WorldWideScience

Sample records for continuous power operation

  1. Continuous operation of an ultra-low-power microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inyoung; Sode, Takashi; Loew, Noya; Tsugawa, Wakako; Lowe, Christopher Robin; Sode, Koji

    2017-07-15

    An ultimate goal for those engaged in research to develop implantable medical devices is to develop mechatronic implantable artificial organs such as artificial pancreas. Such devices would comprise at least a sensor module, an actuator module, and a controller module. For the development of optimal mechatronic implantable artificial organs, these modules should be self-powered and autonomously operated. In this study, we aimed to develop a microcontroller using the BioCapacitor principle. A direct electron transfer type glucose dehydrogenase was immobilized onto mesoporous carbon, and then deposited on the surface of a miniaturized Au electrode (7mm 2 ) to prepare a miniaturized enzyme anode. The enzyme fuel cell was connected with a 100 μF capacitor and a power boost converter as a charge pump. The voltage of the enzyme fuel cell was increased in a stepwise manner by the charge pump from 330mV to 3.1V, and the generated electricity was charged into a 100μF capacitor. The charge pump circuit was connected to an ultra-low-power microcontroller. Thus prepared BioCapacitor based circuit was able to operate an ultra-low-power microcontroller continuously, by running a program for 17h that turned on an LED every 60s. Our success in operating a microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source indicated the probability of realizing implantable self-powered autonomously operated artificial organs, such as artificial pancreas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Consideration of early closure or continued operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This publication provides information to management and executives of electrical utilities responsible for the operation of nuclear power plants who are tasked with decision making related to early closures or continued operation. This information is based on the experiences of a number of countries in addressing a spectrum of issues broader than only the economics of the operation of the plant itself. Any major decision involving changes in direction for a major investment such as a nuclear power plant has the potential to incur considerable additional costs for stakeholders. Major economic risks can be unexpectedly encountered when decisions based on a simplified economic understanding of energy options are successfully challenged on the grounds that choices and decisions have been made without accounting for some environmental, social or economic issues which are considered of prime significance to important stakeholders. Such risks include not only changes in project scope and delays in project implementation due to re-evaluations necessitated by such challenges, but risks related to the effectiveness, efficiency and safety of ongoing operations or shutdown maintenance of the nuclear power plant. Additional risks encountered at this stage are the adequacy of the decommissioning fund and the need to establish a process whereby the availability of adequate funds will be assured at the time of the final plant shutdown. This publication provides information on several of these additional issues important to key stakeholders, and on methods that allow for their assessment and consideration when developing recommendations related to early closures or continued operations of a NPP. This publication consists of two parts: Part I: Includes a discussion of the main issues for consideration, with emphasis on issues important to stakeholders in addition to plant owners. Part II: Provides an example of a basic analytical approach to the assessment of plant life cycle

  3. Power scaling and experimentally fitted model for broad area quantum cascade lasers in continuous wave operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, Matthew; Go, Rowel; Figueiredo, Pedro; Todi, Ankesh; Shu, Hong; Leshin, Jason; Lyakh, Arkadiy

    2018-01-01

    Experimental and model results for 15-stage broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are presented. Continuous wave (CW) power scaling from 1.62 to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15-mm long, high reflection-coated QCLs for an active region width increased from 10 to 20 μm. A semiempirical model for broad area devices operating in CW mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sublinearity of pulsed power versus current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall-plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm×25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design, but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300 Å, pulsed rollover current density of 6 kA/cm2, and InGaAs waveguide layers, an optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to ˜4.5 W from 3.15 mm×31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis and theoretical study of a continuous operation solar-powered adsorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.Z.; Mohamad, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the intermittent nature of the solar radiation, the day-long continuous production of cold is a challenge for solar-driven adsorption cooling systems. In the present study, a developed solar-powered adsorption cooling system is introduced. The proposed system is able to produce cold continuously along the 24-h of the day. The theoretical thermodynamic operating cycle of the system is based on adsorption at constant temperature. Both the cooling system operating procedure as well as the theoretical thermodynamic cycle are described and explained. Moreover, a steady state differential thermodynamic analysis is performed for all components and processes of the introduced system. The analysis is based on the energy conservation principle and the equilibrium dynamics of the adsorption and desorption processes. The Dubinin–Astakhov adsorption equilibrium equation is used in this analysis. Furthermore, the thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant are calculated from its equation of state. The case studied represents a water chiller which uses activated carbon–methanol as the working pair. The chiller is found to produce a daily mass of 2.63 kg cold water at 0 °C from water at 25 °C per kg of adsorbent. Moreover, the proposed system attains a cooling coefficient of performance of 0.66. - Highlights: • A new continuous operation solar-driven adsorption refrigeration system is introduced. • The theoretical thermodynamic cycle is presented and explained. • A complete thermodynamic analysis is performed for all components and processes of the system. • Activated carbon–methanol is used as the working pair in the case study

  5. The approach associated with the continued operation of the Calder Hall and Chapelcross nuclear power stations to 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, G.

    1996-01-01

    Calder Hall was the world's first commercial nuclear power station, commencing operation in 1956, and with its sister station at Chapelcross has operated successfully, with consistently high load factors, for approximately 40 years. The first part of this paper reviews the operating history of the stations. Secondly, the paper will briefly describe both the work carried out under the Long Term Safety Review which has supported operation to 40 years and the work being carried out as part of a Periodic Safety Review to support continued operation of both stations to 50 years. The commercial improvements, some of which, of course, do have some nuclear safety significance, will be briefly described in the context of operating within what is increasingly becoming a demanding privatized electricity market in the United Kingdom. Finally, potential life limiting features will be identified and the monitoring programmes described leading to the conclusion that there is no reason why the stations should not continue to operate to at least 50 years. (author). 4 refs

  6. High power diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, B Q; Li, G; Meng, P B; Zhu, G L; Ju, Y L; Wang, Y Z

    2010-01-01

    High power diode-pumped continuous wave (CW) and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO 4 laser is reported. Using two Tm,Ho:YVO 4 rods in a single cavity, up to 20.2 W of CW output lasing at 2054.7 nm was obtained under cryogenic temperature of 77 K with an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 32.9%. For Q-switch operation, up to 19.4 W of output was obtained under 15 kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) with a minimum pulse width of 24.2 ns. In addition, different pulse repetition frequencies of Q-switch operation with 10.0 kHz, 12.5 kHz and 15.0 kHz were investigated comparatively

  7. High-power LED light sources for optical measurement systems operated in continuous and overdriven pulsed modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasicki, Bolesław; Schröder, Andreas; Boden, Fritz; Ludwikowski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    The rapid progress of light emitting diode (LED) technology has recently resulted in the availability of high power devices with unprecedented light emission intensities comparable to those of visible laser light sources. On this basis two versatile devices have been developed, constructed and tested. The first one is a high-power, single-LED illuminator equipped with exchangeable projection lenses providing a homogenous light spot of defined diameter. The second device is a multi-LED illuminator array consisting of a number of high-power LEDs, each integrated with a separate collimating lens. These devices can emit R, G, CG, B, UV or white light and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. Using an external trigger signal they can be easily synchronized with cameras or other devices. The mode of operation and all parameters can be controlled by software. Various experiments have shown that these devices have become a versatile and competitive alternative to laser and xenon lamp based light sources. The principle, design, achieved performances and application examples are given in this paper.

  8. High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, L J; Tang, D Y; Xie, G Q; Dong, C M; Jia, Z T; Tao, X T

    2008-01-01

    We report on the continuous wave (CW) and passive Q-switching performance of a high-power diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser. A CW output power of 7.20 W was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 14.97 W, which gives a slop efficiency of 52.7%. With a Cr 4+ doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal as the saturable absorber, the shortest passively Q-switched pulse width, largest pulse energy, and highest peak power achieved were 7.7 ns, 126.25 μJ, and 15.5 kW, respectively

  9. A Continuing Education Short Course and Engineering Curriculum to Accelerate Workforce Development in Wind Power Plant Design, Construction, and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinjum, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Significant advances in wind turbine technology and wind turbine power plant capabilities are appearing in the U.S. Sites that only 10 years ago might have been overlooked are being considered for build out. However, the development of a skilled workforce in the engineering fields and construction trades lags the potential market, especially if the industry is expected to site, design, construct, and operate sufficient wind power plant sites to meet the potential for 20% wind energy by 2030. A select few firms have penetrated the engineer-procure-construction (EPC) market of wind power plant construction. Competition and know-how in this market is vital to achieve cost-effective, design-construct solutions. The industry must produce or retrain engineers, contractors, and technicians to meet ambitious goals. Currently, few universities offer undergraduate or graduate classes that teach the basics in designing, building, and maintaining wind power plants that are safe, efficient, and productive.

  10. The continued operation of nuclear power plants contents of the May 2003 O.P.E.C.S.T. report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birraux, C.; Bataille, Ch.; Barber, N.

    2009-01-01

    Their study sought a fair way of handling this matter. They tried to strike a ba-lance between the commercial perspectives of electric companies, consumers' economic interests, technological developments in the nuclear indus-try, and national energy independence, without reducing the high level of nuclear safety requirement. In this document, they advised first, to increase investment for research into materials ageing, second, to orient the ten-year review process towards continuing rather than stopping activity and third, to assert the absolute rule that, for obvious safety reasons, each decision regarding the lifetime of nuclear power plants had to be made on a case-by-case basis. Today they observe that all the necessary improvements have indeed been made On one hand, EDF now benefits from a grant to increase the competitiveness and safety of present-day power plants; on the other hand, the Act of 13. June 2006 organized a more constructive ten-year review process white at the same time it continued to empower the case-by-case rule. This framework fosters the ongoing, progressive replacement of old reactors by the EPR. This is being done with efficient speed and on a non-dramatic basis. (author)

  11. Performance Evaluation of a Continuous Operation Adsorption Chiller Powered by Solar Energy Using Silica Gel and Water as the Working Pair

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, dynamic analysis and performance evaluation of a solar-powered continuous operation adsorption chiller are introduced. The adsorption chiller uses silica gel and water as the working pair. The developed mathematical model represents the heat and mass transfer within the reactor coupled with the energy balance of the collector plate and the glass cover. Moreover, a non-equilibrium adsorption kinetic model is taken into account by using the linear driving force equation. T...

  12. LANL continuity of operations plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senutovitch, Diane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-22

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier national security research institution, delivering scientific and engineering solutions for the nation's most crucial and complex problems. Our primary responsibility is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. LANL emphasizes worker safety, effective operational safeguards and security, and environmental stewardship, outstanding science remains the foundation of work at the Laboratory. In addition to supporting the Laboratory's core national security mission, our work advances bioscience, chemistry, computer science, earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. To accomplish LANL's mission, we must ensure that the Laboratory EFs continue to be performed during a continuity event, including localized acts of nature, accidents, technological or attack-related emergencies, and pandemic or epidemic events. The LANL Continuity of Operations (COOP) Plan documents the overall LANL COOP Program and provides the operational framework to implement continuity policies, requirements, and responsibilities at LANL, as required by DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, May 2008. LANL must maintain its ability to perform the nation's PMEFs, which are: (1) maintain the safety and security of nuclear materials in the DOE Complex at fixed sites and in transit; (2) respond to a nuclear incident, both domestically and internationally, caused by terrorist activity, natural disaster, or accident, including mobilizing the resources to support these efforts; and (3) support the nation's energy infrastructure. This plan supports Continuity of Operations for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This plan issues LANL policy as directed by the DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, and provides direction for the orderly continuation of LANL EFs for 30 days of closure or 60 days for a pandemic/epidemic event. Initiation of COOP operations may

  13. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated. PMID:26927113

  14. Continuous hydrino thermal power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Randell L.; Zhao, Guibing; Good, William [BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, NJ 08512 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The specifics of a continuous hydrino reaction system design are presented. Heat from the hydrino reactions within individual cells provide both reactor power and the heat for regeneration of the reactants. These processes occur continuously and the power from each cell is constant. The conversion of thermal power to electrical power requires the use of a heat engine exploiting a cycle such as a Rankine, Brayton, Stirling, or steam-engine cycle. Due to the temperatures, economy goal, and efficiency, the Rankine cycle is the most practical and can produce electricity at 30-40% efficiency with a component capital cost of about $300 per kW electric. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25% the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1064 per kW electric. (author)

  15. Continuous hydrino thermal power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Randell L.; Zhao, Guibing; Good, William

    2011-01-01

    The specifics of a continuous hydrino reaction system design are presented. Heat from the hydrino reactions within individual cells provide both reactor power and the heat for regeneration of the reactants. These processes occur continuously and the power from each cell is constant. The conversion of thermal power to electrical power requires the use of a heat engine exploiting a cycle such as a Rankine, Brayton, Stirling, or steam-engine cycle. Due to the temperatures, economy goal, and efficiency, the Rankine cycle is the most practical and can produce electricity at 30-40% efficiency with a component capital cost of about $300 per kW electric. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25% the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1064 per kW electric.

  16. Hydrothermal optimal power flow using continuation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoofat, M.; Seifi, H.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of optimal economic operation of hydrothermal electric power systems is solved using powerful continuation method. While in conventional approach, fixed generation voltages are used to avoid convergence problems, in the algorithm, they are treated as variables so that better solutions can be obtained. The algorithm is tested for a typical 5-bus and 17-bus New Zealand networks. Its capabilities and promising results are assessed

  17. Optimization of power system operation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the latest applications of new technologies topower system operation and analysis, including new and importantareas that are not covered in the previous edition. Optimization of Power System Operation covers both traditional andmodern technologies, including power flow analysis, steady-statesecurity region analysis, security constrained economic dispatch,multi-area system economic dispatch, unit commitment, optimal powerflow, smart grid operation, optimal load shed, optimalreconfiguration of distribution network, power system uncertaintyanalysis, power system sensitivity analysis, analytic hierarchicalprocess, neural network, fuzzy theory, genetic algorithm,evolutionary programming, and particle swarm optimization, amongothers. New topics such as the wheeling model, multi-areawheeling, the total transfer capability computation in multipleareas, are also addressed. The new edition of this book continues to provide engineers andac demics with a complete picture of the optimization of techn...

  18. Power reactors operational diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.; Pecinka, L.

    1976-01-01

    The definition of reactor operational diagnostics is presented and the fundamental trends of research are determined. The possible sources of power reactor malfunctions, the methods of defect detection, the data evaluation and the analysis of the results are discussed in detail. In view of scarcity of a theoretical basis and of insufficient in-core instrumentation, operational diagnostics cannot be as yet incorporated in a computer-aided reactor control system. (author)

  19. Operating US power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    This update, which appears regularly in each issue of Nuclear Safety, surveys the operations of those power reactors in the US which have been issued operating licenses. Table 1 shows the number of such reactors and their net capacities as of September 30, 1987, the end of the three-month period covered in this report. Table 2 lists the unit capacity and forced outage rate for each licensed reactor for each of the three months (July, August, and September 1987) covered in this report and the cumulative values of these parameters since the beginning of commercial operation. In addition to the tabular data, this article discusses other significant occurrences and developments that affected licensed US power reactors during this reporting period. Status changes at Braidwood Unit 1, Nine Mile Point 2, and Beaver Valley 2 are discussed. Other occurrences discussed are: retraining of control-room operators at Peach Bottom; a request for 25% power for Shoreham, problems at Fermi 2 which delayed the request to go to 75% power; the results of a safety study of the N Reactor at Hanford; a proposed merger of Pacific Gas and Electric with Sacramento Municipal Utility District which would result in the decommissioning of Rancho Seco; the ordered shutdown of Oyster Creek; a minor radioactivity release caused by a steam generator tube rupture at North Anna 1; and 13 fines levied by the NRC on reactor licensees

  20. Criteria for approving equipment for continued operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, T.V.

    1993-01-01

    In May 1988, the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) of the Welding Research Council (WRC) initiated four projects in support of ASME's efforts to develop Codes and Standards for life prediction and life extension of nuclear and fossil power plant components. These projects are: (1) Criteria for Approving Equipment for Continued Operation (2) Guidelines and Procedures for Evaluating Piping for Continued Operation (3) Nondestructive Evaluation of Material Degradation (4) Operation and Maintenance History and Life Cycle Management. The PVRC awarded a contract to Foster Wheeler Development Corporation to undertake the first of these projects. The specific objective was to develop a program plan that will lead to development of ''Criteria for Approving Equipment for Continued Operation.'' The program is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1: Literature Search; Task 2: Telephone Interview and Consultation; Task 3: Program Plan Development; Task 4: Preparation of a Summary Report. This report is in fulfillment of the above project. As part of this study, the author reviewed about 145 reports, papers and books relating to various aspects of life extension. Various experts were also consulted who are involved in EPRI, NRC, ASME, PVRC, MPC, and utility studies as well as other research projects. The conclusions and recommendations for Code-related activities are summarized

  1. Cohering power of quantum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Kaifeng, E-mail: bkf@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: linyz@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Junde, E-mail: wjd@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Cohering power: production of quantum coherence by quantum operations. • Study of cohering power and generalized cohering power, and their comparison for differentmeasures of quantum coherence. • Operational interpretation of cohering power. • Bound on cohering power of a generic quantum operation. - Abstract: Quantum coherence and entanglement, which play a crucial role in quantum information processing tasks, are usually fragile under decoherence. Therefore, the production of quantum coherence by quantum operations is important to preserve quantum correlations including entanglement. In this paper, we study cohering power–the ability of quantum operations to produce coherence. First, we provide an operational interpretation of cohering power. Then, we decompose a generic quantum operation into three basic operations, namely, unitary, appending and dismissal operations, and show that the cohering power of any quantum operation is upper bounded by the corresponding unitary operation. Furthermore, we compare cohering power and generalized cohering power of quantum operations for different measures of coherence.

  2. Performance Evaluation of a Continuous Operation Adsorption Chiller Powered by Solar Energy Using Silica Gel and Water as the Working Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zohair Hassan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, dynamic analysis and performance evaluation of a solar-powered continuous operation adsorption chiller are introduced. The adsorption chiller uses silica gel and water as the working pair. The developed mathematical model represents the heat and mass transfer within the reactor coupled with the energy balance of the collector plate and the glass cover. Moreover, a non-equilibrium adsorption kinetic model is taken into account by using the linear driving force equation. The variation of solar radiation, wind speed, and atmospheric temperature along a complete cycle are considered for a more realistic simulation. Based on the case studied  and the baseline parameters, the chiller is found to acquire a coefficient of performance of 0.402. The average thermal efficiency of the solar collector is estimated to be 62.96% and the average total efficiency  approaches a value of 50.91%. Other performance parameters obtained are 363.8 W and 1.82 W/kg for the cooling capacity and the specific cooling power of the chiller, respectively. Furthermore, every 1 kg of silica gel inside the adsorption reactor produces a daily chilled water mass of 3 kg at a temperature of 10 ◦C. In addition, the cooling system harnesses 25.35% of the total available solar radiation and converts it to a cooling effect.

  3. 78 FR 21245 - Continuity of Operations Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ...; Order No. 778] Continuity of Operations Plan AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this Final Rule the Commission revises its Continuity of Operations Plan... Commission's Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) regulations to incorporate its regional offices into the...

  4. Analytic continuation of Toeplitz operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bommier-Hato, H.; Engliš, Miroslav; Youssfi, E.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2015), s. 2323-2359 ISSN 1050-6926 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB021108 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Toeplitz operator * Bergman space * strictly pseudoconvex domain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12220-014-9515-0

  5. 77 FR 43488 - Continuity of Operations Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ...; Order No. 765] Continuity of Operations Plan AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION... Operations Plan to allow the Commission the discretion to better address not only long-term and catastrophic... discretion regarding: the activation and deactivation of the Continuity of Operations Plan and any suspension...

  6. Continuous Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used to sense radioactive particulates in room air of nuclear facilities. CAMs alert personnel of potential inhalation exposures to radionuclides and can also actuate room ventilation isolation for public and environmental protection. This paper presents the results of a CAM operating experience review of the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly reviewed. CAM location selection and operation are briefly discussed. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. Department of Energy and in other literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Power losses, human errors, and mechanical issues cause the majority of failures. The average 'all modes' failure rate is 2.65E-05/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 9 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 252 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of CAMs in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER experiment

  7. Operator continued fraction and bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindor, M.

    1984-01-01

    The effective Hamiltonian of the model space perturbation theory (multilevel Rayleigh-Schroedinger theory) is expressed as an operator continued fraction. In the case of a nondegenerate model space the expression becomes an operator branched continued fraction. The method is applied to the harmonic oscillator with the kinetic energy treated as the perturbation and to the anharmonic oscillator

  8. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.......e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  9. Singular continuous spectrum for palindromic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, A.; Knill, O.; Simon, B.

    1995-01-01

    We give new examples of discrete Schroedinger operators with potentials taking finitely many values that have purely singular continuous spectrum. If the hull X of the potential is strictly ergodic, then the existence of just one potential x in X for which the operator has no eigenvalues implies that there is a generic set in X for which the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum. A sufficient condition for the existence of such an x is that there is a z element of X that contains arbitrarily long palindromes. Thus we can define a large class of primitive substitutions for which the operators are purely singularly continuous for a generic subset in X. The class includes well-known substitutions like Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, Period Doubling, binary non-Pisot and ternary non-Pisot. We also show that the operator has no absolutely continuous spectrum for all x element of X if X derives from a primitive substitution. For potentials defined by circle maps, x n =l J (θ 0 +nα), we show that the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum for a generic subset in X for all irrational α and every half-open interval J. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  11. Operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, P.

    1988-04-01

    The textbook for training nuclear power plant personnel is centred on the most important aspects of operating modes of WWER-440 reactors. Attention is devoted to the steady state operation of the unit, shutdown, overhaul with refuelling, physical and power start-up. Also given are the regulations of shift operation and the duties of individual categories of personnel during the shift and during the change of shifts. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Tendencies in operating power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinckmann, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is given about new tendencies in operating power reactors. In order to meet the high demands for control and monitoring of power reactors modern procedures are applicated such as the incore-neutron flux detection by means of electron emission detectors and multi-component activation probes, the noise diagnostics as well as high-efficient automation systems

  13. Calculation of Wind Power Limit adjusting the Continuation Power Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Castro Fernández, Miguel; Martínez García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The wind power insertion in the power system is an important issue and can create some instability problems in voltage and system frequency due to stochastic origin of wind. Know the Wind Power Limit is a very important matter. Existing in bibliography a few methods for calculation of wind power limit. The calculation is based in static constrains, dynamic constraints or both. In this paper is developed a method for the calculation of wind power limit using some adjust in the continuation power flow, and having into account the static constrains. The method is complemented with Minimal Power Production Criterion. The method is proved in the Isla de la Juventud Electric System. The software used in the simulations was the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). (author)

  14. Continuous tokamak operation with an internal transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.

    1982-10-01

    A large improvement in efficiency of current drive in a tokamak can be obtained using neutral beam injection to drive the current in a plasma which has low density and high resistivity. The current established under such conditions acts as the primary of a transformer to drive current in an ignited high-density plasma. In the context of a model of plasma confinement and fusion reactor costs, it is shown that such transformer action has substantial advantages over strict steady-state current drive. It is also shown that cycling plasma density and fusion power is essential for effective operation of an internal transformer cycle. Fusion power loading must be periodically reduced for intervals whose duration is comparable to the maximum of the particle confinement and thermal inertia timescales for plasma fueling and heating. The design of neutron absorption blankets which can tolerate reduced power loading for such short intervals is identified as a critical problem in the design of fusion power reactors

  15. Organizing nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.; Rekittke, K.

    1987-01-01

    With the preliminary culmination in the convoy plants of the high standard of engineered safeguards in German nuclear power plants developed over the past twenty years, the interest of operators has now increasingly turned to problems which had not been in the focus of attention before. One of these problems is the organization of nuclear power plant operation. In order to enlarge the basis of knowledge, which is documented also in the rules published by the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear Technology Committee), the German Federal Minister of the Interior has commissioned a study of the organizational structures of nuclear power plants. The findings of that study are covered in the article. Two representative nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany were selected for the study, one of them a single-unit plant run by an independent operating company in the form of a private company under German law (GmbH), the other a dual-unit plant operated as a dependent unit of a utility. The two enterprises have different structures of organization. (orig.) [de

  16. Operating experience at Scottish Nuclear's power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, P.

    1991-01-01

    A brief history is presented of the design and operation of the four Scottish nuclear power stations currently run by Scottish Nuclear, namely Hunterston 'A' and 'B' and the Torness reactors. A design flaw in the Magnox reactor at Hunterston 'A' led to it being operated at lower than optimal temperature and hence producing less power. For Hunterston 'B' reactor the Advanced Gas Cooled design prototype was used. Operating setbacks and successes are noted. The design chosen for Torness embraced all the good points of Hunterston 'B' but sought to eliminate its faults. After 26 years of successful operation Hunterston 'A' is now being decommissioned, while the other three stations continue to generate electricity successfully. (UK)

  17. Marketing CE approved off-the-shelf FC-operated power backup units for the telecom industry at competitive prices : a continuing success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, P. [Dantherm Power, Skive (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    Dantherm Power receives a steady supply of fuel cell stacks packed on pallets at its factory in Denmark. Once unpacked, they go to an assembly line to be integrated into power modules designed for telecom- and IT network-base-stations around the world. The CE approved units are designed and tested to meet current telecom standards. Customers can purchase the off-the-shelf units at competitive prices. Dantherm Power has brought fuel-cell technology beyond the research and development stage. Since 2005, the company has sold backup units providing uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to the telecom industry on standard commercial terms. Their fuel cell-based-solutions have proven to be successful. The company began in 2003 as a research and development project within Dantherm Air Handling A/S. Development was driven by the idea that a UPS-system based on hydrogen and fuel-cell-technology may be better solution than traditional battery and diesel driven backup for many of the company's existing clients.

  18. Electric power. The boom of continuous supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing needs in electric supply that exist in computer industry and Internet or more classical industry and tertiary sector have boosted the non-interruptible power supply market and decentralized generation groups. One can imagine the development of mini networks exploited by new types operators, progressive renunciation of the diesel engine for the profit of gas turbine and soon fuel cell and new opportunities for the cogeneration. (N.C.)

  19. Distributed continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesse, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents DynaSCOPE as distributed control method for continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants (DVPP). DVPPs aggregate the flexibility of distributed energy units to address current energy markets. As an extension of the Virtual Power Plant concept they show high dynamics in aggregation and operation of energy units. Whereas operation schedules are set up for all energy units in a day-ahead planning procedure, incidents may render these schedules infeasible during execution, like deviation from prognoses or outages. Thus, a continuous scheduling process is needed to ensure product fulfillment. With DynaSCOPE, software agents representing single energy units solve this problem in a completely distributed heuristic approach. Using a stepped concept, several damping mechanisms are applied to allow minimum disturbance while continuously trying to fulfill the product as contracted at the market.

  20. An assessment of the parameters and experimental data of the continuous water activity monitors operating in the upstream and downstream channels of the Paks nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Gy.; Feher, I.

    1986-03-01

    A NaI(Tl) scintillator was placed into a measuring vessel of 8 msup(3) volume for monitoring the effluents in the upstream and downstream channels of the Paks nuclear power plant. The effects of radioactivity, meteorological parameters, and the atmospheric pressure on the counting rates, and their daily and monthly average values in both channels were analyzed. The short-term increases of the monitor signals could be attributed to rainy weather. The sup(222)Rn countent of water was also evaluated. (author)

  1. Continuous anti-Stokes Raman laser operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitisch, A.; Muller, T.; Welling, H.; Wellegehausen, B.

    1988-01-01

    The anti-Stokes Raman laser (ASRL) process has proved to be a method that works well for frequency upconversion and for the generation of powerful tunable narrowband (pulsed) laser radiation in the UV and VUV spectral range. This conversion process allows large-frequency shifts in single step, high output energies, and high efficiencies. A basic requirement is population inversion on a two-photon transition, where, in general, the upper level of the transition should be metastable. Up to now the ASRL technique has only been demonstrated for the pulsed regime, where the necessary population inversion was generated by photodissociation or inner shell photoionization. These inversion techniques, however, cannot be transferred to cw operation of an ASRL, and, therefore, other inversion techniques have to be developed. Here a novel approach for the creation of the necessary population inversion is proposed, that uses well-known cw gas lasers as the active material for the conversion process. The basic idea is to use either existing two-photon population inversions in a cw laser material or to generate the necessary population inversion by applying a suitable population transfer process to the material. A natural two-photon inversion situation in a laser material is evident whenever a cascade laser can be operated. Cascade laser-based anti-Stokes schemes are possible in a He-Ne laser discharge, and investigations of these schemes are discussed

  2. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  3. Operational power reactor health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Operational Health Physics can be comprised of a multitude of organizations, both corporate and at the plant sites. The following discussion centers around Baltimore Gas and Electric's (BG and E) Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, located in Lusby, Maryland. Calvert Cliffs is a twin Combustion Engineering 825 MWe pressurized water reactor site with Unit I having a General electric turbine-generator and Unit II having a Westinghouse turbine-generator. Having just completed each Unit's ten-year Inservice Inspection and Refueling Outge, a total of 20 reactor years operating health physics experience have been accumulated at Calvert Cliffs. Because BG and E has only one nuclear site most health physics functions are performed at the plant site. This is also true for the other BG and E nuclear related organizations, such as Engineering and Quality Assurance. Utilities with multiple plant sites have corporate health physics entity usually providing oversight to the various plant programs

  4. Economic Operation of Power Systems with Significant Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa

    This dissertation addresses economic operation of power systems with high penetration of wind power. Several studies are presented to address the economic operation of power systems with high penetration of variable wind power. The main concern in such power systems is high variability...... and unpredictability. Unlike conventional power plants, the output power of a wind farm is not controllable. This brings additional complexity to operation and planning of wind dominant power systems. The key solution in face of wind power uncertainty is to enhance power system flexibility. The enhanced flexibility......, cooperative wind-storage operation is studied. Lithium-Ion battery units are chosen as storage units. A novel formulation is proposed to investigate optimal operation of a storage unit considering power system balancing conditions and wind power imbalances. An optimization framework is presented to increase...

  5. 47 CFR 73.751 - Operating power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating power. 73.751 Section 73.751... International Broadcast Stations § 73.751 Operating power. No international broadcast station shall be authorized to install, or be licensed for operation of, transmitter equipment with: (a) A rated carrier power...

  6. Operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook gives a systematic introduction into the operational and maintenance activities in nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Subjects: (1) Setup and operational behaviour of power reactors, (2) setup of nuclear power plants, (3) radiation protection and nuclear safety, (4) nuclear fuel, (5) constructional layout of nuclear power plants, (6) management, and (7) maintenance. 158 figs., 56 tabs

  7. Continuity of operations/continuity of government for state-level transportation organizations : brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    As a result of a federal requirement, all non-federal entities that own or operate critical : infrastructure are required to develop Continuity of Operations/Continuity of Government : (COOP/COG) Plans. Transportation is a critical infrastructure com...

  8. Continuity of Accelerator Operations during an Extended Pandemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel Okay

    2010-01-01

    The Operations group for the Continuous Electron Accelerator Facility in Newport News Virginia has developed a Continuity of Operations plan for pandemic conditions when high absenteeism may impact accelerator control room operations. Protocols to address both the potential spread of illnesses in the control room environment as well as maintaining minimum staffing requirements for contiguous accelerator operation will be presented. During acute pandemic conditions local government restrictions may prevent continued operations but during extended periods of high absenteeism accelerator operations can continue when some added precautionary measures and staffing adjustments are made in the way business is done.

  9. Regional Power Authority urged for TMI operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    If the Three Mile Island (TMI) unit 1 returns to service, state ownership with a Regional Power Authority to oversee its operation and complete the cleanup of unit 2 would benefit ratepayers and avoid lengthy lawsuits, according to an Arthur Young and Company report to the New Jersey Board of Utilities. The report rejects continued ownership by General Public Utilities (GPU), merger, divestiture, and other options. It also outlines several conditions necessary for a Regional Power Authority: adequate rate relief, restart of TMI-1, congressional tax exemption, and approval by the GPU board and stockholders. The report recommends that Jersey Central divest itself of GPU to avoid financial disaster if GPU should declare bankruptcy, but it advises maintaining the flexibility to exercise long-term options

  10. Power System Operations With Water Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, F.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The interdependency between water and energy, although known for many decades, has not received enough attention until recent events under extreme weather conditions (especially droughts). On one hand, water and several types of energy supplies have become increasingly scarce; the demand on water and energy continues to grow. On the other hand, the climate change has become more and more disruptive (i.e., intensity and frequency of extreme events), causing severe challenges to both systems simultaneously. Water and energy systems have become deeply coupled and challenges from extreme weather events must be addressed in a coordinated way across the two systems.In this work, we will build quantitative models to capture the interactions between water and energy systems. We will incorporate water constraints in power system operations and study the impact of water scarcity on power system resilience.

  11. Simulators predict power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2002-07-01

    Mix the complexity of a new construction or major retrofit project with today's 'do more with less', a pinch of 'personnel inexperience,' and a dash of 'unintended consequences', and you have got a recipe for insomnia. Advanced simulation tools, however, can help you wring out your design train your operators before the first wire is terminated and just may be get a good night's rest. The article describes several examples of uses of simulation tools. Esscor recently completed a simulation project for a major US utility exploring the potential for furnace/duct implosion that could result from adding higher volumetric flow induced-draft fans and selective catalytic reduction to a 650-MW coal-fired plant. CAF Electronics Inc. provided a full-scope simulator for Alstom's KA24-1 combined-cycle power plant in Paris, France. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are being used by the Gas Technology Institute to simulate the performance of the next generation of pulverized coal combustors. 5 figs.

  12. Operational Aspects of Continuous Pharmaceutical Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar

    Introduction of the Process Analytical Technolo gy (PAT) Initiative, the Quality by Design (QbD) approach and the Continuous Improvement (CI) methodology/philosophy is considered as a huge milestone in the modern pharmaceutical indust ry. The above concepts, when applied to a pharmaceutical...... satisfaction of the demands defined by the PA T Initiative. This approach could be considered as establishing a Lean Production System (LPS) whic h is usually supported with tools associated with Process Intensifaction (PI) a nd Process Optimization (PO). Development of continuous processes is often c onnected...... tools, such as microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS), ultrasounds, meso-scale flow chemistry and microprocess technology. Furthermore, developmen t of chemical catalysts and enzymes enabled further acceleration of some chemical reactions that were known as very slow or impossible to be performed...

  13. Optimization Criteria of Power Transformer Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gonchar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that minimum losses in active power of a power transformer do not correspond to its maximum efficiency. For a transformer being operated there are no so called «zones of its economical operation». In this case strictly specified value of active power losses corresponds to a particular current of the winding.

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO 1 and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 87.4 %. In consequence of a fire, which broke out in the switchgear building, connections to both external grids were lost and TVO II relied on power supplied by four back-up diesels for 7.5 hrs. The event is classified as Level 2 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The process of examining the non-leaking fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors has continued. The examinations have revealed, so far, that the uppermost spacing lattices of the bundles exhibit deformations similar to those detected in the leaking fuel bundles removed from the reactors. This event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale) on the Scale. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has assessed the safety of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants based on the new regulations issued on 14.2.1991 by the Council of State. The safety regulations are much more stringent than those in force when the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants were built. The assessment indicated that the TVO nuclear power plant meets these safety regulations. The Loviisa nuclear power plant meets the requirements with the exception of certain requirements related to the ensuring of safety functions and provision for accidents. At the Loviisa nuclear power plant there are several projects under consideration to enhance safety

  15. Nuclear power plant operational data compilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electricite de France R and D Division has set up a nuclear power plant operational data compilation system. This data bank, created through American documents allows results about plant operation and operational material behaviour to be given. At present, French units at commercial operation are taken into account. Results obtained after five years of data bank operation are given. (author)

  16. Plant operational states analysis in low power and shutdown PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiandong; Qiu Yongping; Zhang Qinfang; An Hongzhen; Li Maolin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of Plant Operational States (POS) analysis is to disperse the continuous and dynamic process of low power and shutdown operation, which is the basis of developing event tree models for accident sequence analysis. According to the design of a 300 MW Nuclear Power Plant Project, operating experience and procedures of the reference plant, a detailed POS analysis is carried out based on relative criteria. Then, several kinds of POS are obtained, and the duration of each POS is calculated according to the operation records of the reference plant. The POS analysis is an important element in low power and shutdown PSA. The methodology and contents provide reference for POS analysis. (authors)

  17. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  18. The operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The duties to be performed in managing the operation of a nuclear power plant are highly diverse, as will be explained in this contribution by the examples of the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Station. The excellent safety record and the high availabilities of German nuclear power plants demonstrate that their operators have adopted the right approaches. Systematic evaluation of the operating experience accumulated inhouse and in other plants is of great significance in removing weak spots and improving operation. The manifold and complex activities in the structure of organization and of activities in a nuclear power plant require a high degree of division of labor. (orig.) [de

  19. Discrete-continuous bispectral operators and rational Darboux transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyallian, Carina; Portillo, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter we construct examples of discrete-continuous bispectral operators obtained by rational Darboux transformations applied to a regular pseudo-difference operator with constant coefficients. Moreover, we give an explicit procedure to write down the differential operators involved in the bispectral situation corresponding to the pseudo-difference operator obtained by the Darboux process.

