WorldWideScience

Sample records for continuous knapsack problems

  1. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  2. Optimalisasi Penyelesaian Knapsack Problem Dengan Algoritma Genetika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Supriana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knapsack problems is a problem that often we encounter in everyday life. Knapsack problem itself is a problem where a person faced with the problems of optimization on the selection of objects that can be inserted into the container which has limited space or capacity. Problems knapsack problem can be solved by various optimization algorithms, one of which uses a genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithms in solving problems mimicking the theory of evolution of living creatures. The components of the genetic algorithm is composed of a population consisting of a collection of individuals who are candidates for the solution of problems knapsack. The process of evolution goes dimulasi of the selection process, crossovers and mutations in each individual in order to obtain a new population. The evolutionary process will be repeated until it meets the criteria o f an optimum of the resulting solution. The problems highlighted in this research is how to resolve the problem by applying a genetic algorithm knapsack. The results obtained by the testing of the system is built, that the knapsack problem can optimize the placement of goods in containers or capacity available. Optimizing the knapsack problem can be maximized with the appropriate input parameters.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of a greedy heuristic for knapsack problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, D; Chakravarti, N; Sierksma, G

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out parametric analysis as well as a tolerance limit based sensitivity analysis of a greedy heuristic for two knapsack problems-the 0-1 knapsack problem and the subset sum problem. We carry out the parametric analysis based on all problem parameters. In the tolerance limit

  4. Performance of population size on Knapsack problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oyewola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an investigation of a performance of population size on the genetic algorithm (GA for a knapsack problem is considered. Population sizes between 10 and 200 chromosomes in the population are tested. In order to obtain meaningful information about the performance of the population size, a considerable number of independent runs of the GA are performed. Accurate model parameters values are obtained in reasonable computational time. Further increase of the population size, does not improve the solution accuracy. Moreover, the computational time is increased significantly.

  5. Substantiation of a heuristic algorithm in the knapsack problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н.В. KHalipovа

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Formed knapsack problem in terms of set functions and is a heuristic algorithm. The goal: to prove that the heuristic algorithm is essential. Some facts from [2]. The equivalence of the limit order to E.Borelyu and convergence in measure. The theorem about the need to set a maximum of function. The situation is quite the algorithm: We present three cases where a heuristic algorithm is sufficient. Counterexample: An Rear take from [1], and given the addition heuristic algorithm, which allows to obtain the solution of the knapsack problem. Vector optimization: With the knapsack problem is tied vector optimization of investment activities. Conclusions: The proposed algorithm for solving the knapsack problem and for additive functions algorithm for Pareto solutions of vector optimization for the two indicators. Appendix: an agenda for the Maple solutions knapsack problem.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of the greedy heuristic for binary knapsack problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, D.; Chakravarti, N.; Sierksma, G.

    2000-01-01

    Greedy heuristics are a popular choice of heuristics when we have to solve a large variety of NP -hard combinatorial problems. In particular for binary knapsack problems, these heuristics generate good results. If some uncertainty exists beforehand regarding the value of any one element in the

  7. Solving the Extended Tree Knapsack Problem with xed cost ow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parts of the Local Access Telecommunication Network planning problem may be modelled as an Extended Tree Knapsack Problem. The Local Access Telecommunication Network can contribute up to 60% of the total network costs. This paper presents partitioning algorithms that use standard o-the-shelf software coupled ...

  8. Polyhedral combinatorics of the cardinality constrained quadratic knapsack problem and the quadratic selective travelling salesman problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Vicky; Thomadsen, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the cardinality constrained quadratic knapsack problem (QKP) and the quadratic selective travelling salesman problem (QSTSP). The QKP is a generalization of the knapsack problem and the QSTSP is a generalization of the travelling salesman problem. Thus, both problems are NP...

  9. A Novel Discrete Global-Best Harmony Search Algorithm for Solving 0-1 Knapsack Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-li Xiang

    2014-01-01

    is applied to decide whether or not a new randomly generated harmony is included into the HM. The proposed DGHS is evaluated on twenty knapsack problems with different scales and compared with other three metaheuristics from the literature. The experimental results indicate that DGHS is efficient, effective, and robust for solving difficult 0-1 knapsack problems.

  10. Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem: example of planning choice in transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Young, Rhonda

    2010-05-01

    Transportation programming, a process of selecting projects for funding given budget and other constraints, is becoming more complex as a result of new federal laws, local planning regulations, and increased public involvement. This article describes the use of an integer programming tool, Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem (MCKP), to provide optimal solutions to transportation programming problems in cases where alternative versions of projects are under consideration. In this paper, optimization methods for use in the transportation programming process are compared and then the process of building and solving the optimization problems is discussed. The concepts about the use of MCKP are presented and a real-world transportation programming example at various budget levels is provided. This article illustrates how the use of MCKP addresses the modern complexities and provides timely solutions in transportation programming practice. While the article uses transportation programming as a case study, MCKP can be useful in other fields where a similar decision among a subset of the alternatives is required. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for the knapsack problem: first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Peter; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for combinatorial optimization, apply this method to several variants of the multidimensional knapsack problem, and discuss its performance relative to Michalewicz's genetic algorithm with penalty functions. With respect to Michalewicz's approach, we demonstrate that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints improves convergence. A final result is that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints is ideally suited to modeling complementarities between items in a knapsack problem: The more complementarities in the problem, the stronger the performance in comparison to its competitors.

  12. Dual mean field search for large scale linear and quadratic knapsack problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Juan; Velasco, Jonás; Berrones, Arturo

    2017-07-01

    An implementation of mean field annealing to deal with large scale linear and non linear binary optimization problems is given. Mean field annealing is based on the analogy between combinatorial optimization and interacting physical systems at thermal equilibrium. Specifically, a mean field approximation of the Boltzmann distribution given by a Lagrangian that encompass the objective function and the constraints is calculated. The original discrete task is in this way transformed into a continuous variational problem. In our version of mean field annealing, no temperature parameter is used, but a good starting point in the dual space is given by a ;thermodynamic limit; argument. The method is tested in linear and quadratic knapsack problems with sizes that are considerably larger than those used in previous studies of mean field annealing. Dual mean field annealing is capable to find high quality solutions in running times that are orders of magnitude shorter than state of the art algorithms. Moreover, as may be expected for a mean field theory, the solutions tend to be more accurate as the number of variables grow.

  13. A New Optimization Model for the Sustainable Development: Quadratic Knapsack Problem with Conflict Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New information technology constantly improves the efficiency of social networks. Using optimization and decision models in the context of large data sets attracts extensive attention. This paper investigates a novel mathematical model for designing and optimizing environmental economic policies in a protection zone. The proposed model is referred to as the quadratic knapsack problem with conflict graphs, which is a new variant of the knapsack problem family. Due to the investigated problem processing a high complex structure, in order to solve efficiently the problem, we develop a metaheuristic which is based on the large neighborhood search. The proposed method embeds a construction procedure into a sophistical neighborhood search. For more details, the construction procedure takes charge of finding a starting solution while the investigated neighborhood search is used to generate and explore the solution space issuing from the provided starting solution. In order to highlight our theoretical model, we evaluate the model on a set of complex benchmark data sets. The obtained results demonstrate that the investigated algorithm is competitive and efficient compared to legacy algorithms.

  14. A hybrid guided neighborhood search for the disjunctively constrained knapsack problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhand Hifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the use of a hybrid guided neighborhood search for solving the disjunctively constrained knapsack problem. The studied problem may be viewed as a combination of two NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems: the weighted-independent set and the classical binary knapsack. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid approach that combines both deterministic and random local searches. The deterministic local search is based on a descent method, where both building and exploring procedures are alternatively used for improving the solution at hand. In order to escape from a local optima, a random local search strategy is introduced which is based on a modified ant colony optimization system. During the search process, the ant colony optimization system tries to diversify and to enhance the solutions using some informations collected from the previous iterations. Finally, the proposed algorithm is computationally analyzed on a set of benchmark instances available in the literature. The provided results are compared to those realized by both the Cplex solver and a recent algorithm of the literature. The computational part shows that the obtained results improve most existing solution values.

  15. Knapsack Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourim Yoon

    2013-01-01

    potentiality of using a memetic algorithm. So we use a memetic algorithm to find the optimal Lagrange multipliers. We show the efficiency of the proposed method by the experiments on well-known benchmark data.

  16. Resource allocation on computational grids using a utility model and the knapsack problem

    CERN Document Server

    Van der ster, Daniel C; Parra-Hernandez, Rafael; Sobie, Randall J

    2009-01-01

    This work introduces a utility model (UM) for resource allocation on computational grids and formulates the allocation problem as a variant of the 0–1 multichoice multidimensional knapsack problem. The notion of task-option utility is introduced, and it is used to effect allocation policies. We present a variety of allocation policies, which are expressed as functions of metrics that are both intrinsic and external to the task and resources. An external user-defined credit-value metric is shown to allow users to intervene in the allocation of urgent or low priority tasks. The strategies are evaluated in simulation against random workloads as well as those drawn from real systems. We measure the sensitivity of the UM-derived schedules to variations in the allocation policies and their corresponding utility functions. The UM allocation strategy is shown to optimally allocate resources congruent with the chosen policies.

  17. An approach for optimal allocation of safety resources: using the knapsack problem to take aggregated cost-efficient preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    On the basis of the combination of the well-known knapsack problem and a widely used risk management technique in organizations (that is, the risk matrix), an approach was developed to carry out a cost-benefits analysis to efficiently take prevention investment decisions. Using the knapsack problem as a model and combining it with a well-known technique to solve this problem, bundles of prevention measures are prioritized based on their costs and benefits within a predefined prevention budget. Those bundles showing the highest efficiencies, and within a given budget, are identified from a wide variety of possible alternatives. Hence, the approach allows for an optimal allocation of safety resources, does not require any highly specialized information, and can therefore easily be applied by any organization using the risk matrix as a risk ranking tool. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. On а Recursive-Parallel Algorithm for Solving the Knapsack Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Vasilchikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we offer an efficient parallel algorithm for solving the NP-complete Knapsack Problem in its basic, so-called 0-1 variant. To find its exact solution, algorithms belonging to the category ”branch and bound methods” have long been used. To speed up the solving with varying degrees of efficiency, various options for parallelizing computations are also used. We propose here an algorithm for solving the problem, based on the paradigm of recursive-parallel computations. We consider it suited well for problems of this kind, when it is difficult to immediately break up the computations into a sufficient number of subtasks that are comparable in complexity, since they appear dynamically at run time. We used the RPM ParLib library, developed by the author, as the main tool to program the algorithm. This library allows us to develop effective applications for parallel computing on a local network in the .NET Framework. Such applications have the ability to generate parallel branches of computation directly during program execution and dynamically redistribute work between computing modules. Any language with support for the .NET Framework can be used as a programming language in conjunction with this library. For our experiments, we developed some C# applications using this library. The main purpose of these experiments was to study the acceleration achieved by recursive-parallel computing. A detailed description of the algorithm and its testing, as well as the results obtained, are also given in the paper.

  19. Integer 1/0 Knapsack Problem Dynamic Programming Approach in Building Maintenance Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viska Dewi Fawzy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common problem in urban areas is the high public demand and the limited provision of housing. In meeting the needs of affordable housing for low income communities, the Government of Indonesia implements Rusunawa Project. Object of this research is Pandanarang Rusunawa. Rusunawa Pandanarang is one of the vertical housing in Cilacap that is facing deterioration issue and needs good maintenance management. This study aims at insetting priority and optimizing maintenance plan due to limited funds (limited budget and the amount of damage that must be repaired.This study uses one of the optimization methods of Dynamic Programing on the application of Integer 1/0 Knapsack Problem, to determine an schedule the maintenance activities. The Criteria that are used such as: the level of building components damage and the level of occupants participation. In the first criterion, the benefit (p is the percentage of damage that is fixed with the cost (w. While on the second criterion, the benefit (p is the percentage of occupant participation rate on the maintenance activities with the cost (w. For the budget of Rp 125.000.000, 00, it was obtained from the simulation that the value of the optimum solution on the first criterion at the 7th stage of 71.88% with total cost Rp 106.000.000, 00. At the second criterion, the value of the optimum solution at the 7th stage of 89.29% with total cost Rp 124.000.000, 00.

  20. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Merged with Pheromone Communication Mechanism for the 0-1 Multidimensional Knapsack Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhong Ji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a set of n objects, the objective of the 0-1 multidimensional knapsack problem (MKP_01 is to find a subset of the object set that maximizes the total profit of the objects in the subset while satisfying m knapsack constraints. In this paper, we have proposed a new artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm for the MKP_01. The new ABC algorithm introduces a novel communication mechanism among bees, which bases on the updating and diffusion of inductive pheromone produced by bees. In a number of experiments and comparisons, our approach obtains better quality solutions in shorter time than the ABC algorithm without the mechanism. We have also compared the solution performance of our approach against some stochastic approaches recently reported in the literature. Computational results demonstrate the superiority of the new ABC approach over all the other approaches.

  1. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: Scheduling Applications of the Knapsack Problem and Sudoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessoms, E.; Clark, M.; Marganian, P.; McCarty, M.; Shelton, A.

    2009-09-01

    We applied algorithmic approaches to both theoretical and practical aspects of scheduling the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). When using a theoretical approach to scheduling, assigning a numerical value, or score, to a telescope period is only half of the problem. The other half consists of using the score to determine the best global arrangement of the telescope periods in order to maximize the scientific throughput of the telescope. The naive brute-force approach of trying all possible schedules is too computationally expensive. Instead we applied a well-studied approach from operations research, known as dynamic programming. Specifically, we found the so-called ``knapsack'' algorithm to be a good fit to this problem. On the other hand, we cannot actually achieve maximum theoretical efficiency due to many practical constraints on telescope scheduling. The most severe practical constraints are fixed periods that must be scheduled at a specific date and time regardless of possible score and windowed periods that must be scheduled in regular, recurring intervals. The primary difficulty in scheduling fixed and windowed sessions is that they have the potential to conflict and even to generate irresolvable conflicts (double booking). In working on this problem, we realized it shared many characteristics with the game of Sudoku. In Sudoku, there are many possible arrangements of the recurring numbers 1 through 9 (telescope sessions). Some of these are fixed (the hints) and the others must live in windows (distinct groups having one instance each of each digit). Sudoku puzzles are solved algorithmically using a heuristic-guided brute-force search. We followed a similar approach. A full brute-force search is, again, too computationally expensive, but we found ways to restrict the search enough to make it feasible. We used a number of heuristics but found the largest gains came from partitioning the problem into distinct subsets than can each be scheduled

  2. Facets for the Cardinality Constrained Quadratic Knapsack Problem and the Quadratic Selective Travelling Salesman Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Vicky; Thomadsen, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    A well-known extension of the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is the Selective (or Prize-collecting) TSP: In addition to the edge-costs, each node has an associated reward (denoted the node-reward) and instead of visiting all nodes, only profitable nodes are visited. The Quadratic Selective TSP...

  3. A Case Study of Controlling Crossover in a Selection Hyper-heuristic Framework Using the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, John H; Özcan, Ender; Burke, Edmund K

    2016-01-01

    Hyper-heuristics are high-level methodologies for solving complex problems that operate on a search space of heuristics. In a selection hyper-heuristic framework, a heuristic is chosen from an existing set of low-level heuristics and applied to the current solution to produce a new solution at each point in the search. The use of crossover low-level heuristics is possible in an increasing number of general-purpose hyper-heuristic tools such as HyFlex and Hyperion. However, little work has been undertaken to assess how best to utilise it. Since a single-point search hyper-heuristic operates on a single candidate solution, and two candidate solutions are required for crossover, a mechanism is required to control the choice of the other solution. The frameworks we propose maintain a list of potential solutions for use in crossover. We investigate the use of such lists at two conceptual levels. First, crossover is controlled at the hyper-heuristic level where no problem-specific information is required. Second, it is controlled at the problem domain level where problem-specific information is used to produce good-quality solutions to use in crossover. A number of selection hyper-heuristics are compared using these frameworks over three benchmark libraries with varying properties for an NP-hard optimisation problem: the multidimensional 0-1 knapsack problem. It is shown that allowing crossover to be managed at the domain level outperforms managing crossover at the hyper-heuristic level in this problem domain.

  4. Dynamic-Programming Approaches to Single- and Multi-Stage Stochastic Knapsack Problems for Portfolio Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khoo, Wai

    1999-01-01

    .... These problems model stochastic portfolio optimization problems (SPOPs) which assume deterministic unit weight, and normally distributed unit return with known mean and variance for each item type...

  5. Multi-Criteria Knapsack Problem for Disease Selection in an Observation Ward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurkittikul, N; Kittithreerapronchai, O

    2014-01-01

    The aging population and the introduction of Thailand universal healthcare have increased inpatients and outpatients to public hospitals, particularly to a hospital that provides special and comprehensive health services. Many inpatient wards have experienced large influx of inpatients as the hospitals have to admit all patients regardless their conditions. These overcrowding wards cause stress to medical staffs, block access between medical departments, hospital-acquired infections, and ineffective uses of resources. One way to manage such inundated inpatient is to select some patients whose conditions require less clinical attention or whose lengths of stay are predictable and short and, then, place them at an observation ward. This intermediate ward increases turnover of beds and reduces unnecessary paperwork as patients are considered to be outpatients. In this article, we studied inpatient data of a tertiary care hospital in which an observation ward was considered to alleviate the overcrowding problem at Internal Medicine Department. The analysis of data showed that the hospital can balance inpatient flow by managing a group of patients who is admitted because of treatments ordered by its special clinics. Having explored several alternatives, we suggested patient selection criteria and proposed a layout at an observation ward. The hospital should increase medical beds in a new building ward because the current observation ward can handle 27.3% of total short stay patients, while the observation ward is projected to handle 80% of total short stay patients

  6. Multi-Criteria Knapsack Problem for Disease Selection in an Observation Ward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurkittikul, N.; Kittithreerapronchai, O.

    2014-06-01

    The aging population and the introduction of Thailand universal healthcare have increased inpatients and outpatients to public hospitals, particularly to a hospital that provides special and comprehensive health services. Many inpatient wards have experienced large influx of inpatients as the hospitals have to admit all patients regardless their conditions. These overcrowding wards cause stress to medical staffs, block access between medical departments, hospital-acquired infections, and ineffective uses of resources. One way to manage such inundated inpatient is to select some patients whose conditions require less clinical attention or whose lengths of stay are predictable and short and, then, place them at an observation ward. This intermediate ward increases turnover of beds and reduces unnecessary paperwork as patients are considered to be outpatients. In this article, we studied inpatient data of a tertiary care hospital in which an observation ward was considered to alleviate the overcrowding problem at Internal Medicine Department. The analysis of data showed that the hospital can balance inpatient flow by managing a group of patients who is admitted because of treatments ordered by its special clinics. Having explored several alternatives, we suggested patient selection criteria and proposed a layout at an observation ward. The hospital should increase medical beds in a new building ward because the current observation ward can handle 27.3% of total short stay patients, while the observation ward is projected to handle 80% of total short stay patients.

  7. Comparative analysis of genetic crossover operators in knapsack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an evolutionary algorithms and technique based on natural selections of individuals called chromosomes. In this paper, a method for solving Knapsack problem via GA (Genetic Algorithm) is presented. We compared six different crossovers: Crossover single point, Crossover Two point, ...

  8. Comparative Analysis of Genetic Crossover Operators in Knapsack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an evolutionary algorithms and technique based on natural selections of individuals called chromosomes. In this paper, a method for solving. Knapsack problem via GA (Genetic Algorithm) is presented. We compared six different crossovers: Crossover single point, Crossover Two ...

  9. On Continuation of Solutions to Boundary Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modern investigation of the real-analytic continuability of solutions to boundary problems involves elements of complex and microlocal analysis, as well as the theory of pseudodifferential operators. Apart from its purely mathematical interest, this investigation can lead to significant improvement...... of numerical methods used in, e.g., acoustic and electromagnetic scattering. In this talk, I shall take as the starting point the desire to improve one such numerical method, namely the so-called Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). The latter is a promising numerical scheme, with the potential of replacing...... the traditional boundary layer formulations in the numerical solution of scattering problems. To address the convergence issues inherent to the MAS, I shall introduce a relevant general real-analytic continuation problem and describe how it can be reformulated in terms of an analytic Cauchy problem in the complex...

  10. Problems of implementing continuous assessment in secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined problems of implementing continuous assessment in secondary schools in Obowo local government area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to 100 randomly selected respondents in the study area. Descriptive statistics were used for data ...

  11. Multidimensional integral representations problems of analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kytmanov, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    The monograph is devoted to integral representations for holomorphic functions in several complex variables, such as Bochner-Martinelli, Cauchy-Fantappiè, Koppelman, multidimensional logarithmic residue etc., and their boundary properties. The applications considered are problems of analytic continuation of functions from the boundary of a bounded domain in C^n. In contrast to the well-known Hartogs-Bochner theorem, this book investigates functions with the one-dimensional property of holomorphic extension along complex lines, and includes the problems of receiving multidimensional boundary analogs of the Morera theorem.   This book is a valuable resource for specialists in complex analysis, theoretical physics, as well as graduate and postgraduate students with an understanding of standard university courses in complex, real and functional analysis, as well as algebra and geometry.

  12. Discrete and Continuous Models for Partitioning Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2013-04-11

    Recently, variational relaxation techniques for approximating solutions of partitioning problems on continuous image domains have received considerable attention, since they introduce significantly less artifacts than established graph cut-based techniques. This work is concerned with the sources of such artifacts. We discuss the importance of differentiating between artifacts caused by discretization and those caused by relaxation and provide supporting numerical examples. Moreover, we consider in depth the consequences of a recent theoretical result concerning the optimality of solutions obtained using a particular relaxation method. Since the employed regularizer is quite tight, the considered relaxation generally involves a large computational cost. We propose a method to significantly reduce these costs in a fully automatic way for a large class of metrics including tree metrics, thus generalizing a method recently proposed by Strekalovskiy and Cremers (IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, pp. 1905-1911, 2011). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  13. Firefly Mating Algorithm for Continuous Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarita Ritthipakdee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, called firefly mating algorithm (FMA, for solving continuous optimization problems. FMA uses genetic algorithm as the core of the algorithm. The main feature of the algorithm is a novel mating pair selection method which is inspired by the following 2 mating behaviors of fireflies in nature: (i the mutual attraction between males and females causes them to mate and (ii fireflies of both sexes are of the multiple-mating type, mating with multiple opposite sex partners. A female continues mating until her spermatheca becomes full, and, in the same vein, a male can provide sperms for several females until his sperm reservoir is depleted. This new feature enhances the global convergence capability of the algorithm. The performance of FMA was tested with 20 benchmark functions (sixteen 30-dimensional functions and four 2-dimensional ones against FA, ALC-PSO, COA, MCPSO, LWGSODE, MPSODDS, DFOA, SHPSOS, LSA, MPDPGA, DE, and GABC algorithms. The experimental results showed that the success rates of our proposed algorithm with these functions were higher than those of other algorithms and the proposed algorithm also required fewer numbers of iterations to reach the global optima.

  14. Quantification of emissions from knapsack sprayers: 'the weight method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Misuse of pesticides kill or seriously sicken thousands of people every year and poison the natural environment. Investigations of occupational and environmental risk have received considerable interest over the last decades. And yet, lack of staff and analytical equipments as well the costs of chemical analyses make difficult, if not impossible, the control of the pesticide contamination and residues in humans, air, water, and soils in developing countries. To assess emissions of pesticides (transport and deposition) during spray application and the risk for the human health and the environment, tracers can be useful tools. Uranine was used to quantify drift airborne and later deposition on the neighbouring field and clothes of the applicator after spraying with a knapsack sprayer in one of the biggest areas of potato production in Colombia. Keeping the same setup the amount of wet drift was measured by difference in the weight of high absorbent papers used to collect the tracer. Surprisingly this weight method (Weight-HAP) was able to explain 71% of the drift variance measured with the tracer. Therefore the weight method is presented as a suitable rapid low cost screening tool, complementary to toxicological tests, to assess air pollution, occupational and environmental exposure generated by the emissions from knapsack sprayers during pesticide application. This technique might be important in places were there is lack of analytical instruments.

  15. Solving the Extended Tree Knapsack Problem with fixed cost flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that use standard off-the-shelf software coupled with enhanced modelling. Enhancements to .... 5 Propossed algorithm. The solution approach proposed here for the ETKP is a method that uses standard off- ..... For the empirical work an AMD DL145G2 OPTERON 64 bit running RedHat Linux was used. The machine had ...

  16. Tolerance analysis for 0–1 knapsack problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Saidi, Alima

    2017-01-01

    using the Dantzig bound and Dembo–Hammer bound, respectively. The running times and quality of the tolerance limits of all exact and approximate algorithms are experimentally compared, showing that all tolerance limits can be found in less than a second. The approximate bounds are of good quality...

  17. Sandifer Syndrome: a continuing problem of misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakuş, Nimet; Kurt, Abdullah

    2006-12-01

    Sandifer Syndrome is an uncommon clinical entity characterized by gastroesophageal reflux, irritability and abnormal movements of the body and contortions of the neck. The majority of paroxysmal cases, in particular, tend to show an association with epilepsy. The clinical, laboratory and 6-month observation results of the four patients (two boys, two girls) have been presented. The 6-month prospective observation/treatment of four patients aged between 2 and 14 months (mean age, 6.5 +/- 5.2 months) with a diagnosis of Sandifer Syndrome has been investigated. Due to paroxysmal extensor jerks, two of the patients were misdiagnosed with infantile spasm and they were treated accordingly. In the clinical observations of the patients, abnormal neurobehavioral attacks (irritability, crying, head/eye version, torticollis, extensor spasm and dystonic posture) 5-10 times daily were observed. In two of the patients, motor growth retardation was observed, in one patient, bronchospasm attacks were observed, and in all the patients iron deficiency anemia was observed. The electroencephalograms of the patients which were taken during the routine, sleepless and paroxysmal behaviors were normal; the gastroesophageal scintigraphies were positive in the manner of reflux. Management of the infant with gastroesophageal reflux disease, in addition to nonpharmacological interventions pharmacologic therapy, including metoclopramide HCl and Fe (6 mg/kg per day, oral) was useful for the patients, and their paroxysmal attacks decreased dramatically (0-2 attacks/day). These findings suggest that infants or children with these atypical movements should be evaluated for Sandifer Syndrome. Expensive and comprehensive neurologic examination may be unnecessary. Early diagnosis permits prompt treatment and relief of the problem. Medical management is usually successful.

  18. Knapsack--TOPSIS Technique for Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Malathy

    Full Text Available In a heterogeneous wireless network, handover techniques are designed to facilitate anywhere/anytime service continuity for mobile users. Consistent best-possible access to a network with widely varying network characteristics requires seamless mobility management techniques. Hence, the vertical handover process imposes important technical challenges. Handover decisions are triggered for continuous connectivity of mobile terminals. However, bad network selection and overload conditions in the chosen network can cause fallout in the form of handover failure. In order to maintain the required Quality of Service during the handover process, decision algorithms should incorporate intelligent techniques. In this paper, a new and efficient vertical handover mechanism is implemented using a dynamic programming method from the operation research discipline. This dynamic programming approach, which is integrated with the Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method, provides the mobile user with the best handover decisions. Moreover, in this proposed handover algorithm a deterministic approach which divides the network into zones is incorporated into the network server in order to derive an optimal solution. The study revealed that this method is found to achieve better performance and QoS support to users and greatly reduce the handover failures when compared to the traditional TOPSIS method. The decision arrived at the zone gateway using this operational research analytical method (known as the dynamic programming knapsack approach together with Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution yields remarkably better results in terms of the network performance measures such as throughput and delay.

  19. KNApSAcK-3D: a three-dimensional structure database of plant metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Shimura, Naoki; Otabe, Yuuki; Hirai-Morita, Aki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Ono, Naoaki; Ul-Amin, Md Altaf; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-02-01

    Studies on plant metabolites have attracted significant attention in recent years. Over the past 8 years, we have constructed a unique metabolite database, called KNApSAcK, that contains information on the relationships between metabolites and their expressing organism(s). In the present paper, we introduce KNApSAcK-3D, which contains the three-dimensional (3D) structures of all of the metabolic compounds included in the original KNApSAcK database. The 3D structure for each compound was optimized using the Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF94), and a multiobjective genetic algorithm was used to search extensively for possible conformations and locate the global minimum. The resulting set of structures may be used for docking studies to identify new and potentially unexpected binding sites for target proteins. The 3D structures may also be utilized for more qualitative studies, such as the estimation of biological activities using 3D-QSAR. The database can be accessed via a link from the KNApSAcK Family website (http://kanaya.naist.jp/KNApSAcK_Family/) or directory at http://kanaya.naist.jp/knapsack3d/.

  20. Exponential convergence on a continuous Monte Carlo transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    For more than a decade, it has been known that exponential convergence on discrete transport problems was possible using adaptive Monte Carlo techniques. An adaptive Monte Carlo method that empirically produces exponential convergence on a simple continuous transport problem is described

  1. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    costs significantly. For packing problems in general are given a set of items and one of more containers. The items must be placed within the container such that some objective is optimized and the items do not overlap. Items and container may be rectangular or irregular (e.g. polygons and polyhedra...... methods. Two important problem variants are the knapsack packing problem and the strip-packing problem. In the knapsack packing problem, each item is given a profit value, and the problem asks for the subset with maximal profit that can be placed within one container. The strip-packing problem asks...... for a minimum height container required for the items. The main contributions of the thesis are three new heuristics for strip-packing and knapsack packing problems where items are both rectangular and irregular. In the two first papers we describe a heuristic for the multidimensional strip-packing problem...

  2. Unpacking Teachers' Invisible Knapsacks: Social Identity and Privilege in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Pamela E.

    2013-01-01

    Peggy McIntosh (1988) famously unpacked what she called an "invisible knapsack" of privileges socially conferred upon whites, men, and heterosexuals (1988). She argued that not only are women and minorities at a disadvantage, but those with social power enjoy benefits that are both unearned and unjustified. We often accept those…

  3. Paraquat Exposure of Knapsack Spray Operators on Banana Plantations in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wendel de Joode BN, [No Value; De Graaf IA, [No Value; Wesseling, B; Kromhout, S.B.; de Graaf, Inge

    1996-01-01

    A study of occupational exposure to paraquat was performed among 11 knapsack spray operators at banana plantations in Costa Rica. External and internal exposures were quantified and determinants of exposure identified by measurements, observations, and interviews. Dermal exposure was measured with

  4. Continuous-Time Multiobjective Optimization Problems via Invexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano A. De Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some concepts of generalized invexity for the continuous-time multiobjective programming problems, namely, the concepts of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker invexity and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker pseudoinvexity. Using the concept of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker invexity, we study the relationship of the multiobjective problems with some related scalar problems. Further, we show that Karush-Kuhn-Tucker pseudoinvexity is a necessary and suffcient condition for a vector Karush-Kuhn-Tucker solution to be a weakly efficient solution.

  5. Continuous admission to primary school and mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Wiefferink, Carin H.; Brugman, Emily; Verhulst, Frank C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S. Pauline; Paulussen, Theo G. W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Younger children in a school class have higher rates of mental health problems if admission to primary school occurs once a year. This study examines whether this relative age effect also occurs if children are admitted to school continuously throughout the year. Methods: We assessed

  6. Continuous-Variable Quantum Computation of Oracle Decision Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Mark R. A.

    Quantum information processing is appealing due its ability to solve certain problems quantitatively faster than classical information processing. Most quantum algorithms have been studied in discretely parameterized systems, but many quantum systems are continuously parameterized. The field of quantum optics in particular has sophisticated techniques for manipulating continuously parameterized quantum states of light, but the lack of a code-state formalism has hindered the study of quantum algorithms in these systems. To address this situation, a code-state formalism for the solution of oracle decision problems in continuously-parameterized quantum systems is developed. Quantum information processing is appealing due its ability to solve certain problems quantitatively faster than classical information processing. Most quantum algorithms have been studied in discretely parameterized systems, but many quantum systems are continuously parameterized. The field of quantum optics in particular has sophisticated techniques for manipulating continuously parameterized quantum states of light, but the lack of a code-state formalism has hindered the study of quantum algorithms in these systems. To address this situation, a code-state formalism for the solution of oracle decision problems in continuously-parameterized quantum systems is developed. In the infinite-dimensional case, we study continuous-variable quantum algorithms for the solution of the Deutsch--Jozsa oracle decision problem implemented within a single harmonic-oscillator. Orthogonal states are used as the computational bases, and we show that, contrary to a previous claim in the literature, this implementation of quantum information processing has limitations due to a position-momentum trade-off of the Fourier transform. We further demonstrate that orthogonal encoding bases are not unique, and using the coherent states of the harmonic oscillator as the computational bases, our formalism enables quantifying

  7. In-orbit Calibration and Local Gravity Field Continuation Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pail, R.

