomerulonephritis. Of these patients, 42% progressed to death and 7% underwent kidney transplantation. The patients on peritoneal dialysis were older and had higher prevalence of diabetes. The death rate varied from 7% among transplanted patients to 45% among non-transplanted patients. In the final Cox proportional hazards model, the risk of mortality was associated with increasing age, female sex, having diabetes, living in the North and Northeast region, peritoneal dialysis as a first modality and not having renal transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: There was an increased prevalence of patients on renal therapy in Brazil. Increased risk of death was associated with advanced age, diabetes, the female sex, residents of the North and

  15. Effects of initiating chronic renal replacement therapy in children, now and later in life: Data from the LERIC cohort and ERA-EDTA Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the most important results of LERIC (Late Effects of Renal Insufficiency in Children), a very a long-term follow-up study to the late somatic and psychosocial consequences of renal insufficiency in children. LERIC is a comprehensive study to evaluate the late effects of renal

  16. Serum Vancomycin Levels Resulting from Continuous or Intermittent Infusion in Critically Ill Burn Patients With or Without Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    one (0.9%) was Streptococcus mutans , and one (0.9%) was an unidentified Enterococcus species. Organisms having MIC ≥ 2 μg/mL (as measured by the...coagulase-negative Staphylo- coccus, 13 (12.3%) were Enterococcus faecium, five (4.7%) were Enterococcus faecalis, four (3.8%) were Streptococcus ...pneumoniae, two (1.9%) were Strepto- coccus viridans, two (1.9%) were Streptococcus aga- lactiae, two (1.9%) were nonenterococcal Group D Streptococci

  17. UK Renal Registry 15th annual report: Chapter 5 survival and causes of death of UK adult patients on renal replacement therapy in 2011: national and centre-specific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Retha; Shaw, Catriona; Feest, Terry

    2013-01-01

    These analyses examine a) survival from the start of renal replacement therapy (RRT) based on the total incident UK RRT population reported to the UK Renal Registry, b) survival of prevalent patients. Changes in survival between 1997 and 2011 are also reported. Survival was calculated for both incident and prevalent patients on RRT and compared between the UK countries after adjustment for age. Survival of incident patients (starting RRT during 2010) was calculated both from the start of RRT and from 90 days after starting RRT, both with and without censoring at transplantation. Prevalent dialysis patients were censored at transplantation; this means that the patient is considered alive up to the point of transplantation, but the patient's status post-transplant is not considered. Both Kaplan-Meier and Cox adjusted models were used to calculate survival. Causes of death were analysed for both groups. The relative risk of death was calculated compared with the general UK population. The unadjusted 1 year after 90 day survival for patients starting RRT in 2010 was 87.3%, representing an increase from the previous year (86.6%). In incident patients aged 18-64 years, the unadjusted 1 year survival had risen from 86.0% in patients starting RRT in 1997 to 92.6% in patients starting RRT in 2010 and for those aged ≥65 it had increased from 63.9% to 77.0% over the same period. The age-adjusted one year survival (adjusted to age 60) of prevalent dialysis patients increased from 88.1% in the 2001 cohort to 89.8% in the 2010 cohort. Prevalent diabetic patient one year survival rose from 82.1% in the 2002 cohort to 84.7% in the 2010 cohort. The age-standardised mortality ratio for prevalent RRT patients compared with the general population was 18 for age group 30-34 and 2.5 at age 85+ years. In the prevalent RRT dialysis population, cardiovascular disease accounted for 22% of deaths, infection and treatment withdrawal 18% each and 25% were recorded as other causes of death

  18. Iterative study of renal functions by the continuous perfusion of radioactive tracers before and after the initiation of treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirouze, J.; Monnier, L.; Olivier, C.

    1975-01-01

    Glomerular filtration and renal plasma flux are measured simultaneously as a result of achieving isotopic equilibrium after the continuous perfusion of 125 I-iothalamate and 131 I-orthoiodohippurate. A good correlation is found between the clearances of 125 I-iothalamate (y) and of inulin or polyfructosan (x): y = 1.18 x + 8.43 (r 0.96; P 131 I-orthoiodohippurate (y') and para-aminohippuric acid (x'): y' = 0.62 x' + 21.2 (r = 0.93; P < 0.001). When the renal function is modified, the iothalamate is not suitable for this technique since the time necessary to reach a radioactive concentration plateau exceeds three hours. Orthoiodohippurate, on the contrary, yields good results. The main advantages of the method in this case are absence of urine collection and rapid achievement of isotopic equilibrium. The repeated study of the renal function of hypertensive patients and of diabetics makes it possible to investigate the effects of anti-hypertension drugs and insulin therapy. Since clonidin improves the clearances slightly, it may be considered for administration in cases of hypertension associated with chronic renal inadequacy. Insulin therapy very rapidly increases the glomerular filtration and renal plasma flux of diabetics by insulin extraction. This improvement depends more on metabolic and haemodynamic changes caused by the insulin than on the correction of disorders affecting the permeability of the basal glomerular membrane

  19. Cardiac troponin T predicts occult coronary artery stenosis in patients with chronic kidney disease at the start of renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Terumasa; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kimura, Tomonori; Iio, Ken-Ichiro; Sumitsuji, Satoru; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Enyu

    2008-09-01

    The high prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery stenosis (CAS) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as an important predictor of outcome. However, diagnostic tools that can identify asymptomatic CAS have not yet been established. We investigated whether asymptomatic patients at the initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) could be screened using cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and atherosclerotic surrogate markers such as ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABPI) and intima-media thickness (IMT). Among 142 patients who were about to start RRT, 60 who were asymptomatic underwent coronary evaluation by multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and/or coronary angiography (CAG). CAG diagnosed 35 patients (43.8%) as CAS positive and 27 of them had multi-vessel disease. Factors associated with CAS were smoking, elevated cTnT, low ABPI and high IMT. Moreover, the severity of CAS was associated with smoking, cTnT and ABPI. Stepwise logistic regression analyses revealed that cTnT was a powerful predictor of asymptomatic multi-vessel CAS. Receiver operating characteristic analysis documented the usefulness of cTnT as a screening tool with a cut-off point 0.05 ng/ml. The optimal screening tool for multi-vessel CAS was cTnT (sensitivity, 92.6%; 95% CI, 82.7-99.9; specificity, 63.6%; 95% CI, 47.2-80.0). We concluded that cTnT should be measured as part of a strategy for detecting asymptomatic CAS, especially multi-vessel disease in patients with CKD at the start of RRT.

  20. Circadian hormone profiles and insulin sensitivity in patients with Addison's disease: a comparison of continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion with conventional glucocorticoid replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdottir, Sigridur; Øksnes, Marianne; Isaksson, Magnus; Methlie, Paal; Nilsen, Roy M; Hustad, Steinar; Kämpe, Olle; Hulting, Anna-Lena; Husebye, Eystein S; Løvås, Kristian; Nyström, Thomas; Bensing, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    Conventional glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with Addison's disease (AD) is unphysiological with possible adverse effects on mortality, morbidity and quality of life. The diurnal cortisol profile can likely be restored by continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion (CSHI). The aim of this study was to compare circadian hormone rhythms and insulin sensitivity in conventional thrice-daily regimen of glucocorticoid replacement therapy with CSHI treatment in patients with AD. An open, randomized, two-period, 12-week crossover multicentre trial in Norway and Sweden. Ten Norwegian patients were admitted for 24-h sampling of hormone profiles. Fifteen Swedish patients underwent euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Thrice-daily regimen of oral hydrocortisone (OHC) and CSHI treatment. We measured the circadian rhythm of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1, (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), glucose, insulin and triglycerides during OHC and CSHI treatment. Euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp was used to assess insulin sensitivity. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion provided a more physiological circadian cortisol curve including a late-night cortisol surge. ACTH levels showed a near normal circadian variation for CSHI. CSHI prevented a continuous decrease in glucose during the night. No difference in insulin sensitivity was observed between the two treatment arms. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion replacement re-established a circadian cortisol rhythm and normalized the ACTH levels. Patients with CSHI replacement had a more stable night-time glucose level compared with OHC without compromising insulin sensitivity. Thus, restoring night-time cortisol levels might be advantageous for patients with AD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Association of clearance of middle- and large-molecular-weight substance with arterial stiffness and left ventricular mass in children receiving renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Kadriye; Yilmaz, Ebru; Dincel, Nida; Bozabali, Sibel; Apaydin, Sukriye; Gun, Zubeyr H; Sozeri, Betul; Mir, Sevgi

    2017-12-01

    The prominent cause of mortality in children receiving dialysis treatment is cardiovascular diseases. Risk factors related to chronic renal disease, are effective in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of study was to investigate cardiovascular system (CVS) involvement for functional and structural alterations in children receiving dialysis, and display any association between cardiovascular morbidity and uremic toxins. 20 dialysis patients and 20 healthy controls were included to the study. Clearance of small, middle and large molecular-weight uremic toxins was evaluated in blood samples collected 30 minutes before (D0) and 2 hour after dialysis (D2), and change value was calculated as D0-D2/D0. Cardiovascular involvement was determined by comparing arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and Left Ventricular Mass Index (LVMI) with the control group. Four patients receiving hemodialysis and two patients in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) group who have significant differences in all functional and structural parameters were detected. Four dialysis patients with detected cardiovascular disease have distinctively lower beta-2 microglobulin and homocysteine clearances compared to the patients with no CVS involvement. The clearance of middle and large molecular-weight substances should be closely monitored in children receiving dialysis.

  2. Emergency Department Visits Following Elective Total Hip and Knee Replacement Surgery: Identifying Gaps in Continuity of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Micaela A; Shaffer, Robyn; Remington, Austin; Kwong, Jereen; Curtin, Catherine; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina

    2017-06-21

    Major joint replacement surgical procedures are common, elective procedures with a care episode that includes both inpatient readmissions and postoperative emergency department (ED) visits. Inpatient readmissions are well studied; however, to our knowledge, little is known about ED visits following these procedures. We sought to characterize 30-day ED visits following a major joint replacement surgical procedure. We used administrative records from California, Florida, and New York, from 2010 through 2012, to identify adults undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty. Factors associated with increased risk of an ED visit were estimated using hierarchical regression models controlling for patient variables with a fixed hospital effect. The main outcome was an ED visit within 30 days of discharge. Among the 152,783 patients who underwent major joint replacement, 5,229 (3.42%) returned to the inpatient setting and 8,883 (5.81%) presented to the ED for care within 30 days. Among ED visits, 17.94% had a primary diagnosis of pain and 25.75% had both a primary and/or a secondary diagnosis of pain. Patients presenting to the ED for subsequent care had more comorbidities and were more frequently non-white with public insurance relative to those not returning to the ED (p care insurance coverage expansions are uncertain; however, there are ongoing attempts to improve quality across the continuum of care. It is therefore essential to ensure that all patients, particularly vulnerable populations, receive appropriate postoperative care, including pain management. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Arteriovenous renal replacement therapy in end-stage left-sided heart failure patients has a detrimental effect on patients with impaired right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasos, Evangelos; Kaldara, Elisabeth; Pantsios, Christos; Kapelios, Chris; Nana, Emmeleia; Vernadakis, Spiridon; Melexopoulou, Christina; Malliaras, Konstantinos; Boletis, John; Nanas, John N

    Chronic intermittent renal replacement therapy(RRT) is an alternate method of decongestion for patients presenting with diuretic-resistant, end-stage heart failure(HF) and cardiorenal syndrome. The optimal method of vascular access has not been confirmed. This study investigated the 6-month outcomes of patients with end-stage HF after the creation of arteriovenous communications (AVC) compared with other means of RRT. We treated 40 patients with chronic, intermittent, ambulatory RRT, of whom 15 (37.5%; Group A) underwent creation of AVC, and 25 (62.5%; Group B) received intraperitoneal (n=6) or internal jugular catheters (n=19) with the goal of achieving body weight stabilization and relief from congestion. The characteristics of the two groups were similar. According to Cox regression analysis, the 6-month rate of death or re-hospitalization for HF was significantly higher in Group A (73%) than in Group B (44%); hazard ratio (HR): 2.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.2; P=0.02. Over a 6-month follow-up, the cumulative survival was significantly shorter (P=0.03) in Group A (13.8±10 weeks) than in Group B (20.7±7 weeks). In the 15 patients who received AVC, the only independent predictor of adverse outcome at 6 months was serum total bilirubin concentration (HR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1-5.7, p=0.02), whereas in the 25 patients who underwent other means of RRT, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was identified as a risk factor for hospitalization or death at 1-year follow-up (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.1-1.57, p=0.04). In patients with end-stage HF, the creation of AVC for intermittent RRT was followed by a significant increase in morbidity and mortality in comparison to the safe and effective placement of permanent central venous catheters. Patients with elevated PVR seem to comprise a group at high risk for adverse outcomes after central catheter insertion. Copyright © 2016 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. U-curve association between timing of renal replacement therapy initiation and in-hospital mortality in postoperative acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chung Shiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with poor outcomes in surgical patients. This study aims to evaluate whether the timing of renal replacement therapy (RRT initiation affects the in-hospital mortality of patients with postoperative AKI. METHODOLOGY: This multicenter retrospective observational study, which was conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs in a tertiary hospital (National Taiwan University Hospital and its branch hospitals in Taiwan between January, 2002, and April, 2009, included adult patients with postoperative AKI who underwent RRT for predefined indications. The demographic data, comorbid diseases, types of surgery and RRT, and the indications for RRT were documented. Patients were categorized according to the period of time between the ICU admission and RRT initiation as the early (EG, ≦1 day, intermediate (IG, 2-3 days, and late (LG, ≧4 days groups. The in-hospital mortality rate censored at 180 day was defined as the endpoint. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-eight patients (418 men, mean age 63.0±15.9 years were enrolled, and 379 patients (58.5% died during the hospitalization. Both the estimated probability of death and the in-hospital mortality rates of the three groups represented U-curves. According to the Cox proportional hazard method, LG (hazard ratio, 1.527; 95% confidence interval, 1.152-2.024; P = 0.003, compared with IG group, age (1.014; 1.006-1.021, diabetes (1.279; 1.022-1.601; P = 0.031, cirrhosis (2.147; 1.421-3.242, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (1.811; 1.391-2.359, initial neurological dysfunction (1.448; 1.107-1.894; P = 0.007, pre-RRT mean arterial pressure (0.988; 0.981-0.995, inotropic equivalent (1.006; 1.001-1.012; P = 0.013, APACHE II scores (1.055; 1.037-1.073, and sepsis (1.939; 1.536-2.449 were independent predictors of the in-hospital mortality (All P<0.001 except otherwise stated. CONCLUSIONS: The current study found a U

  5. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as a Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury, Severe Kidney Injury, and the Need for Renal Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma I. Albeladi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent attempts were made to identify early indicators of acute kidney injury (AKI in order to accelerate treatment and hopefully improve outcomes. This study aims to assess the value of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL as a predictor of AKI, severe AKI, and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT. Methods: We conducted a prospective study and included adults admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH, between May 2012 and June 2013, who had at least 1 major risk factor for AKI. They were followed up throughout their hospital stay to identify which potential characteristics predicted any of the above 3 outcomes. We collected information on patients’ age and gender, the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, version II (APACHE II score, the Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score, serum creatinine and cystatin C levels, and uNGAL. We compared ICU patients who presented with any of the 3 outcomes with others who did not. Results: We included 75 patients, and among those 21 developed AKI, 18 severe AKI, and 17 required RRT. Bivariate analysis revealed intergroup differences for almost all clinical variables (e.g., patients with AKI vs. patients without AKI; while multivariate analysis identified mean arterial pressure as the only predictor for AKI (p < 0.001 and the SOFA score (p = 0.04 as the only predictor for severe AKI. For RRT, day 1 maximum uNGAL was the stronger predictor (p < 0.001 when compared to admission diagnosis (p = 0.014. Day 1 and day 2 maximum uNGAL levels were good and excellent predictors for future RRT, but only fair to good predictors for AKI and severe AKI. Conclusions: Maximum urine levels of uNGAL measured over the first and second 24 h of an ICU admission were highly accurate predictors of the future need for RRT, however less accurate at detecting early and severe AKI.

  6. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Medications prescribed by your doctor should help control pain. During the hospital stay, you'll be encouraged to move your ... exercise your new knee. After you leave the hospital, you'll continue physical ... mobility and a better quality of life. And most knee replacements can be ...

  7. An empirical study using range of motion and pain score as determinants for continuous passive motion: outcomes following total knee replacement surgery in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    The continuous passive motion (CPM) machine is one means by which to rehabilitate the knee after total knee replacement surgery. This study sought to determine which total knee replacement patients, if any, benefit from the use of the CPM machine. For the study period, most patients received active physical therapy. Patients were placed in the CPM machine if, on postoperative day 1, they had a range of motion less than or equal to 45° and/or pain score of 8 or greater on a numeric rating scale of 0-10, 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain. Both groups of patients healed at similar rates. The incidence of adverse events, length of stay, and functional outcomes was comparable between groups. Given the demonstrated lack of relative benefit to the patient and the cost of the CPM, this study supported discontinuing the routine use of the CPM.

  8. Survival during renal replacement therapy of patients previously treated with a very low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids : the Italian experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cupisti

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, prescription of sVLPD during the conservative phase of chronic renal failure does not worsen, or even improves, survival after starting RRT. This survival advantage is more evident in patients younger than 70 years.

  9. Multidetector computed tomography has replaced conventional intravenous excretory urography in imaging of the kidneys: A scoping review of multidetector computed tomography findings in renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizakhona B.A. Mthalane

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is a worldwide infectious disease burden, especially in non-developed countries, with increased morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients. Extrapulmonary TB is rare and renal TB is one of the commonest manifestations. The end result of renal TB is end-stage renal disease; however, this can be avoided if the diagnosis is made early. The diagnosis of renal TB is challenging because of the non-specific presentation and low sensitivity of clinical tests. Although the sequel of TB infection in the kidney causes varying manifestations depending on the stage of the disease, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is capable of demonstrating early findings. We performed a 20-year scoping review of MDCT findings in renal TB to promote awareness. Aim: To identify specific MDCT imaging characteristics of renal TB, promote early diagnosis and increase awareness of the typical imaging features. Methods and material: We searched published and unpublished literature from 1997 to 2017 using a combination of search terms on electronic databases. We followed the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 150 articles were identified, of which 145 were found through electronic search engines and 5 were obtained from grey literature. Seventy-nine articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria were reviewed. These included original research, case reports, literature review, organisational reports and grey literature. Conclusion: Multidetector computed tomography can reproduce images comparable with intravenous excretory urography; together with advantages of being able to better assess the renal parenchyma and surrounding spaces, it is important in suggesting the diagnosis of renal TB and clinicians should consider including MDCT when investigating patients with recurrent urinary tract infection not responding to usual antimicrobial therapy.

  10. Rol del profesional de Enfermería en terapias de reemplazo renal, diálisis peritoneal / Nursing’s Role in Renal Replacement Therapies, Peritoneal / Dialysis Papel do profissional de Enfermagem em terapias de substituição renal, diálise peritoneal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Licht-Ardila, Enf. Esp.