  20. Power generation, operation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Allen J; Sheblé, Gerald B

    2013-01-01

    Since publication of the second edition, there have been extensive changes in the algorithms, methods, and assumptions in energy management systems that analyze and control power generation. This edition is updated to acquaint electrical engineering students and professionals with current power generation systems. Algorithms and methods for solving integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis are provided. Also included are the state-of-the-art topics undergoing evolutionary change, including market simulation, multiple market analysis, multiple interchange contract analysis, c

  1. Interactive videodisc training for power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, R.; Nolan, J.; Campos, M.; Haukom, R.; Quentin, G.

    1990-01-01

    During the last several years, professionals in the personal computer and video fields have seen their two technologies coming together. This merging has created a new medium called multimedia. Multimedia provides the user with the interactivity of the personal computer and the realism of live-action television. It appears to be a perfect marriage for education, training and selling applications. As multimedia productions continue to be produced and tested with high marks, business and industry are becoming interested. The Interactive Videodisc Trainer (IVT) is a demonstration of how multimedia technology can be used by the electric power industry for operator training. Although the subject for this pilot program is the Claus sulfur recovery unit at the Cool Water Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant, similar courseware can be put to use for training at any type of power plant. The goal is to show many of the features and capabilities inherent in this powerful new training tool, so that utilities can begin to see how it could work for them

  2. The continuing role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollam, W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Although nuclear power at this particular time is popularly assumed to have uncertain future prospects, the fact remains that electricity from the atom is essential to the nation's electric power supply and will play an even larger role in the years ahead. The precise, exact amount of future growth of electricity demand, of course, remains uncertain and controversial. Long-run estimates of electricity growth generally range from 1.0 to 4.0 percent annually, accompanied by an average annual growth rate of GNP in the 2.5 to 3.5 percent range. The electric utility industry, as reported by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), is projecting growth in kilowatthour requirements of 2.4 percent and in peak demand of 2.2 percent from 1985 to 1994

  3. Why nuclear power will continue to grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, Hans

    1988-01-01

    The author, who is Director General of the IAEA, is optimistic about the continued growth of nuclear energy worldwide, despite the accident at Chernobyl. Since then, new reactor orders have been placed in France, Japan, South Korea and Britain. The demand for electricity is rising, in both industrialized and developing countries. In many locations, nuclear is half the price of coal-fired electricity. The average capacity factor of nuclear plants has risen from 61% to 70% in nine years. Although nuclear generation accounts for about 16% worldwide, it is only 3.5% in developing countries; and probably nuclear development will continue to be small in developing countries because of stringent infrastructure requirements and high capital cost. Public confidence in nuclear energy must be regained, and future accidents must be avoided

  4. Matrix Wings: Continuous Process Improvement an Operator Can Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    key processes in our normal operations. In addition to the almost inevitable resistance to change, one of the points of pushback is that members of...Fall 2016 | 9 Matrix Wings Continuous Process Improvement an Operator Can Love Dr. A. J. Briding, Colonel, USAF, Retired Disclaimer: The views and...Operations for the 21st Century (AFSO21), the latest comprehensive effort at finding the right ap- proach for implementing a continuous process

  5. Operational safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational safety of nuclear power plants has become an important safety issue since the Chernobyl accident. A description is given of the various aspects of operational safety, including the importance of human factors, responsibility, the role and training of the operator, the operator-machine interface, commissioning and operating procedures, experience feedback, and maintenance. The lessons to be learnt from Chernobyl are considered with respect to operator errors and the management of severe accidents. Training of personnel, operating experience feedback, actions to be taken in case of severe accidents, and international cooperation in the field of operational safety, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Fractional power operation of tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, T.K.; Vold, E.L.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Methods to operate a tokamak fusion reactor at fractions of its rated power, identify the more effective control knobs and assess the impact of the requirements of fractional power operation on full power reactor design are explored. In particular, the role of burn control in maintaining the plasma at thermal equilibrium throughout these operations is studied. As a prerequisite to this task, the critical physics issues relevant to reactor performance predictions are examined and some insight into their impact on fractional power operation is offered. The basic tool of analysis consists of a zero-dimensional (0-D) time-dependent plasma power balance code which incorporates the most advanced data base and models in transport and burn plasma physics relevant to tokamaks. Because the plasma power balance is dominated by the transport loss and given the large uncertainty in the confinement model, the authors have studied the problem for a wide range of energy confinement scalings. The results of this analysis form the basis for studying the temporal behavior of the plasma under various thermal control mechanisms. Scenarios of thermally stable full and fractional power operations have been determined for a variety of transport models, with either passive or active feedback burn control. Important power control parameters, such as gas fueling rate, auxiliary power and other plasma quantities that affect transport losses, have also been identified. The results of these studies vary with the individual transport scaling used and, in particular, with respect to the effect of alpha heating power on confinement

  7. Unmanned operation of Hydro Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    2008-01-01

    Intentions to launch unmanned operation are no news, the very first occurred in Hydro Power Plants (HPP) at the time when the first computer technology was implemented into process of power generation, i.e. no later than in 1960 s . ENEL entering Slovenske elektrarne not only revived but significantly accelerated the implementation process of unmanned operation. Experience of ENEL says that unmanned operation means better reliability of the HPP and this is the priority. (author)

  8. Power System Operation with Large Scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannarat, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Chen, Z.

    2007-01-01

    to the uncertain nature of wind power. In this paper, proposed models of generations and control system are presented which analyze the deviation of power exchange at the western Danish-German border, taking into account the fluctuating nature of wind power. The performance of the secondary control of the thermal......The Danish power system starts to face problems of integrating thousands megawatts of wind power, which produce in a stochastic behavior due to natural wind fluctuations. With wind power capacities increasing, the Danish Transmission System Operator (TSO) is faced with new challenges related...... power plants and the spinning reserves control from the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units to achieve active power balance with the increased wind power penetration is presented....

  9. Probabilistic Power Flow Method Considering Continuous and Discrete Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a probabilistic power flow (PPF method considering continuous and discrete variables (continuous and discrete power flow, CDPF for power systems. The proposed method—based on the cumulant method (CM and multiple deterministic power flow (MDPF calculations—can deal with continuous variables such as wind power generation (WPG and loads, and discrete variables such as fuel cell generation (FCG. In this paper, continuous variables follow a normal distribution (loads or a non-normal distribution (WPG, and discrete variables follow a binomial distribution (FCG. Through testing on IEEE 14-bus and IEEE 118-bus power systems, the proposed method (CDPF has better accuracy compared with the CM, and higher efficiency compared with the Monte Carlo simulation method (MCSM.

  10. Continuous wave power scaling in high power broad area quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, M.; Leshin, J.; Go, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Shu, H.; Lyakh, A.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental and model results for high power broad area quantum cascade lasers are presented. Continuous wave power scaling from 1.62 W to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15 mm-long, high reflection-coated 5.6 μm quantum cascade lasers with 15 stage active region for active region width increased from 10 μm to 20 μm. A semi-empirical model for broad area devices operating in continuous wave mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sub-linearity of pulsed power vs current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm x 25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300Å, pulsed roll-over current density of 6 kA/cm2 , and InGaAs waveguide layers; optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to 4.5 W from 3.15 mm × 31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  11. Evaluation of nuclear power plant operator's ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the quantitative research on nuclear power plant (NPP) operator's psychological characteristics and performance, the Borda's method of fuzzy mathematics combined with the character of operator's task is used to evaluate their abilities. The result provides the reference for operator's reliability research and psychological evaluation. (author)

  12. Training of power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftwerksschule, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    In Germany, professional training of power plant operating personnel became an important issue in the fifties, when power plant parameters as well as complexity of instrumentation and control increased considerably. Working Groups of VGB Technische Vereiningung der Grosskraftwerketreiber e.v. (Association of Large Power Plant Operators) developed a professional career for power plant operating personnel and defined pre-requisites, scope and objectives of training. In 1957 the German utilities founded KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V. (kws) as a school for theoretical training and for guidance of practical training in the power plants. KWS is a non-profit organisation and independent of authorities. Today KWS has 127 members in Germany and in 6 other countries. The objectives of KWS include the training of: -Kraftwerker (control room operators; - Kraftwerksmesiter (shift supervisors); and - shift engineers; according the guidelines of the VGB

  13. Operational characteristics of nuclear power plants - modelling of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studovic, M.

    1984-01-01

    By operational experience of nuclear power plants and realize dlevel of availability of plant, systems and componenst reliabiliuty, operational safety and public protection, as a source on nature of distrurbances in power plant systems and lessons drawn by the TMI-2, in th epaper are discussed: examination of design safety for ultimate ensuring of safe operational conditions of the nuclear power plant; significance of the adequate action for keeping proess parameters in prescribed limits and reactor cooling rquirements; developed systems for measurements detection and monitoring all critical parameters in the nuclear steam supply system; contents of theoretical investigation and mathematical modeling of the physical phenomena and process in nuclear power plant system and components as software, supporting for ensuring of operational safety and new access in staff education process; program and progress of the investigation of some physical phenomena and mathematical modeling of nuclear plant transients, prepared at faculty of mechanical Engineering in Belgrade. (author)

  14. Intelligent operation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Toshihiko; Fukumoto, Akira; Suto, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants consist of many systems and are operated by skillful operators with plenty of knowledge and experience of nuclear plants. Recently, plant automation or computerized operator support systems have come to be utilized, but the synthetic judgment of plant operation and management remains as human roles. Toshiba is of the opinion that the activities (planning, operation and maintenance) should be integrated, and man-machine interface should be human-friendly. We have begun to develop the intelligent operation system aiming at reducing the operator's role within the fundamental judgment through the use of artificial intelligence. (author)

  15. Technical support for nuclear power operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This report prepared by the group of senior experts from nuclear operating organizations in Member states, addresses the problem of improving the operating performance of nuclear power plants. Safe and reliable operation is essential for strengthening the viability of nuclear power in the increasingly competitive market of electric power. Basic principles and requirements concerning technical procedures and developed practices are discussed. Report reflects the best current international practices and presents those management initiatives that go beyond the mandated regulatory compliance and could lead to enhancement od operational safety and improved plant performance. By correlating experiences and presenting collective effective practices it is meant to assist nuclear power plant managers in achieving improvement in operation through the contribution of effective technical support

  16. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.......e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  17. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.......e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  18. Operational results in the Onagawa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kanichi; Kato, Katsuya; Terada, Hideo; Kamata, Takakage; Kaimura, Yoshiharu

    1986-01-01

    In the Onagawa Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (BWR type, with electric output 524 MW) started operation in June 1, 1984. The power plant has then continued non-stop operation up to April 2, 1985, thus exhibiting its base load plant. In fiscal 1984, the continuous operation is for 342 days; the capacity factor is about 96.1 %, which is the world's top. During the period, the radioactivity releases to the environment in both liquid and gaseous wastes are below the detection limits. The collective exposure dose for plant personnel is merely 6 man-rem. Subsequently, its 1st periodical inspection was started on April 3, 1985, and finished in July the same year. So, the power plant is now again in operation. (Mori, K.)

  19. Qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of reducing the possibility of human error in nuclear power plant operations, the Guidebook discusses the organizational aspects, the staffing requirements, the educational systems and qualifications, the competence requirements, the ways to establish, preserve and verify competence, the specific aspects of personnel management and training for nuclear power plant operations, and finally the particular situations and difficulties to be overcome by utilities starting their first nuclear power plant. An important aspect presented in the Guidebook is the experience in training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel in various countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America

  20. Research of the Power Plant Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koismynina Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the algorithm of the power plant operational modes research is offered. According to this algorithm the program for the modes analysis and connection power transformers choice is developed. The program can be used as educational means for studying of the power plant electric part, at the same time basic data are provided. Also the program can be used for the analysis of the working power plants modes. Checks of the entered data completeness and a choice correctness of the operational modes are provided in the program; in all cases of a deviation from the correct decisions to the user the relevant information is given.

  1. Sleep/Wakefulness Management in Continuous/Sustained Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ......There is an antinomy between the physiological requirement and the operational requirement. To be able to continue the mission but also to preserve our security and the security of the crew we need an appropriate sleep-wakefulness management...

  2. National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service, manages a network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) that provide...

  3. Report: EPA Needs to Improve Continuity of Operations Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-P-0017, October 27, 2009. EPA has limited assurance that it can successfully maintain continuity of operations and execute its mission essential functions during a significant national event such as a pandemic influenza outbreak.

  4. The overlap Dirac operator as a continued fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, U.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    2004-03-01

    We use a continued fraction expansion of the sign-function in order to obtain a five dimensional formulation of the overlap lattice Dirac operator. Within this formulation the inverse of the overlap operator can be calculated by a single Krylov space method and nested conjugate gradient procedures are avoided. We point out that the five dimensional linear system can be made well conditioned using equivalence transformations on the continued fractions. (orig.)

  5. Operator support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuyuki; Tai, Ichiro; Sudo, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan maintains the high capacity factor, and its proportion taken in the total generated electric power exceeded 1/4, thus it has become the indispensable energy source. Recently moreover, the nuclear power plants which are harmonious with operators and easy to operate are demanded. For realizing this, the technical development such as the heightening of operation watching performance, the adoption of automation, and the improvement of various man-machine systems for reducing the burden of operators has been advanced by utilizing electronic techniques. In this paper, the trend of the man-machine systems in nuclear power plants, the positioning of operation support system, the support in the aspects of information, action and knowledge, the example of a new central control board, the operation support system using a computer, an operation support expert system and the problems hereafter are described. As the development of the man-machine system in nuclear power plants, the upgrading from a present new central control board system PODIA through A-PODIA, in which the operational function to deal with various phenomena arising in plants and safety control function are added, to 1-PODIA, in which knowledge engineering technology is adopted, is expected. (Kako, I.)

  6. ALARA for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is outlined in connection with nuclear power plant operations. The basis of the concept is reviewed and a specific example of ALARA action is presented. (author)

  7. Fatigue assessments in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, S.R.; Deardorff, A.F.; Peltola, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1991, the ASME Section XI Task Group on Operating Plant Fatigue Assessment was formed to develop criteria and evaluation methodology for evaluating the effects of cyclic operation in operating nuclear power plants. The objective was to develop guidelines for inclusion in Section XI that could be used by plant operators in evaluating fatigue concerns and their impact on serviceability. This paper discusses the work performed by the Task Group. It explores the concept of ''Fatigue Design Basis'' versus ''Fatigue Operating Basis'' by examining the roles of ASME Section III and ASME Section XI in the design and operation of the nuclear power plants. Guidelines are summarized that may help plant operators perform effective design transient cycle evaluations and optimize cycle counting and fatigue usage tracking. The alternative fatigue evaluation approach using flaw tolerance is also introduced

  8. Increase of hydroelectric power plant operation reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshumbaev, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The new design of the turbine of hydroelectric power plant (HPP) is executed in the form of a pipe with plates. Proposed solution allows increasing the hydroelectric power plant capacity at existing head and water flow. At that time the HPP turbine reliability is increase, its operation performances are improving. Design efficiency is effective mostly for small-scale and micro-HPP due to reliable operation, low-end technology, and harmless ecological application. (author)

  9. Nuclear power plant operating experience, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports issued annually that summarize the operating experience of U.S. nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure and radioactive effluents for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1976 data from 55 plants--23 boiling water reactor plants and 32 pressurized water reactor plants

  10. Lp-continuity for Calderón–Zygmund operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Given a Calderón–Zygmund (- for short) operator , which satisfies Hörmander condition, we prove that: if maps all the characteristic atoms to W L 1 , then is continuous from L p to L p ( 1 < p < ∞ ) . So the study of strong continuity on arbitrary function in L p has been changed into the study of weak continuity on ...

  11. Safety and operation of the Stade nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcher, H.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of PreussenElektra is to continuously increase the existing safety standard of the Stade nuclear power station using experience gained from faults and operation in nuclear power stations and the progressive state of the art. Modifications to achieve the most gentle operation of the plant have been completed and other are on-going. To do so instruments were attached to those components which are susceptible to fatigue to record the transients and extensive calculatory records were kept. Although the plant has almost 20 years successful operation behind it, it can still stand up well to comparisons with more recent plants as far as safety aspects are concerned. 6 figs

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-03-01

    In the third quarter of 1993, all of Finland's four nuclear power plant units were in power operation, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa units. The load factor average of the plant units was 83.6 %. None of the events which occurred during this annual quarter had any bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  13. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  14. Safe operation of power plants. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymeyer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Electrotechniques were given a dominating role in the construction of nuclear power plants. The operation of power plants - particularly nuclear power plants - is impossible without the use of electrotechnical and control means. Despite of all reserve in the development and despite of the conservative attitude it is necessary to use the newest results of development and to incite the development ot new electronic systems for the solution of these tasks. (orig.) [de

  15. Continuity of operations/continuity of government for state-level transportation organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive 20 (HSPD-20) requires all local, state, tribal and territorial government agencies, : and private sector owners of critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR) to create a Continuity of Operations/Con...

  16. Operations quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This standard covers the quality assurance of all activities concerned with the operation and maintenance of plant equipment and systems in CANDU-based nuclear power plants during the operations phase, the period between the completion of commissioning and the start of decommissioning

  17. Operation reports of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The requirements aiming to standardize the program of nuclear power plant operation report, required by Brazilian Energy Commission - CNEN - to evaluate the activities related to the nuclear technical safety and to the radiation protection during the units operational phase, are showed. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Professional adaptability of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui

    2006-01-01

    The paper concerns in the results of analysis for nuclear power plant (NPP) operator job and analysis for human errors related NPP accidents. Based on the principle of ergonomics a full psychological selection system of the professional adaptability of NPP operators including cognitive ability, personality and psychological health was established. The application way and importance of the professional adaptability research are discussed. (authors)

  19. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas

    2010-01-01

    for intelligent operation and control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because of the lack...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system......Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...

  20. Method of operating BWR type power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the operation efficiency of BWR type reactors by reducing the time from the start-up of the reactor to the start-up of the turbine and electrical generator, as well as decrease the pressure difference in each of the sections of the pressure vessel to thereby extend its life span. Method: The operation comprises switching the nuclear reactor from the shutdown mode to the start-up mode, increasing the reactor power to a predetermined level lower than a rated power while maintaining the reactor pressure to a predetermined level lower than a rated pressure, starting up a turbine and an electrical generator in the state of the predetermined reactor pressure and the reactor power to connect the electrical generator to the power transmission system and, thereafter, increasing the reactor pressure and the reactor power to the predetermined rated pressure and rated power respectively. This can shorten the time from the start-up of the reactor to the start of the power transmission system, whereby the operation efficiency of the power plant can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Permanent cessation of Tokai power plant's operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, T.

    1998-01-01

    Tokai power plant (166MWe, Magnox type: GCR) is the first commercial reactor in Japan and has been kept operating stable since its commissioning in July 1996. During this period it has produced electricity of approximately 27.7 billion KWh (as of March 1997) and its stable operation has contributed greatly to the stable supply of electricity in Japan. Furthermore, technologies in various fields have been developed, demonstrated and accumulated through the construction and operation of Tokai power plant. It also contributes to training for many nuclear engineers, and constructions and operations of nuclear power stations by other Japanese power companies. As a pioneer, it has been achieved to develop and popularize Japanese nuclear power generation. On the other hand, Tokai power plant has small capacity in its electric power output, even though the size of the reactor and heat exchangers are rather bigger than those of LWR due to the characteristics of GCR. Therefore, the generation cost is higher than the LWR. Since there is no plant whose reactor type is the same as that of Tokai power plant, the costs for maintenance and fuel cycle are relatively higher than that of LWR. Finally we concluded that the longer we operate it, the less we can take advantage of it economically. As a result of the evaluation for the future operation of Tokai power plant including the current status for supply of electricity by the Japanese utilities and study of decommissioning by Japanese government, we decided to have a plan of stopping its commercial operation of Tokai power plant in the end of March, 1998, when we completely consume its fuel that we possess. From now on, we set about performing necessary studies and researches on the field of plant characterization, remote-cutting, waste disposal for carrying out the decommissioning of Tokai power plant safely and economically. We are going to prepare the decommissioning planning for Tokai power plant in a few years based on the

  2. Operating experience with BWR nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonsdorf, Magnus von.

    1986-01-01

    The two-unit nuclear power station in Olkiluoto on the western coast of Finland produces about 20 per cent of the electricity consumption of the country. The first unit, TVO-I was first connected to the national grid in September 1978 and TVO-II in February 1980. The original rated power output of each unit was 660 MWe, corresponding to the thermal power of 2000 MW from the reactor. Technical modifications allowed the power to be uprated by 8%. The operating statistics (load factors etc.) are given and the outage experience discussed. The radiological history shows very low radioactivity and dose levels have been maintained at the plant. (UK)

  3. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The electric utility industry established the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, or INPO, the purpose of which is to ensure the highest quality of operations in nuclear power plants. INPO will be an industry self-help instrument focusing on human factors. From top management to the operator trainee, it will measure utility performance against benchmarks of excellence and help utilities reach those benchmarks throughout training and operating programs. INPO will see that the utilities ferret out lessons for all from the abnormal operating experiences of any. It will do everything possible to assist utilities in meeting its certification requirements, but will have the clout to see that those requirements are met. INPO is also managing the nationwide system of utility emergency response capability

  4. Improvements in operational safety performance of the Magnox power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, C.J. [BNFL Magnox Generation, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    2000-10-01

    In the 43 years since commencement of operation of Calder Hall, the first Magnox power station, there remain eight Magnox stations and 20 reactors still in operation, owned by BNFL Magnox Generation. This paper describes how the operational safety performance of these stations has significantly improved over the last ten years. This has been achieved against a background of commercial competition introduced by privatization and despite the fact that the Magnox base design belongs to the past. Finally, the company's future plans for continued improvements in operational safety performance are discussed. (author)

  5. Operator training simulator for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozuka, Hiromi

    1977-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, training of the operators is important. In Japan, presently there are two training centers, one is BWR operation training center at Okuma-cho, Fukushima Prefecture, and another the nuclear power generation training center in Tsuruga City, Fukui Prefecture, where the operators of PWR nuclear power plants are trained. This report describes the BWR operation training center briefly. Operation of a nuclear power plant is divided into three stages of start-up, steady state operation, and shut down. Start-up is divided into the cold-state start-up after the shut down for prolonged period due to periodical inspection or others and the hot-state start-up from stand-by condition after the shut down for a short time. In the cold-state start-up, the correction of reactivity change and the heating-up control to avoid excessive thermal stress to the primary system components are important. The BWR operation training center offers the next three courses, namely beginner's course, retraining course and specific training course. The training period is 12 weeks and the number of trainees is eight/course in the beginner's course. The simulator was manufactured by modeling No. 3 plant of Fukushima First Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co. The simulator is composed of the mimic central control panel and the digital computer. The software system comprises the monitor to supervise the whole program execution, the logic model simulating the plant interlock system and the dynamic model simulating the plant physical phenomena. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Licensing operators for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    The human element in the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is of utmost importance. Not only must the operators be technically competent in the execution of numerous complicated tasks, they must be capable of working together as a team to diagnose dynamic plant conditions to ensure that their plants are operated safely. The significance of human interaction skills and crew communications has been demonstrated most vividly in TMI and Chernobyl. It follows that the NRC must retain its high standards for licensing operators. This paper discusses activities and initiatives being employed by the NRC to enhance the reliability of its licensing examinations, and to build a highly qualified examiner work force

  7. Experiences of operation for Ikata Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimoto, Shigeyuki

    1979-01-01

    No. 1 plant in the Ikata Nuclear Power Station, Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., is a two-loop PWR unit with electric output of 566 MW, and it began the commercial operation on September 30, 1977, as the first nuclear power station in Shikoku. It is the 13th LWR and 7th PWR in Japan. The period of construction was 52 months since it had been started in June, 1973. During the period, it became the object of the first administrative litigation to seek the cancellation of permission to install the reactor, and it was subjected to the influence of the violent economical variation due to the oil shock, but it was completed as scheduled. After the start of operation, it continued the satisfactory operation, and generated about 2.35 billion KWh for 4300 operation hours. It achieved the rate of utilization of 96.7%. Since March 28, 1978, the first periodical inspection was carried out, and abnormality was not found in the reactor, the steam generator and the fuel at all. The period of inspection was 79 days and shorter than expected. The commercial operation was started again on June 14. The outline of the Ikata Nuclear Power Station, its state of operation, and the periodical inspection are reported. Very good results were able to be reported on the operation for one year, thanks to the valuable experiences offered by other electric power companies. (Kako, I.)

  8. Characteristics of switched reluctance motor operating in continuous and discontinuous conduction mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalasan Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mechanical characteristics of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM when it operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM or in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM, i.e. when the current through the phase coils (windings flows discontinuously or continuously. Firstly, in order to maximize the output power of SRM optimization of its control parameters was performed, such that the peak and RMS values of the current do not exceed the predefined values. The optimal control parameters vs. rotation speed, as well as the corresponding characteristics of torque, power and efficiency. It is shown that with CCM the machine torque (power, at high speed, can be increased.

  9. Entropic cohering power in quantum operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhengjun; Hu, Ming-Liang; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng

    2018-02-01

    Coherence is a basic feature of quantum systems and a common necessary condition for quantum correlations. It is also an important physical resource in quantum information processing. In this paper, using relative entropy, we consider a more general definition of the cohering power of quantum operations. First, we calculate the cohering power of unitary quantum operations and show that the amount of distributed coherence caused by non-unitary quantum operations cannot exceed the quantum-incoherent relative entropy between system of interest and its environment. We then find that the difference between the distributed coherence and the cohering power is larger than the quantum-incoherent relative entropy. As an application, we consider the distributed coherence caused by purification.

  10. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  11. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  12. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  13. An analyser for power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.E.; Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and reliable operation of power plants is essential. Power plant operators need a forecast of what the plant will do when its current state is disturbed. The in-line plant analyser provides precisely this information at relatively low cost. The plant analyser scheme uses a mathematical model of the dynamic behaviour of the plant to establish a numerical simulation. Over a period of time, the simulation is calibrated with measurements from the particular plant in which it is used. The analyser then provides a reference against which to evaluate the plant's current behaviour. It can be used to alert the operator to any atypical excursions or combinations of readings that indicate malfunction or off-normal conditions that, as the Three Mile Island event suggests, are not easily recognised by operators. In a look-ahead mode, it can forecast the behaviour resulting from an intended change in settings or operating conditions. Then, when such changes are made, the plant's behaviour can be tracked against the forecast in order to assure that the plant is behaving as expected. It can be used to investigate malfunctions that have occurred and test possible adjustments in operating procedures. Finally, it can be used to consider how far from the limits of performance the elements of the plant are operating. Then by adjusting settings, the required power can be generated with as little stress as possible on the equipment. (6 figures) (Author)

  14. Power operation, measurement and methods of calculation of power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S.O.; Bernander, O.; Olsson, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the initial fuel loading of a BWR core, extensive checks and measurements of the fuel are performed. The measurements are designed to verify that the reactor can always be safely operated in compliance with the regulatory constraints. The power distribution within the reactor core is evaluated by means of instrumentation and elaborate computer calculations. The power distribution forms the basis for the evaluation of thermal limits. The behaviour of the reactor during the ordinary modes of operation as well as during transients shall be well understood and such that the integrity of the fuel and the reactor systems is always well preserved. (author)

  15. Centralized operation and monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Mitsuru; Sato, Hideyuki; Murata, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    According to the prospect of long term energy demand, in 2000, the nuclear power generation facilities in Japan are expected to take 15.9% of the total energy demand. From this fact, it is an important subject to supply nuclear power more stably, and in the field of instrumentation and control, many researches and developments and the incessant effort of improvement have been continued. In the central operation and monitoring system which is the center of the stable operation of nuclear power plants, the man-machine technology aiding operators by electronic and computer application technologies has been positively developed and applied. It is considered that hereafter, for the purpose of rationally heightening the operation reliability of the plants, the high quality man-machine system freely using the most advanced technologies such as high reliability digital technology, optical information transmission, knowledge engineering and so on is developed and applied. The technical trend of operation and monitoring system, the concept of heightening operation and monitoring capability, the upgrading of operation and monitoring system, and the latest operation, monitoring and control systems for nuclear power plants and waste treatment facilities are described. (K.I.)

  16. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  17. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-02-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa plant units were held during the report period. All events during this quarter are classified as Level hero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below authorised limits. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  18. Smart Shipboard Power System Operation and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanellos, Fotis D.; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    as all-electric ships (AESs), the need for more cost-effective and emission-aware solutions is augmented. Such onboard systems are prone to sudden load variations due to the changing weather conditions as well as mission profile, thus they require effective power management systems (PMSs) to operate...... optimally under different working conditions. In this paper, coordinated optimal power management at the supply/demand side of a given AES is studied with regard to different objectives and related technical/environmental constraints. The optimal power management problem is formulated as a mixed...

  19. The operating staff of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, G.; Christ, W.

    1988-01-01

    The training of its staff is one of the pillars of the safe and economical operation of a power plant. This is why power plant owners began to systematically train their staff already in the 50s, and why they created central training facilities. Staff members who have undergone this training make an indispensable contribution to the acceptedly high safety and availability of German power plants. The substantial cost of creating training facilities and of schooling plant staff is considered to be an investment for the future. Low labour turnover permits careful observation and development of staff and leads to a high standard of knowledge and experience. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost all the time in the first quarter of 1992. The load factor average was 99.8%. All events which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the Scale. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure, originating from the nuclear power plants, were detected in samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  1. Atomic power plant and its operation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Fumiaki; Higashio, Satoru.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve operation performance by partially restraining local over power in the axial power distribution of the reactor core by properly controlling the reactor pressure and furthermore by smoothly and properly performing reactor start-up operation in a short time while maintaining fuel integrity. Method: With the reactor pressure input to the pressure controller from the pressure detector, the valve opening of the main steam adjusting valve is adjusted so that the pressure will decrease when the reactor is started up. Also the adjusting valve is controlled so that the pressure will be lower than the set value of rated pressure, thus changing the axial distribution of void. In the meantime, with the stored state of xenon stored along with the increase of reactor power taken into consideration, the reactor pressure is increased as high as the rated value until the reactor power reaches to the rated power, thereby alleviating the local increase of reactor power without changing the whole reactor power and also enabling substantial reduction of reactor start-up time while maintaining reactor integrity. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Operating experience of Fugen Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohteru, Shigeru; Kaneko, Jun; Kawahara, Toshio; Matsumoto, Mitsuo

    1987-01-01

    The prototype ATR 'Fugen' developed as one of the national project has verified the performance and reliability of the advanced thermal reactor system through the operation for about eight years since 1979, and the elucidation of the characteristics in plutonium utilization and the development and verification of the tuilizing techniques have been advanced. Besides, the operational results and the achievement of the technical development are successively reflected to the design of a demonstration reactor. In this paper, the outline of Fugan and the operational results are reported. The ATR Fugen Power Station is that of the prototype reactor of heavy water moderated, boiling light water cooled, pressure tube type, having the electric output of 165 MW. It started the full scale operation on March 20, 1979, and as of January, 1987, the total generated electric power reached about 7 billion kWh, the time of power generation was about 43,000 h, and the average capacity factor was 60.6 %. Plutonium utilization techniques, the flow characteristics and the dynamic plant characteristics of a pressure tube type reactor, the operational characteristics of a heavy water system and the techniques of handling heavy water containing tritium, and the operational reliability and maintainability of the machinery and equipment installed have been studied. (Kako, I.)

  3. A continued fraction representation of the mass operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswati, D.K.

    1976-01-01

    We explore some further possibilities of application of the projection operator method of Zwanzig to the theory of Green's functions of quantum statistical mechanics, initiated by Ichiyanagi, and present a continued fraction representation of the mass operator involving a hierarchy of the random forces. As an application of the theory, we calculate the polarization operator of the phonon Green's function of the Frohlich Hamiltonian in the first approximation which corresponds to the assumption that the electron momenta are orthogonal to the phonon momentum. (author)

  4. Preparation status for continuous operation of Kori unit 1 NPP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.H. . E-mail : chechee@khnp.co.kr

    2005-01-01

    Kori unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant is the first commercial operation plant in Korea. In Korea, the life extension of NPP beyond design lifetime reached practically application stage. Preparations status for continuous operation of Kori unit 1, Many researches have demonstrated that life extension beyond design lifetime is possible in terms of technology. This paper is to introduce and to share the continuous operation preparations status and schedule for Kori unit 1 License Renewal Process an additional every 10 years beyond the design life 30 years term. (author)

  5. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford

  6. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  7. Sleep/Wakefulness Management in Continuous/Sustained Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    eleventh and last lecture. Measures like phototherapy and adapted social environments are discussed, and problems associated with the use of chronobiotic...1-1 Individual Differences in Vigilance and Performance during Continuous/Sustained Operations Maria Casagrande Dipartimento di Psicologia Università...Carver CS, Scheier MF, Weintraub JK (1989) Assessing coping strategies: a theoretical based approach, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

  8. 14 CFR 27.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Systems § 27.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  9. 14 CFR 29.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Systems § 29.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  10. Independent System Operators and Biomass Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Kevin L.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission issued its landmark open access transmission rule in 1996, the idea of creating and establishing independent system operators (ISOs) has gained momentum. ISOs may help combine individual utility transmission systems into more regional transmission networks, which ultimately will allow biomass companies to transmit power over longer distances while paying a single transmission rate. To the extent that ISOs are combined or operated with power exchanges, however, biomass companies will likely face even more competitive market pressures. Few operators have experience with ISOs and power exchanges, but preliminary results show that short-term electricity market prices are probably too low for most biomass companies to compete against. Without policy measures, biomass companies may have to pursue strategic opportunities with short-term, spot-market sales; direct bilateral sales to customers; alternative power exchanges; and perhaps a ''green'' power market and sales to ancillary service markets. In addition, prices will likely be more volatile in a restructured market so biomass generators should be selling during those times

  11. Operating years 1993 through 1995 power purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is obligated to supply electric power to its contractual customers. Based on a forecast of growing customer loads and assuming Critical Period water conditions in the Columbia River Basin, BPA is planning to meet a firm energy deficit during the four operating years (OY) 1992 through 1995, i.e., August 1991 through July 1995. BPA has executed several power purchase agreements to cover the projected OY 1992 deficit. The proposed action is to extend two existing one-year power purchase agreements for an additional three years to cover the four-year Critical Period energy deficit. The extension of these two one-year power purchase agreements would: (1) increase BPA's firm energy load-carrying capability; (2) allow BPA to meet its firm energy contractual commitments over the remaining three years of the four-year Critical Period from August 1, 1992, to July 31, 1995; (3) provide flexibility for BPA's use of hydroelectric resources over the Critical Period; and (4) increase system reliability. Under Critical Period water conditions, absent the proposed action, projected loads would exceed the capability of the Federal power system to serve those loads. The purpose of BPA's proposed action is to assure consistency with its statutory responsibilities, including those found in the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act)

  12. Regulatory framework for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Alcaniz, T.; Esteban Barriendos, M.

    1995-01-01

    As the framework of standards and requirements covering each phase of nuclear power plant project and operation developed, plant owners defined their licensing commitments (codes, rules and design requirements) during the project and construction phase before start-up and incorporated regulatory requirements imposed by the regulatory Body during the licensing process prior to operation. This produces a regulatory framework for operating a plant. It includes the Licensing Basis, which is the starting point for analyzing and incorporating new requirements, and for re-evaluation of existing ones. This presentation focuses on the problems of applying this regulatory framework to new operating activities, in particular to new projects, analyzing new requirements, and reconsidering existing ones. Clearly establishing a plant's licensing basis allows all organizations involved in plant operation to apply the requirements in a more rational way. (Author)

  13. Reactor operating procedures for start up of continuously operated chemical plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Verwijs, J.W.; Kösters, P.H.; van den Berg, Henderikus; Westerterp, K.R.; Kosters, P.G.H.

    1995-01-01

    Rules are presented for the startup of an adiabatic tubular reactor, based on a qualitative analysis of the dynamic behavior of continuously-operated vapor- and liquid-phase processes. The relationships between the process dynamics, operating criteria, and operating constraints are investigated,

  14. Operating experience in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany kept their portion of power supply into the public grid system constant in 1983, compared to 1982. The generation had an absolute increase of 3.6% and amounts now to 65.9 TWh. Particularly mentioned should be the generation of the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Plant which is holding the 'World Record' with 9.969 TWh. The availability of the plants was generally satisfactory, as far as long-term retrofit measures with long outage periods were not necessary, as it was the case in Brunsbuettel and Wuergassen. The planned retrofit phases have been completed in all power plants. As far as safety is concerned, there was no reason to recommended a change of the present fundamental planning- and operation aspects. (orig.) [de

  15. High level waste facilities - Continuing operation or orderly shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, L.A.