    In the course of the GOCE data processing many calibration tasks have to be per- formed. Towards the final part of the data stream, an absolute calibration and vali- dation of the gradiometer signal is required. One of the most promising methods for such an in-orbit calibration is the use of well-surveyed areas on the Earth's surface, where the accuracy of the known gravity field information is high enough to meet the mission requirements. For this purpose ground gravity data have to be continued upward to the GOCE satellite altitude of approximately 250 km, where a comparison with the actual observations is performed. Since there are only very few regions on the globe which fulfil the accuracy requirements, the corresponding gravity information is extremely locally bounded, dismissing standard global continuation strategies and simultaneously resulting in edge effect and windowing problems. Based on a synthetic gravity test environment ­ providing in addition to statistical er- ror information also absolute error estimates ­ several upward continuation methods, e.g. least squares collocation, equivalent source techniques using point masses or area density distributions defined on a spherical surface section, are described, assessed and compared. It turns out that all these strictly local approaches fail to work suffi- ciently accurate. Consequently, a combined solution strategy is proposed, supporting the high-quality gravity field information within the well-surveyed test area with a low accuracy, but globally defined Earth model. Under quite realistic assumptions the upward continuation is performed with rms errors of gravity gradients in the order of 1 mE. The most crucial limiting factor of this method is spectral leakage in the course of an adequate representation of the initial gravity information. We will particularly focus on the consequences and effects of the different approaches on the accuracy of GOCE level 1b and 2 products. In order to demonstrate

  8. A novel metaheuristic for continuous optimization problems: Virus optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yun-Chia; Rodolfo Cuevas Juarez, Josue

    2016-01-01

    A novel metaheuristic for continuous optimization problems, named the virus optimization algorithm (VOA), is introduced and investigated. VOA is an iteratively population-based method that imitates the behaviour of viruses attacking a living cell. The number of viruses grows at each replication and is controlled by an immune system (a so-called 'antivirus') to prevent the explosive growth of the virus population. The viruses are divided into two classes (strong and common) to balance the exploitation and exploration effects. The performance of the VOA is validated through a set of eight benchmark functions, which are also subject to rotation and shifting effects to test its robustness. Extensive comparisons were conducted with over 40 well-known metaheuristic algorithms and their variations, such as artificial bee colony, artificial immune system, differential evolution, evolutionary programming, evolutionary strategy, genetic algorithm, harmony search, invasive weed optimization, memetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing. The results showed that the VOA is a viable solution for continuous optimization.

  9. Integrated quadratic assignment and continuous facility layout problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated layout model has been considered to incorporate intra and inter-department layout. In the proposed model, the arrangement of facilities within the departments is obtained through the QAP and from the other side the continuous layout problem is implemented to find the position and orientation of rectangular shape departments on the planar area. First, a modified version of QAP with fewer binary variables is presented. Afterward the integrated model is formulated based on the developed QAP. In order to evaluate material handling cost precisely, the actual position of machines within the departments (instead of center of departments is considered. Moreover, other design factors such as aisle distance, single or multi row intra-department layout and orientation of departments have been considered. The mathematical model is formulated as mixed-integer programming (MIP to minimize total material handling cost. Also due to the complexity of integrated model a heuristic method has been developed to solve large scale problems in a reasonable computational time. Finally, several illustrative numerical examples are selected from the literature to test the model and evaluate the heuristic.

  10. POWERPLAY: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen eSchmidhuber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. The novel algorithmic framework POWERPLAY (2011 continually searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Wow-effects are achieved by continually making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially re-use previously learned skills. POWERPLAY's search orders candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time & space complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. POWERPLAY's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Goedel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing repertoire of problem solving procedures can be exploited by a parallel search for solutions to additional externally posed tasks. POWERPLAY may be viewed as a greedy but practical implementation of basic principles of creativity. A first experimental analysis can be found in separate papers [58, 56, 57].

  11. Inverse Ising problem in continuous time: A latent variable approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Christian; Opper, Manfred

    2017-12-01

    We consider the inverse Ising problem: the inference of network couplings from observed spin trajectories for a model with continuous time Glauber dynamics. By introducing two sets of auxiliary latent random variables we render the likelihood into a form which allows for simple iterative inference algorithms with analytical updates. The variables are (1) Poisson variables to linearize an exponential term which is typical for point process likelihoods and (2) Pólya-Gamma variables, which make the likelihood quadratic in the coupling parameters. Using the augmented likelihood, we derive an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate of network parameters. Using a third set of latent variables we extend the EM algorithm to sparse couplings via L1 regularization. Finally, we develop an efficient approximate Bayesian inference algorithm using a variational approach. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithms on data simulated from an Ising model. For data which are simulated from a more biologically plausible network with spiking neurons, we show that the Ising model captures well the low order statistics of the data and how the Ising couplings are related to the underlying synaptic structure of the simulated network.

  12. Inverse Ising problem in continuous time: A latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Christian; Opper, Manfred

    2017-12-01

    We consider the inverse Ising problem: the inference of network couplings from observed spin trajectories for a model with continuous time Glauber dynamics. By introducing two sets of auxiliary latent random variables we render the likelihood into a form which allows for simple iterative inference algorithms with analytical updates. The variables are (1) Poisson variables to linearize an exponential term which is typical for point process likelihoods and (2) Pólya-Gamma variables, which make the likelihood quadratic in the coupling parameters. Using the augmented likelihood, we derive an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate of network parameters. Using a third set of latent variables we extend the EM algorithm to sparse couplings via L1 regularization. Finally, we develop an efficient approximate Bayesian inference algorithm using a variational approach. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithms on data simulated from an Ising model. For data which are simulated from a more biologically plausible network with spiking neurons, we show that the Ising model captures well the low order statistics of the data and how the Ising couplings are related to the underlying synaptic structure of the simulated network.

  13. Separation and Extension of Cover Inequalities for Conic Quadratic Knapsack Constraints with Generalized Upper Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atamtürk, Alper; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by addressing probabilistic 0-1 programs we study the conic quadratic knapsack polytope with generalized upper bound (GUB) constraints. In particular, we investigate separating and extending GUB cover inequalities. We show that, unlike in the linear case, determining whether a cover can...... be extended with a single variable is NP-hard. We describe and compare a number of exact and heuristic separation and extension algorithms which make use of the structure of the constraints. Computational experiments are performed for comparing the proposed separation and extension algorithms...

  14. Separation and extension of cover inequalities for second-order conic knapsack constraints with GUBs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atamtürk, Alper; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Pisinger, David

    We consider the second-order conic equivalent of the classic knapsack polytope where the variables are subject to generalized upper bound constraints. We describe and compare a number of separation and extension algorithms which make use of the extra structure implied by the generalized upper bound...... constraints in order to strengthen the second-order conic equivalent of the classic cover cuts. We show that determining whether a cover can be extended with a variable is NP-hard. Computational experiments are performed comparing the proposed separation and extension algorithms. These experiments show...

  15. Radiation streaming: the continuing problem of shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The practical problems of shield design are reviewed and the major difficulties are shown to be those associated with streaming problems. The situations in which streaming occurs in various types of reactor are described including LMFBR's and fusion devices, and examples are given of ways in which the problems have been solved

  16. File text security using Hybrid Cryptosystem with Playfair Cipher Algorithm and Knapsack Naccache-Stern Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia; Budiman, M. A.; Sitepu, R.

    2018-03-01

    Cryptography is one of the best methods to keep the information safe from security attack by unauthorized people. At present, Many studies had been done by previous researchers to generate a more robust cryptographic algorithm to provide high security for data communication. To strengthen data security, one of the methods is hybrid cryptosystem method that combined symmetric and asymmetric algorithm. In this study, we observed a hybrid cryptosystem method contain Modification Playfair Cipher 16x16 algorithm as a symmetric algorithm and Knapsack Naccache-Stern as an asymmetric algorithm. We observe a running time of this hybrid algorithm with some of the various experiments. We tried different amount of characters to be tested which are 10, 100, 1000, 10000 and 100000 characters and we also examined the algorithm with various key’s length which are 10, 20, 30, 40 of key length. The result of our study shows that the processing time for encryption and decryption process each algorithm is linearly proportional, it means the longer messages character then, the more significant times needed to encrypt and decrypt the messages. The encryption running time of Knapsack Naccache-Stern algorithm takes a longer time than its decryption, while the encryption running time of modification Playfair Cipher 16x16 algorithm takes less time than its decryption.

  17. Turnpike theory of continuous-time linear optimal control problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Individual turnpike results are of great interest due to their numerous applications in engineering and in economic theory; in this book the study is focused on new results of turnpike phenomenon in linear optimal control problems.  The book is intended for engineers as well as for mathematicians interested in the calculus of variations, optimal control, and in applied functional analysis. Two large classes of problems are studied in more depth. The first class studied in Chapter 2 consists of linear control problems with periodic nonsmooth convex integrands. Chapters 3-5 consist of linear control problems with autonomous nonconvex and nonsmooth integrands.  Chapter 6 discusses a turnpike property for dynamic zero-sum games with linear constraints. Chapter 7 examines genericity results. In Chapter 8, the description of structure of variational problems with extended-valued integrands is obtained. Chapter 9 ends the exposition with a study of turnpike phenomenon for dynamic games with extended value integran...

  18. Problem Based Learning in Continuing Education--Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeager, Nikolaj; Thomassen, Anja Overgaard; Laursen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the PBL model applied at Aalborg University in order to discuss research findings with regard to the educational effectiveness of the PBL model in securing an efficient transfer of learning from university driven continuing education to the context of the workplace. In recent years Aalborg University has seen a progressive…

  19. The Problem of Pseudoscience in Social Work Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Bruce A.; Pignotti, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers requires social workers to obtain continuing education (CE) after they receive their social work degrees. A large and profitable industry that has emerged catering to this need for CE that is particularly focused on the needs of licensed social workers. Quality control mechanisms in place to monitor the…

  20. Continuities in Problem Behavior among High Risk Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Cook, Brittany; Schmeidler, James

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a test of a structural model reflecting the longitudinal relationships of psychosocial problems among youths involved in a Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded clinical trial for juveniles that participated in a diversion program. The project is evaluating the efficacy of an intensive 16-week case management service…

  1. Fast marching methods for the continuous traveling salesman problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.; Sethian, J.A.

    2008-12-01

    We consider a problem in which we are given a domain, a cost function which depends on position at each point in the domain, and a subset of points ('cities') in the domain. The goal is to determine the cheapest closed path that visits each city in the domain once. This can be thought of as a version of the Traveling Salesman Problem, in which an underlying known metric determines the cost of moving through each point of the domain, but in which the actual shortest path between cities is unknown at the outset. We describe algorithms for both a heuristic and an optimal solution to this problem. The order of the heuristic algorithm is at worst case M * N logN, where M is the number of cities, and N the size of the computational mesh used to approximate the solutions to the shortest paths problems. The average runtime of the heuristic algorithm is linear in the number of cities and O(N log N) in the size N of the mesh.

  2. Continuous dependence of solutions for indefinite semilinear elliptic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elves A. B. Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the superlinear elliptic problem $$ -\\Delta u + m(xu = a(xu^p $$ in a bounded smooth domain under Neumann boundary conditions, where $m \\in L^{\\sigma}(\\Omega$, $\\sigma\\geq N/2$ and $a\\in C(\\overline{\\Omega}$ is a sign changing function. Assuming that the associated first eigenvalue of the operator $-\\Delta + m $ is zero, we use constrained minimization methods to study the existence of a positive solution when $\\widehat{m}$ is a suitable perturbation of m.

  3. Density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata solving the relaxed density classification problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolnik, Barbara; Dembowski, Marcin; Bołt, Witold; Baetens, Jan M; De Baets, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the density classification problem in the context of affine continuous cellular automata. Although such cellular automata cannot solve this problem in the classical sense, most density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata with a unit neighborhood radius are valid solutions of a slightly relaxed version of this problem. This result follows from a detailed study of the dynamics of the density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata that we introduce. (paper)

  4. Continuity in Primary School Children's Eating Problems and the Influence of Parental Feeding Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, Annelies; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Eating problems are highly prevalent and seem to show continuity in children. Nevertheless, the effect of different maternal and paternal feeding practices on changes in these problems is not fully understood yet. This study examines short-term continuity in primary school children's overeating, loss of control (over eating), restraint and…

  5. Monte Carlo Tree Search for Continuous and Stochastic Sequential Decision Making Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couetoux, Adrien

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I studied sequential decision making problems, with a focus on the unit commitment problem. Traditionally solved by dynamic programming methods, this problem is still a challenge, due to its high dimension and to the sacrifices made on the accuracy of the model to apply state of the art methods. I investigated on the applicability of Monte Carlo Tree Search methods for this problem, and other problems that are single player, stochastic and continuous sequential decision making problems. In doing so, I obtained a consistent and anytime algorithm, that can easily be combined with existing strong heuristic solvers. (author)

  6. Wave functions of continuous spectrum of the Coulomb two-center problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, D.V.; Puzynin, I.V.; Vinitskij, S.I.; Dzholyakyan, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effective algorithm of the calculation of the wave functions of the continuous spectrum is proposed. For solving this problem the finite difference scheme of 4th-order and the continuous analog of Newton method are applied. The wave functions of the continuous spectrum of the two-center problem of positive molecular ion of hydrogen together with the phase shifts are calculated and the corresponding pictures are presented. The absolute accuracy of the calculated phase shift is order 10 -6 for the electron momentum k ≥ 1 and order 10 -4 for k ∼ 0.1. The matrix elements between the continuous and discrete spectrum are calculated

  7. Continuity of sleep problems from adolescence to young adulthood: results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A R; Najman, Jake M; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2017-08-01

    Considering the lack of evidence on incidence and continuity of sleep problems from adolescence to young adulthood, this study explores sleep problems' incidence and their continuation rates from 14 to 21 years. Sleep data from the 14-year (n = 4,924) and 21-year (n = 3660) follow-up of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort were used. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and psychological conditions were explored for their role in sleep problems. Modified Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used to identify predictors. Inverse probability weights were used to account for attrition. Of all subjects, 26.0% of the subjects at 14 years and 28.3% of the subjects at 21 years reported "often" sleep problems, with 41.7% of adolescent sleep problems persisting at 21 years. Perinatal and early-life maternal factors, for example, drug abuse (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.71), smoking, depression, and anxiety, were significant predictors of adolescent sleep problems. Female sex (IRR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.55-2.94), advanced pubertal stages, and smoking were the important predictors of sleep problems at 21 years. Adolescent depression/anxiety supported the continuity of sleep problems (IRR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.40), whereas exercise was seen to exert a protective effect. This study indicates high rates of sleep problems in young subjects, with around half of sleep problems originating in adolescence persisting in young adulthood. Therefore, early interventions are needed to manage sleep problems in young subjects and prevent further progression to other life stages. Future studies should explore if sleep problems in young adults also persist in later life stages and identify the factors supporting the continuity of sleep problems. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantum transfer matrices for discrete and continuous quasi-exactly solvable problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabrodin, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The algebraic structure of continuous and discrete quasi-exactly solvable spectral problems by embedding them into the framework of the quantum inverse scattering method is clarified. The quasi-exactly solvable Hamiltonians in one dimension are identified with traces of quantum monodromy matrices for specific integrable systems with non-periodic boundary conditions. Applications to Azbel-Hofstadter problem are outlined. 39 refs

  9. Problem based learning in continuing medical education: a review of controlled evaluation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P. B. A.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; de Buisonjé, C. D.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews of undergraduate medical education cautiously support the short term and long term outcomes of problem based learning compared with traditional learning. The effectiveness of problem based learning in continuing medical education, however, has not been reviewed. This review of controlled

  10. Continuous Dependence on Modeling in the Cauchy Problem for Nonlinear Elliptic Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    problema di Cauchy per le equazione di tipo ellitico, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl., 46 (1958), pp. 131-153 [18] P. W. Schaefer, On the Cauchy problem for an...Continued) PP 438 PP 448 Fletcher, Jean W. Supply Problems in the Naval Reserve, Cymrot, Donald J., Military Retiremnt and Social Security: A 14 pp

  11. Value Function and Optimal Rule on the Optimal Stopping Problem for Continuous-Time Markov Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the optimal stopping problem for continuous-time Markov processes. We describe the methodology and solve the optimal stopping problem for a broad class of reward functions. Moreover, we illustrate the outcomes by some typical Markov processes including diffusion and Lévy processes with jumps. For each of the processes, the explicit formula for value function and optimal stopping time is derived. Furthermore, we relate the derived optimal rules to some other optimal problems.

  12. Development of internalizing problems from adolescence to emerging adulthood: Accounting for heterotypic continuity with vertical scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Isaac T; Lindhiem, Oliver; LeBeau, Brandon; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2018-03-01

    Manifestations of internalizing problems, such as specific symptoms of anxiety and depression, can change across development, even if individuals show strong continuity in rank-order levels of internalizing problems. This illustrates the concept of heterotypic continuity, and raises the question of whether common measures might be construct-valid for one age but not another. This study examines mean-level changes in internalizing problems across a long span of development at the same time as accounting for heterotypic continuity by using age-appropriate, changing measures. Internalizing problems from age 14-24 were studied longitudinally in a community sample (N = 585), using Achenbach's Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Young Adult Self-Report (YASR). Heterotypic continuity was evaluated with an item response theory (IRT) approach to vertical scaling, linking different measures over time to be on the same scale, as well as with a Thurstone scaling approach. With vertical scaling, internalizing problems peaked in mid-to-late adolescence and showed a group-level decrease from adolescence to early adulthood, a change that would not have been seen with the approach of using only age-common items. Individuals' trajectories were sometimes different than would have been seen with the common-items approach. Findings support the importance of considering heterotypic continuity when examining development and vertical scaling to account for heterotypic continuity with changing measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. On analytic continuability of the missing Cauchy datum for Helmholtz boundary problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza

    2015-01-01

    We relate the domains of analytic continuation of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary data for Helmholtz problems in two or more independent variables. The domains are related à priori, locally and explicitly in terms of complex polyrectangular neighbourhoods of planar pieces of the boundary. To this ......We relate the domains of analytic continuation of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary data for Helmholtz problems in two or more independent variables. The domains are related à priori, locally and explicitly in terms of complex polyrectangular neighbourhoods of planar pieces of the boundary...

  14. C1-continuous Virtual Element Method for Poisson-Kirchhoff plate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyrya, Vitaliy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mourad, Hashem Mohamed [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We present a family of C1-continuous high-order Virtual Element Methods for Poisson-Kirchho plate bending problem. The convergence of the methods is tested on a variety of meshes including rectangular, quadrilateral, and meshes obtained by edge removal (i.e. highly irregular meshes). The convergence rates are presented for all of these tests.

  15. L^p-continuity of solutions to parabolic free boundary problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeslem Lyaghfouri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider a class of parabolic free boundary problems. We establish some properties of the solutions, including L^infinity-regularity in time and a monotonicity property, from which we deduce strong L^p-continuity in time.

  16. On the Quantum Inverse problem for the continuous Heisenberg spin chain with axial anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Chowdhury, A.; Chanda, P.K.

    1986-06-01

    We have considered the Quantum Inverse problem for the continuous form of Heisenberg spin chain with anisotropy. The form of quantum R-matrix, the commutation rules for the scattering data, and the explicit structure of the excitation spectrum are obtained. (author)

  17. Continuous Energy, Multi-Dimensional Transport Calculations for Problem Dependent Resonance Self-Shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Downar

    2009-03-31

    The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system.

  18. Continuous extendibility of solutions of the Neumann problem for the Laplace equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2003), s. 377-395 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : Neumann problem * Laplace equation * continuous extendibility Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.210, year: 2003

  19. Continuous extendibility of solutions of the third problem for the Laplace equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2003), s. 669-688 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : third problem * Laplace equation * continuous extendibility Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.210, year: 2003

  20. The problem with time in mixed continuous/discrete time modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, K.C.; Kuper, Jan; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    The design of cyber-physical systems requires the use of mixed continuous time and discrete time models. Current modelling tools have problems with time transformations (such as a time delay) or multi-rate systems. We will present a novel approach that implements signals as functions of time,

  1. Physics of continuous media problems and solutions in electromagnetism, fluid mechanics and MHD

    CERN Document Server

    Vekstein, Grigory

    2013-01-01

    This book presents an excellent and exemplary collection of up-to-date exercises and their solutions on continuous media, covering a wide range of topics from electro-, magnetohydro- and fluid dynamics, and from the theory of elasticity. The author is an international expert with many years of research and teaching experience in the field. Each chapter begins with a comprehensive summary of definitions and the mathematical description of the physical laws necessary to understand and solve the series of problems that follow. The problems and exercises are a gradual built up in each of the topics and they introduce the reader step by step into the principles of the subject. The solutions are well explained and detailed with additional readings when necessary. This exercise book is written in a true scholarly manner that allows the reader to understand the basic principles and physical laws of continuous media. This problem-solving book is highly recommended to graduate and postgraduate students, postdoctoral re...

  2. Problem-based learning in continuing medical education: review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Hilal; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) in continuing medical education. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and ERIC databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published in English from January 2001 to May 2011 using key words problem-based learning, practice-based, self-directed, learner-centered, and active learning, combined with continuing medical education, continuing professional development, post professional, postgraduate, and adult learning. Randomized controlled trials that described the effects of PBL on knowledge enhancement, performance improvement, participants' satisfaction, or patients' health outcomes were selected for analysis. Fifteen studies were included in this review: 4 involved postgraduate trainee doctors, 10 involved practising physicians, and 1 had both groups. Online learning was used in 7 studies. Among postgraduate trainees PBL showed no significant differences in knowledge gain compared with lectures or non-case-based learning. In continuing education, PBL showed no significant difference in knowledge gain when compared with other methods. Several studies did not provide an educational intervention for the control group. Physician performance improvement showed an upward trend in groups participating in PBL, but no significant differences were noted in health outcomes. Online PBL is a useful method of delivering continuing medical education. There is limited evidence that PBL in continuing education would enhance physicians' performance or improve health outcomes.

  3. Numerical continuation methods for dynamical systems path following and boundary value problems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauskopf, Bernd; Galan-Vioque, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Path following in combination with boundary value problem solvers has emerged as a continuing and strong influence in the development of dynamical systems theory and its application. It is widely acknowledged that the software package AUTO - developed by Eusebius J. Doedel about thirty years ago and further expanded and developed ever since - plays a central role in the brief history of numerical continuation. This book has been compiled on the occasion of Sebius Doedel''s 60th birthday. Bringing together for the first time a large amount of material in a single, accessible source, it is hoped that the book will become the natural entry point for researchers in diverse disciplines who wish to learn what numerical continuation techniques can achieve. The book opens with a foreword by Herbert B. Keller and lecture notes by Sebius Doedel himself that introduce the basic concepts of numerical bifurcation analysis. The other chapters by leading experts discuss continuation for various types of systems and objects ...

  4. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  5. A Newton method for solving continuous multiple material minimum compliance problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Stegmann, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an implementation of an active-set line-search Newton method intended for solving large-scale instances of a class of multiple material minimum compliance problems. The problem is modeled with a convex objective function and linear constraints. At each iteration of the Newton...... a sequence of closely related problems appearing as the continuous relaxations in a nonlinear branch and bound framework for solving discrete minimum compliance problems. A test-set consisting of eight discrete instances originating from the design of laminated composite structures is presented...... method, one or two linear saddle point systems are solved. These systems involve the Hessian of the objective function, which is both expensive to compute and completely dense. Therefore, the linear algebra is arranged such that the Hessian is not explicitly formed. The main concern is to solve...

  6. A Newton method for solving continuous multiple material minimum compliance problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, M; Stegmann, Jan

    This paper presents an implementation of an active-set line-search Newton method intended for solving large-scale instances of a class of multiple material minimum compliance problems. The problem is modeled with a convex objective function and linear constraints. At each iteration of the Newton...... a sequence of closely related problems appearing as the continuous relaxations in a nonlinear branch and bound framework for solving discrete minimum compliance problems. A test-set consisting of eight discrete instances originating from the design of laminated composite structures is presented...... method, one or two linear saddle point systems are solved. These systems involve the Hessian of the objective function, which is both expensive to compute and completely dense. Therefore, the linear algebra is arranged such that the Hessian is not explicitly formed. The main concern is to solve...

  7. Convergence of a continuous BGK model for initial boundary-value problems for conservation laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Seghir

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a scalar conservation law in the quarter plane. This equation is approximated in a continuous kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK model. The convergence of the model towards the unique entropy solution is established in the space of functions of bounded variation, using kinetic entropy inequalities, without special restriction on the flux nor on the equilibrium problem's data. As an application, we establish the hydrodynamic limit for a $2imes2$ relaxation system with general data. Also we construct a new family of convergent continuous BGK models with simple maxwellians different from the $chi$ models.

  8. Laboratory references in dreams: Methodological problem and/or evidence for the continuity hypothesis of dreaming?

    OpenAIRE

    Schredl, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Incorporation of laboratory elements into dreams elicited in the sleep laboratory is a methodological problem, i.e., the measurement technique affects unwittingly the object of measurement (dream content). On a theoretical level, the occurrence of laboratory references, however, fits in the framework of the continuity hypothesis of dreaming. Reviewing the literature revealed that there is a strong effect of the experimental setting on dreams and that emotional involvement may explain inter-in...

  9. A combined continuous-discontinuous finite element method for convection-diffusion problems

    OpenAIRE

    Devloo, PRB; Forti, T; Gomes, SM

    2007-01-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin (DGM) method combines the advantages of stability of finite volume method and the accuracy of continuous finite element method (FEIVI). Applications of the DGM are particularly valuable where the solution presents high-gradients or discontinuities, such as boundary layers and shock problems. A disadvantage of the DGM is the higher computational cost when comparing to classic finite element method, due to the increased number of degrees of freedom. With this motivation, ...

  10. Application of wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation method to MOX fuel problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2012-01-01

    More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO 2 fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for 240 Pu and 242 Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)

  11. The continuous 1.5D terrain guarding problem: Discretization, optimal solutions, and PTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Friedrichs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the NP-hard continuous 1.5D Terrain Guarding Problem (TGP we are given an $x$-monotone chain of line segments in $R^2$ (the terrain $T$, and ask for the minimum number of guards (located anywhere on $T$ required to guard all of $T$. We construct guard candidate and witness sets $G, W \\subset T$ of polynomial size such that any feasible (optimal guard cover $G^* \\subseteq G$ for $W$ is also feasible (optimal for the continuous TGP. This discretization allows us to: (1 settle NP-completeness for the continuous TGP; (2 provide a Polynomial Time Approximation Scheme (PTAS for the continuous TGP using the PTAS for the discrete TGP by Gibson et al.; (3 formulate the continuous TGP as an Integer Linear Program (IP. Furthermore, we propose several filtering techniques reducing the size of our discretization, allowing us to devise an efficient IP-based algorithm that reliably provides optimal guard placements for terrains with up to $10^6$ vertices within minutes on a standard desktop computer.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and PCB's: A continuing problem for the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Clark, D.R.; Henny, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    In general. decreases in OC contamination in North America are unmistakable. This is documented by the NPMP. but. more importantly. it is borne out by improvements in the reproduction and population status of the brown pelican. bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and osprey. However, some OC contamination still persists, and several species, particularly predatory birds and insectivorous bats, continue to be vulnerable. Current OC problems in North America result from present and past usage and from industrial contamination. In addition, some studies suggest that some migrant bird species that winter south of the U.S. border are exposed to higher levels of OC pesticide than non-migrants. However, heavy OC pesticide contamination is known to exist in Arizona, New Mexico, and in southern California where migratory birds might stop during migration. At this time, we do not have the information to assess specifically the sources of contamination for most migrant species. From the number of recent OC problems identified in North America, it is apparent that OC's are not confined to the past and that we must continue to monitor and study OC's during this decade. However, current administrative, management, and research priorities are being directed toward the search for potential impacts of newer pesticides, air pollution. industrial waste, and other contaminants. Although it is necessary to build a body of scientific data on these types of contaminants, we feel that we cannot neglect continued work on OC's for which harmful effects impacting our wildlife resources are already known.

  13. An Improved Real-Coded Population-Based Extremal Optimization Method for Continuous Unconstrained Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a novel evolutionary optimization method, extremal optimization (EO has been successfully applied to a variety of combinatorial optimization problems. However, the applications of EO in continuous optimization problems are relatively rare. This paper proposes an improved real-coded population-based EO method (IRPEO for continuous unconstrained optimization problems. The key operations of IRPEO include generation of real-coded random initial population, evaluation of individual and population fitness, selection of bad elements according to power-law probability distribution, generation of new population based on uniform random mutation, and updating the population by accepting the new population unconditionally. The experimental results on 10 benchmark test functions with the dimension N=30 have shown that IRPEO is competitive or even better than the recently reported various genetic algorithm (GA versions with different mutation operations in terms of simplicity, effectiveness, and efficiency. Furthermore, the superiority of IRPEO to other evolutionary algorithms such as original population-based EO, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and the hybrid PSO-EO is also demonstrated by the experimental results on some benchmark functions.

  14. FUNDAMENTAL MATRIX OF LINEAR CONTINUOUS SYSTEM IN THE PROBLEM OF ESTIMATING ITS TRANSPORT DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Dudarenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of quantitative estimation for transport delay of linear continuous systems. The main result is received by means of fundamental matrix of linear differential equations solutions specified in the normal Cauchy form for the cases of SISO and MIMO systems. Fundamental matrix has the dual property. It means that the weight function of the system can be formed as a free motion of systems. Last one is generated by the vector of initial system conditions, which coincides with the matrix input of the system being researched. Thus, using the properties of the system- solving for fundamental matrix has given the possibility to solve the problem of estimating transport linear continuous system delay without the use of derivation procedure in hardware environment and without formation of exogenous Dirac delta function. The paper is illustrated by examples. The obtained results make it possible to solve the problem of modeling the pure delay links using consecutive chain of aperiodic links of the first order with the equal time constants. Modeling results have proved the correctness of obtained computations. Knowledge of transport delay can be used when configuring multi- component technological complexes and in the diagnosis of their possible functional degeneration.

  15. Discrete Approaches to Continuous Boundary Value Problems: Existence and Convergence of Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate two types of first-order, two-point boundary value problems (BVPs. Firstly, we study BVPs that involve nonlinear difference equations (the “discrete” BVP; and secondly, we study BVPs involving nonlinear ordinary differential equations (the “continuous” BVP. We formulate some sufficient conditions under which the discrete BVP will admit solutions. For this, our choice of methods involves a monotone iterative technique and the method of successive approximations (a.k.a. Picard iterations in the absence of Lipschitz conditions. Our existence results for the discrete BVP are of a constructive nature and are of independent interest in their own right. We then turn our attention to applying our existence results for the discrete BVP to the continuous BVP. We form new existence results for solutions to the continuous BVP with our methods involving linear interpolation of the data from the discrete BVP, combined with a priori bounds and the convergence Arzela-Ascoli theorem. Thus, our use of discrete BVPs to yield results for the continuous BVP may be considered as a discrete approach to continuous BVPs.

  16. Parallel Implementation of Numerical Solution of Few-Body Problem Using Feynman’s Continual Integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumenko Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern parallel computing algorithm has been applied to the solution of the few-body problem. The approach is based on Feynman’s continual integrals method implemented in C++ programming language using NVIDIA CUDA technology. A wide range of 3-body and 4-body bound systems has been considered including nuclei described as consisting of protons and neutrons (e.g., 3,4He and nuclei described as consisting of clusters and nucleons (e.g., 6He. The correctness of the results was checked by the comparison with the exactly solvable 4-body oscillatory system and experimental data.

  17. Parallel Implementation of Numerical Solution of Few-Body Problem Using Feynman's Continual Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Mikhail; Samarin, Viacheslav

    2018-02-01

    Modern parallel computing algorithm has been applied to the solution of the few-body problem. The approach is based on Feynman's continual integrals method implemented in C++ programming language using NVIDIA CUDA technology. A wide range of 3-body and 4-body bound systems has been considered including nuclei described as consisting of protons and neutrons (e.g., 3,4He) and nuclei described as consisting of clusters and nucleons (e.g., 6He). The correctness of the results was checked by the comparison with the exactly solvable 4-body oscillatory system and experimental data.

  18. Distributed Continuous-Time Algorithms for Resource Allocation Problems Over Weight-Balanced Digraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhenhua; Liang, Shu; Hong, Yiguang

    2017-10-17

    In this paper, a distributed resource allocation problem with nonsmooth local cost functions is considered, where the interaction among agents is depicted by strongly connected and weight-balanced digraphs. Here the decision variable of each agent is within a local feasibility constraint described as a convex set, and all the decision variables have to satisfy a network resource constraint, which is the sum of available resources. To solve the problem, a distributed continuous-time algorithm is developed by virtue of differentiated projection operations and differential inclusions, and its convergence to the optimal solution is proved via the set-valued LaSalle invariance principle. Furthermore, the exponential convergence of the proposed algorithm can be achieved when the local cost functions are differentiable with Lipschitz gradients and there are no local feasibility constraints. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.In this paper, a distributed resource allocation problem with nonsmooth local cost functions is considered, where the interaction among agents is depicted by strongly connected and weight-balanced digraphs. Here the decision variable of each agent is within a local feasibility constraint described as a convex set, and all the decision variables have to satisfy a network resource constraint, which is the sum of available resources. To solve the problem, a distributed continuous-time algorithm is developed by virtue of differentiated projection operations and differential inclusions, and its convergence to the optimal solution is proved via the set-valued LaSalle invariance principle. Furthermore, the exponential convergence of the proposed algorithm can be achieved when the local cost functions are differentiable with Lipschitz gradients and there are no local feasibility constraints. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  19. Asymmetric continuous-time neural networks without local traps for solving constraint satisfaction problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond Molnár

    Full Text Available There has been a long history of using neural networks for combinatorial optimization and constraint satisfaction problems. Symmetric Hopfield networks and similar approaches use steepest descent dynamics, and they always converge to the closest local minimum of the energy landscape. For finding global minima additional parameter-sensitive techniques are used, such as classical simulated annealing or the so-called chaotic simulated annealing, which induces chaotic dynamics by addition of extra terms to the energy landscape. Here we show that asymmetric continuous-time neural networks can solve constraint satisfaction problems without getting trapped in non-solution attractors. We concentrate on a model solving Boolean satisfiability (k-SAT, which is a quintessential NP-complete problem. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the stable fixed points of the neural network and the k-SAT solutions and we present numerical evidence that limit cycles may also be avoided by appropriately choosing the parameters of the model. This optimal parameter region is fairly independent of the size and hardness of instances, this way parameters can be chosen independently of the properties of problems and no tuning is required during the dynamical process. The model is similar to cellular neural networks already used in CNN computers. On an analog device solving a SAT problem would take a single operation: the connection weights are determined by the k-SAT instance and starting from any initial condition the system searches until finding a solution. In this new approach transient chaotic behavior appears as a natural consequence of optimization hardness and not as an externally induced effect.