    2014-11-01

    carrying out activities that contribute to care and prevention of the disease or to recover their health. Therefore, the main role is focused on helping the patients to keep or gain independence and to create self-care habits on the patient, according to their needs previously identified. Objective: This study aimed to identify the nurse’s role in the treatment of renal therapy: peritoneal dialysis, reported in databases during 2008-2014 periods. Method: A systematic search was conducted on information databases: Scientific Library (scielo, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, PubMed, Proquest, Virtual Library using the terms “nursing care”, “chronic renal failure”, “peritoneal dialysis”, and “self-care” published in the 2008-2014 period. Conclusion: The documents previously consulted indicate that the nursing role that prevails management Peritoneal Dialysis (PD is the educational, because as it is evidenced by relevant studies, with an adequate instruction and training to the patient and caregiver, it is achieved a greater adherence to the treatment, therefore reducing the complications of PD. [Licht M, Almeida J, Bolívar F, Galván Y, García S. Nursing’s Role in Renal Replacement Therapies, Peritoneal Dialysis. MedUNAB 2014; 17 (2: xx-xx]. Introdução: A doença renal crônica é considerada um problema de saúde pública em todo o mundo devido à sua prevalência e crescente incidência na população. O profissional de enfermagem assiste ao indivíduo com a patologia de base e integra a família na realização de atividades que contribuam para os cuidados e prevenção de doenças e/ou recuperação da saúde, de modo que o seu papel principal é destinado a ajudar o paciente a manter ou alcançar a independência e construir, assim, hábitos de autocuidado de acordo com as necessidades identificadas. Objetivo: Esta revisão procura identificar o papel da enfermagem no tratamento de terapia de substituição renal

  11. Knee strength retention and analgesia with continuous perineural fentanyl infusion after total knee replacement: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangar, Devanand; Karlnoski, Rachel A; Sprenker, Collin J; Downes, Katheryne L; Taffe, Narrene; Wainwright, Robert; Gustke, Kenneth; Bernasek, Thomas L; Camporesi, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Despite providing adequate pain relief, a femoral nerve block can induce postoperative muscle weakness after total knee arthoplasty (TKA). Fentanyl has been shown to have peripheral effects but has not been used as a perineural infusate alone after TKA. Sixty patients scheduled for TKA were randomized to one of three blinded groups: a continuous 24 h infusion of either fentanyl 3 μg/ml, ropivacaine 0.1%, or 0.9% normal saline through a femoral nerve sheath catheter at 10 ml/h. The main outcome was maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in the quadriceps femoris (knee extension), measured by a handheld dynamometer (Nm/kg). Other variables assessed were preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores, hamstrings MVIC (knee flexion), active range of motion of the operative knee, distance ambulated, incidence of knee buckling, supplemental morphine usage, postoperative side effects, and serum fentanyl levels. Quadriceps MVIC values were significantly greater in the fentanyl group compared to the group that received ropivacaine (median values, 0.08 vs. 0.03 Nm/kg; p = 0.028). The incidence of postoperative knee buckling upon ambulation was higher in the ropivacaine group compared to the fentanyl group, although not statistically significant (40% vs. 15 %, respectively; p = 0.077). VAS scores while ambulating were not significantly different between the fentanyl group and the ropivacaine group (p = 0.270). Postoperative morphine consumption, nausea and vomiting, and resting VAS scores were similar among the three groups. A continuous perineural infusion of fentanyl produced greater strength retention than ropivacaine post-TKA.

  12. Effects of continuous vs. cycling estrogen replacement on the acquisition, retention and expression of place- and response-learning in the open-field tower maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Olga; Byrd, Dennis; Green, John T; Toufexis, Donna J

    2014-10-01

    Estrogen has been shown to either enhance or impair learning and memory in female rats. The use of different experimental paradigms or estrogen treatment regimens may contribute to these disparate findings. In order to assess the effect of different estradiol (E2) treatments on several aspects of cognition, we trained ovariectomized female rats with either continuous, cycling, or vehicle E2 replacement, in an open-field tower maze task (OFTM) designed to test reference memory in a low-stress environment. In addition, in order to compare two distinct learning and memory systems, rats were trained to use either a dorsolateral striatum-based response type learning or a hippocampal-based place type learning to solve the maze. Results showed that cyclic, but not continuous, E2 replacement facilitated the acquisition of spatial memory in place-learners. Neither E2 regimen affected acquisition in response-learners. Additionally, when all experimental groups were performing at asymptote, rats were evaluated for performance stability by changing the location of their start position in the OFTM. Both regimens of E2 disrupted the expression of spatial memory in place-learners following the novel start position. However, E2 replacement protected ovariectomized female rats from the disruption of memory expression following a start position change in response-learners. Additionally all experimental groups performed equally well when tested following a 21-day period during which rats were absent from the maze. These results suggest that E2 fluctuation is particularly important in the acquisition of hippocampal-mediated spatial learning, and that hippocampal-based memory may be subject to disruption following environmental change, while striatum-based memory is subject to protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous 28 day iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) infusion and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (hart) for malignant glioma: a phase I clinical and thymidine replacement study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, C.A.; Mehta, M.P.; Robins, H.I.; Badie, B.; Arzoomanian, R.; Simon, K.; Alberti, D.; Feierabend, C.; Kunugi, K.A.; Wilding, G.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: Based on preclinical studies demonstrating a direct correlation between duration of IUdR infusion and percent cells labeled as well as amount thymidine replaced by IUdR, we conducted a Phase I trial to: (1) investigate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and systemic toxicities of a continuous 28 day IUdR infusion; (2) analyze percent IUdR-thymidine replacement in peripheral granulocytes as a surrogate marker for IUdR incorporation into tumor cells; (3) measure steady state serum IUdR levels; and (4) assess the feasibility of continuous IUdR infusion and HART in the management of malignant glioma. Materials and Methods: Patients (pts.) were required to have a KPS ≥60% and biopsy proven malignant glioma. Pts. received 100 (level 1: 4 pts.), 200 (level 2: 3 pts.), 300 (level 3: 3 pts.), 400 (level 4: 6 pts.) or 500 (level 5:2 pts.) mg/m2/day IUdR by continuous infusion for 28 days. HART started 7 days after IUdR initiation. Total dose was 70 Gy [1.2 Gy BID x 25 days with a 10 Gy. (2.0 x 5 days - q Saturday) boost. Weekly assays were performed for % IUdR incorporation (thymidine replacement) and serum IUdR levels using standard HPLC methods. Standard Phase I toxicity methodology was used. Results: Between June 1994 and December 1996, 18 pts. with a mean age of 52 years were enrolled (16 glioblastoma multiforme and 2 anaplastic astrocytoma). All pts. completed XRT. Two pts. did not complete IUdR, one due to grade 4 IUdR-related toxicities and one due to rapid disease progression. Dose modification occurred in one pt.; drug withheld due to grade 3 AST (SGOT) elevation with re-initiation of drug at the next lowest level. There were no grade ≥3 XRT toxicities. Grade ≥ 3 IUdR toxicities, dose level at which they occurred, number of patients affected and duration of toxicity are presented in Table 1. Thymidine replacement peaks at 3 weeks and increases with dose (Figure 1). Data on steady state plasma IUdR levels will also be presented. Conclusions: Our

  14. Use of cryopoor plasma for albumin replacement and continuous antimicrobial infusion for treatment of septic peritonitis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropski, Meaghan K; Guillaumin, Julien; Monnig, Andrea A; Townsend, Katy; McLoughlin, Mary A

    2017-05-01

    To report the successful management of a dog with septic peritonitis and septic shock secondary to enterectomy dehiscence using novel techniques for identification of intestinal dehiscence and for septic shock treatment. A 5-year-old castrated male Bernese Mountain Dog presented for lethargy 6 days following enterotomy for foreign body obstruction. Septic peritonitis was identified due to dehiscence of the enterotomy site, and resection and anastomosis were performed using a gastrointestinal anastomosis and thoracoabdominal stapling device. Postoperatively the patient experienced severe hypotension, which responded to norepinephrine constant rate infusion (CRI) after failing to improve with fluid therapy or dopamine CRI. Further treatment included antimicrobial CRI and supportive care including careful fluid therapy. Due to low effective circulating volume paired with intersititial fluid overload and large volume abdominal effusion, fluid therapy consisted of a combination of human serum albumin, canine albumin, synthetic colloids, and isotonic crystalloids. Cryopoor plasma (CPP) was used as a source of canine albumin and intravascular volume. On Day 4, food dye was given through a nasogastric tube due to suspicion of dehiscence of the anastomosis site. Dehiscence was confirmed during abdominal exploratory, and a second resection and anastomosis was performed. Abdominal partial closure with vacuum-assisted closure device was performed. Supportive care was continued with CPP CRI and imipenem CRI. Planned relaparotomy to change the vacuum-assisted closure device was performed 48 hours later, with abdominal closure 96 hours after anastomosis. The patient was discharged on Day 15. Recheck 12 months later was normal. This case includes novel techniques such food dye via nasogastric tube to identify anastomosis dehiscence, use of CPP as a source of canine albumin, and antimicrobial CRI in a dog with septic peritonitis. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society

  15. Weekly 24-hour continuous infusion interleukin-2 for metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma: a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, E A; Scudder, S A; Meyers, F A; Tanaka, M S; Paradise, C; Gandara, D R

    1991-02-01

    Twenty-nine patients with biopsy-confirmed metastatic melanoma (17) or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (12) were treated with escalating doses or recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) administered as weekly 24-h intravenous infusions. Patients received from 3 to 12 x 10(6) C.U./m2 (18-72 x 10(6) I.U./m2) weekly over a treatment period of 1 to 16 weeks, with a median of eight weekly cycles administered. Patients in all treatment groups experienced non-life-threatening systemic side effects consisting of fever, nausea, vomiting, fluid retention, and diarrhea. Grade III hypotension was seen in four of six patients (67%) at 12 x 10(6) C.U./m2, and represented the dose-limiting toxicity. Grade IV hypotension occurred in 1 of 14 patients at 6 x 10(6) C.U./m2; no other grade IV toxicities were observed. Grade III fever occurred in 3 of 11 patients (27%) treated at 3 x 10(6) C.U./m2, 3 of 14 patients (21%) at 6 x 10(6) C.U./m2, and 3 of 6 patients (50%) at 9 x 10(6) C.U./m2. An objective response was observed in 3 of 28 evaluable patients (10%): 1 complete response and 1 partial response in renal cell cancer, and 1 partial response in a melanoma patient. We conclude that for future studies, the recommended dose of IL-2 given as a weekly 24-h infusion is 9 x 10(6) C.U./m2 and that a low rate of objective tumor response can be obtained in patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma using this regimen.

  16. Continuous Femoral Nerve Block versus Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia for Knee Mobility and Long-Term Pain in Patients Receiving Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the comparative analgesia effectiveness and safety of postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB with patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA and their impact on knee function and chronic postoperative pain. Methods. Participants were randomly allocated to receive postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (group CFNB or intravenous patient controlled analgesia (group PCIA. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC scores for knee and incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were compared. postoperative pain and salvage medication at rest or during mobilization 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days postoperatively were also recorded. Results. After discharge from the hospital and rehabilitation of joint function, patients in group CFNB reported significantly improved knee flexion and less incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3 months and 6 months postoperatively (P<0.05. Analgesic rescue medications were significantly reduced in patients receiving CFNB (P<0.001 and P=0.031, resp.. Conclusion. With standardized rehabilitation therapy, continuous femoral nerve block analgesia reduced the incidence of chronic postoperative pain, improved motility of replaced joints, and reduced the dosages of rescue analgesic medications, suggesting a recovery-enhancing effect of peripheral nerve block analgesia.

  17. Periodic Peritoneal Dialysis in End Stage Renal Disease: Is it Still ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peritoneal dialysis (PD) in India has made renal replacement therapy out of reach of many patients with ... Keywords: Peritoneal dialysis, End stage renal disease, Renal replacement therapy ..... adherence to the dialysis program is often poor.

  18. Evaluation of gastric emptying in patients with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis using 99mTc-solid meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubalewska, A.; Placzkiewicz, E.; Staszczak, A.; Huszno, B.; Szybinski, Z.; Stompor, T.; Sulowicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is an alternative to the hemodialysis mode of terminal renal failure treatment. Nutritional status impairment is common among patients with end-stage renal disease, and its laboratory surrogates predict increased morbidity and mortality risk in patients on chronic haemodialysis or peritoneal dialyses. The aetiology of malnutrition is multifactorial and delayed gastric emptying is also considered to be a significant factor. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct influence of indwelled dialysate in the peritoneal cavity on gastric emptying in patients treated with CAPD. The study group included 20 patients (9 males, 11 females) aged 50,1 ± 11 years (range: 39-75 years) with chronic renal failure treated with CAPD for 18.4 ± 14.7 months. All patients were non-diabetic and had no other than chronic uraemia co-morbidity known to influence autonomic nervous system function and gastric motility. The control group included 15 healthy volunteers matched by age, sex and body weight. Dialysis adequacy parameters were calculated based on 24-hour urine and dialysate collections. Gastric emptying was estimated with dynamic abdominal scintigraphy. We compared the results of gastric emptying tests performed in dialysed patients with and without dialysate liquid in the peritoneal cavity and related the values to those of the control subjects. In the study group, weekly values of dialysis parameters were within the ranges considered satisfactory in terms of uraemia control. All parameters of gastric emptying were significantly delayed and prolonged in terminal renal failure patients, but the results have shown no significant differences between those with and without indwelling dialysate. Based on the results we conclude that gastric emptying in subjects with chronic renal failure treated with CAPD is markedly delayed compared to healthy subjects. There was no significant effect of indwelling dialysate in the peritoneal

  19. A case of rhabdomyolysis after kidney transplantation successfully managed with intensive continuous dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazov, Rauf; Fox, Michael; Alejo, Jennifer L; Anjum, Malik A; Azari, Feredun; Doyle, Alden; Agarwal, Avinash; Brayman, Kenneth L

    2018-04-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by muscle cell death which can result in acute kidney injury from pigment nephropathy. We present a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis immediately after deceased donor kidney transplantation surgery and was managed with continuous renal replacement therapy that resulted in successful salvage of the kidney allograft. Patients who develop acute kidney failure requiring renal replacement therapy generally have a poor prognosis. It is worth noting that while continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVHF) offers greater volume support and continuous clearance compared to hemodialysis (HD), recent studies have demonstrated no clinically significant improvement in clinical outcome between the two. Perhaps CVVHF is a better modality compared to HD in this setting to prevent further insult from pigment nephropathy to an allograft. A combination of early diagnosis and intensive continuous renal replacement therapy can be used for allograft salvage in a patient with rhabdomyolysis in the immediate post-kidney transplant period.

  20. Validity of estimated prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy from primary care electronic health records compared with national survey and registry data in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Masao; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Casula, Anna; Caskey, Fergus J; Aitken, Grant; Fraser, Simon D S; Roderick, Paul J; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    Anonymous primary care records are an important resource for observational studies. However, their external validity is unknown in identifying the prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy (RRT). We thus compared the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) with a nationally representative survey and national registry. Among all people ≥25 years of age registered in the CPRD for ≥1 year on 31 March 2014, we identified patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) primary care data have good external validity for the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  1. Long-term exposure to tenofovir continuously decrease renal function in HIV-1-infected patients with low body weight: results from 10 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Yohei; Tanaka, Noriko; Mizushima, Daisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Koji; Kinai, Ei; Honda, Haruhito; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tanuma, Junko; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi

    2014-08-24

    To investigate the effect of long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use on renal function, especially in patients with low body weight who are vulnerable to TDF nephrotoxicity. A single-center, observational study in Tokyo, Japan. We performed a 10 years cohort study of 792 HIV-1-infected patients. The effect of long-term TDF use on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated on treatment-naive patients who started TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy (n = 422) and those who started abacavir-containing antiretroviral therapy as control (n = 370). Three renal endpoints were examined by the logistic regression model: decrement in eGFR of higher than 10 ml/min per 1.73 m relative to the baseline, more than 25% decrement in eGFR, and eGFR lower than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m at least 3 months apart. The loss in eGFR was estimated using linear mixed models for repeated measures. The median weight at baseline was 63 kg. TDF use increased the risk of all three renal outcomes compared with the control group: higher than 10 ml/min per 1.73 m decrement in eGFR [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-3.14, P decrement (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.50-2.90, P < 0.001), and eGFR lower than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m at least 3 months apart (adjusted OR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.62-9.36, P = 0.002). The cumulative mean loss relative to the control after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years of TDF exposure was -3.8, -3.6, -5.5, -6.6, and -10.3 ml/min per 1.73 m, respectively, indicating that the loss in eGFR increased over time (P < 0.001). In this cohort of patients with low body weight, TDF exposure increased the risk of renal dysfunction. Furthermore, the loss in eGFR relative to the control increased continuously up to 5 years.

  2. Effects of concentrate replacement by feed blocks on ruminal fermentation and microbial growth in goats and single-flow continuous-culture fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Alcaide, E; Pascual, M R; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Morales-García, E Y; Martín-García, A I

    2009-04-01

    The effect of replacing concentrate with 2 different feed blocks (FB) on ruminal fermentation and microbial growth was evaluated in goats and in single-flow continuous-culture fermenters. Diets consisted of alfalfa hay plus concentrate and alfalfa hay plus concentrate with 1 of the 2 studied FB. Three trials were carried out with 6 rumen-fistulated Granadina goats and 3 incubation runs in 6 single-flow continuous-culture fermenters. Experimental treatments were assigned randomly within each run, with 2 repetitions for each diet. At the end of each in vivo trial, the rumen contents were obtained for inoculating the fermenters. For each incubation run, the fermenters were inoculated with ruminal fluid from goats fed the same diet supplied to the corresponding fermenter flask. The average pH values, total and individual VFA, and NH(3)-N concentrations, and acetate:propionate ratios in the rumen of goats were not affected (P >or= 0.10) by diet, whereas the microbial N flow (MNF) and efficiency were affected (P fermenters, the diet affected pH (Por= 0.05), and total (P=0.02), NH(3) (P=0.005), and non-NH(3) (P=0.02) N flows, whereas the efficiency of VFA production was not affected (P=0.75). The effect of diet on MNF and efficiency depended on the bacterial pellet used as a reference. An effect (Pfermenter contents and effluent were similar (P=0.05). Differences (Pfermentation variables and bacterial pellet compositions were found. Partial replacement of the concentrate with FB did not greatly compromise carbohydrate fermentation in unproductive goats. However, this was not the case for MNF and efficiency. Differences between the results obtained in vivo and in vitro indicate a need to identify conditions in fermenters that allow better simulation of fermentation, microbial growth, and bacterial pellet composition in vivo. Reduced feeding cost could be achieved with the inclusion of FB in the diets of unproductive goats without altering rumen fermentation.

  3. Desempenho de seis modelos de predição prognóstica em pacientes críticos que receberam suporte renal extracorpóreo Performance of six prognostic scores in critically ILL patients receiving renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Maccariello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Não existe consenso sobre qual modelo prognóstico deva ser utilizado em pacientes com disfunção renal aguda (DRA. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de seis escores de prognóstico em pacientes que necessitaram de suporte renal. MÉTODO: Coorte prospectiva de pacientes internados nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI de três hospitais terciários que necessitaram de suporte renal por DRA durante 32 meses. Foram excluídos os pacientes crônicos em programa de diálise ou com BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus about prognostic scores for use in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of six prognostic scores in predicting hospital mortality in patients with AKI and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT. METHODS: Prospective cohort of patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICU of three tertiary care hospitals that required RRT for AKI over a 32-month period. Patients with end-stage renal disease and those with ICU stay < 24h were excluded. Data from the first 24h of ICU admission were used to calculate SAPS II and APACHE II scores, and data from the first 24h of RRT were used in the calculation of LOD, ODIN, Liaño and Mehta scores. Discrimination was evaluated using the area under ROC curve (AUROC and calibration using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. The hospital mortality was the end-point of interest. RESULTS: 467 patients were evaluated. Hospital mortality rate was 75%. Mean SAPS II and APACHE II scores were 48.5 ±11.2 and 27.4 ± 6.3 points, and median LOD score was 7 (5-8 points. Except for Mehta score (p = 0.001, calibration was appropriate in all models. However, discrimination was uniformly unsatisfactory; AUROC ranged from 0.60 for ODIN to 0.72 for SAPS II and Mehta scores. In addition, except for Mehta, all models tended to underestimate hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Organ dysfunction, general and

  4. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...

  5. Condition and perspective of renal replacement therapy (RRT in children in the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bayko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the incidence, prevalence and outcomes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in children in Belarus, age and gender of patients, etiology of renal diseases leading to ESRD. The study included 121 children, who received RRT as of January 01, 2007 and all subsequent new patients, who started this therapy before December 31, 2016. Results. The incidence of ESRD in  children in Belarus aged 0–14 years for the period 2007–2016 was 7 (6; 8 cases per year (4.8 (4.2; 5.2 per million age related population (pmarp and at the age of 0–17 years for the period 2009–2016 – 11 (9; 12 cases per year (5.6 (4.8; 6.8 pmarp. The prevalence of ESRD during the period from 2007 to 2016 increased by 31.7% in  the group of 0–14 years [from 26 patients (18.3 pmarp to 38 (24.1 pmarp patients], and by 46.7% aged 0–17 [from 37 (21 pmarp to 57 (30.8 pmarp]. The main cause of ESRD was congenital abnormality of kidneys and urinary tract (44.6% of cases. As of December 31, 2016, 75.4% of children were transplanted, 15.8% received peritoneal dialysis and 8.8% – hemodialysis. 5 year RRT mortality rate was 17.9 deaths per 1000 patient-years and main course of death was infection complications (50%. Conclusions. The incidence of ESRD in children in Belarus corresponds to the average of ESPN/ERA–EDTA Register, the prevalence islower, but with a constant growth. The low mortality rate of patients on RRT and high transplantation activity with insufficient number of preemptive transplantations is maintained. 