    1998-04-01

    Two options for Environmental Impact Statement No action alternatives describe operation of the radioactive liquid waste facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The first alternative describes continued operation of all facilities as planned and budgeted through 2020. Institutional control for 100 years would follow shutdown of operational facilities. Alternatively, the facilities would be shut down in an orderly fashion without completing planned activities. The facilities and associated operations are described. Remaining sodium bearing liquid waste will be converted to solid calcine in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) or will be left in the waste tanks. The calcine solids will be stored in the existing Calcine Solids Storage Facilities (CSSF). Regulatory and cost impacts are discussed

  16. SIMULTANEOUS SCHEDULING AND OPERATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPRODUCT, CYCLIC CONTINUOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alle

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of scheduling and optimization of operational conditions in multistage, multiproduct continuous plants with intermediate storage are simultaneously addressed. An MINLP model, called TSPFLOW, which is based on the TSP formulation for product sequencing, is proposed to schedule the operation of such plants. TSPFLOW yields a one-order-of-magnitude CPU time reduction as well as the solution of instances larger than those formerly reported (Pinto and Grossmann, 1994. Secondly, processing rates and yields are introduced as additional optimization variables in order to state the simultaneous problem of scheduling with operational optimization. Results show that trade-offs are very complex and that the development of a straightforward (rule of thumb method to optimally schedule the operation is less effective than the proposed approach.

  17. SIMULTANEOUS SCHEDULING AND OPERATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPRODUCT, CYCLIC CONTINUOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alle A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of scheduling and optimization of operational conditions in multistage, multiproduct continuous plants with intermediate storage are simultaneously addressed. An MINLP model, called TSPFLOW, which is based on the TSP formulation for product sequencing, is proposed to schedule the operation of such plants. TSPFLOW yields a one-order-of-magnitude CPU time reduction as well as the solution of instances larger than those formerly reported (Pinto and Grossmann, 1994. Secondly, processing rates and yields are introduced as additional optimization variables in order to state the simultaneous problem of scheduling with operational optimization. Results show that trade-offs are very complex and that the development of a straightforward (rule of thumb method to optimally schedule the operation is less effective than the proposed approach.

  18. Study on training of nuclear power system operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lifeng; Zhou Gang; Yu Lei

    2012-01-01

    In order to satisfy new requirements about operators of nuclear power system, which are brought up by development and changes of social environment, science and technology, we do research on and make analysis of the problem of operator training. This paper focuses on development and changes of operator training system and content, mentality training, application of new technology to training, feedback of experience and so on. Analysis showed that the content of operator training is also confronted with some new requirements. So we bring up the new requirements to the operator, such as mentality training, cognizance ability training, adaptability training of special environment and endurance training. Besides, it is important for perfecting operator cultivation mechanism and improving training effect to feed back experience and apply new technology. So the trainer must improve training content and cultivation mechanism continuously. (authors)

  19. Long-term operation in Korea - Continued operation of Wolsong 1 Long-term operation of existing reactors in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Su Hwan; Straub, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Session 6 identified some key stakeholder concerns or interests that shape their considerations on renewing a nuclear power plant licence or extending facility lifetime. These included the safety of long-term operations, the potential need for upgrades or additional investment, and the timing and implementation of such investments. Mr Bae of the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company presented the current nuclear power programme in Korea and the company's experience with stakeholder involvement, specifically related to the licence renewal of Wolsong unit 1 that included a formal agreement between Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company and the local communities around the plant. Mr Straub, of the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications, provided insight on the current restructuring of the Swiss energy strategy, and the Swiss form of 'direct democracy' that involves frequent public referenda. The proposed energy strategy to be assessed by voters in May 2017 would include a gradual phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' perception of safe operations, the competence and openness of nuclear actors and the benefits that nuclear plants bring to the local population play a role in their judgement of whether facilities should continue with long-term operations. While for a new facility there is not as much time to establish the relationship and build a rapport and reputation with the community, in the case of existing plants there is history and experience either to build on or to overcome. Each set of decisions has a number of stakeholders, but the general public living around the plant was highlighted as a primary stakeholder. In the case of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power's licence renewal efforts at Wolsong 1, gaining and maintaining the support of the surrounding communities is critical. The company applied lessons learnt from past experiences and in a year-long process pursued an agreement with representatives appointed by the

  20. Decontamination of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    In order to reduce the radiation fields around nuclear power plants, and, consequently, to limit the radiation exposure of and dose commitments to the operating and maintenance personnel, the contamination build-up should be kept to a minimum. The most fruitful approach, from the point of view of economics and efficiency, is to tackle the problems of contamination and decontamination in the design and construction phases of the reactor. To do this, knowledge gained from the operation of existing power reactors should be used to make improvements in new designs. New structural materials with low corrosion rates or whose constituents are not activated by neutrons should also be used. For older reactors, in most cases it is already too late to incorporate design changes without extensive and expensive modifications. For these plants, decontamination remains the most efficient way to reduce radiation fields. The aim of this report is to deal with the different decontamination methods that may be applied to nuclear power plant circuits and equipment during operation. The factors that have to be considered in determining the type and the extent of the methods used are the engineering and the planning of the decontamination operation and the treatment of the resulting waste generated during the process are also discussed

  1. Higher operational safety of nuclear power plants by evaluating the behaviour of operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertins, M.; Glasner, P.

    1990-01-01

    In the GDR power reactors have been operated since 1966. Since that time operational experiences of 73 cumulative reactor years have been collected. The behaviour of operating personnel is an essential factor to guarantee the safety of operation of the nuclear power plant. Therefore a continuous analysis of the behaviour of operating personnel has been introduced at the GDR nuclear power plants. In the paper the overall system of the selection, preparation and control of the behaviour of nuclear power plant operating personnel is presented. The methods concerned are based on recording all errors of operating personnel and on analyzing them in order to find out the reasons. The aim of the analysis of reasons is to reduce the number of errors. By a feedback of experiences the nuclear safety of the nuclear power plant can be increased. All data necessary for the evaluation of errors are recorded and evaluated by a computer program. This method is explained thoroughly in the paper. Selected results of error analysis are presented. It is explained how the activities of the personnel are made safer by means of this analysis. Comparisons with other methods are made. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs

  2. Wind power plant in grid operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heier, S.

    1993-01-01

    There are new prospects for electrical energy supply in coastal regions and on islands if one succeeds in integrating the available wind energy, dependent on the weather, into existing and to be developed supply structures. Apart from the supply of energy, effects on the grid and on the electrical consumer are gaining in importance. For wind power plants, the operating behaviour is appreciably determined by the electro-technical concept. The mechanical/electrical energy conversion with the corresponding grid connection and plant control play an important part here. Results of measurements and computer simulation make the differences in the behaviour of wind power plants clear. (orig.) [de

  3. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section `Special Reports` three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) Figs, tabs.; Also available in Swedish

  4. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section 'Special Reports' three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  5. Purely absolutely continuous spectrum for almost Mathieu operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulaevsky, V.; Delyon, F.

    1989-01-01

    Using a recent result of Sinai, the authors prove that the almost Mathieu operators acting on l 2 (Z), (H αλ Psi)(n) = Ψ(n + 1) + Ψ(n - 1) + λ cos(ωn + α) Ψ(n), have a purely absolutely continuous spectrum for almost all α provided that ω is a good irrational and λ is sufficiently small. Furthermore, the generalized eigenfunctions are quasiperiodic

  6. Generic singular continuous spectrum for ergodic Schr\\"odinger operators

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Artur; Damanik, David

    2004-01-01

    We consider Schr\\"odinger operators with ergodic potential $V_\\omega(n)=f(T^n(\\omega))$, $n \\in \\Z$, $\\omega \\in \\Omega$, where $T:\\Omega \\to \\Omega$ is a non-periodic homeomorphism. We show that for generic $f \\in C(\\Omega)$, the spectrum has no absolutely continuous component. The proof is based on approximation by discontinuous potentials which can be treated via Kotani Theory.

  7. Pilot plant for flue gas treatment - continuous operation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Radzio, B.

    1995-01-01

    Tests of continuous operation have been performed on pilot plant at EPS Kaweczyn in the wide range of SO 2 concentration (500-3000 ppm). The bag filter has been applied for aerosol separation. The high efficiencies of SO 2 and NO x removal, approximately 90% were obtained and influenced by such process parameters as: dose, gas temperature and ammonia stoichiometry. The main apparatus of the pilot plant (e.g. both accelerators) have proved their reliability in hard industrial conditions. (Author)

  8. Human Performance in Continuous Operations. Volume 3. Technical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    completed for the U. S. Commander, V Corps. Artillery, by Manning (1978). Manning collected information which bears on the following three questions: 0 Can...performance data were not collected in these pre- liminary studies. Field Studies of Continuous Tank OperationsLI __ _ _ __ _ _ _ To simulate a combat...on routine, monotonous tasks tends A show rapid and severe decrement after peri- odk of more than 24 hours without sleep. I Increasing task complexity

  9. Statistical operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauzit, Maurice; Wilmart, Yves

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of the statistical operating results of nuclear power stations as issued in the literature shows that the values given for availability and the load factor often differ considerably from each other. This may be due to different definitions given to these terms or even to a poor translation from one language into another. A critical analysis of these terms as well as the choice of a parameter from which it is possible to have a quantitative idea of the actual quality of the operation obtained is proposed. The second section gives, on an homogenous basis and from the results supplied by 83 nuclear power stations now in operation, a statistical analysis of their operating results: in particular, the two light water lines, during 1975, as well as the evolution in terms of age, of the units or the starting conditions of the units during their first two operating years. Test values thus obtained are compared also to those taken 'a priori' as hypothesis in some economic studies [fr

  10. Training device for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoessow, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A simulated nuclear energy power plant system with visible internal working components comprising a reactor adapted to contain a liquid with heating elements submerged in the liquid and capable of heating the liquid to an elevated temperature, a steam generator containing water and a heat exchanger means to receive the liquid at an elevated temperature, transform the water to steam, and return the spent liquid to the reactor; a steam turbine receiving high energy steam to drive the turbine and discharging low energy steam to a condenser where the low energy steam is condensed to water which is returned to the steam generator; an electric generator driven by the turbine; indicating means to identify the physical status of the reactor and its contents; and manual and automatic controls to selectively establish normal or abnormal operating conditions in the reactor, steam generator, pressurizer, turbine, electric generator, condenser, and pumps; and to be selectively adjusted to bring the reactor to acceptable operating condition after being placed in an abnormal operation. This device is particularly useful as an education device in demonstrating nuclear reactor operations and in training operating personnel for nuclear reactor systems and also as a device for conducting research on various safety systems to improve the safety of nuclear power plants

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-07-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. No event in the report period, or in the whole year of 1986, essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the adminstrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days in September

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-05-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the perssonnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the administrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days

  13. Tokamak power reactor ignition and time dependent fractional power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.L.; Mau, T.K.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-06-01

    A flexible time-dependent and zero-dimensional plasma burn code with radial profiles was developed and employed to study the fractional power operation and the thermal burn control options for an INTOR-sized tokamak reactor. The code includes alpha thermalization and a time-dependent transport loss which can be represented by any one of several currently popular scaling laws for energy confinement time. Ignition parameters were found to vary widely in density-temperature (n-T) space for the range of scaling laws examined. Critical ignition issues were found to include the extent of confinement time degradation by alpha heating, the ratio of ion to electron transport power loss, and effect of auxiliary heating on confinement. Feedback control of the auxiliary power and ion fuel sources are shown to provide thermal stability near the ignition curve

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  15. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-03-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  16. Mobile Hybrid Power System Theory of Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Timothy M. Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency is a driving constraint for electrical power systems as global energy demands are ever increasing. Followed by the introduction of diesel generators, electricity has become available in more locations than ever. However, operating a diesel generator on its own is not the most energy efficient. This is because the high crest factor loads, of many applications, decrease the fuel efficiency of a hydrocarbon generator. To understand this, we need to understand how an electrical load af...

  17. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-09-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing modifications at the nuclear power plants and issues relating to the use of nuclear energy which are of general interest are also reported. The reports include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the first quarter of 1993, a primary feedwater system pipe break occurred at Loviisa 2, in a section of piping after a feedwater pump. The break was erosion-corrosion induced. Repairs and inspections interrupted power generation for seven days. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as a level 2 incident. Other events in the first quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear safety and radiation protection

  18. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-05-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole fourth quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 94.7 % (the whole year 90.9 %). All the events in the last annual quarter, which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale, were below scale/level 0. Also the events which occurred in the other quarters of the year 1991 were rated at the scale's lowest levels. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure originating in nuclear power plants were detected in the samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  19. Acute gallbladder torsion - a continued pre-operative diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desrochers Randal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute gallbladder volvulus continues to remain a relatively uncommon process, manifesting itself usually during exploration for an acute surgical abdomen with a presumptive diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The pathophysiology is that of mechanical organo-axial torsion along the gallbladder's longitudinal axis involving the cystic duct and cystic artery, and with a pre-requisite of local mesenteric redundancy. The demographic tendency is septua- and octo-genarians of the female sex, and its overall incidence is increasing, this being attributed to increasing life expectancy. We discuss two cases of elderly, fragile women presenting to the emergency department complaining of sudden onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Their subsequent evaluation suggested acute cholecystitis. Ultimately both were taken to the operating room where the correct diagnosis of gallbladder torsion was made. Pre-operative diagnosis continues to be a major challenge with only 4 cases reported in the literature diagnosed with pre-operative imaging; the remainder were found intra-operatively. Consequently, a delay in diagnosis can have devastating patient outcomes. Herein we propose a necessary high index of suspicion for gallbladder volvulus in the outlined patient demographic with symptoms and signs mimicking acute cholecystitis.

  20. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-08-01

    In the Quarterly Reports on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants such events and observations are described relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the plants' workers and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in commercial operation during the whole first quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 99.1 %. Failures have been detected in the uppermost spacing lattices of nuclear fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors. Further investigations into the significance of the failures have been initiated. In this quarter, renewed cooling systems for the instrumentation area were introduced at Loviisa 1. The modifications made in the systems serve to ensure reliable cooling of the area even during the hottest summer months when the possibility exists that the temperature of the automation equipment could rise too high causing malfunctions which could endanger plant safety. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below prescribed limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  2. The armenian power system operation stability investigation accounting putting new power systems into operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeghiazaryan, L.V.; Hakobyan, S.G.; Gharibyan, G.V.; Harutyunyan, G.S.; Galstyan, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    The description of the power systems operation stability failure caused by the system significant emergency states occurred during the last working period in Armenian and USA power systems is performed. With the use of PSSTME-31 software portfolio of Siemens Firm a design model is developed and transient electromechanical process calculations for Armenian power system are performed. The accuracy of the model is checked by comparing real-time transient state parameters and their reproduction calculation results.The Armenia - Iran current power transmission lines permissible limit under the condition of the static and dynamic stability requirements and in case of the new thermal power units maintenance are defined

  3. Risk of nuclear power generation as business (continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    This paper described the following: (1) fleet formation of power companies that operate nuclear power plants in the U.S., (2) collaboration, competition, and merger between plant makers, (3) stress corrosion cracking of stream generators for PWR and their thin heat transfer tubes, especially stress corrosion cracking under primary cooling water environment (PWSCC), and (4) replacement project from Inconel 600 MA to Inconel 600 TT or 690 TT of steam generator thin heat transfer tubes of PWR plants in the U.S. and others. In addition, it described the troubles at San Onofre Nuclear Power Station in California: wear of steam generator thin tubes of Units 2 and 3, and leakage from primary system to secondary system of Unit 3, and permanent shutdown. It also described the detail of damages compensation talks between South California Edison Company that operates San Onofre nuclear power plant and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. which supplied the steam generator. Although the operation of the 1.7 million kW plant became impossible due to the bud shedding of nuclear power renaissance, these troubles might have saved the nightmare of drifting on the way. (A.O.)

  4. Continuous spins in 2D gravity: Chiral vertex operators and local fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, Jean-Loup; Schnittger, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We construct the exponentials of the Liouville field with continuous powers within the operator approach. Their chiral decomposition is realized using the explicit Coulomb-gas operators we introduced earlier. From the quantum group viewpoint, they are related to semi-infinite highest- or lowest-weight representations with continuous spins. The Liouville field itself is defined, and the canonical commutation relations are verified, as well as the validity of the quantum Liouville field equations. In a second part, both screening charges are considered. The braiding of the chiral components is derived and shown to agree with an ansatz of a parallel paper of Gervais and Roussel. ((orig.))

  5. Innovation of nuclear power operation in KHNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Sik

    2007-01-01

    KHNP has operated the nuclear plants with two major functional areas, operation and maintenance very similar to fossil plant operation. KHNP has recently sent engineers to high performing nuclear power plants in usa and canada for training and familiarization with the engineering organization operation, processes and programs. KHNP has also established a system engineering section at each plant since July 2003. However the system engineering section has not achieved desired results because of a lack of understanding to implement the engineering function and processes. This indicates poor change management preparedness and implementation at KHNP. In September 2005. K SET/(KHNP Special Engineering Task Force Team) was established to enhance KHNP's engineering capability: especially the System Engineering function. The team consists of 13 members: 9 KHNP engineers (including one team manager) who have more than one year's experience working or training in USA or Canada, and 4 foreign engineers who have a wide range of experience and knowledge of engineering areas in Nuclear Power Plants of USA. The team first performed a gap analysis comparing performance and work behavior of 2 nd plant to those of world best practice. this was done by interviewing employees and reviewing relevant document. The team identified 26 significant performance gaps among 120 function areas, prioritized the 26 gape, and verified the effectiveness of the selection of gaps by comparing it to SNPM(standard nuclear performance model) developed by NEI

  6. Solar powered wrist worn acquisition system for continuous photoplethysmogram monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieffenderfer, James P; Beppler, Eric; Novak, Tristan; Whitmire, Eric; Jayakumar, Rochana; Randall, Clive; Qu, Weiguo; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-01-01

    We present a solar-powered, wireless, wrist-worn platform for continuous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters during the activities of daily life. In this study, we demonstrate the capability to produce photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals using this platform. To adhere to a low power budget for solar-powering, a 574 nm green light source is used where the PPG from the radial artery would be obtained with minimal signal conditioning. The system incorporates two monocrystalline solar cells to charge the onboard 20 mAh lithium polymer battery. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is used to tether the device to a smartphone that makes the phone an access point to a dedicated server for long term continuous storage of data. Two power management schemes have been proposed depending on the availability of solar energy. In low light situations, if the battery is low, the device obtains a 5-second PPG waveform every minute to consume an average power of 0.57 mW. In scenarios where the battery is at a sustainable voltage, the device is set to enter its normal 30 Hz acquisition mode, consuming around 13.7 mW. We also present our efforts towards improving the charge storage capacity of our on-board super-capacitor.

  7. Human factors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive effort is being devoted to developing a comprehensive human factor program that encompasses establishment of a data base for human error prediction using past operation experience in commercial nuclear power plants. Some of the main results of such an effort are reported including data retrieval and classification systems which have been developed to assist in estimation of operator error rates. Also, statistical methods are developed to relate operator error data to reactor type, age, and specific technical design features. Results reported in this paper are based on an analysis of LER's covering a six-year period for LWR's. Developments presently include a computer data management program, statistical model, and detailed error taxonomy

  8. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations annual report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen's joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO's 1993 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry

  9. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen`s joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO`s 1994 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry

  10. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations 1994 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen's joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO's 1994 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-03-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole third quarter of 1991. Longer interruptions in electricity generation were caused by the annual maintenances of the Loviisa plant units. The load factor average was 81.7 %. In a test conducted during the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 1 it was detected that the check valve of the discharge line of one pressurized emergency make-up tank did not open sufficiently at the tank's hydrostatic pressure. In connection with a 1988 modification, a too tightly dimensioned bearing had been mounted on the valve's axle rod and the valve had not been duly tested after the operation. The event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale). Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site were below authorised limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive materials originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  12. Toward continuous-wave operation of organic semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Matsushima, Toshinori; Bencheikh, Fatima; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo; Fujihara, Takashi; Goushi, Kenichi; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2017-01-01

    The demonstration of continuous-wave lasing from organic semiconductor films is highly desirable for practical applications in the areas of spectroscopy, data communication, and sensing, but it still remains a challenging objective. We report low-threshold surface-emitting organic distributed feedback lasers operating in the quasi–continuous-wave regime at 80 MHz as well as under long-pulse photoexcitation of 30 ms. This outstanding performance was achieved using an organic semiconductor thin film with high optical gain, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and no triplet absorption losses at the lasing wavelength combined with a mixed-order distributed feedback grating to achieve a low lasing threshold. A simple encapsulation technique greatly reduced the laser-induced thermal degradation and suppressed the ablation of the gain medium otherwise taking place under intense continuous-wave photoexcitation. Overall, this study provides evidence that the development of a continuous-wave organic semiconductor laser technology is possible via the engineering of the gain medium and the device architecture. PMID:28508042

  13. Academic training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the increasing emphasis being placed upon academic training of nuclear power plant operators, it is important that institutions of higher education develop and implement programs which will meet the educational needs of operational personnel in the nuclear industry. Two primary objectives must be satisfied by these programs if they are to be effective in meeting the needs of the industry. One objective is for academic quality. The other primary objective is for programs to address the specialized needs of the nuclear plant operator and to be relevant to the operator's job. The Center for Nuclear Studies at Memphis State University, therefore, has developed a total program for these objectives, which delivers the programs, and/or appropriate parts thereto, at ten nuclear plant sites and with other plants in the planning stage. The Center for Nuclear Studies program leads to a Bachelor of Professional Studies degree in nuclear industrial operations, which is offered through the university college of Memphis State University

  14. Smart Shipboard Power System Operation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotis D. Kanellos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, optimal electrification of isolated offshore systems has become increasingly important and received extensive attention from the maritime industry. Especially with the introduction of electric propulsion, which has led to a total electrification of shipboard power systems known as all-electric ships (AESs, the need for more cost-effective and emission-aware solutions is augmented. Such onboard systems are prone to sudden load variations due to the changing weather conditions as well as mission profile, thus they require effective power management systems (PMSs to operate optimally under different working conditions. In this paper, coordinated optimal power management at the supply/demand side of a given AES is studied with regard to different objectives and related technical/environmental constraints. The optimal power management problem is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model and is solved using a metaheuristic algorithm. To show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed PMS, several test scenarios are implemented and related simulation results are analyzed and compared to those from conventional methods.

  15. Operation control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Osamu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To render the controlling functions of a central control console more centralized by constituting the operation controls for a nuclear power plant with computer systems having substantially independent functions such as those of plant monitor controls, reactor monitor management and CRT display and decreasing interactions between each of the systems. Constitution: An input/output device for the input of process data for a nuclear power plant and indication data for a plant control console is connected to a plant supervisory and control computer system and a display computer system, the plant supervisory control computer system and a reactor and management computer system are connected with a CRT display control device, a printer and a CRT display input/output device, and the display computer system is connected with the CRT display control device and the CRT display unit on the central control console, whereby process input can be processed and displayed at high speed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Training of nuclear power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-04-01

    A collection is presented containing 11 papers submitted at a conference on the selection and education of specialists for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The conference was attended by specialists from universities and colleges, research institutes and production plants. It debated the methods and aims of both general and specialized theoretical and practical personnel education, the proposals for teaching centre equipment, the use of simulators, computers and other aids in the teaching process; training on school reactors was included. A proposal was put forward of the system of education, the teaching process itself, the content of the basic theoretical subjects, and the method of testing pupils' knowledge. The importance was stressed of establishing a national coordination centre to safeguard the syllabus, methodology, teaching aids, and also the training proper. The system of personnel education in the Paks nuclear power plant, Hungary, is presented as an example. (M.S.)

  17. Improving training tools for continuing operator qualification in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, F.; San Antonio, S.

    1991-01-01

    There are currently nine nuclear power plants in service in Spain; the most recent started commercial operation in 1988. Spanish legislation requires operators to have an academic technical background of at least 3 yr. The turnover rate is <5%, and in recent years, symptom-based emergency procedure has been introduced. These facts have given rise to a situation in which Spanish licensed operators are demanding more in-depth training to avoid a stagnant routine and boredom. In responding to this challenge, Tecnatom has had to significantly update its two simulators for boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PSR) plants, to ensure coverage of the emergency procedures and has had to create a tool - the Interactive Graphics Simulator - that allows these problems to be ameliorated. With a view to updating its simulators, Tecnatom initiated in 1985 a project known as advanced simulation models (MAS), which was completed at the end of 1990. The TRACS code is a real-time advanced thermohydraulic code for upgrading Tecnatom's nuclear plant simulators. The interactive graphic simulator, (SGI) is a system that provides a graphic display of the models of a full-scope simulator by means of color monitors. The two new tools used are enabling higher levels of motivation to be achieved among the plant operations personnel, especially with respect to requalification

  18. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-03-01

    In the Quarterly Reports on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants such incidents and observations are described relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, considers safety-related. During the third quarter of 1989 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. Nuclear electricity accounted for 39.0% of the total Finnish electricity production in this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 78.9%. At Loviisa 1, two holes were found in the feedwater distributor of one steam generator. Corresponding wall thinning corrosion was also detected in the walls of two other distributors. The holes were found on the feedwater distributor upper surface in the joint of the secondary circuit feedwater pipe. One hole was about 20 mm x 50 mm in size and the other was a pit hole ca 5 mm in diameter. Metal power had entered the primary circuit at TVO I. This was observed during a post-scram plant start-up. Several control rod drive units had become jammed so tight that control rod withdrawal failed. Metal powder did not hamper reactor scram under the prevailing circumstances because the drive units are prone to jamming only after a control rod is almost fully inserted and because the forces which insert a control rod by various means (electrical, hydraulic) are 6-8 fold compared with the withdrawing force

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-08-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. (author)

  20. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, C.

    1989-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.; Koponen, H.; Nevander, O.; Paltemaa, R.; Poellaenen, I.; Rannila, P.; Valtonen, K.; Vilkamo, O.

    1988-02-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimburger, H.

    1988-08-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-09-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.; Lehtinen, P.

    1985-11-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. (author)

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.

    1988-09-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hzard to the personnel or the environment

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tubulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-01-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the second quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and availability of the plants. (author)

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the third quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  9. Validation of Continuous CHP Operation of a Two-Stage Biomass Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2006-01-01

    The Viking gasification plant at the Technical University of Denmark was built to demonstrate a continuous combined heat and power operation of a two-stage gasifier fueled with wood chips. The nominal input of the gasifier is 75 kW thermal. To validate the continuous operation of the plant, a 9-day...... measurement campaign was performed. The campaign verified a stable operation of the plant, and the energy balance resulted in an overall fuel to gas efficiency of 93% and a wood to electricity efficiency of 25%. Very low tar content in the producer gas was observed: only 0.1 mg/Nm3 naphthalene could...... be measured in raw gas. A stable engine operation on the producer gas was observed, and very low emissions of aldehydes, N2O, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured....

  10. Performance management for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    Fuel was loaded to Unit 3 of the second power plant in May 2010. The Second Operation Division stepped in the operation stage from production preparation and commissioning and exploration of performance management was started. By means of performance evaluation, a closed loop of performance management was formed, staff enthusiasm improved, and potential capability inspired through evaluation, analysis and improvement. The performance evaluation covers attitude, skill, efficiency, performance, teamwork sense, cooperation, etc. Quantitative appraisal was carried out through 31 objective indicators of the working process and results. According to the evaluation results and personal interviews, indicators were modified. Through the performance evaluation, positive guidance is provided to the employees to promote the development of employees, departments and the enterprise. (authors)

  11. Operating health analysis of electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud

    The required level of operating reserve to be maintained by an electric power system can be determined using both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. Despite the obvious disadvantages of deterministic approaches there is still considerable reluctance to apply probabilistic techniques due to the difficulty of interpreting a single numerical risk index and the lack of sufficient information provided by a single index. A practical way to overcome difficulties is to embed deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices in order to monitor the system well-being. The system well-being can be designated as healthy, marginal and at risk. The concept of system well-being is examined and extended in this thesis to cover the overall area of operating reserve assessment. Operating reserve evaluation involves the two distinctly different aspects of unit commitment and the dispatch of the committed units. Unit commitment health analysis involves the determination of which unit should be committed to satisfy the operating criteria. The concepts developed for unit commitment health, margin and risk are extended in this thesis to evaluate the response well-being of a generating system. A procedure is presented to determine the optimum dispatch of the committed units to satisfy the response criteria. The impact on the response wellbeing being of variations in the margin time, required regulating margin and load forecast uncertainty are illustrated. The effects on the response well-being of rapid start units, interruptible loads and postponable outages are also illustrated. System well-being is, in general, greatly improved by interconnection with other power systems. The well-being concepts are extended to evaluate the spinning reserve requirements in interconnected systems. The interconnected system unit commitment problem is decomposed into two subproblems in which unit scheduling is performed in each isolated system followed by interconnected system evaluation

  12. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  13. Development and application of nuclear power operation database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Juying; Fang Zhaoxia

    1996-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Nuclear Power Operation Database which include Domestic and Overseas Nuclear Event Scale Database, Overseas Nuclear Power Operation Abnormal Event Database, Overseas Nuclear Power Operation General Reliability Database and Qinshan Nuclear Power Operation Abnormal Event Database. The development includes data collection and analysis, database construction and code design, database management system selection. The application of the database to provide support to the safety analysis of the NPPs which have been in commercial operation is also introduced

  14. Osmotic membrane bioreactor for phenol biodegradation under continuous operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee, E-mail: chelohkc@nus.edu.sg

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Osmotic membrane bioreactor was used for phenol biodegradation in continuous mode. • Extractant impregnated membranes were used to alleviate substrate inhibition. • Phenol removal was achieved through both biodegradation and membrane rejection. • Phenol concentrations up to 2500 mg/L were treated at HRT varying in 2.8–14 h. • A biofilm removal strategy was formulated to improve bioreactor sustainability. - Abstract: Continuous phenol biodegradation was accomplished in a two-phase partitioning osmotic membrane bioreactor (TPPOMBR) system, using extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) as the partitioning phase. The EIMs alleviated substrate inhibition during prolonged operation at influent phenol concentrations of 600–2000 mg/L, and also at spiked concentrations of 2500 mg/L phenol restricted to 2 days. Filtration of the effluent through forward osmosis maintained high biomass concentration in the bioreactor and improved effluent quality. Steady state was reached in 5–6 days at removal rates varying between 2000 and 5500 mg/L-day under various conditions. Due to biofouling and salt accumulation, the permeate flux varied from 1.2–7.2 LMH during 54 days of operation, while maintaining an average hydraulic retention time of 7.4 h. A washing cycle, comprising 1 h osmotic backwashing using 0.5 M NaCl and 2 h washing with water, facilitated biofilm removal from the membranes. Characterization of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) through FTIR showed peaks between 1700 and 1500 cm{sup −1}, 1450–1450 cm{sup −1} and 1200–1000 cm{sup −1}, indicating the presence of proteins, phenols and polysaccharides, respectively. The carbohydrate to protein ratio in the EPS was estimated to be 0.3. These results indicate that TPPOMBR can be promising in continuous treatment of phenolic wastewater.

  15. Power operated contact apparatus for superconductive circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.C.; Efferson, K.R.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes a power operated contact apparatus for extending and retracting one or more electrical leads into and out of a cryostat for making and breaking, at a cryogenic temperature, electrical contact with a superconductive circuit. It comprises at least one rigid elongated lead for extending into a cold space of the cryostat which is at or near a cryogenic temperature. The lead having an inner end and a outer end; a connector fixed at the inner end of the lead for making electrical contact in the cold space with a connector of the superconductive circuit; guide means journaling the lead for allowing the lead to move axially relative to the guide means and sealing against the lead; a foundation for sealed attachment to the cryostat and to the guide means so that the connector on the inner end of the lead is extendable into making electrical contact with the connector of the superconductive circuit in the cold space; power operated means mounted on the foundation and fixed to the outer end of the lead for extending and retracting the lead to and from making electrical contact with the superconductive circuit in the cold space; and means for de-icing the exterior of the leads and guide means when the leads are connected to the superconducting circuit.

  16. Operation of Power Grids with High Penetration of Wind Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awami, Ali Taleb

    The integration of wind power into the power grid poses many challenges due to its highly uncertain nature. This dissertation involves two main components related to the operation of power grids with high penetration of wind energy: wind-thermal stochastic dispatch and wind-thermal coordinated bidding in short-term electricity markets. In the first part, a stochastic dispatch (SD) algorithm is proposed that takes into account the stochastic nature of the wind power output. The uncertainty associated with wind power output given the forecast is characterized using conditional probability density functions (CPDF). Several functions are examined to characterize wind uncertainty including Beta, Weibull, Extreme Value, Generalized Extreme Value, and Mixed Gaussian distributions. The unique characteristics of the Mixed Gaussian distribution are then utilized to facilitate the speed of convergence of the SD algorithm. A case study is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Then, the SD algorithm is extended to simultaneously optimize the system operating costs and emissions. A modified multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm is suggested to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions defined by the two conflicting objectives. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to study the effect of changing load level and imbalance cost factors on the Pareto front. In the second part of this dissertation, coordinated trading of wind and thermal energy is proposed to mitigate risks due to those uncertainties. The problem of wind-thermal coordinated trading is formulated as a mixed-integer stochastic linear program. The objective is to obtain the optimal tradeoff bidding strategy that maximizes the total expected profits while controlling trading risks. For risk control, a weighted term of the conditional value at risk (CVaR) is included in the objective function. The CVaR aims to maximize the expected profits of the least profitable scenarios, thus

  17. Photovoltaic power without batteries for continuous cathodic protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehl, W. W., Sr.

    1994-02-01

    The COASTSYSTA designed, installed, and started up on 20 Jan. 1990, a state-of-the-art stand alone photovoltaic powered impressed current cathodic protection system (PVCPSYS) not requiring any auxiliary/battery backup power for steel and iron submerged structures. The PVCPSYS installed on 775' of steel sheet piling of a Navy bulkhead is continuing to provide complete, continuous corrosion protection. This has been well documented by COASTSYSTA and verified on-site by the U.S. Army Civil Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, Illinois and the Navy Energy Program Office-Photovoltaic Programs, China Lake, California. The Department of Defense (DoD) Photovoltaic Review Committee and Sandia National Laboratories consider this successful and cost effective system a major advance in the application of photovoltaic power. The PVCPSYS uses only renewable energy and is environmentally clean. A patent is pending on the new technology. Other possible PVCPSYS applications are mothballed ships, docks, dams, locks, bridges, marinas, offshore structures, and pipelines. The initial cost savings by installing a PVCPSYS vs. a conventional CP system was in excess of $46,000.00.

  18. Security assessment for intentional island operation in modern power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    be increased. However, when to island or how to ensure the islanded systems can survive the islanding transition is uncertain. This article proposes an Islanding Security Region (ISR) concept to provide security assessment of island operation. By comparing the system operating state with the ISR, the system......There has been a high penetration level of Distributed Generations (DGs) in distribution systems in Denmark. Even more DGs are expected to be installed in the coming years. With that, to utilize them in maintaining the security of power supply is of great concern for Danish utilities. During...... the emergency in the power system, some distribution networks may be intentionally separated from the main grid to avoid complete system collapse. If DGs in those networks could continuously run instead of immediately being shut down, the blackout could be avoided and the reliability of supply could...

  19. Operating experience of a portable thermophotovoltaic power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Frederick E.; Doyle, Edward F.; Shukla, Kailash

    1999-03-01

    Two configurations of man-portable thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supplies based on Thermo Power's supported continuous fiber emitter have been designed, built, and are being tested. The systems use narrow-band, fibrous, ytterbia emitters radiating to bandgap matched silicon photovoltaic arrays with dielectric stack filters for optical energy recovery and recuperators for thermal energy recovery. The systems have been designed for operation with propane and with combustion air preheat temperatures of up to 1250 K. To operate at air preheat temperatures above the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel, a unique fuel delivery system was devised which results in the micromixing and rapid combustion of the fuel and air right in the emitter fibers. This allows the ytterbia emitter fibers to run much hotter (˜2000 K) than any of the surrounding structure.

  20. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-12-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1 and the resulting inspections and repairs at both Loviisa plant units brought about an outage the overall duration of which was 32 days. The annual maintenance outages of the TVO plant units were arranged during the report period and their combined duration was 31.5 days. Nuclear electricity accounted for 35.3% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 83.0%. Three events occurred during the report period which are classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale: feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1, control rod withdrawal at TVO I in a test during an outage when the hydraulic scram system was rendered inoperable and erroneous fuel bundle transfers during control rod drives maintenance at TVO II. Other events during this quarter are classified as Level Zero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. Only small amounts of nuclides originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  1. Designing for Wide-Area Situation Awareness in Future Power Grid Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Fiona F.

    Power grid operation uncertainty and complexity continue to increase with the rise of electricity market deregulation, renewable generation, and interconnectedness between multiple jurisdictions. Human operators need appropriate wide-area visualizations to help them monitor system status to ensure reliable operation of the interconnected power grid. We observed transmission operations at a control centre, conducted critical incident interviews, and led focus group sessions with operators. The results informed a Work Domain Analysis of power grid operations, which in turn informed an Ecological Interface Design concept for wide-area monitoring. I validated design concepts through tabletop discussions and a usability evaluation with operators, earning a mean System Usability Scale score of 77 out of 90. The design concepts aim to support an operator's complete and accurate understanding of the power grid state, which operators increasingly require due to the critical nature of power grid infrastructure and growing sources of system uncertainty.