  20. Spatial and Angular Moment Analysis of Continuous and Discretized Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, Patrick S.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2000-01-01

    A new theoretical tool for analyzing continuous and discretized transport equations is presented. This technique is based on a spatial and angular moment analysis of the analytic transport equation, which yields exact expressions for the 'center of mass' and 'squared radius of gyration' of the particle distribution. Essentially the same moment analysis is applied to discretized particle transport problems to determine numerical expressions for the center of mass and squared radius of gyration. Because this technique makes no assumption about the optical thickness of the spatial cells or about the amount of absorption in the system, it is applicable to problems that cannot be analyzed by a truncation analysis or an asymptotic diffusion limit analysis. The spatial differencing schemes examined (weighted- diamond, lumped linear discontinuous, and multiple balance) yield a numerically consistent expression for computing the squared radius of gyration plus an error term that depends on the mesh spacing, quadrature constants, and material properties of the system. The numerical results presented suggest that the relative accuracy of spatial differencing schemes for different types of problems can be assessed by comparing the magnitudes of these error terms

  1. Evidence of developmental continuity from birth to 1 year: sleep, temperament, problem solving, and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Michelle P; Chang, Luye; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J

    2015-04-01

    Research evidence is limited regarding developmentally appropriate care. Variations exits with respect to test procedure type, infant age at testing, and test relatedness. To assess developmental continuity using multiple developmental measures from birth to 12 months in a single cohort of term infants. A secondary analysis, longitudinal, correlational design was used to assess developmental continuity in a single cohort of infants (n 27). Measures included: sleep, using the Motility Monitoring System (first 48 hours of life); temperament, using the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (ICQ, 6 months) and the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (RITQ, 12 months); problem-solving, using the Willatts Infant Planning Test (PS, 9 and 12 months); and the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII, 6 and 9 months). Using Spearmen correlation, significant correlations included: (1) Sleep and ICQ: transitional sleep and "unpredictable" (r 0.455, P .017), "unadaptable" (r 0.420, P .026), and "dull" (r 0.416, P .028); (2) ICQ and FTII 6 months (r -0.512, P .008); (3) RITQ "approachability" and quiet sleep (r 0.662, P .005); (4) arousals in active sleep and PS at 9 months (r -0.528, P .016). Given our reported continuity between early sleep and later developmental measures, sleep-wake state should be considered in caregiving and environmental control to support sleep. Parental education on facilitating sleep-wake regulation in the home environment is essential. These data support the existence of continuity between early sleep and later developmental milestones warranting a larger-scale investigation. Specific focus on development of care strategies for facilitating sleep immediately following birth is warranted.

  2. Continuous Genetic Algorithm as a Novel Solver for Stokes and Nonlinear Navier Stokes Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Abo-Hammour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional continuous genetic algorithm (CGA previously developed by the principal author is extended and enhanced to deal with two-dimensional spaces in this paper. The enhanced CGA converts the partial differential equations into algebraic equations by replacing the derivatives appearing in the differential equation with their proper finite difference formula in 2D spaces. This optimization methodology is then applied for the solution of steady-state two-dimensional Stokes and nonlinear Navier Stokes problems. The main advantage of using CGA for the solution of partial differential equations is that the algorithm can be applied to linear and nonlinear equations without any modification in its structure. A comparison between the results obtained using the 2D CGA and the known Galerkin finite element method using COMSOL is presented in this paper. The results showed that CGA has an excellent accuracy as compared to other numerical solvers.

  3. Health Anxiety in Preadolescence - Associated Health Problems, Healthcare Expenditure, and Continuity in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Munkholm, Anja; Clemmensen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological data on the distribution, persistence, and clinical correlates of health anxiety (HA) in childhood are scarce. We investigated continuity of HA symptoms and associated health problems and medical costs in primary health services in a general population birth cohort. HA symptoms were...... assessed in 1886 Danish 11-12 year old children (48 % boys) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales (CIAS) together with information on socio-demographics and the child's somatic and mental status and healthcare expenditure. Non-parametric statistics and regression...... with emotional disorders and unspecific somatic complaints, but not with chronic physical conditions. In regression analyses controlling for gender and physical comorbidity, healthcare expenditure peaked in children with the highest HA symptom score, that is these children used on average approximately 150 Euro...

  4. Task-based learning versus problem-oriented lecture in neurology continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakani, Farhan; Jafri, Wasim; Ahmad, Amina; Sonawalla, Aziz; Sheerani, Mughis

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether general practitioners learned better with task-based learning or problem-oriented lecture in a Continuing Medical Education (CME) set-up. Quasi-experimental study. The Aga Khan University, Karachi campus, from April to June 2012. Fifty-nine physicians were given a choice to opt for either Task-based Learning (TBL) or Problem Oriented Lecture (PBL) in a continuing medical education set-up about headaches. The TBL group had 30 participants divided into 10 small groups, and were assigned case-based tasks. The lecture group had 29 participants. Both groups were given a pre and a post-test. Pre/post assessment was done using one-best MCQs. The reliability coefficient of scores for both the groups was estimated through Cronbach's alpha. An item analysis for difficulty and discriminatory indices was calculated for both the groups. Paired t-test was used to determine the difference between pre- and post-test scores of both groups. Independent t-test was used to compare the impact of the two teaching methods in terms of learning through scores produced by MCQ test. Cronbach's alpha was 0.672 for the lecture group and 0.881 for TBL group. Item analysis for difficulty (p) and discriminatory indexes (d) was obtained for both groups. The results for the lecture group showed pre-test (p) = 42% vs. post-test (p) = 43%; pre- test (d) = 0.60 vs. post-test (d) = 0.40. The TBL group showed pre -test (p) = 48% vs. post-test (p) = 70%; pre-test (d) = 0.69 vs. post-test (d) = 0.73. Lecture group pre-/post-test mean scores were (8.52 ± 2.95 vs. 12.41 ± 2.65; p learning through TBL delivery and calls for further exploration of longitudinal studies in the context of CME.

  5. A separation theorem for the stochastic sampled-data LQG problem. [control of continuous linear plant disturbed by white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    This paper considers the control of a continuous linear plant disturbed by white plant noise when the control is constrained to be a piecewise constant function of time; i.e. a stochastic sampled-data system. The cost function is the integral of quadratic error terms in the state and control, thus penalizing errors at every instant of time while the plant noise disturbs the system continuously. The problem is solved by reducing the constrained continuous problem to an unconstrained discrete one. It is shown that the separation principle for estimation and control still holds for this problem when the plant disturbance and measurement noise are Gaussian.

  6. Continuation of periodic orbits in the Sun-Mercury elliptic restricted three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Bai, Xiaoli; Xu, Shijie

    2017-06-01

    Starting from resonant Halo orbits in the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CRTBP), Multi-revolution Elliptic Halo (ME-Halo) orbits around L1 and L2 points in the Sun-Mercury Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem (ERTBP) are generated systematically. Three pairs of resonant parameters M5N2, M7N3 and M9N4 are tested. The first pair shows special features and is investigated in detail. Three separated characteristic curves of periodic orbit around each libration point are obtained, showing the eccentricity varies non-monotonically along these curves. The eccentricity of the Sun-Mercury system can be achieved by continuation method in just a few cases. The stability analysis shows that these orbits are all unstable and the complex instability occurs with certain parameters. This paper shows new periodic orbits in both the CRTBP and the ERTBP. Totally four periodic orbits with parameters M5N2 around each libration points are extracted in the Sun-Mercury ERTBP.

  7. An ignored cause of inflammation in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: periodontal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Ismail; Yucel, Hasan Esat; Cakmak, Omer; Dogruel, Fatma; Durukan, Dürdane Banu; Korkar, Hafsa; Unal, Aydin; Sipahioglu, Murat Hayri; Oymak, Oktay; Gurgan, Cem A; Tokgoz, Bulent

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to assess whether there is a significant relation between periodontal health status and inflammation in uremic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and also to reveal the efficiency of periodontal treatment in patients with various degrees of periodontal problems. Overall, 68 patients undergoing CAPD were included in the study. Clinical indices and measurements were obtained at baseline and panoramic radiographies were used for the diagnosis. According to the baseline values, patients were stratified into four groups according to the severity of periodontal problems as follows: healthy/gingivitis, slight-to-moderate, and severe periodontitis. A control examination was performed 3 months after the periodontal treatment for only 43 patients. Clinical and laboratory parameters before and after treatment were compared. The frequency of periodontal disease was found to be high in uremic patients on CAPD. The frequency and severity of periodontitis was also found to be significantly (p periodontitis rate was found to be higher in patients with cardiovascular disease (p diabetes mellitus (p periodontal examination should be a routine part of management of the uremic patients on CAPD because periodontal disease could be one of the hidden sources of unexplained inflammatory status.

  8. Modified NSGA-II for Solving Continuous Berth Allocation Problem: Using Multiobjective Constraint-Handling Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Bin; Yuan, Xiaohui; Yuan, Yanbin

    2017-09-01

    Continuous berth allocation problem (BAPC) is a major optimization problem in transportation engineering. It mainly aims at minimizing the port stay time of ships by optimally scheduling ships to the berthing areas along quays while satisfying several practical constraints. Most of the previous literatures handle the BAPC by heuristics with different constraint handling strategies as it is proved NP-hard. In this paper, we transform the constrained single-objective BAPC (SBAPC) model into unconstrained multiobjective BAPC (MBAPC) model by converting the constraint violation as another objective, which is known as the multiobjective optimization (MOO) constraint handling technique. Then a bias selection modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (MNSGA-II) is proposed to optimize the MBAPC, in which an archive is designed as an efficient complementary mechanism to provide search bias toward the feasible solution. Finally, the proposed MBAPC model and the MNSGA-II approach are tested on instances from literature and generation. We compared the results obtained by MNSGA-II with other MOO algorithms under the MBAPC model and the results obtained by single-objective oriented methods under the SBAPC model. The comparison shows the feasibility of the MBAPC model and the advantages of the MNSGA-II algorithm.

  9. An MPCC Formulation and Its Smooth Solution Algorithm for Continuous Network Design Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous network design problem (CNDP is searching for a transportation network configuration to minimize the sum of the total system travel time and the investment cost of link capacity expansions by considering that the travellers follow a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE to choose their routes. In this paper, the CNDP model can be formulated as mathematical programs with complementarity constraints (MPCC by describing UE as a non-linear complementarity problem (NCP. To address the difficulty resulting from complementarity constraints in MPCC, they are substituted by the Fischer-Burmeister (FB function, which can be smoothed by the introduction of the smoothing parameter. Therefore, the MPCC can be transformed into a well-behaved non-linear program (NLP by replacing the complementarity constraints with a smooth equation. Consequently, the solver such as LINDOGLOBAL in GAMS can be used to solve the smooth approximate NLP to obtain the solution to MPCC for modelling CNDP. The numerical experiments on the example from the literature demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is feasible.

  10. [Progress in improvement of continuous monoculture cropping problem in Panax ginseng by controlling soil-borne disease management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dong, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Jun-Wen; Li, Xi-Wen; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continuous monoculture cropping problem severely has hindered the land resource of Panax ginseng cultivation and threatened the sustainable development of ginseng industry. There are comprehensive factors causing the continuous monoculture cropping problem, such as deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties, accumulation of allelochemical, increase of pesticide residue and heavy metal, imbalance of rhizospheric micro-ecosystem, and increase of soil-borne diseases. Among soil-borne disease was one of the key factors. More than 40 soil-borne diseases have been reported in the ginseng cultivation, especially, the diseases were more serious in the ginseng replanting land. Here main soil-borne diseases and their prevention way have been summarized, and we try to provide the effective improvement strategy of continuous monoculture cropping problem focusing on the disease control and offer reference for overcoming the ginseng continuous monoculture cropping problem. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. On the efficient solvability of a simple class of nonlinear knapsack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it is, in general, possible to have an arbitrary large number of solutions for which the necessary conditions hold. These results are then generalised to larger instances of the problem. A possible solution approach is applied to sets of randomly generated problems that utilises the necessary conditions together with the ...

  12. Analysis of some greedy algorithms for the single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    -charge transportation problem. Nevertheless, just a few methods for solving this problem have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, some greedy heuristic solutions methods for the SSFCTP are investigated. It is shown that two greedy approaches for the SSFCTP known from the literature can be arbitrarily bad......, whereas an approximation algorithm proposed in the literature for the binary min-knapsack problem has a guaranteed worst case bound if adapted accordingly to the case of the SSFCTP....

  13. Solution of the Kolmogorov-Nikol'skii problem for the Poisson integrals of continuous functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanets, A I

    2001-01-01

    Asymptotic equalities are obtained for upper bounds of the deviations of Fourier sums in the classes of convolutions of Poisson kernels and continuous functions with moduli of continuity not exceeding fixed majorants

  14. Aplicació web de generació i autoavaluació d'exàmens tipus test basat en el criptosistema knapsack

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Baldor Font, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Creació d'una aplicació web que genera exàmens tipus test agafant les preguntes d'un banc de preguntes. Genera una versió per cada alumne del mateix exàmen, amb les preguntes desordenades i les opcions també desordenades. A cada resposta se li associa un número. El resultat de l'exàmen és la suma de les repostes. Mitjançant el criptosistema Knapsack ficant a l'aplicació el número resultat de l'exàmen s'obté la nota.

  15. Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement for Problem Behavior during Functional Communication Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsdell, April S.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Kahng, Sung Woo

    2000-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing problem behavior of 5 individuals with severe mental retardation and in strengthening alternative behavior. Four participants shifted response allocation from problem to alternative behavior as the schedule of reinforcement of problem behavior became more…

  16. APPLICATION OF PARAMETER CONTINUATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR. PROBLEM STATE. SHORT SURVEY OF WORLD SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bazhenov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their works study vibroimpact system dynamic behaviour by numerical parametric continuation technique combined with shooting and Newton-Raphson’s methods. The technique is adapted to two-mass two-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact system under periodic excitation. Impact is simulated by nonlinear contact interaction force based on Hertz’s contact theory. Stability or instability of obtained periodic solutions is determined by monodromy matrix eigenvalues (multipliers based on Floquet’s theory. In the present paper we describe the state of problem of parameter continuation method using for nonlinear tasks solution. Also we give the short survey of numerous contemporary literature in English and Russian about parameter continuation method application for nonlinear problems. This method is applied for vibroimpact problem solving more rarely because of the difficulties connected with repeated impacts.

  17. A mixed integer programming model for a continuous move transportation problem with service constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fabian Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a Pickup and Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem (PDP commonly encountered in real-world logistics operations. The problem involves a set of practical complications that have received little attention in the vehicle routing literature. In this problem, there are multiple vehicle types available to cover a set of pickup and delivery requests, each of which has pickup time windows and delivery time windows. Transportation orders and vehicle types must satisfy a set of compatibility constraints that specify which orders cannot be covered by which vehicle types. In addition we include some dock service capacity constraints as is required on common real world operations. This problem requires to be attended on large scale instances (orders ≥ 500, (vehicles ≥ 150. As a generalization of the traveling salesman problem, clearly this problem is NP-hard. The exact algorithms are too slow for large scale instances. The PDP-TWDS is both a packing problem (assign order to vehicles, and a routing problem (find the best route for each vehicle. We propose to solve the problem in three stages. The first stage constructs initials solutions at aggregate level relaxing some constraints on the original problem. The other two stages imposes time windows and dock service constraints. Our results are favorable finding good quality solutions in relatively short computational times.

  18. Wicked Problems in Large Organizations: Why Pilot Retention Continues to Challenge the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    1 Literature Review... Archetypes ...........................................................................................7 Groupthink...organizational theory, complexity, learning organizations, and problem framing and solving in a literature review. Culture and power play a significant

  19. Continuity of Care, Caregiver-Child Interactions, and Toddler Social Competence and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Karen; Elicker, James; Choi, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Continuity of care is a recommended practice in child care intended to promote secure and supportive relationships between infants and toddlers and their caregivers. Toddlers (N = 115) between 12 and 24 months were observed in 30 continuity and 29 noncontinuity classrooms. The average duration of care for toddlers with…

  20. Problems from the discrete to the continuous probability, number theory, graph theory, and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Pinsky, Ross G

    2014-01-01

    The primary intent of the book is to introduce an array of beautiful problems in a variety of subjects quickly, pithily and completely rigorously to graduate students and advanced undergraduates. The book takes a number of specific problems and solves them, the needed tools developed along the way in the context of the particular problems. It treats a mélange of topics from combinatorial probability theory, number theory, random graph theory and combinatorics. The problems in this book involve the asymptotic analysis of a discrete construct as some natural parameter of the system tends to infinity. Besides bridging discrete mathematics and mathematical analysis, the book makes a modest attempt at bridging disciplines. The problems were selected with an eye toward accessibility to a wide audience, including advanced undergraduate students. The book could be used for a seminar course in which students present the lectures.

  1. Problem Lah! Learning to Tell the Story of Continuous Assessment and Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Hanken, Tamera

    2014-01-01

    To succeed organizations rely on the purposeful application of the management functions, planning, organizing, leading and controlling, i.e., assessment. Assessment involves the collection and analysis of service and performance data to inform planning, organizing and leading-- opening the door to a culture of assessment and continuous improvement. Like other organizations responding to ever challenging economies and ever changing customer expectations, libraries are examining continuous impr...

  2. On the continuity of mean total normal stress in geometrical multiscale cardiovascular problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Pablo J., E-mail: pjblanco@lncc.br [LNCC, Laboratório Nacional de Computação Científica, Av. Getúlio Vargas 333, Quitandinha, 25651-075 Petrópolis (Brazil); INCT-MACC, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Medicina Assistida por Computação Científica, Petrópolis (Brazil); Deparis, Simone, E-mail: simone.deparis@epfl.ch [CMCS, Chair of Modeling and Scientific Computing, MATHICSE, Mathematics Institute of Computational Science and Engineering, EPFL, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 8, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Malossi, A. Cristiano I., E-mail: cristiano.malossi@epfl.ch [CMCS, Chair of Modeling and Scientific Computing, MATHICSE, Mathematics Institute of Computational Science and Engineering, EPFL, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 8, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    In this work an iterative strategy to implicitly couple dimensionally-heterogeneous blood flow models accounting for the continuity of mean total normal stress at interface boundaries is developed. Conservation of mean total normal stress in the coupling of heterogeneous models is mandatory to satisfy energetic consistency between them. Nevertheless, existing methodologies are based on modifications of the Navier–Stokes variational formulation, which are undesired when dealing with fluid–structure interaction or black box codes. The proposed methodology makes possible to couple one-dimensional and three-dimensional fluid–structure interaction models, enforcing the continuity of mean total normal stress while just imposing flow rate data or even the classical Neumann boundary data to the models. This is accomplished by modifying an existing iterative algorithm, which is also able to account for the continuity of the vessel area, when required. Comparisons are performed to assess differences in the convergence properties of the algorithms when considering the continuity of mean normal stress and the continuity of mean total normal stress for a wide range of flow regimes. Finally, examples in the physiological regime are shown to evaluate the importance, or not, of considering the continuity of mean total normal stress in hemodynamics simulations.

  3. The Expanded Invasive Weed Optimization Metaheuristic for Solving Continuous and Discrete Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Josiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature.

  4. The expanded invasive weed optimization metaheuristic for solving continuous and discrete optimization problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiński, Henryk; Kostrzewa, Daniel; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Switoński, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature.

  5. Problem of the Moving Boundary in Continuous Casting Solved by The Analytic-Numerical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzymkowski R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of thermal processes combined with the reversible phase transitions of type: solid phase - liquid phase leads to formulation of the parabolic or elliptic moving boundary problem. Solution of such defined problem requires, most often, to use some sophisticated numerical techniques and far advanced mathematical tools. The paper presents an analytic-numerical method, especially attractive from the engineer’s point of view, applied for finding the approximate solutions of the selected class of problems which can be reduced to the one-phase solidification problem of a plate with the unknown a priori, varying in time boundary of the region in which the solution is sought. Proposed method is based on the known formalism of initial expansion of a sought function, describing the field of temperature, into the power series, some coefficients of which are determined with the aid of boundary conditions, and on the approximation of a function defining the freezing front location with the broken line, parameters of which are determined numerically. The method represents a combination of the analytical and numerical techniques and seems to be an effective and relatively easy in using tool for solving problems of considered kind.

  6. Problem of the Moving Boundary in Continuous Casting Solved by the Analytic-Numerical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Grzymkowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of thermal processes combined with the reversible phase transitions of type: solid phase – liquid phase leads to formulation of the parabolic or elliptic moving boundary problem. Solution of such defined problem requires, most often, to use some sophisticated numerical techniques and far advanced mathematical tools. The paper presents an analytic-numerical method, especially attractive from the engineer’s point of view, applied for finding the approximate solutions of the selected class of problems which can be reduced to the one-phase solidification problem of a plate with the unknown a priori, varying in time boundary of the region in which the solution is sought. Proposed method is based on the known formalism of initial expansion of a sought function, describing the field of temperature, into the power series, some coefficients of which are determined with the aid of boundary conditions, and on the approximation of a function defining the freezing front location with the broken line, parameters of which are determined numerically. The method represents a combination of the analytical and numerical techniques and seems to be an effective and relatively easy in using tool for solving problems of considered kind.

  7. Experimental bifurcation analysis—Continuation for noise-contaminated zero problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilder, Frank; Bureau, Emil; Santos, Ilmar Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Noise contaminated zero problems involve functions that cannot be evaluated directly, but only indirectly via observations. In addition, such observations are affected by a non-deterministic observation error (noise). We investigate the application of numerical bifurcation analysis for studying...... the solution set of such noise contaminated zero problems, which is highly relevant in the context of equation-free analysis (coarse grained analysis) and bifurcation analysis in experiments, and develop specialized algorithms to address challenges that arise due to the presence of noise. As a working example...

  8. Assessment of bidirectional influences between family relationships and adolescent problem behavior: Discrete versus continuous time analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Oud, J.H.L.; Bruyn, E.E.J. De

    2005-01-01

    In family research, bidirectional influences between the family and the individual are usually analyzed in discrete time. Results from discrete time analysis, however, have been shown to be highly dependent on the length of the observation interval. Continuous time analysis using stochastic

  9. CONTINUITY AND CHANGE OF SELF-REPORTED PROBLEM BEHAVIORS FROM ADOLESCENCE INTO YOUNG ADULTHOOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FERDINAND, RF; VERHULST, FC; WIZNITZER, M

    Objective: To investigate the 4-year course of behavioral and emotional problems from adolescence into young adulthood in a general population sample. Method: The population consisted of 364 individuals, aged 15 to 18 years at the beginning of the study. Subjects filled out the Youth Self-Report at

  10. Approximation of the eigenvalue problem for the time harmonic Maxwell system by continuous Lagrange finite elements

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We propose and analyze an approximation technique for the Maxwell eigenvalue problem using H1-conforming finite elements. The key idea consists of considering a mixed method controlling the divergence of the electric field in a fractional Sobolev space H-α with α ∈ (1/2, 1). The method is shown to be convergent and spectrally correct. © 2011 American Mathematical Society.

  11. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2012-01-01

    for revenue and transshipment of cargo along with in/decrease of vessel- and operational cost for the current solution. The evaluation functions may be used by heuristics in general to evaluate changes to a network design without solving a large scale multicommodity flow problem.......We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem. The heuristic applies a greedy construction heuristic based on an interpretation of the liner shipping network design problem as a multiple quadratic knapsack problem. The construction...

  12. Design problems of a continuous injector of many amperes of MeV deuterium neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1976-10-01

    A continuous injector of many amperes of MeV deuterium neutrals will require high currents of negative deuterium ions to be generated, accelerated and stripped of electrons by methods that are not fully developed. Each of these processes as briefly described in this report, introduce constraints upon the ion optics, beam line pumping, and high voltage stand-off that must be mutually resolved. Although the design of such an injector represents a difficult task, there is no fundamental reason that very high current beams cannot be handled

  13. Continuous primary nursing care increases satisfaction with nursing care and reduces postpartum problems for hospitalized pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongwei; Hu, Senqi; Thobaben, Marshelle; Hou, Yanwen; Yin, Tao

    2011-02-01

    To compare the differences in practicing continuous primary nursing care (CPNC) versus task-centered nursing care (TCNC) with regard to patient satisfaction with nursing care and early postpartum health problems for hospitalized pregnant women. All participants filled out the satisfaction with nursing care questionnaire, breastfeeding knowledge questionnaire, and early postpartum problem questionnaire. Participants in the CPNC group received continuous individualized primary nursing care and participants in the TCNC group received task-centered nursing care during their perinatal period. Using a randomized controlled trial, 470 hospitalized pregnant women participated in the study with 230 pregnant women in the CPNC group and 240 in TCNC group. Questionnaire data were collected, calculated, and statistically analyzed using independent t-tests or Χ(2) tests along with power analysis. Participants in the CPNC group reported significantly higher overall satisfaction with nursing care (t(468) = 5.936, p continuous primary nursing care was more effective than practicing traditional task-centered nursing care for hospitalized pregnant women in increasing satisfaction with nursing care, enhancing breastfeeding, and reducing early postpartum problems.

  14. A Multi-Point, Boundary-Value Problem, Collocation Toolbox for the Continuation of sets of Constrained Orbit Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankowicz, Harry; Schilder, Frank

    This paper presents a collocation toolbox for multi-point, boundary-value problems. This toolbox has been recently developed by the authors to support general-purpose parameter continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments, such as i) segmented trajectories in hybrid dynamical systems......, for example, mechanical systems with impacts, friction, and switching control, ii) homoclinic orbits represented by an equilibrium point and a finite-time trajectory that starts and ends near this equilibrium point, and iii) collections of trajectories that represent quasi-periodic invariant tori...... the continuation of families of periodic orbits in a hybrid dynamical system with impacts and friction as well as detection and constrained continuation of selected degeneracies characteristic of such systems, such as grazing and switching-sliding bifurcations....

  15. Basic problems and solution methods for two-dimensional continuous 3 × 3 order hidden Markov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guo-gang; Tang, Gui-jin; Gan, Zong-liang; Cui, Zi-guan; Zhu, Xiu-chang

    2016-01-01

    A novel model referred to as two-dimensional continuous 3 × 3 order hidden Markov model is put forward to avoid the disadvantages of the classical hypothesis of two-dimensional continuous hidden Markov model. This paper presents three equivalent definitions of the model, in which the state transition probability relies on not only immediate horizontal and vertical states but also immediate diagonal state, and in which the probability density of the observation relies on not only current state but also immediate horizontal and vertical states. The paper focuses on the three basic problems of the model, namely probability density calculation, parameters estimation and path backtracking. Some algorithms solving the questions are theoretically derived, by exploiting the idea that the sequences of states on rows or columns of the model can be viewed as states of a one-dimensional continuous 1 × 2 order hidden Markov model. Simulation results further demonstrate the performance of the algorithms. Because there are more statistical characteristics in the structure of the proposed new model, it can more accurately describe some practical problems, as compared to two-dimensional continuous hidden Markov model.

  16. The air transportation hub-and-spoke design problem: comparison between a continuous and a discrete solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guina Sotomayor Alzamora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hub-and-spoke network design problem, also known as the hub location problem, aims to find the concentration points in a given network flow so that the sum of the distances of the linkages is minimized. In this work, we compare discrete solutions of this problem, given by the branch-and-cut method applied to the p-hub median model, with continuous solutions, given by the hyperbolic smoothing technique applied to a min-sum-min model. Computational experiments for particular instances of the Brazilian air transportation system, with the number of hubs varying from 2 to 8, are conducted with the support of a discretization heuristic and the Voronoi diagram.

  17. The route from problem to solution in multistep continuous flow synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Péter; Örkényi, Róbert; Lövei, Klára; Lakó, Ágnes; Túrós, György István; Éles, János; Faigl, Ferenc; Greiner, István

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in the field of continuous flow chemistry allow the multistep preparation of complex molecules such as APIs (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) in a telescoped manner. Numerous examples of laboratory-scale applications are described, which are pointing towards novel manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical compounds, in accordance with recent regulatory, economical and quality guidances. The chemical and technical knowledge gained during these studies is considerable; nevertheless, connecting several individual chemical transformations and the attached analytics and purification holds hidden traps. In this review, we summarize innovative solutions for these challenges, in order to benefit chemists aiming to exploit flow chemistry systems for the synthesis of biologically active molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Review article: definition and diagnosis in portal hypertension--continued problems with the Baveno consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Franchis, R

    2004-09-01

    The goals of the Baveno workshops were to develop consensus definitions of key events related to portal hypertension and variceal bleeding, and to produce guidelines to facilitate the conduct and reporting of clinical trials. The consensus definitions concern the diagnosis of active bleeding, failure to control bleeding, the criteria to distinguish continuing bleeding from rebleeding, and the means of assessing failure to prevent rebleeding. The guidelines concern the timing of diagnostic endoscopy, the policy for blood volume restitution, the measures to prevent infection and encephalopathy, and the treatment options for acute bleeding, as well as primary and secondary prophylaxis. The intention of the experts who developed the guidelines was that, as feedback from their practical application develops, they should be adapted to better fit the practical needs. The applicability of the Baveno definitions has been evaluated in a study where the definitions of clinically significant bleeding, failure to control bleeding, the time frame for the acute bleeding episode and the definition of rebleeding were tested. The main criticism raised in this study was that tachycardia, one of the criteria that define failure to control bleeding, was misleading in 15% of patients who had the symptom but were not bleeding.

  19. PROBLEM DEPENDENT DOPPLER BROADENING OF CONTINUOUS ENERGY CROSS SECTIONS IN THE KENO MONTE CARLO COMPUTER CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S. W. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Maldonado, G. Ivan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Celik, Cihangir [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    For many Monte Carlo codes cross sections are generally only created at a set of predetermined temperatures. This causes an increase in error as one moves further and further away from these temperatures in the Monte Carlo model. This paper discusses recent progress in the Scale Monte Carlo module KENO to create problem dependent, Doppler broadened, cross sections. Currently only broadening the 1D cross sections and probability tables is addressed. The approach uses a finite difference method to calculate the temperature dependent cross-sections for the 1D data, and a simple linear-logarithmic interpolation in the square root of temperature for the probability tables. Work is also ongoing to address broadening theS (alpha , beta) tables. With the current approach the temperature dependent cross sections are Doppler broadened before transport starts, and, for all but a few isotopes, the impact on cross section loading is negligible. Results can be compared with those obtained by using multigroup libraries, as KENO currently does interpolation on the multigroup cross sections to determine temperature dependent cross-sections. Current results compare favorably with these expected results.

  20. Maternal phenylketonuria syndrome: studies in mice suggest a potential approach to a continuing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeile, William L; McCune, Helen C; Musson, Donald G; O'Donnell, Brian; O'Neill, Charles A; Tsuruda, Laurie S; Zori, Roberto T; Laipis, Philip J

    2018-01-31

    BackgroundUntreated phenylketonuria (PKU), one of the most common human genetic disorders, usually results in mental retardation. Although a protein-restricted artificial diet can prevent retardation, dietary compliance in adults is often poor. In pregnant PKU women, noncompliance can result in maternal PKU syndrome, where high phenylalanine (Phe) levels cause severe fetal complications. Enzyme substitution therapy using Phe ammonia lyase (PAL) corrects PKU in BTBR Phe hydroxylase (Pah enu2 ) mutant mice, suggesting a potential for maternal PKU syndrome treatment in humans.MethodsWe reviewed clinical data to assess maternal PKU syndrome incidence in pregnant PKU women. We treated female PKU mice (on normal diet) with PAL, stabilizing Phe at physiological levels, and mated them to assess pregnancy outcomes.ResultsPatient records show that, unfortunately, the efficacy of diet to prevent maternal PKU syndrome has not significantly improved since the problem was first noted 40 years ago. PAL treatment of pregnant PKU mice shows that offspring of PAL-treated dams survive to adulthood, in contrast to the complete lethality seen in untreated mice, or limited survival seen in mice on a PKU diet.ConclusionPAL treatment reduced maternal PKU syndrome severity in mice and may have potential for human PKU therapy.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 31 January 2018; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.323.