  6. Continuity of care with physicians and risk of subsequent hospitalization and end-stage renal disease in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ya; Chien, Li-Nien; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Chiou, Hung-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Effective management for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can slow the progression of kidney outcomes and reduce hospital admissions. Better continuity of care (COC) was found to improve patients' adherence and self-management. This study examined the associations between COC, hospitalization, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in DM patients. In the cohort study, data from 1996 to 2012 were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, using inverse probability weighted analysis. A total of 26,063 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM who had been treated with antihyperglycemic agents were included. COC is to assess the extent to which a DM patient visited the same physician during the study period. This study categorized COC into 3 groups - low, intermediate, and high, - according to the distribution of scores in our sample. The number of ESRD patients in the high, intermediate, and low COC groups were 92 (22.33%), 130 (31.55%), and 190 (46.12%), respectively, and the mean follow-up periods for the 3 groups were 7.13, 7.12, and 7.27 years, respectively. After using inverse probability weighting, the intermediate and low COC groups were significantly associated with an increased risk of ESRD compared with the high COC group (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.36 [95% CI, 1.03-1.80] and aHR 1.76 [95% CI, 1.35-2.30], respectively). The intermediate and low COC groups were also significantly associated with the subsequent hospitalization compared with the high COC group (aHR 1.15 [95% CI, 0.99-1.33] and aHR 1.72 [95% CI, 1.50-1.97], respectively). COC is related to ESRD onset and subsequent hospitalization among patients with DM. This study suggested that when DM patients keep visiting the same physician for managing their diseases, the progression of renal disease can be prevented.

  7. Doxorubicin: Comparison between 3-h continuous and bolus intravenous administration paradigms on cardio-renal axis, mitochondrial sphingolipids and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamendi, Harriet; Zhou, Ying; Crosby, Meredith; Keirstead, Natalie; Snow, Debra; Bentley, Patricia; Patel, Nilaben; Barthlow, Herbert; Luo, Wenli; Dragan, Yvonne; Bialecki, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and effective broad-spectrum anthracycline antitumor agent, but its clinical usefulness is restricted by cardiotoxicity. This study compared pharmacokinetic, functional, structural and biochemical effects of single dose DOX bolus or 3-h continuous iv infusion (3-h iv) in the Han–Wistar rat to characterize possible treatment-related differences in drug safety over a 72 h observation period. Both DOX dosing paradigms significantly altered blood pressure, core body temperature and QA interval (indirect measure of cardiac contractility); however, there was no recovery observed in the bolus iv treatment group. Following the 3-h iv treatment, blood pressures and QA interval normalized by 36 h then rose above baseline levels over 72 h. Both treatments induced biphasic changes in heart rate with initial increases followed by sustained decreases. Cardiac injury biomarkers in plasma were elevated only in the bolus iv treatment group. Tissue cardiac injury biomarkers, cardiac mitochondrial complexes I, III and V and cardiac mitochondrial sphingolipids were decreased only in the bolus iv treatment group. Results indicate that each DOX dosing paradigm deregulates sinus rhythm. However, slowing the rate of infusion allows for functional compensation of blood pressure and may decrease the likelihood of cardiac myocyte necrosis via a mechanism associated with reduced mitochondrial damage. - Highlights: • Despite damaging cardiomyocytes, continuous iv doxorubicin improves cardiovascular outcomes. • This study supports administration of doxorubicin via slow continuous iv infusion limits acute cardio-toxicity. • This study supports use of metabolomic-derived lipid biomarkers for improved quantification of cardiovascular risk. • This study supports systems-based physiological approach to generate a data that can greatly inform risk assessments.

  8. Doxorubicin: Comparison between 3-h continuous and bolus intravenous administration paradigms on cardio-renal axis, mitochondrial sphingolipids and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamendi, Harriet, E-mail: harriet_kamendi@kandih.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Zhou, Ying, E-mail: yingzhou526@gmail.com [Oncology Innovative Medicines and Early Development, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Crosby, Meredith, E-mail: Meredith.crosby@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Keirstead, Natalie, E-mail: Nkeirstead@alnylam.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Snow, Debra, E-mail: Debra.snow@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Bentley, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.bentley@abbvie.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Patel, Nilaben, E-mail: patelnilaben@yahoo.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Barthlow, Herbert, E-mail: Herbert.barthlow@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Luo, Wenli, E-mail: Wenli.luo@astrazeneca.com [Discovery Sciences, Innovative Medicines, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Dragan, Yvonne, E-mail: Yvonne.P.Dragan@takeda.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Bialecki, Russell, E-mail: russell.bialecki@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and effective broad-spectrum anthracycline antitumor agent, but its clinical usefulness is restricted by cardiotoxicity. This study compared pharmacokinetic, functional, structural and biochemical effects of single dose DOX bolus or 3-h continuous iv infusion (3-h iv) in the Han–Wistar rat to characterize possible treatment-related differences in drug safety over a 72 h observation period. Both DOX dosing paradigms significantly altered blood pressure, core body temperature and QA interval (indirect measure of cardiac contractility); however, there was no recovery observed in the bolus iv treatment group. Following the 3-h iv treatment, blood pressures and QA interval normalized by 36 h then rose above baseline levels over 72 h. Both treatments induced biphasic changes in heart rate with initial increases followed by sustained decreases. Cardiac injury biomarkers in plasma were elevated only in the bolus iv treatment group. Tissue cardiac injury biomarkers, cardiac mitochondrial complexes I, III and V and cardiac mitochondrial sphingolipids were decreased only in the bolus iv treatment group. Results indicate that each DOX dosing paradigm deregulates sinus rhythm. However, slowing the rate of infusion allows for functional compensation of blood pressure and may decrease the likelihood of cardiac myocyte necrosis via a mechanism associated with reduced mitochondrial damage. - Highlights: • Despite damaging cardiomyocytes, continuous iv doxorubicin improves cardiovascular outcomes. • This study supports administration of doxorubicin via slow continuous iv infusion limits acute cardio-toxicity. • This study supports use of metabolomic-derived lipid biomarkers for improved quantification of cardiovascular risk. • This study supports systems-based physiological approach to generate a data that can greatly inform risk assessments.

  9. Prognostic relevance of sunitinib toxicities and comparison of continuous vs. intermittent sunitinib dosing schedule in metastatic renal cell cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin Ordu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Sunitinib-related side effects may develop as a result of the pharmacokinetic pathway affects the of the drug. Material and methods : Data on mRCC patients were obtained from the hospital archives. Outcomes of patients were evaluated in terms of related prognostic factors, sunitinib adverse events during the treatment, and two different sunitinib dosing schedules. Results : Seventy patients diagnosed with mRCC and treated with sunitinib were analyzed for prognostic factors and survival rates. During the mean follow-up of 33.5 months, 38 (54% patients were alive and 32 (46% patients died. The median time of overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS was 27 months (12–61 and 19 months (5–45, respectively. In univariate analysis, good prognostic risk group according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC, hypothyroidism as sunitinib toxicity and patients on sunitinib treatment more than 1 year were favorable prognostic factors for OS. Leukopenia and fatigue as sunitinib toxicity were poor prognostic factors for OS. PFS and OS of the patients were not significantly different when we compared intermittent (4/2 vs. continuous treatment dosing schedules. Conclusions : As a result of this trial, having hypothyroidism as an adverse effect of sunitinib was a favorable prognostic factor for OS and PFS in mRCC patients. It was also found that 4/2 and continuous dosing schedules of sunitinib did not give rise to different outcomes in mRCC patients.

  10. Renal computed angiography. Part I: Renal CT arteriography in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amin, M.; Hadjidekov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of renal vasculature is needed in several clinical condition among which hypertension is dominant. CT angiography now day replaces catheter angiography as non-invasive method. The goal of this study is to present initial authors experience in visualization of renal arteries using 64 MDCT and to evaluated the utility in hypertensive patients. MDCT assures excellent assessment of renal arteries conditions. Multiplanar reconstruction and allow better delineation in tortuous vessels course and anatomic variants. (authors)

  11. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  12. [Comparison of efficacy between continuous positive airway pressure and renal artery sympathetic denervation by radiofrequency ablation in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-meng; Tan, Xue-xue; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Xi-long

    2013-04-23

    To compare the efficacy of renal arterial sympathetic denervation (RSD) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with coexisting moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and hypertension. Retrospective analysis was conducted for patients with coexisting moderate to severe OSAS and hypertension for the efficacy of RSD (RSD group, n = 15) and CPAP (CPAP group, n = 16). Comparison was made for polysomnographic parameters and 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure (Bp) between two groups. There was no significant difference in age, gender, body mass index, nocturnal apnea hypopnea index (AHI), mean and minimal pulse oxygen saturation (mean SpO2 and mini SpO2) between two groups. Compared with those at pre-treatment, the following changes were observed at Day 30 post-treatment: in RSD group, the nocturnal AHI and T90 statistically decreased (27 ± 14 vs 32 ± 12, 8.7% ± 7.8% vs 13.8% ± 13.1%, all P 0.05); in CPAP group during treatment, nocturnal AHI and the ratio of duration SpO2 hypertension, both RSD and CPAP may improve sleep respiratory parameters and blood pressure to varying degrees. There is a more significant improvement of nocturnal AHI and SpO2 in CPAP group and more lower MSBp in RSD group.

  13. Feasibility and safety of low-flow extracorporeal CO2 removal managed with a renal replacement platform to enhance lung-protective ventilation of patients with mild-to-moderate ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthieu; Jaber, Samir; Zogheib, Elie; Godet, Thomas; Capellier, Gilles; Combes, Alain

    2018-05-10

    Extracorporeal carbon-dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R) might allow ultraprotective mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volume (VT) (ventilator-induced lung injury. This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility and safety of ECCO 2 R managed with a renal replacement therapy (RRT) platform to enable very low tidal volume ventilation of patients with mild-to-moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Twenty patients with mild (n = 8) or moderate (n = 12) ARDS were included. VT was gradually lowered from 6 to 5, 4.5, and 4 ml/kg, and PEEP adjusted to reach 23 ≤ P plat  ≤ 25 cmH 2 O. Standalone ECCO 2 R (no hemofilter associated with the RRT platform) was initiated when arterial PaCO 2 increased by > 20% from its initial value. Ventilation parameters (VT, respiratory rate, PEEP), respiratory system compliance, P plat and driving pressure, arterial blood gases, and ECCO 2 R-system operational characteristics were collected during at least 24 h of very low tidal volume ventilation. Complications, day-28 mortality, need for adjuvant therapies, and data on weaning off ECCO 2 R and mechanical ventilation were also recorded. While VT was reduced from 6 to 4 ml/kg and P plat kept ventilation with moderate increase in PaCO 2 in patients with mild-to-moderate ARDS. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02606240. Registered on 17 November 2015.

  14. Renal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorico F. da Costa Neto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal hemangioma is a relatively rare benign tumor, seldom diagnosed as a cause of hematuria. CASE REPORT: A female 40-year old patient presented with continuous gross hematuria, anemia and episodic right lumbar pain, with onset about 3 months previously. The patient underwent multiple blood transfusions during her hospital stay and extensive imaging propedeutics was performed. Semi-rigid ureterorenoscopy evidenced a bleeding focus in the upper calix of the right kidney, with endoscopic treatment being unfeasible. The patient underwent right upper pole nephrectomy and presented a favorable outcome. Histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen showed that it was a renal hemangioma. COMMENTS: Imaging methods usually employed for diagnostic investigation of hematuria do not have good sensitivity for renal hemangioma. However, they are important to exclude the most frequent differential diagnoses. The ureterorenoscopy is the diagnostic method of choice and endoscopic treatment can be feasible when the lesion is accessible and electrocautery or laser are available. We emphasize the open surgical treatment as a therapeutic option upon failure of less invasive methods.

  15. CT imaging spectrum of infiltrative renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David H; De Alba, Luis; Migliaro, Matias; Previgliano, Carlos H; Sangster, Guillermo P

    2017-11-01

    Most renal lesions replace the renal parenchyma as a focal space-occupying mass with borders distinguishing the mass from normal parenchyma. However, some renal lesions exhibit interstitial infiltration-a process that permeates the renal parenchyma by using the normal renal architecture for growth. These infiltrative lesions frequently show nonspecific patterns that lead to little or no contour deformity and have ill-defined borders on CT, making detection and diagnosis challenging. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the CT imaging findings of various conditions that may manifest as infiltrative renal lesions.

  16. Hypogonadism and renal failure: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumavalavan, Nannan; Wilken, Nathan A; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of both hypogonadism and renal failure is increasing. Hypogonadism in men with renal failure carries with it significant morbidity, including anemia and premature cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear whether testosterone therapy can affect the morbidity and mortality associated with renal failure. As such, in this review, we sought to evaluate the current literature addressing hypogonadism and testosterone replacement, specifically in men with renal failure. The articles chosen for this review were selected by performing a broad search using Pubmed, Embase and Scopus including the terms hypogonadism and renal failure from 1990 to the present. This review is based on both primary sources as well as review articles. Hypogonadism in renal failure has a multifactorial etiology, including co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, old age and obesity. Renal failure can lead to decreased luteinizing hormone production and decreased prolactin clearance that could impair testosterone production. Given the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and the potential morbidity associated with hypogonadism in men with renal failure, careful evaluation of serum testosterone would be valuable. Testosterone replacement therapy should be considered in men with symptomatic hypogonadism and renal failure, and may ameliorate some of the morbidity associated with renal failure. Patients with all stages of renal disease are at an increased risk of hypogonadism that could be associated with significant morbidity. Testosterone replacement therapy may reduce some of the morbidity of renal failure, although it carries risk.

  17. Fluid balance and chloride load in the first 24h of ICU admission and its relation with renal replacement therapies through a multicentre, retrospective, case-control study paired by APACHE-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, A; Ortiz-Lasa, M; Leizaola, O; Salgado, E; Irriguible, T; Sánchez-Satorra, M; Lomas-Fernández, C; Barral-Segade, P; Cordero-Vallejo, M; Rodrigo-Calabia, E; Dierssen-Sotos, T

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the association between water balance during the first 24h of admission to ICU and the variables related to chloride levels (chloride loading, type of fluid administered, hyperchloraemia), with the development of acute kidney injury renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT) during patients' admission to ICU. Multicentre case-control study. Hospital-based, national, carried out in 6 ICUs. Cases were patients older than 18 years who developed an AKI-RRT. Controls were patients older than 18 years admitted to the same institutions during the study period, who did not develop AKI-RRT during ICU admission. Pairing was done by APACHE-II. An analysis of unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, APACHE-II and water balance (in evaluating the type of fluid). We analysed the variables of 430 patients: 215 cases and 215 controls. An increase of 10% of the possibility of developing AKI-RRT per 500ml of positive water balance was evident (OR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.14]; P<.001). The study of mean values of chloride load administered did not show differences between the group of cases and controls (299.35±254.91 vs. 301.67±234.63; P=.92). The water balance in the first 24h of ICU admission relates to the development of IRA-TRR, regardless of chloraemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  19. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  20. Renal venogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be black. Other structures will be shades of gray. Veins are not normally seen in an x- ... Venogram - kidney; Renal vein thrombosis - venogram Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Renal veins References ...

  1. [Renal colic in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negru, Irina; Pricop, C; Costăchescu, Gh

    2010-01-01

    Renal colic in pregnant women is a serious condition, mainly when is associated with fever. Our retro-prospective study analyzes 111 cases managed conservatively or with endourological procedures for renal colic--insertion of JJ stents and percutaneous nephrostomy. Clinical evolution determined the insertion of JJ stents in 60 cases and the failure of this procedure imposed percutaneous nephrostomy in 5 cases. In 56 cases urinary tract infection was associated and in 2 cases, despite all efforts, the patients deceased due to sever sepsis. The immediate drainage of the upper urinary tract for renal colic in pregnancy is the recommended treatment, especially when the pain is associated with fever. JJ stens were well tolerated, even when they were replaced after 3 months. Pregnant women with a history of UTI or stone disease should be carefully followed-up.

  2. OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  3. Rol del profesional de Enfermería en terapias de reemplazo renal, diálisis peritoneal / Nursing’s Role in Renal Replacement Therapies, Peritoneal / Dialysis Papel do profissional de Enfermagem em terapias de substituição renal, diálise peritoneal

    OpenAIRE

    Maricel Licht-Ardila, Enf. Esp.; Jennifer Almeida-Arias, Enf.; Fabiola Bolívar-Salazar, Enf.; Yessica Galván-Mármol, Enf.; Silvia García-Trujillo, Enf.

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La enfermedad renal crónica es considerada un problema de salud pública en el ámbito mundial, debido a su prevalencia e incidencia creciente en la población. El profesional de enfermería asiste al paciente con su patología de base e integra a la familia en la realización de actividades que contribuyen al cuidado y prevención de la enfermedad o a la recuperación de su salud, por lo que el rol principal está orientado a ayudar al paciente, a conservar o lograr su independencia y g...

  4. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  5. Ultrasonography in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Visnar-Perovic, Alenka

    2003-01-01

    Many chronic renal diseases lead to the final common state of decrease in renal size, parenchymal atrophy, sclerosis and fibrosis. The ultrasound image show a smaller kidney, thinning of the parenchyma and its hyperechogenicity (reflecting sclerosis and fibrosis). The frequency of renal cysts increases with the progression of the disease. Ultrasound generally does not allow for the exact diagnosis of an underlying chronic disease (renal biopsy is usually required), but it can help to determine an irreversible disease, assess prognosis and avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The main exception in which the ultrasound image does not show a smaller kidney with parenchymal atrophy is diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of chronic and end-stage renal failure in developed countries in recent years. In this case, both renal size and parenchymal thickness are preserved until end-stage renal failure. Doppler study of intrarenal vessels can provide additional information about microvascular and parenchymal lesions, which is helpful in deciding for or against therapeutic intervention and timely planning for optimal renal replacement therapy option

  6. Replacement rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes in an elongated replacement rod for use with fuel assemblies of the type having two end fittings connected by guide tubes with a plurality of rod and guide tube cell defining spacer grids containing rod support features and mixing vanes. The grids secured to the guide tubes in register between the end fittings at spaced intervals. The fuel rod comprising: an asymmetrically beveled tip; a shank portion having a straight centerline; and a permanently diverging portion between the tip and the shank portion

  7. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  8. Preemptive Renal Transplantation-The Best Treatment Option for Terminal Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arze Aimaretti, L; Arze, S

    2016-03-01

    Renal transplantation is the best therapeutic option for end-stage chronic renal disease. Assuming that it is more advisable if performed early, we aimed to show the clinical, social, and economic advantages in 70% of our patients who were dialyzed only for a short period. For this purpose, we retrospectively collected data over 28 years in 142 kidney transplants performed in patients with renal transplantation with renal failure, especially in developing countries such as Bolivia, where until last year, full public support for renal replacement therapy was unavailable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  10. Neurological complications of renal dialysis and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Kushan; Taube, David; Khalil, Nofal; Perry, Richard; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2018-04-01

    Neurological complications from renal replacement therapy contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in patients with renal failure. Such complications can affect either the central or peripheral nervous systems. Most neurological disturbances associated with the uraemic state do not respond fully to renal replacement therapy. There are also complications specifically associated with dialysis and transplantation. A multidisciplinary approach, involving both nephrologists and neurologists, is critical for the diagnosis and effective management of these disorders. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Various musculoskeletal manifestations of chronic renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.Y.; Ong, K.O.