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-08-01

    During the first quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. Nuclear electricity accounted for 32.5% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 99.0%. An international nuclear event scale has been introduced for the classification of nuclear power plant events according to their nuclear and radiation safety significance. The scale first undergoes about a year long trial period in several countries. on the scale, events are divided into levels from 1 to 7 of which events at Level 7 are the most serious. Furthermore, Level 0 (Below Scale) is used for events with no safety significance. All events which occurred at the Finnish nuclear power plants this quarter are classified as Level 0. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. At the Loviisa plant, a back-up emergency feedwater system independent of the plant's other systems has been introduced which offers a new, alternative means of removing residual heat from the reactor. Owing to this system, the risk of a severe accident has been further reduced. At the TVO plants, systems have been introduced by which accident sequences which lead to containment failure could be eliminated and the consequences of a potential severe accident could be mitigated. In this report, also the release of short-lived radioactive materials along the transfer route of an irradiated sample is described which occured at the FiR 1 research reactor. The amounts of radioactive materials individuals received in their bodies in connection with this event were very low

  3. Operation guide device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsuneyasu

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to maintain the soundness of nuclear fuels and each of equipments by compensating the effect of the xenon density on the reactor core thermal power resulted upon load following operation of a nuclear reactor. Constitution: The device comprises an instrumentation system for measuring the status of the nuclear reactor, a reactor core performance calculator for calculating the reactor core performance based on the output from the instrumentation system, a xenon density calculator for calculating the xenon density based on the output from the performance calculator, a memory unit for storing the output from the reactor core performance calculator and the xenon density calculator and for transferring the stored memory to a nuclear reactor status forecasting device and an alternative load pattern searching device for searching, in cooperation with the memory unit, an alternative load pattern which is within an operation restrictive condition and most closed to a demanded load pattern when a monitor for the deviation from the flowrate distribution detects the deviation from the operation restrictive conditions. (Yoshino, Y.)

  4. The training of operating personnel at Spanish nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Antonio Burgos

    2011-01-01

    An essential condition in order to ensure that nuclear power plants are operated reliably and safely is the availability in the Control Room of duly qualified persons capable both of preventing accidents and of responding to them should they occur. Training of the Control Room operating crews is accomplished in two major stages: a lengthy process of initial training in which the knowledge acquired at high school and university is built upon, leading to the specialisation required to appropriately carry out the tasks to be performed in the Control Room, and a continuous training program aimed at maintaining and improving the knowledge and skills required to operate the plant, with feedback of the lessons learned from the industry's operating experience. The use of full-scope simulators replicating the physical conditions and environment of the Control Room allows the period of initial training to be reduced and is the most appropriate method for the continuous training program of the control room personnel, since these simulators increase the realism of the training scenarios, help to better understand the response of the plant and provide an accurate idea of transient response times. Tecnatom is the Training Centre for Spanish Operators; it is the 'Operator Training Factory' and its mission is to train the nuclear power plant operating personnel in both technological fundamentals and the development of diagnostic skills through practical scenarios on the simulator and on-the-job training. Our training programmes are based on a SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) methodology that has been implemented at both Spanish and overseas plants. (author)

  5. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. 238.447 Section 238.447 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance...

  6. Standard filter approximations for low power Continuous Wavelet Transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Analogue domain implementations of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) have proved popular in recent years as they can be implemented at very low power consumption levels. This is essential for use in wearable, long term physiological monitoring systems. Present analogue CWT implementations rely on taking mathematical a approximation of the wanted mother wavelet function to give a filter transfer function that is suitable for circuit implementation. This paper investigates the use of standard filter approximations (Butterworth, Chebyshev, Bessel) as an alternative wavelet approximation technique. This extends the number of approximation techniques available for generating analogue CWT filters. An example ECG analysis shows that signal information can be successfully extracted using these CWT approximations.

  7. The control of operational risk in nuclear power plant operations - Some cross-cultural perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchard, A.; Rochlin, G.

    1992-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants requires the management of a complex technology under exacting performance and safety criteria. Organizations operating nuclear power plants are faced with the challenge of simultaneously meeting technical, organizational, and social demands, striving toward perfection in a situation where learning by trial and error can be too costly. In this process, they interact with regulatory bodies who seek to help minimize operational risk by imposing and upholding safety standards. The character of this interaction differs in various countries, as does the larger cultural setting. The study generally pursued the question of how organizations operating complex and demanding technologies adapt to such requirements and circumstances, and how they can succeed in delivering nearly error-free performance. One aspect of this study includes the comparison of organizational and cultural environments for nuclear power plant operations in the US, France, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland. The research involved in-depth, continuous observations on location and interviews with plant personnel, especially control operators, at one plant in each country

  8. Identification of efforts required for continued safe operation of KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, M.A.; Hashmi, J.A.; Siddiqui, Z.H.

    1991-01-01

    Kanupp, the first commercial CANDU PHWR, rated at 137 MWe, was built on turnkey basis by the Canadian General Electric Company for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and went operational in October, 1972 near Karachi. It has operated since then with a lifetime average availability factor of 51.5% and capacity factor of 25%. In 1976, Kanupp suffered loss of technical support from its original vendors due to the Canadian embargo on export of nuclear technology. Simultaneously, the world experienced the most explosive development and advancement in electronic and computer technology, accelerating the obsolescence of such equipment and systems installed in Kanupp. Replacement upgrading of obsolete computers, control and instrumentation was thus the first major set of efforts realized as essential f or continued safe operation. On the other hand, Kanupp was able to cope with the normal maintenance of its process, mechanical and electrical equipment till the late 80's. But now many of these components are reaching the end of their useful life, and developing chronic problems due to ageing, which can only be solved by complete replacement. This is much more difficult for custom-made nuclear process equipment, e.g. the reactor internals and the fuelling machine. Public awareness and international concern about nuclear safety have increased significantly since the TMI and Chernobyl events. Corresponding realization of the critical role of human factors and the importance of operational experience feedback, has helped Kanupp by opening international channels of communication, including renewed cooperation on CANDU technology. The safety standards and criteria for CANDU as well as other NPPs have matured and evolved gradually over the past two decades. First Kanupp has to ensure that its present ageing-induced equipment problems are resolved to satisfy the original safety requirements and public risk targets which are still internationally acceptable. But as a policy, we

  9. Identification of efforts required for continued safe operation of KANUPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafoor, M A; Hashmi, J A; Siddiqui, Z H [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant, Karachi (Pakistan)

    1991-04-01

    Kanupp, the first commercial CANDU PHWR, rated at 137 MWe, was built on turnkey basis by the Canadian General Electric Company for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and went operational in October, 1972 near Karachi. It has operated since then with a lifetime average availability factor of 51.5% and capacity factor of 25%. In 1976, Kanupp suffered loss of technical support from its original vendors due to the Canadian embargo on export of nuclear technology. Simultaneously, the world experienced the most explosive development and advancement in electronic and computer technology, accelerating the obsolescence of such equipment and systems installed in Kanupp. Replacement upgrading of obsolete computers, control and instrumentation was thus the first major set of efforts realized as essential f or continued safe operation. On the other hand, Kanupp was able to cope with the normal maintenance of its process, mechanical and electrical equipment till the late 80's. But now many of these components are reaching the end of their useful life, and developing chronic problems due to ageing, which can only be solved by complete replacement. This is much more difficult for custom-made nuclear process equipment, e.g. the reactor internals and the fuelling machine. Public awareness and international concern about nuclear safety have increased significantly since the TMI and Chernobyl events. Corresponding realization of the critical role of human factors and the importance of operational experience feedback, has helped Kanupp by opening international channels of communication, including renewed cooperation on CANDU technology. The safety standards and criteria for CANDU as well as other NPPs have matured and evolved gradually over the past two decades. First Kanupp has to ensure that its present ageing-induced equipment problems are resolved to satisfy the original safety requirements and public risk targets which are still internationally acceptable. But as a policy, we

  10. On Chinese National Continuous Operating Reference Station System of GNSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junyong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System can maintain a accurate, 3D, geocentric and dynamic reference coordinate frame in the corresponding area, can provide positioning and navigation service. It can also serve for the meteorology, geodynamics, earthquake monitoring and Location Based services (LBS etc in the same area. Until now, our country can’t provide a facing National CORS System serving for every profession and trade, and the national sharing platform of CORS System resources has not been established. So this paper discusses some valuable insight how to construct the National CORS System in China. Method: Constructing goal、Service object、CORS distribution、CORS geographic、geology and communication environment and other factors, are major considerations for the Constructing the National CORS System. Moreover, constructing GNSS CORS is more specific, mainly from four aspects, namely site-selection、civil construction、security measures and equipment-selection for consideration. Outcome: The project of the Constructing Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is put forward, and is discussed from goal、principle、project and other for construction. Some meaning thought how to construct the National CORS System is submitted Conclusion: The Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is the lack of a unified planning and design in the national level. So far, the national CORS system serving all walks of life has not been provided, and the national sharing platform of CORS System resources has not been established The primary mission of the Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is as follows: using data set of GNSS and receiving, transport, process, integration, transmit information and

  11. Evaluation of nuclear power plant concrete to maintain continued service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColm, E.J.; Mukherjee, P.K.; Sato, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures in addition to satisfying structural requirements are a major part of the safety and containment systems. As a result, the structures are required to operate satisfactorily for the life of the plant and until well after decommissioning. Successful life management requires an understanding of potential degradation mechanisms that can impact on the performance of these structures, regular well planned inspection programs and the use of specialized repair and maintenance programs. These aspects of nuclear life management are discussed with an example of inspection and repair conducted at one of Ontario Hydro's nuclear generating stations. The example is discussed in terms of the performance requirements of the containment concrete. The plant referred to has been in operation for over 20 years, making it currently the oldest operating commercial nuclear power plant in Ontario, Canada. The information on the concrete containment structures included baseline construction data on the concrete material properties and the results of periodic scheduled and other interim specialized inspections. Also available were the results of laboratory testing of concrete cores obtained from the structures. The data from these inspections and laboratory testing were used to monitor the aging characteristics of the structures and to plan appropriate repair activities. (author)

  12. The continuous improvement system of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera C, A.

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the continuous improvement system of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde and the achievements in implementing the same and additionally two study cases are presents. In February 2009 is noteworthy because the World Association of Nuclear Operators we identified as a learning organization, qualification which shows that the continuous improvement system has matured, and this system will expose as I get to learn to capitalize on our own experiences and external experiences diffused by the nuclear industry. In 2007 the management of nuclear power plants integrates its improvement systems and calls it continuous improvement system and is presented in the same extensive report that won the National Quality Award. This system is made up of 5 subsystems operating individually and are also related 1) human performance; 2) referential comparison or benchmarking; 3) self-assessment; 4) corrective action and 5) external operating experience. Five subsystems that plan, generate, capture, manage, communicate and protect the knowledge generated during the processes execution of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, as well as from external sources. The target set in 2007 was to increase the intellectual capital to always give response to meeting the security requirements, but creating a higher value to quality, customer, environment protection and society. In brief each of them, highlighting the objective, expectations management, implementation and some benefits. At the end they will describe two study cases selected to illustrate these cases as the organization learns by their continuous improvement system. (Author)

  13. A compilation of necessary elements for a local government continuity of operations plan

    OpenAIRE

    Cashen, Kevin M.

    2006-01-01

    CHDS State/Local National and state homeland security strategies call for continuity of operations plan development. The 2006 Nationwide Plan Review Phase II Report identifies continuity of operations plan development as a state and local goal with a federal goal of providing continuity of operations plan development support. Most local governments do not have a continuity of operation plan or it needs to be updated. Continuity of operations plan guidance is provided by a variety of intern...

  14. Continuing Development for Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Allen A.; Qiu, Songgang; Redinger, Darin L.; Augenblick, John E.; Petersen, Stephen L.

    2004-02-01

    Long-life radioisotope power generators based on free-piston Stirling engines are an energy-conversion solution for future space applications. The high efficiency of Stirling machines makes them more attractive than the thermoelectric generators currently used in space. Stirling Technology Company (STC) has been developing free-piston Stirling machines for over 30 years, and its family of Stirling generators is ideally suited for reliable, maintenance-free operation. This paper describes recent progress and status of the STC RemoteGen™ 55 W-class Stirling generator (RG-55), presents an overview of recent testing, and discusses how the technology demonstration design has evolved toward space-qualified hardware.

  15. Power generation operations management : due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.; Paul, G.

    1998-01-01

    The practical applications of an emergency planning process within Edmonton Power's power generation operations management were discussed. A project was initiated to develop a corporate emergency planning standard which incorporates existing emergency procedures into a unified management system. The need for an emergency planning standard which would establish planning criteria became evident after a tornado hit Edmonton on July 31, 1987, killing 27 and causing $330 million in damages. The emergency plans in effect at the time were less than adequate. The components of the new emergency planning standards include: (1) policy and hazard analysis, (2) functional responsibilities, (3) initial response, (4) emergency support, (5) mutual aid, (6) business protection and recovery, (7) emergency response debriefing, (8) training and exercises, and (9) emergency plan distribution and maintenance. A brief summary of the intent of each section, and some of the experiences learned during the development of this emergency plan are described for the benefit of those who may be called upon to develop an integrated emergency plan in the future. 1 ref

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations related to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing plant modifications and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and their load factors are also given. At the Loviisa 1 plant unit one of two specially-backed AC busbars was lost during the second quarter of 1993. A ca. 30 minute voltage break caused malfunctions in the plant unit's electrical equipment and rendered inoperable certain components important to safety. The event is rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) at level 1. In inspections carried out at TVO II during the annual maintenance outage, the number of cracks detected in control rod structural material was higher than usual. When cracks occur, part of boron carbide, the power regulating medium in control rods, may wash into the reactor water and control rod shutdown capability may be impaired. The event is rated on the INES at level 1. Other events in the second quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  17. Method to operate power reactors with light water cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention provides a possibility to 'condition' the fuel of a power plant used in base load operation, i.e. to bring it to such a high power density level that the local excesses arising with the occasional total power changes, remain below the power densities reached in normal operation (conditioning level). (orig./RW) [de

  18. Partial analysis of wind power limit in an electric micro system using continuation power flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiallo Guerrero, Jandry; Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Castro Fernández, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The wind power insertion in the power system is an important issue and can create some instability problems in voltage and system frequency due to stochastic origin of wind. Know the Wind Power Limit that can insert in an electric grid without losing stability is a very important matter. Existing in bibliography a few methods for calculation of wind power limit, some of them are based in static constrains, an example is a method based in a continuation power flow analysis. In the present work the method is applied in an electric micro system formed when the system is disconnected of the man grid, the main goal was prove the method in a weak and island network. The software used in the simulations was the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). (author)

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1992. Longer breaks in production were caused by the annual maintenance of the TVO plant units. The load factor was 87.4 %. At TVO I it was detected during the annual maintenance outage when removing nuclear fuel assemblies from the reactor that one assembly had been loaded into the reactor in an incorrect manner during the previous year's annual maintenance: the assembly was slightly higher than the other assemblies. The water cooling the nuclear fuel partly by-passed the fuel assembly and the coolant flow proper passing through the assembly was below design. The fuel assembly's cooling had been sufficient during the whole operating cycle but could have essentially deteriorated during certain transients with the danger of consequent damage to some fuel rods. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as level 1. Other events in this quarter which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the scale

  20. Operating modes and practical power flow analysis of bidirectional isolated power interface for distributed power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Huiqing; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Four operating modes of Dual-Phase-Shift control for Dual Active Bridge converter are presented. • Effects of “minor parameters” such as the deadtime and power device voltage drops are analyzed. • Accurate power flow models with Dual-Phase-Shift control are developed and verified with experimental results. • Optimal operating mode is determined with respect to the efficiency improvement. • Measured efficiency of the Dual Active Bridge converter is improved up to 14%. - Abstract: Due to the intermittent nature of the renewable energy sources including photovoltaic and wind energy, the energy storage systems are essential to stabilize dc bus voltage. Considering the discharge depth of super-capacitors and energy-storage batteries, the bidirectional isolated power interface will operate for a wide range of voltage and power. This study focuses on in-depth analysis of the dual-active-bridge dc–dc converter that is controlled by the dual-phase-shift scheme to improve the conversion efficiency in distributed power system. The power flow of each operating mode with dual-phase-shift control is characterized based on a detailed analysis of the effects of “minor parameters”, including the deadtime and power device voltage drops. The complete output power plane of the dual-active-bridge converter with dual-phase-shift control is obtained and compared with experimental results. The optimal operating mode is determined according to the practical output power range and the power flow characteristics. Experimental evaluation shows the effectiveness of the proposed power flow model with dual-phase-shift control and significant efficiency improvement using the optimal mode of dual-phase-shift compared with the conventional phase shift control.

  1. HOW ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING HELPED TO CONTINUE BUILDING AND UPGRADE OF THE OPOLE POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Principles of ecological engineering were applied for upgrading the Opole Power Plant under construction, complete with modern installation to protect the environment. The modernized project was a subject of „Integrated environmental impact assessment of the Opole Power Plant” developed by the Institute of Environmental Protection in 1981. The main issues covered by the impact assessment were presented and discussed at the national scientific conference attended, among others, by the representatives of local community from Opole. The conference was organized by the Polish Society of Ecological Engineering on June 5 and 6, 1992. The main aim of the conference was to identify and deliver as broad as possible analysis of environmental conditions for designing, building and operating coal fired power plants. A secondary goal, though of main concern for the Opole agglomeration, was to evaluate many-sided environmental risks resulting from the construction and operation of the Power Plant. The feasibility of continuing the construction of a power generating facility that meets the requirements of the 21st century was demonstrated by the fact that the Opole Power Plant S.A. was awarded the ISO 14001 - Environmental Management System certificate by the British Standards Institution. Advanced construction of the two consecutive blocks of a combined power of 1800 MW in the Opole Power Plant substantiates the validity and effectiveness of the conference organized in 1992.

  2. Power Split Based Dual Hemispherical Continuously Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe Dresscher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a new continuously variable transmission concept: the Dual-Hemi Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT. It is designed to have properties we believe are required to apply continuously variable transmissions in robotics to their full potential. These properties are a transformation range that includes both positive and negative ratios, back-drivability under all conditions, kinematically decoupled reconfiguration, high efficiency of the transmission, and a reconfiguration mechanism requiring little work for changing the transmission ratio. The design of the Dual-Hemi CVT and a prototype realisation are discussed in detail. We show that the Dual-Hemi CVT has the aforementioned desired properties. Experiments show that the efficiency of the CVT is above 90% for a large part of the range of operation of the CVT. Significant stiction in the transmission, combined with a relatively low bandwidth for changing the transmission ratio, may cause problems when applying the DH-CVT as part of an actuator in a control loop.

  3. De-regulated electric power markets and operating nuclear power plants: the case of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewlett, James G.

    2005-01-01

    One issue addressed in almost all electric power restructuring/de-regulation plans in both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was the recovery of operating nuclear power plant's spent fuel disposal costs and the expenditures to decommission the units when they are retired. Prior to restructuring, in theory at least, in both countries, electricity consumers were paying for the back end costs from operating nuclear power plants. Moreover, in virtually all cases in the US, states included special provisions to insure that consumers would continue to do so after power markets were de-regulated. When power markets in the UK were initially restructured/de-regulated and nuclear power privatized, the shareholders of British Energy (BE) were initially responsible for these costs. However, after electricity prices fell and BE collapsed, the British government shifted many of the costs to future taxpayers, as much as a century forward. If this was not done, the book value of BE's equity would have been about -3.5 billion pounds. That is, BE's liabilities would have been about -3.5 billion pounds greater than their assets. It is difficult to see how BE could remain viable under such circumstances

  4. Low Power Operation of Temperature-Modulated Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Burgués

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications based on gas sensing present new opportunities for low-cost air quality monitoring, safety, and healthcare. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOX gas sensors represent the most prominent technology for integration into portable devices, such as smartphones and wearables. Traditionally, MOX sensors have been continuously powered to increase the stability of the sensing layer. However, continuous power is not feasible in many battery-operated applications due to power consumption limitations or the intended intermittent device operation. This work benchmarks two low-power, duty-cycling, and on-demand modes against the continuous power one. The duty-cycling mode periodically turns the sensors on and off and represents a trade-off between power consumption and stability. On-demand operation achieves the lowest power consumption by powering the sensors only while taking a measurement. Twelve thermally modulated SB-500-12 (FIS Inc. Jacksonville, FL, USA sensors were exposed to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (0–9 ppm with environmental conditions, such as ambient humidity (15–75% relative humidity and temperature (21–27 °C, varying within the indicated ranges. Partial Least Squares (PLS models were built using calibration data, and the prediction error in external validation samples was evaluated during the two weeks following calibration. We found that on-demand operation produced a deformation of the sensor conductance patterns, which led to an increase in the prediction error by almost a factor of 5 as compared to continuous operation (2.2 versus 0.45 ppm. Applying a 10% duty-cycling operation of 10-min periods reduced this prediction error to a factor of 2 (0.9 versus 0.45 ppm. The proposed duty-cycling powering scheme saved up to 90% energy as compared to the continuous operating mode. This low-power mode may be advantageous for applications that do not require continuous and periodic measurements, and which can tolerate

  5. Low Power Operation of Temperature-Modulated Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgués, Javier; Marco, Santiago

    2018-01-25

    Mobile applications based on gas sensing present new opportunities for low-cost air quality monitoring, safety, and healthcare. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOX) gas sensors represent the most prominent technology for integration into portable devices, such as smartphones and wearables. Traditionally, MOX sensors have been continuously powered to increase the stability of the sensing layer. However, continuous power is not feasible in many battery-operated applications due to power consumption limitations or the intended intermittent device operation. This work benchmarks two low-power, duty-cycling, and on-demand modes against the continuous power one. The duty-cycling mode periodically turns the sensors on and off and represents a trade-off between power consumption and stability. On-demand operation achieves the lowest power consumption by powering the sensors only while taking a measurement. Twelve thermally modulated SB-500-12 (FIS Inc. Jacksonville, FL, USA) sensors were exposed to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (0-9 ppm) with environmental conditions, such as ambient humidity (15-75% relative humidity) and temperature (21-27 °C), varying within the indicated ranges. Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were built using calibration data, and the prediction error in external validation samples was evaluated during the two weeks following calibration. We found that on-demand operation produced a deformation of the sensor conductance patterns, which led to an increase in the prediction error by almost a factor of 5 as compared to continuous operation (2.2 versus 0.45 ppm). Applying a 10% duty-cycling operation of 10-min periods reduced this prediction error to a factor of 2 (0.9 versus 0.45 ppm). The proposed duty-cycling powering scheme saved up to 90% energy as compared to the continuous operating mode. This low-power mode may be advantageous for applications that do not require continuous and periodic measurements, and which can tolerate slightly higher

  6. 78 FR 16490 - Jersey Central Power and Light Company, PSEG Fossil, LLC; Notice of Authorization for Continued...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2309-000] Jersey Central Power and Light Company, PSEG Fossil, LLC; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On February 18, 2011, the Jersey Central Power and Light Company and PSEG Fossil LLC, licensees for the Yards...

  7. Optimization of Modulator and Circuits for Low Power Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma ADC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Bruun, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new optimization method for achieving a minimum current consumption in a continuous-time Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The method is applied to a continuous-time modulator realised with active-RC integrators and with a folded-cascode operational transconduc...... levels are swept. Based on the results of the circuit analysis, for each modulator combination the summed current consumption of the 1st integrator and quantizer of the ADC is determined. By also sweeping the partitioning of the noise power for the different circuit parts, the optimum modulator...

  8. Evaluation of aged concrete structures for continued service in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Marchbanks, M.F.; Arndt, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    Results are summarized of a study on concrete component aging and its significance relative to continued service of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond the initial period for which they were granted operating licenses. Progress is presented of a second study being conducted to identify and provide acceptance criteria for structural safety issues which the USNRC staff will need to address when applications are submitted for continued service of NPPs. Major activities under this program include: development of a materials property data base, establishment of structural component assessment and repair procedures, and development of a methodology for determination of structural reliability

  9. Evaluation of aged concrete structures for continued service in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Marchbanks, M.F.; Arndt, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    Results are summarized of a study on concrete component aging and its significance relative to continued service of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond the initial period for which they were granted operating licenses. Progress is presented of a second study being conducted to identify and provide acceptance criteria for structural safety issues which the USNRC staff will need to address when applications are submitted for continued service of NPPs. Major activities under this program include: development of a materials property data base, establishment of structural component assessment and repair procedures, and development of a methodology for determination of structural reliability. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Real-time impact of power balancing on power system operation with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2017-01-01

    Highly wind power integrated power system requires continuous active power regulation to tackle the power imbalances resulting from the wind power forecast errors. The active power balance is maintained in real-time with the automatic generation control and also from the control room, where...... power system model. The power system model takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan from power balancing model and the generation and power exchange capacities for the year 2020 into account. The real-time impact of power balancing in a highly wind power integrated power system is assessed...

  11. Psychosocial aspect of safe operation in Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    1988-01-01

    It is not easy to reveal the reasons of safe operation of N.P.P. because many complicated factors are interrelated. However, to clarify the effective factors of the recent safe operation of Japanese N.P.P. is the important thema of research to continue this condition and the more improved level. At present, the follwing factors can be pointed out; 1) Influential safety policy of regulatory structures. 2) Enthusiastic and careful company policy on N.P.P. safety. 3) Close and stable relationship of the industries with companies on research, training and maintenance. 4) Collaborated safety research among scientific facilities, companies and manufacturers. 5) Good organization and management for N.P.P. personnel. 6) Well organized training program in company and training facilities. 7) Highly motivated N.P.P. personnel with high educational background. 8) Company atmosphere on N.P.P. safety. 9) Public opinion on nuclear power safety. (author)

  12. Cyclic operation of power plant; Cyklisk drift av kraftvaermeverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan

    2007-12-15

    The great majority of power plants are designed for base load operation with a relatively small number of starts and stops per year. Therefore, there has been no need to consider fatigue at design. Over the last few years operation with more frequent starts and stops exists as a consequence of swinging electricity prices that has become common. This involves significantly higher frequency of damages; not least fatigue relates damages, and the number of severe failures in components that never before have had damage problems may increase as well. In the present work the different types of component that may suffer from cyclic operation related damage are gathered by a literature survey and described as follows: - where and how the damages comes up, - constructions that should be avoided, - non-destructive testing (NDT) for damage that may come up under cyclic operation, - calculation and assessment of integrity of critical components - areas where continued research would be valuable. Recommendations have been put together to be used to prevent cyclic operation related damage and to detect it in time. The target group for this study is i) plant owners of plants where cyclic operation is or may be present, ii) researchers in the area, and, iii) inspectors and NDT-operators. There are quite a number of components where cyclic operation has been found to significantly influence the lift time. Some of these components are described in many papers whereas occasional papers have been found for others. The amount of information that is possible to get for a certain component is likely related to its significance for cyclic operation damage. The most frequently reported problem is ligament cracking of high temperature headers. Other components where extensive studies have been done are: wall panels, creep-fatigue loaded welds and turbine components

  13. Change-management. From commercial power operation to post power operation and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasinger, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Transition from power generation to decommissioning challenges utilities. Power generation is mainly characterized by a stable working environment and constant workload, decommissioning and dismantling, however, by transformation and change. Also, changing requirements for the workforce's skills challenge the organization and its senior management. Ensuring effective and efficient performance, while maintaining motivation of staff, requires adjustment of management processes as well as of operational organization and human resources management. AREVA has more than 20 years of experience in decommissioning of own nuclear fuel cycle plants in France, as well as of other large plants and power reactors in Germany, the United Kingdom and the US. Therefore, the group has developed and successfully implemented integrated change management processes. The implementation of well-established and proven methods, developed by the productive industry and adjusted to the nuclear regulatory requirements, significantly improves the performance and efficiency of means and methods in use. The AREVA Performance Improvement Process defines concrete approaches to identify and improve potential deficits of productivity in six main areas (decommissioning scenarios and stra-tegies, waste treatment and logistics, operations management, supply chain, regulatory monitoring and controls as well as dismantling operation). Nuclear plant and facility owners around the world benefit from AREVA experts well experienced in execution of large and complex decommissioning projects.

  14. Supervision functions - Secure operation of sustainable power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    2013-01-01

    of power systems operation control. The use of PMUs allows more penetration of DG mainly, with technologies based on renewable resources with intermittent and unpredictable operation such a wind power. This paper introduces the Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems (SOSPO) project. The SOSPO...... project tries to respond to the question "How to ensure a secure operation of the future power system where the operating point is heavily is fluctuating?" focusing in the Supervision module architecture and in the power system operation states. The main goal of Supervision module is to determine...... the power system operation state based on new stability and security parameters derived from PMUs measurement and coordinate the use of automatic and manual control actions. The coordination of the control action is based not only in the static indicators but also in the performance evaluation of control...

  15. Design and development of high voltage high power operational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applications of power operational amplifiers (opamps) are increasing day by day in the industry as they are used in audio amplifiers, Piezo transducer systems and the electron deflection systems. Power operational amplifiers have all the features of a general purpose opamp except the additional power handling capability.

  16. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim, Nichols [Truckee Meadows Community College, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students also participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.

  17. Effect of wood fuels on power plant operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orjala, M.; Ingalsuo, R.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the research is to determine the critical properties of wood fuels on the basis of power plant operability, to determine the optimal conditions for reduction of harmful detriments, and to study how the storage and processing of wood fuels effect on the operability. Both the CFB and BFB technologies are studied. The project started in December 2000 and it will be ended by the end of 2002. Experts of the Fuels and Combustion research field of VTT Energy carry out the main parts of the research. Experts of the research field of Mineral Processing of VTT Chemical Technology, located in Outokumpu, and Kemian tutkimuspalvelut Oy/Oulu University, located in Outokumpu, participate in the analytics, and the research field of Materials and Manufacturing Technology of VTT Manufacturing Technology in Otaniemi participates in the research on material effects. System Technology Laboratory of Oulu University carries out the power plant automation and boiler control technology research under supervision of Professor Urpo Kortela. Co-operation with the materials research unit of EU's JRC, located in Petten, which started in the research 'Combustion of Forest Chips', will be continues in this research. Co-operation will be made with Swedish Vaermeforsk in the field of information exchange on experiences in utilisation of wood fuels in Swedish power plants and possibilities to join in the projects of Vaermeforsk in this research field. Following companies participate in the project: Etelae-Savon Energia Oy, Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Simpele pasteboard factory of M-Real Oyj and Vaermeforsk AB (Sweden). (orig.)

  18. Shippingport Atomic Power Station Operating Experience, Developments and Future Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinroth, H.; Oldham, G.M.; Stiefel, J.T.

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates five years of operation and test of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station and discusses the current technical developments and future plans of the Shippingport programme. This programme is directed towards development of the basic technology of light-water reactors to provide the basis for potential reduction in the costs of nuclear power. The Shippingport reactor plant has operated for over five years and has been found to integrate readily into a utility system either as a base load or peak load unit. Plant component performance has been reliable. There have been no problems in contamination or waste disposal. Access to primary coolant components for maintenance has been good, demonstrating the integrity of fuel elements. Each of the three refuelling operations performed since start-up of Shippingport has required successively less time to accomplish. Recently, the third seed was refuelled in 32 working days, about one quarter the time required for the first refuelling. The formal requirements of personnel training, written administrative procedures, power plant manuals, etc., which have been a vital factor in the successful implementation of the Shippingport programme, are described. The results obtained from the comprehensive test programme carried out at Shippingport are compared with calculations, and good agreement has been obtained. Reactor core performance, plant stability, and response to load changes, fuel element and control rod performance, long-term effects such as corrosion and radiation level build-up, component performance, etc., are discussed in this paper. The principal objective of the current and future programmes of the Shippingport Project in advancing the basic technology of water-cooled reactors is discussed. This programme includes the continued operation of the Shippingport plant, and the development, design, manufacture and test operation of a long-life, highpower density second core - Core 2. At its

  19. Developments in operator assistance techniques for nuclear power plant control and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poujol, A.; Papin, B.; Beltranda, G.; Soldermann, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an approach which has been developed in order to improve nuclear power plants control and monitoring in normal and abnormal situations. These developments take full advantage of the trend towards the computerization of control rooms in industrial continuous processes. This research program consists in a thorough exploration of different information processing techniques, ranking from the rather simple visual synthetization of informations on graphic displays to sophisticated Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. These techniques are put into application for the solving of man-machine interface problems in the different domains of plant operation

  20. Continued Optical Sensor Operations in a Laser Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    laser aperture), efficiency (i.e., high ratio of output power to input power), low jitter (i.e., high reproducibility from 6 pulse to pulse), and...Services Committee House of Representatives (Washington, DC: GAO, November 2004); and Lindsay Peacock and Alexander Von Rosenbach, eds., Jane’s World

  1. Guide for training nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.A.; Cagle, C.D.; Corbett, B.L.; Culbert, W.H.; Hamrick, T.P.; Hurt, S.S.; McCord, R.V.; Poteet, K.H.; Bates, A.E.G.; Casto, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered include basic preparation, radiation safety and control, principles of reactor operation, general operating characteristics, facility design, safety systems, instrumentation, reactor theory, fuel handling and core parameters, radioactive material handling, and administrative procedures

  2. Virginia Power's nuclear operations: Leading by example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Success has been a long time coming for Virginia Power's nuclear units, but after a record run and some of the shortest refueling outages ever, the rest of the industry could learn a few things. This article describes the changes made by Virginia Power at its Surry and North Anna plants. Virginia Power's recipe for success called for equal amounts of individual initiative, management savvy, engineering discipline, organization, dedication, perseverance, pride, introspection, motivation, and humility

  3. Preparation and practice for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuesong; Lu Tiezhong

    2015-01-01

    The operational preparation of the nuclear power plant is an important work in nuclear power plant production preparation. Due to the construction period of nuclear power plant from starting construction to production is as long as five years, the professional requirements of nuclear power operation are very strict, and the requirements for nuclear safety are also extremely high. Especially after the Fukushima accident, higher requirements for the safe operation of nuclear power plant are posed by competent authorities of the national level, regulatory authorities and each nuclear power groups. Based on the characteristics of the construction phase of nuclear power plant and in combination with engineering practice, this paper expounds the system established in the field of nuclear power plant operation and generally analyses the related management innovation. (authors)

  4. CLASSROOM OBSERVATION- A POWERFUL TOOL FOR CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanjida Halim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For making teaching and learning more visible, classroom observation plays a central role. It provides teachers with constructive critical feedback in order to improve their classroom management and instructional techniques. For teachers it is important to observe the interaction between teacher-learner within the classroom because it can determine the learning opportunities that students get. Not only that, classroom observation encourages colleagues to collaborate to improve teacher practice and student learning. Feedback from classroom observations is an effective way for providing teachers with the information they need about their classroom behavior, and it can help them in their continuous professional development (CPD. This paper is based upon a practical approach to professional development among teachers through classroom observation. Since we, as teachers, are not born with innate teaching abilities, in fact, we learn and develop gradually with the help of some practical approaches, and classroom observation is a well-known powerful practical approach in primary and higher education to help teachers improve their teaching quality. This article mainly highlights the importance of classroom observation and its guidelines adapted from Observing Classes-CETaL. Further, it emphasizes the limitations of classroom observation, and suggests the ways to carry it out effectively based upon Observing Classes CETaL Model.

  5. Role of check operators in achieving operational excellence at Virginia Power's nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriver, B.L.; Williams, T.M.; Stewart, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Virginia Power has implemented a Check Operator Program as a part of its commitment to excellence in the operation of the North Anna and Surry nuclear power stations. The Check Operator Program utilizes highly qualified licensed personnel to independently evaluate the performance of licensed operators and senior operators during normal, abnormal and simulated emergency conditions. Emphasis is placed upon individual and team performance as well as the procedures and training which support the operators. The check operators report to line management to ensure that their recommendations are implemented into the overall operations philosophy of the power station

  6. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commanders will develop, in coordination with their respective power marketing agency, a system for exchanging operating information. The system will include general operating information and information on... power operations with power marketing agencies. 209.141 Section 209.141 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  7. The human factor in the operation of nuclear powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambier, M.

    1982-05-01

    The conditions characterizing the operation of nuclear powered submarines are described and the precautionary measures suitable to reduce the incidence of human errors and their consequences are explained

  8. Self-assessment of operational safety for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    Self-assessment processes have been continuously developed by nuclear organizations, including nuclear power plants. Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of this process as an effective way for improving safety performance. Self-assessment involves the use of different types of tools and mechanisms to assist the organizations in assessing their own safety performance against given standards. This helps to enhance the understanding of the need for improvements, the feeling of ownership in achieving them and the safety culture as a whole. Although the primary beneficiaries of the self-assessment process are the plant and operating organization, the results of the self-assessments are also used, for example, to increase the confidence of the regulator in the safe operation of an installation, and could be used to assist in meeting obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Such considerations influence the form of assessment, as well as the type and detail of the results. The concepts developed in this report present the basic approach to self-assessment, taking into consideration experience gained during Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions, from organizations and utilities which have successfully implemented parts of a self-assessment programme and from meetings organized to discuss the subject. This report will be used in IAEA sponsored workshops and seminars on operational safety that include the topic of self-assessment

  9. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsapour, Amir; Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian; Moallem, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated

  10. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsapour, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapour@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated.

  11. 47 CFR 73.664 - Determining operating power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.664 Determining operating power. (a) The operating... substantially zero reactance and a resistance equal to the transmission line characteristic impedance. During...