  1. Clothing-related burns in New South Wales, Australia: impact of legislation on a continuing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lara A; Connolley, Siobhan; Harvey, John G

    2015-02-01

    To combat the risk of nightwear burns a mandatory standard regulating the design, flammability and labelling requirements of children's nightwear was introduced in Australia in 1987. This population-based study examined the trends, characteristics and causes of clothing-related burns to inform a review of the current standard, and to facilitate the development of targeted prevention strategies. Clothing-related burns for 1998-2013 were identified from hospitalisation data for all hospitals in NSW and detailed information regarding circumstance of injury from a burn data registry. To investigate percentage annual change (PAC) in trends negative binomial regression analysis was performed. There were 541 hospitalisations for clothing-related burns, 18% were nightwear-related and 82% were for other clothing. All clothing burns decreased by an estimated 4% per year (95% CI -6.2 to -2.1). Nightwear-related burns decreased by a significantly higher rate (PAC -7.4%; 95% CI -12.5 to -2.1) than other clothing (PAC -2.5%; 95%CI -4.7 to -0.1). Exposure to open heat source (campfire/bonfire) was the most common cause, followed by cooking. Of factors known to be associated with clothing burns, accelerant use was reported in 27% of cases, cigarettes 17%, loose skirt or dress 8%, and angle grinders in 6% of cases. Hospitalisations for clothing burns are relatively uncommon in NSW and rates, particularly of nightwear burns, have decreased over the last 15 years. Strategies for continued reduction of these injuries include increasing the scope of the current clothing standard or developing new standards to include all children's clothing and adult nightwear, and increasing community awareness of the risk associated with open heat sources, accelerant use and loose clothing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. [Continued problems with tuberculosis among Danes and Greenlanders in Denmark and the need for reinforced control--a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillebæk, Troels; Andersen, Ase Bengård; Seersholm, Niels Jørgen; Thomsen, Vibeke Ostergaard

    2012-10-29

    Active transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) continues at surprisingly high rates in Denmark. The transmission is particularly observed in specific high risk segments of the population with social problems such as homelessness, alcohol, and/or drug abuse. The patients are infected with the "Danish Cluster 2" Mt outbreak strain, and the transmission is attributed to delayed diagnosis. This situation demands increased focus on early tuberculosis diagnosis, control of transmission, and improved actions calls for prioritising the prevention and control of tuberculosis politically and economically.

  3. Prognosis and Continuity of Child Mental Health Problems from Preschool to Primary School: Results of a Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Muller, Jorg M.; Furniss, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    In a four-year longitudinal study, changes in and continuity of behavioral and emotional problems were examined in 814 subjects from kindergarten to primary school. Mental health problems were assessed by means of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The distribution of the CBCL broadband groups revealed a high level of continuity of internalizing…

  4. High Order A-stable Continuous General Linear Methods for Solution of Systems of Initial Value Problems in ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda GuliburYAKUBU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solutions to initial value systems of ordinary differential equations may be approximated efficiently by Runge-Kutta methods or linear multistep methods. Each of these has limitations of one sort or another. In this paper we consider, as a middle ground, the derivation of continuous general linear methods for solution of stiff systems of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. These methods are designed to combine the advantages of both Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods. Particularly, methods possessing the property of A-stability are identified as promising methods within this large class of general linear methods. We show that the continuous general linear methods are self-starting and have more ability to solve the stiff systems of ordinary differential equations, than the discrete ones. The initial value systems of ordinary differential equations are solved, for instance, without looking for any other method to start the integration process. This desirable feature of the proposed approach leads to obtaining very high accuracy of the solution of the given problem. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the novelty and reliability of the methods.

  5. Reflecting on the essence of our problem-based learning discussions: the importance of faculty development and our continuous quest for applications of problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Engle Angela

    2009-05-01

    While problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching strategy to promote critical thinking, creativity and self-directedness in learning is very important. It is the meaning of the learning, with a contextual understanding, that marks the significance of this approach in our healthcare education. At the 2008 Kaohsiung Medical University International Conference and Workshop on PBL, the scholarly discourse on sharing empirical findings and practical experience with various aspects of PBL brought forth the importance of the teachers' continued learning about the meaning, the dynamics of the process, and the pragmatic details of PBL. This quest for a continuous learning and understanding about PBL parallels our search to extend the classroom PBL into students' clinical experience. The development of clinical teachers in the understanding of PBL was explored as part of their experiential learning in clinical teaching after their PBL workshops. While the clinical teachers who participated in the project appreciated the merits of clinical PBL, the complex balance between patient service and student teaching--in an unpredictable clinical setting--has led to the use of a simulated clinical environment with simulated patients. We also piloted PBL for interprofessional education of undergraduate students of nursing and social work. The ways we can adopt PBL in various settings with different intents will help prepare our healthcare graduates in meeting the challenges of our ever more complex healthcare systems, and the demands of holistic patient care.

  6. Reflecting on the Essence of our Problem-Based Learning Discussions: The Importance of Faculty Development and our Continuous Quest for Applications of Problem-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engle Angela Chan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available While problem-based learning (PBL is a teaching strategy to promote critical thinking, creativity and self-directedness in learning is very important. It is the meaning of the learning, with a contextual understanding, that marks the significance of this approach in our healthcare education. At the 2008 Kaohsiung Medical University International Conference and Workshop on PBL, the scholarly discourse on sharing empirical findings and practical experience with various aspects of PBL brought forth the importance of the teachers' continued learning about the meaning, the dynamics of the process, and the pragmatic details of PBL. This quest for a continuous learning and understanding about PBL parallels our search to extend the classroom PBL into students' clinical experience. The development of clinical teachers in the understanding of PBL was explored as part of their experiential learning in clinical teaching after their PBL workshops. While the clinical teachers who participated in the project appreciated the merits of clinical PBL, the complex balance between patient service and student teaching—in an unpredictable clinical setting—has led to the use of a simulated clinical environment with simulated patients. We also piloted PBL for interprofessional education of undergraduate students of nursing and social work. The ways we can adopt PBL in various settings with different intents will help prepare our healthcare graduates in meeting the challenges of our ever more complex healthcare systems, and the demands of holistic patient care.

  7. Algorithms for solving the single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem is an important subproblem of the fixed-charge transportation problem. Just a few methods have been proposed in the literature to solve this problem. In this paper, solution approaches based on dynamic programming and implicit enumeration...... are revisited. It is shown how the problem size as well as the search space of a recently published dynamic programming method can be reduced by exploiting reduced cost information. Additionally, a further implicit enumeration approach relying on solution concepts for the binary knapsack problem is introduced...

  8. Continual approach to the dynamics problems of tanks containing rod bundles or particle groups and fluid at vibrational actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotovskii, V.S.

    1988-02-01

    The vibration of tanks with liquid and non deformed cylindrical or spherical inclusions are considered. It is shown that for calculating dynamic characteristics of such systems it is advisable to use continual approach i.e. consider-heterogeneous media formed by liquid and weighted inclusions in it as homogeneous media with effective or vibroreological properties. On the base of the problem on vibrations of the tank, containing liquid and localized inclusions, rod assemblies vibrations are considered and relationships for the added mass and resistance coefficient determining dynamic characteristics of such systems are obtained. Considered are also liquid tank vibrations containing spherical inclusions. The results obtained are used for calculating dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow pipelines at bubble and annular flow mode. The theoretical relationships are compared with available experimental data [fr

  9. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Plate/shell structure topology optimization of orthotropic material for buckling problem based on independent continuous topological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hong-Ling; Wang, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ning; Sui, Yun-Kang

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the buckling problem with plate/shell topology optimization of orthotropic material. A model of buckling topology optimization is established based on the independent, continuous, and mapping method, which considers structural mass as objective and buckling critical loads as constraints. Firstly, composite exponential function (CEF) and power function (PF) as filter functions are introduced to recognize the element mass, the element stiffness matrix, and the element geometric stiffness matrix. The filter functions of the orthotropic material stiffness are deduced. Then these filter functions are put into buckling topology optimization of a differential equation to analyze the design sensitivity. Furthermore, the buckling constraints are approximately expressed as explicit functions with respect to the design variables based on the first-order Taylor expansion. The objective function is standardized based on the second-order Taylor expansion. Therefore, the optimization model is translated into a quadratic program. Finally, the dual sequence quadratic programming (DSQP) algorithm and the global convergence method of moving asymptotes algorithm with two different filter functions (CEF and PF) are applied to solve the optimal model. Three numerical results show that DSQP&CEF has the best performance in the view of structural mass and discretion.

  11. About solution of multipoint boundary problem of static analysis of deep beam with the use of combined application of finite element method and discrete-continual finite element method. part 1: formulation of the problem and general principles of approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyakhovich Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to formulation and general principles of approximation of multipoint boundary problem of static analysis of deep beam with the use of combined application of finite element method (FEM discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. The field of application of DCFEM comprises structures with regular physical and geometrical parameters in some dimension (“basic” dimension. DCFEM presupposes finite element approximation for non-basic dimension while in the basic dimension problem remains continual. DCFEM is based on analytical solutions of resulting multipoint boundary problems for systems of ordinary differential equations with piecewise-constant coefficients.

  12. A Branch and Bound Approach for Truss Topology Design Problems with Valid Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerveira, Adelaide; Agra, Agostinho; Bastos, Fernando; Varum, Humberto

    2010-01-01

    One of the classical problems in the structural optimization field is the Truss Topology Design Problem (TTDP) which deals with the selection of optimal configuration for structural systems for applications in mechanical, civil, aerospace engineering, among others. In this paper we consider a TTDP where the goal is to find the stiffest truss, under a given load and with a bound on the total volume. The design variables are the cross-section areas of the truss bars that must be chosen from a given finite set. This results in a large-scale non-convex problem with discrete variables. This problem can be formulated as a Semidefinite Programming Problem (SDP problem) with binary variables. We propose a branch and bound algorithm to solve this problem. In this paper it is considered a binary formulation of the problem, to take advantage of its structure, which admits a Knapsack problem as subproblem. Thus, trying to improve the performance of the Branch and Bound, at each step, some valid inequalities for the Knapsack problem are included.

  13. A Continuous Deviation-Flow Location Problem for an Alternative-Fuel Refueling Station on a Tree-Like Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Kweon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing popularity of alternative-fuel (AF vehicles in the last two decades, several models and solution techniques have been recently published in the literature to solve AF refueling station location problems. These problems can be classified depending on the set of candidate sites: when a (finite set of candidate sites is predetermined, the problem is called discrete; when stations can be located anywhere along the network, the problem is called continuous. Most researchers have focused on the discrete version of the problem, but solutions to the discrete version are suboptimal to its continuous counterpart. This study addresses the continuous version of the problem for an AF refueling station on a tree-type transportation network when a portion of drivers are willing to deviate from their preplanned simple paths to receive refueling service. A polynomial time solution approach is proposed to solve the problem. We first present a new algorithm that identifies all possible deviation options for each travel path. Then, an efficient algorithm is used to determine the set of optimal locations for the refueling station that maximizes the total traffic flow covered. A numerical example is solved to illustrate the proposed solution approach.

  14. The cost-constrained traveling salesman problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokkappa, P.R.

    1990-10-01

    The Cost-Constrained Traveling Salesman Problem (CCTSP) is a variant of the well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). In the TSP, the goal is to find a tour of a given set of cities such that the total cost of the tour is minimized. In the CCTSP, each city is given a value, and a fixed cost-constraint is specified. The objective is to find a subtour of the cities that achieves maximum value without exceeding the cost-constraint. Thus, unlike the TSP, the CCTSP requires both selection and sequencing. As a consequence, most results for the TSP cannot be extended to the CCTSP. We show that the CCTSP is NP-hard and that no K-approximation algorithm or fully polynomial approximation scheme exists, unless P = NP. We also show that several special cases are polynomially solvable. Algorithms for the CCTSP, which outperform previous methods, are developed in three areas: upper bounding methods, exact algorithms, and heuristics. We found that a bounding strategy based on the knapsack problem performs better, both in speed and in the quality of the bounds, than methods based on the assignment problem. Likewise, we found that a branch-and-bound approach using the knapsack bound was superior to a method based on a common branch-and-bound method for the TSP. In our study of heuristic algorithms, we found that, when selecting modes for inclusion in the subtour, it is important to consider the neighborhood'' of the nodes. A node with low value that brings the subtour near many other nodes may be more desirable than an isolated node of high value. We found two types of repetition to be desirable: repetitions based on randomization in the subtour buildings process, and repetitions encouraging the inclusion of different subsets of the nodes. By varying the number and type of repetitions, we can adjust the computation time required by our method to obtain algorithms that outperform previous methods.

  15. The problem-based learning promoting the continuing education with the nursing team - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v33i2.12949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Nery Correia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The education to enable critically and reflectively the nursing team during work process motivated this study. The objective was to analyze the perception of nursing professionals on the feasibility of using problem-based learning in the context of continuing education. We used a workshop on continuing education with a nursing team, covering the methodological proposal of the ‘Arc of Marguerez’, where the reality/problem was to hold a healing technique in the health unit. Data was obtained with the aid of a semi-structured script, applied after the workshop, through the focus group method, in which participants along with the help of the researcher presented their perceptions on the proposed strategy. The dialogue contents were recorded and later transcribed for content analysis. The results suggest rethinking strategies in continuing education for nursing, so as to provide that each professional is able to identify the real challenges to be overcome and contribute for the change in the personal and social scope. In conclusion, there is a need for constant updating of nursing professionals, which can be achieved through continuing education with the team, where the problem-based learning was satisfactory.

  16. OPERATOR-RELATED FORMULATION OF THE EIGENVALUE PROBLEM FOR THE BOUNDARY PROBLEM OF ANALYSIS OF THE WALL BEAM WITH PIECEWISE-CONSTANT PHYSICAL AND GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ALONGSIDE THE BASIC DIRECTION WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE DISCRETE-CONTINUAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov Pavel Alekseevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the operator-related formulation of the eigenvalue problem of analysis of the wall beam with piecewise-constant physical and geometrical parameters alongside the so-called basic direction within the framework of the discrete-continual approach (discrete-continual finite element method, discrete-continual variation-difference method. Generally, discrete-continual formulations are contemporary mathematical models which are currently becoming available for computer-based implementation. They allow investigators to consider the boundary effects whenever solution components represent rapidly varying functions. Another feature of discrete-continual methods is the absence of limitations imposed on lengths of structures. Two-dimensional model of elasticity is used as a design model of a structure. In accordance with the so-called extended domain method, the domain is limited by the boundary of arbitrary shape. Corresponding key features at the stage of numerical implementation of discrete-continual methods include convenient mathematical formulas, effective computational patterns and algorithms, simple data processing techniques, etc. The definition of an expression for an operator of the problem under consideration, if resolved in the isotropic medium, is presented; the allowance for supports restrained by elastic members is provided; standard boundary conditions are taken into account

  17. Preimage Selective Trapdoor Function: How to Repair an Easy Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public key cryptosystems are constructed by embedding a trapdoor into a one-way function. So, the one-wayness and the trapdoorness are vital to public key cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel public key cryptographic primitive called preimage selective trapdoor function. This scenario allows to use exponentially many preimage to hide a plaintext even if the underlying function is not one-way. The compact knapsack problem is used to construct a probabilistic public key cryptosystem, the underlying encryption function of which is proven to be preimage selective trapdoor one-way functions under some linearization attack models. The constructive method can guarantee the noninjectivity of the underlying encryption function and the unique decipherability for ciphertexts simultaneously. It is heuristically argued that the security of the proposal cannot be compromised by a polynomial-time adversary even if the compact knapsack is easy to solve. We failed to provide any provable security results about the proposal; however, heuristic illustrations show that the proposal is secure against some known attacks including brute force attacks, linearization attacks, and key-recovery attacks. The proposal turns out to have acceptable key sizes and performs efficiently and hence is practical.

  18. A theoretical framework for convergence and continuous dependence of estimates in inverse problems for distributed parameter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Ito, K.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical techniques for parameter identification in distributed-parameter systems are developed analytically. A general convergence and stability framework (for continuous dependence on observations) is derived for first-order systems on the basis of (1) a weak formulation in terms of sesquilinear forms and (2) the resolvent convergence form of the Trotter-Kato approximation. The extension of this framework to second-order systems is considered.

  19. Occurrence of home-based record stock-outs-A quiet problem for national immunization programmes continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W; Gacic-Dobo, Marta

    2018-02-01

    Home-based records (HBRs) provide an effective, inexpensive mechanism for recording and tracking infant vaccinations, yet stock-outs prevent HBRs from fulfilling their intended function. We describe the annual occurrence of HBR stock-outs during 2014-2016 reported by national immunization programmes to the WHO and UNICEF on the Joint Reporting Form on Immunization. During 2014-16, 48 countries reported at least one HBR stock-out. Thirteen countries reported HBR stock-outs for two of the three years. Forty-four countries reported two or more HBR funding sources in 2016. Challenges persist in ensuring continuous availability of HBRs. HBR stock-outs have important implications as they may impact continuity-of-care, increase inefficiencies at the point-of-care and reduce the ability of caregivers to be effective health advocates. Identifying mechanisms for preventing stock-outs should be a focus of attention for programmes and development partners. Expanded efforts are required to better understand the underlying causes of HBR stock-outs and identify solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A Path-Based Gradient Projection Algorithm for the Cost-Based System Optimum Problem in Networks with Continuously Distributed Value of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost-based system optimum problem in networks with continuously distributed value of time is formulated as a path-based form, which cannot be solved by the Frank-Wolfe algorithm. In light of magnitude improvement in the availability of computer memory in recent years, path-based algorithms have been regarded as a viable approach for traffic assignment problems with reasonably large network sizes. We develop a path-based gradient projection algorithm for solving the cost-based system optimum model, based on Goldstein-Levitin-Polyak method which has been successfully applied to solve standard user equilibrium and system optimum problems. The Sioux Falls network tested is used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  1. Error analysis for discretizations of parabolic problems using continuous finite elements in time and mixed finite elements in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bause, Markus; Radu, Florin A; Köcher, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Variational time discretization schemes are getting of increasing importance for the accurate numerical approximation of transient phenomena. The applicability and value of mixed finite element methods in space for simulating transport processes have been demonstrated in a wide class of works. We consider a family of continuous Galerkin-Petrov time discretization schemes that is combined with a mixed finite element approximation of the spatial variables. The existence and uniqueness of the semidiscrete approximation and of the fully discrete solution are established. For this, the Banach-Nečas-Babuška theorem is applied in a non-standard way. Error estimates with explicit rates of convergence are proved for the scalar and vector-valued variable. An optimal order estimate in space and time is proved by duality techniques for the scalar variable. The convergence rates are analyzed and illustrated by numerical experiments, also on stochastically perturbed meshes.

  2. PROBLEMS IN TESTING DIGITAL PROTECTIVE RELAY FOR IMMUNITY TO INTENTIONAL DESTRUCTIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMPACTS. CONTINUATION OF THE THEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Gurevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is the continuation of the theme highlighted in the previous article with same title. The new article evaluates the results of digital protective relays (DPR testing for immunity to the E1 component of High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP and to Intentional Electromagnetic Interferences (IEMI impacts, conducted by some independent American organizations; discusses the features of relay protection devices as well as clarifies and supplements the procedure for testing these devices. Due to methodology errors during the DPR tests conducted by mentioned organizations earlier, they cannot be considered as satisfactory and their results as meaningful. At the moment there are no reliable data on the level of DPR immunity to IDEI, which suggests that the test should be conducted further.

  3. An investment plan for preventing child injuries using risk priority number of failure mode and effects analysis methodology and a multi-objective, multi-dimensional mixed 0-1 knapsack model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bas, Esra

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a general framework for child injury prevention and a multi-objective, multi-dimensional mixed 0-1 knapsack model were developed to determine the optimal time to introduce preventive measures against child injuries. Furthermore, the model maximises the prevention of injuries with the highest risks for each age period by combining preventive measures and supervision as well as satisfying budget limits and supervision time constraints. The risk factors for each injury, variable, and time period were based on risk priority numbers (RPNs) obtained from failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methodology, and these risk factors were incorporated into the model as objective function parameters. A numerical experiment based on several different situations was conducted, revealing that the model provided optimal timing of preventive measures for child injuries based on variables considered.

  4. Desempenho de um pulverizador pneumático costal motorizado sob diferentes condições Performance of the motorized knapsack mistblower under different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimiro D. Gadanha Júnior

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a uniformidade de vazão de um pulverizador pneumático costal motorizado, utilizado no controle do mosquito vetor da dengue, sob várias condições operacionais de aplicação. O experimento foi planejado como um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 2 x 7, com cinco repetições, sendo os fatores de variação dois diâmetros de orifício do disco dosador e sete ângulos de aplicação em relação ao plano horizontal. Foi avaliado também o efeito das pressões sobre a vazão por meio dos testes de Pearson. A interação dos fatores diâmetro do orifício do disco dosador e ângulo de aplicação foi significativa para a vazão. O disco dosador com diâmetro de 0,42 mm apresentou maior uniformidade entre as vazões médias, variando de 12,8 a 38,8 mL min-1, para o intervalo de inclinação do ducto aplicador de 60º a -60º e apresentou correlação linear em função do ângulo, com coeficiente de determinação igual a 0,9861. Houve uma expressiva correlação entre a vazão média e a pressão determinada no ponto P3, próximo ao bocal, com valores do coeficiente de correlação de 0,988 para o disco A e de 0,985 para o disco B. O disco de menor diâmetro deve ser utilizado. Na troca do disco, o operador deve ser orientado e treinado para corrigir o tempo de aplicação em função das diversas situações na área urbana.This study aims to evaluate the outflow uniformity of knapsack mist-blowers, powered by two stroke internal combustion engine for the control of the mosquito vector of dengue (Aedes aegypti under different operational conditions. The experiment was planned as a completely randomized factorial 2 x 7 with five repetitions being the variation factors two diameters of orifices of the disc dosimeter and seven application angles in relation to the horizontal plan. It was also evaluated the pressure effect on the flow rate through the Pearson tests. The results showed

  5. The continuing problem with misoprostol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    discovered additional benefit, it is predominantly a psychotropic agent for the treatment of psychotic delusions in schizophrenia. Misoprostol can be used in low doses to soften the cervix to allow instrumentation for suction evacuation of the uterus in termination or incomplete miscarriage, or to soften the cervix prior.

  6. The continuing problem of tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, A S; Kukora, J S

    1985-04-01

    Thirty-eight instances of tetanus were treated during a recent 20 year period at the University of Mississippi and Jackson Veterans Administration Medical Centers. One patient had received a single prior dose of tetanus toxoid and the remainder had never received tetanus toxoid. Sixteen patients sought medical care for their tetanus wound prior to the onset of clinical tetanus, but none received specific antitetanus prophylaxis. The majority of tetanus wounds were located on lower extremities and often were chronic vascular ulcers. The over-all mortality was 37 per cent and survival rate was not affected by patient age, duration, location or severity of the tetanus wound or presence of associated diseases. Aggressive surgical treatment of the tetanus wound was associated with decreased mortality for uncertain reasons. Although low mortality from tetanus is possible with improved intensive care technology, the disease should be virtually preventable by the provision of proper tetanus prophylaxis to all patients at risk.

  7. Problem-based learning and the workplace: do dental hygienists in Hong Kong continue to use the skills acquired in their studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Brenda Siu Shan

    2009-08-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been implemented in the dental hygiene program at the University of Hong Kong since 2001, but research is lacking to address the level of retention in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to explore whether dental hygienists continue to use their PBL skills and how well those skills are being applied in the workplace. A total of eighteen dental hygienists from the 2006 program were invited to participate in this study. A survey was conducted and follow-up group interviews carried out in 2008. The results revealed that dental hygienists continue to use the PBL skills of communication with the patient, patient education, and independent learning, but seldom use dental knowledge, teamwork, and communication with colleagues. Critical thinking, self-evaluation, and lifelong learning skills showed contradictory results. Besides, stressors under individual work environments, including certain Chinese cultural values, affect the way in which dental hygienists utilize PBL skills. This study concludes that the PBL approach is a worthwhile learning process for dental hygiene. However, many different variables affect the effectiveness of applying PBL skills after academic training, especially under the influence of Chinese culture in Hong Kong.

  8. Orbit period modulation for relative motion using continuous low thrust in the two-body and restricted three-body problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnot, C. S.; McInnes, C. R.; McKay, R. J.; Macdonald, M.; Biggs, J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents rich new families of relative orbits for spacecraft formation flight generated through the application of continuous thrust with only minimal intervention into the dynamics of the problem. Such simplicity facilitates implementation for small, low-cost spacecraft with only position state feedback, and yet permits interesting and novel relative orbits in both two- and three-body systems with potential future applications in space-based interferometry, hyperspectral sensing, and on-orbit inspection. Position feedback is used to modify the natural frequencies of the linearised relative dynamics through direct manipulation of the system eigenvalues, producing new families of stable relative orbits. Specifically, in the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire frame, simple adaptations of the linearised dynamics are used to produce a circular relative orbit, frequency-modulated out-of-plane motion, and a novel doubly periodic cylindrical relative trajectory for the purposes of on-orbit inspection. Within the circular restricted three-body problem, a similar minimal approach with position feedback is used to generate new families of stable, frequency-modulated relative orbits in the vicinity of a Lagrange point, culminating in the derivation of the gain requirements for synchronisation of the in-plane and out-of-plane frequencies to yield a singly periodic tilted elliptical relative orbit with potential use as a Lunar far-side communications relay. The Δ v requirements for the cylindrical relative orbit and singly periodic Lagrange point orbit are analysed, and it is shown that these requirements are modest and feasible for existing low-thrust propulsion technology.

  9. Several 'problem nutrients' are identified in complementary feeding of Guatemalan infants with continued breastfeeding using the concept of 'critical nutrient density'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossenaar, M; Hernández, L; Campos, R; Solomons, N W

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends nutritionally adequate complementary feeding (CF) through the introduction of indigenous foodstuffs and local foods while breastfeeding for at least 2 years. To determine the adequacy of the contribution of CF to the diets of Guatemalan infants at the 7th-12th month of life receiving high-intensity continued breastfeeding. Critical nutrient densities for CF were modelled using age- and sex-specific energy and protein requirements assuming children to be at the 50th weight percentile of local peers and 15th weight percentiles of the 2006 WHO standards. Nutrient requirements for the total diet were determined using the recommended nutrient intakes. Breast milk was assumed to provide 75% of total energy at the 7th-9th month and 50% at the 10th-12th month. Gaps between computed critical nutrient densities and the CF consumption of 128 Guatemalan infants based on data collected by means of three nonconsecutive 24-h quantitative intake recalls were examined. Locally consumed foods with nutrient densities above the modelled critical densities were identified. Observed non-breast milk complementation would result in total diets providing inadequate nutrient density for vitamin A, niacin and vitamin C in some age groups. Major gaps for calcium, iron and zinc were ubiquitous across all groups. Few foods commonly consumed among Guatemalan infants had adequate densities of 'problem nutrients'. The critical nutrient density concept is useful to evaluate the nutrient adequacy of the infant's diet. Fortified foods are essential sources of the main 'problem nutrients', namely calcium, iron and zinc, given that natural sources are scarce.

  10. COMPARISONS OF THE FINITE-ELEMENT-WITH-DISCONTIGUOUS-SUPPORT METHOD TO CONTINUOUS-ENERGY MONTE CARLO FOR PIN-CELL PROBLEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Till; M. Hanuš; J. Lou; J. E. Morel; M. L. Adams

    2016-05-01

    The standard multigroup (MG) method for energy discretization of the transport equation can be sensitive to approximations in the weighting spectrum chosen for cross-section averaging. As a result, MG often inaccurately treats important phenomena such as self-shielding variations across a material. From a finite-element viewpoint, MG uses a single fixed basis function (the pre-selected spectrum) within each group, with no mechanism to adapt to local solution behavior. In this work, we introduce the Finite-Element-with-Discontiguous-Support (FEDS) method, whose only approximation with respect to energy is that the angular flux is a linear combination of unknowns multiplied by basis functions. A basis function is non-zero only in the discontiguous set of energy intervals associated with its energy element. Discontiguous energy elements are generalizations of bands and are determined by minimizing a norm of the difference between snapshot spectra and their averages over the energy elements. We begin by presenting the theory of the FEDS method. We then compare to continuous-energy Monte Carlo for one-dimensional slab and two-dimensional pin-cell problem. We find FEDS to be accurate and efficient at producing quantities of interest such as reaction rates and eigenvalues. Results show that FEDS converges at a rate that is approximately first-order in the number of energy elements and that FEDS is less sensitive to weighting spectrum than standard MG.

  11. The development of the continuous orthonormalization and adjoint methods for solar seismology: Eigenfrequency computation and sensitivity analysis for direct and inverse problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Two new analysis methods for solar seismology are developed. Called the continuous orthonormalization (CON) and adjoint methods, their use enables both solar eigenfrequencies and eigenfrequency sensitivities to be computed more accurately and efficiently than with existing methods. The CON method integrates an eighth-order nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which defines the linear adiabatic nonradial oscillation modes of the Sun. All normal modes of oscillation are treated identically, regardless of their type or their predominant location inside the Sun. The adjoint method integrates a related eighth-order linear inhomogeneous system of ODEs. From the resultant solution, an eigenfrequency's partial derivatives with respect to an extensive set of solar model parameters may be computed simultaneously. Extensive numerical tests confirm the validity of the two new methods. Eigenfrequencies obtained via the CON method have seven significant digits and match within 1 percent the eigenfrequencies obtained via finite difference or mesh approaches. Eigenfrequency sensitivities obtained via the adjoint method match with 2 percent the results obtained by explicitly perturbing the solar model parameters and recomputing the eigenfrequencies. The usefulness and power of the two new methods are demonstrated by applying them to the solution of an elementary solar inversion problem. A sample solar model's f-mode frequencies are iteratively driven into agreement with an observed set of f-mode frequencies. Adjoint sensitivity results are used to alter solar model parameters within hundreds of radial bins

  12. Chemical reaction optimization for solving shortest common supersequence problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled Saifullah, C M; Rafiqul Islam, Md

    2016-10-01

    Shortest common supersequence (SCS) is a classical NP-hard problem, where a string to be constructed that is the supersequence of a given string set. The SCS problem has an enormous application of data compression, query optimization in the database and different bioinformatics activities. Due to NP-hardness, the exact algorithms fail to compute SCS for larger instances. Many heuristics and meta-heuristics approaches were proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, we propose a meta-heuristics approach based on chemical reaction optimization, CRO_SCS that is designed inspired by the nature of the chemical reactions. For different optimization problems like 0-1 knapsack, quadratic assignment, global numeric optimization problems CRO algorithm shows very good performance. We have redesigned the reaction operators and a new reform function to solve the SCS problem. The outcomes of the proposed CRO_SCS algorithm are compared with those of the enhanced beam search (IBS_SCS), deposition and reduction (DR), ant colony optimization (ACO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithms. The length of supersequence, execution time and standard deviation of all related algorithms show that CRO_SCS gives better results on the average than all other algorithms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolopoulou, M.; Byraki, A.; Ahlberg, J.; Heymans, M. W.; Hamburger, H. L.; de Lange, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Aarab, G.

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with several sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on self-reported

  14. THE PROBLEM OF CONTINUITY OF TRAINING OF FUTURE EDUCATORS AND TEACHERS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ON ORGANIZATION OF ARTISTIC AND AESTHETIC ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Наталія Колесник

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals peculiarities in realization of the continuity principle in training future educators and teachers of elementary school on organization of children‘s artistic and aesthetic activity. The indexes of child’s readiness for school in different spheres of its activity, and in particular, in artistic and aesthetic one have been determined in this research. Description of depicting activity of children of preschool age has been made, and the types of unconventional technologies o...

  15. Stochastic differential equations as a tool to regularize the parameter estimation problem for continuous time dynamical systems given discrete time measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Jacob; Lundh, Torbjörn; Jirstrand, Mats

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of estimating parameters in ordinary differential equations given discrete time experimental data. The impact of going from an ordinary to a stochastic differential equation setting is investigated as a tool to overcome the problem of local minima in the objective function. Using two different models, it is demonstrated that by allowing noise in the underlying model itself, the objective functions to be minimized in the parameter estimation procedures are regularized in the sense that the number of local minima is reduced and better convergence is achieved. The advantage of using stochastic differential equations is that the actual states in the model are predicted from data and this will allow the prediction to stay close to data even when the parameters in the model is incorrect. The extended Kalman filter is used as a state estimator and sensitivity equations are provided to give an accurate calculation of the gradient of the objective function. The method is illustrated using in silico data from the FitzHugh-Nagumo model for excitable media and the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system. The proposed method performs well on the models considered, and is able to regularize the objective function in both models. This leads to parameter estimation problems with fewer local minima which can be solved by efficient gradient-based methods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. On the problem of non-zero word error rates for fixed-rate error correction codes in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Sarah J; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, T C

    2017-01-01

    The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates. (paper)

  17. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  18. ABOUT SOLUTION OF MULTIPOINT BOUNDARY PROBLEMS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS WITH THE USE OF COMBINED APPLICATION OF FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND DISCRETE-CONTINUAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD PART 2: SPECIAL ASPECTS OF FINITE ELEMENT APPROXIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Akimov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, the formulation of a multipoint boundary problem involves three main components: a description of the domain occupied by the structure and the corresponding subdomains; description of the conditions inside the domain and inside the corresponding subdomains, the description of the conditions on the boundary of the domain, conditions on the boundaries between subdomains. This paper is a continuation of another work published earlier, in which the formulation and general principles of the approximation of the multipoint boundary problem of a static analysis of deep beam on the basis of the joint application of the finite element method and the discrete-continual finite element method were considered. It should be noted that the approximation within the fragments of a domain that have regular physical-geometric parameters along one of the directions is expedient to be carried out on the basis of the discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM, and for the approximation of all other fragments it is necessary to use the standard finite element method (FEM. In the present publication, the formulas for the computing of displacements partial derivatives of displacements, strains and stresses within the finite element model (both within the finite element and the corresponding nodal values (with the use of averaging are presented. Boundary conditions between subdomains (respectively, discrete models and discrete-continual models and typical conditions such as “hinged support”, “free edge”, “perfect contact” (twelve basic (basic variants are available are under consideration as well. Governing formulas for computing of elements of the corresponding matrices of coefficients and vectors of the right-hand sides are given for each variant. All formulas are fully adapted for algorithmic implementation.