    2013-01-01

    Musculoskeletal manifestations in chronic renal insufficiency are caused by complex bone metabolism alterations, now described under the umbrella term of chronic kidney disease mineral- and bone-related disorder (CKD-MBD), as well as iatrogenic processes related to renal replacement treatment. Radiological imaging remains the mainstay of disease assessment. This review aims to illustrate the radiological features of CKD-MBD, such as secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, adynamic bone disease, soft-tissue calcifications; as well as features associated with renal replacement therapy, such as aluminium toxicity, secondary amyloidosis, destructive spondyloarthropathy, haemodialysis-related erosive arthropathy, tendon rupture, osteonecrosis, and infection

  12. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  13. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  14. Open heart surgery after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yuji; Mitsuno, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroe; Ryomoto, Masaaki; Fukui, Shinya; Tsujiya, Noriko; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Nojima, Michio

    2014-09-01

    to evaluate the strategy for open heart surgery after renal transplantation performed in a single institution in Japan. we reviewed 6 open heart surgeries after renal transplantation in 5 patients, performed between January 1992 and December 2012. The patients were 3 men and 2 women with a mean age of 60 ± 11 years (range 46-68 years). They had old myocardial infarction and unstable angina, aortic and mitral stenosis, left arterial myxoma, aortic stenosis, and native valve endocarditis followed by prosthetic valve endocarditis. Operative procedures included coronary artery bypass grafting, double-valve replacement, resection of left arterial myxoma, 2 aortic valve replacements, and a double-valve replacement. Renal protection consisted of steroid cover (hydrocortisone 100-500 mg or methylprednisolone 1000 mg) and intravenous immunosuppressant infusion (cyclosporine 30-40 mg day(-1) or tacrolimus 1.0 mg day(-1)). 5 cases were uneventful and good renal graft function was maintained at discharge (serum creatinine 2.1 ± 0.5 mg dL(-1)). There was one operative death after emergency double-valve replacement for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-associated prosthetic valve endocarditis. Although the endocarditis improved after valve replacement, the patient died of postoperative pneumonia on postoperative day 45. careful perioperative management can allow successful open heart surgery after renal transplantation. However, severe complications, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, may cause renal graft loss. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Martine; Kellum, John A; Gibney, R T Noel; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Tumlin, James; Mehta, Ravindra

    2005-12-01

    Our purpose is to discuss established risk factors in the development of acute renal failure and briefly overview clinical markers and preventive measures. Findings from the literature support the role of older age, diabetes, underlying renal insufficiency, and heart failure as predisposing factors for acute renal failure. Diabetics with baseline renal insufficiency represent the highest risk subgroup. An association between sepsis, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure is clear. Liver failure, rhabdomyolysis, and open-heart surgery (especially valve replacement) are clinical conditions potentially leading to acute renal failure. Increasing evidence shows that intraabdominal hypertension may contribute to the development of acute renal failure. Radiocontrast and antimicrobial agents are the most common causes of nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In terms of prevention, avoiding nephrotoxins when possible is certainly desirable; fluid therapy is an effective prevention measure in certain clinical circumstances. Supporting cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and renal perfusion pressure are indicated to reduce the risk for acute renal failure. Nonionic, isoosmolar intravenous contrast should be used in high-risk patients. Although urine output and serum creatinine lack sensitivity and specificity in acute renal failure, they remain the most used parameters in clinical practice. There are identified risk factors of acute renal failure. Because acute renal failure is associated with a worsening outcome, particularly if occurring in critical illness and if severe enough to require renal replacement therapy, preventive measures should be part of appropriate management.

  16. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  17. Hip or knee replacement - in the hospital after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip replacement surgery - after - self-care; Knee replacement surgery - after - self-care ... taking walks in the hallways with help. After knee replacement, some surgeons recommend using a continuous passive ...

  18. A portable continuous blood purification machine for emergency rescue in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Hongyan; Yu, Yongwu; Dong, Zhen; Wen, Yuanyuan; Li, Ping; Tang, Wenhong; Wang, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy plays an important role in emergency rescue. Currently, no continuous renal replacement therapy machine can be used under unstable conditions as the fluid flow of these machines is controlled electronically. A novel machine that can provide emergency continuous renal replacement therapy in disaster rescue is therefore needed. Based on a volumetric metering method, a prototype portable continuous blood purifier based on a volumetric metering method was developed. Basic performance tests, special environmental tests, animal experiments and clinical use of the novel machine were completed to test and verify its performance under unstable conditions. All tests completed showed that the machine met the requirements of the national industry standards with a size reduced to approximately one half of the Baxter Aquarius machine. The clearance of harmful substances by the machine described here was equal to that of the Baxter Aquarius machine and was adequate for clinical purposes. The novel prototype performed well in all situations tested and can aid rescue work on disaster sites. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  20. Changing spectrum of renal disease in HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sunil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was done to evaluate the spectrum of various renal histopathological lesions in patients infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus.32 HIV positive patients underwent Renal biopsy over a period of 3 years from October 2013 to September 2016 who had presented with renal dysfunction and urine sediment abnormalities. Out of 32 patients, 24 were males and 8 were females. The mode of transmission of disease was sexual in 25 patients.14 patients presented with Nephrotic range proteinuria and 11 patients underwent RRT (renal replacement therapy. Majority of patients had tubulointerstitial lesions (18 patients followed by glomerular lesions (14 patients.24 patients were receiving HAART (Highly active antiretroviral therapy and majority of them had tubulointerstitial lesions. Hence Renal biopsy is indicated in HIV patients presenting with renal failure to arrive at proper diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  2. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  3. Renal transplant scintigraphy (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, Ghee

    2005-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the most effective mode of renal replacement therapy for correction of renal failure. Renal donors can either be: a. a deceased person - the kidneys being removed when brain death or absence of cerebral cortical function / perfusion is confirmed - the cadaveric kidney is packed in ice and nutrient solution and transplanted within 24 hours of removal ('cold ischemia') ob. a living donor - the donor may or may not be related to the recipient. Due to the limited length of the renal vessels and ureter of the donor kidney, it is implanted close to the bladder of the recipient. The donor vessels are anastomosed to the iliac artery and vein of the recipient. Transplant variants: a. 2 kidneys maybe transplanted because: - an old donor with less kidney reserve from atrophy due to age or disease (e.g. hypertension) - an infant donor when both kidneys are removed en bloc, b. Donor kidneys with more than 1 artery, vein or ureter. c. Donor horse shoe kidney d. Combined renal and pancreas transplant for type I diabetics -a short segment of duodenum transplanted with the pancreas maybe implanted into the bladder. Copyright (2005) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine

  4. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography: evaluation of renal arteries in living renal transplant donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firat, Ali; Akin, Oguz; Muhtesem Agildere, Ahmet; Aytekin, Cuneyt; Haberal, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important steps before living-donor nephrectomy is assessment of renal vascular anatomy. The number, origins and lengths of the renal arteries and variations of renal veins must be determined in order to identify the kidney that is most suitable for transplantation. Digital subtraction angiography was long considered the standard procedure for this purpose, but this method has been replaced by non-invasive techniques. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography is an accurate, safe and reliable method for imaging vasculature. This article reviews the technique and the clinical features of this method in the evaluation of living renal transplant donors

  5. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography: evaluation of renal arteries in living renal transplant donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firat, Ali; Akin, Oguz; Muhtesem Agildere, Ahmet; Aytekin, Cuneyt; Haberal, Mehmet

    2004-10-01

    One of the most important steps before living-donor nephrectomy is assessment of renal vascular anatomy. The number, origins and lengths of the renal arteries and variations of renal veins must be determined in order to identify the kidney that is most suitable for transplantation. Digital subtraction angiography was long considered the standard procedure for this purpose, but this method has been replaced by non-invasive techniques. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography is an accurate, safe and reliable method for imaging vasculature. This article reviews the technique and the clinical features of this method in the evaluation of living renal transplant donors.

  6. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  7. Late outcome of a controlled trial of enalapril treatment in progressive chronic renal failure. Hard end-points and influence of proteinuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Leyssac, P P

    1995-01-01

    An earlier controlled trial showed that over an average of 26 months, enalapril slowed the progression of chronic renal failure. Following completion of the trial, the patients continued to receive antihypertensive treatment according to ordinary clinical criteria. All but four patients...... end-stage renal failure (ESRF) (P renal outcome groups. In all patients, baseline Calb and CIgG were negatively correlated with the rate of change in GFR during the controlled trial (r = -0.37, P .... In the original enalapril group, 12 of the 35 patients (34%) were alive without renal replacement therapy versus five of the 35 patients (14%) in the control group. This difference of 20% in favour of having been in the enalapril group in the original trial was significant (P = 0.05; 95% confidence limits 0...

  8. End-stage Renal Failure as a Complication of Acute Tubulo-Interstitial Nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, G.; Ali, R.; Abdelrehman, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Ayman, K.

    2005-01-01

    Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis (ATIN) is an important cause of acute renal failure, where renal impairement tends to be variable but recovery is the rule. End-stage renal failure (ESRF) has been rarely reported as a complication of ATIN. We report here a case of idiopathic ATIN that resulted in severe acute renal failure. The patient developed ESRF, which required permanent renal replacement therapy. (author)

  9. Therapy of Hypoparathyroidism by Replacement with Parathyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rejnmark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT is a state of hypocalcemia due to inappropriate low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH. HypoPT is normally treated by calcium supplements and activated vitamin D analogues. Although plasma calcium is normalized in response to conventional therapy, quality of life (QoL seems impaired and patients are at increased risk of renal complications. A number of studies have suggested subcutaneous injections with PTH as an alternative therapy. By replacement with the missing hormone, urinary calcium may be lowered and QoL may improve. PTH replacement therapy (PTH-RT possesses, nevertheless, a number of challenges. If PTH is injected only once a day, fluctuations in calcium levels may occur resulting in hypercalcemia in the hours following an injection. Twice-a-day injections seem to cause less fluctuation in plasma calcium but do stimulate bone turnover to above normal. Most recently, continuous delivery of PTH by pump has appeared as a feasible alternative to injections. Plasma calcium levels do not fluctuate, urinary calcium is lowered, and bone turnover is only stimulated modestly (into the normal range. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term effects. If beneficial, it seems likely that standard treatment of HypoPT in the future will change into replacement therapy with the missing hormone.

  10. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.659 Replacement housing...

  11. Renal Ammonia Metabolism and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I. David; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism and transport mediates a central role in acid-base homeostasis. In contrast to most renal solutes, the majority of renal ammonia excretion derives from intrarenal production, not from glomerular filtration. Renal ammoniagenesis predominantly results from glutamine metabolism, which produces 2 NH4+ and 2 HCO3− for each glutamine metabolized. The proximal tubule is the primary site for ammoniagenesis, but there is evidence for ammoniagenesis by most renal epithelial cells. Ammonia produced in the kidney is either excreted into the urine or returned to the systemic circulation through the renal veins. Ammonia excreted in the urine promotes acid excretion; ammonia returned to the systemic circulation is metabolized in the liver in a HCO3−-consuming process, resulting in no net benefit to acid-base homeostasis. Highly regulated ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells determines the proportion of ammonia excreted in the urine versus returned to the systemic circulation. The traditional paradigm of ammonia transport involving passive NH3 diffusion, protonation in the lumen and NH4+ trapping due to an inability to cross plasma membranes is being replaced by the recognition of limited plasma membrane NH3 permeability in combination with the presence of specific NH3-transporting and NH4+-transporting proteins in specific renal epithelial cells. Ammonia production and transport are regulated by a variety of factors, including extracellular pH and K+, and by several hormones, such as mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and angiotensin II. This coordinated process of regulated ammonia production and transport is critical for the effective maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. PMID:23720285

  12. Massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiracofe, H L; Peterson, N

    1975-06-01

    All reported cases of massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage have involved healthy young primigravidas and blacks have predominated (4 of 7 women). Coagulopathies and underlying renal disease have been absent. Hematuria was painless in 5 of 8 cases. Hemorrhage began within 24 hours in 1 case, within 48 hours in 4 cases and 4 days post partum in 3 cases. Our first case is the only report in which hemorrhage has occurred in a primipara. Failure of closure or reopening of pyelovenous channels is suggested as the pathogenesis. The hemorrhage has been self-limiting, requiring no more than 1,500 cc whole blood replacement. Bleeding should stop spontaneously, and rapid renal pelvic clot lysis should follow with maintenance of adequate urine output and Foley catheter bladder decompression. To date surgical intervention has not been necessary.

  13. Continuous spinal analgesia with levobupivacaine for postoperative pain management: Comparison of 0.125% versus 0.0625% in elective total knee and hip replacement: A double-blind randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D′Ambrosio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Continuous spinal anesthesia (CSA has not been widely used for postoperative analgesia, mainly to avoid complications from the subarachnoid injection. Recently, the introduction of low caliber CSA catheters (Spinocath ® , has allowed to decrease anesthetics doses and volumes with good analgesia and reduced complications. The aim of this present study was to compare two concentrations of levobupivacaine administered through CSA for postoperative pain management after major orthopedic surgery. Secondary outcomes were adverse events associated with CSA. Material and Methods: Thirty-two patients were randomized to receive sufentanil 1 mcg/h plus levobupivacaine 0.125%-1 ml/h (Group A 0.125 or 0.0625%-2 ml/h (Group B 0.0625 for postoperative analgesia through CSA catheter, connected to the elastomeric pump over 48 h. The quality of analgesia was assessed based on pain intensity by Visual Analogic Scale (VAS. Sensory and motor function, hemodynamic, and respiratory parameters were recorded for 96 h after surgery, after which the catheter was removed. In addition, joint mobility was assessed, and any side effects were noted. Results: VAS score was ≤30 mm in 25 patients. Three patients in Group A 0.125 and 4 in Group B 0.0625 (NS, received a rescue dose of levobupivacaine. Median VAS in Group A 0.125 was lower than in Group B 0.0625 on T 1 h (8 ± 11 vs 16 ± 11; P < 0.05, and on T 4 h (11 ± 8 vs 18 ± 1; P < 0.05. All patients remained hemodynamically stable. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative joints mobility. Conclusion: Levobupivacaine at a dose of 1.25 mg/h administered by CSA provides good quality analgesia independent of concentration and solution volume in patients undergoing total knee and hip replacement.

  14. Bioengineering in renal transplantation: technological advances and novel options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Wee-Song; Zhang, Yao-Chun

    2017-06-06

    End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world with significant morbidity and mortality. Current modes of renal replacement therapy include dialysis and renal transplantation. Although dialysis is an acceptable mode of renal replacement therapy, it does have its shortcomings, which include poorer life expectancy compared with renal transplantation, risk of infections and vascular thrombosis, lack of vascular access and absence of biosynthetic functions of the kidney. Renal transplantation, in contrast, is the preferred option of renal replacement therapy, with improved morbidity and mortality rates and quality of life, compared with dialysis. Renal transplantation, however, may not be available to all patients with ESKD. Some of the key factors limiting the availability and efficiency of renal transplantation include shortage of donor organs and the constant risk of rejection with complications associated with over-immunosuppression respectively. This review focuses chiefly on the potential roles of bioengineering in overcoming limitations in renal transplantation via the development of cell-based bioartificial dialysis devices as bridging options before renal transplantation, and the development of new sources of organs utilizing cell and organ engineering.

  15. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  16. Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Hip Replacement Surgery Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB ... PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Hip Replacement Surgery Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or ...

  17. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  18. Renal pathological implications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Xiuhui; Li, Zhicheng; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Ruikun; Yin, Qinghua; Yang, Lichuan; Yue, Rongzheng; Su, Baihai; Huang, Songmin; Xu, Huan; He, Cijiang; Liu, Fang

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the renal pathological implications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal involvement. A total of 328 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with renal involvement who underwent a renal biopsy and received follow-up for at least one year were recruited in our study. The patients were divided into the diabetic nephropathy (DN), non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD), and NDRD superimposed on DN groups based on the pathological diagnosis. Renal outcomes were defined by the initiation of renal replacement therapy or doubling of the serum creatinine. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare renal survival, and Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine the predictors of renal outcomes in the DN group. Renal biopsy findings revealed that 188 patients (57.32%) had pure DN, 121 patients (36.89%) had NDRD alone, and 19 patients (5.79%) had NDRD superimposed on DN. The most frequent subclassification of NDRD was membranous nephropathy (MN). Compared with the NDRD and NDRD superimposed on DN groups, patients with pure DN had poorer renal function and lower renal survival rates. In the DN group, the five-year renal survival rates of glomerular classes of I, IIa, IIb, III and IV were 100%, 84.62%, 60%, 47.5% and 33.33%, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the glomerular lesions, proteinuria and serum creatinine were independent risk factors for renal outcomes, while interstitial fibrosis/inflammation and arteriolar hyalinosis were not independently associated with renal outcomes in the DN group. Making an accurate pathologic diagnosis by renal biopsy is crucial for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with renal involvement. The findings of our present study indicated that patients with pure DN had poorer renal outcomes than patients with NDRD or NDRD superimposed on DN. The classification of glomerular lesions, proteinuria and serum creatinine were independent risk factors for renal outcomes in the DN group

  19. CT guided percutaneous renal cysts puncture with ethanol therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe; Lu Yan; Wang Wu; Huang Zhengguo; Ren An

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyse our clinical experience with CT guided percutaneous renal cysts puncture and ethanol therapy. Methods: Five hundred and ten renal cysts in 445 patients were undergone CT guided percutaneous renal cysts puncture and ethanol therapy. Among the 445 cases, 385 cases had solitary renal cyst, 53 multiple renal cysts, and 7 polycystic kidneys. The renal cysts varied in size from 1.9 to 13.5 cm in diameter. The amount of aspirated fluid varied from 3 to 780 ml. A 18-21 gauge aspiration needles were used for all patients. A 25.0% cyst volume replacement with 99.7% ethanol was approved to be appropriate. Results: 427 renal cysts in 396 patients were followed up by computed tomographic (CT) or ultrasound for less than 3 months to more than one year duration. The curative effective rate and disappearance rate of the renal cystic cavity in solitary renal cysts were 97% and 82%, respectively. In multiple renal cysts, the corresponding values were 95% and 79%. In polycystic kidneys, the curative rate was 67%. The complications such as local abdominal pain (28 cases) and hematuria (four cases) were observed in this series. There were no fatal complications. Conclusions: CT guided percutaneous renal cyst puncture and ethanol therapy is an useful procedure for the treatment of solitary renal cysts and multiple renal cysts

  20. Kidney transplantation from donors with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Bao; Zheng, Yi-Tao; Zhou, Jian; Han, Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yuan, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Chang-Xi; He, Xiao-Shun

    2017-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis in deceased donors usually causes acute renal failure (ARF), which may be considered a contraindication for kidney transplantation. From January 2012 to December 2016, 30 kidneys from 15 deceased donors with severe rhabdomyolysis and ARF were accepted for transplantation at our center. The peak serum creatinine (SCr) kinase, myoglobin, and SCr of the these donors were 15 569±8597 U/L, 37 092±42 100 μg/L, and 422±167 μmol/L, respectively. Two donors received continuous renal replacement therapy due to anuria. Six kidneys exhibited a discolored appearance (from brown to glossy black) due to myoglobin casts. The kidney transplant results from the donors with rhabdomyolysis donors were compared with those of 90 renal grafts from standard criteria donors (SCD). The estimated glomerular filtration rate at 2 years was similar between kidney transplants from donors with rhabdomyolysis and SCD (70.3±14.6 mL/min/1.73 m 2 vs 72.3±15.1 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). We conclude that excellent graft function can be achieved from kidneys donors with ARF caused by rhabdomyolysis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A 3-year follow-up of a patient with acute renal failure caused by thrombotic microangiopathy related to antiphospholipid syndrome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X-J; Chen, M; Wang, S-X; Zhou, F-D; Zhao, M-H

    2017-06-01

    Background Microvascular manifestations of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in the kidneys include acute renal failure, thrombotic microangiopathy and hypertension. Therapy has been largely empiric. Case report A 49-year-old Chinese man presented with anuric acute renal failure without abundant proteinuria and heavy haematuria, but markedly low levels of urinary sodium, potassium and chlorine upon admission. On day 1 of hospitalization, his thrombocytopenia, anaemia and renal failure showed rapid progression. The presence of lupus anticoagulant and vascular ischaemia of the small vessels in renal arteriography were also observed. Anticoagulants, continuous renal replacement therapy, glucocorticoids and six sessions of plasma exchange were started. After the fourth plasma exchange (on day 20), his urine output increased and began to normalize. On day 25, haemodialysis was stopped and his general condition gradually improved. A renal biopsy was subsequently performed, and the histopathological diagnosis was thrombotic microangiopathy due to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. A further 3-year follow-up showed that his haemoglobin level, platelet count and serum creatinine were within the normal range, with stable blood pressure. Conclusion Treatment modalities such as anticoagulation, immunosuppression and plasma exchange are likely to be necessary when severe acute renal failure combined with thrombotic microangiopathy present in nephropathy of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

  2. Haemodialysis for post-traumatic acute renal failure – factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Post-traumatic acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with high mortality. Objective. To assess indicators of improved survival. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of 64 consecutive trauma patients (penetrating and blunt trauma and burns) ...