  12. Improving operator quality at Genkai Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, Takeshi.

    1989-01-01

    Improvement in operator quality, or improvement in an operator's skill and professional knowledge, is of prime importance because of its great influence on safe and steady plant operation. This paper describes the education and training of reactor operators at the Genkai pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant with respect to the following topics: organization of Genkai power plant; education and training program management; training at the Nuclear Training Center; training and education on-site including emergency procedures training, normal operating procedures training, informational study of emergency conditions in existing plants, and all-around training of operators; qualifying tests for supervisors; and operator motivation

  13. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-15

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  14. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  15. POWER LOSSES ASSESSMENT IN TRANSFORMERS AFTER THE NORMATIVE OPERATING PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity losses values both loading and off-load are topmost parameters characterizing the distribution mains customers’ transformers operating effectiveness. Precise determination of the specified values facilitates substantiated choice of the optimizing procedures. The actuality of the given topic increases owing to the fact that the modern electric grid utilizes plenty of the oil-transformers whose time in commission considerably exceeds the statutory 25 years. Under the conditions of continued operation the power-losses measurement according to the functioning guidelines does not seem always possible.The authors present an improved power-losses assessment technique based on the currently accepted thermal model of the oil-transformer. They indicate the deficiency of the existing technique and substantiate some of the changes in practical application of the mathematical model. The article makes an emphasis on peculiarities of the temperature changes in the oil-transformer and offers a prototype device of open architecture for realizing the improved technique of the power-losses measurement. The paper describes the device design features and functionality options and depicts its sketchy schematic. The authors note the potential of additional to assessing the power-losses volume, transmitting the obtained information to the dispatcher  via  GSM-connection  for  simplification  of  the  transformer  status  monitoring; as well as the capability of integrating the device into the system of the transformer thermal protection. The practical merit and application scope of the obtained results are in development and choice of the optimizing measures to be taken in the distributive electrical grids, e. g. the transformer replacement.

  16. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  17. Reactive power generation in high speed induction machines by continuously occurring space-transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laithwaite, E. R.; Kuznetsov, S. B.

    1980-09-01

    A new technique of continuously generating reactive power from the stator of a brushless induction machine is conceived and tested on a 10-kw linear machine and on 35 and 150 rotary cage motors. An auxiliary magnetic wave traveling at rotor speed is artificially created by the space-transient attributable to the asymmetrical stator winding. At least two distinct windings of different pole-pitch must be incorporated. This rotor wave drifts in and out of phase repeatedly with the stator MMF wave proper and the resulting modulation of the airgap flux is used to generate reactive VA apart from that required for magnetization or leakage flux. The VAR generation effect increases with machine size, and leading power factor operation of the entire machine is viable for large industrial motors and power system induction generators.

  18. Continuous operation of RODOS in case of long lasting releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Rafat, M.

    2003-01-01

    users who want to explore the impact of long term countermeasures in more detail. The users has also the option to set the time (in days after the first release) at which they consider the release to be ended or all significant deposition to have occurred. This will be entered interactively via the user interface. This will enable the user to start the consideration of countermeasures after the majority of the release has occurred, as some releases might have a very long, low level tail, and it would be unrealistic to expect decision makers to wait until deposition had completely stopped in such circumstances. This approach also recognizes that deposition will not end everywhere on the same day. The demonstration will exemplify the continuous automatic operation of RODOS using a release scenarios lasting over several days. On-line meteorological data measured at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, assumed to be the release point, will be used as input for the diagnostic calculations performed automatically within a distance range of 160 km x 160 km every 10 minutes. Numerical weather forecast from the German Weather Service, updated every 12 hours, will be used for prognostic calculations repeated in the same calculation area every hour. In parallel, the European wide numerical weather forecasts calculated by the ALADIN model, run by the Austrian Weather service and updated every 12 hours, are used to calculate in interactive RODOS runs the longer distance contamination. All functions of RODOS and its broad spectrum of results will be presented by the demonstration team. In particular, the necessity of emergency actions and countermeasure and their consequences in terms of areas affected, radiation doses and resources needed can be tracked with the ongoing activity release. (author)

  19. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  20. Continuity and Innovation. 25 years of simulator training for nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindauer, E.

    2002-01-01

    The first training simulator for nuclear power plant personnel in Germany was commissioned twenty-five years ago. This date was rather early, both when measured by the development of the German nuclear power program and when compared with the international situation. This farsighted decision demonstrates the importance nuclear power plant operators attach to the sound training of plant personnel. The consistent, and also costly, further development over the past twenty-five years shows that this attitude has not changed. A modern simulator center was built at a total cost of approx. 250 million Euro which can be characterized briefly as follows: - 13 full simulators cover most specific features of existing nuclear power plants. These simulators are backfitted continuously and represent the current state of simulation technology. - Their experience over many years has allowed the staff of approx. 140 to accumulate a high level of know-how in training and simulator operation. Learning from experience is greatly assisted by the fact that all activities are concentrated at one center. - The way in which the center is organized ensures close cooperation with the nuclear power plants responsible for the training of their personnel. - There is a systematic training concept which is being actively developed further. Some of the main developments in recent years include training for emergencies; intensified training in behavioral aspects, such as communication and leadership; the use of simulators for emergency drills; testing of modifications, etc. (orig.) [de

  1. Characterization of wastewater treatment by two microbial fuel cells in continuous flow operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Keiichi; Watanabe, Tomohide; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    A two serially connected single-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was applied to the treatment of diluted molasses wastewater in a continuous operation mode. In addition, the effect of series and parallel connection between the anodes and the cathode on power generation was investigated experimentally. The two serially connected MFC process achieved 79.8% of chemical oxygen demand removal and 11.6% of Coulombic efficiency when the hydraulic retention time of the whole process was 26 h. The power densities were 0.54, 0.34 and 0.40 W m(-3) when electrodes were in individual connection, serial connection and parallel connection modes, respectively. A high open circuit voltage was obtained in the serial connection. Power density decreased at low organic loading rates (OLR) due to the shortage of organic matter. Power generation efficiency tended to decrease as a result of enhancement of methane fermentation at high OLRs. Therefore, high power density and efficiency can be achieved by using a suitable OLR range.

  2. Intelligent engineering and technology for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.P.; Gu, X.

    1996-01-01

    The Three-Mile-Island accident has drawn considerable attention by the engineering, scientific, management, financial, and political communities as well as society at large. This paper surveys possible causes of the accident studied by various groups. Research continues in this area with many projects aimed at specifically improving the performance and operation of a nuclear power plant using the contemporary technologies available. In addition to the known cause of the accident and suggest a strategy for coping with these problems in the future. With the increased use of intelligent methodologies called computational intelligence or soft-computing, a substantially larger collection of powerful tools are now available for our designers to use in order to tackle these sensitive and difficult issues. These intelligent methodologies consists of fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, neural networks, artificial intelligence and expert systems, pattern recognition, machine intelligence, and fuzzy constraint networks. Using the Three-Mile-Island experience, this paper offers a set of specific recommendations for future designers to take advantage of the powerful tools of intelligent technologies that we are now able to master and encourages the adoption of a novel methodology called fuzzy constraint network

  3. 270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandusky, James R.; Chen, Jianfeng; Gibb, Shawn R.; Mendrick, Mark C.; Moe, Craig G.; Rodak, Lee; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael; Schowalter, Leo J.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, the achievement of over 60 mW output power from pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in continuous wave operation is reported. Die thinning and encapsulation improved the photon extraction efficiency to over 15%. Improved thermal management and a high characteristic temperature resulted in a low thermal rolloff up to 300 mA injection current with an output power of 67 mW, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.9%, and a wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 2.5% for a single-chip device emitting at 271 nm in continuous wave operation.

  4. Operator psychological selection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui

    2004-01-01

    Based on a detailed job analysis of nuclear power plant operator including operation procedures analysis, interview with personnel familiar with operator job, and 9 events happened in the past in the plant involved operator error analysis, several operator work characteristics and performance influence factors are obtained. According to these specific characteristics and factors, referring to the psychological selection research results in the other related critical occupational fields, a full psychological selection system of nuclear power plant operator is forwarded in this paper, including 21 dimensions in 3 facets as general psychological ability, personality and psychological healthy. Practical measurement methods for the proposed selection dimensions are discussed in the end

  5. Power electronics basics operating principles, design, formulas, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanov, Yuriy; Chaplygin, Evgeny; Voronin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Power Electronics Basics: Operating Principles, Design, Formulas, and Applications provides fundamental knowledge for the analysis and design of modern power electronic devices. This concise and user-friendly resource:Explains the basic concepts and most important terms of power electronicsDescribes the power assemblies, control, and passive components of semiconductor power switchesCovers the control of power electronic devices, from mathematical modeling to the analysis of the electrical processesAddresses pulse-width modulation, power quality control, and multilevel, modular, and multicell

  6. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  7. Research on psychological evaluation method for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative psychology evaluation methods to the nuclear power plant operators were analyzed and discussed in the paper. The comparison analysis to the scope and result of application was carried out between method of outline figure fitted and method of fuzzy synthetic evaluation. The research results can be referenced to the evaluation of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  8. Operating experience feedback on lose of offsite power supply for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Feng; Hou Qinmai; Che Shuwei

    2013-01-01

    The function of the service power system of a nuclear power plant is to provide safe and reliable power supply for the nuclear power plant facilities. The safety of nuclear power plant power supply is essential for nuclear safety. The serious accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred due to loss of service power and the ultimate heat sink. The service power system has two independent offsite power supplies as working power and auxiliary power. This article collected events of loss of offsite power supply in operating nuclear power plants at home and abroad, and analyzed the plant status and cause of loss of offsite power supply events, and proposed improvement measures for dealing with loss of offsite power supply. (authors)

  9. Structuring Economic Power for Stability Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallen, Andrew T

    2006-01-01

    .... By their nature, these operations have a strong economic context. This thesis provides a methodology for evaluating current institutional structures and economic doctrines being forged among various government agencies...

  10. Operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The proceedings contain 34 papers, almost all discussing specific problems or the Dukovany nuclear power plant. The major part is devoted to the matters of maintenance, regular and unplanned repairs, decontamination of the steam generator for inspection and repair purposes, various methods of in-service diagnostics. Some papers discuss reactor start-up, safety assurance, unit control and economic aspects. Environmental impacts of the power plant are also tackled. Some special contributions concern corrosion, chemical analysis of the coolant and the diagnostics of electrical equipment. The possibility is discussed of switching WWER reactors to improved fuel cycles with increased fuel burnup. (M.D.). 37 figs., 23 tabs., 47 refs

  11. Considerations in the evaluation of concrete structures for continued service in aged Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.; Marchbanks, M.; Oland, B.; Arndt, G.; Brown, T.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, there are /approximately/119 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the US either under construction, operating at low-to-full power, or awaiting an operating license. Together, these units have a net generating capacity of /approximately/110 GW(e). Assuming no life extension of present facilities, the operating licenses for these plants will start to expire in the middle of the next decade with Yankee Rowe being the first plant to attain this status. Where it is noted that with no life extension of facilities, a potential loss of electrical generating capacity in excess of 75 GW(e) could occur during the time period 2006 to 2020 when the operating licenses of 80 to 90 NPPs are scheduled to expire. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to meeting future electricity demand, which has worked well for non-nuclear generating plants, is to extend the service life (operating licenses) of existing NPPs. Since the concrete components in these plants provide a vital safety function, any continued service considerations must include an in-depth assessment of the safety-related concrete structures. 7 refs

  12. Computing an operating parameter of a unified power flow controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2017-12-26

    A Unified Power Flow Controller described herein comprises a sensor that outputs at least one sensed condition, a processor that receives the at least one sensed condition, a memory that comprises control logic that is executable by the processor; and power electronics that comprise power storage, wherein the processor causes the power electronics to selectively cause the power storage to act as one of a power generator or a load based at least in part upon the at least one sensed condition output by the sensor and the control logic, and wherein at least one operating parameter of the power electronics is designed to facilitate maximal transmittal of electrical power generated at a variable power generation system to a grid system while meeting power constraints set forth by the electrical power grid.

  13. Computing an operating parameter of a unified power flow controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G; Robinett, III, Rush D

    2015-01-06

    A Unified Power Flow Controller described herein comprises a sensor that outputs at least one sensed condition, a processor that receives the at least one sensed condition, a memory that comprises control logic that is executable by the processor; and power electronics that comprise power storage, wherein the processor causes the power electronics to selectively cause the power storage to act as one of a power generator or a load based at least in part upon the at least one sensed condition output by the sensor and the control logic, and wherein at least one operating parameter of the power electronics is designed to facilitate maximal transmittal of electrical power generated at a variable power generation system to a grid system while meeting power constraints set forth by the electrical power grid.

  14. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station operation and management indicators system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Chunfa

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the commercial operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS), dynamic objective management concept that features modern enterprises has been adopted by the station to manage all operational activities with the guidance of business plan. And some quantitative indicators have been employed in order to measure effectively the progress status of these operational activities. After several years' evolvement, a hierarchical and standard performance indicators system has been developed and is playing an active part in the plant's efforts towards top quartile of world nuclear power industry. Structured hierarchically with higher levels resolving into lower levels and lower levels committing to higher levels, the indicator system represents the corporate vision, WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) performance indicators, plant integrated indicators and departmental key indicators, covering such areas as safety, production, environment, human resource and cost control. The indicator system not only reflects performance-centered management concept, but also shows the controllability of the whole operational process of the station. Indicators of a certain level serve as both early warnings to superior indicators (lagging indicators in this case) and effects to inferior indicators (leading indicators in this case). The dynamic status of these indicators, numbered more than 230, will eventually be fed back to the business plan and realized through daily work of every branch, and even every member of the workforce. With the indicator system as a quantitative management tool, and an effective tracking system, GNPS has achieved great success in self-assessment, objective definition, improvement follow up, resource re-allocation, and management-staff communication. Periodic plant performance assessment is performed through spider chart and other pictorial diagrams. Indicators are displayed at the plant entrance, offices, Main Control Room and SIS network

  15. Decomposing Objectives and Functions in Power System Operation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    mix of challenges posed by renewable energy sources, demand response technologies and smartgrid concepts, affecting all areas of power system operation. Both, new control modes and changes in market design are required. This paper presents a mean-ends perspective to the analysis of the control......The introduction of many new energy solutions requires the adaptation of classical operation paradigms in power systems. In the standard paradigm, a power system is some equivalent of a synchronous generators, a power line and an uncontrollable load. This paradigm has been challenged by a diverse...... structures and operation paradigms in present power systems. In a top-down approach, traditional frequency- and area-control mechanisms are formalized. It is demonstrated that future power system operation paradigms with different generation control modes and controllable demand can be modeled in a coherent...

  16. Operation Modeling of Power Systems Integrated with Large-Scale New Energy Power Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the most current methods of probabilistic power system production simulation, the output characteristics of new energy power generation (NEPG has not been comprehensively considered. In this paper, the power output characteristics of wind power generation and photovoltaic power generation are firstly analyzed based on statistical methods according to their historical operating data. Then the characteristic indexes and the filtering principle of the NEPG historical output scenarios are introduced with the confidence level, and the calculation model of NEPG’s credible capacity is proposed. Based on this, taking the minimum production costs or the best energy-saving and emission-reduction effect as the optimization objective, the power system operation model with large-scale integration of new energy power generation (NEPG is established considering the power balance, the electricity balance and the peak balance. Besides, the constraints of the operating characteristics of different power generation types, the maintenance schedule, the load reservation, the emergency reservation, the water abandonment and the transmitting capacity between different areas are also considered. With the proposed power system operation model, the operation simulations are carried out based on the actual Northwest power grid of China, which resolves the new energy power accommodations considering different system operating conditions. The simulation results well verify the validity of the proposed power system operation model in the accommodation analysis for the power system which is penetrated with large scale NEPG.

  17. Computational Efficiency of Economic MPC for Power Systems Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to operate power systems that consist of independent power units. The controller balances the power supply and demand, minimizing production costs. The control problem is formulated as a linear program that is solved...

  18. Anomalous dimension of subleading-power N-jet operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, Martin; Garny, Mathias; Szafron, Robert; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    We begin a systematic investigation of the anomalous dimension of subleading power N-jet operators in view of resummation of logarithmically enhanced terms in partonic cross sections beyond leading power. We provide an explicit result at the one-loop order for fermion-number two N-jet operators at the second order in the power expansion parameter of soft-collinear effective theory.

  19. Quality assurance during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The general requirements applicable to the quality assurance of the Finnish nuclear power plants are presented in the Council of State Decision (395/91) and in the guide YVL 1.4. This guide specifies the quality assurance requirements to be applied during the operation of the nuclear power plants as well as of the other nuclear facilities. Quality assurance applies to all the activities and organizations with a bearing on the safe operation of the nuclear power plants. (5 refs.)

  20. Quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic operators

    CERN Document Server

    Kellendonk, J

    2003-01-01

    For a magnetic Hamiltonian on a half-plane given as the sum of the Landau operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a random potential, a quantization theorem for the edge currents is proven. This shows that the concept of edge channels also makes sense in presence of disorder. Moreover, gaussian bounds on the heat kernel and its covariant derivatives are obtained.

  1. Training and qualification of nuclear power plant operators (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuga, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Training center using the simulators, instructor training, training upgrade, deployment of digital control panel and review of training were described with overseas practice. Recently, nuclear power plant on-site simulators were also used for respective operator training. Operator teamwork training, training team performance upgrade, reflection of operating experiences in nuclear power plant accidents, development of training support equipments and management of training records were needed to review and upgrade training and qualification programs. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Economics of satellite solar power system operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, P.Q.; Tomkins, R.

    1981-01-01

    The potential value of the Satellite Power System (SPS) concept depends partly on the effects of integrating SPS power into a national supply grid. Some of these effects are evaluated. The factors that would affect utilities appraisal of the system are briefly reviewed. The cost implications of these factors are considered under the headings Load factors, Reliability, System Planning and Integration, and Rectenna Siting and Transmission, with particular reference to the UK and W Europe. A method is proposed for studying the ground segment of the system; a utility could calculate the value it would place on microwave 'fuel' supplied by the space segment, thereby providing firm cost targets for this part of the system. 21 refs.

  3. Surveillance dosimetry of operating power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Davis, A.I.; Gold, R.

    1981-01-01

    The main focus of the research efforts presently underway is the LWR power reactor surveillance program in which metallurgical test specimens of the reactor PV and dosimetry sensors are placed in three or more surveillance capsules at or near the reactor PV inner wall. They are then irradiated in a temperature and neutron flux-spectrum environment as similar as possible to the PV itself for periods of about 1.5 to 15 effective full-power years (EFPY), with removal of the last capsule at a fluence corresponding to the 30- to 40-year plant end-of-life (EOL) fluence. Because the neutron flux level at the surveillance position is greater than at the vessel, the test is accelerated wit respect to the vessel exposure, allowing early assessment of EOL conditions

  4. Continuity and general perturbation of the Drazin inverse for closed linear operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Castro González

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We study perturbations and continuity of the Drazin inverse of a closed linear operator A and obtain explicit error estimates in terms of the gap between closed operators and the gap between ranges and nullspaces of operators. The results are used to derive a theorem on the continuity of the Drazin inverse for closed operators and to describe the asymptotic behavior of operator semigroups.

  5. Preparing nuclear power plant units for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudcovic, R.; Telgarsky, K.; Kmosena, J.

    1984-01-01

    The factors are listed which have to be taken into consideration for planning the unit operation, i.e., the implementation of planned repairs, checks of equipment and refuellings. All basic input data were evaluated as the basic for drawing up the schedule of routine repairs and overhauls for the coming period. (E.S.)

  6. Method of operating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Tasuku.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of operating a plant in which the inside of a reactor container is filled with inert gases. That is, the pressure at the inside of the pressure vessel is controlled based on the values sent from an absolute pressure gage and a pressure low gage during usual operation. A pressure high alarm and a pressure high scram signal are generated from a pressure high detector and a scram pressure detector. With such a constitution, since the pressure at the inside of the reactor is always kept at a slightly positive level relative to the surrounding atmospheric pressure even when high atmospheric pressure approaches to the plant site, air does not flow into the reactor container. Accordingly, the oxygen concentration is not increased. When a low atmospheric pressure approaches, the control operation for the pressure at the inside of the container is not necessary. The amount of the inert gases consumed and the amount of radioactive materials released to the atmosphere are decreased. The method of the present invention improves the safety and the reliability of the reactor operation. (N.H.)

  7. Proposed continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Sekutowicz; S. A. Bogacz; D. Douglas; P. Kneisel; G. P. Williams; M. Ferrario; L. Serafini; I. Ben-Zvi; J. Rose; J. Smedley; T. Srinivasan-Rao; W.-D. Moeller; B. Petersen; D. Proch; S. Simrock; P. Colestock; J. B. Rosenzweig

    2004-01-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R and D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions

  8. Continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacek Sekutowicz; Bogacz, S. A.; Douglas, D.; Kneisel, Peter; Williams, G. P.; Ferrario, M.; Serafini, L.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rose, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Mueller, W.-D.; Petersen, B.; Proch, D.; Simrock, S.; Colestock, P.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2003-01-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R and D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions

  9. Tianwan nuclear power plant operation and management practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yingbing

    2010-01-01

    Tianwan Nuclear Power Station is a high-tech cooperation project in nuclear sector in the spirit of promoting the political relationship, economic trading and international strategic partnership between China and Russia. It was listed as one of the key nuclear projects to be constructed during the 'Ninth Five-Year' Plan. In this article the author summarizes and feedbacks the practices of operation management in Tianwan Nuclear Power Station in 7 aspects of safety culture construction, operation team building, daily operation management, operation document management, plant chemistry control and management, solid, liquid and gaseous waste management and control of operation performance indicators. (author)

  10. Institute of nuclear power operations perspectives on PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, W.E.; Miller, W.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The investment to develop a PSA is very substantial, and therefore, there is motivation to recover this investment through further use of the techniques used to develop it. It is not surprising that nuclear power plant staff are beginning to use PSA to make operational decisions. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations is interested in those factors that impact the conduct of plant operations and therefore is actively monitoring the increased usage of PSA techniques. The purpose of this paper is to provide some thoughts and perspectives on the use of PSA as a factor in operational decision making, including decision making in activities performed by engineering, maintenance and operation personnel. (author)

  11. Computing and cognition in future power-plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.; Sheridan, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to speculate on the nature of future interactions between people and computers in the operation of power plants. In particular, the authors offer a taxonomy for examining the differing functions of operators in interacting with the plant and its computers, and the differing functions of the computers in interacting with the plant and its operators

  12. Computing and cognition in future power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.; Sheridan, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to speculate on the nature of future interactions between people and computers in the operation of power plants. In particular, the authors offer a taxonomy for examining the differing functions of operators in interacting with the plant and its computers, and the differing functions of the computers in interacting with the plant and its operators

  13. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  14. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES)

  15. Design of a DCS Based Model for Continuous Leakage Monitoring System of Rotary Air Preheater of a Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan BHOWMICK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leakage in rotary air preheater makes a considerable contribution to the reduced overall efficiency of fossil-fuel-fired thermal power plants and increase the effect on environment. Since it is normal phenomenon, continuous monitoring of leakage is generally omitted in most power plants. But for accurate analysis of the operation of the thermal power plant, this leakage monitoring plays a vital role. In the present paper, design of a DCS based model for continuous leakages monitoring of rotary air preheater has been described. In the proposed model, the existing DCS based instrumentation system has been modified and online leakage monitoring system has been developed. This model has been installed in a captive power plant with high capacity boilers and very much satisfactory operation of this system has been observed. The observed online data along with their analysis results are presented in this paper.

  16. Feller-buncher Operator Breaks Power Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    On a summer day in the South, a rubber-tired feller-buncher operator was performing a first thinning in a pine plantation. The feller-buncher was working in a new area of the stand, removing the take-down row and thinning the two rows on either side. The trees were approximately 15 years old, and there was a relatively thick layer of underbrush. The stand of timber...

  17. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  18. Annual report on nuclear power station operational management, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    As of the end of fiscal year 1984, 28 nuclear power plants were in operation in Japan, the total power output of which was 20.56 million kW, equivalent to 22.9 % of the total generated electric power in Japan. Now nuclear power generation bears a very important role in the stable supply and cost stabilization of electric power. The result of the capacity factor in fiscal year 1984 was 73.9 %, which showed that the nuclear power generation and safety management technologies in Japan are at the top level in the world. However, in order that nuclear power generation accomplishes the role as main power source sufficiently hereafter by increasing the number of plants, the reliability and economical efficiency must be further improved, and especially the safety management and operational management become important. For the purpose, the operational experience accumulated so far must be effectively utilized. In this book, the outline of the administration on the safety regulation of nuclear power generation, the state of operation of nuclear power plants, the state of accidents and failures, the state of regular inspections and so on are summarized. Also the state of radioactive waste management and the radiation control for workers are reported. (Kako, I.)

  19. Continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a distributed feedback laser diode with an external cavity using a volume Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yujin; Sekine, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Kato, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a broad-area distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode with a single external-cavity configuration. This high-power DFB laser has a narrow bandwidth (current and temperature ranges.

  20. Novel roaming and stationary tethered aerial robots for continuous mobile missions in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cai, Guowei; Seneviratne, Lakmal [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, new tethered aerial robots including roaming tethered aerial robots (RTARs) for radioactive material sampling and stationary tethered aerial robots (STARs) for environment monitoring are proposed to meet extremely-long-endurance missions of nuclear power plants. The flight of the proposed tethered aerial robots may last for a few days or even a few months as long as the tethered cable provides continuous power. A high voltage AC or DC power system was newly adopted to reduce the mass of the tethered cable. The RTAR uses a tethered cable spooled from the aerial robot and an aerial tension control system. The aerial tension control system provides the appropriate tension to the tethered cable, which is accordingly laid down on the ground as the RTAR roams. The STAR includes a tethered cable spooled from the ground and a ground tension control system, which enables the STAR to reach high altitudes. Prototypes of the RTAR and STAR were designed and successfully demonstrated in outdoor environments, where the load power, power type, operating frequency, and flight attitude of the RTAR and STAR were: 180 W, AC 100 kHz, and 20 m; and 300 W, AC or DC 100 kHz, and 80 m, respectively.

  1. Novel Roaming and Stationary Tethered Aerial Robots for Continuous Mobile Missions in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom W. Gu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new tethered aerial robots including roaming tethered aerial robots (RTARs for radioactive material sampling and stationary tethered aerial robots (STARs for environment monitoring are proposed to meet extremely-long-endurance missions of nuclear power plants. The flight of the proposed tethered aerial robots may last for a few days or even a few months as long as the tethered cable provides continuous power. A high voltage AC or DC power system was newly adopted to reduce the mass of the tethered cable. The RTAR uses a tethered cable spooled from the aerial robot and an aerial tension control system. The aerial tension control system provides the appropriate tension to the tethered cable, which is accordingly laid down on the ground as the RTAR roams. The STAR includes a tethered cable spooled from the ground and a ground tension control system, which enables the STAR to reach high altitudes. Prototypes of the RTAR and STAR were designed and successfully demonstrated in outdoor environments, where the load power, power type, operating frequency, and flight attitude of the RTAR and STAR were: 180 W, AC 100 kHz, and 20 m; and 300 W, AC or DC 100 kHz, and 80 m, respectively.

  2. The training and assessment of operations engineers at Hinkley Point 'B' nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsey, B.A.; Howard, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Training Centre at Oldbury-on-Severn was established to provide a common training of staff at all nuclear power stations operated by the Central Electricity Generating Board, following the ''Standard Specification for the Nuclear Training of Staff at CEGB Nuclear Power Stations''. The paper deals with the following aspects of AGR Stations: The Legislation applicable to these stations. The current training requirements for Operations Staff. The development of training for operations staff at Hinkley Point 'B' including training for career progression within the Operations Department. A detailed explanation of the training package developed for Reactor Desk Drivers at Hinkley 'B'. Revision training of Operations staff to ensure that they continue to run the plant in a safe and commercially viable manner. The training of Shift Operations Engineers for their duties under the Station Emergency Plan. (author)

  3. MEMS acceleration sensor with remote optical readout for continuous power generator monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormen Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized accelerometers with remote optical readout are required devices for the continuous monitoring of vibrations inside power generators. In turbo and hydro generators, end-winding vibrations are present during operation causing in the long term undesirable out-of-service repairs. Continuous monitoring of these vibrations is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of devices immune to electromagnetic interferences. In this paper a MEMS based accelerometer with remote optical readout is presented. Advantages of the proposed device are the use of a differential optical signal to reject the common mode signal and noise, the reduced number of steps for the MEMS chip fabrication and for the system assembly, and the reduced package volume.

  4. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  5. Designing nuclear power plants for improved operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this publication is to compile demonstrated, experience based design guidelines for improving the operability and maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are for use principally in the design of new nuclear power plants, but should also be useful in upgrading existing designs. The guidelines derive from the experience of operating and maintaining existing nuclear power plants as well as from the design of recent plants. In particular these guidelines are based on and consistent with both the EPRI advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document, Volume 1, and the European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants. 6 refs, 1 fig

  6. Designing nuclear power plants for improved operation and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this publication is to compile demonstrated, experience based design guidelines for improving the operability and maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are for use principally in the design of new nuclear power plants, but should also be useful in upgrading existing designs. The guidelines derive from the experience of operating and maintaining existing nuclear power plants as well as from the design of recent plants. In particular these guidelines are based on and consistent with both the EPRI advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document, Volume 1, and the European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants. 6 refs, 1 fig.

  7. Operation of nuclear power stations during 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    In 1975, the production of nuclear energy in the Community of the Nine was 77 thousand million net kWh, an increase of 26.5% over 1974. A short commentry explains this large increase and the situation in each country is briefly reviewed. Then data on the evolution of net production (partitioned according to reactor family), on the availability of reactor types according to their age, and on the structure of nuclear plants (situation at the end of 1975) are presented. The statistical data of annual operation are given for each reactor

  8. Dealing with operational power station wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, R B [Central Electricity Generating Board, London (UK). Nuclear Health and Safety Dept.

    1981-08-01

    The disposal of wastes from nuclear power stations is discussed. Liquid and gaseous wastes, from magnox stations, which are of low level activity, are dispersed to the sea or estuaries on coastal sites or for the case of Trawfynyeld, to the nearby lake. Low activity solid wastes are either disposed of on local authority tips or in shallow land burial sites. Intermediate level wastes, consisting mainly of wet materials such as filter sludges and resins from cooling ponds, are at present stored in shielded storage tanks either dry or under water. Only one disposal route for intermediate waste is used by Britain, namely, sea-dumping. Materials for sea dumping have to be encapsulated in a durable material for example, concrete.

  9. Industrial psychology aspects of power plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peche, D

    1980-08-01

    The paper gives a survey of the development of the negotiationes that have taken place from the beginning 1976 between representatives of BMI and VDWE to examine whether psychological qualification examinations for the shift personal of nuclear power plants will be appropriate. As a result it is shown that first- and reexaminations shall be carried out according principle 25, the psychological part of this examination should, however, be renounced to a still pending standardisation and testing. The more detailed examination of the sense organs, proposed on this occasion, will be defined by the representatives of VDEW by a new proposal. The routine psychological judgement along with a documentation of the superiors is, however, not considered suitable.

  10. Method of operating a MHD power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysk, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    A fossil fuel is burned substoichiometrically in the combustor of a mhd power plant to produce a high temperature, fuelrich product gas. The product gas is passed through a mhd channel to generate electricity. A reducing agent, preferably natural gas or hydrocarbon, is injected into the fuelrich product gas leaving the mhd generator; and the resulting mixture is held at a temperature in the range of 950 to 1500 0 C for about 1 second to permit the reducing agent to decompose a portion of the nitrogen oxides formed in the combustor. The fuel-rich product gas then passes thru an afterburner wherein combustion is completed and any excess reducing agent is consumed

  11. Verifying competence of operations personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    To ensure that only competent people are authorized to fill positions in a nuclear power plant, both the initial competence of personnel and the continuous maintenance of competence have to be verified. Two main methods are normally used for verifying competence, namely evaluation of a person's performance over a period of time, and evaluation of his knowledge and skills at a particular time by means of an examination. Both methods have limitations, and in practice they are often used together to give different and to some extent complementary evaluations of a person's competence. Verification of competence itself is a problem area, because objective judging of human competence is extremely difficult. Formal verification methods, such as tests and examinations, are particularly or exclusively applied for the direct operating personnel in the control room (very rarely for management personnel). Out of the many elements contributing to a person's competence, the knowledge which is needed and the intellectual skills are the main subjects of the formal verification methods. Therefore the presentation will concentrate on the proof of the technical qualification of operators by means of examinations. The examination process in the Federal Republic of Germany for the proof of knowledge and skills will serve as an example to describe and analyze the important aspects. From that recommendations are derived regarding standardization of the procedure as well as validation. (orig./GL)

  12. Use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, A.; Zhi, Z.; Wang, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Mendes, J.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-11-29

    The rapid expansion of wind power gives rise to a number of challenges for power system operators and electricity market participants. The key operational challenge is to efficiently handle the uncertainty and variability of wind power when balancing supply and demand in ths system. In this report, we analyze how wind power forecasting can serve as an efficient tool toward this end. We discuss the current status of wind power forecasting in U.S. electricity markets and develop several methodologies and modeling tools for the use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions, from the perspectives of the system operator as well as the wind power producer. In particular, we focus on the use of probabilistic forecasts in operational decisions. Driven by increasing prices for fossil fuels and concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, wind power, as a renewable and clean source of energy, is rapidly being introduced into the existing electricity supply portfolio in many parts of the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has analyzed a scenario in which wind power meets 20% of the U.S. electricity demand by 2030, which means that the U.S. wind power capacity would have to reach more than 300 gigawatts (GW). The European Union is pursuing a target of 20/20/20, which aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20%, increase the amount of renewable energy to 20% of the energy supply, and improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020 as compared to 1990. Meanwhile, China is the leading country in terms of installed wind capacity, and had 45 GW of installed wind power capacity out of about 200 GW on a global level at the end of 2010. The rapid increase in the penetration of wind power into power systems introduces more variability and uncertainty in the electricity generation portfolio, and these factors are the key challenges when it comes to integrating wind power into the electric power grid. Wind power forecasting (WPF) is an important tool to help

  13. Treatment of operational experience of nuclear power plants in WANO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the activities associated to the Operating Experience Programme of the World Association of Nuclear Operators. The programme manages the event reports submitted by the nuclear power plants to the WANO database for the preparation by the Operating Experience Central Team of some documents like the significant Operating Experience Reports and Significant Event Reports that help the stations to avoid similar events. (Author)

  14. Error analysis of nuclear power plant operator cognitive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan; Chen Yulong

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power plant is a complex human-machine system integrated with many advanced machines, electron devices and automatic controls. It demands operators to have high cognitive ability and correct analysis skill. The author divides operator's cognitive process into five stages to analysis. With this cognitive model, operator's cognitive error is analysed to get the root causes and stages that error happens. The results of the analysis serve as a basis in design of control rooms and training and evaluation of operators

  15. The economics of long-term operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhov, Alexey; Huerta, Alejandro; Dufresne, Luc; Giraud, Anne; Osouf, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Refurbishment and long-term operation (LTO) of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) today are crucial to the competitiveness of the nuclear industry in OECD countries as existing nuclear power plants produce base-load power at a reliable cost. A number of nuclear power plants, most notably 73 units in the United States (up to 2012), have been granted lifetime extensions of up to 60 years, a development that is being keenly watched in other OECD countries. In many of these (e.g. France, Switzerland), there is no legal end to the operating licence, but continued operation is based on the outcomes of periodic safety reviews. This study analyses technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries. A multi-criteria assessment methodology is used considering various factors and parameters reflecting current and future financial conditions of operation, political and regulatory risks, the state of the plants' equipment and the general role of nuclear power in the country's energy policy. The report shows that long-term operation of nuclear power plants has significant economic advantages for most utilities envisaging LTO programmes. In most cases, the continued operation of NPPs for at least ten more years is profitable even taking into account the additional costs of post-Fukushima modifications, and remains cost-effective compared to alternative replacement sources

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of the Finnish NPPs describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors are also given. One event during the last quarter of 1993 was rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) as level 1. During this event at Loviisa 2, the secondary circuit emergency feedwater system was erroneously isolated from automatic start-up readiness. The error went unnoticed for 4.5 hours. During 1993 one level 2 incident and three level 1 incidents occurred at the Finnish NPPs. (8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  17. Power MOSFET Thermal Instability Operation Characterization Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, John L.; Leidecker, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are used extensively in flight hardware and ground support equipment. In the quest for faster switching times and lower "on resistance," the MOSFETs designed from 1998 to the present have achieved most of their intended goals. In the quest for lower on resistance and higher switching speeds, the designs now being produced allow the charge-carrier dominated region (once small and outside of the area of concern) to become important and inside the safe operating area (SOA). The charge-carrier dominated region allows more current to flow as the temperature increases. The higher temperatures produce more current resulting in the beginning of thermal runaway. Thermal runaway is a problem affecting a wide range of modern MOSFETs from more than one manufacturer. This report contains information on MOSFET failures, their causes and test results and information dissemination.