  19. Business continuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunhoelder, Gert

    2002-01-01

    This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters

  20. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  1. Continuous tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-04-01

    A tokamak configuration is proposed that permits the rapid replacement of a plasma discharge in a ''burn'' chamber by another one in a time scale much shorter than the elementary thermal time constant of the chamber first wall. With respect to the chamber, the effective duty cycle factor can thus be made arbitrarily close to unity minimizing the cyclic thermal stress in the first wall. At least one plasma discharge always exists in the new tokamak configuration, hence, a continuous tokamak. By incorporating adiabatic toroidal compression, configurations of continuous tokamak compressors are introduced. To operate continuous tokamaks, it is necessary to introduce the concept of mixed poloidal field coils, which spatially groups all the poloidal field coils into three sets, all contributing simultaneously to inducing the plasma current and maintaining the proper plasma shape and position. Preliminary numerical calculations of axisymmetric MHD equilibria in continuous tokamaks indicate the feasibility of their continued plasma operation. Advanced concepts of continuous tokamaks to reduce the topological complexity and to allow the burn plasma aspect ratio to decrease for increased beta are then suggested

  2. A aprendizagem baseada em problemas na promoção da educação continuada com a equipe de enfermagem = The problem-based learning promoting the continuing education with the nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileni Francisca Gomes Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A educação para capacitar de maneira crítica e reflexiva a equipe de enfermagem no seu processo de trabalho motivou este estudo. O objetivo foi analisar a percepção dos profissionais de enfermagem sobre a viabilidade da utilização da aprendizagem baseada em problemas no contexto da educação continuada. Utilizou-se uma oficina sobre educação continuada com uma equipe de enfermagem, percorrendo a proposta metodológica do ‘Arco de Marguerez’, em que a realidade/problema foi a realização de uma técnica de curativo na unidade de saúde. Os dados foram obtidos com o auxílio de um roteiro semiestruturado, aplicado após a oficina, pelo método de grupo focal, em que os participantes com o auxílio do pesquisador expuseram suas percepções sobre a estratégia proposta. Os conteúdos dos diálogos foram gravados e posteriormente transcritos para análise de conteúdo. Os resultados sugerem repensar as estratégias na educação continuada para enfermagem, de maneira a proporcionar que cada profissional seja capaz de identificar os desafios na sua realidade a serem superados e contribuir para a mudança no âmbito pessoal e social. Infere-se a necessidade da constante atualização dos profissionais de enfermagem o que pode ser alcançado pela educação continuada com a equipe, em que a aprendizagem baseada em problemas mostrou-se satisfatória.The education to enable critically and reflectively the nursing team during work process motivated this study. The objective was to analyze the perception of nursing professionals on the feasibility of using problem-based learning in the context of continuing education. We used a workshop on continuing education with a nursing team, covering the methodological proposal of the ‘Arc of Marguerez’, where the reality/problem was to hold a healing technique in the health unit. Data was obtained with the aid of a semi-structured script, applied after the workshop, through the focus group method

  3. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  4. Continuing the Eclectic Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Don W.; Myers, Pennie

    1991-01-01

    Continues recent debate on the current state of theory and the proper role of eclectic approaches. Presents brief overview of Adaptive Counseling and Therapy/Readiness model as systematic form of eclecticism. Makes argument for matching counseling approach to nature of problem and readiness of the client rather than maintaining a single…

  5. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  6. Mixed-integer programming methods for transportation and power generation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damci Kurt, Pelin

    This dissertation conducts theoretical and computational research to solve challenging problems in application areas such as supply chain and power systems. The first part of the dissertation studies a transportation problem with market choice (TPMC) which is a variant of the classical transportation problem in which suppliers with limited capacities have a choice of which demands (markets) to satisfy. We show that TPMC is strongly NP-complete. We consider a version of the problem with a service level constraint on the maximum number of markets that can be rejected and show that if the original problem is polynomial, its cardinality-constrained version is also polynomial. We propose valid inequalities for mixed-integer cover and knapsack sets with variable upper bound constraints, which appear as substructures of TPMC and use them in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve this problem. The second part of this dissertation studies a unit commitment (UC) problem in which the goal is to minimize the operational cost of power generators over a time period subject to physical constraints while satisfying demand. We provide several exponential classes of multi-period ramping and multi-period variable upper bound inequalities. We prove the strength of these inequalities and describe polynomial-time separation algorithms. Computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed inequalities when used as cuts in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve the UC problem. The last part of this dissertation investigates the effects of uncertain wind power on the UC problem. A two-stage robust model and a three-stage stochastic program are compared.

  7. Introduction to Continuous Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Niclas; Evgrafov, Anton; Patriksson, Michael

    optimal solutions for continuous optimization models. The main part of the mathematical material therefore concerns the analysis and linear algebra that underlie the workings of convexity and duality, and necessary/sufficient local/global optimality conditions for continuous optimization problems. Natural...... algorithms are then developed from these optimality conditions, and their most important convergence characteristics are analyzed. The book answers many more questions of the form “Why?” and “Why not?” than “How?”. We use only elementary mathematics in the development of the book, yet are rigorous throughout...

  8. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  9. Urination Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  10. Social Problems in Macau

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Zhidong

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the current social problems in Macau—inequalities, problems in urban housing, traffic and transportation, air pollution, crime and deviant behaviour, and education. It does not focus on one social problem in detail; rather, it attempts to offer a broad picture of the issues from a sociological perspective. To help solve these problems, it seems that Macau has to build a stronger civil society and continue to democratise its political system. How Macau deals with these pr...

  11. Problems in problem analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The majority of literature on engineering design methods is focused on the processes of fulfilling the design goals as efficiently as possible. This paper will focus on - and discuss - the processes of determining the design goals: the specifications. The purpose is to draw attention to the inher...... to the inherent problems, dilemmas and possibilities in these processes bearing in mind that that the most important decisions in a design project are taken in the beginning of the project....

  12. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  13. Introduction to Continuous Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Niclas; Evgrafov, Anton; Patriksson, Michael

    Optimization, or mathematical programming, is a fundamental subject within decision science and operations research, in which mathematical decision models are constructed, analyzed, and solved. The book’s focus lies on providing a basis for the analysis of optimization models and of candidate...... optimal solutions for continuous optimization models. The main part of the mathematical material therefore concerns the analysis and linear algebra that underlie the workings of convexity and duality, and necessary/sufficient local/global optimality conditions for continuous optimization problems. Natural...... algorithms are then developed from these optimality conditions, and their most important convergence characteristics are analyzed. The book answers many more questions of the form “Why?” and “Why not?” than “How?”. We use only elementary mathematics in the development of the book, yet are rigorous throughout...

  14. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  15. Continuous Integration in CFMGR

    CERN Document Server

    Frohlingsdorf, David

    2017-01-01

    Cfmgr is a managing tool for network devices. At the moment there is no way to automatically check the working behaviour of the tool, meaning that a lot of effort is spend into manually testing the tool after an update. During my stay at CERN I developed a black-box testing framework for Cfmgr according to Continuous Integration practices and successfully deployed the framework using Jenkins and Docker. This report discusses in detail how the framework works and how it can be configured, and equally gives a broad problem description and outlines future work directions.

  16. Continuing galactic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCanney, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A new theory for galactic arm formation shows the arms to be continually eminating from the galactic nucleus due to a continual influx of cosmic dust. In the neighborhood of the nucleus the problem is treated as a fluid flow and a simple solution is given using conservation of momentum. When rotational dynamics are included the spinning arm system is the result. This solution resolves the problem of the missing mass, accounts for warped disk galaxies and gives a probable source for the gravity waves measured by Weber which eminate from our galactic center. Reversal of arm direction is demonstrated and examples of such reversals are cited. An approximate theoretical estimate of the age of our Sun is found to be in good agreement with radio isotope dating. A general result shows why twin star systems are in such great abundance in a galaxy. It gives a model of galactic evolution which begins with only a single massive nucleus with the collapsing gas clouds forming the arms. (orig.)

  17. Hull properties in location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    Some properties of the solution set for single and multifacility continuous location problems with lp distances are given. A set reduction algorithm is developed for problems in k-dimensional space having rectangular distances.......Some properties of the solution set for single and multifacility continuous location problems with lp distances are given. A set reduction algorithm is developed for problems in k-dimensional space having rectangular distances....

  18. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  19. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  20. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method for verifying timed temporal properties of continuous dynamical systems, and to develop a method for verifying the safety of an interconnection of continuous systems. The methods must be scalable in the number of continuous variables...... to the high complexity of both the dynamical system and the specification. Therefore, there is a need for methods capable of verifying complex specifications of complex systems. The verification of high dimensional continuous dynamical systems is the key to verifying general systems. In this thesis......, an abstraction approach is taken to the verification problem. A method is developed for abstracting continuous dynamical systems by timed automata. This method is based on subdividing the state space into cells by use of subdivisioning functions that are decreasing along the vector field. To allow...

  1. A lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2008-01-01

    By introducing a discrete spectral problem, we derive a lattice hierarchy which is integrable in Liouville's sense and possesses a multi-Hamiltonian structure. It is show that the discrete spectral problem converges to the well-known AKNS spectral problem under a certain continuous limit. In particular, we construct a sequence of equations in the lattice hierarchy which approximates the AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit

  2. Distributed synthesis in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanns, Holger; Krčál, Jan; Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a formalism modelling communication of distributed agents strictly in continuous-time. Within this framework, we study the problem of synthesising local strategies for individual agents such that a specified set of goal states is reached, or reached with at least a given probability...

  3. Problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shane

    2014-06-01

    Problem gambling is an increasingly common problem in Australia. General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in ensuring that problem gambling is detected and treated. We review the clinical issues associated with the detection and treatment of problem gambling. At any one time 1% of the adult Australian population satisfy the clinical criteria for problem gambling; a further 4% are at a significant risk. Problem gambling frequently presents with other serious mental health conditions. There are several guidelines from the National Health and Medical Research Council and Australian Medical Association that recommend GP involvement in screening for problem gambling. Simple one-item tools are available for that purpose. GP screening and referral for problem gambling addresses the currently very low rates of treatment. Effective and durable psychological treatments are available for the treatment of problem gambling including cognitive behaviour therapy and motivational interviewing.

  4. Australia: a continuing genocide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Debates about genocide in Australia have for the most part focussed on past frontier killings and child removal practices. This article, however, focuses on contemporary culturally destructive policies, and the colonial structures that produce them, through the analytical lens of the concept of genocide. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning of cultural genocide, locating the idea firmly in Lemkin's work before moving on to engage with the debates around Lemkin's distinction between genocide and cultural 'diffusion.' In contrast to those scholars who prefer the word 'ethnocide,' the underlying conceptual contention is that the term 'cultural genocide' simply describes a key method of genocide and should be viewed, without the need for qualification, as genocide. While direct physical killing and genocidal child removal practices may have ceased in Australia, some indigenous activists persuasively contend that genocide is a continuing process in an Australia that has failed to decolonise. Concurring with these views the article argues that the contemporary expression of continuing genocidal relations in Australia can be seen principally, and perversely, in the colonial state's official reconciliation process, native title land rights regime and the recent interventionist 'solutions' to indigenous 'problems' in the Northern Territory.

  5. Childbirth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mother, baby, or both. Possible complications include Preterm (premature) labor, when labor starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy Problems with the umbilical cord Problems with the position of the baby, such as breech, in which ...

  6. Ankle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Ankle ProblemsFollow this chart for more information about problems that can cause ankle pain. Our trusted Symptom Checker is written and ...

  7. Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  8. Capturing Postseismic Processes of the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan, Using Dense, Continuous GPS and Short-repeat Time ALOS-2 InSAR Data: Implications for the Shallow Slip Deficit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliner, C. W. D.; Burgmann, R.; Wang, T.; Inbal, A.; Bekaert, D. P.; Liang, C.; Fielding, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Separating the contribution of shallow coseismic slip from rapidly decaying, postseismic afterslip in surface rupturing events has been difficult to resolve due to the typically sparse configuration of GPS networks and long-repeat time of InSAR acquisitions. Whether shallow fault motion along surface ruptures is a result of coseismic slip, or largely a product of rapid afterslip occurring within the first minutes to days, has significant implications for our understanding of the mechanics and frictional behavior of faulting in the shallow crust. To test this behavior in the case of a major surface rupturing event, we attempt to quantify the co- and postseismic slip of the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake sequence using a dense and continuous GPS network ( 10 km spacing), with short-repeat time, ALOS-2 InSAR data. Using the Network Inversion Filter method, we jointly invert the GPS and InSAR data to obtain a time history of afterslip in the first minutes to months following the mainshock. From our initial results, we find no clear evidence of significant shallow afterslip (i.e., no observable slip > 30 cm at depths of static finite-fault inversion. Our results show, aside from significant volumetric changes related to poroelastic processes, the majority of shallow fault slip was largely complete after rupture cessation. We also attempt to improve our coseismic slip model by implementing a method that inverts changes in seismicity rates for coseismic slip, helping constrain parts of the model space at depth where geodetic data loses resolving power. The use of geodetic data with the ability to resolve near-field, coseismic deformation and rapidly decaying postseismic processes will aid in our understanding of the frictional properties of shallow faulting, giving more reliable predictions for ground motion simulations and seismic hazard assessments.

  9. Obstacle problems in mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, J-F

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this research monograph is to present a general account of the applicability of elliptic variational inequalities to the important class of free boundary problems of obstacle type from a unifying point of view of classical Mathematical Physics.The first part of the volume introduces some obstacle type problems which can be reduced to variational inequalities. Part II presents some of the main aspects of the theory of elliptic variational inequalities, from the abstract hilbertian framework to the smoothness of the variational solution, discussing in general the properties of the free boundary and including some results on the obstacle Plateau problem. The last part examines the application to free boundary problems, namely the lubrication-cavitation problem, the elastoplastic problem, the Signorini (or the boundary obstacle) problem, the dam problem, the continuous casting problem, the electrochemical machining problem and the problem of the flow with wake in a channel past a profile.

  10. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...

  11. Transformando o problema da fome em questão alimentar e nutricional: uma crônica desigualdade social Transforming the hunger problem into food and nutritional approach: a continuous social inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rizzolo de Oliveira Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O processo de surgimento das políticas (públicas sociais relacionadas à alimentação e nutrição no Brasil tem um curso descontínuo e negligenciado pelo Estado brasileiro ao longo de sua história. Este artigo tem como objetivo resgatar este processo e identificar elementos que dificultam a inserção da questão alimentar e nutricional na agenda política brasileira. Assim, faz um breve resgate histórico sobre o conjunto de políticas e programas sociais formulados desde a década de quarenta com vistas ao enfrentamento do problema de fome no Brasil, sinalizando a mudança dos perfis epidemiológico e nutricional da população brasileira. É necessário avançar no entendimento de que as manifestações biológicas da fome - desnutrição ou obesidade (má nutrição - são reflexos de um modelo de desenvolvimento social que privilegia o capital em detrimento do bem-estar social. A questão social também se manifesta perante o contexto alimentar e nutricional, pois a submissão da sociedade aos ditames do capital produz reflexos nos modos de comer, viver, adoecer e morrer das populações.The origin of the social (public politics related to food and nutrition in Brazil has a discontinuous and neglected course by the Brazilian State throughout its history. The objective of this article is to rescue this process and to identify elements that interfere in the insertion of the food and nutrition question in the Brazilian politics agenda. Thus, it reviews thepolitics and social programs formulated since the decade of 40s aimed to solve the problem of hunger in Brazil, identifying the changes of an epidemiological and nutritional transition of the local population. It is necessary to progress in the agreement of the biological manifestations of the hunger: malnutrition or obesity (bad nutrition is reflected on a social development model that privileges the capital in detriment of the welfare state. Also it reflects the alimentary and

  12. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    approximate identity for B, bounded in A. In addition, a necessary condition for the weak complete continuity of A is ... continuous elements of a Banach algebra A and symmetric abstract Segal algebras B with respect to A, in the case ..... [13] Hewitt E and Ross K A, Abstract harmonic analysis, 2nd edn. I, II (1970) (New York,.

  13. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  14. Providing Continuous Assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, Jonne; Hulstijn, Joris

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that continuous assurance can be attained by combining continuous monitoring by management, with continuous auditing of data streams and the effectiveness of internal controls by an external auditor. However, we find that in existing literature the final step to continuous

  15. Adult education in the continuous education system

    OpenAIRE

    Verbitsky Andrey Aleksandrovich

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals problems of adults’ education as a part of lifelong learning. The article formulates the mission of continuing education, its values, purposes, contents, and principles and terms of organizing the educational process.

  16. Lipschitz Continuity of Polyhedral Skorokhod Maps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Vladimirov, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2001), s. 817-844 ISSN 0232-2064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : polyhedral Skorokhod problem%oblique reflections% Lipschitz continuity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. REMOTE TRAINING AND CONTINUING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Petrov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider two trends in teaching methods and tools chosen on the base of continuing education concept and challenges of the information society. Indeed, the modern post-school education requires improved efficiency and activity of training as it should or can be combined with productive activity of students. Here we discuss and analyze some trends of contemporary distance learning in order to include them into solution of lifelong learning problems

  18. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can also cause foot problems. The Most Common Types of Foot Problems In older adults, the foot complaints encountered ... people include: Arch pain . From fallen arches (flat feet), or abnormally high arches. Tarsal tunnel syndrome . A type of pinched nerve disorder. Achilles tendonitis . Inflammation of ...

  19. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during your menstrual cycle Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Problem periods Getting enough sleep Looking and feeling your best Fighting germs Your sexuality What are STDs and STIs? Seeing the doctor Quizzes Links to more information on girls' bodies girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home ... Problem periods It’s common to have ...

  20. Progress of Pharmaceutical Continuous Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejiang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is an important unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. At present, most pharmaceutical crystallization processes are performed in batches. However, due to product variability from batch to batch and to the low productivity of batch crystallization, continuous crystallization is gaining increasing attention. In the past few years, progress has been made to allow the products of continuous crystallization to meet different requirements. This review summarizes the progress in pharmaceutical continuous crystallization from a product engineering perspective. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of continuous crystallization are compared, with the main difference between the two main types of crystallizers being their difference in residence time distribution. Approaches that use continuous crystallization to meet different quality requirements are summarized. Continuous crystallization has advantages in terms of size and morphology control. However, it also has the problem of a process yield that may be lower than that of a batch process, especially in the production of chirality crystals. Finally, different control strategies are compared.

  1. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  2. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  3. Tongue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tongue pain may also occur with: Diabetic neuropathy Leukoplakia Mouth ulcers Oral cancer After menopause, some women have ... problem. Medicine may be prescribed for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores. Anti-inflammatory medicines ...

  4. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Nutrition Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & ... specialize in the care of people with kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? ...

  5. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Start OverDiagnosisThese thickened areas are likely to be CORNS. If they appear to have small granules in ... these problems. Self CareUse an over-the-counter corn or wart remover. Remove the dead skin after ...

  6. Putting Continuous Metaheuristics to Work in Binary Search Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Crawford

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real world, there are a number of optimization problems whose search space is restricted to take binary values; however, there are many continuous metaheuristics with good results in continuous search spaces. These algorithms must be adapted to solve binary problems. This paper surveys articles focused on the binarization of metaheuristics designed for continuous optimization.

  7. Popular Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  8. Automatic penalty continuation in structural topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Labanda, Susana; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    this issue is addressed. We propose an automatic continuation method, where the material penalization parameter is included as a new variable in the problem and a constraint guarantees that the requested penalty is eventually reached. The numerical results suggest that this approach is an appealing...... alternative to continuation methods. Automatic continuation also generally obtains better designs than the classical formulation using a reduced number of iterations....

  9. Continuation and Multi-Grid Methods for Bifurcation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-03

    34 Multigrid Methods II", W. Hackbusch, U. Trottenberg (eds.), Springer Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 1228, 1986. 6. H. D. Mittelmann, Multi-grid...Conference on Multigrid Methods , Copper Mountain, Colorado. Second European Conference on Multigrid Methods , Cologne, Germany. 1986 Efficient numerical methods... Multigrid Methods , Copper Mountain, Colorado. ASU Miniconference on Optimization, Tempe, Arizona. AMS-SIAM Summer Seminar on Computational Aspects of VLSI

  10. Continuation and Multi-Grid for Bifurcation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods , Copper Mountain, Colorado. ASU Miniconference on Optimization, Tempe, Arizona. AMS-SIAM Summer...Control and Parameter Identification, Trier, Germany. Annual Dutch Seminar on Numerical Mathematics, Woutschoten, Netherlands. Multigrid Methods , Oberwolfach...Mechanics, Bad Honnef, Germany. 6 1989 Fourth Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods , Copper Mountain, Colorado. SIAM Annual Meeting, San

  11. Newcastle disease vaccines- a solved problem or a continuous challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) has been defined by the World Organization for Animal Health as infection of poultry with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Lesions affecting the neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive systems are most often observed. The control of ND m...

  12. Helicobacter pylori and Antibiotic Resistance, A Continuing and Intractable Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Bin; Dai, Jinfeng

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen with a high global prevalence, is the causative pathogen for multiple gastrointestinal diseases, especially chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric malignancies. Antibiotic therapies remain the mainstay for H. pylori eradication; however, this strategy is hampered by the emergence and spread of H. pylori antibiotic resistance. Exploring the mechanistic basis of this resistance is becoming one of the major research questions in contemporary biomedical research, as such knowledge could be exploited to devise novel rational avenues for counteracting the existing resistance and devising strategies to avoid the development of a novel anti-H. pylori medication. Encouragingly, important progress in this field has been made recently. Here, we attempt to review the current state and progress with respect to the molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance for H. pylori. A picture is emerging in which mutations of various genes in H. pylori, resulting in decreased membrane permeability, altered oxidation-reduction potential, and a more efficient efflux pump system. The increased knowledge on these mechanisms produces hope that antibiotic resistance in H. pylori can ultimately be countered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Editorial: The continuing problem with misoprostol | Edridge | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file ...

  14. Organocatalysis in continuous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous flow chemistry is an enabling technique in organic chemistry. Advantages include extremely fast mixing and heat transfer capabilities as well as rapid screening of reaction conditions. Combining continuous flow chemistry with solid-supported organocatalysis presents challenges that have

  15. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 2 ... In this paper we consider the notion of continuous frame of subspaces and define a new concept of continuous frame, entitled continuous atomic resolution of identity, for arbitrary Hilbert space H which has a countable reconstruction formula.

  16. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  17. Calculus problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  18. Problems of the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ120 WOMEN’S HEALTH Problems of the Digestive System • What are some common digestive problems? • What is ... of hormones during pregnancy can slow down the digestive system. How can constipation be treated? If constipation continues, ...

  19. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you have BPH, you may need to wake up often to urinate when you sleep. If you can’t urinate at all, you should get medical help right away. Your doctor will know if you have a prostate problem based on ...

  20. [Transversal problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Mendoza, A; Solano Reina, E

    1990-04-01

    In this worn we introduce the alterations of the occlusion in the horizontal level or transversal problems, in which lateral crossed bites appear, either with or without a deviation of the medium line, underlying its differential diagnostic and guide lines treatment through several different clinic cases.

  1. Dewey's Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David K.

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that Dewey tried to solve social problems related to the growth of industrialism, increasing economic inequality, and political inequality. Argues that Dewey aspired to create a counterculture to correct the human and social devastation of industrial capitalism through a curriculum and instruction that rooted academic learning in…

  2. Some continual integrals from gaussian forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazmanishvili, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The result summary of continual integration of gaussian functional type is given. The summary contains 124 continual integrals which are the mathematical expectation of the corresponding gaussian form by the continuum of random trajectories of four types: real-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, Wiener process, complex-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the stochastic harmonic one. The summary includes both the known continual integrals and the unpublished before integrals. Mathematical results of the continual integration carried in the work may be applied in the problem of the theory of stochastic process, approaching to the finding of mean from gaussian forms by measures generated by the pointed stochastic processes

  3. Continuity diaphragm for skewed continuous span precast prestressed concrete girder bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Continuity diaphragms used on skewed bents in prestressed girder bridges cause difficulties in detailing and : construction. Details for bridges with large diaphragm skew angles (>30) have not been a problem for LA DOTD. : However, as the skew angl...

  4. Drift vortices in continuous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernousenko, V.M.; Chernenko, I.V.; Chernyshenko, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    The work is devoted to investigation into the problems of large-scale cortex drift and generation in continuous media based on the solution of notably non-linear differential equations. Using the capability of the modern computer technique it is possible to consider a series of cases with regard to medium viscosity and its inhomogeneity and with regard to three-dimensional vortex nature. Based on the solutions obtained the large-scale steady-state vortex generation processes are considered. The results can be used when studying non-linear phenomena in plasma and processes of substance and energy transfer in non-equilibrium media. 16 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Appreciative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    2012-01-01

    Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...... to work system innovation and discusses how Appreciative Inquiry, Problem Solving, and the combination ‘Appreciative Problem Solving’ can be used to optimize continuous work system innovation.These findings add to the theoretical foundation of the emerging field of Strength-based Lean....

  6. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple distribu......A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  7. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  8. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other known continuous frames. Finally, we state and prove the assertions of the stability of perturbation in this concept. Keywords. Bounded operator; Hilbert space; continuous frame; atomic resolution of identity. 1. Introduction and preliminaries. As we know frames are more flexible tools to convey information than bases, ...

  9. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 88 ...

  10. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 88 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 88 of 88 ...

  11. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...

  12. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  13. LANL continuity of operations plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senutovitch, Diane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-22

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier national security research institution, delivering scientific and engineering solutions for the nation's most crucial and complex problems. Our primary responsibility is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. LANL emphasizes worker safety, effective operational safeguards and security, and environmental stewardship, outstanding science remains the foundation of work at the Laboratory. In addition to supporting the Laboratory's core national security mission, our work advances bioscience, chemistry, computer science, earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. To accomplish LANL's mission, we must ensure that the Laboratory EFs continue to be performed during a continuity event, including localized acts of nature, accidents, technological or attack-related emergencies, and pandemic or epidemic events. The LANL Continuity of Operations (COOP) Plan documents the overall LANL COOP Program and provides the operational framework to implement continuity policies, requirements, and responsibilities at LANL, as required by DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, May 2008. LANL must maintain its ability to perform the nation's PMEFs, which are: (1) maintain the safety and security of nuclear materials in the DOE Complex at fixed sites and in transit; (2) respond to a nuclear incident, both domestically and internationally, caused by terrorist activity, natural disaster, or accident, including mobilizing the resources to support these efforts; and (3) support the nation's energy infrastructure. This plan supports Continuity of Operations for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This plan issues LANL policy as directed by the DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, and provides direction for the orderly continuation of LANL EFs for 30 days of closure or 60 days for a pandemic/epidemic event. Initiation of COOP operations may

  14. Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Problems and Causes Heart Murmurs and Valve Disease "Innocent" Heart Murmur Problem: Valve Stenosis - Problem: Aortic Valve Stenosis - Problem: Mitral Valve Stenosis - Problem: Tricuspid Valve Stenosis - Problem: Pulmonary Valve Stenosis Problem: Mitral ...

  15. Continuous leaching of ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, S.; Yamashita, T.; Kameda, M.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described which comprises sprinkling continuously and uniformly a solvent selected from an acid, an alkali and an organic solvent on the surface of each of a plurality of multi-staged, moving continuous unit layers formed of pulverized uranium ore fed in a predetermined amount from a multi-staged, metering, continuous feed apparatus. Layers composed of a uniform mixture of the pulverized ore and solvent are thermally cured and then subjected to repulping and solid-liquid separation to recover a pregnant liquor containing the extracted metal component

  16. Continual improvement plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  17. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 9 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Trieste will continue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Trieste will continue to be the home of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics for the foreseeable future. An agreement signed in Vienna during December between the Italian Government and the Agency brought this assurance. (author)

  19. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 5 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Cooperative Scalable Moving Continuous Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohui; Karras, Panagiotis; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    A range of applications call for a mobile client to continuously monitor others in close proximity. Past research on such problems has covered two extremes: It has offered totally centralized solutions, where a server takes care of all queries, and totally distributed solutions, in which...... there is no central authority at all. Unfortunately, none of these two solutions scales to intensive moving object tracking applications, where each client poses a query. In this paper, we formulate the moving continuous query (MCQ) problem and propose a balanced model where servers cooperatively take care...... and computation cost for both servers and clients. An experimental study demonstrates that our approaches offer better scalability than competitors...

  1. Continuity of Local Time: An applied perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Jorge M.; Waymire, Edward C.; Thomann, Enrique A.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of local time for Brownian motion ranks among the most notable mathematical results in the theory of stochastic processes. This article addresses its implications from the point of view of applications. In particular an extension of previous results on an explicit role of continuity of (natural) local time is obtained for applications to recent classes of problems in physics, biology and finance involving discontinuities in a dispersion coefficient. The main theorem and its corolla...

  2. Problems in particle theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.; Wilczek, Frank

    1994-10-01

    This report is a progress report on the work of two principal investigators in the broad area of particle physics theory, covering their personal work, that of their coworkers, and their proposed work for the future. One author has worked in the past on various topics in field theory and particle physics, among them current algebras, the physics of neutrino induced reactions, quantum electrodynamics (including strong magnetic field processes), the theory of the axial-vector current anomaly, topics in quantum gravity, and nonlinear models for quark confinement. While much of his work has been analytical, all of the projects listed above (except for the work on gravity) had phases which required considerable computer work as well. Over the next several years, he proposes to continue or initiate research on the following problems: (1) acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field and gauge theories, and more generally, new research in computational neuroscience and pattern recognition; (2) construction of quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory, and their application to composite models of quarks and leptons, and to the problem of unifying quantum theories of matter with general relativity. One author has worked on problems in exotic quantum statistics and its applications to condensed matter systems. His work has also continued on the quantum theory of black holes. This has evolved toward understanding properties of quantum field theory and string theory in incomplete regions of flat space.

  3. 2-Sensor Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Segal

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Ad-hoc networks of sensor nodes are in general semi-permanently deployed. However, the topology of such networks continuously changes over time, due to the power of some sensors wearing out to new sensors being inserted into the network, or even due to designers moving sensors around during a network re-design phase (for example, in response to a change in the requirements of the network. In this paper, we address the problem of covering a given path by a limited number of sensors — in our case to two, and show its relation to the well-studied matrix multiplication problem.

  4. Continuous Adductor Canal Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monahan, Amanda M; Sztain, Jacklynn F; Khatibi, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether continuous or scheduled intermittent bolus local anesthetic administration is preferable for adductor canal perineural catheters. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that scheduled bolus administration is superior or noninferior to a continuous infusion...... on cutaneous knee sensation in volunteers. METHODS: Bilateral adductor canal catheters were inserted in 24 volunteers followed by ropivacaine 0.2% administration for 8 hours. One limb of each subject was assigned randomly to a continuous infusion (8 mL/h) or automated hourly boluses (8 m...... tolerance of electrical current and quadriceps femoris maximum voluntary isometric contraction strength at baseline, hourly for 14 hours, and again after 22 hours. RESULTS: The 2 administration techniques provided equivalent cutaneous analgesia at 8 hours because noninferiority was found in both directions...

  5. Continuous venovenous haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Bistrup, C; Pedersen, R S

    1996-01-01

    A simple three-pump-based system for the performance of continuous venovenous haemodialysis is described. The method employs access to the circulation via a double-lumen catheter, and by means of a standard extracorporeal peristaltic pump the blood is circulated through a haemofiltration filter....... Standard solutions for peritoneal dialysis are administered in a single-pass manner countercurrent to the blood flow. To control the dialysate flow through the filter, two separate pumps designed for intravenous infusion are used. Anticoagulation is achieved by means of continuous heparin infusion...

  6. 2015 Workshop on Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    his volume contains the papers presented at WoC 2015, the Workshop on Continuations held at ETAPS 2015. There were four submissions. Each of them was reviewed by, on the average, three PC members. The committee decided to accept three papers. The program also includes one invited talk. It also...... documents the depth, variety, and richness of continuations with four distilled tutorials. Thanks are due to the local organizers of ETAPS 2015 for the infras- tructure and to the general chairman of WoC 2015, Ugo de'Liguoro, for initiating this workshop and making it happen...