  3. Renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, S.; Malik, N.; Khandelwal, N.

    1990-01-01

    Most fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like saprophytic fungus which may become apathogen under various conditions which lower the host resistance. The use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of renal fungus balls is the subject of this communication with emphasis on the radiologists role in the recognition of this entity. (H.W.). 6 refs.; 2 figs

  4. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  5. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  6. Radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, Silvia

    1994-01-01

    Between the diagnostic techniques using radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine it find renal studies.A brief description about renal glomerular filtration(GFR) and reliability renal plasma flux (ERPF),renal blood flux measurement agents (RBF),renal scintillation agents and radiation dose estimates by organ physiology was given in this study.tabs

  7. CLINICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-PROTEIN DIET AND SUPPLEMENTED WITH α-KETOACIDS THERAPY ON NUTRITION STATUS AND RESIDUAL RENAL FUNCTION IN CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS(CAPD) PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Juan; Yuan, Weijie; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Ting

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to preserve residual renal function (RRF) in CAPD, as RRF is associated with lower morbidity and mortality. low- protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids was reported to have an important roles in delaying in follow-up period progression of renal failure and relieving malnutritional status in non-dialysis patients with chronic renal failure. We evaluate the effects on the nutritional status and RRF of a low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids on CAPD patients prospec...

  8. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  9. Feeder replacement tooling and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, R.; Goslin, R.; Pink, D.; Askari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Primary heat transport system feeder integrity has become a concern at some CANDU nuclear plants as a result of thinning caused by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). Feeder inspections are indicating that life-limiting wall thinning can occur in the region between the Grayloc hub weld and second elbow of some outlet feeders. In some cases it has become necessary to replace thinned sections of affected feeders to restore feeder integrity to planned end of life. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd. (B and W) have developed a new capability for replacement of single feeders at any location on the reactor face without impacting or interrupting operation of neighbouring feeders. This new capability consists of deploying trained crews with specialized tools and procedures for feeder replacements during planned outages. As may be expected, performing single feeder replacement in the congested working environment of an operational CANDU reactor face involves overcoming many challenges with respect to access to feeders, available clearances for tooling, and tooling operation and performance. This paper describes some of the challenges encountered during single feeder replacements and actions being taken by AECL and B and W to promote continuous improvement of feeder replacement tooling and processes and ensure well-executed outages. (author)

  10. Continuous tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-04-01

    A tokamak configuration is proposed that permits the rapid replacement of a plasma discharge in a ''burn'' chamber by another one in a time scale much shorter than the elementary thermal time constant of the chamber first wall. With respect to the chamber, the effective duty cycle factor can thus be made arbitrarily close to unity minimizing the cyclic thermal stress in the first wall. At least one plasma discharge always exists in the new tokamak configuration, hence, a continuous tokamak. By incorporating adiabatic toroidal compression, configurations of continuous tokamak compressors are introduced. To operate continuous tokamaks, it is necessary to introduce the concept of mixed poloidal field coils, which spatially groups all the poloidal field coils into three sets, all contributing simultaneously to inducing the plasma current and maintaining the proper plasma shape and position. Preliminary numerical calculations of axisymmetric MHD equilibria in continuous tokamaks indicate the feasibility of their continued plasma operation. Advanced concepts of continuous tokamaks to reduce the topological complexity and to allow the burn plasma aspect ratio to decrease for increased beta are then suggested

  11. Evaluation of reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis and renal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattan-Smith, J.D.; Little, Stephen B.; Jones, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    MR urography has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis, vesicoureteric reflux and renal dysplasia. MR urography utilizes multiple parameters to assess both renal anatomy and function and provides a more complete characterization of acquired and congenital disease. Pyelonephritis and renal scarring can be distinguished by assessing the parenchymal contours and signal intensity. Characteristic imaging features of renal dysplasia include small size, subcortical cysts, disorganized architecture, decreased and patchy contrast enhancement as well as a dysmorphic pelvicalyceal system. Because of its ability to subdivide and categorize this heterogeneous group of disorders, it seems inevitable that MR urography will replace DMSA renal scintigraphy as the gold standard for assessment of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. MR urography will contribute to our understanding of renal dysplasia and its relationship to reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis and renal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattan-Smith, J.D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Little, Stephen B. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jones, Richard A. [Emory University School of Medicine, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    MR urography has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis, vesicoureteric reflux and renal dysplasia. MR urography utilizes multiple parameters to assess both renal anatomy and function and provides a more complete characterization of acquired and congenital disease. Pyelonephritis and renal scarring can be distinguished by assessing the parenchymal contours and signal intensity. Characteristic imaging features of renal dysplasia include small size, subcortical cysts, disorganized architecture, decreased and patchy contrast enhancement as well as a dysmorphic pelvicalyceal system. Because of its ability to subdivide and categorize this heterogeneous group of disorders, it seems inevitable that MR urography will replace DMSA renal scintigraphy as the gold standard for assessment of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. MR urography will contribute to our understanding of renal dysplasia and its relationship to reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  13. Organ transplantation and replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerilli, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 49 chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular, Genetic, and Clinical Aspects of the HLA System; The Normal Immune Response; Significance of the ABO Antigen System; The Role of Dialysis in the Management of End-Stage Renal Disease; Access for Dialysis; Patient Selection for Renal Transplantation; The Living Donor in Kidney Transplantation; and Kidney Preservation by Cold Storage.

  14. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoosh Farhad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. Methods We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Results Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Conclusion Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis

  15. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosh, Farhad; Hodjati, Hossain; Dehghani, Seifollah; Tanideh, Nader; Kumar, Perikala V

    2009-06-09

    Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis.

  16. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  17. Retrograde Renal Cooling to Minimize Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Colli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.9° C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.9° C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.1° C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  18. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  19. Renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal denervation (RDN) has, within recent years, been suggested as a novel treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge on this procedure as well as limitations and questions that remain to be answered. RECENT FINDINGS...... selection, anatomical and physiological effects of RDN as well as possible beneficial effects on other diseases with increased sympathetic activity. The long awaited Symplicity HTN-3 (2014) results illustrated that the RDN group and the sham-group had similar reductions in BP. SUMMARY: Initial studies...

  20. Renal papillary necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asking your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bushinsky DA, Monk RD. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. ...

  1. RENAL ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENT WITH HAEMOPHILIA B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Purlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of successful renal allogeneic transplantation and treatment in a 56-year-old patient with haemophilia B at Hematology Research Center. He has received replacement therapy by factor IX since 2010. The transplant is marked with good renal function during 13 post-transplant months without episodes of rejection or bleeding complications. The complicated surgical interventions are possible in patients with haemophilia В аnd end-stage chronic renal failure in the presence of replacement therapy of IX factor for the purpose of achievement of optimum hemostasis.

  2. 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scanning and excretory urography in diagnosis of renal scars in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLorie, G.A.; Aliabadi, H.; Churchill, B.M.; Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    We compared the ability of excretory urography (without tomography) and 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scanning to detect renal scars in 32 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. These children did not have hydronephrosis, renal failure or urinary tract obstruction. In all cases both studies were conducted within a 10-month period. The findings from both modalities were in agreement for 51 of the 64 renal units evaluated (80%). Evaluation of the excretory urogram indicated 6 cases of diffuse and 2 of focal scarring that were not detected by evaluation of the renal scan. The sensitivity of excretory urography to detect renal scars was 84% and the specificity was 83%. The 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scan showed 5 cases of focal renal scarring not detected by excretory urography. The sensitivity of the renal scan to detect renal scars was 77% and the specificity was 75%. We conclude that neither study alone could effectively replace the other for the detection of renal scars, and recommend that both be included in the initial evaluation and followup of patients with renal scars

  3. Severe hypothyroidism masquerading as renal impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bistrup, C; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Kvetny, J

    1996-01-01

    creatinine clearance and proteinuria, polymyositis with secondary glomerulopathy was suspected. Meanwhile, biopsies from skin, muscle, and kidney were normal. All symptoms disappeared 3 months after thyroid replacement therapy was initiated. S-TSH should be considered when evaluating patients with renal...

  4. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  5. Predictors of renal recovery in patients with pre-orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Jose; Frank, Elliot; Mehandru, Sushil; Davis, John M; Levine, Jerrold S

    2013-07-13

    Renal dysfunction occurs commonly in patients awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for end-stage liver disease. The use of simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation has increased in the MELD scoring era. As patients may recover renal function after OLT, identifying factors predictive of renal recovery is a critical issue, especially given the scarcity of available organs. Employing the UNOS database, we sought to identify donor- and patient-related predictors of renal recovery among 1720 patients with pre-OLT renal dysfunction and transplanted from 1989 to 2005. Recovery of renal function post-OLT was defined as a composite endpoint of serum creatinine (SCr) ≤1.5 mg/dL at discharge and survival ≥29 days. Pre-OLT renal dysfunction was defined as any of the following: SCr ≥2 mg/dL at any time while awaiting OLT or need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) at the time of registration and/or OLT. Independent predictors of recovery of renal function post-OLT were absence of hepatic allograft dysfunction, transplantation during MELD era, recipient female sex, decreased donor age, decreased recipient ALT at time of OLT, decreased recipient body mass index at registration, use of anti-thymocyte globulin as induction therapy, and longer wait time from registration. Contrary to popular belief, a requirement for RRT, even for prolonged periods in excess of 8 weeks, was not an independent predictor of failure to recover renal function post-OLT. These data indicate that the duration of renal dysfunction, even among those requiring RRT, is a poor way to discriminate reversible from irreversible renal dysfunction.

  6. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  7. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  8. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  9. Distal renal tubular acidosis and quadriparaesis in Sjögren′s syndrome: A cunning congregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati G Diwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren′s syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disease, chiefly affecting the exocrine glandular function of salivary glands and lacrimal glands. Rarely, it involves the kidneys, central and peripheral nervous system, muscloskeletal apparatus and lungs. We report a rare constellation of SS with distal renal tubular acidosis and quadriparaesis in a young female. History of quadriparaesis was acute, with rapid progression. Supplementary treatment for severe hypokalemia was instituted at the earliest, lest the patient develop respiratory muscle weakness. Concomitantly, metabolic acidosis with alkaline urine was suspected and subsequently investigated. Eventually, this was attributed to impaired renal acidification of urine in the distal tubules. History of dryness of eyes and mouth since 6 months justified salivary gland biopsy. The results yielded a lymphocytic infiltrative pathology strongly favoring SS. The patient benefited from prompt potassium replacement therapy and had complete resolution over the next week. Supportive treatment for predictable manifestations was continued along with potassium supplements.

  10. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  11. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  12. Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    cost accounting Clickener, John Ross Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17810 Downloaded from NPS Archive...Calhoun IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ACCOUNTING John Ross CHckener NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ...Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting 7. AUTHORS John Ross Clickener READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 9. TYRE OF

  13. [Management of patients with chronic renal failure during surgical correction of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarustovskiĭ, M B; Stupchenko, O S; Abramian, M V; Nazarova, E I; Popok, Z V

    2010-01-01

    End-stage of chronic renal failure (CRF) is frequently associated with cardiac and vascular comorbidities requiring cardiosurgical interventions. Over 9 years, from 2000 to 2009, the A. N. Bakulev Research Center of Cardiovascular Surgery, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, delivered cardiosurgical care to 16 patients aged 20 to 74 years with end-stage CRF. The duration of programmed hemodialysis was 1 to 102 months. The preoperative patient preparation protocol comprised correction of anemia, hypoproteinemia, hypertension, and water-electrolyte and acid-base balances. Five patients underwent endovascular myocardial revascularization; open heart surgery was performed in one patient. Interventions under extracorporeal circulation were made in 10 other patients. Ultrafiltration was intraoperatively carried out. On-line hemodiafiltration was performed following coronary artery stenting. After open operations, renal replacement therapy (first hemodiafiltration, then hemodialysis) as daily sessions was initiated on day 2 and, when the patients were transferred to intensive care units, it was performed by the programmed hemodialysis protocol. There were no fatal outcomes at the follow-up. The key aspects of treatment success achievement and improved quality of life in patients on programmed hemodialysis are the detection of cardiovascular diseases requiring surgery, the timely referral of the patients to a cardiosurgical hospital, the meticulous pre- and perioperative management (correction of anemia, hypoproteinemia, water-electrolyte balance, use of ultrafiltration and the adequate rate of perfusion at the stage of extracorporeal circulation, and daily renal replacement therapy in the postoperative period), and continuity in the work of all specialists.

  14. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowska, D.; Granger, J.P.; Knox, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, [ 3 H]NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine

  15. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  16. End-stage renal failure and national resources: the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatz, Roberto; Romão, João Egídio

    2006-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest and the fifth most populous nation in the world. Its economy rivals Mexico as the strongest in Latin America and ranks among the 15 largest economies in the world. Despite these achievements, a substantial fraction of the Brazilian population still lives in poverty, and many still have limited access to medical assistance. There are currently about 380 patients on hemodialysis per million populations (pmp), approximately one third of the U.S. prevalence, suggesting that a large fraction of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are not diagnosed and treated properly. In Brazil, access to renal replacement therapy (RRT), including renal transplantation, is universal, and the corresponding costs, including those of medications (immunosuppressors and treatment of ESRD complications), are covered by the Brazilian government. However, given the continuous growth of the ESRD population and of the costs incurred by RRT, the efficacy and reach of this system may be severely limited in years to come. In the current struggle against the ESRD epidemics, the Brazilian medical community and health authorities face a triple challenge: to limit the incidence of renal disease, slow or detain the progression of established chronic nephropathies, and ensure that access to quality RRT remains granted to all those who, despite all efforts, reach ESRD.

  17. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  18. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  19. Preoperative renal function and surgical outcomes in patients with acute type A aortic dissection†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, Ken-ichi; Tayama, Eiki; Tomita, Yukihiro

    2015-04-01

    There are few data concerning the impact of preoperative renal function, assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate, on surgical outcomes following acute type A aortic dissection. We investigated the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (in ml/min/1.73 m(2)) in predicting in-hospital mortality and postoperative renal replacement therapy in such cases. We reviewed 114 consecutive patients with non-dialysis-dependent renal dysfunction who underwent thoracic aortic surgery for acute type A aortic dissection between 1997 and 2012. Preoperative renal function was categorized as normal (estimated glomerular filtration rate >90; n = 15) or as mild (60-89; n = 39), moderate I (45-59; n = 39), moderate II (30-44; n = 14) or severe (15-29; n = 7) renal dysfunction. In-hospital mortality was 14.9%. Eighteen (15.8%) of 114 patients required renal replacement therapy. A more severe stage stratified by preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate levels could effectively predict postoperative renal replacement therapy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.786). The best cut-off value of estimated glomerular filtration rate for predicting postoperative renal replacement therapy was 60 (sensitivity 95%, specificity 59%). On multiple regression analysis, the independent preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for postoperative renal replacement therapy were estimated glomerular filtration rate (P replacement (P replacement therapy (OR, 5.47; P regression analysis. Preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate can effectively predict the need for renal replacement therapy after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection. However, it is not an effective diagnostic tool to predict in-hospital mortality. The complexity of the characteristics of patients who undergo surgical procedures may make prediction of surgical outcomes difficult. Risk models to predict hospital mortality and morbidities are needed to assist clinicians in

  20. Exploring the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governmental support for holistic kidney disease treatment and careful teaming of key role players to reduce the severity and far-reaching bio-psychosocial effects of HD and CAPD treatment are recommended. Hierdie artikel beskryf 'n kwalitatiewe studie wat die bio-psigososiale effekte van niervervangingsterapie op ...

  1. Renal replacement therapy for rare diseases affecting the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wühl, Elke; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Wanner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, increased efforts have been undertaken to address the needs of patients with rare diseases by international initiatives and consortia devoted to rare disease research and management. However, information on the overall prevalence of rare diseases within the end-stage...

  2. Comparison of spiral CT angiography with conventional digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of renal transplant donors: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.; Young, N.; Lau, H.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional digital subtraction renal arteriography (IA-DSA) has been traditionally used as the preoperative imaging modality for assessment of renal vascular anatomy for renal transplant donors. This study evaluates the potential use of spiral CT angiography in replacing IA-DSA in the preoperative assessment of this group of patients. Seven patients underwent both spiral CT angiography and IA-DSA between October 1997 and April 1998. It is concluded that spiral CT angiography can demonstrate the number, length and location of renal arteries and it is suggested that spiral CT angiography can potentially replace IA-DSA in the preoperative assessment of renal donors. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  4. 21 CFR 870.3710 - Pacemaker repair or replacement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker repair or replacement material. 870.3710... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3710 Pacemaker repair or replacement material. (a) Identification. A pacemaker repair or replacement material is an...

  5. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  6. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  7. Long-Term Temporal Trends of Nosema spp. Infection Prevalence in Northeast Germany: Continuous Spread of Nosema ceranae, an Emerging Pathogen of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera), but No General Replacement of Nosema apis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Schüler, Vivian; Horchler, Lennart L; Groth, Detlef; Genersch, Elke

    2017-01-01

    The Western honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) is widely used as commercial pollinator in worldwide agriculture and, therefore, plays an important role in global food security. Among the parasites and pathogens threatening health and survival of honey bees are two species of microsporidia, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosema ceranae is considered an emerging pathogen of the Western honey bee. Reports on the spread of N. ceranae suggested that this presumably highly virulent species is replacing its more benign congener N. apis in the global A. mellifera population. We here present a 12 year longitudinal cohort study on the prevalence of N. apis and N. ceranae in Northeast Germany. Between 2005 and 2016, a cohort of about 230 honey bee colonies originating from 23 apiaries was sampled twice a year (spring and autumn) resulting in a total of 5,600 bee samples which were subjected to microscopic and molecular analysis for determining the presence of infections with N. apis or/and N. ceranae . Throughout the entire study period, both N. apis - and N. ceranae -infections could be diagnosed within the cohort. Logistic regression analysis of the prevalence data demonstrated a significant increase of N. ceranae -infections over the last 12 years, both in autumn (reflecting the development during the summer) and in spring (reflecting the development over winter) samples. Cell culture experiments confirmed that N. ceranae has a higher proliferative potential than N. apis at 27° and 33°C potentially explaining the increase in N. ceranae prevalence during summer. In autumn, characterized by generally low infection prevalence, this increase was accompanied by a significant decrease in N. apis -infection prevalence. In contrast, in spring, the season with a higher prevalence of infection, no significant decrease of N. apis infections despite a significant increase in N. ceranae infections could be observed. Therefore, our data do not support a general advantage of N. ceranae over

  8. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney ...

  9. Live Donor Renal Anatomic Asymmetry and Posttransplant Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Bekir; Fernandez, Sonalis; Campenot, Eric S; Newhouse, Jeffrey H; Oyfe, Irina; Mohan, Prince; Sandikci, Burhaneddin; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Wexler, Jennifer J; Carroll, Maureen A; Sharif, Sairah; Cohen, David J; Ratner, Lloyd E; Hardy, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Relationship between live donor renal anatomic asymmetry and posttransplant recipient function has not been studied extensively. We analyzed 96 live kidney donors, who had anatomical asymmetry (>10% renal length and/or volume difference calculated from computerized tomography angiograms) and their matching recipients. Split function differences (SFD) were quantified with technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid renography. Implantation biopsies at time 0 were semiquantitatively scored. A comprehensive model using donor renal volume adjusted to recipient weight (Vol/Wgt), SFD, and biopsy score was used to predict recipient estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 year. Primary analysis consisted of a logistic regression model of outcome (odds of developing eGFR>60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year), a linear regression model of outcome (predicting recipient eGFR at one-year, using the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration formula), and a Monte Carlo simulation based on the linear regression model (N=10,000 iterations). In the study cohort, the mean Vol/Wgt and eGFR at 1 year were 2.04 mL/kg and 60.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Volume and split ratios between 2 donor kidneys were strongly correlated (r = 0.79, P 10%) were not different (P = 0.190). On multivariate models, only Vol/Wgt was significantly associated with higher odds of having eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m (odds ratio, 8.94, 95% CI 2.47-32.25, P = 0.001) and had a strong discriminatory power in predicting the risk of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year [receiver operating curve (ROC curve), 0.78, 95% CI, 0.68-0.89]. In the presence of donor renal anatomic asymmetry, Vol/Wgt appears to be a major determinant of recipient renal function at 1 year after transplantation. Renography can be replaced with CT volume calculation in estimating split renal function.