  18. Automation system for operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Fukuzaki, Koji; Kato, Kanji

    1991-01-01

    The automation system comprises a general monitor control device incorporating a plurality of emergency operation plannings concerning an automatic processing, and judging whether the operation is to be conducted or not depending on the plannings based on the data planed by a plant, a control device for controlling the plant in accordance with the planning when monitor control device judges that the operation should be done due to the emergency operation plannings and an operation planning device aiding the formation of the operation plannings. When the state of the power plant exceeds a normal control region, the reactor power is lowered automatically by so much as a predetermined value or to a predetermined level, to automatically return the plant state to the normal control region. In this way, the plant operation efficiency can be improved. Further, after automatic operation, since operation plannings for recovering original operation plannings are prepared efficiently and recovered operation plannings are started in a short period of time, the operators' burden can be mitigated and power saving can be attained. (N.H.)

  19. Generalizations of the results on powers of -hyponormal operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Masatoshi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as a nice application of Furuta inequality, Aluthge and Wang (J. Inequal. Appl., 3 (1999, 279–284 showed that "if is a -hyponormal operator for , then is -hyponormal for any positive integer ," and Furuta and Yanagida (Scientiae Mathematicae, to appear proved the more precise result on powers of -hyponormal operators for . In this paper, more generally, by using Furuta inequality repeatedly, we shall show that "if is a -hyponormal operator for , then is -hyponormal for any positive integer " and a generalization of the results by Furuta and Yanagida in (Scientiae Mathematicae, to appear on powers of -hyponormal operators for .

  20. EDP systems for the operational management of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerler, R.

    1987-01-01

    An EDP-aided operational management system is to be understood as the total of all organizational conditions (structural organization, procedural organization) and technical means, and is intended to give the individual person a better overview to fulfill his/her responsibilities. The introduction of such a system is aimed at providing the operating personnel with a set of tools matching today's technology for management and administration systems which will enable them to fulfill their tasks in an optimum way. Powerful EDP systems are already used in many nuclear power plants to control and monitor operating processes and to collect and evaluate operational data. (orig./DG) [de

  1. Quality assurance during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements and recommendations for the establishment and implementation of quality assurance for activities important to safety during commissioning, operation and decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, hereinafter referred to in this Guide as the operation phase or operation. It applies to activities such as: operating, inspecting, testing, commissioning, refuelling, maintaining, repairing, modifying and eventual shut-down and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. It applies also to associated activities related to safety, such as environmental monitoring and responses to emergencies

  2. Room temperature continuous wave mid-infrared VCSEL operating at 3.35 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, V.; Segal, S.; Lascola, K.; Burgner, C.; Towner, F.; Cazabat, A.; Cole, G. D.; Follman, D.; Heu, P.; Deutsch, C.

    2018-02-01

    Tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) offer a potentially low cost tunable optical source in the 3-5 μm range that will enable commercial spectroscopic sensing of numerous environmentally and industrially important gases including methane, ethane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide. Thus far, achieving room temperature continuous wave (RTCW) VCSEL operation at wavelengths beyond 3 μm has remained an elusive goal. In this paper, we introduce a new device structure that has enabled RTCW VCSEL operation near the methane absorption lines at 3.35 μm. This device structure employs two GaAs/AlGaAs mirrors wafer-bonded to an optically pumped active region comprising compressively strained type-I InGaAsSb quantum wells grown on a GaSb substrate. This substrate is removed in processing, as is one of the GaAs mirror substrates. The VCSEL structure is optically pumped at room temperature with a CW 1550 nm laser through the GaAs substrate, while the emitted 3.3 μm light is captured out of the top of the device. Power and spectrum shape measured as a function of pump power exhibit clear threshold behavior and robust singlemode spectra.

  3. Analytical modeling of nuclear power station operator reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The operator-plant interface is a critical component of power stations which requires the formulation of mathematical models to be applied in plant reliability analysis. The human model introduced here is based on cybernetic interactions and allows for use of available data from psychological experiments, hot and cold training and normal operation. The operator model is identified and integrated in the control and protection systems. The availability and reliability are given for different segments of the operator task and for specific periods of the operator life: namely, training, operation and vigilance or near retirement periods. The results can be easily and directly incorporated in system reliability analysis. (author)

  4. Wind power integration connection and system operational aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Wind Power Integration provides a wide-ranging discussion on all major aspects of wind power integration into electricity supply systems. This second edition has been fully revised and updated to take account of the significant growth in wind power deployment in the past few years. New discussions have been added to describe developments in wind turbine generator technology and control, the network integration of wind power, innovative ways to integrate wind power when its generation potential exceeds 50% of demand, case studies on how forecasting errors have affected system operation, and an update on how the wind energy sector has fared in the marketplace. Topics covered include: the development of wind power technology and its world-wide deployment; wind power technology and the interaction of various wind turbine generator types with the utility network; and wind power forecasting and the challenges faced by wind energy in modern electricity markets.

  5. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV......The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... owners. Furthermore, the application of battery storage based aggregated PEV is analyzed as a regulation services provider in the power system with high wind power penetrations. The western Danish power system where the total share of annual wind power production is more than 27% of the electrical energy...

  6. Use of computer codes to improve nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.; Polak, V.; Filo, J.; Gatas, J.

    1985-01-01

    For safety and economic reasons, the scope for carrying out experiments on operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very limited and any changes in technical equipment and operating parameters or conditions have to be supported by theoretical calculations. In the Nuclear Power Plant Scientific Research Institute (NIIAEhS), computer codes are systematically used to analyse actual operating events, assess safety aspects of changes in equipment and operating conditions, optimize the conditions, preparation and analysis of NPP startup trials and review and amend operating instructions. In addition, calculation codes are gradually being introduced into power plant computer systems to perform real time processing of the parameters being measured. The paper describes a number of specific examples of the use of calculation codes for the thermohydraulic analysis of operating and accident conditions aimed at improving the operation of WWER-440 units at the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants. These examples confirm that computer calculations are an effective way of solving operating problems and of further increasing the level of safety and economic efficiency of NPP operation. (author)

  7. IAEA activity on operator support systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dounaev, V.; Fujita, Y.; Juslin, K.; Haugset, K.; Lux, I.; Naser, J.

    1994-01-01

    Various operator support systems for nuclear power plants are already operational or under development in the IAEA Member States. Operator support systems are based on intelligent data processing and, in addition to plant operation, they are also becoming more important for safety. A key feature of operator support systems is their availability to restructure data to increase its relevance for a given situation. This can improve the user's ability to identify plant mode, system state, and component state and to identify and diagnose faults. Operator support systems can also assist the user in planning and implementing corrective actions to improve the nuclear power plant's availability and safety. In September 1991, the IAEA Committee for Contractual Scientific Services approved the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Operator Support Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'' in the framework of the Project ''Man-Machine Interface Studies''. The main objective of this programme is to provide guidance and technology transfer for the development and implementation of operator support systems. This includes the experience with human-machine interfaces and closely related issues such as instrumentation and control, the use of computers in nuclear power plants, and operator qualification. (author)

  8. Frequency Control for Island Operation of Bornholm Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran

    2014-01-01

    the primary frequency control and the DG units are used to provide the secondary frequency control. As such, the proposed control scheme can strike a balance of the frequency control speed and the energy used from the BESS for the frequency control support. The real-time model of the Bornholm power system......This paper presents a coordinated control strategy of a battery energy storage system (BESS) and distributed generation (DG) units for the island operation of the Danish island of Bornholm. The Bornholm power system is able to transit from the grid connected operation with the Nordic power system...... to the isolated island operation. In order to ensure the secure island operation, the coordinated control of the BESS and the DG has been proposed to stabilize the frequency of the system after the transition to the island operation. In the proposed coordinate control scheme, the BESS is used to provide...

  9. Spanish Power Exchange Market Concepts and Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. J.; Gamito, C.

    2000-01-01

    On January, 1st, 1998, the Spanish Electricity Market started operations. All generators, distributors, commercialization companies, and final consumers negotiate al power exchanges either through the spot market or using bilateral contracts. The Spanish Power Exchange Market Operator (Compania Operadora del Mercado Espanol de electricidad, OMEL) is responsible for the management of the market and for the economic settlement and billing of a transactions on the Power Exchange market, and the technical operational process handled by the System Operator. This paper describes in detail the Spanish market principles and the experience gathered through the design, installation and first two years of market operation. The paper presents also the Spanish market results from January 1998 up to December 1999 indicating each specific market results and aggregate statistics. (Author)

  10. The distribution of wind power forecast errors from operational systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ela, Erik; Milligan, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Wind power forecasting is one important tool in the integration of large amounts of renewable generation into the electricity system. Wind power forecasts from operational systems are not perfect, and thus, an understanding of the forecast error distributions can be important in system operations. In this work, we examine the errors from operational wind power forecasting systems, both for a single wind plant and for an entire interconnection. The resulting error distributions are compared with the normal distribution and the distribution obtained from the persistence forecasting model at multiple timescales. A model distribution is fit to the operational system forecast errors and the potential impact on system operations highlighted through the generation of forecast confidence intervals. (orig.)

  11. 18 CFR 376.209 - Procedures during periods of emergency requiring activation of the Continuity of Operations Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... periods of emergency requiring activation of the Continuity of Operations Plan. 376.209 Section 376.209... of the Continuity of Operations Plan. (a)(1) The Commission's Continuity of Operations Plan is...) During periods when the Continuity of Operations Plan is activated, the Commission will continue to act...

  12. A technical system to improve the operational monitoring of the Zaporozh'ye nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Schumann, P.; Seidel, A.; Weiss, F.-P.; Zschau, J.; Nowak, K.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a programme of cooperation with Central and Eastern European states, a technical system has been established for the Zaporozhe nuclear power plant, which complements existing operational checking and monitoring facilities with modern means of information technology. It makes it possible to continuously monitor the state of the units in normal operation and in cases of anomalies or incidents. The parameters selected for monitoring are listed, and the system of automatic evaluation at the power plant site is described in detail. Test operation of the technical system started in late 1995 and the industrial testing phase in mid-1996. (A.K.)

  13. Education and training of operators and maintenance staff at commercial nuclear power stations in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Kataoka, H.

    1998-01-01

    Safe and stable operation of a nuclear power station requires personnel fostering. In Japan, with the objectives of systematically securing qualified people for a long period of time, and maintaining and improving their skills and knowledge, the utilities have created strict personnel training plans, for continuous education and training. Concrete examples of education and training for operators and maintenance personnel at commercial nuclear power stations in Japan, such as education systems training, facility and contents of curriculum, are detailed including some related matters. Recent activities to catch up with environment changes surrounding education and training of operators and maintenance staff are also mentioned. (author)

  14. Operating power plant experience with condensate polishing units in morpholine/ammonia-OH cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbhar, A.G.; Padmakumari, T.V.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Mathur, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Impurity removal efficiency of condensate polisher plant (CPP) in ammonium cycle is poor. Cost considerations demand CPP operation in amine-OH cycle. With certain precautions such as higher regeneration levels, good regenerent quality, minimized cross contamination, continuous monitoring of influent and effluent and provision for 100% standby bed, it is possible to operate CPP beyond H-OH cycle while keeping the effluent impurities within the specified limits. This paper presents problem associated with the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) CPP operation in morpholine-OH form and Korba Super Thermal Power Station (KSTPS) CPP in ammonia-OH form and suggested remedial measures. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

  15. Cutting performances with new industrial continuous wave ND:YAG high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagnot, C.; Dinechin, G. de; Canneau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dismantling is a great challenge for nuclear companies which are facing with the cleaning of former nuclear sites. Among the available cutting processes is the multi-kilowatts laser whose power is transmitted through optical fibers. Unlike other cutting processes such as the plasma arc cutting process or the oxy-cutting process, the laser process can be easily implemented by robotic equipments. The mechanised robotic arm carries a laser cutting head to perform, with remote-controlled equipments, the cutting operation. The present study deals with the performances which can be reached with high power continuous wave ND:YAG lasers. The cutting tests were carried out up to 8 kW. The laser power was delivered through a specific power supply chain: a 0.4 mm fiber was transporting the power from the laser to a first interface (coupler) then a second 0.6 mm fiber was bringing the laser power to the cutting head. This solution allowed a power delivery chain whose length could be as high as 100 + 20/50 m. Another advantage of this kind of power supply is that the first fiber can be set in a non-contaminated environment whereas the second fiber lies in the contaminated area. The cutting head used for these tests was a specific tool developed for this laser dismantling work: it is a laser cutting head cooled by pressurized air. This tool was developed with the requirement to be able to sustain a laser power of 14 kW. The pressurized air used to cool the head is also used as cutting gas. The cutting capability was about 10 mm by kW. At the power of 8 kW, austenitic steel plates of thickness 100 mm were cut. These performances were reached with the cut started on the plate's edge. If the cut started in the middle of the plate, the cutting performances were not so high: 8 kW became the power to drill and to cut plates of thickness 40 mm.

  16. Calculations for accidents in water reactors during operation at power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, H.; Dutraive, P.; Fabrega, S.; Millot, J.P.

    1976-07-01

    The behaviour of a water reactor on an accident occurring as the reactor is normally operated at power may be calculated through the computer code detailed in this article. Reactivity accidents, loss of coolant ones and power over-running ones are reviewed. (author)

  17. New Clean Air Act complicates power plant operation, design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    In November the president signed into law the new Clean Air Act, ushering in a new era in the power generation industry. This paper reviews the six important sections of the Clean Air Act and their impact on power plant operation and design

  18. 47 CFR 73.51 - Determining operating power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...'s input power directly from the RF voltage, RF current, and phase angle; or (2) calculating the product of the licensed antenna or common point resistance at the operating frequency (see § 73.54), and... the resistance has been determined. (b) The authorized antenna input power for each station shall be...

  19. Supply, operation and radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.; Krey, M.; Haag, G.; Wolters, J.; Merz, E.; Sauermann, P.F.

    1981-07-01

    The subject of 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle' is treated in 5 reports: 1. Uranium supply; 2. Fabrication and characteristics of fuel elements; 3. Design, operation and safety of nuclear power plants after Harrisburg; 4. Radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power plants - changed political scenery after 1979; 5. Shutdown and dismantling of LWR-KKW - state of knowledge and feasibility. (HP) [de

  20. Management for nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture covers management aspects which have an immediate bearing on safety and identifies the objectives and tasks of management which are required for safe operation of a nuclear power plant and is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. (orig./RW)

  1. Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electrical power generated was 3,560,206 MWh(e) with the reactor on line 7,689 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, primary coolant chemistry, occupational radiation exposure, reportable occurrences, core spray welds inspection, loss of start-up transformer, and union strike

  2. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electrical power generated was 2,587,248 MWH(e) with the reactor on line 6,242.4 hr. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, and reportable occurrences

  3. Market partner orientation in power grid operation; Marktpartnerorientierung im Netzbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Claudia; Gebhardt, Andreas [Buelow und Consorten GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Customer orientation is often neglected in power grid operation. Power grid owners have natural monopolies and defined territories and so far had little reason to consider their customers' needs. This is changing with changed boundary conditions. In the competition for concessions and customers for non-regulated services, those grid owners will prevail in the long run wo are aware of their market partners, their power and expectations, and wo are prepared to implement profit-oriented customer orientation measures. (orig.)

  4. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartan Ayfer; Kucukali Serhat; Ar Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly as...

  5. Operator training simulator for BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadasu

    1988-01-01

    For the operation management of nuclear power stations with high reliability and safety, the role played by operators is very important. The effort of improving the man-machine interface in the central control rooms of nuclear power stations is energetically advanced, but the importance of the role of operators does not change. For the training of the operators of nuclear power stations, simulators have been used from the early stage. As the simulator facilities for operator training, there are the full scope simulator simulating faithfully the central control room of an actual plant and the small simulator mainly aiming at learning the plant functions. For BWR nuclear power stations, two full scope simulators are installed in the BWR Operator Training Center, and the training has been carried out since 1974. The plant function learning simulators have been installed in respective electric power companies as the education and training facilities in the companies. The role of simulators in operator training, the BTC No.1 simulator of a BWR-4 of 780 MWe and the BTC No.2 simulator of a BWR-5 of 1,100 MWe, plant function learning simulators, and the design of the BTC No.2 simulator and plant function learning simulators are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Challenges in long-term operation of nuclear power plants - Implications for regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kunihisa; Van Wonterghem, Frederik; Khouaja, Hatem; Vilpas, Martti; Osouf, Nicolas; Harikumar, S.; Ishigaki, Hiroki; Osaki, Toru; Yamada, Tomoho; Carlsson, Lennart; Shepherd, David; Galloway, Melanie; Liszka, Ervin; Svab, Miroslav; Pereira, Ken; Huerta, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors have become a major source of electricity supply in many countries in the past half a century. Based on this experience, many operators have sought and have received authorisation for long-term operation, whereby plant operation continues beyond the period considered in the design of the plant. Acceptance of a nuclear power plant for extended service should be based on assurance of the fitness of the plant and the operator for safe and reliable operation over the entire period considered for long-term operation. This assurance may be obtained by establishment of appropriate regulatory requirements, specification of goals and safety levels and regulatory assessment and oversight of the operator's programme for long-term operation. The operators and regulators should ensure that operating experience continues to be evaluated during long-term operation to ensure that any relevant lessons are effectively applied. Other considerations for assurance of safe operation are effective management of ageing, possible need for safety improvements, application of lessons learnt from operating experience, evaluation of environmental impacts, adequate staff resources and performance, review of security at the plant, action in response to emerging issues, and openness and transparency in the transition to long-term operation. Even though most of these considerations are addressed under the regulatory framework that applies to the initial operating period, additional regulatory activities in these areas may be necessary for long-term operation. Although there can be significant differences in regulatory approaches used by different countries for evaluating acceptability of long-term operation, there is general agreement on the purposes and goals of the regulatory reviews. An authorisation of long-term operation could involve a licence renewal or a periodic safety review or an approach that melds elements of both. This report presents guidance that is intended

  7. 20 years' operation of the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.; Quasniczka, H.; Fiss, W.; Hentschel, G.; Schulz, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    After a 20 years' operation of the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant a review of the operating results achieved, performance of the main equipment, research and development works performed, and experience gained with education and training of plant staff is given. (author)

  8. A note on the Stokes operator and its powers

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Salgado, Abner

    2010-01-01

    The so-called Stokes operator is an important tool in the analysis of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and their numerical approximation. The aim of this note is to clarify certain properties of the fractional powers of this operator which are sometimes misused. © 2010 Korean Society for Computational and Applied Mathematics.

  9. A note on the Stokes operator and its powers

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-04-28

    The so-called Stokes operator is an important tool in the analysis of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and their numerical approximation. The aim of this note is to clarify certain properties of the fractional powers of this operator which are sometimes misused. © 2010 Korean Society for Computational and Applied Mathematics.

  10. BN-600 power unit 15-year operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, O.M.; Oshkanov, N.N.; Vylomov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Comprehensive experience has been gained with the operating fast reactor BN-600 with a power out of 600 MWe. This paper includes important performance results and gives also an overview of the experience gained from BN-600 NPP commercial operation during 15 years. (author). 2 figs, 1 tab

  11. Aiding operator performance at low power feedwater control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    Control of the feedwater system during low power operations (approximately 2% to 30% power) is a difficult task where poor performance (excessive trips) has a high cost to utilities. This paper describes several efforts in the human factors aspects of this task that are underway to improve feedwater control. A variety of knowledge acquisition techniques have been used to understand the details of what makes feedwater control at low power difficult and what knowledge and skill distinguishes expert operators at this task from less experienced ones. The results indicate that there are multiple factors that contribute to task difficulty

  12. Improvement of nuclear power plant operation and maintenance in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazushige Hamazaki

    1987-01-01

    Following the inauguration of commercial nuclear power generation in Japan in 1966, capacity factors were held in the relatively low level until around 1975 due to initial-period troubles. With subsequent improvement, however, capacity factors have climbed steadily and recently been sustaining more than 70%. To obtain this successful result, a various kind of improvement have been made not only for the operation management area but also for the maintenance management area in conjunction with the successive effort to reflect the operating experiences to the early stage design. Nowadays nuclear generation has assumed increasing importance for Japan's electrical power needs, and is making a great contribution to stabilizing power supply costs. (author)

  13. Supporting Control Room Operators in Highly Automated Future Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Minjiang; Catterson, Victoria; Syed, Mazheruddin

    2017-01-01

    Operating power systems is an extremely challenging task, not least because power systems have become highly interconnected, as well as the range of network issues that can occur. It is therefore a necessity to develop decision support systems and visualisation that can effectively support the hu...... the human operators for decisionmaking in the complex and dynamic environment of future highly automated power system. This paper aims to investigate the decision support functions associated with frequency deviation events for the proposed Web of Cells concept....

  14. Computerized operation manual (COM) of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegi, Z.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is to be presented at the International Seminar on Diagnoses of and Response to Abnormal Occurrences at Nuclear Power Plants organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The topic of presentation is the Computerized Operational Manual. This system supports the operator at disturbance situations by displaying quickly and unambiguously the operational instructions and the relevant information without mistakes. By the computerized manual the operator can determine the instruction-subsystem which reflects the real state of the power unit. From this point the system guides the operator on how to drive the unit to another determined state by providing the operational instructions at any time. A data bank is also included which contains information concerning rules restricting on maintenance and repair. The system will be realized at Paks NPP. (author)

  15. Continuing studies of plasma erosion switches for power conditioning on multiterawatt pulsed power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfield, R.; Gilman, C.; James, G.; Peters, T.; Sincerny, P.; Wong, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recent PITHON experiments with plasma erosion switches (PES) have extended the range of operation of the switches by about 50 percent, in terms of closed time and charge passing through the switch. The quantity of charge passed through the switch has been increased to as much as 35 mC. Currents as large as 1 MA and voltages as great as 1.8 MV have been switched off to be diverted to a downstream load. The impedance of the erosion switch can be described as having three stages: 1) essentially zero impedance, 2) a transitional opening phase, and 3) an impedance which is very large (greater than 5 Ω) in comparison with the subohm downstream load. Current diagnostics, consisting of Rogowski coils and segmented shunts, have been successfully developed to monitor the current which propagates to the load region. These monitors have measured rise times as short as 38 ns and slew rates as great as 10 14 A/s at the load. With wire array loads, the pulse conditioning of the switch has been observed to reduce the magnitude of the current losses in the feed which are present when no switch is used. Correlations have been made between the switch closed time, voltage, current, and power with the feed inductance and the generator power injected into the magnetic insulated transmission line (MITL)

  16. Operational flexibility and economics of power plants in future low-carbon power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; van den Broek, Machteld; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    2015-01-01

    Future power systems will require large shares of low-carbon generators such as renewables and power plants with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to keep global warming below 2. °C. Intermittent renewables increase the system-wide demand for flexibility and affect the operation of thermal power

  17. Power plant operation and management in a deregulated market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraretto, Cristian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia, 1-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    This paper analyzes the influence of electricity deregulation on the design, operation and management of the power plants owned by strategic and non-strategic producers. After a sensitivity analysis aimed at finding market conditions of profitable operation for thermal and hydroelectric power plants, a Nash-equilibrium market model is used to determine producers' optimum strategies, depending on their relative market power and overall production characteristics. Attention is then focused on the operation of single thermal power plants. Their short-term management plans and consequent effects on emission levels and residual life are described. The available reserve for primary and secondary control deriving from producers' market strategies is discussed. Some design options to improve combined cycles contribution to reserve service are finally described. The paper discusses these problems with a general approach, and uses many cases and examples derived from the current Italian scenario. (author)

  18. Power plant operation and management in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraretto, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of electricity deregulation on the design, operation and management of the power plants owned by strategic and non-strategic producers. After a sensitivity analysis aimed at finding market conditions of profitable operation for thermal and hydroelectric power plants, a Nash-equilibrium market model is used to determine producers' optimum strategies, depending on their relative market power and overall production characteristics. Attention is then focused on the operation of single thermal power plants. Their short-term management plans and consequent effects on emission levels and residual life are described. The available reserve for primary and secondary control deriving from producers' market strategies is discussed. Some design options to improve combined cycles contribution to reserve service are finally described. The paper discusses these problems with a general approach, and uses many cases and examples derived from the current Italian scenario. (author)

  19. Liquid Nitrogen Temperature Operation of a Switching Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Biswajit; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard L.; Myers, Ira T.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of a 42/28 V, 175 W, 50 kHz pulse-width modulated buck dc/dc switching power converter at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) is compared with room temperature operation. The power circuit as well as the control circuit of the converter, designed with commercially available components, were operated at LNT and resulted in a slight improvement in converter efficiency. The improvement in power MOSFET operation was offset by deteriorating performance of the output diode rectifier at LNT. Performance of the converter could be further improved at low temperatures by using only power MOSFET's as switches. The use of a resonant topology will further improve the circuit performance by reducing the switching noise and loss.

  20. Training and qualification of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuga, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Based on training experiences of the nuclear power plant operators of pressurized water reactors (PWR) at the Nuclear Power Training Center Ltd. (NTC) in Japan, training programs were reviewed referring to US training programs. A systematic approach is deployed to them, which mainly consist of on-the-job training and the NTC training courses to meet the needs of all operators from beginners to experienced veterans according to their experiences and objectives. The NTC training is conducted using the simulators that simulate the nuclear power plant dynamics through the use of computers. The operators trained at the NTC work in the central control room of every PWR power plant. The NTC also carries out the qualification examinations for the shift managers. (T. Tanaka)

  1. The new operating conditions of French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six themes are examined: France's unique position in view of the size of its nuclear operating plant, the role of nuclear power in matching electricity supply to demand, the excellent flexibility provided by PWR facilities in operation, the approaches used in the field of automatic operational control systems, the systematic use of data processing for maintenance and generation and the gains in productivity that can be gained as a result of improving fuel use [fr

  2. Remote operation and maintenance support services for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroki; Higuma, Koji; Shimizu, Shunichi; Sakuma, Masatake; Sonoda, Yukio; Kanemoto, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    Toshiba Corporation constructed e-Toshiba Operating Plant Service (e-TOPS TM ) system and began remote operation and maintenance support service for nuclear power plants. The service put into practice remote operation and maintenance by harmony of information technologies such as internet and mobile, and nuclear power measurement/diagnostic technologies and security techniques. Outline of e-TOPS TM , remote-control service, -inspection system, -diagnostic service and technologies support service are explained. Construction, objects and application effects of e-TOPS TM , remote diagnostic system using image treatment techniques, construction of device record card control system are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  3. Simplified reactive power management strategy for complex power grids under stochastic operation and incomplete information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John)

    2009-01-01

    grids is a major issue for system operators. Under these circumstances an online reactive power management strategy with minimum risk concerning all uncertain and stochastic parameters is proposed. Therefore, new concepts such as reactive power-weighted node-to-node linking and reactive power control......In the current released energy market, the large-scale complex transmission networks and the distribution ones with dispersed energy sources and "intelligent" components operate under uncertainties, stochastic and prior incomplete information. A safe and reliable operation of such complex power...... capability are introduced. A distributed and interconnected stochastic learning automata system is implemented to manage, in a unified and unique way, the reactive power in complex power grids with stochastic reactive power demand and detect the vulnerable part. The proposed simplified strategy can also...

  4. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Unit 1 successfully completed its first core cycle with unit availability of 95.2 percent. Saltwater leakage into the condenser continues to be a problem. Unit 2 achieved initial criticality November 30 and was initially paralleled to the Baltimore system on December 7. Information is presented concerning operations, specifications, maintenance, shutdowns and power reduction, and personnel exposures

  5. Estimated Costs of Continuing Operations in Iraq and Other Operations of the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holtz-Eakin, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    At the request of Senator Conrad, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has estimated the costs of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and other operations associated with the global war on terrorism (GWOT...

  6. A study on the operator's communication pattern characteristics under abnormal operating situation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Park, J.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has become more important and a human reliability analysis (HRA) is known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of a PSA. As a part of enhancing the HRA quality, a study was initiated to find out characteristics of communication pattern and to evaluate communication quality of the operators of nuclear power plants. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing evaluation methods for the effect of human-induced events on risk/performance. This paper describes a study on the operator's communication pattern characteristics under abnormal operating situation of nuclear power plants. The study was carried out in four stages; 1) Video recording 2) Audio scripting 3) Message Classification 4) Communication Pattern Analysis. We recorded eight abnormal simulator training programs from Younggwang nuclear power plant training center. After that we performed message classification and carried out communication pattern analysis. We compared communication patterns of abnormal operating situation with emergency operating situation.As results of analysis, the role of SRO (senior reactor operator) under abnormal operating situation was decreased than the activities under emergency operating situation because each operator (reactor operator, turbine operator, safety supervisor) in main control room (MCR) performs the activity to control by himself with corresponding field engineers with his basic knowledge of the system. On the other hand, the operator's decision making processes and activities under abnormal operating situation were dramatically increased than the emergency operating situation. (authors)

  7. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a statistical analysis of nonfuel operating costs for nuclear power plants. Most studies of the economic costs of nuclear power have focused on the rapid escalation in the cost of constructing a nuclear power plant. The present analysis found that there has also been substantial escalation in real (inflation-adjusted) nonfuel operating costs. It is important to determine the factors contributing to the escalation in operating costs, not only to understand what has occurred but also to gain insights about future trends in operating costs. There are two types of nonfuel operating costs. The first is routine operating and maintenance expenditures (O and M costs), and the second is large postoperational capital expenditures, or what is typically called ''capital additions.'' O and M costs consist mainly of expenditures on labor, and according to one recently completed study, the majoriy of employees at a nuclear power plant perform maintenance activities. It is generally thought that capital additions costs consist of large maintenance expenditures needed to keep the plants operational, and to make plant modifications (backfits) required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Many discussions of nuclear power plant operating costs have not considered these capital additions costs, and a major finding of the present study is that these costs are substantial. The objective of this study was to determine why nonfuel operating costs have increased over the past decade. The statistical analysis examined a number of factors that have influenced the escalation in real nonfuel operating costs and these are discussed in this report. 4 figs, 19 tabs

  8. Operating history of U.S. nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The operating history of U. S. nuclear power plants through December 31, 1974 has been collected. Included are those nuclear reactor facilities which produce electricity, even if in token amounts, or which are part of a development program concerned with the generation of electricity through the use of a nuclear reactor as a heat source. The information is based on data furnished by facility operators. The charts are plotted in terms of cumulative thermal energy as a function of time. Since only those shutdowns of five days or more are shown, the charts do not give a detailed history of plant operation. They do, however, give an overview of the operating history of a variety of developmental and experimental nuclear power reactors. The data show the yearly gross generation of electricity for each U. S. nuclear plant and, for civilian power plants, information on reactor availability and plant capacity factor. (U.S.)

  9. Safeguard management for operation security in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae-Ho; Lee, Un-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Safeguard modeling is conducted for the successful operations in the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The characteristics of the secure operation in NPPs are investigated using the network effect method which is quantified by the Monte-Carlo algorithm. Fundamentally, it is impossible to predict the exact time of a terror incident. So, the random sampling for the event frequency is a reasonable method, including the characteristics of network effect method such as the zero-sum quantification. The performance of operation with safeguard is the major concern of this study. There are three kinds of considerations as the neutronics, thermo-hydraulics, and safeguard properties which are organized as an aspect of safeguard considerations. The result, therefore, can give the stability of the operations when the power is decided. The maximum value of secure operation is 12.0 in the third month and the minimum value is 1.0 in the 18th and 54th months, in a 10 years period. Thus, the stability of the secure power operation increases 12 times higher than the lowest value according to this study. This means that the secure operation is changeable in the designed NPPs and the dynamical situation of the secure operation can be shown to the operator.

  10. Nuclear power plant life management and longer-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation (LTO). It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO. It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management. The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment. (authors)

  11. A series of lectures on operational physics of power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanakrishnan, P.; Rastogi, B.P.

    1982-01-01

    This report discusses certain aspects of operational physics of power reactors. These form a lecture series at the Winter College on Nuclear Physics and Reactors, Jan. - March 1980, conducted at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. The topics covered are (a) the reactor physics aspects of fuel burnup (b) theoretical methods applied for burnup prediction in power reactors (c) interpretation of neutron detector readings in terms of adjacent fuel assembly powers (d) refuelling schemes used in power reactors. The reactor types chosen for the discussion are BWR, PWR and PHWR. (author)

  12. Absence of singular continuous spectrum for certain self-adjoint operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourre, E.

    1979-01-01

    An adequate condition is given for a self-adjoint operator to show in the vinicity of a point E of its spectrum the following properties: its point spectrum is of finite size; its singular continuous spectrum is empty. In the way of new applications the absence of singular continuous spectrum is demonstrated in the following two cases: perturbations of pseudo-differential operators; Schroedinger operators of a three-body system [fr

  13. Operational margin monitoring system for boiling water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutomi, S.; Takigawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-line operational margin monitoring system which has been developed for boiling water reactor power plants to improve safety, reliability, and quality of reactor operation. The system consists of a steady-state core status prediction module, a transient analysis module, a stability analysis module, and an evaluation and guidance module. This system quantitatively evaluates the thermal margin during abnormal transients as well as the stability margin, which cannot be evaluated by direct monitoring of the plant parameters, either for the current operational state or for a predicted operating state that may be brought about by the intended operation. This system also gives operator guidance as to appropriate or alternate operations when the operating state has or will become marginless

  14. Research on wind power grid-connected operation and dispatching strategies of Liaoning power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiu; Qu, Zhi; Zhou, Zhi; He, Xiaoyang; Li, Tie; Jin, Xiaoming; Li, Jinze; Ling, Zhaowei

    2018-02-01

    As a kind of clean energy, wind power has gained rapid development in recent years. Liaoning Province has abundant wind resources and the total installed capacity of wind power is in the forefront. With the large-scale wind power grid-connected operation, the contradiction between wind power utilization and peak load regulation of power grid has been more prominent. To this point, starting with the power structure and power grid installation situation of Liaoning power grid, the distribution and the space-time output characteristics of wind farm, the prediction accuracy, the curtailment and the off-grid situation of wind power are analyzed. Based on the deep analysis of the seasonal characteristics of power network load, the composition and distribution of main load are presented. Aiming at the problem between the acceptance of wind power and power grid adjustment, the scheduling strategies are given, including unit maintenance scheduling, spinning reserve, energy storage equipment settings by the analysis of the operation characteristics and the response time of thermal power units and hydroelectric units, which can meet the demand of wind power acceptance and provide a solution to improve the level of power grid dispatching.

  15. Modifications in the operational conditions of the IEA-R1 reactor under continuous 48 hours operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada; Frajndlich, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    This work shows the required changes in the IEA-R1 reactor for operation at 2 Mw, 48 hours continuously. The principal technical change regards the operating conditions of the reactor, namely, the required excess reactivity which now will amount to 4800 pcm in order to compensate the Xe poisoning at equilibrium at 2 Mw. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  16. Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    A loss of ac power to the station occurred on July 28, 1978 caused by an interaction between Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station when the main transformer of Unit No. 1 of the Beaver Valley Power Station developed an internal failure and tripped the BVPS. Two environmental studies were continued this quarter. The first involves reduction of main unit condenser chlorination and the second, river intake screen fish impingement sampling. There were no radioactive liquid discharges from the Radioactive Waste Processing System to the river this quarter. During the third quarter of 1978, 874 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. At the end of the quarter, the Fall shutdown continued with the plant heated up, the main turbine on turning gear and plant testing in progress prior to Station startup.

  17. Power System Operation with Large-Scale Wind Power in Liberalised Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ummels, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    The disadvantages of producing electricity from fossil fuels are that their supply is finite and unevenly distributed across the earth. Conventional power stations also emit greenhouse gases. Therefore, sustainable alternatives must be developed, such as wind power. The disadvantages of wind are that it may or may not blow and that it is unpredictable. Th generation of electricity must however always equal the consumption. This makes the integration of wind power in the electricity system more difficult. This thesis investigates the integration of wind power into the existing power system. Simulation models are developed and used to explore the operation of power systems with a lot of wind power. The simulations provide a picture of the reliability, cost and emission of CO2 of the generation of electricity, with and without wind power. The research also takes into account electricity exchange on international markets. Possible solutions for integrating wind power, such as flexible power plants and energy storage, are investigated as well

  18. Review of selected cost drivers for decisions on continued operation of older nuclear reactors. Safety upgrades, lifetime extension, decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    Lately, the approach to the operation of relatively old NPPs has become an important issue for the nuclear industry for several reasons. First, a large part of operating NPPs will reach the planned end of their lives relatively soon. Replacing these capacities can involve significant investment for the concerned countries and utilities. Second, many operating NPPs while about 30 years old are still in very good condition. Their continued safe operation appears possible and may bring about essential economic gains. Finally, with the costs of new NPPs being rather high at present, continued operation of existing plants and eventually their lifetime extension are viable options for supporting the nuclear share in power generation. This is becoming especially important in view of the growing attention to the issue of global warming and the role of nuclear energy in greenhouse gas mitigation. This report is a review of information related to three cost categories that are part of such cost-benefit analysis: costs of safety upgrades for continued operation of a nuclear unit, costs of lifetime extension and costs of decommissioning. It can serve as a useful reference source for experts and decision makers involved in the economics of operating NPPs

  19. Nuclear power plant operation experience - a feedback programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banica, I.; Sociu, F.; Margaritescu, C.