  7. Computing the continuous discretely

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This richly illustrated textbook explores the amazing interaction between combinatorics, geometry, number theory, and analysis which arises in the interplay between polyhedra and lattices. Highly accessible to advanced undergraduates, as well as beginning graduate students, this second edition is perfect for a capstone course, and adds two new chapters, many new exercises, and updated open problems. For scientists, this text can be utilized as a self-contained tooling device. The topics include a friendly invitation to Ehrhart’s theory of counting lattice points in polytopes, finite Fourier analysis, the Frobenius coin-exchange problem, Dedekind sums, solid angles, Euler–Maclaurin summation for polytopes, computational geometry, magic squares, zonotopes, and more. With more than 300 exercises and open research problems, the reader is an active participant, carried through diverse but tightly woven mathematical fields that are inspired by an innocently elementary question: What are the relationships betwee...

  8. On the double adiabatic continuous spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.

    1984-09-01

    In earlier work it has been found that the Alfven and cusp (or slow) continuous spectra can become unstable in toroidal geometry, as judged from the linearized double adiabatic equations. In this paper the validity of fluid approaches to the present problem is investigated. The physical implications of the stability conditions are discussed. (Author)

  9. Model checking conditional CSL for continuous-time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Ming; Zhan, Naijun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the model-checking problem of continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs) with respect to conditional logic. To the end, we extend Continuous Stochastic Logic introduced in Aziz et al. (2000) [1] to Conditional Continuous Stochastic Logic (CCSL) by introducing a conditional p...

  10. Continuous digital health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halteren, Aart; Gay, Vaĺerie

    2015-01-01

    A transformation is underway regarding how we deal with our health, not only because mobile Internet technology has made it possible to have continuous access to personal health information, but also because breaking the trend of ever-growing healthcare costs is increasingly necessary. Connectivity,

  11. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  12. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review article willintroduce readers to the educational subject matter, along with one-page summarises (in print) of additional articles that may be accessed in full online. We will continue to offer topical and up-to-date CME material. Readers are encouraged to register with samj.org.za to receive future notifications of new ...

  13. Continuous quality improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourne, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the various statistical tools used at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory to achieve continuous quality improvement in the development of Breeder Reactor Technology and in reactor operations. The role of the quality assurance professionals in this process, including quantifiable measurements using actual examples, is provided. The commitment to quality improvement through top management involvement is dramatically illustrated

  14. Generalized continued fractions and ergodic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustyl'nikov, L D

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a new theory of generalized continued fractions is constructed and applied to numbers, multidimensional vectors belonging to a real space, and infinite-dimensional vectors with integral coordinates. The theory is based on a concept generalizing the procedure for constructing the classical continued fractions and substantially using ergodic theory. One of the versions of the theory is related to differential equations. In the finite-dimensional case the constructions thus introduced are used to solve problems posed by Weyl in analysis and number theory concerning estimates of trigonometric sums and of the remainder in the distribution law for the fractional parts of the values of a polynomial, and also the problem of characterizing algebraic and transcendental numbers with the use of generalized continued fractions. Infinite-dimensional generalized continued fractions are applied to estimate sums of Legendre symbols and to obtain new results in the classical problem of the distribution of quadratic residues and non-residues modulo a prime. In the course of constructing these continued fractions, an investigation is carried out of the ergodic properties of a class of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems which are also of independent interest

  15. Continuous Culture Microbioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäpper, Daniel

    : The working volumes are relatively small, typically continuous cultivations. Additionally, their small size oers a number of possibilities: Under the presence of good mixing, one can assume the contents of a microbioreactor....... The advance of miniature online measuring techniques makes it possible to measure at least the basic culture variables such as dissolved oxygen (DO), cell density (OD) and pH continuously and without disturbing the cultivation. Online measurements are at this scale very susceptible to the presence of bubbles...... chaotically into the reactor chamber again. Thus, over time, all of the reactor oor will be covered which prevents the formation of dead zones. Temperature is controlled by means of an external (and thus re-usable) heating plate which contains both a temperature sensor and a resistance heating wire...

  16. Continuing Education in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Catalina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays it is not enough to hold a degree title allowing us to exercise a profession. We all know—indeed, it is obvious—that the socioeconomic environment we operate in has evolved rapidly and dramatically. Greater competition in the job market and training needs that are increasingly more specific and dynamic are driving the demand for specialized learning and are making concepts such as continuing education or lifelong training more important. A health professional must have a calling for ...

  17. Continuous software delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Krmavnar, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the thesis is the demonstration of one of the best possible approaches to an automated continuous delivery process as it relates to certain application types. In the introductory part, the main reason for choosing the subject is presented, along with a few examples of why nowadays - in order to keep pace with the competition - such an approach seems necessary. Following chapters discuss the basics of software delivery, starting with configuration and version control manage...

  18. Safety Campaign Continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/

  19. Continuity and consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In Danish family policy, changes initiated by the present conservative-liberal government differ little from those proposed by the opposition. Recent changes are minor, but significant ones occurred in the 1960s, when childcare was universalized, and in the 1980s, when parental leave substituted...... policy reflect changing conditions for employment and the minding of children and that there has been a high degree of continuity and consensus about the change, as indicated by the strong increase in female labour market involvement....

  20. Knowledge and Continuous Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Caffyn, S.; Corso, M.

    1999-01-01

    Competition today is forcing companies to increase their effectiveness through exploiting synergy and learning in product innovation. Literature, however, is still mainly focused on how product development projects, seen largely as isolated efforts, should be organised and managed. This article p...... is based on collaborative research by the authors, based on their involvement in the Euro-Australian co-operation project CIMA (Euro-Australian co-operation centre for Continuous Improvement and innovation MAnagement)....

  1. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fareed, Ali [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States); Craig, Phillip A. [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  2. Robust continuous clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sohil Atul; Koltun, Vladlen

    2017-09-12

    Clustering is a fundamental procedure in the analysis of scientific data. It is used ubiquitously across the sciences. Despite decades of research, existing clustering algorithms have limited effectiveness in high dimensions and often require tuning parameters for different domains and datasets. We present a clustering algorithm that achieves high accuracy across multiple domains and scales efficiently to high dimensions and large datasets. The presented algorithm optimizes a smooth continuous objective, which is based on robust statistics and allows heavily mixed clusters to be untangled. The continuous nature of the objective also allows clustering to be integrated as a module in end-to-end feature learning pipelines. We demonstrate this by extending the algorithm to perform joint clustering and dimensionality reduction by efficiently optimizing a continuous global objective. The presented approach is evaluated on large datasets of faces, hand-written digits, objects, newswire articles, sensor readings from the Space Shuttle, and protein expression levels. Our method achieves high accuracy across all datasets, outperforming the best prior algorithm by a factor of 3 in average rank.

  3. Scalable algorithms for contact problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dostál, Zdeněk; Sadowská, Marie; Vondrák, Vít

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the authors’ newly developed scalable algorithms for the solutions of multibody contact problems of linear elasticity. The brand new feature of these algorithms is theoretically supported numerical scalability and parallel scalability demonstrated on problems discretized by billions of degrees of freedom. The theory supports solving multibody frictionless contact problems, contact problems with possibly orthotropic Tresca’s friction, and transient contact problems. It covers BEM discretization, jumping coefficients, floating bodies, mortar non-penetration conditions, etc. The exposition is divided into four parts, the first of which reviews appropriate facets of linear algebra, optimization, and analysis. The most important algorithms and optimality results are presented in the third part of the volume. The presentation is complete, including continuous formulation, discretization, decomposition, optimality results, and numerical experimen...

  4. These Things Continue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    After decades of violent war, families are rebuilding their lives in the Acholi sub-region of Northern Uganda. The return to normal order is marked by problems people see as consequences of the years of insecurity: mental illness, alcoholism, domestic violence, marital instability, and land...... and contamination of “these things”. We show how Acholi ideas of cen, the spirits of the vengeful dead, relate to phenomenological conceptions of violence and “the alien”, in human experience....

  5. Genital Problems in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  6. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  7. Continuous multivariate exponential extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Freund-Weinman multivariate exponential extension is generalized to the case of nonidentically distributed marginal distributions. A fatal shock model is given for the resulting distribution. Results in the bivariate case and the concept of constant multivariate hazard rate lead to a continuous distribution related to the multivariate exponential distribution (MVE) of Marshall and Olkin. This distribution is shown to be a special case of the extended Freund-Weinman distribution. A generalization of the bivariate model of Proschan and Sullo leads to a distribution which contains both the extended Freund-Weinman distribution and the MVE

  8. Continuous-infusion adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.S.; Chawla, S.P.; Ewer, M.S.; Hortobagyi, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the diminished cardiotoxicity as well as diminished nausea and vomiting with continuous infusions of adriamycin to patients undergoing radiation therapy, particularly with infusions of 48 hours or longer, and best with 96-hour infusions, the longest duration that has been studied systematically. In breast cancer, data show that more adriamycin is better, but only for a selected subgroup of patients: those with complete remission. The diminished cardiotoxicity makes the use of adriamycin more attractive in the adjuvant situation, where increased safety will decrease the chances of long-term complications and make retreatment easy for cured patients who develop second malignancies

  9. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Promising change, delivering continuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Sungusia, Eliezeri; Mabele, Mathew Bukhi

    2017-01-01

    that compares the emergence of REDD+ in Tanzania with that of a previous forest-policy model called Participatory Forest Management. Our study describes how the advent of REDD+ implies change at the discursive level, but also continuity and repetitiveness in terms of the initial promises and expectations...... leading to substantial donor financing, pilot project activities, and policy development and implementation processes. In both epochs, these have achieved little in terms of changing actual forest management and use on the ground outside selected pilot project sites, but have sustained the livelihoods...

  11. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  12. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  13. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D [Rolla, MO; Peter, Jorg J [McMinnville, OR; Robertson, David G. C. [Rolla, MO; Thomas, Brian G [Champaign, IL; Zhang, Lifeng [Trondheim, NO

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  14. Measuring continuity of care: psychometric properties of the Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijen, Annemarie A; Schers, Henk J; Schellevis, François G; Mokkink, Henk GA; van Weel, Chris; van den Bosch, Wil JHM

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, the Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire (NCQ) was developed. It aims to measure continuity of care from the patient perspective across primary and secondary care settings. Initial pilot testing proved promising. Aim To further examine the validity, discriminative ability, and reliability of the NCQ. Design A prospective psychometric instrument validation study in primary and secondary care in the Netherlands. Method The NCQ was administered to patients with a chronic disease recruited from general practice (n = 145) and hospital outpatient departments (n = 123) (response rate 76%). A principal component analysis was performed to confirm three subscales that had been found previously. Construct validity was tested by correlating the NCQ score to scores of other scales measuring quality of care, continuity, trust, and satisfaction. Discriminative ability was tested by investigating differences in continuity subscores of different subgroups. Test–retest reliability was analysed in 172 patients. Results Principal factor analysis confirmed the previously found three continuity subscales — personal continuity, care provider knows me; personal continuity, care provider shows commitment; and team/cross-boundary continuity. Construct validity was demonstrated through expected correlations with other variables and discriminative ability through expected differences in continuity subscores of different subgroups. Test–retest reliability was high (the intraclass correlation coefficient varied between 0.71 and 0.82). Conclusion This study provides evidence for the validity, discriminative ability, and reliability of the NCQ. The NCQ can be of value to identify problems in continuity of care. PMID:22782001

  15. Measuring continuity of care: psychometric properties of the Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijen, Annemarie A; Schers, Henk J; Schellevis, François G; Mokkink, Henk G A; van Weel, Chris; van den Bosch, Wil Jhm

    2012-07-01

    Recently, the Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire (NCQ) was developed. It aims to measure continuity of care from the patient perspective across primary and secondary care settings. Initial pilot testing proved promising. To further examine the validity, discriminative ability, and reliability of the NCQ. A prospective psychometric instrument validation study in primary and secondary care in the Netherlands. The NCQ was administered to patients with a chronic disease recruited from general practice (n = 145) and hospital outpatient departments (n = 123) (response rate 76%). A principal component analysis was performed to confirm three subscales that had been found previously. Construct validity was tested by correlating the NCQ score to scores of other scales measuring quality of care, continuity, trust, and satisfaction. Discriminative ability was tested by investigating differences in continuity subscores of different subgroups. Test-retest reliability was analysed in 172 patients. Principal factor analysis confirmed the previously found three continuity subscales - personal continuity, care provider knows me; personal continuity, care provider shows commitment; and team/cross-boundary continuity. Construct validity was demonstrated through expected correlations with other variables and discriminative ability through expected differences in continuity subscores of different subgroups. Test-retest reliability was high (the intraclass correlation coefficient varied between 0.71 and 0.82). This study provides evidence for the validity, discriminative ability, and reliability of the NCQ. The NCQ can be of value to identify problems in continuity of care.

  16. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  17. Continuous radioisotope infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederborg, B.; Asaba, H.; Gunnarsson, B.; Jekell, K.; Kiibus, A.; Sandqvist, S.

    1978-01-01

    Continuous infusion of a radioactive marker was used instead of a conventional bolus injection to improve haemodynamic studies. Tc-99m was infused into the blood circulation at a constant rate for 100-300 seconds and the activity in the target structure was measured by a gamma camera with a computer system or by a single detector. The concentration of the marker increased linearly at the same rate throughout the circulating system. Due to variations in transport time from infusion site to different parts of the system the rise of activity occurred at different times. A theory for the calculations was presented and consequently confirmed in a model study. Blood flow patterns in artificial kidneys and alterations in renal blood flow induced by angiotensin were studied. The results are presented as time-function curves or as computer images. This technique can be used to evaluate distributions and alterations of flow in separate parts of a complex circulating system. (author)

  18. Continuous damage mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboche, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The classical structural life predictions are based on stabilized stress-strain analysis and some parametric relations with the number of cycles to failure. During the last ten years a different approach, initiated by the works of Kachanov and Rabotnov for creep rupture, has been developed by different laboratories. This continuous Damage Mechanics, treating the damaged material as a macroscopically homogeneous one, leads to the possibility of globally modelling the nucleation and the propagation of microdefects including their effect on the stress-strain behaviour. This paper presents the general theory and several applications to a turbine blade refractory alloy. It includes the description of sequence effects and creep-fatigue interaction. The generalization for three-dimensional conditions, where anisotropic damage effects are possible, is discussed and some new proposals are given for the determination of simple anisotropic damage equations. (orig.)

  19. Spaces of continuous functions

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, G L M

    2016-01-01

    The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.

  20. Continuous Platform Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    evolution does not make the platforms irrelevant. This research is based on case studies and applications in the two Danish companies, LEGO and Grundfos, where several platform development projects have been followed. LEGO is exceptional for their long experience with platform development and maintenance......, while Grundfos is relatively new within this area. This study puts emphasis on platform projects and defines such projects as something very different from product development projects and more similar to industrial research projects, due to the fact that they are continuous activities with relatively...... low risks and investments but also with relatively fuzzy results. When looking for new platform projects, it is important to make sure that the company and market is ready for the introduction of platforms, and to make sure that people from marketing and sales, product development, and downstream...

  1. Continuity and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Reenberg, Anette; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Traditional agricultural land use systems in the humid tropics of the Southwest Pacific are, as elsewhere, affected by globalization processes. This paper analyzes the directions of change in the land use system of Bellona, a small outer island in the Solomon Islands. We focus on the human...... reveal only minor changes in the agricultural system. Land use and land cover dynamics are related to agricultural strategies, demographic factors, institutional actors as well as biophysical drivers or constraints. Local agricultural production still contributes significantly to local subsistence...... is a supplement to a range of strategies supporting the increasing number of people on the island. This explains why land use patterns continue relatively unchanged while livelihood and food supply strategies have changed....

  2. Continuous spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James M

    2009-01-01

    Continuous spinal anesthesia (CSA) is an underutilized technique in modern anesthesia practice. Compared with other techniques of neuraxial anesthesia, CSA allows incremental dosing of an intrathecal local anesthetic for an indefinite duration, whereas traditional single-shot spinal anesthesia usually involves larger doses, a finite, unpredictable duration, and greater potential for detrimental hemodynamic effects including hypotension, and epidural anesthesia via a catheter may produce lesser motor block and suboptimal anesthesia in sacral nerve root distributions. This review compares CSA with other anesthetic techniques and also describes the history of CSA, its clinical applications, concerns regarding neurotoxicity, and other pharmacologic implications of its use. CSA has seen a waxing and waning of its popularity in clinical practice since its initial description in 1907. After case reports of cauda equina syndrome were reported with the use of spinal microcatheters for CSA, these microcatheters were withdrawn from clinical practice in the United States but continued to be used in Europe with no further neurologic sequelae. Because only large-bore catheters may be used in the United States, CSA is usually reserved for elderly patients out of concern for the risk of postdural puncture headache in younger patients. However, even in younger patients, sometimes the unique clinical benefits and hemodynamic stability involved in CSA outweigh concerns regarding postdural puncture headache. Clinical scenarios in which CSA may be of particular benefit include patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing lower extremity surgery and obstetric patients with complex heart disease. CSA is an underutilized technique in modern anesthesia practice. Perhaps more accurately termed fractional spinal anesthesia, CSA involves intermittent dosing of local anesthetic solution via an intrathecal catheter. Where traditional spinal anesthesia involves a single injection with a

  3. Dirichlet problem on the upper half space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, a solution of the Dirichlet problem on the upper half space for a fast growing continuous boundary function is constructed by the generalized Dirichlet integral with this boundary function.

  4. Some problems of coastal pollution in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.; SenGupta, R.

    the IIOE, extensive investigations on these environmental features were continued till this date during the cruises of INS Darshak, RV Gaveshani and ORV Sagar Kanya. The present report deals with some of the problems related to pollution of coastal waters...

  5. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... prevent or delay sexual and urologic problems. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  6. Cutting as a continuous business process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Gradišar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of state-of-the-art methods for cutting stock problem optimisation shows that the current methods lead to near-optimum results for the instantaneous optimisation of trim loss. Further optimisation of this activity would not bring a considerable improvement. Therefore, the paper treats cutting stock as a continuous business process and not as an isolated activity. An exact method for a general one-dimensional cutting stock problem is presented and tested. The method is mainly suitable for smaller orders. It is then applied to continuous cutting and used to develop a method for assessing cutting costs in consecutive time periods. The modified method finds a good solution over the whole time-span, rather than just local optima.

  7. Continuation of Sets of Constrained Orbit Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten; Chamoun, George Chaouki

    Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajectory...... that starts close and returns close to this fixed point within finite time. More complicated examples are hybrid periodic orbits of piecewise smooth systems or quasi-periodic invariant tori. Even though it is possible to define generalised two-point boundary value problems for computing sets of constrained...... orbit segments, this is very disadvantageous in practice. In this talk we will present an algorithm that allows the efficient continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments together with the solution of the full variational problem....

  8. Adaptive Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    1) problem solving architecture; (2) problem representation ; (3) heuristics and control knowledge ; and (4) algorithms. In the area of problem... language which humans use to describe problems/domains and SAS+ is a standard problem representation input language used by many planners. Given a...implemented a system, MSP, that given a specific problem, automatically generates, evaluates, and assembles different combinations of representations and

  9. Continuous quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondhi, S.L. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Girvin, S.M.; Carini, J.P. [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Shahar, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A quantum system can undergo a continuous phase transition at the absolute zero of temperature as some parameter entering its Hamiltonian is varied. These transitions are particularly interesting for, in contrast to their classical finite-temperature counterparts, their dynamic and static critical behaviors are intimately intertwined. Considerable insight is gained by considering the path-integral description of the quantum statistical mechanics of such systems, which takes the form of the {ital classical} statistical mechanics of a system in which time appears as an extra dimension. In particular, this allows the deduction of scaling forms for the finite-temperature behavior, which turns out to be described by the theory of finite-size scaling. It also leads naturally to the notion of a temperature-dependent dephasing length that governs the crossover between quantum and classical fluctuations. Using these ideas, a scaling analysis of experiments on Josephson-junction arrays and quantum-Hall-effect systems is presented. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. The continuing nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Declining threat perceptions in the superpower relationship make the need for compellent threats less pressing and reduce demands upon the credibility of extended deterrence. Nuclear arms control and reductions can create survivable forces forestalling all but irrational incentives for a first strike. Conventional arms control can restructure national armies to such an extent that crises can be weathered without recourse to arms, thus reducing the risk of nuclear escalation. The post-cold war era presents an opportunity to make meaningful progress in these areas and should serve to remind states that their security may not need to be based on the threat to use nuclear weapons. States that place a high status value on nuclear weapons and those at the nuclear threshold may not agree with this assessment. But if co-operative security structures can be found and acted upon, the allure of nuclear status may also decline. And, with an improving US-Soviet relationship, regional security problems that have led states to acquire nuclear weapons may become more amenable to solution by joint diplomatic initiatives. None of these measures are easily achievable not are they likely to be undertaken in a concerted fashion. However, unlike in the past, the post-cold war environment makes these steps feasible

  11. The world food problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    Argument continues in the world press as to the urgency of the food problem. Some economists in equating world food production statistics with population figures have convinced themselves there is more than enough food per capita and, accordingly, no problem. Looking in greater depth than these gross averages, however, we find that there is indeed a prospective problem, and of such a nature and magnitude as to tax all of mankind's talents and resources in its resolution. It is true that certain of the developed countries of the world in the last generation acquired agricultural production capabilities that notably exceeded the resident population's capacity to consume. 'Surplus' in these areas became an ugly word during this period of a generally favorable weather cycle, and restrictions on the amount of and that could be devoted to graincrops were imposed to curb this tremendous capacity. A fickle Mother Nature, however, has turned things around during the early 1970's by one or another of her many vacillations in the form of local drought, excess moisture, shortened growing season, or other means, in some of the major producing areas. Inconsequence, the food grain surpluses are now gone and the world is looking at a three to four week reserve at any given moment. The cost of food products available from exporting countries has doubled and trebled in price during the past two years. The potential for famine exceeds in magnitude anything the world has ever known. It is against this background that the World Food Conference will be held in Rome during November of this year. (author)

  12. Discrete and continuous simulation theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    When it comes to discovering glitches inherent in complex systems-be it a railway or banking, chemical production, medical, manufacturing, or inventory control system-developing a simulation of a system can identify problems with less time, effort, and disruption than it would take to employ the original. Advantageous to both academic and industrial practitioners, Discrete and Continuous Simulation: Theory and Practice offers a detailed view of simulation that is useful in several fields of study.This text concentrates on the simulation of complex systems, covering the basics in detail and exploring the diverse aspects, including continuous event simulation and optimization with simulation. It explores the connections between discrete and continuous simulation, and applies a specific focus to simulation in the supply chain and manufacturing field. It discusses the Monte Carlo simulation, which is the basic and traditional form of simulation. It addresses future trends and technologies for simulation, with par...

  13. Continuous user authentication using temporal information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinuma, Koichiro; Jain, Anil K.

    2010-04-01

    Conventional computer systems authenticate users only at the initial log-in session, which can be the cause of a critical security flaw. To resolve this problem, systems need continuous user authentication methods that continuously monitor and authenticate users based on some biometric trait(s). We propose a new method for continuous user authentication based on a Webcam that monitors a logged in user's face and color of clothing. Our method can authenticate users regardless of their posture in front of the workstation (laptop or PC). Previous methods for continuous user authentication cannot authenticate users without biometric observation. To alleviate this requirement, our method uses color information of users' clothing as an enrollment template in addition to their face information. The system cannot pre-register the clothing color information because this information is not permanent. To deal with the problem, our system automatically registers this information every time the user logs in and then fuses it with the conventional (password) identification system. We report preliminary authentication results and future enhancements to the proposed system.

  14. Continuous Perioperative Sublingual Buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcelina Jasmine; Rubinstein, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Buprenorphine, a semisynthetic thebaine derivative, is a unique opioid, as it has activity at multiple receptors, including mu (partial agonist), kappa (antagonist), OLR-1 (agonist), and delta (antagonist). Because buprenorphine's pharmacology is relatively complex, misconceptions about its actions are common. Most other opioids act solely or predominately as full mu receptor agonists. Common practice at many institutions calls for the cessation of regular buprenorphine use 48-72 hours prior to surgery. This practice is based on three foundational theories that have come from scant data about the properties of buprenorphine: (1) that buprenorphine is only a partial mu agonist and therefore is not a potent analgesic; (2) because buprenorphine has a ceiling effect on respiratory depression, it also has a ceiling effect on analgesia; and (3) that buprenorphine acts as a "blockade" to the analgesic effects of other opiates when coadministered due to its strong binding affinity. However, several recent studies have called this practice into question. At our institution, we continue buprenorphine perioperatively, whenever possible, in order to provide superior pain control, discourage potentially problematic use and the more dangerous side effects of full mu agonist opiates, and avoid putting recovery at risk for those with opiate dependency issues. We present a unique case comparing two different outcomes for the same surgical course performed at two different times on the same chronic pain patient. These differences may be attributable to the variable of buprenorphine being present for one perioperative course and not the other. Pain control was easier to achieve, and functional recovery was greater when buprenorphine was maintained throughout the perioperative period when compared with using a full mu agonist opioid for chronic pain preoperatively. This is an outcome that much of the literature heretofore suggests would be unlikely. We review some aspects of

  15. Appendicitis: a continuing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K M; Khan, A

    1998-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency in urban setting, of a developing country. The computerised hospital patient database at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, was utilised to obtain records of all adults with a histologically proven diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A review of patients treated over a 18 month period was undertaken. One hundred and three appendicectomies were performed for acute appendicitis during this period. The diagnosis was clinical in all cases. Investigations like leucocyte count and lower abdominal ultrasound scan were used to improve diagnostic accuracy without a clear advantage. A number of routine investigations like, haemoglobin estimation and urea, creatinine, electrolyte measurements, did not provide additional information. The duration of antibiotic treatment in acute simple appendicitis was empiric and could be reduced to a single preoperative dose. Peritoneal fluid culture studies had a poor yield (26%) and results were not found to effect management in acute simple appendicitis. The routine use of Ampicillin in all cases of bacterial peritonitis needs re-evaluation, as a high incidence (73%) of resistance was seen. Studies to define the role and duration of treatment, with a single antibiotic, in acute simple appendicitis should be undertaken. Acute appendicitis is probably the most frequently considered surgical differential diagnosis at any hospital dealing with acute surgical conditions. The established treatment continues to be surgical removal of the inflamed organ. The diagnosis and decision to operate both are accepted to be based on clinical judgement, though a number of investigative manoeuvres have been described to reduce the negative appendicectomy rate. Other areas of debate are the number and length of antibiotic treatment and use of bacterial culture studies in cases of simple acute appendicitis. To analyse present practice and identify areas for study and change, a retrospective study was

  16. Expectation propagation for continuous time stochastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseke, Botond; Schnoerr, David; Sanguinetti, Guido; Opper, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    We consider the inverse problem of reconstructing the posterior measure over the trajectories of a diffusion process from discrete time observations and continuous time constraints. We cast the problem in a Bayesian framework and derive approximations to the posterior distributions of single time marginals using variational approximate inference, giving rise to an expectation propagation type algorithm. For non-linear diffusion processes, this is achieved by leveraging moment closure approximations. We then show how the approximation can be extended to a wide class of discrete-state Markov jump processes by making use of the chemical Langevin equation. Our empirical results show that the proposed method is computationally efficient and provides good approximations for these classes of inverse problems. (paper)

  17. The Commons revisited: The tragedy continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Garrett Hardin's classic paper 'Tragedy of the Commons' published in Science in 1968 struck a chord with scientists and non-scientists alike and has continued to provide a key reference point to how a number of 'Commons'-related problems can be viewed. Hardin's paper will be in looked at in view of both anthropogenic global warming and peak oil and some of the solutions he posed for the 'population problem' applied to the post-peak era. Possible solutions are compared with the Kyoto Protocol for global warming and the Rimini Protocol for peak oil. A carbon-indexed, universal tax on non-renewable energy resources 'Unitax' is mooted as a longer-term possibility to overcoming both global warming and the financing of post-peak oil problems. Alas, the process of dealing with global warming and peak oil seems to be falling into the 'no technical solution' category that Hardin identified for population

  18. A brief introduction to continuous evolutionary optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Practical optimization problems are often hard to solve, in particular when they are black boxes and no further information about the problem is available except via function evaluations. This work introduces a collection of heuristics and algorithms for black box optimization with evolutionary algorithms in continuous solution spaces. The book gives an introduction to evolution strategies and parameter control. Heuristic extensions are presented that allow optimization in constrained, multimodal, and multi-objective solution spaces. An adaptive penalty function is introduced for constrained optimization. Meta-models reduce the number of fitness and constraint function calls in expensive optimization problems. The hybridization of evolution strategies with local search allows fast optimization in solution spaces with many local optima. A selection operator based on reference lines in objective space is introduced to optimize multiple conflictive objectives. Evolutionary search is employed for learning kernel ...

  19. Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…

  20. Discontinious Galerkin formulations for thin bending problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    A structural thin bending problem is essentially associated with a fourth-order partial differential equation. Within the finite element framework, the numerical solution of thin bending problems demands the use of C^1 continuous shape functions. Elements using these functions are challenging and

  1. metateoretiese perspektiewe op liggaamlike probleme as moontlike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liezel

    This article focuses on the close relationship between unresolved trauma and some phy- sical problems. For most persons, the initial response to trauma is that of denial. How- ever, emotional pain that is suppressed on a continued basis could result in physical problems. With regard to this aspect, attention is also paid to ...

  2. Dirichlet problem on the upper half space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a solution of the Dirichlet problem on the upper half space for a fast growing continuous boundary function is constructed by the generalized. Dirichlet integral with this boundary function. Keywords. Dirichlet problem; harmonic function; half space. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 31B05, 31B10. 1.

  3. Redefining continuing education delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, K H

    1997-01-01

    individual health-care worker consumer. A number of national and world-wide trends are propelling rapid changes in the delivery modalities and types of emerging providers for health-care CE. Examples of these advanced telecommunications applications of CE opportunities for health-care personnel are becoming more prevalent in the literature and the pattern of CE marketing, and delivery evolution can be seen readily on the Internet. Continued program success and viability will belong to the individuals and organizations who are able to conceptualize and envision the positive transformations and opportunities that can occur from the evolving paradigm of education for the lifelong learner of the 21st century.

  4. 10 CFR 605.19 - Continuation funding and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.19 Continuation funding and reporting requirements. (a) A... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation funding and reporting requirements. 605.19... field, and any real or anticipated problems. A completed budget page must be submitted with the...

  5. 10 CFR 602.17 - Continuation funding and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.17 Continuation funding and reporting requirements. (a... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation funding and reporting requirements. 602.17... findings and their significance to the field, and any real or anticipated problems. The report also should...

  6. Continuous improvement and the mini-company concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leede, Jan; Looise, Jan C.

    1999-01-01

    The key issue of continuous improvement (CI) seems to be the problem of combining extensive employee involvement with market orientation and continuation of CI. In this article we review some existing organisational designs for CI on these three essential characteristics of CI. As an alternative to

  7. CONTINUING FACTION AMONG NAGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Kannan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Factions are the competition between groups for scarce resources or power. It manifests in many forms and is noticed in all parts of the world. However, factions also emerge because of certain vulnerable situations and issues that are found at different levels of social organisation. The fundamental assumption in the present study is that factions at different levels do not constitute independent and insulated phenomena. There are always certain linkages between their functioning at various levels, such as the village, block, district and the state. Against this background the present study made an attempt to observe factions at the village, block and district levels and establish organic or otherwise links between factions at these levels. The study carried out in Dimapur district of Nagaland, where there is a clash between two tribal groups. The rationale implicit in the study is, therefore, that the leadership of various political parties at the grass root level interacts with the leadership of these various tribal groups at the district level and state level through the dynamics of factional process. To collect in-depth information on factions among Nagas informal interviews were conducted among the elders at village level and tribal organizations at district level. The study also understands various specific issues, which constitute the back drop for various factions, i.e., those issues by which the faction-groups maintain identity. The origin of faction among the Nagas starts from the freedom struggle of Nagas from India. However recently the problems happened in the state head quarters (Kohima it reflects in the district head quarters and in the Sumi dominated villages. The study concludes that strong political ground among the tribal organisation is the major causes of the faction. Finally, the author suggesting that government should maintain the effective communication with the tribal group leaders and various tribal organisations and

  8. Opportunities of Continuing Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Ušeckienė

    2011-04-01

    , educational background, gender, and social status were surveyed. One of the major preconditions for the development of continuing adult education is the individual’s motivation to learn. It was ascertained that about three quarters (76 % of the respondents have learnt recently, the rest have not. The major factors that determine adults’ learning are increasing requirements in labour market, a need for self-development, expanding horizons and striving to gain more knowledge, have better career opportunities, consequently, improve welfare. The factors having least influence on adults’ learning are the opportunity of the transition to a new career and the possibility to interrelate with new people. It is important to analyse the reasons why adults do not learn. The most common reasons that prevent them from studies are as follows (in priority order: the lack of funds, it is difficult to combine work and studies, it is too late to learn, and it is difficult to combine studies and family matters. Hence, the reasons restricting the opportunities of continuing adult education are closely related to the research data. The respondents indicate the lack of funds for studies. This reflects the same funding problem that institutions organising and conducting adult education face. Therefore, financial possibilities in adult education are a sore problem not only to individuals, but to various organizations and the state as well. The respondents’ claim that it is difficult to combine work and studies reveals that employers are not concerned to encourage and organise employees’ learning; in the circumstances, such career givers’ policy is harmful both to employees and their education, and employers themselves as the quality of human resources comprises staff education, competences, skills, etc. The argument that it is too late to learn is rather abstract. It shows that people are not innovative; they are not interested in new developments and are rather indifferent to changing

  9. A New Finite Continuation Algorithm for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, Mustafa

    1996-01-01

    by a smooth problem. It is shown that the minimizers of the smooth problem define a family of piecewise-linear paths as a function of a smoothing parameter. Based on this property, a finite algorithm that traces these paths to arrive at an optimal solution of the linear program is developed. The smooth......We describe a new finite continuation algorithm for linear programming. The dual of the linear programming problem with unit lower and upper bounds is formulated as an $\\ell_1$ minimization problem augmented with the addition of a linear term. This nondifferentiable problem is approximated...