  10. Cardio-renal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  11. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  12. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  13. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis involving a unilateral renal sinus: A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seul Bi; Yoon, Jung Hee; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Ye Daum; Kim, Suk Jung; Lim, Yun Jung; Jung, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease entity and its etiology is uncertain. We report two similar cases which showed an uncommon presentation of idiopathic RPF. A 66-year-old woman and an 80-year-old man presented with incidental findings of left renal pelvic mass-like lesions. Computed tomography revealed a soft tissue density mass replacing the left renal pelvis, which was suspicious for renal pelvic cancer, and the diagnosis of idiopathic RPF was surgically confirmed. To the best of our knowledge, a few cases of idiopathic RPF presenting with features of a localized unilateral renal pelvic mass mimicking renal pelvic cancer have been reported

  14. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis involving a unilateral renal sinus: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seul Bi; Yoon, Jung Hee; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Ye Daum; Kim, Suk Jung; Lim, Yun Jung; Jung, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Jin Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease entity and its etiology is uncertain. We report two similar cases which showed an uncommon presentation of idiopathic RPF. A 66-year-old woman and an 80-year-old man presented with incidental findings of left renal pelvic mass-like lesions. Computed tomography revealed a soft tissue density mass replacing the left renal pelvis, which was suspicious for renal pelvic cancer, and the diagnosis of idiopathic RPF was surgically confirmed. To the best of our knowledge, a few cases of idiopathic RPF presenting with features of a localized unilateral renal pelvic mass mimicking renal pelvic cancer have been reported.

  15. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  16. Partial knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good range of motion in your knee. The ligaments in your knee are stable. However, most people with knee arthritis have a surgery called a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Knee replacement is most often done in people age 60 ...

  17. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  18. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: ...

  19. Tool Inventory and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, W. Forrest

    1976-01-01

    Vocational agriculture teachers are encouraged to evaluate curriculum offerings, the new trends in business and industry, and develop a master tool purchase and replacement plan over a 3- to 5-year period. (HD)

  20. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make everyday tasks easier. Practice using a cane, walker , crutches , or a wheelchair correctly. On the ... ask your doctor Knee joint replacement - discharge Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Surgical ...

  1. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    . To shed light on this unexplored and growing managerial concern, the purpose of this explorative study is to identify operational challenges to management when product platforms are replaced. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a longitudinal field-study approach. Two companies, Gamma and Omega...... replacement was chosen in each company. Findings – The study shows that platform replacements primarily challenge managers' existing knowledge about platform architectures. A distinction can be made between “width” and “height” in platform replacements, and it is crucial that managers observe this in order...... to challenge their existing knowledge about platform architectures. Issues on technologies, architectures, components and processes as well as on segments, applications and functions are identified. Practical implications – Practical implications are summarized and discussed in relation to a framework...

  2. Current structure and organization for renal patient assistance in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloatti, Sandro; Strippoli, Giovanni Fm; Buccianti, Gherardo; Daidone, Giuseppe; Schena, Francesco P

    2008-04-01

    Given the public health challenge and burden of chronic kidney disease, the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) has compiled a national census of Renal Units (RU) existing in the twenty Italian regions related to the year 2004. An on-line questionnaire including 158 items explored structural and human resources, organization aspects, activities and epidemiological data in SIN, 2004. The census identified 363 public RU, 303 satellite Dialysis Centres (DC) and 295 private DC totalling 961 DC [16.4 per million population (pmp)]. The inpatient renal beds were 2742 (47 pmp). Renal and dialysis activity was performed by 3728 physicians (64 pmp), of whom 2964 (80%) were nephrologists. There was no permanent medical assistance in 41% of satellite DC. There were 1802 renal admissions pmp and 99 renal biopsies pmp. The management of acute renal failure (13 456 cases; 230 pmp) represented a relevant proportion of the activities conducted in public RU. In 2004 there were 9858 new cases of end-stage kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) (169 pmp). On 31 December 2004, 60 058 patients were on RRT (1027 pmp), 43 293 of which (740 pmp) were on dialysis and 16 765 (287 pmp) with renal graft. This census of the Italian RU and DC in 2004 provides decision makers and healthcare stakeholders with detailed data for benchmarking and has financial implications for the public health system. Similar analyses may be conducted in other countries permitting standardization of medical and cost-related aspects of renal care.

  3. Traumatic renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Naobumi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kokubo, Takashi; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of traumatic renal artery occlusion were described and illustrated. In two cases, direct blows to the abdomen compressed the renal artery against the vertebral column. Clinically, they were severely injured with macroscopic hematuria. Aortograms showed abrupt truncation of renal arteries. In the other two, rapid deceleration caused sudden displacement of the kidney producing an intimal tear with resultant thrombosis. Although they showed little injury without macrohematuria, aortograms revealed tapered occlusion of renal arteries. One of them developed hypertension. ''Rim sign'' of post-contrast CT and hypertension resulted from traumatic renal artery occlusion were reviewed. (author)

  4. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  5. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  6. Residual Renal Function in Children Treated with Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roszkowska-Blaim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual renal function (RRF in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD receiving renal replacement therapy is defined as the ability of native kidneys to eliminate water and uremic toxins. Preserved RRF improves survival and quality of life in adult ESRD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. In children, RRF was shown not only to help preserve adequacy of renal replacement therapy but also to accelerate growth rate, improve nutrition and blood pressure control, reduce the risk of adverse myocardial changes, facilitate treatment of anemia and calcium-phosphorus balance abnormalities, and result in reduced serum and dialysate fluid levels of advanced glycation end-products. Factors contributing to RRF loss in children treated with peritoneal dialysis include the underlying renal disease such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome and hereditary nephropathy, small urine volume, severe proteinuria at the initiation of renal replacement therapy, and hypertension. Several approaches can be suggested to decrease the rate of RRF loss in pediatric patients treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis: potentially nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides, episodes of hypotension, and uncontrolled hypertension should be avoided, urinary tract infections should be treated promptly, and loop diuretics may be used to increase salt and water excretion.

  7. CLINICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-PROTEIN DIET AND SUPPLEMENTED WITH α-KETOACIDS THERAPY ON NUTRITION STATUS AND RESIDUAL RENAL FUNCTION IN CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS(CAPD PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is critical to preserve residual renal function (RRF in CAPD, as RRF is associated with lower morbidity and mortality. low- protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids was reported to have an important roles in delaying in follow-up period progression of renal failure and relieving malnutritional status in non-dialysis patients with chronic renal failure. We evaluate the effects on the nutritional status and RRF of a low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids on CAPD patients prospectively. Seventy eight CAPD patients who were randomly assigned to a low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acid group(keto acid group,31 patients,low-protein diet group(LPD group,26 patientsand routine protein diet group(RPD group,21 patientswere investigated and followed up for one year. The nutritional parameters were measured, and examinations of residual renal function (RRF, Kt/v, clearance of creatinine (Ccr and levels of serum amino acids, mean arterial pressure (MAP, peritoneal ultrafiltration(UF,residual urine volume(RUV and the status of water-sodium retentio were performed. Compared to LPD group, serum levels of prealbumin(PA, transferrin (TRF retinal binding protein (RBP had a significant increment both in keto acid group and RPD group(P〈0.01,but there was no significance between these two groups(p〉0.05□Compared to RPD group, There was an incremental tendency in albumin(Alb, total cholesterol(TC, triglyceride (TG, Triceps skinfoles (TSF,midarm riuscle circumference(MAMC,body mass index(BMI in keto acid group, but no significance(p〉0.05□The serum concentrations of Valine(Val,Leucine(Leu, Isoleucine (Ile were significantly increased in keto acid group(p〈0.01,compared to the other groups. Levels of RRF, Kt/V, Ccr, RUV were significantly higher both in keto acid group and LPD group than in RPD group(p〈0.01□There were no significant differences in MAP, UF and peritoneal dialysate albumin loss between these groups, However, the

  8. Renal Denervation: Intractable Hypertension and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanon, Wassawon; Mao, Huijuan; Adýbelli, Zelal; Romano, Silvia; Rodighiero, Mariapia; Reimers, Bernhard; La Vecchia, Luigi; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension continues to be a major burden of public health concern despite the recent advances and proven benefit of pharmacological therapy. A certain subset of patients has hypertension resistant to maximal medical therapy and appropriate lifestyle measures. A novel catheter-based technique for renal denervation (RDN) as a new therapeutic avenue has great promise for the treatment of refractory hypertension. Summary This review included the physiology of the renal sympathetic nervous system and the renal nerve anatomy. Furthermore, the RDN procedure, technology systems, and RDN clinical trials as well as findings besides antihypertensive effects were discussed. Findings on safety and efficacy seem to suggest that renal sympathetic denervation could be of therapeutic benefit in refractory hypertensive patients. Despite the fast pace of development in RDN therapies, only initial and very limited clinical data are available. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the long-term effects and consequences of RDN still exist, and solid, randomized data are warranted. PMID:24847331

  9. Cytomegalovirus disease in a renal transplant recipient: the importance of pre-transplant screening of the donor and recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H Mitwalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old female patient who was born with a single kidney developed chronic kidney disease during her early childhood due to reflux nephropathy and recurrent urinary tract infection. She progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD and was commenced on renal replacement therapy in the form of peritoneal dialysis in May 2011. Subsequently, she underwent living unrelated donor kidney transplantation in China. She was hospitalized soon after returning to Saudi Arabia for management of high-grade fever, shortness of breath, and deterioration of renal function, which was found to be due to cytomegalovirus (CMV disease, proved by kidney biopsy and presence of high level of anti-CMV immunoglobulins. Allograft biopsy showed mature viral particles sized between 120 and 149 nm in the nuclei of the glomerular endothelial cells. The patient was treated with valgancyclovir and specific CMV immunoglobulin, as well as by reducing and even stopping the dose of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. Despite all these measures, her condition continued to deteriorate and she finally died. Our study emphasizes that unrelated renal transplantation, especially if unplanned and improperly prepared, is a very risky procedure that might transfer dangerous diseases and increase the morbidity and mortality of the patients. We strongly stress the need for mandatory and proper screening for CMV carrier status among donors as well as recipients prior to transplantation. Also, a recommendation is made to reject CMV-positive donors.

  10. Criteria for the replacement of restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nairn; Lynch, Christopher; Brunton, Paul Brunton

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of a restoration is one of the most common procedures in dentistry. However, the criteria for such intervention, excluding catastrophic failure and persistent discomfort and pain, continue to be the subject of considerable debate. The decision-making process remains subjective...... on the part of the treating clinician, while the evidence base for refurbishment and repair rather than replacement for the management of defective and failing restorations continues to grow and strengthen. This article, prepared as an Academy of Operative Dentistry European Section consensus publication...

  11. Renal allograft rupture: US diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maklad, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    The US appearances in seven pathologically and/or surgically proved cases of renal allograft rupture are presented. These include a triangular or amorphous echogenic area in the cortex and medulla in a polar location, an echogenic band or wavy, branching anechoic lines in the hyperechoic region, a subcapsular hematoma, and an extrarenal hematoma in direct continuity with the echogenic area. Duplex Doppler examination in renal allograft rupture shows marked reduction of absence of the diastolic component of the velocity waveform in the arcuate and interlobar arteries, with reduction in amplitude of the systolic wave form. Correlation of the US appearances with gross and microscopic pathologic findings indicates that the echogenic area is due to an intrarenal hematoma, while the echogenic band represents the cortical laceration with adherent blood clots. The US-duplex Doppler examination should be the primary diagnostic modality in this life-threatening condition

  12. CT angiography of the renal arteries and veins: normal anatomy and variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazırolan, Tuncay; Öz, Meryem; Türkbey, Barış; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Oğuz, Berna Sayan; Canyiğit, Murat

    2011-03-01

    Conventional angiography has long been regarded as gold standard imaging modality for evaluation of the renal vasculature. Introduction of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography had a groundbreaking impact on evaluation of the renal vessels and is gradually replacing conventional angiography as standard imaging. Herein, we review and illustrate the normal and variant anatomy of renal vessels with special emphasis on imaging protocols and reconstruction techniques in MDCT.

  13. Current Status of Nephron-Sparing Surgery (NSS) in the Management of Renal Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramani, Vivek; Swain, Sanjaya; Satyanarayana, Ramgopal; Parekh, Dipen J

    2017-06-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery has emerged as the surgical treatment of choice for small renal masses over the past two decades, replacing the traditional teaching of radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. With time, there has been an evolution in the techniques and indications for partial nephrectomy. This review summarizes the current status of nephron-sparing surgery for renal carcinoma and also deals with the future of this procedure.

  14. End-stage renal disease and survival in people with diabetes: a national database linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, S.; Fletcher, E.H.; Brady, I.; Looker, H.C.; Levin, D.; Joss, N.; Traynor, J.P.; Metcalfe, W.; Conway, B.; Livingstone, S.; Leese, G.; Philip, S.; Wild, S.; Halbesma, N.; Sattar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing prevalence of diabetes worldwide is projected to lead to an increase in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT).Aim: To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of ESRD and requirement for RRT among people with diabetes in a nationwide study and to report associated survival.Methods: Data were extracted and linked from three national databases: Scottish Renal Registry, Scottish Care Initiative-Diabetes Collaboration...

  15. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Daijo, K; Okabe, T; Kawamura, J; Hara, A [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1979-08-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1.

  16. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shin-ichi; Daijo, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Tatsushiro; Kawamura, Juichi; Hara, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1. (author)

  17. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin-II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, Tonja W.; Janssen, Ben J.; Pinkham, Maximilian I.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Evans, Roger G.; Joles, Jaap A.; Malpas, Simon C.; Krediet, C. T. Paul; Koeners, Maarten P.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary. We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats. This method provides stable and continuous

  18. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  19. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevtic, V.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination

  20. The investigation of in-vivo measurement of individual renal blood perfusion, effective renal plasma flow and quantitation of renogram and 15 min bladder collection percentage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kangchu

    1991-01-01

    25 normals and 43 renal diseases were examined by the RBF-I multifunctioning renography. The result showed that the determination of ERPF has no difference between blood sampling and noin-blood sampling method, and actually the lattrer can replace the former one. Above method can be also used for the measurement of the individual renal blood perfusion, the quantitation of renogram and the 15 min bladder coolection percentage at the same time. Thereby it provides more complete diagnostic information for the renal vascular diseases, renal pancren chymations and other urologic diseases

  1. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water jet renal stone dislodger system. 876.4650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4650 Water jet renal stone dislodger system. (a) Identification. A water jet renal stone dislodger system is a device used to...

  2. Cigarette smoking and cardio-renal events in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Drummond

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular disease and is associated with poor kidney function in individuals with diabetes mellitus and primary kidney diseases. However, the association of smoking on patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis has not been studied. The current study utilized data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL, NCT00081731 clinical trial to evaluate the effects of smoking on the risk of cardio-renal events and kidney function in this population. Baseline data showed that smokers (n = 277 out of 931 were significantly younger at enrollment than non-smokers (63.3±9.1 years vs 72.4±7.8 years; p<0.001. In addition, patients who smoke were also more likely to have bilateral renal artery stenoses and peripheral vascular disease (PVD. Longitudinal analysis showed that smokers experienced composite endpoint events (defined as first occurrence of: stroke; cardiovascular or renal death; myocardial infarction; hospitalization for congestive heart failure; permanent renal replacement; and progressive renal insufficiency defined as 30% reduction of GFR from baseline sustained for ≥ 60 days at a substantially younger age compared to non-smokers (67.1±9.0 versus 76.1±7.9, p<0.001. Using linear regression and generalized linear modeling analysis controlled by age, sex, and ethnicity, smokers had significantly higher cystatin C levels (1.3±0.7 vs 1.2±0.9, p<0.01 whereas creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR were not different from non-smokers. From these data we conclude that smoking has a significant association with deleterious cardio-renal outcomes in patients with renovascular hypertension.

  3. Engineering kidney cells: reprogramming and directed differentiation to renal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael M; Tosic, Jelena; Pichler, Roman; Arnold, Sebastian J; Lienkamp, Soeren S

    2017-07-01

    Growing knowledge of how cell identity is determined at the molecular level has enabled the generation of diverse tissue types, including renal cells from pluripotent or somatic cells. Recently, several in vitro protocols involving either directed differentiation or transcription-factor-based reprogramming to kidney cells have been established. Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells can be guided towards a kidney fate by exposing them to combinations of growth factors or small molecules. Here, renal development is recapitulated in vitro resulting in kidney cells or organoids that show striking similarities to mammalian embryonic nephrons. In addition, culture conditions are also defined that allow the expansion of renal progenitor cells in vitro. Another route towards the generation of kidney cells is direct reprogramming. Key transcription factors are used to directly impose renal cell identity on somatic cells, thus circumventing the pluripotent stage. This complementary approach to stem-cell-based differentiation has been demonstrated to generate renal tubule cells and nephron progenitors. In-vitro-generated renal cells offer new opportunities for modelling inherited and acquired renal diseases on a patient-specific genetic background. These cells represent a potential source for developing novel models for kidney diseases, drug screening and nephrotoxicity testing and might represent the first steps towards kidney cell replacement therapies. In this review, we summarize current approaches for the generation of renal cells in vitro and discuss the advantages of each approach and their potential applications.

  4. Renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desberg, A.; Paushter, D.M.; Lammert, G.K.; Hale, J.; Troy, R.; Novic, A.; Nally, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Renal artery disease is a potentially correctable cause of hypertension. Previous studies have suggested the utility of duplex sonography in accurately detecting and grading the severity of renal artery stenosis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate color flow Doppler for this use. Forty-three kidneys were examined by color-flow Doppler and conventional duplex sampling in patients with suspected renovascular hypertension or those undergoing aortography for unrelated reasons. Doppler tracings were obtained from the renal arteries and aorta with calculation of the renal aortic ratio (RAR) and resistive index (RI). Results of Doppler sampling with color flow guidance were compared with aortograms in a blinded fashion

  5. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  6. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  7. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  8. Can photovoltaic replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    As the French law on energy transition for a green growth predicts that one third of nuclear energy production is to be replaced by renewable energies (wind and solar) by 2025, and while the ADEME proposes a 100 per cent renewable scenario for 2050, this paper proposes a brief analysis of the replacement of nuclear energy by solar photovoltaic energy. It presents and discusses some characteristics of photovoltaic production: production level during a typical day for each month (a noticeable lower production in December), evolution of monthly production during a year, evolution of the rate between nuclear and photovoltaic production. A cost assessment is then proposed for energy storage and for energy production, and a minimum cost of replacement of nuclear by photovoltaic is assessed. The seasonal effect is outlined, as well as the latitude effect. Finally, the authors outline the huge cost of such a replacement, and consider that public support to new photovoltaic installations without an at least daily storage mean should be cancelled

  9. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    not be cited for purposes of advertisement. DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS: Destroy this document when no longer needed. Do not return to the... recycling , and can be disposed safely in a landfill. (2) LEDs offer reduced maintenance costs and fewer bulb replacements, significantly reducing... recycling . Several fixtures, ballasts and energy efficient fluorescent bulbs that were determined to be in pristine condition were returned to ATC

  10. Replacing Recipe Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Saatsi, J

    2017-01-01

    Many realist writings exemplify the spirit of ‘recipe realism’. Here I characterise recipe realism, challenge it, and propose replacing it with ‘exemplar realism’. This alternative understanding of realism is more piecemeal, robust, and better in tune with scientists’ own attitude towards their best theories, and thus to be preferred.