    1994-01-01

    An effective high quality maintenance programme is required for the safe reliable operation of a nuclear power plant. To achieve the objectives of such a programme, both plant management and staff must be highly dedicated and motivated to perform high quality work at all levels. Operating and maintenance experience data collections and analysis are necessary in order to enhance the safety of the plant and reliability of the structures systems and components throughout their operating life. Significant events, but also minor incident, may reveal important deficiencies or negative trends adverse to safety. Therefore, a computer processing system for collecting, classifying and evaluating abnormal events or findings concerning operating-maintenance and for feeding back the results of the lessons learned from experience into the design and the operation of our nuclear power plant is considered to be of paramount importance. (Author)

  20. Island operation - modelling of a small hydro power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarp, Stefan

    2000-02-01

    Simulation is a useful tool for investigating a system behaviour. It is a way to examine operating situations without having to perform them in reality. If someone for example wants to test an operating situation where the system possibly will demolish, a computer simulation could be a both cheaper and safer way than to do the test in reality. This master thesis performs and analyses a simulation, modelling an electronic power system. The system consists of a minor hydro power station, a wood refining industry, and interconnecting power system components. In the simulation situation the system works in a so called island operation. The thesis aims at making a capacity analysis of the current system. Above all, the goal is to find restrictions in load power profile of the consumer, under given circumstances. The computer software used in simulations is Matlab and its additional program PSB (Power System Blockset). The work has been carried out in co-operation with the power supplier Skellefteaa Kraft, where the problem formulation of this master thesis was founded.

  1. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, S.

    1966-09-01

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW t ) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965

  2. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S [ed.

    1966-09-15

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  3. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S. (ed.)

    1966-09-15

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  4. In-core fuel management for the course on operational physics of power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The heart of a nuclear power station is the reactor core producing power from the fissioning of uranium or plutonium fuel. Expertise in many different technical fields is required to provide fuel for continuous economical operation of a nuclear power plant. In general, these various technical disciplines can be dichotomized into ''Out-of-core'' and ''In-core'' fuel management. In-core fuel management is concerned, as the name implies, with the reactor core itself. It entails calculating the core reactivity, power distribution, and isotopic inventory for the first and subsequent cores of a nuclear power plant to maintain adequate safety margins and operating lifetime for each core. In addition, the selection of reloading schemes is made to minimize energy costs

  5. Adaptive Differential Evolution Approach for Constrained Economic Power Dispatch with Prohibited Operating Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif HAMOUDA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic power dispatch (EPD is one of the main tools for optimal operation and planning of modern power systems. To solve effectively the EPD problem, most of the conventional calculus methods rely on the assumption that the fuel cost characteristic of a generating unit is a continuous and convex function, resulting in inaccurate dispatch. This paper presents the design and application of efficient adaptive differential evolution (ADE algorithm for the solution of the economic power dispatch problem, where the non-convex characteristics of the generators, such us prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits of the practical generator operation are considered. The 26 bus benchmark test system with 6 units having prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the non-convex economic dispatch problem.

  6. Automatic Learning of Fine Operating Rules for Online Power System Security Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbin; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Weiyong; Guo, Qinglai; Zhang, Boming; Wehenkel, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Fine operating rules for security control and an automatic system for their online discovery were developed to adapt to the development of smart grids. The automatic system uses the real-time system state to determine critical flowgates, and then a continuation power flow-based security analysis is used to compute the initial transfer capability of critical flowgates. Next, the system applies the Monte Carlo simulations to expected short-term operating condition changes, feature selection, and a linear least squares fitting of the fine operating rules. The proposed system was validated both on an academic test system and on a provincial power system in China. The results indicated that the derived rules provide accuracy and good interpretability and are suitable for real-time power system security control. The use of high-performance computing systems enables these fine operating rules to be refreshed online every 15 min.

  7. Economic evaluation of nuclear reactor operation utilizing power effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinsky, M.; Mydliar, J.

    1988-01-01

    The operation of a reactor at the so-called power effect may substantially increase the burnup of fuel to be removed. The aim of the evaluation of such reactor operation is the optimal determination of the time over which the yield of the higher use of fuel exceeds economic losses resulting from the increased share of constant expenditure of the price of generated kWh of electric power which ensues from such operation. A mathematical model is presented for such evaluation of reactor operation with regard to benefits for the national economy which is the basis of the ESTER 2 computer program. The calculations show that the prices of generated and delivered kWh are minimally 2% less than the prices of generated power without the power effect use. The minimum ranges in the interval of 30 to 50 days. The dependence of the price of generated and delivered kWh from the point of view of the operator of the power plant as well as the component of fuel price of generated kWh will not reach the minimum even after 50 days of operation. From the operating and physical points of view the duration of power effect is not expected to exceed 20 to 30 days which means that from the point of view of the national economy the price of generated and delivered kWh will be 1.6 to 2% less and the fuel component of the price of the generated kWh will be 3 to 4.5% lower. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 3 refs

  8. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff's evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements

  9. Integrated approach to optimize operation and maintenance costs for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    In the context of increasingly open electricity markets and the 'unbundling' of generating companies from former utility monopolies, an area of major concern is the economic performance of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. Nuclear power, inevitably, must compete directly with other electricity generation sources. Coping with this competitive pressure is a challenge that the nuclear industry should meet if the nuclear option is to remain a viable one. This competitive environment has significant implications for nuclear plant operations, including, among others, the need for the more cost effective management of plant activities, and the greater use of analytical tools to balance the costs and benefits of proposed activities, in order to optimize operation and maintenance costs, and thus insure the economic competitiveness of existing nuclear power plants. In the framework of the activities on Nuclear Economic Performance Information System (NEPIS), the IAEA embarked in developing guidance on optimization of operation and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants. The report was prepared building on the fundamental that optimization of operation and maintenance costs of a nuclear power plant is a key component of a broader integrated business strategic planning process, having as overall result achievement of organization's business objectives. It provides advice on optimization of O and M costs in the framework of strategic business planning, with additional details on operational planning and controlling. This TECDOC was elaborated in 2004-2005 in the framework of the IAEA's programme on Nuclear Power Plant Operating Performance and Life Cycle Management, with the support of two consultants meetings and one technical meeting and based on contributions provided by participants. It can serve as a useful reference for the management and operation staff within utilities, nuclear power plant operators and regulators and other organizations involved in

  10. Planning in the Continuous Operations Environment of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Theresa; Hagopian, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    The continuous operation planning approach developed for the operations planning of the International Space Station (ISS) is reported on. The approach was designed to be a robust and cost-effective method. It separates ISS planning into two planning functions: long-range planning for a fixed length planning horizon which continually moves forward as ISS operations progress, and short-range planning which takes a small segment of the long-range plan and develops a detailed operations schedule. The continuous approach is compared with the incremental approach, the short and long-range planning functions are described, and the benefits and challenges of implementing a continuous operations planning approach for the ISS are summarized.

  11. Development of stereo endoscope system with its innovative master interface for continuous surgical operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myungjoon; Lee, Chiwon; Hong, Nhayoung; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Sungwan

    2017-06-24

    Although robotic laparoscopic surgery has various benefits when compared with conventional open surgery and minimally invasive surgery, it also has issues to overcome and one of the issues is the discontinuous surgical flow that occurs whenever control is swapped between the endoscope system and the operating robot arm system. This can lead to problems such as collision between surgical instruments, injury to patients, and increased operation time. To achieve continuous surgical operation, a wireless controllable stereo endoscope system is proposed which enables the simultaneous control of the operating robot arm system and the endoscope system. The proposed system consists of two improved novel master interfaces (iNMIs), a four-degrees of freedom (4-DOFs) endoscope control system (ECS), and a simple three-dimensional (3D) endoscope. In order to simultaneously control the proposed system and patient side manipulators of da Vinci research kit (dVRK), the iNMIs are installed to the master tool manipulators of dVRK system. The 4-DOFs ECS consists of four servo motors and employs a two-parallel link structure to provide translational and fulcrum point motion to the simple 3D endoscope. The images acquired by the endoscope undergo stereo calibration and rectification to provide a clear 3D vision to the surgeon as available in clinically used da Vinci surgical robot systems. Tests designed to verify the accuracy, data transfer time, and power consumption of the iNMIs were performed. The workspace was calculated to estimate clinical applicability and a modified peg transfer task was conducted with three novice volunteers. The iNMIs operated for 317 min and moved in accordance with the surgeon's desire with a mean latency of 5 ms. The workspace was calculated to be 20378.3 cm 3 , which exceeds the reference workspace of 549.5 cm 3 . The novice volunteers were able to successfully execute the modified peg transfer task designed to evaluate the proposed system's overall

  12. Operating Experience with Power Reactors. Proceedings of the Conference on Operating Experience with Power Reactors. Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-10-15

    At the beginning of 1963 nuclear power plants produced some 3 500 000kW of electrical power to different distribution grids around the world. Much significant operating experience has been gained with these power reactors, but this experience is often not collected in such a way as to make it easily available. The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Conference on Operating Experience with Power Reactors in Vienna from 4-8 June 1963 which was attended by 240 participants representing 27 of the Agency's Member States and six international organizations. At the Conference, 42 papers giving detailed experience with more than 20 nuclear power stations were discussed. Although similar meetings on a national or regional scale have been held earlier in various countries, this is the first arranged by the Agency on a world-wide basis. Some of the detailed material may have been given earlier but for the most part it represents new and recently acquired experience, and for the first time it has been possible to compile in one place such extensive material on the operating experience with power reactors. The Conference discussed the experience gained both generally in the context of national and international nuclear power development programmes, and more specifically in the detailed operating experience with different power reactor stations. In addition, various plant components, fuel cycles, staffing of nuclear plants and licensing of such staff were treated. It is hoped that these Proceedings will be of interest not only to nuclear plant designers and operators who daily encounter problems similar to those discussed by the Conference, but also to those guiding the planning and implementation of power development programmes.

  13. Operating Experience with Power Reactors. Proceedings of the Conference on Operating Experience with Power Reactors. Vol. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-10-15

    At the beginning of 1963 nuclear power plants produced some 3 500 000 kW of electrical power to different distribution grids around the world. Much significant operating experience has been gained with these power reactors, but this experience is often not collected in such a way as to make it easily available. The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Conference on Operating Experience with Power Reactors in Vienna from 4 -8 June 1963 which was attended by 240 participants representing 27 of the Agency's Member States and six international organizations. At the Conference, 42 papers giving detailed experience with more than 20 nuclear power stations were discussed. Although similar meetings on a national or regional scale have been held earlier in various countries, this is the first arranged by the Agency on a world-wide basis. Some of the detailed material may have been given earlier but for the most part it represents new and recently acquired experience, and for the first time it has been possible to compile in one place such extensive material on the operating experience with power reactors. The Conference discussed the experience gained both generally in the context of national and international nuclear power development programmes, and more specifically in the detailed operating experience with different power reactor stations. In addition, various plant components, fuel cycles, staffing of nuclear plants and licensing of such staff were treated. It is hoped that these Proceedings will be of interest not only to nuclear , plant designers and operators who daily encounter problems similar to those discussed by the Conference, but also to those guiding the planning and implementation of power development programmes.

  14. The continuation training of operators and feedback of operational experience in the Royal Navy's nuclear submarine programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Naval continuation training has relied heavily on the use of realistic simulators for over ten years, and this has been proved to be a cost-effective and efficient method of training. The type of simulator used, the selection and qualification of simulator instructors, and the method of training experienced operators is described. Also, the assessment of operator performance, the use of simulators during the final stages of operator qualification, and their use for training operators on plant operation whilst shut-down are covered. The Navy also pays great attention to the feedback of operating experience from sea into both continuation and basic training. This is accomplished using Incident Reports, which are rendered whenever the plant is operated outside the approved Operating Documentation, or when any other unusual circumstance arises. Each Report is individually assessed and replied to by a qualified operator, and those incidents of more general interest are published in a wider circulation document available to all plant operators. In addition, each crew is given an annual lecture on recent operating experiences. Important lessons are fed forward into new plant design, and the incident reports are also used as a source of information for plant reliability data. (author)

  15. Selection/licensing of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.M.

    1983-07-01

    An important aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety is the reactor operator in the control room. The operators are the first individuals to deal with an emergency situation, and thus, effective performance on their part is essential for safe plant operations. Important issues pertaining to NPP reactor operators would fall within the personnel subsystem of our safety system analysis. While there are many potential aspects of the personnel subsystem, a key first step in this focus is the selection of individuals - attempting to choose individuals for the job of reactor operator who will safely perform the job. This requires a valid (job-related) selection process. Some background information on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process used for selecting NPP reactor operators is briefly presented and a description of a research endeavor now underway at Battelle for developing a valid reactor operator licensing examination is included

  16. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy and expert systems for power quality analysis and prediction of abnormal operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wael Refaat Anis

    The present research involves the development of several fuzzy expert systems for power quality analysis and diagnosis. Intelligent systems for the prediction of abnormal system operation were also developed. The performance of all intelligent modules developed was either enhanced or completely produced through adaptive fuzzy learning techniques. Neuro-fuzzy learning is the main adaptive technique utilized. The work presents a novel approach to the interpretation of power quality from the perspective of the continuous operation of a single system. The research includes an extensive literature review pertaining to the applications of intelligent systems to power quality analysis. Basic definitions and signature events related to power quality are introduced. In addition, detailed discussions of various artificial intelligence paradigms as well as wavelet theory are included. A fuzzy-based intelligent system capable of identifying normal from abnormal operation for a given system was developed. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy learning was applied to enhance its performance. A group of fuzzy expert systems that could perform full operational diagnosis were also developed successfully. The developed systems were applied to the operational diagnosis of 3-phase induction motors and rectifier bridges. A novel approach for learning power quality waveforms and trends was developed. The technique, which is adaptive neuro fuzzy-based, learned, compressed, and stored the waveform data. The new technique was successfully tested using a wide variety of power quality signature waveforms, and using real site data. The trend-learning technique was incorporated into a fuzzy expert system that was designed to predict abnormal operation of a monitored system. The intelligent system learns and stores, in compressed format, trends leading to abnormal operation. The system then compares incoming data to the retained trends continuously. If the incoming data matches any of the learned trends, an

  17. Optimal Multi-scale Demand-side Management for Continuous Power-Intensive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumit

    With the advent of deregulation in electricity markets and an increasing share of intermittent power generation sources, the profitability of industrial consumers that operate power-intensive processes has become directly linked to the variability in energy prices. Thus, for industrial consumers that are able to adjust to the fluctuations, time-sensitive electricity prices (as part of so-called Demand-Side Management (DSM) in the smart grid) offer potential economical incentives. In this thesis, we introduce optimization models and decomposition strategies for the multi-scale Demand-Side Management of continuous power-intensive processes. On an operational level, we derive a mode formulation for scheduling under time-sensitive electricity prices. The formulation is applied to air separation plants and cement plants to minimize the operating cost. We also describe how a mode formulation can be used for industrial combined heat and power plants that are co-located at integrated chemical sites to increase operating profit by adjusting their steam and electricity production according to their inherent flexibility. Furthermore, a robust optimization formulation is developed to address the uncertainty in electricity prices by accounting for correlations and multiple ranges in the realization of the random variables. On a strategic level, we introduce a multi-scale model that provides an understanding of the value of flexibility of the current plant configuration and the value of additional flexibility in terms of retrofits for Demand-Side Management under product demand uncertainty. The integration of multiple time scales leads to large-scale two-stage stochastic programming problems, for which we need to apply decomposition strategies in order to obtain a good solution within a reasonable amount of time. Hence, we describe two decomposition schemes that can be applied to solve two-stage stochastic programming problems: First, a hybrid bi-level decomposition scheme with

  18. ANALYSIS OF OPTIMUM OPERATING MODES OF POWER TRANSFORMERS UNDER OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Khomenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study of parallel operation optimal modes of transformer equipment for a variety of operating conditions: same or different types of transformers, with or without reactive power flows. Methodology. Losses of energy in transformers make 30 % of all losses. Therefore the choice of the economically justified parallel operation of transformers is effective action to reduce losses. Typically, in the calculations of reactive power flows in the transformers are not taken into account. It is interesting to analyze the optimal operating conditions of transformers with and without reactive power flows. Results. Calculations for transformers in distribution networks showed that the inclusion of reactive power flows in transformers significant impact on the calculated optimum regimes of transformers.

  19. Implementation of an operator model with error mechanisms for nuclear power plant control room operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Sang Moon; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Young Taek

    1996-01-01

    SACOM(Simulation Analyser with Cognitive Operator Model) is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to simulate human operator's cognitive characteristics during the emergency situations of nuclear power plans. An operator model with error mechanisms has been developed and combined into SACOM to simulate human operator's cognitive information process based on the Rasmussen's decision ladder model. The operational logic for five different cognitive activities (Agents), operator's attentional control (Controller), short-term memory (Blackboard), and long-term memory (Knowledge Base) have been developed and implemented on blackboard architecture. A trial simulation with a scenario for emergency operation has been performed to verify the operational logic. It was found that the operator model with error mechanisms is suitable for the simulation of operator's cognitive behavior in emergency situation

  20. A Real-Time Simulation Platform for Power System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the real-time digital simulation platform that can be used for power system operation, analysis, and power system modeling. This particular platform gives grid operators, planners and researchers the opportunity to observe how a power system behaves and can be used...... in real time. Various phenomena commonly encountered when dealing with the two-area system is studied. Despite its small size, it mimics very closely the behavior of typical systems in actual operation. The electromagnetic transient type of simulation made in RSCAD enables the study of fast and detailed...... phenomena like single-phase faults in the two-area network and to observe their effects on a larger time scale. Also, the case study of 11 bus system with 5 generators has been also used and the results are presented....

  1. Operational experience, availability and reliability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture - presents a survey on nuclear power production and plant performance in the Western World covering all reactor types and light-water reactors in particular and discusses key parameters such as load factors and non-availability analysis. - outlines the main reasons for the reliable performance of Swiss nuclear power plants - quality equipment - operator qualification and training - engineering know how on site - maintenance philosophy and outage planning - information system and feedback of experience - explains the management functions as applied at the Beznau Nuclear Power Station to ensure high power productivity and reliability - improvement - a feedback control system - analysis of production losses - optimization in shut-down planning - minimizing disturbances during plant operation - optimizing personnel qualification and efficiency. (orig.)

  2. Improving nuclear power plant safety through operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    In October 1986, the IAEA convened a one-week Technical Committee Meeting on Improving Nuclear Power Plant Safety Through Operator Aids. The term ''operator aid'' or more formally ''operator support system'' refers to a class of devices designed to be added to a nuclear power plant control station to assist an operator in performing his job and thereby decrease the probability of operator error. The addition of a carefully planned and designed operator aid should result in an increase in nuclear power plant safety and reliability. Operator aids encompass a wide range of devices from the very simple, such as color coding a display to distinguish it out of a group of similar displays, to the very complex, such as a computer-generated video display which concentrates a number of scattered indicator readings located around a control room into a concise display in front of the operator. This report provides guidelines and information to help make a decision as to whether an operator aid is needed, what kinds of operator aids are available and whether it should be purchased or developed by the utility. In addition, a discussion is presented on advanced operator aids to provide information on what may become available in the future. The broad scope of these guidelines makes it most suitable for use by a multi-disciplinary team. The document consists of two parts. The recommendations and results of the meeting discussions are given in the first part. The second part is the annex where the papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting are printed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 10 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov)

  4. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  5. Operation of the power system 2011; Driften av kraftsystemet 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Karstein; Ulsberg, Helge

    2012-07-01

    This report has been prepared as a result of the allotment letters for 2012 to the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) of Petroleum and Energy (MPE), which imposes NVE to prepare an annual report on the operation of the power system. The report shall include information and analysis related to the state of the power system, including errors in key transmission links within Norway and abroad. (Author)

  6. Selected financial and operating ratios of public power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the American Public Power Association published its fourth report on financial and operating ratios. Based on 1990 data for the largest public power distribution systems, the report examined 21 categories of ratio indicators that can be used by public power distribution systems to assess their performance relative to the utilities of of comparable size and in the same geographic region. The 394 utilities summarized in the report are those that are required to file financial statements with the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Ratios were calculated from financial and operating data reported by utilities to the EIA. Data are presented for the following ratios: (1) revenue per kW/hr; (2) revenue for customer; (3) debt to total assets; (4) operating ratio; (5) current ratio; (6) times interest earned; (7) net income per revenue dollar; (8) uncollectible accounts per revenue dollar; (9) retail MW hr sales per manpower generation employee; (10) retail customers per nonpower generation employee; (11) total operation and maintenane expense per kW hr sold; (12) total operation and maintenance expense per retail customer; (13) total power supply expense kW hr sold; (14) purchased power cost per kW hr; (15) production expense per not kW hr; (16) retail customers for with reader; (17) distribution operation and maintenance expenses per retail customer; (18) distribution operation and maintenance expenses per circuit mile; (19) customer accounting, customer service and sales expenses per retail customers; (20) administration and general expenses per retail customer; (21) labor expense per worker-hour; (22) OSHA incidence rate; and (23) the system average interruptible duration index

  7. Nuclear power plant operating experience. Annual report, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, M.R.

    1979-12-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of reports issued annually that summarizes the operating experience of US nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1978 data from 65 plants - 25 boiling water reactor plants and 40 pressurized water reactor plants. Discussion of radioactive effluents which has been a part of this report in previous years, has not been included in this issue because of late acquisition of data

  8. Optimum operation of a small power production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capehart, B.L.; Mahoney, J.F.; Sivazlian, B.D.

    1983-09-01

    To help reduce the U.S.A.'s dependence on imported oil for electrical power generation, the 1978 National Energy Act established regulations to promote construction and operation of cogeneration and small power production facilities. Many of these facilities are presently under construction, with a great number planned. This paper examines the operation of a small power production facility with on-site generation and storage, on-site use, and connection to an electric utility grid system for the purpose of both selling excess power and buying power. It is assumed that the buying and selling price of electricity varies frequently during the day and that the relevant price and demand data may be accurately projected into the near future. With this system description, a mathematical model is formulated and solved by linear programming to obtain a series of periodic buy and sell decisions so as to maximize the profit from operating the small power production facility. Results are presented to illustrate the methodology for determining potential profits.

  9. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knutson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunne, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kasper, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheehan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mau, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  10. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  11. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  12. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations; to be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; and to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  13. Radiation protection during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Guide describes a Radiation Protection Programme for nuclear power plants. It includes: (1) An outline of the basic principles as well as practical aspects of the programme; (2) A description of the responsibilities of the operating organization to establish an effective programme based upon these principles; (3) A description of the administrative and technical measures to establish and implement the programme. This Guide also deals with the operational aspects to be considered by the operating organization in reviewing design in order to facilitate implementation of the Radiation Protection Programme. This Guide covers the requirements for a Radiation Protection Programme for all operational states of the nuclear power plant. It also includes guidelines for handling planned special exposures and for coping with unplanned exposures and contamination of personnel, areas, and equipment. Additional information concerning emergency situations involving releases of radioactive materials is given in Safety Guides 50-SG-O6, ''Preparedness of the Operating Organization (Licensee) for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants'', and 50-SG-G6, ''Preparedness of Public Authorities for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants''. This Guide covers the principles of dose limitation to site personnel and to the public, but it does not include detailed instructions on the techniques used for the actual measurement and evaluation of the exposures. This Guide does not include detailed instructions on environmental surveys, but it does mention principal steps in environmental monitoring which may be required for confirmation of the acceptability of radioactive discharges

  14. Pre operational background radiation monitoring around Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project site - a decade long experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; George, Thomas; Sundara Rajan, P.; Selvi, B.S.; Balamurugan, M.; Pandit, G.G.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-operational environmental background radiation monitoring around nuclear power plants is very important to understand baseline values existing in the site and also to identify any hot spots of naturally occurring high background radiation areas and their sources. These baseline measurements will act as a benchmark for future comparison after the reactors go into operation. The radiation measurements are continued during the operational phase of the plant and the results are compared to see whether there is any impact of the operation of the plant on the environment. A comprehensive background radiation monitoring plan has been in vogue at site from 2004 to meet this objective. This paper describes the different monitoring strategies adopted around Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project site and throws light on the pre operational background radiation levels in the environment

  15. Assuring human operator alertness at night in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore-Ede, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The human body is not designed for peak alertness and performance at night, nor is it well-equipped to cope with the frequent day-night inversions required by rotating shift work schedules. As a result, the human operator can become the weak link in a complex technological operation such as a nuclear power plant. The high degree of dependence on human operator vigilance, decision-making ability and performance that is required in nuclear power plant operations can conflict with the human sleepiness and error-proneness which naturally occur during the night shift or after extended periods without adequate sleep. An opportunity to address these problems has come from a series of major research advances in basic circadian physiology

  16. Operational limits and conditions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content as applicable to various types of thermal reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The principles of the operational limits and conditions are established in section 3 of the Agency's Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Operation, including Commissioning and Decommissioning (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O), which this present Safety Guide supplements. In order to present all pertinent information in this Guide, the provisions of section 3 of the Code are repeated

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Operator Reliability Research Based on Fuzzy Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of the concept and theory of fuzzy number in fuzzy mathematics, to research for the response time of operator in accident of Chinese nuclear power plant. Through the quantitative analysis for the performance shape factors (PSFs which influence the response time of operators, the formula of the operator response time is obtained based on the possibilistic fuzzy linear regression model which is used for the first time in this kind of research. The research result shows that the correct research method can be achieved through the analysis of the information from a small sample. This method breaks through the traditional research method and can be used not only for the reference to the safe operation of nuclear power plant, but also in other areas.

  18. Nuclear power costs in the build, operate, transfer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aybers, M.N.; Sahin, B.

    1990-01-01

    The costs of nuclear power are discussed with special reference to the economic problems faced by developing countries, and the relative merit of a new accounting approach, viz., the build, operate, transfer contract model, which was proposed in Turkey for the Akkuyu nuclear power project, is illustrated. In this context, the general methodology of calculating nuclear power costs is summarized and a capital cost analysis for a 986 MW pressurized water reactor plant is given in terms of constant monetary units for the above contract model and the turnkey contract model. Adjustment of the costs taking into account regional conditions such as inflation and higher interest rates is also indicated. (orig.) [de

  19. Control of operational transients in power reactors - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, D.

    1983-01-01

    By introducing the nuclear power stations in the electric power system, questions of their possibilities to satisfy system's demand arise. Control of operational transients (temperature and Xe 135 ) in power reactors by determining the optimal control rod strategy is given. Ti optimize the Xe 135 transients, the Pantryagin theorem of optimal processes is applied. For solving three dimensional, two-group diffusion equations the heterogeneous Feinberg-Galanin method with axial flux harmonics is adopted. An application of this formalism to three-dimensional, finite cylindrical pressurised water reactor radially reflected is presented. (author)

  20. Independent verification in operations at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donderi, D.C.; Smiley, A.; Ostry, D.J.; Moray, N.P.

    1995-09-01

    A critical review of approaches to independent verification in operations used in nuclear power plant quality assurance programs in other countries, was conducted for this study. This report identifies the uses of independent verification and provides an assessment of the effectiveness of the various approaches. The findings indicate that at Canadian nuclear power plants as much, if not more, independent verification is performed than at power plants in the other countries included in the study. Additional requirements in this area are not proposed for Canadian stations. (author)

  1. Operation and technology of high pulsed power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyl, P.; Romary, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to satisfy the needs of ''components and electronic circuits hardness'', a range of high pulsed power generators is available in the French Atomic Energy Commission. The goal of this paper is to present the general principles of operation and the main characteristics of the irradiation facilities which are operational at the CESTA center. Finally, we give a brief outline of the new technology developments. (authors). 6 refs., 16 figs

  2. Virtual reality technology in nuclear power plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a generic virtual reality comprehensive system focusing on the operation and maintenance in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. Under this layout, some key topics and means of the system are discussed. As example 'Virtual Nuclear Island' comprehensive system and its typical applications in NPP are set up. In the end, it prospects the applications of virtual reality technology in NPP operation, training and maintenance. (author)

  3. Inspection during operation of a nuclear power plant in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1977-01-01

    The control and surveillance activities, as well as the operating data and results of the three nuclear power plants presently in operation: Jose Cabrera, Santa Maria de Garona and Vandellos, are summarized. The first two are light-water type, with different pressure and boiling characteristics and the third is of the gas-graphite type. The main aspects, from an inspection point of view, of the experience obtained in these three plants are analyzed. (author) [es

  4. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  5. Fort St. Vrain reactor performance and operation to full power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, W.A.; Bramblett, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station, powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), has now been tested to full thermal power. Testing was conducted for the dual purposes of demonstrating component and system capability as a part of the rise-to-power program and determining core fluctuation/redistribution behavior under full power conditions. Both objectives were met. Full power performance of all major components and the achievement of nearly all design objectives has been verified. In addition, the tests showed that the fluctuation phenomenon has been corrected. Core region outlet temperature redistributions have been characterized, related to a physical mechanism, and shown to be inconsequential for overall plant operation

  6. Optimal Wind Power Uncertainty Intervals for Electricity Market Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhi; Botterud, Audun; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2018-01-01

    It is important to select an appropriate uncertainty level of the wind power forecast for power system scheduling and electricity market operation. Traditional methods hedge against a predefined level of wind power uncertainty, such as a specific confidence interval or uncertainty set, which leaves the questions of how to best select the appropriate uncertainty levels. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes a model to optimize the forecast uncertainty intervals of wind power for power system scheduling problems, with the aim of achieving the best trade-off between economics and reliability. Then we reformulate and linearize the models into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) without strong assumptions on the shape of the probability distribution. In order to invest the impacts on cost, reliability, and prices in a electricity market, we apply the proposed model on a twosettlement electricity market based on a six-bus test system and on a power system representing the U.S. state of Illinois. The results show that the proposed method can not only help to balance the economics and reliability of the power system scheduling, but also help to stabilize the energy prices in electricity market operation.

  7. Continuity of Operations (COOP) in the Executive Branch: Background and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, R. E

    2004-01-01

    ... to continuity of operations (COOP) issues. COOP planning is a segment of federal government contingency planning that refers to the internal effort of an organization, such as a branch of government, department, or office, to assure...

  8. Conversion of continuous-direct-current TIG welder to pulse-arc operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, D. R.

    1969-01-01

    Electronics package converts a continuous-dc tungsten-inert gas welder for pulse-arc operation. Package allows presetting of the pulse rate, duty cycle, and current value, and enables welding of various alloys and thicknesses of materials.

  9. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs

  10. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  11. Controlled time of arrival windows for already initiated energy-neutral continuous descent operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Continuous descent operations with controlled times of arrival at one or several metering fixes could enable environmentally friendly procedures without compromising terminal airspace capacity. This paper focuses on controlled time of arrival updates once the descent has been already initiated, assessing the feasible time window (and associated fuel consumption) of continuous descent operations requiring neither thrust nor speed-brake usage along the whole descent (i.e. only elevator control ...

  12. Recent Operating Experience involving Power Electronics Failure in Korea Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaedo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, modern power electronics devices for electrical component were steadily increased in electrical systems which used for main power control and protection. To upgrade the system reliability we recommended the redundancy for electrical equipment trip system. The past several years, Korean Nuclear power plants have changed the electrical control and protection systems (Auto Voltage Regulator, Power Protection Relay) for main generator and main power protection relay systems. In this paper we deal with operating experience involving modern solid state power electronics failure in Korean nuclear power plants. One of the failures we will discuss the degraded phenomenon of power electronics device for CEDMCS(Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System). As the result of the failure we concerned about the modification for trip source of main generator excitation systems and others. We present an interesting issue for modern solid state devices (IGBT, Thyristors). (authors)

  13. Adequacy of operating reserves for power systems in future european wind power scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2015-01-01

    operating reserves. To study the effects of these imbalances, anticipated wind scenarios for European power systems are modelled for 2020 and 2030. Wind power forecasts for different time scales and real-time available wind power are modelled. Based on these studies, this paper qualitatively analyzes......Wind power generation is expected to increase in Europe by large extent in future. This will increase variability and uncertainty in power systems. Imbalances caused due to uncertainty in wind power forecast can trigger frequency instability in the system. These imbalances are handled using...... the adequacy of primary and secondary reserves requirements for future European power systems. This paper also discusses the challenges due to the uncertainty in wind power forecasts and their possible solutions for wind installation scenarios for 2020 and 2030....

  14. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety

  15. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety.

  16. British Columbia Power Export Corporation: Operational review for operating year, October 1989 to September 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The British Columbia Power Export Corporation (POWEREX) is a wholly owned subsidiary of British Columbia Hydro, established in 1988 as the single agency responsible for implementing the provincial policy of international electricity trade. POWEREX objectives are to conduct long term firm electricity trade utilizing private sector financing, operating capabilities, and generating sources. Short term electricity transactions are handled by the part of POWEREX called the Powerex Pool Operation. An operational review of POWEREX for 1989-90 is presented, giving information on export contracts, license approvals, export sales negotiations, pool operation revenues and sales, British Columbia Hydro generation and integrated system performance, and operational planning. 15 figs

  17. Measurement uncertainty recapture (MUR) power uprates operation at Kuosheng Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chinjang; Wang Tunglu; Lin Chihpao

    2009-01-01

    Measurement Uncertainty Recapture PowerUprates (MUR PU) are achieved through the use of state-of-the-art feedwater flow measurement devices, i.e., ultrasonic flow meters (UFMs), that reduce the degree of uncertainty associated with feedwater flow measurement and in turn provide for a more accurate calculation of thermal power. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) teamed with Sargent and Lundy, LLC (S and L), Pacific Engineers and Constructors, Ltd (PECL), and AREVA to develop a program and plan for the Kuosheng Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) MUR PU Engineering Service Project and for the assistance to Kuosheng MUR PU operation. After regulator's approval of the licensing requests, KSNPS conducted the power ascension test and switchover to the new rated thermal power for Unit 2 and Unit 1 on 7/7/2007 and 11/30/2007, respectively. From then on, KNPS became the first nuclear power plant implementing MUR PU operation in Taiwan and in Asia. (author)

  18. Power ramping/cycling experience and operational recommendations in KWU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, R. von; Wunderlich, F.; Holzer, R.

    1980-01-01

    The power cycling and ramping experience of KWU is based on experiments in test and commercial reactors, and on evaluation of plant operation (PHWR, PWR and BWR). Power cycling of fuel rods have never lead to PCI failures. In ramping experiments, for fast ramps PCI failure thresholds of 480/420 W/cm are obtained at 12/23 GWd/t(U) burn-up for pressurized PWR fuel. No failures occurred during limited exceedance of the threshold with reduced ramp rate. Operational recommendations used by KWU are derived from experiments and plant experience. The effects of ramping considerations on plant operation is discussed. No rate restrictions are required for start-ups during an operating cycle or load follow operation within set limits for the distortion of the local power distribution. In a few situations, e.g. start-up after refueling, ramp rates of 1 to 5 %/h are recommended depending on plant and fuel design

  19. Expert system for operational personnel support during power unit operation control in regulation range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanitskij, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The problems met when developing the systems for NPP operator support in the process of power unit operation are considered. The expert system for NPP personnel intelligent support combining the properties belonging to the artificial intelligence systems including selection of the analysis method taking into account the concrete technological situation and capability of application of algothmic calculations of the equipment characteristics using the information accumulated during the system development, erection and operation is described

  20. Role of conceptual models in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.; Moran, T.P.; Brown, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    A crucial objective in plant operation (and perhaps licensing) ought to be to explicitly train operators to develop, perhaps with computer aids, robust conceptual models of the plants they control. The question is whether we are actually able to develop robust conceptual models and validate their robustness. Cognitive science is just beginning to come to grips with this problem. This paper describes some of the evolving technology for building conceptual models of physical mechanisms and some of the implications of such models in the context of nuclear power plant operation

  1. Human-factor operating concept for Borssele Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The safety level in the operation of a reactor is determined basically by human beings. The Borssele Nuclear Power Station has carried out measures for improving the man-machine interface through training and operating instructions for the shift personnel. The retrofitting of control technology relevant to safety engineering should avoid operating instructions which can cause potential failures. A safety study has shown that the remaining risk following all retrofitting measures remains dependent to the extent of 80% on human factors and that human factors as a whole have a positive effect on reactor safety. (orig.) [de

  2. Feedback of operating experience in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The feedback of operating experience of nuclear facilities to the designers, manufacturers, operators and regulators is one important means of maintaining and improving safety. The Atomic Energy Control Board`s Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety examined the means for feedback currently being employed, how effective they are and what improvements are advisable. The review found that the need for feedback of operating experience is well recognized within those institutions contributing to the safety of CANDU power reactors, and that the existing procedures are generally effective. Some recommendations, however, are submitted for improvement in the process.