  10. A New Finite Continuation Algorithm for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, Mustafa

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new finite continuation algorithm for linear programming. The dual of the linear programming problem with unit lower and upper bounds is formulated as an $\\ell_1$ minimization problem augmented with the addition of a linear term. This nondifferentiable problem is approximated...... by a smooth problem. It is shown that the minimizers of the smooth problem define a family of piecewise-linear paths as a function of a smoothing parameter. Based on this property, a finite algorithm that traces these paths to arrive at an optimal solution of the linear program is developed. The smooth...

  11. Design and construction of a vertical hydroponic system with semi-continuous and continuous nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Dian; Widoretno, Wahyu

    2017-11-01

    Problems due to the increase in agricultural land use change can be solved by hydroponic system applications. Many hydroponic studies have been conducted in several countries while their applications in Indonesia requires modification and adjustment. This research was conducted to design and construct a hydroponic system with semi-continuous and continuous nutrition systems. The hydroponic system which was used adapts the ebb and flow system, and the nutrient film technique (NFT). This hydroponic system was made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes with a length of 197 cm, a diameter of 16 cm, and a slope of 4°. It was constructed from four PVC pipes. In semi-continuous irrigation treatment, nutrients flow four to six times for each of ten minutes depending on plant development and the estimated evapotranspiration occurring, while in a continuous nutrient system the nutrients are streamed for twenty-four hours without stopping at a maximum flow rate of 13.7 L per second.

  12. Turn Continuation and Clause Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the viability of the analytic distinction between "turn-constructional unit (TCU) continuation" (i.e., continuing a turn beyond a point of possible completion with grammatically dependent material) and "new TCU" (i.e., continuing a turn with grammatically independent material) when hypotactic clause combinations are involved.…

  13. Continuous learning in computer vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pintea, S.L.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on continuous learning, and specifically on continuous learning in the context of computer vision. Computer vision aims at interpreting the world from its visual dimension, in an automatic manner. The world in general is characterized by continuity, and so is the visual world

  14. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  15. Menstrual Problems (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Menstrual Problems KidsHealth / For Parents / Menstrual Problems What's in ... like irregular periods or premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Common Menstrual Problems Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) It's common for women ...

  16. Health Problems in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems. You may have problems because of a health condition you had before you got pregnant. You ... being pregnant with more than one baby, a health problem in a previous pregnancy, substance abuse during ...

  17. Problems in differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, J L

    2013-01-01

    More than 900 problems and answers explore applications of differential equations to vibrations, electrical engineering, mechanics, and physics. Problem types include both routine and nonroutine, and stars indicate advanced problems. 1963 edition.

  18. Dynamics in dumbbell domains III. Continuity of attractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, José M.; Carvalho, Alexandre N.; Lozada-Cruz, German

    In this paper we conclude the analysis started in [J.M. Arrieta, A.N. Carvalho, G. Lozada-Cruz, Dynamics in dumbbell domains I. Continuity of the set of equilibria, J. Differential Equations 231 (2006) 551-597] and continued in [J.M. Arrieta, A.N. Carvalho, G. Lozada-Cruz, Dynamics in dumbbell domains II. The limiting problem, J. Differential Equations 247 (1) (2009) 174-202 (this issue)] concerning the behavior of the asymptotic dynamics of a dissipative reaction-diffusion equation in a dumbbell domain as the channel shrinks to a line segment. In [J.M. Arrieta, A.N. Carvalho, G. Lozada-Cruz, Dynamics in dumbbell domains I. Continuity of the set of equilibria, J. Differential Equations 231 (2006) 551-597], we have established an appropriate functional analytic framework to address this problem and we have shown the continuity of the set of equilibria. In [J.M. Arrieta, A.N. Carvalho, G. Lozada-Cruz, Dynamics in dumbbell domains II. The limiting problem, J. Differential Equations 247 (1) (2009) 174-202 (this issue)], we have analyzed the behavior of the limiting problem. In this paper we show that the attractors are upper semicontinuous and, moreover, if all equilibria of the limiting problem are hyperbolic, then they are lower semicontinuous and therefore, continuous. The continuity is obtained in L and H norms.

  19. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented.

  20. International safeguards problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.; Curtis, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    To recognize the limitations of safeguards as a barrier to nuclear proliferation is not to deny their essential role in the effort to contain that problem. Without a safeguards system, international nuclear commerce and development would not, indeed could not, be what they are today. The problems evoked in the discussion of the spread of sensitive nuclear technology underscore the importance of ensuring that activities do not outpace our ability to control them. To sustain a global nuclear economy requires a readiness to live within the constraints that such an economy requires. Enhanced safeguards and strengthened national commitments to facilitate their application are key elements of those constraints. So also may be a prepardness by many nations to forego explicitly national control over all facets of the nuclear fuel cycle while still sharing fully and equally in the benefits of the peaceful atom. The challenge of the coming years will be to craft mechanisms and institutions enabling the continued growth of peaceful nuclear activity without further impairing international security. The constraints that such an outcome entails are not limited to nations lacking sophisticated nuclear technology; they apply to the most advanced nuclear nations as well--partly through adherence to the safeguards system that these countries call upon others to adopt, and partly through greater willingness to entertain solutions that may involve greater international involvement in, and control over, their own peaceful nuclear productive activities. With time, the relative incompatibility of nuclear energy with full national sovereignty, and the far-sighted wisdom of the Baruch Plan, are becoming increasingly clear. 1 table, 10 references

  1. Performance Contracting: Problem Definition and Problem Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharis, James K.; And Others

    This skill laboratory provides a technique for problem definition and alternative methods to gather pertinent data that surrounds a given situation. Seven skills are discussed including Kaufman's tri-level needs assessment model, intergroup building, organizational slice, force field analysis, brainstorming, problem definition, and conflict…

  2. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  3. The Continued Assessment of Self-Continuity and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S.; Minor, Leslie; Babineau, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Studies have found that self-continuity is predictive of a substantial number of important outcome variables. However, a recent series of studies brings into question the traditional method of measuring self-continuity in favor of an alternative (B. M. Baird, K. Le, & R. E. Lucas, 2006). The present study represents a further comparison of…

  4. Beyond Continuous Delivery: An Empirical Investigation of Continuous Deployment Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahin, Mojtaba; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zahedi, Mansooreh

    2017-01-01

    Context: A growing number of software organizations have been adopting Continuous DElivery (CDE) and Continuous Deployment (CD) practices. Researchers have started investing significant efforts in studying different aspects of CDE and CD. Many studies refer to CDE (i.e., where an application is p...

  5. Continuous-variable blind quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2012-12-07

    Blind quantum computation is a secure delegated quantum computing protocol where Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, delegates her computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output, and algorithm. Protocols of blind quantum computation have been proposed for several qudit measurement-based computation models, such as the graph state model, the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model, and the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal topological model. Here, we consider blind quantum computation for the continuous-variable measurement-based model. We show that blind quantum computation is possible for the infinite squeezing case. We also show that the finite squeezing causes no additional problem in the blind setup apart from the one inherent to the continuous-variable measurement-based quantum computation.

  6. Continuing challenges in nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear facilities is heavily dependent upon the adequate performance of air cleaning systems. Although many problems have been solved, new questions and new challenges continue to arise. These are well illustrated by weaknesses in air cleaning and ventilating systems revealed by the Browns Ferry fire, and the need to develop additional data on the reliability of such systems, particularly under emergency conditions, as revealed by the Reactor Safety Study. Assessments of the degree to which engineered safety features can compensate for deficiencies in nuclear power plant sites continue to challenge those involved in risk/benefit evaluations. Additional challenges are being generated by the air cleaning requirements associated with the commercial development of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

  7. System View of Business Continuity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Svata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We are living in time where the impact on continuity still grows both on the side our personal lives and business activities. In the same time different international, regional, national, state and private organizations initiated to provide different actions and regulations in order to find the best solutions of this situation. The result is that there exist the whole set of different views over this problem. The main aim of this article is to map this situation, to provide the general framework of business continuity management (BCM and to discuss its main parts and their mutual relationships. Special impact is given to the integration of the business and IT oriented solutions and ways of assurance initiatives helping managers to assess the implemented solutions and their compliance to the business strategy and other existing regulations.

  8. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  9. Continuous acoustic emission from aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenici, P.; Kiesewetter, N.; Schiller, P.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous acoustic emission of aluminum single crystals and polycrystals during tensile tests at constant cross-head speed and at room temperature is measured with a Root Mean Square Level recorder. By means of the Kaiser effect it is shown that the continuous emission is related to the plastic deformation. The plot of continuous emission against strain takes different shapes for pure single crystals, pure polycrystals and impure polycrystals. The measured voltages have about the same value for pure single and polycrystals and are considerably greater than that for impure polycrystals. A method is developed to distinguish between continuous emission and burst

  10. Using modern information technologies in continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Магомедхан Магомедович Ниматулаев

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Article opens problems of formation of system of continuous education and improvement of professional skill for effective realization of professional work of the teacher in the conditions of use of modern information technology. Possibilities and necessities of use of information-communication technologies, Web-technologies for an intensification and giving of additional dynamics to educational process are considered. In this connection new forms and methods of the organization of educational activity for development and perfection of this activity are defined.

  11. Contra omega\\ beta-continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiam H. Aljarrah

    2014-09-01

    sets in topological spaces to present and study a new class of functions called contra omega\\beta-continuous functions. This notion is a weak form of contra-continuity. We also discuss the relationships between this new class and other classes of functions and some examples of applications are shown.

  12. Perspectives: The Continuous Improvement Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Accrediting agencies, legislators, pundits, and even higher educational professionals have become enamored with applying the language of continuous improvement to learning outcomes. The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges specifically uses the term "continuing improvement" in Core Standard 2.5, one of its…

  13. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1968-01-01

    The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3......The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3...

  14. Continual integral in perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that all results obtained by means of continual integration within the framework of perturbation theory are completely equivalent to those obtained by the usual diagram technique and are therfore just as rigorous. A rigorous justification is given for the rules for operating with continual integrals in perturbation theory. (author)

  15. Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.

  16. Differential equations problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    Arterburn, David R

    2012-01-01

    REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and

  17. On approximation of the separately and jointly continuous functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshyn H.A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available On approximation of the separately and jointly continuous functions}%{We investigate the following problem: which dense subspaces$L$ of the Banach space $C(Y$ of continuous functions on acompact $Y$ and topological spaces $X$ have such property, thatfor every separately or jointly continuous functions $f: Ximes Yightarrow mathbb{R}$ there exists a sequence of separately orjointly continuous functions $f_{n}: Ximes Y ightarrowmathbb{R}$ such, that $f_n^x=f_n(x, cdot in L$ for arbitrary $nin mathbb{N}$, $xin X$ and $f_n^xightrightarrows f^x$ on $Y$ for every $xin X$? In particular, it was shown, if the space $C(Y$ has a basis that every jointly continuous function $f: Ximes Y ightarrow mathbb{R}$ has jointly continuous approximations $f_n$ such type.

  18. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  19. Combined Noncyclic Scheduling and Advanced Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Petersen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel formulation for combined scheduling and control of multi-product, continuous chemical processes is introduced in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and noncyclic continuous-time scheduling are efficiently combined. A decomposition into nonlinear programming (NLP dynamic optimization problems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP problems, without iterative alternation, allows for computationally light solution. An iterative method is introduced to determine the number of production slots for a noncyclic schedule during a prediction horizon. A filter method is introduced to reduce the number of MILP problems required. The formulation’s closed-loop performance with both process disturbances and updated market conditions is demonstrated through multiple scenarios on a benchmark continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR application with fluctuations in market demand and price for multiple products. Economic performance surpasses cyclic scheduling in all scenarios presented. Computational performance is sufficiently light to enable online operation in a dual-loop feedback structure.

  20. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  1. Traveling with breathing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000066.htm Traveling with breathing problems To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most ...

  2. Challenging problems in algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S

    1996-01-01

    Over 300 unusual problems, ranging from easy to difficult, involving equations and inequalities, Diophantine equations, number theory, quadratic equations, logarithms, more. Detailed solutions, as well as brief answers, for all problems are provided.

  3. Continuous culture apparatus and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    At present, we are investigating the sorption of potentially toxic trace elements by phytoplankton under controlled laboratory conditions. Continuous culture techniques were used to study the mechanism of the sorption of the trace elements by unialgal diatom populations and the factors influencing this sorption. Continuous culture methodology has been used extensively to study bacterial kinetics. It is an excellent technique for obtaining a known physiological state of phytoplankton populations. An automated method for the synthesis of continuous culture medium for use in these experiments is described

  4. Software problems in library automation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, A. T.

    1998-01-01

    Important software problems faced by the library professionals in India are analysed and points out various compatibility and suitability issues in the selection of a library software. The paper also hints that these problems has affected the progress of computerisation of libraries. Upto date and detailed information on softwares available in India can prevent several issues that may arise in the course of computerisation. An agency/mechanism to continuously evaluate the softwares may be ...

  5. The triangle scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, Christoph; Hanzálek, Zdeněk; Konrad, Christian; Seddik, Yasmina; Sitters, R.A.; Vásquez, Óscar C.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem, where jobs occupy a triangular shape on the time line. This problem is motivated by scheduling jobs with different criticality levels. A measure is introduced, namely the binary tree ratio. It is shown that the Greedy algorithm solves the problem to

  6. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  7. The problem of simultaneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, G.

    Drake's formula for the possible number of independent civilizations in the Galaxy is discussed in the light of several new hypotheses (e.g., Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis). Emphasis is placed on ways to overcome the time problem, i.e., the problem of how to communicate with civilizations that may arise in the future. Electronic, nucleonic, and bionic approaches to this problem are discussed.

  8. Classifying IS Project Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The literature contains many lists of IS project problems, often in the form of risk factors. The problems sometimes appear unordered and overlapping, which reduces their usefulness to practitioners as well as theoreticians. This paper proposes a list of criteria for formulating project problems...

  9. Problems for Computer Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Ronald; And Others

    This booklet contains some 80 problems in mathematics suitable for computer solution. The problems range from very simple to complex. Problems have been included from most mathematic disciplines, including number theory, analytical geometry, probability and statistics, trigonometry, equations, and sequence and limits. For the most part these…

  10. Assessment Problems in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinitie, Walter H., Ed.

    The papers in this volume deal with a range of assessment problems in reading. The first paper, by Karlin, introduces the general problem of using assessment procedures to guide teaching. The next six papers deal with various aspects of this general problem. Otto discusses the distinction between norm-referenced, standardized achievement tests and…

  11. LSA Large Area Silicon Sheet Task Continuous Czochralski Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A commercial Czochralski crystal growing furnace was converted to a continuous growth facility by installation of a small, in-situ premelter with attendant silicon storage and transport mechanisms. Using a vertical, cylindrical graphite heater containing a small fused quartz test tube linear from which the molten silicon flowed out the bottom, approximately 83 cm of nominal 5 cm diamter crystal was grown with continuous melt addition furnished by the test tube premelter. High perfection crystal was not obtained, however, due primarily to particulate contamination of the melt. A major contributor to the particulate problem was severe silicon oxide buildup on the premelter which would ultimately drop into the primary melt. Elimination of this oxide buildup will require extensive study and experimentation and the ultimate success of continuous Czochralski depends on a successful solution to this problem. Economically, the continuous Czochralski meets near-term cost goals for silicon sheet material.

  12. Normal modes and continuous spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems

  13. Exploiting the steady state, continuous fueling reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.; Fowler, T.B.

    1979-01-01

    A continuously fueled reactor presents an analysis challenge, especially so when the neutron accounting is sensitive to the core design and the fuel handling. A scheme was implemented to solve the steady state, continuous fueling problem. This problem is an accurate model of the reactor for assessing performance at a point in its operating history. Available capability in a modular code system developed to treat fixed fuel reactors was extended in this effort. Parametric studies have been made with this capability to assess the performance of a pebble bed power plant reactor over a wide range of fueling possibilities. The model and the calculational methods are discussed. A global iteration scheme is used to effect a solution for the critical reactor state. The schemes used to accelerate the rate of convergence of one- and two-dimensional problems are described and the interactive behavior is shown for representative problems

  14. A simple regularization method for stable analytic continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chu-Li; Dou, Fang-Fang; Feng, Xiao-Li; Qian, Zhi

    2008-12-01

    The problems of analytic continuation are frequently encountered in many practical applications. These problems are well known to be severely ill-posed and therefore several regularization methods have been suggested for solving them. In this paper we consider the problem of analytic continuation of the analytic function f(z) = f(x + iy) on a strip domain \\Omega=\\{z=x+iy\\in {\\bb C}|x\\in{\\bb R},|y|\\leq y_0\\} , where the data are given only on the line y = 0. We use a very simple and convenient method—the Fourier regularization method to solve this problem. Some sharp error estimates between the exact solution and its approximation are given and numerical examples show the method works effectively. The project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10671085, 10571079 and 10726017).

  15. Continuous Delivery and Quality Monitoring

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    After introducing Continuous Delivery, I will switch the topic and try to answer the question how much should we invest in quality and how to do it efficiently. My observations reveal that software quality is often considered as the slo...

  16. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yin Mak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed.

  17. Confidentiality | Benatar | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Continuation of superpave projects monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This study involved the continuous monitoring of material properties and field performance of twelve Superpave project sections in Florida for the establishment of reasonable and effective mixture design guidelines and criteria, the identification an...

  19. Continuing education and professional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Edwina

    2002-01-01

    The success of a profession will be determined upon its education and training. A profession is required to encompass: a core body of knowledge; a set of ethical codes of practice; and have practitioners with humanistic qualities. In order to maintain the success of a profession it is necessary to have continuing education, which enhances professional development. Continuing professional education includes a form of self-regulation, which ensures the maintenance of a minimum standard of practice in this ever-changing workplace, and by regulating this standard, the discipline becomes more accountable to the client and the profession as a whole. In Australia, the Nuclear Medicine society's continuing education programs and Universities offering postgraduate programs promote continuing education. If technologists are to successfully keep up with developments in instrumentation, protocols and changing health care requirements, we must ensure that the education of practitioners does not cease at certification of entry to the workplace (Au)

  20. Defining the Continuing Education Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, John K.

    1992-01-01

    A job description for continuing education practitioners includes 11 domains and the job responsibilities for each: client management, external marketing, internal marketing, strategic planning, administration, program development, technology management, adult learning, personal development, career management, and community and professional…

  1. Manipulating continuous variable photonic entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plenio, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    I will review our work on photonic entanglement in the continuous variable regime including both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states. The feasibility and efficiency of various entanglement purification protocols are discussed this context. (author)

  2. Multi-objective optimisation with stochastic discrete-event simulation in retail banking: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Scholtz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cash management of an autoteller machine (ATM is a multi-objective optimisation problem which aims to maximise the service level provided to customers at minimum cost. This paper focus on improved cash management in a section of the South African retail banking industry, for which a decision support system (DSS was developed. This DSS integrates four Operations Research (OR methods: the vehicle routing problem (VRP, the continuous review policy for inventory management, the knapsack problem and stochastic, discrete-event simulation. The DSS was applied to an ATM network in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, to investigate 90 different scenarios. Results show that the application of a formal vehicle routing method consistently yields higher service levels at lower cost when compared to two other routing approaches, in conjunction with selected ATM reorder levels and a knapsack-based notes dispensing algorithm. It is concluded that the use of vehicle routing methods is especially beneficial when the bank has substantial control over transportation cost.

  3. A generalized endogenous grid method for discrete-continuous choice

    OpenAIRE

    John Rust; Bertel Schjerning; Fedor Iskhakov

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends Carroll's endogenous grid method (2006 "The method of endogenous gridpoints for solving dynamic stochastic optimization problems", Economic Letters) for models with sequential discrete and continuous choice. Unlike existing generalizations, we propose solution algorithm that inherits both advantages of the original method, namely it avoids all root finding operations, and also efficiently deals with restrictions on the continuous decision variable. To further speed up the s...

  4. Continuous-Energy Data Checks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, Wim [Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCartney, Austin Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of all Quality Assurance tests that have to be performed on a nuclear data set to be transformed into an ACE formatted nuclear data file. The ACE file is capable of containing different types of data such as continuous energy neutron data, thermal scattering data, etc. Within this report, we will limit ourselves to continuous energy neutron data.

  5. Continuous-variable supraquantum nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterer, Andreas; Laversanne-Finot, Adrien; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Supraquantum nonlocality refers to correlations that are more nonlocal than allowed by quantum theory but still physically conceivable in postquantum theories, in the sense of respecting the basic no-faster-than-light communication principle. While supraquantum correlations are relatively well understood for finite-dimensional systems, little is known in the infinite-dimensional case. Here, we study supraquantum nonlocality for bipartite systems with two measurement settings and infinitely many outcomes per subsystem. We develop a formalism for generic no-signaling black-box measurement devices with continuous outputs in terms of probability measures, instead of probability distributions, which involves a few technical subtleties. We show the existence of a class of supraquantum Gaussian correlations, which violate the Tsirelson bound of an adequate continuous-variable Bell inequality. We then introduce the continuous-variable version of the celebrated Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) boxes, as a limiting case of the above-mentioned Gaussian ones. Finally, we characterize the geometry of the set of continuous-variable no-signaling correlations. Namely, we show that that the convex hull of the continuous-variable PR boxes is dense in the no-signaling set. We also show that these boxes are extreme in the set of no-signaling behaviors and provide evidence suggesting that they are indeed the only extreme points of the no-signaling set. Our results lay the grounds for studying generalized-probability theories in continuous-variable systems.

  6. Large scale 2D spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Jian-Feng

    2017-06-20

    We consider the problem of spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain, which aims to recover a 2-dimensional spectrally sparse signal from partially observed time samples. The signal is assumed to be a superposition of s complex sinusoids. We propose a semidefinite program for the 2D signal recovery problem. Our model is able to handle large scale 2D signals of size 500 × 500, whereas traditional approaches only handle signals of size around 20 × 20.

  7. Lapse in Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Continuing Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Fu Tsan

    Full Text Available The United States federal animal welfare regulations and the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals require that institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs conduct continuing reviews of all animal research activities. However, little is known about the lapse rate of IACUC continuing reviews, and how frequently investigators continue research activities during the lapse. It is also not clear what factors may contribute to an institution's lapse in IACUC continuing reviews. As part of the quality assurance program, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA has collected performance metric data for animal care and use programs since 2011. We analyzed IACUC continuing review performance data at 74-75 VA research facilities from 2011 through 2015. The IACUC continuing review lapse rates improved from 5.6% in 2011 to 2.7% in 2015. The rate of investigators continuing research activities during the lapse also decreased from 47.2% in 2012 to 7.4% in 2015. The type of IACUCs used and the size of animal research programs appeared to have no effect in facility's rates of lapse in IACUC continuing reviews. While approximately 80% of facilities reported no lapse in IACUC continuing reviews, approximately 14% of facilities had lapse rates of >10% each year. Some facilities appeared to be repeat offenders. Four facilities had IACUC lapse rates of >10% in at least 3 out of 5 years, suggesting a system problem in these facilities requiring remedial actions to improve their IACUC continuing review processes.

  8. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented.

  9. A Dynamic Continuation-Passing Style for Dynamic Delimited Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin Scott

    2005-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine that accounts for dynamic delimited continuations. We prove the correctness of this new abstract machine with respect to a pre-existing, definitional abstract machine. Unlike this definitional abstract machine, the new abstract machine is in defunctionalized form......-passing style.' We show that the new machine operates more efficiently than the definitional one and that the notion of computation induced by the corresponding evaluator takes the form of a monad. We also present new examples and a new simulation of dynamic delimited continuations in terms of static ones....

  10. Universal Method for Stochastic Composite Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasnikov, A. V.; Nesterov, Yu. E.

    2018-01-01

    A fast gradient method requiring only one projection is proposed for smooth convex optimization problems. The method has a visual geometric interpretation, so it is called the method of similar triangles (MST). Composite, adaptive, and universal versions of MST are suggested. Based on MST, a universal method is proposed for the first time for strongly convex problems (this method is continuous with respect to the strong convexity parameter of the smooth part of the functional). It is shown how the universal version of MST can be applied to stochastic optimization problems.

  11. Non-standard and improperly posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian; Ames, William F

    1997-01-01

    Written by two international experts in the field, this book is the first unified survey of the advances made in the last 15 years on key non-standard and improperly posed problems for partial differential equations.This reference for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers provides an overview of the methodology typically used to study improperly posed problems. It focuses on structural stability--the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions and the modeling equations--and on problems for which data are only prescribed on part of the boundary.The book addresses continuou

  12. On Helmholtz Problem for Plane Periodical Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishin, P.G.; Vinitskij, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    The plane Helmholtz problem of the periodical disc structures with the phase shifts conditions of the solutions along the basis lattice vectors and the Dirichlet conditions on the basic boundaries is considered. The Green function satisfying the quasi periodical conditions on the lattice is constructed. The Helmholtz problem is reduced to the boundary integral equations for the simple layer potentials of this Green function. The methods of the discretization of the arising integral equations are proposed. The procedures of calculation of the matrix elements are discussed. The reality of the spectral parameter of the nonlinear continuous and discretized problems is shown. 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. Patient perspectives on continuity of care: adaption and preliminary psychometric assessment of a Norwegian version of the Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire (NCQ-N)

    OpenAIRE

    Hetlevik, Oystein; Hustoft, Merethe; Uijen, A.A.; Assmus, Jorg; Gjesdal, Sturla

    2017-01-01

    Background Continuity of care is regarded as a core quality element in healthcare. Continuity can be related to one or more specific caregivers but also applies to collaboration within a team or across boundaries of healthcare. Measuring continuity is important to identify problems and evaluate quality improvement of interventions. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and psychometric properties of a Norwegian version of the Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire (NCQ). Methods The NCQ was d...

  14. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  15. Dialysis (Part 1): Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (continuing education credit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J

    1997-02-19

    The first of two articles on dialysis outlines the experience of patients from chronic renal failure to end stage renal failure and offers a historical perspective of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). It relates to UKCC Professional Development categories: Care enhancement and Reducing risk.

  16. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  17. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  18. Genital Problems in Infants (Female)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  19. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... cows experienced a 7-wk prepartum dry period. Continuous milking during the prepartum period reduced milk production in the following early lactation period by >20%. The reduced milk production could not be readily ascribed to inefficiency of the mechanisms responsible for nutrient uptake...

  20. [Addiction therapy. Limits, problems, perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2014-01-01

    In health care, tending is a process, which offers for the patients a continuous watching on, a control, a treatment, and the prevention of worsening of their medical status as well as the reduction of their complaints. In the article, some fundamental segments of tending in addictology are reviewed, particularly paying attention to whom, how, where and how long to take care. On the basis of literature, the author stresses whatever method is used to treat addict patients it is more beneficial to society than the avoidance of any intervention due to the negligence of the problem. Addictology has lost a lot from its power in Hungary. The author recommends the introduction of the methods of health quality assurance to decrease the effect of negative trends seen in addictology. The paper also deals with special patient groups including homeless clients, adolescents, elderly and pregnant patients as well as health care professionals. The author critically mentions the double communication of society, the dual-face character of politics and has the opinion that competences are not clear making the situation confused. As a mistake of the point of view is it regarded that the addictological problems are classified as to belonging to the authority of psychiatry. It is emphasized that multidisciplinary approach is needed to understand the problem and to treat the client. General screening for addictological diseases does not seem possible in the light of low capacity of the system, but the screening of adolescents and pregnant women is definitely recommended. And finally, a financial support for medicines to prevent craving, a moratorium for the continuous changing of rules and law, the sponsoring of harm reduction programs as well as a better utilization of opportunities offered by local drug coordinating boards are proposed.

  1. The effect of learning environments based on problem solving on students’ achievements of problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Karatas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to be formed and the roles given to the students. The aim of this study is to create a problem solving based learning environment to enhance the students’ problem solving skill. Within this scope, students’ practiced activities and problems that provide them to proceed in Polya (1945’s problem solving phases and throughout the study, students’ success in problem solving have been evaluated. While experimental group students received problem solving based learning environment performed, control group students have continued their present program in this quise-experimental study. Eleven problem solving activities were given to the students at the beginning, middle and end of the study and the students’ performances were analyzed based on problem solving phases. The findings illustrated that the experimental group students’ success in problem solving activities has increased while the control group students’ success has not changed significantly.

  2. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students’ Achievements of Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan KARATAS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educatingstudents as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to beformed and the roles given to the students. The aim of this study is to create a problem solving based learning environment to enhance the students’ problem solving skill. Within this scope, students’practiced activities and problems that provide them to proceed in Polya (1945’s problem solving phases and throughout the study, students’ success in problem solving have been evaluated. While experimental group students received problem solving based learning environment performed, control group students have continued their present program in this quise1experimental study. Eleven problem solving activities were given to the students at the beginning, middle and end of the study and the students’ performances wereanalyzed based on problem solving phases. The findings illustrated that the experimental group students’ success in problem solving activities has increased while the control group students’ success has not changed significantly.

  3. Problems for Paraprofessionals in Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Marjorie; Neill, T. Kerby

    1978-01-01

    Issues of changing positions and roles for paraprofessionals are considered in the context of the hierarchical structure and process of mental health organizations. Discussion focuses on problems arising when paraprofessionals are promoted in the functional hierarchy while continuing to occupy the lowest level in the professional caste system.…

  4. Developing Creative Problem Solving in Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    A British polytechnic's civil engineering course emphasizing creative problem solving, begun in the late 1960s, has shown that it is possible to increase students' creative ability in the course of a degree program. Research into the identification of students who will benefit from the approach is continuing. (MSE)

  5. NONSTANDARD PROBLEMS IN STUDYING THE PROPERTIES FUNCTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuzmich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider two non-standard problems that may be offered to students for independent solution in the study of fundamental properties of functions in the course of mathematical analysis. These tasks are wearing creativity and contribute to a better understanding of students to concepts such as monotonicity and continuity of the function.

  6. Galerkin finite element methods for wave problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    these methods. Keywords. hp-Finite element method; continuous Galerkin methods; wave solutions; Gibbs' phenomenon. 1. Introduction. Galerkin methods belong to the class of solution methods for PDEs where the solution residue is minimized giving rise to the well-known weak formulation of problems. In this approach,.

  7. Unique solution to periodic boundary value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sun

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Existence of unique solution to periodic boundary value problems of differential equations with continuous or discontinuous right-hand side is considered by utilizing the method of lower and upper solutions and the monotone properties of the operator. This is subject to discussion in the present paper.

  8. Distributed Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?...

  9. Creativity for Problem Solvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes specially related to problem solving. Central publications related to the theme are briefly reviewed. Creative tools and approaches suitable to support problem solving are also presented. Finally......, the paper outlines the author’s experiences using creative tools and approaches to: Facilitation of problem solving processes, strategy development in organisations, design of optimisation systems for large scale and complex logistic systems, and creative design of software optimisation for complex non...

  10. Continuous nowhere differentiable functions the monsters of analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jarnicki, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the construction, analysis, and theory of continuous nowhere differentiable functions, comprehensively and accessibly. After illuminating the significance of the subject through an overview of its history, the reader is introduced to the sophisticated toolkit of ideas and tricks used to study the explicit continuous nowhere differentiable functions of Weierstrass, Takagi–van der Waerden, Bolzano, and others. Modern tools of functional analysis, measure theory, and Fourier analysis are applied to examine the generic nature of continuous nowhere differentiable functions, as well as linear structures within the (nonlinear) space of continuous nowhere differentiable functions. To round out the presentation, advanced techniques from several areas of mathematics are brought together to give a state-of-the-art analysis of Riemann’s continuous, and purportedly nowhere differentiable, function. For the reader’s benefit, claims requiring elaboration, and open problems, are clearly indicated. An a...

  11. For Time-Continuous Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for optimisation in design normatively assume an artefact end-point, disallowing continuous architecture that engages living systems, dynamic behaviour, and complex systems. In our Flora Robotica investigations of symbiotic plant-robot bio-hybrids, we re- quire computational tools...... and strategies that help us evaluate designed behaviours, rather than discrete ‘things’. In this paper, we present our strategy of using embodied interaction to facilitate engagement with a scenario’s full scope of possible states and their continuous changes over time. We detail the ways in which this approach...

  12. Continuous-variable quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Du Jiangfeng; Massar, Serge

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the quantization of games in which the players can access to a continuous set of classical strategies, making use of continuous-variable quantum systems. For the particular case of the Cournot's duopoly, we find that, even though the two players both act as 'selfishly' in the quantum game as they do in the classical game, they are found to virtually cooperate due to the quantum entanglement between them. We also find that the original Einstein-Podolksy-Rosen state contributes to the best profits that the two firms could ever attain. Moreover, we propose a practical experimental setup for the implementation of such quantum games

  13. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  14. Numerical problems in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept

  15. Art as metontological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Saša Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explains the link between fundamental ontology and metontology in Heidegger's thought. In this context, he raises the question about art as a metontological problem. Then he goes to show that the problem of metontology stems from imanent transformation of fundamental ontology. In this sense, two aspects of the problem of existence assume relevance, namely, universality and radicalism. He draws the conclusion that metontology and art as its problem, as opposed to fundamental ontology, were not integrated into Heidegger's later thought.

  16. Known TCP Implementation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Vern (Editor); Allman, Mark; Dawson, Scott; Fenner, William; Griner, Jim; Heavens, Ian; Lahey, K.; Semke, J.; Volz, B.

    1999-01-01

    This memo catalogs a number of known TCP implementation problems. The goal in doing so is to improve conditions in the existing Internet by enhancing the quality of current TCP/IP implementations. It is hoped that both performance and correctness issues can be resolved by making implementors aware of the problems and their solutions. In the long term, it is hoped that this will provide a reduction in unnecessary traffic on the network, the rate of connection failures due to protocol errors, and load on network servers due to time spent processing both unsuccessful connections and retransmitted data. This will help to ensure the stability of the global Internet. Each problem is defined as follows: Name of Problem The name associated with the problem. In this memo, the name is given as a subsection heading. Classification one or more problem categories for which the problem is classified: "congestion control", "performance", "reliability", "resource management". Description A definition of the problem, succinct but including necessary background material. Significance A brief summary of the sorts of environments for which the problem is significant.

  17. Shielding benchmark problems, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Sasamoto, Nobuo; Oka, Yoshiaki; Shin, Kazuo; Tada, Keiko.

    1980-02-01

    Shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Assessment of Shielding Experiments in the Research Committee on Shielding Design in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Shielding Laboratory in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Fourteen shielding benchmark problems are presented newly in addition to twenty-one problems proposed already, for evaluating the calculational algorithm and accuracy of computer codes based on discrete ordinates method and Monte Carlo method and for evaluating the nuclear data used in codes. The present benchmark problems are principally for investigating the backscattering and the streaming of neutrons and gamma rays in two- and three-dimensional configurations. (author)

  18. Do Continuing Medical Education Articles Foster Shared Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Michel; Lafortune, Valerie; Lajeunesse, Judith; Lambert-Perrault, Anne-Marie; Manrique, Hermes; Blais, Johanne; Legare, France

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Defined as reviews of clinical aspects of a specific health problem published in peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed medical journals, offered without charge, continuing medical education (CME) articles form a key strategy for translating knowledge into practice. This study assessed CME articles for mention of evidence-based…

  19. Continuous time modeling of panel data by means of SEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Montfort, C.A.G.M.; Oud, J.H.L.; Satorra, A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief history of continuous time modeling and its implementation in panel analysis by means of structural equation modeling (SEM), the problems of discrete time modeling are discussed in detail. This is done by means of the popular cross-lagged panel design. Next, the exact discrete model

  20. A discretized algorithm for the solution of a constrained, continuous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A discretized algorithm for the solution of a constrained, continuous quadratic control problem. ... Numerical solution techniques such as Function space algorithm (FSA), Extended conjugate gradient method (ECGM) and Imbedding extended conjugate gradient method (MECGM) are common techniques for solving optimal ...

  1. Learning from the continuities in humanity and nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R., Jr. Burch

    1977-01-01

    Though the emphasis in American life is upon dramatic social change, the firmer reality is our great continuity in social behavior and institutions. For example, though many strategies of child rearing have cycled through human society, the basic problems and responsible social unit remain the same. Of necessity, children have an ordered and holistic view of nature and...

  2. Continuous Multistep Methods for Volterra Integro-Differential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamoh et al.

    block methods that do not enable evaluation at all points within the interval of integration. In this paper we propose a continuous block method and its modification to handle second order initial value problems of the Volterra type of the form (1.0). Modifying. (2.0), we can use it to solve systems of equations arising from the.

  3. On a class of non-Gauss continual integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovikov, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    For a certain class of continual integrals with the nonquadratic exponent the solution in the form of a series in the parameter b, inverse, to the standard perturbation theory have been obtained. This series converges for all b>0. The method developed allows us, for example, to solve the well-known problem of the propagation of light in turbulent atmospheric media

  4. Constrained optimization with a continuous Hopfield-Lagrange model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van den Berg (Jan); J.C. Bioch (Cor)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a generalized Hopfield model with continuous neurons using Lagrange multipliers, originally introduced Wacholder, Han &Mann [1989], is thoroughly analysed. We have termed the model the Hopfield-Lagrange model. It can be used to resolve constrained optimization problems. In

  5. Voltage stability analysis using a modified continuation load flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper addresses the rising problem of identifying the voltage stability limits of load buses in a power system and how to optimally place capacitor banks for voltage stability improvement. This paper uses the concept of the continuation power flow analysis used in voltage stability analysis. It uses the modified ...

  6. Continuous rearrangement and symmetry of solutions of elliptic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nonnegative solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems in symmetric domains satisfy a weak, `local' kind .... This type of continuous rearrangement can be used to prove the symmetry of local minimizers for certain .... of functions u P LpЕΩЖ having generalized partial derivatives uxi P LpЕΩЖ, i И 1Y ... Y n, and we write.

  7. Toward jet injection by continuous-wave laser cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrospe-Rodriguez, Carla; Visser, C.W.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Fernandez Rivas, David; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    This is a study motivated by the need to develop a needle-free device for eliminating major global healthcare problems caused by needles. The generation of liquid jets by means of a continuous-wave laser, focused into a light absorbing solution, was studied with the aim of developing a portable and

  8. Continuity in care of older people chronically ill patients in a battlefield of competing rationales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerholt, Mette; Wagner, Lis; Delmar, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    professionals' communication concerning older patients, leading to lack of continuity and integration of the patient perspective in care and treatment. In spite of these problems being well investigated, they continue to prevail. OBJECTIVES: To examine conditions for continuity and integration of the patient...

  9. Reimbursement for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Lutz; DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems have been available for more than 15 years by now. However, market uptake is relatively low in most countries; in other words, relatively few patients with diabetes use CGM systems regularly. One major reason for the reluctance of patients to use CGM

  10. Geodesic continued fractions and LLL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, F

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a proposal for a continued fraction-like algorithm to determine simultaneous rational approximations to dd real numbers α1,…,αdα1,…,αd. It combines an algorithm of Hermite and Lagarias with ideas from LLL-reduction. We dynamically LLL-reduce a quadratic form with parameter tt as t↓0t↓0.

  11. Continuing Education for Distance Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…

  12. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1969-01-01

    The normal magnetic field configuration of a Q device has been modified to obtain a 'magnetic Laval nozzle'. Continuous supersonic plasma 'winds' are obtained with Mach numbers ~3. The magnetic nozzle appears well suited for the study of the interaction of supersonic plasma 'winds' with either...

  13. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  14. Teamwork, Leadership, and Continuous Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Wouter Alexander; Glaudemans, Andor; Medema, Jitze; Dierckx, Rudi; Ahaus, Kees

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the enhanced TeamSTEPPS® curriculum as fundament to creating a “culture of continuous improvement” in nuclear medicine. This evidence-based and modular teamwork system is deployed in concordance with a novel medical leadership development program. It provides a

  15. Marketing Continuing Education for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This guide presents an overview of marketing and its potential value in continuing education programs for nurses. The first portion of the guide briefly discusses the concept of marketing. It contains definitions of key marketing concepts (product, place, price, and promotion), discussion of the basic tenets of marketing (consumer needs…

  16. Sustaining motivation for continuous improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore possibilities for improving motivation for participation in Continuous Improvement (CI). Due to a number of issues, for example, challenges with measuring outcomes of CI activities on performance, the inherent slower, incremental rather than big bang...

  17. In the interest of continuity

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    Every five years a new Management takes over the fifth floor of the Main Building. The arrival of a new Director-General comes with a desire to change the managerial style. Whilst not contesting the current need for this, we would like to remind you that continuity in the Organization is ensured by the personnel and its Staff Association representatives.

  18. Continuous Variables Quantum Information in Noisy Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano

    The technological progress of the last few decades has brought us the ability of exploiting quantum effects to accomplish a variety of relevant tasks. Yet, quantum phenomena are fragile, and with the ability to engineer quantum information protocols comes the problem of keeping such information...... safe from the detrimental effects of noise and losses. In the present work we investigate continuous variables Gaussian quantum information in noisy environments, studying the effects of various noise sources in the cases of a quantum metrological task, an error correction scheme and discord......-type correlations. We engage each of the topics from a theoretical point of view, successively delving into the details of the experimental realizations and concluding with a survey of the results. In particular, we present experimental implementation of an ab initio, deterministic, real-time adaptive phase...

  19. A Report Card on Continuous Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, David; Kilo, Charles M.

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to incorporate the principles of continuous quality improvement (CQI) into health care have been underway for about ten years. In order to understand the lessons of this decade of experience, senior organizational leaders and experts in the field of health care were interviewed. This select group agreed that there have been concrete accomplishments: the tactic of assigning blame for mistakes to individuals is gradually giving way to an emphasis on detecting problems with process; there is a new focus on the health care customer; and many valuable projects have been inaugurated. Nevertheless, the interviews underlined the reality that the movement has not yet made a sizable impact on the U.S. health care system. Until there is a profound, organization-wide recognition of the need for change, universal commitment to CQI principles will not be achieved. PMID:9879305

  20. Novel device for creating continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel capsulorhexis system. Mechatronics Laboratory, University of Erciyes and Kayseri Maya Eye Hospital. A 3D model was created and simulations were conducted to develop a new device which was designed, fabricated and tested for continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC). The name of this system is the electro-mechanical capsulorhexis system (EMCS). The 3D model was created by using a commercial design software and a 3D printer was used to fabricate the EMCS Finite element analysis and geometrical relation tests of the EMCS for different sized lenses were performed. The results show that the EMCS is a perfect solution for capsulorhexis surgeries, without mechanical or geometrical problems. The EMCS can open the anterior lens capsule more easily and effectively than manual CCC applications and needs less experience.

  1. Heterogeneous continuous-time random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Tupikina, Liubov

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a heterogeneous continuous-time random walk (HCTRW) model as a versatile analytical formalism for studying and modeling diffusion processes in heterogeneous structures, such as porous or disordered media, multiscale or crowded environments, weighted graphs or networks. We derive the exact form of the propagator and investigate the effects of spatiotemporal heterogeneities onto the diffusive dynamics via the spectral properties of the generalized transition matrix. In particular, we show how the distribution of first-passage times changes due to local and global heterogeneities of the medium. The HCTRW formalism offers a unified mathematical language to address various diffusion-reaction problems, with numerous applications in material sciences, physics, chemistry, biology, and social sciences.

  2. Dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirne, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo

    2015-08-05

    Collapse models explain the absence of quantum superpositions at the macroscopic scale, while giving practically the same predictions as quantum mechanics for microscopic systems. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is the most refined and studied among collapse models. A well-known problem of this model, and of similar ones, is the steady and unlimited increase of the energy induced by the collapse noise. Here we present the dissipative version of the CSL model, which guarantees a finite energy during the entire system's evolution, thus making a crucial step toward a realistic energy-conserving collapse model. This is achieved by introducing a non-linear stochastic modification of the Schrödinger equation, which represents the action of a dissipative finite-temperature collapse noise. The possibility to introduce dissipation within collapse models in a consistent way will have relevant impact on the experimental investigations of the CSL model, and therefore also on the testability of the quantum superposition principle.

  3. Podejście PDCA Problem Solving w rozwiązywaniu problemów organizacji

    OpenAIRE

    Obora, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present one of newest team oriented problem solving method – PDCA Problem Solving. The author introduces the origin and essence of the method. He also describes the various stages involved In PDCA Problem Solving and presents examples of auxiliary methods and techniques. The last section of the paper is an attempt at evaluating the application PDCA Problem Solving as a method of continuous improvement.

  4. Problems in baryon spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capstick, S. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.

  5. Convex Congestion Network Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quant, M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes convex congestion network problems.It is shown that for network problems with convex congestion costs, an algorithm based on a shortest path algorithm, can be used to find an optimal network for any coalition. Furthermore an easy way of determining if a given network is optimal

  6. Reconfigurable layout problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance

  7. The Birthday Problem Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin S.

    1993-01-01

    Examines variations on the classic problem that asks for the fewest number of people so that the probability of two people having the same birthday is at least one-half. Extends the problem to consider the probability of a bridge player having the same hand in a lifetime. (MDH)

  8. Problems in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Iosif Ilich; Geilikman, B T

    2006-01-01

    This challenging book contains a comprehensive collection of problems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of varying degrees of difficulty. It features answers and completely worked-out solutions to each problem. Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it provides an ideal adjunct to any textbook in quantum mechanics.

  9. The Problems of Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Describes some problems of classroom dissection including the cruelty that animals destined for the laboratory suffer. Discusses the multilevel approach that the National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) has developed to address the problems of animal dissection such as offering a dissection hotline, exhibiting at science teacher conferences, and…

  10. Problem Solving and Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    formed. The Understand program ( Rayes & Sisnon, 1974) is i computer simulation of the problem understanding process for puzzle-like problems like the...current in a wire connected to a battery and a metal rod, depending on the temperature differential of the bar , the internal resistance of the battery, and

  11. GREECE--SELECTED PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTONFFY, ANDREA PONTECORVO; AND OTHERS

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE IS PRESENTED FOR A 10-WEEK STUDY OF ANCIENT GREEK CIVILIZATION AT THE 10TH-GRADE LEVEL. TEACHING MATERIALS FOR THE UNIT INCLUDE (1) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES DEALING WITH THE PERIOD FROM THE BRONZE AGE THROUGH THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD, (2) GEOGRAPHY PROBLEMS, AND (3) CULTURAL MODEL PROBLEM EXERCISES. THOSE CONCEPTS WITH WHICH…

  12. Fractional location problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Barros (Ana); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); J.A.S. Gromicho (Joaquim)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze some variants of the classical uncapacitated facility location problem with a ratio as an objective function. Using basic concepts and results of fractional programming, we identify a class of one-level fractional location problems which can be solved in

  13. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.W.

    1981-01-01

    The problems posed by the low flux of neutrinos from the sun detected by Davis and coworkers are reviewed. Several proposals have been advanced to resolve these problems and the more reasonable (in the author's opinion) are presented. Recent claims that the neutrino may have finite mass are also considered. (orig.)

  14. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  15. Managing Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James D.

    Schools need to meet unique problems through the development of special classroom management techniques. Factors which contribute to classroom problems include lack of supervision at home, broken homes, economic deprivation, and a desire for peer attention. The educational atmosphere should encourage creativity for both the student and the…

  16. The solar neutrino problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solar neutrino problem, the longstanding disagreement between the measured and predicted neutrino flux from the Sun, has moved from being a curiosity of solar physics to a research problem that now commands the attention of a large number of physicists who have at their disposal impressive experimental ...

  17. Inverse logarithmic potential problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednichenko, V G

    1996-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  18. Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  19. Structural Identification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorov Aleksei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification problem of the existing structures though the Quasi-Newton and its modification, Trust region algorithms is discussed. For the structural problems, which could be represented by means of the mathematical modelling of the finite element code discussed method is extremely useful. The nonlinear minimization problem of the L2 norm for the structures with linear elastic behaviour is solved by using of the Optimization Toolbox of Matlab. The direct and inverse procedures for the composition of the desired function to minimize are illustrated for the spatial 3D truss structure as well as for the problem of plane finite elements. The truss identification problem is solved with 2 and 3 unknown parameters in order to compare the computational efforts and for the graphical purposes. The particular commands of the Matlab codes are present in this paper.

  20. Problems in equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aliprantis, Charalambos D

    1996-01-01

    In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.

  1. The moment problem

    CERN Document Server

    Schmüdgen, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    This advanced textbook provides a comprehensive and unified account of the moment problem. It covers the classical one-dimensional theory and its multidimensional generalization, including modern methods and recent developments. In both the one-dimensional and multidimensional cases, the full and truncated moment problems are carefully treated separately. Fundamental concepts, results and methods are developed in detail and accompanied by numerous examples and exercises. Particular attention is given to powerful modern techniques such as real algebraic geometry and Hilbert space operators. A wide range of important aspects are covered, including the Nevanlinna parametrization for indeterminate moment problems, canonical and principal measures for truncated moment problems, the interplay between Positivstellensätze and moment problems on semi-algebraic sets, the fibre theorem, multidimensional determinacy theory, operator-theoretic approaches, and the existence theory and important special topics of multidime...

  2. The Guderley problem revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Scott D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kamm, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolstad, John H [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    The self-similar converging-diverging shock wave problem introduced by Guderley in 1942 has been the source of numerous investigations since its publication. In this paper, we review the simplifications and group invariance properties that lead to a self-similar formulation of this problem from the compressible flow equations for a polytropic gas. The complete solution to the self-similar problem reduces to two coupled nonlinear eigenvalue problems: the eigenvalue of the first is the so-called similarity exponent for the converging flow, and that of the second is a trajectory multiplier for the diverging regime. We provide a clear exposition concerning the reflected shock configuration. Additionally, we introduce a new approximation for the similarity exponent, which we compare with other estimates and numerically computed values. Lastly, we use the Guderley problem as the basis of a quantitative verification analysis of a cell-centered, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow algorithm.

  3. Solved problems in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piron, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems

  4. An imperfect bifurcation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, J.

    The problem considered in the present investigation involves the motion of a beam rotating around an axis at constant angular velocity. It is assumed that the beam, in its rest position, does not coincide exactly with the axis. This case leads to an imperfect bifurcation problem. The current investigation has the objective to provide a numerical approximation regarding the conditions in the considered situation. A finite difference scheme is discussed, taking into account the classical two-points boundary value problem. Attention is given to the relations concerning perfect and imperfect bifurcations, a theorem with respect to the existence of solutions for the considered problem, and the proof of this theorem. The physical problem considered involves a satellite with an antenna.

  5. Problems in abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsworth, A R

    2017-01-01

    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  6. Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B

    2016-09-02

    Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.

  7. Continuous-time system identification of a smoking cessation intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behaviour change. System identification problems that draw from two modelling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modelling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  8. An investigation of U.S. and Chinese students' mathematical problem posing and problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinfa

    1998-04-01

    This study explored the mathematical problem posing and problem solving of 181 U.S. and 223 Chinese sixth-grade students. It is part of a continuing effort to examine U.S. and Chinese students' performance by conducting a cognitive analysis of student responses to mathematical problem-posing and problem-solving tasks. The findings of this study provide further evidence that, while Chinese students outperform U.S. students on computational tasks, there are many similarities and differences between U.S. and Chinese students in performing relatively novel tasks. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that a direct link between mathematical problem posing and problem solving found in earlier studies for U.S. students is true for Chinese students as well.

  9. Continuous particle spectra and their angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, Ch.V.; Jain, R.K.; Rama Rao, J.; Ernst, J.; Machner, H.

    1996-01-01

    The angular distribution of continuous particle spectra in pre-equilibrium reactions is still an unsolved problem, particularly so at forward angles. In the present work, the angular distributions of alpha particles emitted in (α, α',x) reactions in the target elements gold and rhodium have been studied in detail. Alpha particle beams of energy 60 MeV from the Variable Energy Cyclotron of Calcutta were used in these experiments. The theoretical calculations were done using an extended exciton model of Kalbach incorporated into the Computer Code PRECO-D2. The formalism used in the exciton model was modified to include division of pre equilibrium cross section into multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components. These MSD and MSC cross sections were used to calculate the angular distributions in terms of Legendre polynomials whose coefficients are given by simple phenomenological relations. Even with a reasonable set of parameters, the agreement between theory and experiment was far from satisfactory at forward angles. Similar conclusion was also drawn in the case of continuous particle spectra of deuterons in (d, d'x) reactions at 25 MeV in various targets. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs

  10. Continuous improvement: A win-win process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, T.M.; Wichert, A.

    1992-01-01

    The strategies used within PanCanadian Petroleum Limited's production division to successfully introduce the continuous improvement (CI) process are discussed. Continuous improvement is an operating philosophy and management style which allows all employees to participate in and improve the way an organization performs its day-to-day business. In the CI work environment the supervisor's traditional role changes from one of monitoring and controlling, to one of inspiring, motivating and leading people by communicating a clear vision. Employees at all levels in the work environment are organized into teams and armed with a good working knowledge of the problem-solving tools which allow them to pursue and implement improvement initiatives. The outcome of the process is an ongoing win-win situation for both PanCanadian and its people. Employees are gaining more trust, eliminating job irritants, and enjoying their work in a team environment. The company is benefiting through increased production, improved safety and reduced operating expenses, thanks to the many innovative ideas introduced by employees. 4 refs

  11. Analytic continuation in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, Irinel

    2002-01-01

    We discuss some attempts to improve standard perturbative expansion in QCD by using the analytic continuation in the momentum and the Borel complex planes. We first analyse the momentum-plane analyticity properties of the Borel-summed Green functions in perturbative QCD and the connection between the Landau singularities and the infrared renormalons. By using the analytic continuation in the Borel complex plane, we propose a new perturbative series replacing the standard expansion in powers of the normalized coupling constant a. The new expansion functions have branch point and essential singularities at the origin of the complex a-plane and divergent Taylor expansions in powers of a. On the other hand the modified expansion of the QCD correlators is convergent under rather conservative conditions. (author)

  12. Dimensional continuation in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.

    1988-01-01

    The continuation of space-time dimension to an arbitrary complex number is discussed. The ultra-violet and infra-red divergences are simply regularized by analytically continuing to some proper dimension n. Combined with functional integral quantization, it provides a simple and elegant description of quantum field theory. Two well known field theories are discussed. Scalar field theory and quantum electrodynamics. In the scalar theory, the focus is on the operator product expansion. It is showed that a renormalization scheme (minimal subtraction) clearly defines the operator product expansion. In the quantum electrodynamics, it is shown that BRS symmetry can simplify the renormalization process. Composite operators are the renormalized and renormalized stress-energy tensor is formed

  13. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...... pulse wave. We performed digital photoplethysmography during sleep at night in 94 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography and 29 patients treated with nCPAP. Digital volume pulse waves were obtained independently of an investigator and were quantified using an algorithm for continuous.......01; n = 94) and the arousal index (Spearman correlation, r = 0.21; p CPAP treatment, the AHI was significantly reduced from 27 ± 3 events · h(-1) to 4 ± 2 events · h(-1) (each n = 29; p

  14. Continuous coking of heavy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Douglas W. [Lidcon, Inc (United States)

    2011-07-01

    A new process for continuous coking and decoking has been developed by Lidcon Inc. This process uses bitumen, vacuum tower residues, or a heavy CCR stock. The Lidcon process produces a higher liquid yield and lowers solid coke production. It also reduces the effects on the environment by lowering the amount of utilities that are needed to power the unit, while improving fire and worker safety. The reactor also produces coke continuously. The theoretical advantage of such a reactor configuration is that it has a short high temperature residence time for volatiles while improving the mass transfer of volatiles through the residue. The dimensions of the reactor are approximately 28' long with a 7' diameter. The weight of the unit is 20,000lbs. The Lidcon process can deliver a higher level of efficiency while reducing the amount of coke that is produced.

  15. Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.

  16. Sleep problems in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, R H; Bauchner, H

    1993-04-01

    Sleep, like eating and toileting, is an individual physical requirement that changes with time as the child matures. Although much about a child's sleep is biologically determined, extrinsic factors, usually through the parents, also mold the child's sleep behavior. Normal sleep for a child is restful to the child and not excessively disruptive to others. Sleep problems interfere with the quality of the child's sleep and frustrate or frighten caretakers. Several sleep problems have their origins in normal sleep behavior from an earlier age. Some, the parasomnias, are caused by self-limited biologic diatheses. Many sleep problems have psychosocial triggers. Sleep disorders only rarely are a primary medical problem that is adequately treated with medication (e.g., narcolepsy). Good history-taking, often accompanied by diary-keeping, will usually identify the problem--the first step in effective treatment. Treatment of a sleep disorder in the pediatrician's office can start with educating caretakers about normative sleep for the age of the child and providing information regarding the cause and natural course of the problem. Treatment also may involve behavioral or psychological intervention or both, but medication is generally not indicated. When needed for short-term treatment, mild sedatives such as antihistamines are used most often. More serious sleep or behavioral problems should be acknowledged by the primary care pediatrician, followed by referral to an appropriate specialist. Inquiry into a child's sleep habits at each well-child visit, coupled with appropriate anticipatory guidance, could make an important contribution to the child and family by preventing problems with sleep and identifying sleep problems early in their evolution. Pediatricians and parents can work together to help children develop good sleep habits that fulfill the child's evolving sleep requirements within the context of the family's needs and expectations.

  17. Continuous monitoring of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, A.; Giraut, H.; Prado, M.; Bonino, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The system allows to continuously determine the radioactive materials discharge (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) to the environment. It consists in compelling, by a pump, a known and fixed fraction of the total flow and preserving the aerosols by a filter. The gas -now free from aerosols- traverses an activated carbon filter which keeps the iodine; after being free from aerosols and iodine, the effluent traverses a measurement chambers for noble gases which has a scintillator. (Author) [es

  18. Continuous-Tone Electrostatic Electrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-06-15

    Chief j Engineering « Technical Div., SIGTM-S... Office >o:t the; Chief S/ignal Officer, Washington 2ß, D, C. ^.Technical Reports Libr ; Fort...the metal backing plate?. With this arrangement* a continuous electrical current, was Observed to flow through the selenium film as. long as. it...electrode would also accept a charge under the corona -discharge, wires. This charge could be • dissipated by ah exposure to light in a. manner similar to

  19. Topological Photonics for Continuous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mario

    Photonic crystals have revolutionized light-based technologies during the last three decades. Notably, it was recently discovered that the light propagation in photonic crystals may depend on some topological characteristics determined by the manner how the light states are mutually entangled. The usual topological classification of photonic crystals explores the fact that these structures are periodic. The periodicity is essential to ensure that the underlying wave vector space is a closed surface with no boundary. In this talk, we prove that it is possible calculate Chern invariants for a wide class of continuous bianisotropic electromagnetic media with no intrinsic periodicity. The nontrivial topology of the relevant continuous materials is linked with the emergence of edge states. Moreover, we will demonstrate that continuous photonic media with the time-reversal symmetry can be topologically characterized by a Z2 integer. This novel classification extends for the first time the theory of electronic topological insulators to a wide range of photonic platforms, and is expected to have an impact in the design of novel photonic systems that enable a topologically protected transport of optical energy. This work is supported in part by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia Grant Number PTDC/EEI-TEL/4543/2014.

  20. Brauer type embedding problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ledet, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with Galois theoretical embedding problems of so-called Brauer type with a focus on 2-groups and on finding explicit criteria for solvability and explicit constructions of the solutions. The advantage of considering Brauer type embedding problems is their comparatively simple condition for solvability in the form of an obstruction in the Brauer group of the ground field. This book presupposes knowledge of classical Galois theory and the attendant algebra. Before considering questions of reducing the embedding problems and reformulating the solvability criteria, the

  1. The Linear Ordering Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Marti, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of solving the hard optimization problems that abound in the real world, existing methods often encounter great difficulties. Important applications in business, engineering or economics cannot be tackled by the techniques that have formed the predominant focus of academic research throughout the past three decades. Exact and heuristic approaches are dramatically changing our ability to solve problems of practical significance and are extending the frontier of problems that can be handled effectively. This monograph details state-of-the-art optimization methods, both e

  2. Astronauts' menu problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesso, W. G.; Kenyon, E.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the problems involved in choosing appropriate menus for astronauts carrying out SKYLAB missions lasting up to eight weeks. The problem of planning balanced menus on the basis of prepackaged food items within limitations on the intake of calories, protein, and certain elements is noted, as well as a number of other restrictions of both physical and arbitrary nature. The tailoring of a set of menus for each astronaut on the basis of subjective rankings of each food by the astronaut in terms of a 'measure of pleasure' is described, and a computer solution to this problem by means of a mixed integer programming code is presented.

  3. Multienergetic continuous time random walk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, M.O.; Wio, H.S.

    1984-02-01

    We have extended the CTRW theory of Montroll and Weiss including the effect of extra variables, like the energy. This MCTRW scheme can be written in a simple matrix notation, that simplifies its solution. As an example of their usefulness we have studied a two-energy-groups neutron diffusion problem. This has shown the peculiarities of the transient behaviour for the variance of the probability distribution, due to the coupling between the groups.

  4. Solving computationally expensive engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    Leifsson, Leifur; Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Computational complexity is a serious bottleneck for the design process in virtually any engineering area. While migration from prototyping and experimental-based design validation to verification using computer simulation models is inevitable and has a number of advantages, high computational costs of accurate, high-fidelity simulations can be a major issue that slows down the development of computer-aided design methodologies, particularly those exploiting automated design improvement procedures, e.g., numerical optimization. The continuous increase of available computational resources does not always translate into shortening of the design cycle because of the growing demand for higher accuracy and necessity to simulate larger and more complex systems. Accurate simulation of a single design of a given system may be as long as several hours, days or even weeks, which often makes design automation using conventional methods impractical or even prohibitive. Additional problems include numerical noise often pr...

  5. Problems in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseau, Madeleine; Ter Haar, D

    1973-01-01

    This collection of problems and accompanying solutions provide the reader with a full introduction to physical optics. The subject coverage is fairly traditional, with chapters on interference and diffraction, and there is a general emphasis on spectroscopy.

  6. The Problem of Heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Argues that most of the underlying assumptions of presently recommended solutions to the problem of heroin addiction are unreasonable, unwarranted, or at least open to more than one interpretation. (DM)

  7. Problems of research politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luest, R.

    1977-01-01

    The development in the FRG is portrayed. Illustrated by a particular example, the problems of basic research and of the scientists are presented looking back, looking at the present, and into the future. (WB) [de

  8. Gait or Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gait or Walking Problems the basic facts multiple sclerosis Many people with MS will experience difficulty with walking, which is also called ambulation. The term “gait” refers more specifically to the manner or pattern ...

  9. Mouth Problems and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teeth (periodontitis), canker sores, oral warts, fever blisters, oral candidiasis (thrush), hairy leukoplakia (which causes a rough, white patch on the tongue), and dental caries. Read More Publications Cover image Mouth Problems + HIV Publication files Download Language English PDF — ...

  10. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  11. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...

  12. Sleep Problems and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sleep problems and their associations with quality of life (QOL, school attendance, and family impacts in children with ADHD were determined in a study at Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  13. Women and sexual problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses can cause problems with sex. Illnesses like cancer, bladder or bowel diseases, arthritis, and headaches may cause ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  14. Pelvic Support Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems may find that increasing the amount of fiber in their diets prevents constipation and straining during bowel movements. Sometimes a medication that softens stools is prescribed. If a woman is overweight or obese, weight loss can help improve her ...

  15. Challenging problems in geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S

    1996-01-01

    Collection of nearly 200 unusual problems dealing with congruence and parallelism, the Pythagorean theorem, circles, area relationships, Ptolemy and the cyclic quadrilateral, collinearity and concurrency and more. Arranged in order of difficulty. Detailed solutions.

  16. Open problems in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Jr, John Forbes

    2016-01-01

    The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer sc...

  17. Teaching Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren

    1992-01-01

    Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)

  18. Values of problem choice and communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Willum Johansen, Mikkel

    choosing what problems to work on. These criteria include continuity to previous work, metacognitive considerations and a number of criteria relating to the values in both the larger mathematical community and smaller sub communities. The data shows that considerations about what other mathematicians......In this presentation we will report from a qualitative investigation of the practice of mathematicians, with focus on how mathematical values come into play in relation to problem choice and communication of thoughts and results. We have shown that mathematicians balance three criteria’s when...... in general and a few locally leading figures in particular, might think about a certain problem are very present when mathematicians consider whether or not to pursue the problem. Understanding such criterion reveal insights into what is valued in the mathematical community as such, and how this differs...

  19. Analytical Assessment for Transient Stability Under Stochastic Continuous Disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Ping [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Li, Hongyu [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Gan, Chun [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Liu, Yong [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Yu, Yiping [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Liu, Yilu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Here, with the growing integration of renewable power generation, plug-in electric vehicles, and other sources of uncertainty, increasing stochastic continuous disturbances are brought to power systems. The impact of stochastic continuous disturbances on power system transient stability attracts significant attention. To address this problem, this paper proposes an analytical assessment method for transient stability of multi-machine power systems under stochastic continuous disturbances. In the proposed method, a probability measure of transient stability is presented and analytically solved by stochastic averaging. Compared with the conventional method (Monte Carlo simulation), the proposed method is many orders of magnitude faster, which makes it very attractive in practice when many plans for transient stability must be compared or when transient stability must be analyzed quickly. Also, it is found that the evolution of system energy over time is almost a simple diffusion process by the proposed method, which explains the impact mechanism of stochastic continuous disturbances on transient stability in theory.

  20. Australian coal industry continues expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent saleable Australian black coal production figures are given along with trends in development of new operations and new technology aiming to provide a sound basis for the continuing expansion of the Australian coal industry. Export prices from 1982 to 1991 to Japan (Australia's major export market) are provided, together with Australian dollar return to exporters at the exchange rate prevailing at the start of each contract year. An increased demand for steaming coal is expected, thus maintaining Australia's position as the world's larger exporter. 4 tabs