  11. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  12. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  13. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  14. Enzyme Replacement Therapy for Fabry Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is a rare X-linked disease caused by the deficiency of α-galactosidase that leads to the accumulation of abnormal glycolipid. Untreated patients develop potentially lethal complications by age 30 to 50 years. Enzyme replacement therapy is the current standard of therapy for Fabry disease. Two formulations of recombinant human α-galactosidase A (agalsidase are available in most markets: agalsidase-α and agalsidase-β, allowing a choice of therapy. However, the US Food and Drug Administration rejected the application for commercialization of agalsidase-α. The main difference between the 2 enzymes is the dose. The label dose for agalsidase-α is 0.2 mg/kg/2 weeks, while the dose for agalsidase-β is 1.0 mg/kg/2 weeks. Recent evidence suggests a dose-dependent effect of enzyme replacement therapy and agalsidase-β is 1.0 mg/kg/2 weeks, which has been shown to reduce the occurrence of hard end points (severe renal and cardiac events, stroke, and death. In addition, patients with Fabry disease who have developed tissue injury should receive coadjuvant tissue protective therapy, together with enzyme replacement therapy, to limit nonspecific progression of the tissue injury. It is likely that in the near future, additional oral drugs become available to treat Fabry disease, such as chaperones or substrate reduction therapy.

  15. Blunt renal trauma in children: healing of renal injuries and recommendations for imaging follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalati, H.; Bulas, D.I.; Sivit, C.J.; Majd, M.; Rushton, H.G.; Eichelberger, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Initial CT grading of renal injury was correlated with the frequency of complications and the time course of healing in 35 children. All renal contusions (grade 1, 8) and small parenchymal lacerations (grade 2, 8) healed without complications. All lacerations extending to the collecting system (grade 3, 9) resulted in mild to severe loss of renal function with progressive healing over 4 months. One of four segmental infarcts (grade 4 A), and five of six vascular pedicle injuries (grade 4 B) resulted in severe loss of renal function. Complications, including urinoma (2), sepsis (1), hydronephrosis (1), and persistent hypertension (2), were limited to grade 3 and 4 injuries. Our results suggest that mild renal injuries do not require follow-up imaging. Major renal lacerations and vascular pedicle injuries, however, often result in loss of renal function and should be followed up closely due to the risk of delayed complications. Follow-up examinations should continue for 3-4 months until healing is documented. (orig.)

  16. [Acute renal failure in the transretinoic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, A; Gago, E; Baños, M; Gómez, E

    2007-01-01

    The all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the treatment of first line of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). ATRA is usually well tolerated, but a few major side effects can be observed, ATRA syndrome (RAS) being the most important of them, potentially fatal. The manifestations of this Syndrome are fever, weight gain, pulmonary infiltrates, pleural or pericardial effusions, hypotension, liver dysfunction and renal failure. We studied to the 29 patients diagnosed in (January of 2002 - December of 2004) of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), which were treated with ATRA, all received the 45 dose of mg/m(2)/d . The diagnosis of the leukemia was made by citomorphologist analysis. The criterion of renal insufficiency, it was an increase of the creatinina superior to 20% of the basal level. The definition of the transretinoico acid Syndrome was based on the clinical criteria of Frankel. Fourteen patients presented the Transretinoico Syndrome (48.3%), 11 of which (37.9%) died. The fundamental differences between the patients with or without ATRA were: fever (14 vs. 9, p=0,017), gain of weight (14 vs 0, p=0,000), pleural effusion (14 vs 2, p=0.000), pulmonary infiltrates (13 vs 1, p=0,000), cardiac failure (12 versus 2, p=0,000), respiratory distress (12 versus 4, p=0,003), presence of renal failure (10 vs 4, p=0,02), necessity of substitute renal treatment (6 vs 0, p=0,006) and arterial hypotension (12 vs. 3, p=0,001). The acute renal failure appeared in 10 of the 14 patients with SAR (71.4%), to 12+/-5 (1-25) days of the beginning of the treatment and their duration it was of 14+/-5 (1-46) days. Six (60%) needed substitute renal treatment and 5 (50%) died. Of the patients who survived, only a patient continues in dialysis. In both patient in that renal biopsy was made, the study showed signs of cortical necrosis. The appearance of acute renal failure in the course of the SAR is frequent, being observed deterioration of the renal function that needs substitute renal treatment

  17. Noninvasive continuous monitoring of digital pulse waves during hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkert, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous, investiga...

  18. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Khalid, M; Elfaki, M.; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).

  19. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. S; Ahmed, M.I; Elfaki, H.M; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)

  20. Disappearing renal calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomas, Johanna; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-04-10

    We present a case of a renal calculus treated solely with antibiotics which has not been previously reported in the literature. A man with a 17 mm lower pole renal calculus and concurrent Escherichia coli urine infection was being worked up to undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. However, after a course of preoperative antibiotics the stone was no longer seen on retrograde pyelography or CT imaging.

  1. Glaucoma after corneal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaziak, Monika; Chew, Hall F; Podbielski, Dominik W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    Glaucoma is a well-known complication after corneal transplantation surgery. Traditional corneal transplantation surgery, specifically penetrating keratoplasty, has been slowly replaced by the advent of new corneal transplantation procedures: primarily lamellar keratoplasties. There has also been an emergence of keratoprosthesis implants for eyes that are high risk of failure with penetrating keratoplasty. Consequently, there are different rates of glaucoma, pathogenesis, and potential treatment in the form of medical, laser, or surgical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Horlock, K.

    2001-01-01

    The contract for the design, construction and commissioning of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000. This was followed by the completion of the detailed design and an application for a construction licence was made in May 2001. This paper will describe the main elements of the design and their relation to the proposed applications of the reactor. The future stages in the project leading to full operation are also described

  3. Apparatus for fuel replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To support a telescope mast such that no deforming load is applied to it even during massive vibration, it is held fixed at the time of fuel replacement to permit satisfactory remote control operation by automatic operation. Structure: The body of the fuel replacement apparatus is provided with telescope mast fixing means comprising a slide base supported for reciprocal movement with respect to a telescope mast, an operating arm pivoted at the slide base, a wrist member mounted on the free end of the operating arm and an engagement member for restricting the slide base and operating arm at the time of loading and unloading the fuel. When loading and unloading the fuel, the slide base and operating arm are restrained by the engagement member to reliably restrict the vibration of the telescope mast. When the fuel replacement apparatus is moved, the means provided on the operating arm is smoothly displaced to follow the swing (vibration) of the telescope mast to prevent the deforming load from being applied to the support portion or other areas. The wrist member supports the telescope mast such that it can be rotated while restraining movement in the axial direction, and it is provided with revolution drive means for rotating the telescope mast under remote control. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Bilateral triple renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestemalci, Turan; Yildiz, Yusuf Zeki; Yildirim, Mehmet; Mavi, Ayfer; Gumusburun, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radio logic techniques being performed in recent years. We report the presence of bilateral triple renal arteries, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver. On the right side, one additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta (distributed to superior pole of the kidney) and one other originated from the right common iliac artery (distributed to lower pole of the kidney). On the left side, both additional renal arteries originated from the abdominal aorta. Our observation has been compared with variations described in the literature and their clinical importance has been emphasized. (author)

  5. Radiology of renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers most aspects of imaging studies in patients with renal failure. The initial chapter provides basic information on contrast agents, intravenous urography, and imaging findings in the urinary tract disorders responsible for renal failure and in patients who have undergone transplantation. It illustrates common gastro-intestinal abnormalities seen on barium studies in patients with renal failure. It illustrates the cardiopulmonary complications of renal failure and offers advice for radiologic differentiation. It details different aspects of skeletal changes in renal failure, including a basic description of the pathophysiology of the changes; many excellent illustrations of classic bone changes, arthritis, avascular necrosis, and soft-tissue calcifications; and details of bone mineral analysis

  6. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  7. Renal Function and Outcomes With Use of Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation and Inotropes in End-Stage Heart Failure: A Retrospective Single Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sean; Bassily, Emmanuel; Leighton, Shane; Mhaskar, Rahul; Sunjic, Igor; Martin, Angel; Rihana, Nancy; Jarmi, Tambi; Bassil, Claude

    2017-07-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and inotrope therapy serve as a bridge to transplant (BTT) or as destination therapy in patients who are not heart transplant candidates. End-stage heart failure patients often have impaired renal function, and renal outcomes after LVAD therapy versus inotrope therapy have not been evaluated. In this study, 169 patients with continuous flow LVAD therapy and 20 patients with continuous intravenous inotrope therapy were analyzed. The two groups were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after LVAD or inotrope therapy was started. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), BTT rate, and mortality for 6 months following LVAD or inotrope therapy were studied. Results between the groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square with continuity correction or Fischer's exact at the significance level of 0.05. Mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not statistically different between the two groups, with P = 0.471, 0.429, and 0.847 at baseline, 3 and 6 months, respectively. The incidence of AKI, RRT, and BTT was not statistically different. Mortality was less in the inotrope group (P < 0.001). Intravenous inotrope therapy in end-stage heart failure patients is non-inferior for mortality, incidence of AKI, need for RRT, and renal function for 6-month follow-up when compared to LVAD therapy. Further studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of inotropes versus LVAD implantation on renal function and outcomes over a longer time period.

  8. Haemodialysis for post-traumatic acute renal failure - factors predicting outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machemehl, Thomas; Hsu, Peter; Pahad, Hussein; Williams, Paul; Yilmaz, Tugba H; Vassiliu, Pantelis; Boffard, Kenneth D; Degiannis, Elias; Doll, Dietrich

    2013-07-29

    Post-traumatic acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with high mortality. To assess indicators of improved survival. This was a retrospective cohort study of 64 consecutive trauma patients (penetrating and blunt trauma and burns) who underwent haemodialysis (HD) over a period of 5 years. Information on pre-hospital and in-hospital resuscitation, trauma scores and physiological scores and daily ICU records were collected. The majority of the patients were dialysed with continuous venovenous haemofiltration in the early years of the study and later with sustained low-efficiency dialysis. Of the 64 patients 47 died, giving an overall mortality rate of 73%. Mortality was highest in the burns patients (84%). Survival in all patients, irrespective of injury, was unrelated to the Revised Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Score or Trauma Injury Severity Score. The duration of HD did not differ significantly between the three trauma groups, and age was not a significant predictor of survival. Patients who were polyuric at the time of the initiation of HD had a lower mortality rate than those who were oliguric, anuric or normouric, although this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.09). Acute renal failure in trauma patients is associated with a low survival rate. Controversial conclusions have been presented in the literature. In this study, none of the parameters previously reported to affect survival proved to be valid, although the number of patients was comparable with those in other studies. Since understanding of the predictors and course of renal failure in trauma patients is still at an early stage, there is a need for multicentre prospective studies.

  9. The cost function for the preventive - maintenance replacement problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaplana, Jose Perez

    1994-01-01

    Let a discounted continuous review preventive-maintenance replacement model be such that its total discounted cost is given by means of two functional equations. We assume that downtime is caused by equipment breakdowns, and the length of a given downtime is the time necessary to repair the equipment and set it back in operation. The periodic preventive replacement policy is to replace the equipment by a new identical equipment when service age X is reached, or when the equipment ...

  10. Renal dysplasia and MRI: a clinician's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Larry A. [Emory University, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Renal dysplasia is a common abnormality in children. The role of MRI in evaluating children with renal dysplasia is evolving. More information is clearly necessary before MRI replaces conventional imaging modalities. In order to appropriately use MRI, the radiologist must have an understanding of the clinical questions that are important in the management of children with renal dysplasia. This review provides background information on renal dysplasia for the pediatric radiologist. The focus is on unilateral disease, especially multicystic dysplastic kidneys, and bilateral dysplasia, which is the most common cause of kidney failure in children. The emphasis is on the important clinical issues, and the potential of MRI as a methodology for providing clinically useful information not otherwise available from other imaging modalities. (orig.)

  11. Renal function improves with the treatment of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulur, Oktay; Dal, Kursat; Ertugrul, Derun Taner; Eser, Murat; Kaplan Efe, Fatma; Karakaya, Serdar; Şahin, Kubilay; Baser, Salih; Ata, Naim; Aybal Kutlugun, Aysun; Beyan, Esin

    2017-08-01

    It has been known that thyroid hormones may affect renal function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of levothyroxine replacement on renal function in hypothyroid patients before and after treatment. We retrospectively investigated free T3 (fT3), free T4 (fT4), TSH, creatinine, and eGFR measurements during both hypothyroid and euthyroid states of hypothyroid patients. The eGFR was calculated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. fT3, fT4, and eGFR measurements increased, meanwhile creatinine and TSH levels decreased significantly after euthyroidism was achieved with levothyroxine treatment (p treatment (r: 0.288, p treatment (r: -0.272, p hypothyroidism and found out that renal function improved in most patients after euthyroidism was achieved. In some patients, above-normal creatinine levels completely returned to normal once the patients became euthyroid.

  12. Tolvaptan alleviates excessive fluid retention of nephrotic diabetic renal failure unresponsive to furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tesshu; Masaki, Tsuguto; Hoshiyama, Ayako; Toki, Takuya; Kamata, Yuji; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2018-04-17

    Patients with diabetic nephropathy develop nephrotic syndrome, and may show limited response to conventional therapy. They often require earlier initiation of renal replacement therapy because they become refractory to diuretics, and experience excessive fluid retention. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of tolvaptan, an oral arginine vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, in a case series of 14 severe diabetic renal failure patients who were severely refractory to maximal doses of furosemide and had excessive fluid retention despite preserved cardiac function and residual renal function. All 14 patients experienced immediate and sustained water diuretic effects, resulting in alleviation of congestive heart failure. None required initiation of renal replacement therapy. Tolvaptan promptly increased urine volume and free water clearance, reversed progressive fluid retention, and alleviated congestive heart failure. Thus, tolvaptan could serve as a potential adjunct therapy for severe diabetic renal failure patients with excessive fluid retention and congestive heart failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Renal function changes associated with aging and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Norrdin, R.W.; Sawyer, S.S.; Nealeigh, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    Renal function testing of irradiated and unirradiated beagles at CRHL has been carried out for the past 7 years using a simultaneous estimation of sodium sulfanilate and sodium iodohippurate 131 I clearance. Evidence has been cited that the beagle kidney is markedly sensitive to whole-body ionizing radiation delivered in the perinatal period. The objectives of this continuing study are to determine the nature of the progression of chronic renal disease, its possible association to hypertension, the impact of unilateral nephrectomy upon an already compromised renal parenchyma, and the age-related changes in renal function. Thus far, data seem to indicate the following conclusions: sulfanilate clearance appears to be a sensitive indicator of impending renal failure, exhibiting earlier and more obvious indicators than BUN (blood urea nitrogen) levels; hypertension does not appear to be a factor in radiation-induced renal failure in the adult dogs studied here, since the average arterial blood pressure was as high in normal control dogs as in irradiated dogs suffering from renal failure; unilateral nephrectomy affected unirradiated dogs less than irradiated animals with mild renal insufficiency. The BUN levels returned to prenephrectomy levels in 8 weeks in the unirradiated group, but required up to 1 year in the dogs with renal insufficiency; and an age related decrease inrenal function was observed in a group of unirradiated dogs studied from 0 to 2 through 13 years of age

  14. Individual renal function study using dynamic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Yutaka; Kiya, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yoshiharu

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic CT scans of individual kindneys were obtained after an intravenous bolus injection of contrast agent. Time-density curves measured from the renal cortex, medulla and pelvis revealed the changes in density produced by the contrast agent reflecting the differential phase of renal function. Renal cortical density increased rapidly after bolus administration and then renal medullary and pelvic density increased continuously. In analyzing time-density curve, the cortico-medullary junction time, which is the time when the cortical and medullary curves cross was 57±8 seconds in patients with normal renal function. The cortico-medullary junction time was delayed in patient with decreased glomerular filtration rate. The cortico-pelvic junction time, which is the time when the cortical and pelvic curves cross was 104±33 seconds in patients with normal renal function. The cortico-pelvic junction time was delayed in patients with declined urinary concentrating capacity. In patients with unilateral renal agenesis and patients who were treated surgically by ureteral sprits, the relationship between individual renal functions and these junction times was examined. As a result of study there were inversely significant correlations between C-M junction time and unilateral GFR and between C-P junction time and urinary concentrating capacity. These studies indicate that dynamic CT scanning is an effective way that individual renal function can be monitored and evaluated. (author)

  15. Current trends in European renal epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continues to vary substantially between the countries in Europe that contribute data to the ERA-EDTA Registry. Differences can be attributed to socioeconomic factors and prophylaxis programs for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may also...... to continuing increases in the proportion of elderly patients. Prevalence rates are expected to continue to increase, mainly due to increases in relative transplant prevalence, improved graft survival times and continuing improvements in both dialysis and transplant patient survival. Overall treatment results...

  16. Hypothyroidism presenting as reversible renal impairment: an interesting case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikrant, Sanjay; Chander, Subhash; Kumar, Satish; Gupta, Dalip

    2013-10-01

    We describe an interesting case of reversible renal impairment secondary to hypothyroidism. A 57-years-old man was referred from peripheral institution for evaluation of elevated serum creatinine. He had vague complaints of weakness, lethargy and muscle ache but no urinary symptoms. He was found to have hypothyroidism, and thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) was started which resulted in reversal of the renal dysfunction. There was marked improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate. 99mTc DTPA renal scans done before and after THRT suggested hypothyroidism responsible for this reversible renal impairment. Several studies have described the pathophysiology of diminished renal function in hypothyroidism. Few studies or case reports have shown total amelioration of renal impairment as seen in our patient. The etiology is presumed to be multifactorial, in which hemodynamic effects and a direct effect of thyroid hormone on the kidney play an important role. We suggest that patients with renal impairment of unknown cause have thyroid function tests undertaken as part of routine investigation.

  17. End Stage and Chronic Kidney Disease: Associations with Renal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is a well known association between end stage renal disease and the development of kidney cancer in the native kidney of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. There is now emerging evidence that lesser degrees of renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease, CKD) are also associated with an increased likelihood of cancer in general and kidney cancer in particular. Nephropathological changes are commonly observed in the non-tumor bearing portions of kidney resected at the time of partial and radical nephrectomy (RN). In addition, patients with renal cancer are more likely to have CKD at the time of diagnosis and treatment than the general population. The exact mechanism by which renal insufficiency transforms normal kidney cells into tumor cells is not known. Possible mechanisms include uremic immune inhibition or increased exposure to circulating toxins not adequately cleared by the kidneys. Surgeons managing kidney tumors must have an increased awareness of their patient’s renal functional status as they plan their resection. Kidney sparing approaches, including partial nephrectomy (PN) or active surveillance in older and morbidly ill patients, can prevent CKD or delay the further decline in renal function which is well documented with RN. Despite emerging evidence that PN provides equivalent local tumor control to RN while at the same time preventing CKD, this operation remains under utilized in the United States and abroad. Increased awareness of the bi directional relationship between kidney function and kidney cancer is essential in the contemporary management of kidney cancer.

  18. Renal imaging in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porn, U.; Hahn, K.; Fischer, S.

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent renal diseases in paediatrics include urinary tract infections, hydronephrosis, kidney anomalies and reflux. The main reason for performing DMSA scintigraphy in paediatrics is the detection of cortical abnormalities related to urinary tract infection. Because the amount of tracer retained in the tubular cells is associated with the distribution of functioning renal parenchyma in the kidney, it is possible, to evaluate the split renal function. In comparison to ultrasound and intravenous urography the sensitivity in the detection of acute as well as chronic inflammatory changes is very high, however less specific. An indication for a renography in neonates and children is beside an estimation of the total renal function and the calculation of the split renal function, the assessment of renal drainage in patients with unclear dilatation of the collecting system in ultrasound. The analysis of the time activity curve provides, especially for follow-up studies, a reproducible method to assess the urinary outflow. The diuretic scintigraphy allows the detection of urinary obstruction. Subsequently it is possible to image the micturition phase to detect vesico-ureteric reflux (indirect MCU) after drainage of tracer from the renal pelvis. An reflux in the ureters or the pelvicalyceal system is visible on the scintigraphic images and can be confirmed by time activity curves. A more invasive technique is the direct isotope cystography with bladder catheterization. The present paper should give an overview about the role of nuclear medicine in paediatric urology. (orig.) [de

  19. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  20. 49 CFR 224.109 - Inspection, repair, and replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection, repair, and replacement. 224.109 Section 224.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD..., Inspection, and Maintenance of Retroreflective Material § 224.109 Inspection, repair, and replacement. (a...

  1. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  2. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    , in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  3. Upgrade, rebuild or replace?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ageing reactor simulators present some tough decisions for utility managers. Although most utilities have chosen the cheaper, upgrading solution as the best compromise between costs and outage length, some US utilities have found that for them, replacement represents the best option. Simulators may be less than ten years old, but they have limited instructor systems, older low fidelity models that cannot reproduce important training scenarios, and out of date, difficult to maintain computers that do not permit much expansion of the models anyway. Perhaps worse than this is the possibility that the simulator may no longer be a faithful reproduction of the referenced plant, or have poor (or non-existent) documentation. (author)

  4. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  5. Renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafur-Soto, Jose David; White, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the single largest cause of secondary hypertension; it is associated with progressive renal insufficiency and causes cardiovascular complications such as refractory heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. Medical therapy, including risk factor modification, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, lipid-lowering agents, and antiplatelet therapy, is advised in all patients. Patients with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension despite optimal medical therapy, ischemic nephropathy, and cardiac destabilization syndromes who have severe RAS are likely to benefit from renal artery revascularization. Screening for RAS can be done with Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cryoablation of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makki, Ahmad; Graumann, Ole; Hoyer, Soren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small series have reported that cryoablation (CA) is a safe and feasible minimally invasive nephron-sparing alternative for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas (renal AMLs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CA in patients with renal AML......-guided CA. The mean patient age was 46 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30] and the mean tumor volume was 50.1 cm(3) (IQR 53.3). In all cases, the procedure was effectively conducted with no conversion to open surgery, and no major complications were experienced. The mean follow-up time was 25 months (IQR...

  7. Two cases of cisplatin-induced permanent renal failure following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Motoyama, Satoru; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yusuke; Yoshino, Kei; Wakita, Akiyuki; Saito, Hajime; Anbai, Akira; Jin, Mario; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    We experienced two esophageal cancer patients who developed severe acute renal failure after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorourasil. After administration of cisplatin, their serum creatinine increased gradually until they required hemodialysis and their renal failure was permanent. In both cases, renal biopsy examination indicated partial recovery of the proximal tubule, but renal function did not recover. After these events, one patient underwent definitive radiotherapy and the other underwent esophagectomy for their esophageal cancers, while continuing dialysis. Both patients are alive without cancer recurrence. In these two cases of cisplatin-induced renal failure, renal biopsy examination showed only slight disorder of proximal tubules and tendency to recover. Although cisplatin-related nephrotoxicity is a well-recognized complication, there have been few reports of renal failure requiring hemodialysis in cancer patients. In this report, we present their clinical courses and the pathological findings of cisplatin-related renal failure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute renal failure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergesslich, K.A.; Balzar, E.; Weninger, M.; Ponhold, W.; Sommer, G.; Wittich, G.R.; Vienna Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) may be due to obstructive uropathy or renal parenchymal disease. Twenty-five children with acute renal failure secondary to renal parenchymal disease underwent ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys. Changes of renal size and cortical echogenicity were correlated with renal function. All patients presented with bilaterally enlarged kidneys with the exception in renal function resulted in normalization of renal size. With regard to cortical echogenicity two groups were formed. Group A comprised 11 patients whose kidneys had the same echogenicity as the liver, while in group B the kidneys were more echogenic (14 patients). Cortical echogenicity was always increased. Determination of creatinine levels showed a statistically significant difference between group A (3.32 mg% ± 1.40 S.D.) and group B (5.95 mg% ± 1.96 S.D.), p < 0.001. Changes in renal function were paralleled by rapid changes in renal size and cortical echogenicity. (orig.)

  9. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  10. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  11. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  12. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  13. Renal tumors in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaya, J.; Garcia, P.

    1997-01-01

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  14. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney tumor - CT scan Kidney metastases, CT scan Kidney - blood and urine flow References Campbell SC, Lane BR. Malignant renal tumors. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, ...

  15. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  16. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  17. Common paediatric renal conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few children in South Africa have access to dialysis or renal transplantation, so it is important to .... the chronic administration of antibiotics increases the risk of a UTI with a resistant .... factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women.

  18. Renal and perirenal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.E.; Andriole, V.T.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge of the spectrum of renal abscesses has increased as a result of more sensitive radiologic techniques. The classification of intrarenal abscess now includes acute focal bacterial nephritis and acute multifocal bacterial nephritis, as well as the previously recognized renal cortical abscess, renal corticomedullary abscess, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. In general, the clinical presentation of these entities does not differentiate them; various radiographic studies can distinguish them, however. The intrarenal abscess is usually treated successfully with antibiotic therapy alone. Antistaphylococcal therapy is indicated for the renal cortical abscess, whereas therapy directed against the common gram-negative uropathogens is indicated for most of the other entities. The perinephric abscess is often an elusive diagnosis, has a more serious prognosis, and is more difficult to treat. Drainage of the abscess and sometimes partial or complete nephrectomy are required for resolution. 73 references

  19. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  20. Renal dynamic scintigraphy in renal graft evaluation; Cintilografia renal dinamica na avaliacao do transplante renal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervo, Marco Antonio Cadorna; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros; Souza, Ricardo Alberto Manhaes de; Evangelista, Maria Gardenia; Cavalcante, Carlos Alberto Provasi; Neder, Jacqueline de Roure e; Espinola, Ircania Jorge [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this was to describe the use of the dynamic renal scintigraphy in patients grafted. The authors described the scintigraphy method utilised and results were discussed 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Renal Artery Embolization of Perirenal Hematoma in Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Lee, Yong Seok; Lim, Ji Hyon; Kim, Kyung Soo; Yoon, Yup [Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute viral disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage and renal failure. Among the various hemorrhagic complications of HFRS, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma are very rare findings. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute infectious disease caused by hantavirus. HFRS is clinically characterized by fever, renal failure and hemorrhage in organs such as lung, kidney, spleen and the pituitary gland. Renal medullary hemorrhage is a well-known complication in the kidney, but spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma in HFRS is rare, and patients showing continuous bleeding and massive perirenal hematoma have often been surgically treated. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and the patient was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. In summary, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma is a rare complication of HFRS. We report here on a case of HFRS that caused massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with superselective renal artery embolization.

  2. Renal Artery Embolization of Perirenal Hematoma in Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Lee, Yong Seok; Lim, Ji Hyon; Kim, Kyung Soo; Yoon, Yup; Hwang, Jae Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute viral disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage and renal failure. Among the various hemorrhagic complications of HFRS, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma are very rare findings. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute infectious disease caused by hantavirus. HFRS is clinically characterized by fever, renal failure and hemorrhage in organs such as lung, kidney, spleen and the pituitary gland. Renal medullary hemorrhage is a well-known complication in the kidney, but spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma in HFRS is rare, and patients showing continuous bleeding and massive perirenal hematoma have often been surgically treated. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and the patient was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. In summary, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma is a rare complication of HFRS. We report here on a case of HFRS that caused massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with superselective renal artery embolization

  3. Being adolescent with chronic renal failure: a view through existential phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Astolphi de Souza

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To understand adolescent's experiences with chronic renal failure disease, attended in a pubic teaching hospital at São Paulo state. Method: Phenomenological study, based on the philosophical reference of Martin Heidegger, with six adolescents interviewed by the following question: "What is it like to be an adolescent with chronic renal failure?" Results: Three ontological categories emerged: feeling different; experiencing renal insufficiency through renal replacement therapy; seeking normality. Conclusion: It was evidenced that the experiences of these adolescents were demonstrated by their behaviors of acceptance and denial, both related to chronic renal failure as a peculiar condition of their lives. Implications for practice: It is crucial that nursing directs a more careful look at adolescents with chronic renal failure, going beyond the disease and also considering the particularities of the adolescents necessary to face the adversities that arise from this experience.

  4. Protein intake in renal and hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Patrice M

    2011-03-01

    The kidney and the liver play a central role in protein metabolism. Synthesis of albumin and other proteins occurs mainly in the liver, whereas protein breakdown and excretion are handled through an intricate interaction between these two organ systems. Thus, disease states of either the liver and/or the kidney invariably result in clinically relevant disturbances of protein metabolism. Conversely, metabolic processes regulated by these two organs are directly affected by dietary protein intake. Of particular importance in this respect is the maintenance of acid/base homeostasis. Finally, both the amount and composition of ingested proteins have a direct impact on renal function, especially in a state of diseased kidneys. Consequently, dietary protein intake is of paramount importance in patients with chronic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. Limitation of ingested protein, particularly from animal sources, is crucial in order to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease and impaired renal function. In contrast, patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, have an increased protein demand. The syndrome of "protein-energy malnutrition" is a relevant factor for morbidity and mortality in this population and requires early detection and vigorous treatment. Protein intake in patients with cirrhosis of the liver should not be diminished as has been earlier suggested but rather increased to 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day, in order to prevent protein malnutrition. Moderate restriction depending on protein tolerance (0.5 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day), with the possible addition of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), has been recommended only in patients with advanced hepatic encephalopathy. Proteins of plant origin are theoretically superior to animal proteins.

  5. Renal artery pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Inácio Roman

    Full Text Available Abstract The renal artery pseudoaneurysm embody a rare vascular complication coming of percutaneous procedures, renal biopsy, nephrectomy, penetrating traumas and more rarely blunt traumas. The clinical can be vary according the patient, the haematuria is the symptom more commom. Is necessary a high level of clinical suspicion for your diagnosis, this can be elucidated by through complementary exams as the eco-color Doppler and the computed tomography scan (CT. This report is a case of a patient submitted a right percutaneous renal biopsy and that, after the procedure started with macroscopic haematuria, urinary tenesmus and hypogastric pain. The diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm was given after one week of evolution when the patient was hospitalized because gross haematuria, tachycardia, hypotension and hypochondrium pain. In the angiotomography revealed a focal dilation of the accessory right renal inferior polar artery, dilation of renal pelvis and all the ureteral course with presence hyperdenso material (clots inside the middle third of the ureter. The treatment for the majority of this cases are conservative, through arterial embolization, indicated for thouse of smaller dimensions in patients who are hemodynamically stable. However, it was decided by clinical treatment with aminocaproic acid 1 g, according to previous studies for therapy of haematuria. The patient received discharge without evidence of macroscopic haematuria and with normal renal ultrasound, following ambulatory care.

  6. Development of a living membrane comprising of a functional human renal proximal tubule cell monolayer on polyethersulfone polymeric membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schophuizen, C.M.S.; De Napoli, Ilaria; Jansen, J.; Da Silva Teixeira, Sandra; Wilmer, M.; Hoenderop, J.G.; van den Heuvel, L.P.W.; Masereeuw, R.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The need for improved renal replacement therapies has stimulated innovative research for the development of a cell-based renal assist device. A key requirement for such a device is the formation of a “living membrane”, consisting of a tight kidney cell monolayer with preserved functional organic ion

  7. Replace with abstract title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coho, Aleksander; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    We use the semidiscrete variational generelized Peierls-Nabarro model to study the effect of Cu alloying on the dislocation properties of Al. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy surface when a plane, on which one in four Al atoms has been replaced with a Cu atom, slips over a pure Al plane. Various dislocation core properties (core width, energy, Peierls stress, dissociation tendency) are investigated and compared with the pure Al case. Cu alloying lowers the intrinsic stacking fault (ISF) energy, which makes dislocations more likely to dissociate into partials. We also try to understand the lowering of ISF energy in terms of Al-Cu and Al-Al bond formation and braking during shearing along the direction. From the above we draw conclusions about the effects of Cu alloying on the mechanical properties of Al.

  8. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  9. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  11. Replacement of core components in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, J.L.; Croucher, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The core internals of the Advanced Test Reactor are subjected to very high neutron fluences resulting in significant aging. The most irradiated components have been replaced on several occasions as a result of the neutron damage. The surveillance program to monitor the aging developed the needed criteria to establish replacement schedules and maximize the use of the reactor. The methods to complete the replacements with minimum radiation exposures to workers have been developed using the experience gained from each replacement. The original design of the reactor core and associated components allows replacements to be completed without special equipment. The plant has operated for about 20 years and is expected to continue operation for at least and additional 25 years. Aging evaluations are in progress to address additional replacements that may be needed during this period

  12. Replacement of core components in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, J.L.; Croucher, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The core internals of the Advanced Test Reactor are subjected to very high neutron fluences resulting in significant aging. The most irradiated components have been replaced on several occasions as a result of the neutron damage. The surveillance program to monitor the aging developed the needed criteria to establish replacement schedules and maximize the use of the reactor. Methods to complete the replacements with minimum radiation exposures to workers have been developed using the experience gained from each replacement. The original design of the reactor core and associated components allows replacements to be completed without special equipment. The plant has operated for about 20 years and will continue operation for perhaps another 20 years. Aging evaluations are in program to address additional replacements that may be needed during this extended time period. 3 figs

  13. Early Allograft Dysfunction Is Associated With Higher Risk of Renal Nonrecovery After Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani M. Wadei, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD identifies allografts with marginal function soon after liver transplantation (LT and is associated with poor LT outcomes. The impact of EAD on post-LT renal recovery, however, has not been studied. Data on 69 primary LT recipients (41 with and 28 without history of renal dysfunction who received renal replacement therapy (RRT for a median (range of 9 (13-41 days before LT were retrospectively analyzed. Primary outcome was renal nonrecovery defined as RRT requirement 30 days from LT. Early allograft dysfunction developed in 21 (30% patients, and 22 (32% patients did not recover renal function. Early allograft dysfunction was more common in the renal nonrecovery group (50% vs 21%, P = 0.016. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that EAD (odds ratio, 7.25; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-25.8; P = 0.002 and baseline serum creatinine (odds ratio, 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.1; P = 0.007 were independently associated with renal nonrecovery. History of renal dysfunction, duration of renal dysfunction, and duration of RRT were not related to renal recovery (P > 0.2 for all. Patients who had EAD and renal nonrecovery had the worst 1-, 3-, and 5-year patient survival, whereas those without EAD and recovered renal function had the best outcomes (P < 0.001. Post-LT EAD was independently associated with renal nonrecovery in LT recipients on RRT for a short duration before LT. Furthermore, EAD in the setting of renal nonrecovery resulted in the worst long-term survival. Measures to prevent EAD should be undertaken in LT recipients on RRT at time of LT.

  14. Renal PTA stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a common condition that may lead to hypertension, progressive renal dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. Catheter-based therapy for symptomatic, haemodynamically significant, RAS has become the preferred method of revascularization. Balloon angioplasty has been the traditional treatment of choice for fibromuscular dysplasia, however stents are increasingly used for the treatment of atheromatous lesions; in many cases-such as in ostial lesions-, direct stenting is strongly indicated. Despite the increased use of endovascular therapy for renal artery stenosis, there is still controversy regarding the optimal management and the net benefit of this treatment. Several randomized trials of balloon angioplasty or stenting for renal artery stenosis compared with medical therapy alone have been conducted, however these could not show definite advantage of endovascular therapy. Problems encountered with those trials include enrollment of small number of patients, frequent crossover from medical to interventional therapy compromising the intention-to-treat results, or selection of patients that are not expected to show clear benefit. The Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) is the most important of these trials; however, it,s study design was faulty and therefore did not provide conclusive evidence to answer the question of whether angioplasty and stenting or medical therapy is the best treatment for haemodynamically significant RAS. All expectations are now focused on the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial which was designed to answer the same question, and its methodologies took into consideration the weaknesses of the ASTRAL trial. Regarding stent device itself, it seems that the optimal design is probably a stainless steel, laser cut, open-cells stent mounted on a rapid exchange delivery balloon catheter compatible with 0.014-in and 0.018-in guidewire. As a future

  15. Desensitization protocol enabling pediatric crossmatch-positive renal transplantation: successful HLA-antibody-incompatible renal transplantation of two highly sensitized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamusiak, Anna M; Stojanovic, Jelena; Shaw, Olivia; Vaughan, Robert; Sebire, Neil J; Drage, Martin; Kessaris, Nicos; Marks, Stephen D; Mamode, Nizam

    2017-02-01

    Renal transplantation improves quality of life (QoL) and survival in children requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Sensitization with development of a broad-spectrum of anti-HLA antibodies as a result of previous transplantation or after receiving blood products is an increasing problem. There are no published reports of desensitization protocols in children allowing renal transplantation from HLA-antibody-incompatible living donors. We adopted our well-established adult desensitization protocol for this purpose and undertook HLA antibody-incompatible living donor renal transplants in two children: a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy. After 2 and 1.5 years of follow-up, respectively, both patients have stable renal allograft function despite a rise in donor-specific antibodies in one case. HLA-incompatible transplantation should be considered in selected cases for sensitized children.

  16. Canadian Organ Replacement Register (CORR: Reflecting the Past and Embracing the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise M Moist

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Canadian Organ Replacement Register (CORR is the only Canadian information system on kidney and extra-kidney organ failure and transplantation in Canada. CORR's mandate is to record and analyze the level of activity and outcomes of vital organ transplantation and treatment of end stage kidney disease using dialysis, either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, activities across Canada. The Canadian Organ Replacement Register was officially launched in 1987, and it included transplantation of extra-renal vital organs (liver, heart, lung, pancreas, bowel, in addition to renal transplantation and replacement therapy, with new financial support from the provinces. Objective: This manuscript describes the process of data acquisition and reporting, focusing on the patients with end stage kidney disease on dialysis, with data reported from the 2014 CORR Annual Data Report and the Center-Specific Reports on Clinical Measures. Methods: CORR is currently housed in the Canadian Institute for Health Information and collects data from hospital dialysis programs, regional transplant programs, organ procurement organizations and kidney dialysis services offered at independent health facilities. Data on patients is collected by completion of survey forms for each patient at the start of dialysis or receiving a transplant, using the Initial Registration form, and yearly follow up forms, which collects data on the status of the patient as of October 31 st . Results: The incident rate per million population (RPMP has remained stable with the exception of the 65+ age group with has experience a modest decrease since 2001. However, there has been an increasing prevalence of ESKD diagnoses, with the highest rate per million population (RPMP amongst the age group 65+ years. This is likely attributed to gradual improving patient survival. Between 2003 and 2012, nearly 90% of dialysis patients younger than < 18 and 26% of patients 75+ years survived for

  17. Long term enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease: effectiveness on kidney, heart and brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, Saskia M.; Smid, Bouwien E.; Bouwman, Machtelt G.; Linthorst, Gabor E.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Hollak, Carla E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by α-galactosidase A deficiency leading to renal, cardiac, cerebrovascular disease and premature death. Treatment with α-galactosidase A (enzyme replacement therapy, ERT) stabilises disease in some patients, but long term effectiveness

  18. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient......, this has important therapeutic implications. The pathological sequence in renal stone formers with dRTA is discussed....

  19. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  20. Renal function trajectory is more important than chronic kidney disease stage for managing patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosansky, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) emphasizes a current level of function as calculated from the modification of diet in renal disease glomerulofiltration rate equations (eGFR) and proteinuria for staging of CKD. Change in a patient's eGFR over time (renal function trajectory) is an additional and potentially more important consideration in deciding which patients will progress to the point where they will require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Many patients with CKD 3-5 have stable renal function for years. Proteinuria/albuminuria is a primary determinant of renal trajectory which may be slowed by medications that decrease proteinuria and/or aggressively lower blood pressure. A renal trajectory of >3 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year may relate to a need for closer renal follow-up and increased morbidity and mortality. Additional CKD population-based studies need to examine the relationship of renal trajectory to: baseline renal function; acute kidney injury episodes; age, race, sex and primary etiologies of renal disease; blood pressure control and therapies; dietary protein intake; blood glucose control in diabetics and the competitive risk of death versus the requirement for renal replacement therapy. In the elderly CKD 4 population with significant comorbidities and slow decline in renal function, the likelihood of death prior to the need for RRT should be considered before placing AV access for dialysis. Prediction models of renal progression must account for the competitive risk of death as well as stable or improved renal function to be clinically useful. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.