  3. Feedback of operating experience in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The feedback of operating experience of nuclear facilities to the designers, manufacturers, operators and regulators is one important means of maintaining and improving safety. The Atomic Energy Control Board's Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety examined the means for feedback currently being employed, how effective they are and what improvements are advisable. The review found that the need for feedback of operating experience is well recognized within those institutions contributing to the safety of CANDU power reactors, and that the existing procedures are generally effective. Some recommendations, however, are submitted for improvement in the process

  4. Application of reliability worth concepts in power system operational planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J C.O. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.M. Leite da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, M V.F. [Power System Research (PSR), Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes the application of a new methodology for calculating total system interruption costs in power system operational planning. Some important operational aspects are discussed: chronological load curves, customer damage functions for each consumer class, maintenance scheduling and non-exponential repair times. It is also presented the calculation of the probability distribution of the system interruption cost to improve the decision making process associated with alternative operational strategies. The Brazilian Southeastern system is used to illustrate all previous applications. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. U.S. Central Station Nuclear Power Plants: operating history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The information assembled in this booklet highlights the operating history of U. S. Central Station nuclear power plants through December 31, 1976. The information presented is based on data furnished by the operating electric utilities. The information is presented in the form of statistical tables and computer printouts of major shutdown periods for each nuclear unit. The capacity factor data for each unit is presented both on the basis of its net design electrical rating and its net maximum dependable capacity, as reported by the operating utility to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  6. Method of operation for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barleon, L.; Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the operation of a nuclear power plant is described whose primary coolant circuit contains liquid metal as coolant, and for whose secondary circuit which is coupled to the first by means of heat exchangers, one or more chemical compositions dissociating at higher temperatures and recombining at lower temperatures or associating into the original types are used as operating medium. N 2 O 4 is suggested as operating medium, and metal halogenides e.g. Al 2 Cl 6 , Al 2 Br 6 are also cited as suitable. Corrosion dangers are regarded as low. (UWI) [de

  7. A Stochastic Operational Planning Model for Smart Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Jadid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are result of utilizing novel technologies such as distributed energy resources, and communication technologies in power system to compensate some of its defects. Various power resources provide some benefits for operation domain however, power system operator should use a powerful methodology to manage them. Renewable resources and load add uncertainty to the problem. So, independent system operator should use a stochastic method to manage them. A Stochastic unit commitment is presented in this paper to schedule various power resources such as distributed generation units, conventional thermal generation units, wind and PV farms, and demand response resources. Demand response resources, interruptible loads, distributed generation units, and conventional thermal generation units are used to provide required reserve for compensating stochastic nature of various resources and loads. In the presented model, resources connected to distribution network can participate in wholesale market through aggregators. Moreover, a novel three-program model which can be used by aggregators is presented in this article. Loads and distributed generation can contract with aggregators by these programs. A three-bus test system and the IEEE RTS are used to illustrate usefulness of the presented model. The results show that ISO can manage the system effectively by using this model

  8. Internet applications in nuclear power plant operation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the Internet is quickly becoming widespread in practically all areas of business and industry. The nuclear industry should not remain indifferent to this new trend. This paper analyses some of the Internet applications that can be easily adapted to nuclear power plant operation management, including. (Author)

  9. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electric power generated in 1975 was 1,074,401 MW(e) with the generator on line 4,680.7 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, radioactive effluents and waste shipments, health physics, shutdowns, and personnel exposures

  10. Reliability assurance program for operational emergency ac power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, J.B.; Ragland, W.A.; Mueller, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive review of emergency ac power systems in nuclear generating plants (the vast majority of these plants contain redundant diesel generator systems) delineates several operational areas that can be improved by instituting a reliability assurance program (RAP), which initially upgrades the diesel generator performance and provides for ongoing monitoring and maintenance based upon alert levels

  11. Quality assurance during operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, J.

    1980-01-01

    The lecture provides a description of the QA manual as operated in French nuclear power plants. Oral comments will include discussion of some difficulties in actual implementation. Also examples will be given of incidents in nuclear plants, which could have been mitigated or fully prevented by QA attitude. (orig./RW)

  12. 47 CFR 73.267 - Determining operating power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may be checked by measuring the power at the transmitter terminals while either: (1) Operating the... the final amplifier stages have been modified pursuant to FCC approval, the licensee must furnish the FCC and also retain with the station records the measurement data used as a basis for determining the...

  13. Relativity evaluation of reliability on operation in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inata, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    The report presents a quantitative method for evaluating the reliability of operations conducted in nuclear power plants. The quantitative reliability evaluation method is based on the 'detailed block diagram analysis (De-BDA)'. All units of a series of operations are separately displayed for each block and combined sequentially. Then, calculation is performed to evaluate the reliability. Basically, De-BDA calculation is made for pairs of operation labels, which are connected in parallel or in series at different subordination levels. The applicability of the De-BDA method is demonstrated by carrying out calculation for three model cases: operations in the event of malfunction of the control valve in the main water supply system for PWR, switching from an electrically-operated water supply pump to a turbin-operated water supply pump, and isolation and water removal operation for a low-pressure condensate pump. It is shown that the relative importance of each unit of a series of operations can be evaluated, making it possible to extract those units of greater importance, and that the priority among the factors which affect the reliability of operations can be determined. Results of the De-BDA calculation can serve to find important points to be considered in developing an operation manual, conducting education and training, and improving facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Operation aid device upon periodical inspection of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukusaka, Ryoji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an operation aid device upon periodical inspection of a nuclear power plant, capable of controlling a plurality of control rods safely at good operation efficiency while maintaining subcritical state. Namely, a fuel exchange computer controls an operation for exchanging fuel assemblies upon periodical inspection. An operation aiding computer aids the exchanging operation of fuel assemblies. A control rod position monitoring device allows withdrawal of one control rod under the condition of establishment of entire control rod insertion signal upon operation of exchanging fuel assemblies. Whether all of the four fuel assemblies around one control rod have been entirely taken out or not is judged based on information on the fuel assembly exchanging operation. When conditions for the judgement for operation aiding computer are established, the all insertion signals for the entire control rods as the condition for the withdrawal of the control rods are bypassed, and operation enable signals for plurality control rods are outputted to a control rod manual operation device. (I.S.)

  15. Electric Vehicles for Improved Operation of Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Esben; Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    In a power system with a high share of wind energy the wind fluctuation causes a variation in the power generation, which must be compensated from other sources. The situation in Denmark with a penetration of more than 20% wind in yearly average is presented. The introduction of electric drive vehicles (EDV) as flexible loads can improve the system operation. Bidirectional power exchange through batteries (vehicle to grid) can be seen as a storage system in the grid. An analysis of possible e...

  16. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station five-year business plan and operating results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shanming

    2000-01-01

    Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company, Ltd. first 5-Year Business Plan (hereinafter referred to as 5-Year Business Plan) serves as guidance of both the operations and management of the company. Continuous performance improvement of the nuclear power station has been achieved through the fulfillment of goals and improvement plan defined by the 5-Year Business Plan, and through standard and systematic management. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) has made great contributions to sustainable economic developments of both Guangdong and Hong Kong since its commercial operation in 1994. As of the end of 1999, the cumulative off-take electricity generated by GNPS had reached 69.9 billion kWh. Of the WANO indicators universally applied by nuclear power industry throughout the world, 6 indicators of Daya Bay performance entered the world top quartile while 9 the medium level

  17. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    In 1993 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their third highest combined annual output. The contribution to the total electricity generation in the country was close to 37%. Replacement of the steam generators in Beznau Unit 1 resulted in a longer than usual annual outage. For the other four units the availability figures were close to, or exceeded, those of previous years. The energy utilization was, however, lowered due to load reduction in autumn resulting from unusually high production by the hydro-electric power plants. The steam generator replacement at Beznau enabled an increase in electrical power of about 2% without increase in reactor power. With the approval of the Swiss government in December 1992, the output of the Muehleberg power plant was increased in two stages by a total of 10%. The application for an unlimited operating license for Beznau Unit 2, and for a power uprate at the Leibstadt power plant, are still pending. The average number of scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. As a result of experience in the Swedish nuclear power plant at Barsebaeck, the suction strainers of the emergency core cooling systems of the boiling water reactors at Muehleberg and Leibstadt were replaced by strainers with larger surface areas. The re-inspection of crack indications previously detected in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor and the penetration tubes in the reactor pressure vessel closure head of Beznau revealed no growth during the intervening operating periods. Following the completion of installation activities during the annual outages at Beznau Unit 1, Goesgen and Leibstadt, all Swiss nuclear power plants are now equipped with filtered containment venting systems. (author) figs., tabs

  18. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  19. Operating procedure automation to enhance safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husseiny, A.A.; Sabri, Z.A.; Adams, S.K.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Packer, D.; Holmes, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Use of logic statements and computer assist are explored as means for automation and improvement on design of operating procedures including those employed in abnormal and emergency situations. Operating procedures for downpower and loss of forced circulation are used for demonstration. Human-factors analysis is performed on generic emergency operating procedures for three strategies of control; manual, semi-automatic and automatic, using standard emergency operating procedures. Such preliminary analysis shows that automation of procedures is feasible provided that fault-tolerant software and hardware become available for design of the controllers. Recommendations are provided for tests to substantiate the promise of enhancement of plant safety. Adequate design of operating procedures through automation may alleviate several major operational problems of nuclear power plants. Also, automation of procedures is necessary for partial or overall automatic control of plants. Fully automatic operations are needed for space applications while supervised automation of land-based and offshore plants may become the thrust of new generation of nulcear power plants. (orig.)

  20. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA's safety requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Safety objectives and principles; 3. The management and organizational structure of the operating organization; 4. Management of operational safety; 5. Operational safety programmes; 6. Plant commissioning; 7. Plant operations; 8. Maintenance, testing, surveillance and inspection; 9. Preparation for decommissioning.

  1. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA's safety requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Safety objectives and principles; 3. The management and organizational structure of the operating organization; 4. Management of operational safety; 5. Operational safety programmes; 6. Plant commissioning; 7. Plant operations; 8. Maintenance, testing, surveillance and inspection; 9. Preparation for decommissioning.

  2. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Arabic Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA's safety requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Safety objectives and principles; 3. The management and organizational structure of the operating organization; 4. Management of operational safety; 5. Operational safety programmes; 6. Plant commissioning; 7. Plant operations; 8. Maintenance, testing, surveillance and inspection; 9. Preparation for decommissioning.

  3. Psychological characteristics of licensed nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwaj, T.; Ford, T.; McGee, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The safe production of electricity by nuclear power plants has been the focus of considerable attention. Much of this concern has been focused on equipment and procedural issues, with less attention to the psychological factors that affect the operations staff of the plants, i.e., those individuals who are most directly responsible for a plant's operations. Stress and type A qualities would be significant for these individuals because of their relationships to job performance and health. Of equal significance would be work-related factors, such as job involvement and work pressure. Also of interest would be hostile tendencies because of the need for cooperation and communications among operations staff. Two variables could influence these psychological factors. One is the degree of responsibility for a plant's nuclear reactors. The individuals with the greatest responsibility are licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). There are also individuals with less direct responsibilities who are not licensed. A second variable is the operating status of the plant, whether or not the plant is currently producing electricity. Relative to ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants, these data suggest a positive view of licensed operators. Of interest are the greater stress scores in the licensed staff of the operating plant in contrast with their peers in the nonoperating plant

  4. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA's safety requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Safety objectives and principles; 3. The management and organizational structure of the operating organization; 4. Management of operational safety; 5. Operational safety programmes; 6. Plant commissioning; 7. Plant operations; 8. Maintenance, testing, surveillance and inspection; 9. Preparation for decommissioning.

  5. Operation of Modern Distribution Power Systems in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao

    , DG units, loads and electricity price are studied. Further, the effect of energy storage systems will be considered, and an optimal operation strategy for energy storage devices in a large scale wind power system in the electricity market is proposed. The western Danish power system, which has large...... strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market in order to minimize the imbalance costs for regulation. A load optimization method based on spot price for demand side management in Denmark is proposed in order to save the energy costs for 3 types of typical Danish consumers...... maximum profit of the BESS is proposed. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studied. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are then proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV owners. Furthermore...

  6. Meteorological safeguarding of nuclear power plant operation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, J.; Skulec, S.

    1976-01-01

    A meteorological tower 200 m high has to be built for meteorological control of the operation of the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. This meteorological station will measure the physical properties of the lower layers of the atmosphere, carry out experimental verifications of the models of air pollution, investigate the effects of waste heat and waste water from the nuclear power plant on the microclimate, provide the theoretical processing of measured data with the aim of selecting the most favourable model for conditions prevailing in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, perform basic research of the physical properties of the ground and boundary layers of the atmosphere and the coordination of state-wide plans in the field of securing the operation of nuclear power plants with regard to meteorology. (Z.M.)

  7. A methodology for nuclear power plant operational events evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jeferson, E-mail: jeferson@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e do Ciclo de Combustivel; Costa, Sergio Dias, E-mail: sergiodiascosta@hotmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Operational events are normal occurrences in industrial plants and in nuclear power plants. The evaluation of operational events gains importance when it comes specifically to nuclear power plants due to the proportions that the impact and the consequences of these events may cause to the installation itself, their workers, the external area of the nuclear installation, the environment and to the public in general. These consequences, for the operation of these facilities can range from very little, until the consequences that lead to accidents and can cause significant impacts. Operational events may be associated or have influence in many fields of knowledge, such as operation, maintenance, engineering, Radiological Protection, physical protection, chemistry, Human or Organizational Factors and external events, among others. The accident at the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant, shows the importance of exhausting all the studies concerning operational events in order to improve the operational safety of nuclear plants, considering all the causes and possible consequences. In this context, the evaluation of operational events discipline emerges as an important and relevant tool to contribute to the maintenance and/or improvement of the operational safety of nuclear installations. Not without reason the nuclear industry actively participates in programs of exchange of operational experience, where relevant events are thoroughly evaluated and discussed in specific forums, such as power plant operators, regulators and/or joint technical meetings, always with the purpose to prevent, minimize or mitigate its consequences. Any evaluation of operational events passes necessarily by an in-depth study of the circumstances of the event, culminating with the identification of your cause and proposition of corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar events. Additionally, the events should not be studied individually, but evaluated within a temporal context in order

  8. A methodology for nuclear power plant operational events evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jeferson

    2015-01-01

    Operational events are normal occurrences in industrial plants and in nuclear power plants. The evaluation of operational events gains importance when it comes specifically to nuclear power plants due to the proportions that the impact and the consequences of these events may cause to the installation itself, their workers, the external area of the nuclear installation, the environment and to the public in general. These consequences, for the operation of these facilities can range from very little, until the consequences that lead to accidents and can cause significant impacts. Operational events may be associated or have influence in many fields of knowledge, such as operation, maintenance, engineering, Radiological Protection, physical protection, chemistry, Human or Organizational Factors and external events, among others. The accident at the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant, shows the importance of exhausting all the studies concerning operational events in order to improve the operational safety of nuclear plants, considering all the causes and possible consequences. In this context, the evaluation of operational events discipline emerges as an important and relevant tool to contribute to the maintenance and/or improvement of the operational safety of nuclear installations. Not without reason the nuclear industry actively participates in programs of exchange of operational experience, where relevant events are thoroughly evaluated and discussed in specific forums, such as power plant operators, regulators and/or joint technical meetings, always with the purpose to prevent, minimize or mitigate its consequences. Any evaluation of operational events passes necessarily by an in-depth study of the circumstances of the event, culminating with the identification of your cause and proposition of corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar events. Additionally, the events should not be studied individually, but evaluated within a temporal context in order

  9. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of proper site selection, design, construction and commissioning, and the evaluation of these, followed by proper management, operation and maintenance of the plant. In a later phase, a proper transition to decommissioning is required. The organization and management of plant operations ensures that a high level of safety is achieved through the effective management and control of operational activities. This publication is a revision of the Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 2000 as IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2. The purpose of this revision was to restructure Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2 in the light of new operating experience and new trends in the nuclear industry; to introduce new requirements that were not included in Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2 on the operation of nuclear power plants; and to reflect current practices, new concepts and technical developments. This update also reflects feedback on the use of the standards, both from Member States and from the IAEA's safety related activities. The publication is presented in the new format for Safety Requirements publications. The present publication reflects the safety principles of the Fundamental Safety Principles. It has been harmonized with IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3 on The Management System for Facilities and Activities. Guidance on the fulfilment of the safety requirements is provided in supporting Safety Guides. The terminology used in this publication is defined and explained in the IAEA Safety Glossary. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. This

  10. A subleading power operator basis for the scalar quark current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cyuan-Han; Stewart, Iain W.; Vita, Gherardo

    2018-04-01

    Factorization theorems play a crucial role in our understanding of the strong interaction. For collider processes they are typically formulated at leading power and much less is known about power corrections in the λ ≪ 1 expansion. Here we present a complete basis of power suppressed operators for a scalar quark current at O({λ}^2) in the amplitude level power expansion in the Soft Collinear Effective Theory, demonstrating that helicity selection rules significantly simplify the construction. This basis applies for the production of any color singlet scalar in q\\overline{q} annihilation (such as b\\overline{b}\\to H ). We also classify all operators which contribute to the cross section at O({λ}^2) and perform matching calculations to determine their tree level Wilson coefficients. These results can be exploited to study power corrections in both resummed and fixed order perturbation theory, and for analyzing the factorization properties of gauge theory amplitudes and cross sections at subleading power.

  11. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  12. On Analytic Continuation of the Power Series Outside of the Convergence Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levon Nurbekyan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In current work we discuss the issue of the analytic continuation of a power series along a logarithmic spiral outside of the convergence disc. A necessary and sufficient condition in terms of the interpolating entire function is obtained. Moreover, the relation in between the possibility of analytic continuation and the density of the lacunas of a power series is studied.

  13. Leakage characterization of a piloted power operated relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.; Hess, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    In Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), power operated relief valves (PORVs) are used to provide overpressure protection of the Pressurizer. The valves are fail closed globe valves which means that power is required to open the valves and, on loss of power, the valves close. There are two ways to operate the PORVs. The more common way is to directly couple the disc to an actuator via a disc-stem assembly. The type of design is not the object of this paper. The other and less common way of operating a PORV is by piloting the main valve such that the opening or closing of a pilot valve opens and closes the main valve. This is the design of interest. In most plants, the PORVs are installed with a water loop seal while in some plants no water loop seals are used. It is generally accepted that loop seal installation minimizes valve seat leakage. In non-loop seal installation, the valve seat is exposed to steam which increases the potential for seat leakage. This paper describes the results of some tests performed with nitrogen and steam to characterize the leakage potential of a pilot operated PORV. The test results were compared with seat leakage tests of check valves to provide insight on the leakage testing of pilot operated valves and check valves. The paper also compares the test data with leakage estimates using the ASME/ANSI OM Code guidance on valve leakage

  14. Quality management for nuclear power plant operation: A manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The experience from well operated nuclear power plants shows that achievement of safe, reliable and economic performance is closely related to a strong commitment and involvement by the management personnel. A system of controls is necessary to ensure that satisfactory quality in operation is achieved and maintained over the long term. The key to achieving and assuring quality lies in the ability of management to define performance objectives and to ensure that significant safety and reliability problems are prevented or detected early and resolved. This Manual has been developed by the IAEA to assist plant managers in fulfilling their responsibility with regard to the control and direction of quality and of quality assurance activities in nuclear power plant operation. It emphasizes quality objectives for nuclear power plant operation and indicates the way in which a quality system based on quality assurance principles as established in the IAEA NUSS documents can be used by managers to accomplish these objectives. Since the Manual is mainly directed at management personnel, it is presented in the form of short highlighted practices complemented by typical examples of forms and procedures. Since not all the activities under the heading of quality in operation could be covered in a single document, the activities selected for this Manual comprise those where it was felt that practical advice is generally needed. A pragmatic document useful for direct application by plant managers was the envisaged objective

  15. The evaluation of operator reliability factors on power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, Itjeu; Supriatna, Piping; W, Suharyo; Santosa, Kussigit; Darlis; S, Bambang; Y, Sasongko

    1999-01-01

    The sophisticated technology system was not assured the reliability system itself because it has contained a part of human dependence affected successfully of reactor operation either how work smoothly and safe or failure ac cured and then accident appears promptly. The evaluation of operator reliability factor on ABWR power reactor has been carried out which consist of criterion skill and workload according to NUREG/CR-2254, NUREG/CR-4016 and NUREG-0835 the reactor operation reliability emphasize to the operator are synergic between skill and workload themselves. The employee's skill will affect to the type and level of their tasks. The operator's skill depend on education and experiences, position or responsibility of tasks, physical conditions (age uninvalid of physic/mental

  16. Continuous operation of a pilot plant for the production of beryllium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, T C; Amaral, S; Silveira, C M.S.; de Oliveira, A P [Instituto de Tecnologia, Governador Valadares (Brazil)

    1975-12-01

    A method of obtaining beryllium oxide with a purity of 99,2% was developed in a pilot plant with a capacity of 7 tons per month destined to operate continuously. The operation market prospects and control of production with the objective of obtaining internacional technical grade beryllium oxide are discussed.

  17. Continuous operation of a pilot plant for the production of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, T.C.; Amaral, S.; Silveira, C.M.S.; Oliveira, A.P. de

    1975-01-01

    A method of obtaining beryllium oxide with a purity of 99,2% was developed in a pilot plant with a capacity of 7 tons per month destined to operate continuously. The operation market prospects and control of production with the objective of obtaining internacional technical grade beryllium oxide are discussed [pt

  18. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When operating...

  19. Hydrogen-powered lawn mower: 14 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, K.; Lorenzoni, J.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Our hydrogen-powered lawn mower [Yvon K, Lorenzoni J-L. Hydrogen powered lawn mower. Int J Hydrogen Energy 1993; 18, 345-48] has been operated without major interruption during the past 14 years. The commercial model was originally running on gasoline and was adapted to hydrogen by making small adjustments to the carburettor and by installing a hydrogen reservoir containing solid-state metal hydrides. During the evaluation period the only maintenance work was changing the lubricating oil of the engine once a year, and reactivating the metal hydride powder by external heating after an accidental inlet of air into the reservoir. There occurred no technical failure, and there was no safety incident, neither during operation nor during recharging of hydrogen. This demonstrates that a hydrogen-operated device of this type is mature for use by greater public. Cost and marketing issues are discussed. (author)

  20. Power consumption analysis of operating systems for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems--TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki--running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks.

  1. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  2. Nowcasting wind power for grid operation at RWE Transportnetz from Strom GmbH (RWE TSO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, B.; Vanzetta, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presented new methods of balancing power supply and demand for electricity systems that have a large share of wind power. Wind power forecasting plays a key role in integrating a large share of wind power into an electricity system, as it links the weather dependent production with the scheduled production of conventional power plants and the forecast of the electricity demand. Wind power forecasts are essential for grid operation. Since most European electricity markets focus on the day ahead market, wind balancing is also done the day ahead. A current trend is that the intra day markets are increasing in popularity and becoming more liquid. Therefore, nowcasting will play a vital role in improving wind power related economics because shorter timeframes are much easier and better to predict. Nowcasting uses actual measurements of weather and also considers power data. Many wind power prediction tools for day ahead forecasts are available. Most models have 3 common steps, notably numerical weather prediction, wind-to-power model and regional up-scaling. A comparison between recent measurements with the output of numerical weather models showed that nowcasting provides a forecast that outperforms a pure numerical weather forecast. The first results were very promising. All 3 nowcasting solutions were found to have their own unique advantages and limitations. Ongoing research will continue to improve wind power prediction. 2 refs., 3 figs

  3. Load following operation of nuclear power plants for meeting power system requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, Hachiro

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a calculating program on the availability factors of nuclear, thermal and pumed storage hydro power stations and some calculated results for typical three load factors, 55 %, 60 % and 71 %, are provided when the share of the nuclea power station in the generation facilities is increased. The load following requirement of the nuclear power station is also provided. Load following requirement: If there is a 10 % pumped storage hydro power station, the nuclear power station enables to be operated with its rated output up to 30 % - 35 % of its share. Its daily load following operation for 40 % and 50 % nuclear power station needs every weekend and every day respectively. Availability factor: The availability factor of the nuclear power station manages to get 80 % (maximum availability factor of the nuclear power station in this study) up to 30 % share of it with 10 % pumpued storage hydro power station. When the nuclear power station shares 40 % and 50 %, its availability factor decreases down 1 % and 5 % respectively. (author)

  4. Continuing the service of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Concrete structures play a vital role in the safe operation of all light-water reactor plants because they provide foundation, support, shielding and containment functions. History tells us that concrete is a durable material. However, a number of factors can compromise its performance, singly or in combination: (1) faulty design, (2) use of unsuitable materials, (3) improper workmanship, (4) exposure to aggressive environments, and (5) excessive structural loads. Furthermore, aging of nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures occurs with the passage of time and has the potential, if its effects are not controlled, to increase the risk to public health and safety. Although limited, incidences of degradation of concrete structures in NPPs indicate that there is a need for improved surveillance, inspection/testing, and maintenance to enhance the technical bases for assurance of continued safe operation of NPPs. Guidelines and criteria for use in evaluating the remaining structural margins (residual life) are required. Potential regulatory applications of this research include: improved predictions of long-term material and structural performance and available safety margins at future times; establishment of limits on exposure to environmental stressors; reduction in total reliance by licensing on inspection and surveillance through development of a methodology which will enable the integrity of structures to be assessed (either pre- or post-accident); and improvements in damage inspection methodology through potential incorporation of results into national standards which could be referenced by standard review plans

  5. A low power CMOS 3.3 Gbps continuous-time adaptive equalizer for serial link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Hao; Zhou Yumei; Zhao Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes using a high-speed continuous-time analog adaptive equalizer as the front-end of a receiver for a high-speed serial interface, which is compliant with many serial communication specifications such as USB2.0, PCI-E2.0 and Rapid IO. The low and high frequency loops are merged to decrease the effect of delay between the two paths, in addition, the infinite input impedance facilitates the cascade stages in order to improve the high frequency boosting gain. The implemented circuit architecture could facilitate the wide frequency range from 1 to 3.3 Gbps with different length FR4-PCB traces, which brings as much as 25 dB loss. The replica control circuits are injected to provide a convenient way to regulate common-mode voltage for full differential operation. In addition, AC coupling is adopted to suppress the common input from the forward stage. A prototype chip was fabricated in 0.18-μm 1P6M mixed-signal CMOS technology. The actual area is 0.6 x 0.57 mm 2 and the analog equalizer operates up to 3.3 Gbps over FR4-PCB trace with 25 dB loss. The overall power dissipation is approximately 23.4 mW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. A low power CMOS 3.3 Gbps continuous-time adaptive equalizer for serial link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ju; Yumei, Zhou; Jianzhong, Zhao

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes using a high-speed continuous-time analog adaptive equalizer as the front-end of a receiver for a high-speed serial interface, which is compliant with many serial communication specifications such as USB2.0, PCI-E2.0 and Rapid IO. The low and high frequency loops are merged to decrease the effect of delay between the two paths, in addition, the infinite input impedance facilitates the cascade stages in order to improve the high frequency boosting gain. The implemented circuit architecture could facilitate the wide frequency range from 1 to 3.3 Gbps with different length FR4-PCB traces, which brings as much as 25 dB loss. The replica control circuits are injected to provide a convenient way to regulate common-mode voltage for full differential operation. In addition, AC coupling is adopted to suppress the common input from the forward stage. A prototype chip was fabricated in 0.18-μm 1P6M mixed-signal CMOS technology. The actual area is 0.6 × 0.57 mm2 and the analog equalizer operates up to 3.3 Gbps over FR4-PCB trace with 25 dB loss. The overall power dissipation is approximately 23.4 mW.

  7. Staffing of nuclear power plants and the recruitment, training and authorization of operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPP). It supplements Safety Series No. 50-C-O(Rev.1) ''Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation''. The present version of this Guide is a revision which takes into account the developments, particularly in training practices, which have taken place since the first edition appeared in 1979. The objective of this Safety Guide is to outline various factors to be considered in order to ensure that the operating organization has a sufficient number of qualified and motivated personnel for the operation of NPP. The Guide covers the organization for a NPP, the requirements in terms of education and experience for the various members of the operating personnel to be recruited, the recruitment, the training and continuing training programmes, as well as the authorizations for persons whose duties have an immediate bearing on safety

  8. Fessenheim 2: ASN's green light for continuing operation - Beginning of the works for unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    Every 10 years a nuclear power plant operator has to make a re-assessment of the nuclear safety standard of his plant. This re-assessment is made of 2 parts: first the review of the safety conformity and secondly a thorough re-examination of the safety that takes into account today's safety standards and feedback experience from similar plants. This detailed assessment of the safety aims at checking that the consequences of the different aging phenomena are well mastered for the next 10 years at least. At the end of this re-assessment, the ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authorities) decide or not the continuation of plant activity or can prescribe safety improvements. In the case of the unit 2 of the Fessenheim plant that has just finished its third decennial safety re-assessment, the ASN has prescribed the same improvements as for the unit 1, that is to say the reinforcement of the resistance to corium of the foundation raft and an improvement on the emergency cooling system. The works on the unit 1 have begun despite contestation from anti-nuclear associations that question the cost of the safety upgrading (20 to 30 millions euros) while the unit is expected to be decommissioned by end 2016. (A.C.)

  9. Management of nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture covers management aspects which have an immediate bearing on safety and identifies the objectives and tasks of management which are required for safe operation of a nuclear power plant and is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. This lecture - discusses the factors to be considered in structuring the operating organization, the support to be provided to plant management, the services and facilities needed and the management system for assuring the safety tasks are performed - describes the responsibilities of plant management and operating organization - outlines the requirements for recruitment, training and retraining as well as qualification and authorization of personnel - describes the programmes for maintenance, testing, examination, inspection, radiological protection, quality assurance, waste management, fuel management, emergency arrangement and security - describes the development of plant operating procedures including procedures to protect the personnel - outlines the requirements for initial and subsequent operation - describes the importance for evaluation and feedback of operating experience - describes the procedures for changes in hardware, procedures and set points - outlines the information flow and the requirements in reference to records and reports. (orig./RW)

  10. The safety approach in the operation of EDF power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, L.; Mira, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    To get a view on what is involved in maintaining a high level of safety in the operation of EdF nuclear power plants, it may be recalled that in 1987, 76 % of the EdF production was nuclear. The nuclear plants include thirty-four standard PWR 900 plants, fourteen PWR 1300 plants, the 305 MW SENA PWR, the four 500 MW GCR: CHINON A3 plant, St-LAURENT A1 (390 MW), A2 (450 MW) and BUGEY 1 (540 MW), the 233 MW PHENIX fast breeder reactor and the CREYS-MALVILLE 1200 MW fast breeder reactor, now being prepared for a new startup after the 1987 incident. So the importance of a safe operation of this investment is considerable for EdF, which is the designer, owner, industrial architect and operator. According to the French regulations, EdF is responsible for the safe operation of its power plants. A considerable human component is also at stake, as the safe operation of plants implies all the personnel to varying degrees. There are 15,000 such employees, all of whom have to be trained, competent and motivated. The operation of this system for 340 reactor-years has to-date resulted in no incident of any significant impact on the environment. Right from the start, safety in operation has always been an essential and clearly stated priority. Among other lessons the Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have reinforced the conviction that the human factors, the man-machine interface, and the safety culture were determining elements. With forty-eigh PWR plants in service, the problem is to maintain safe operation of a system now running at cruising speed, but also including some units (particularly the GCRs) that must be prepared for decommissioning. In addition EDF has to demonstrate the safe operations of CREYS MALVILLE, fast breeder reactor

  11. Effects of delaying the operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.; Rainey, J.A.; Tepel, R.C.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1983-12-01

    This report documents a study of an actual 24-month nuclear power plant licensing delay. A representative utility was chosen for examination. The research was oriented toward determination of the licensing delay's impact on the utility's operating results, ratepayers, and security issues. The methodology utilized to estimate those impacts involved the recursive interaction of a generation costing program to estimate replacement fuel costs and a financial regulatory model to concomitantly determine the impact on the utility, its ratepayers and security issues. The latter model was executed under six alternate scenarios: (1) no delay in the plant's operation; (2) a 24-month delay; (3) a 24-month delay but further assuming all replacement power was generated by coal-fired plants; (4) a 24-month delay assuming all replacement power from oil-fired plants; (5) no delay but assuming the capital cost of the plant was twice as large; and (6) a 24-month delay with the capital cost of the plant twice as large. Three primary conclusions were made. First, under all scenarios, a 24-month delay in operation of the plant has an adverse impact on the utility's internal generation of funds. Second, although electricity rates are not appreciably affected by the delay, the direction of electricity price changes is contingent on the source of fuel used for replacement power. Finally, a 24-month delay has an adverse impact on the indicators used to evaluate the financial soundness of the utility in all cases under consideration

  12. Recent operating experience during startup testing at latest 1100 MWe BWR-5 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira; Tateishi, Mizuo; Kajikawa, Makoto; Hayase, Yuichi.

    1986-01-01

    In June and September 1985, the latest two 1100 Mwe BWR-5 nuclear power plants started commercial operation about ten days earlier than initially expected without any unscheduled shutdown. These latest plants, 2F-3 and K-1, are characterized by an improved core with new 8 x 8 fuel assemblies, highly reliable control systems, advanced control room system and turbine steam full bypass system for full load rejection (2F3). This paper describes the following operating experiences gained during their startup testing. 1) Continuous operation at full load rejection. 2) Stable operation at natural circulating flow condition. 3) 31 and 23 hour short time start up operation. 4) 100-75-100 %, 1-8-1-14 hours daily load following operation. (author)

  13. Information needs in nuclear power plants during low power operation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommila, Teemu; Fantoni, Paolo F.; Zander, Ralf M.

    1998-02-01

    During the past few years an increasing attention has been paid to the safety of shutdown and refuelling operations. It has turned out that the risks during shutdown may be comparable to the risks of power operation. The goal of this report is to identify information requirements related to low power operating modes of nuclear power plants. These include, for example, warm and cold shutdowns, refuelling and maintenance, as well as related state transitions such as start-up and shut-down. The focus of the report is on planned refuelling outages and the role of the control room in managing the outage activities. As a starting point, the basic terminology and characteristics of low power operation are discussed. The current situation at nuclear power plants and some recent developments in information technology are reviewed. End-users' requirements and enabling technologies are combined in order to identify the opportunities for new information technology tools in low power operation. The required features of process control systems and maintenance information systems are described. Common plant modelling techniques, open software architectures and functional structuring of the process control system are suggested to be the key issues in the long-term development of operator support systems. On a shorter time scale, new tools solving limited practical problems should be developed and evaluated. This would provide a basis for the features needed for low power operation, including for example, outage planning, on-line risk monitoring, management of outage tasks, adaptive alarm handling, computerised procedures and task-oriented human interfaces. (author)

  14. Discussion on anti-flood renovation of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangang; Chen Haiqiao; Zhang Lihan; Wang Sen; Liu Shifeng

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plants on anti-flood performance was only based on design basis condition in China. The Fukushima nuclear accident revealed the possibility of suffering flood under beyond design basis condition, which caused the continuously deterioration of Fukushima nuclear accident. After the accident, China national nuclear safety regulators proposed new requirements on performance of anti-flood of nuclear power plants. Then, Qinshan Phase II carried out research of anti-flood technology. This paper introduced the background, research and development of anti-flood renovation technology for important safety buildings of Qinshan Phase II, and discussed the necessary for improvement of anti-flood capacity of nuclear power plants and relative measures in China, which is helpful to improve anti-flood performance of operational nuclear power plants and nuclear power plants under construction. (authors)

  15. Using management of aging in German nuclear power plants - aspects of KTA 1403 pertaining to residual power operation, post-shutdown operation and residual operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, Pablo; Bever, Thomas; Brast, Gerhard; Elsche, Bjoern; Reese, Sven H.; Grossmann, Patrick; Widera, Martin; Huettner, Frank; Linnemann, Thomas; Smit, Swen-Olaf; Zander, Ralf-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Management of aging in nuclear power plants originated in the United States of America and became a topic of debate in Germany from the late 1990s onward. On the basis of the existing plant-specific measures practiced comprehensively, KTA 1403, ''Management of Aging in Nuclear Power Plants'', was drafted and finalized in 2010. This publication first presents the context of AM with regard to German nuclear power plants, including references to national and international historical developments. Against this backdrop, the difference between management of aging and lifetime management is discussed next. This is followed by a description of the status of the AM process in nuclear power plants currently in operation, especially organizational plant-specific implementation. As a consequence of the decision by the German federal government to discontinue the peaceful use of nuclear power in Germany and the associated 13th amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of July 31, 2011, a considerable part of the German nuclear power plant park already lost its right of power operation. In this situation, aspects of AM are discussed for plants in the no-power, post-operation and residual operation phases. Finally, experience accumulated in plant-specific execution of the AM process on the basis of KTA 1403 is considered and summarized.

  16. Nuclear power plants after Angra-3. Property and operation flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppe, Lothario

    2008-01-01

    The present work analyses the consequences that will be introduced with the modifications in the actual existing systematic related to the property and operation of nuclear power plants, coming from the legislation of 2004 that establishes that the electric energy distribution concessionaires acquire energy for attending its markets through bid in the modality of auction conducted by ANEEL - Brazilian Agency of Electric Energy. This systematic means that probably the Nuclear Power Plants after Angra-3 will be submitted to this auction process. The present report analyses all these questions and proposes solutions that seems to be the most obvious and viable

  17. Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  18. Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, this standard will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  19. The Chooz power station: ten years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teste du Bailler, Andre

    1977-01-01

    The switching into actual service of the Chooz plant, the first pressurized water reactor ever built in France, occurred on 3rd april 1967. Ten years later, one can establish a highly positive balance schedule of plant's operation whose availability is satisfactory, except the mechanical failure which occurred during the startup. The behavior of the equipment, in particular of the components of the primary loop, was satisfactory in its whole since it allowed the gradual increase in capacity by 15% with respect to the initial design. It allowed also the achievment of noticeable progress in the design of equipment intended for the new power stations. Interesting results have also been obtained in radioprotection, working conditions of the staff and environment protection fields. Finally, the training of the operating teams has been closely followed, whether it concerned the operators directly affected by plant operation or the trainees gathered in a school specially organized for this purpose and transferred since to a training Center [fr

  20. Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience.