Energy-balance check for continuous energy cross section library CENACE-1.0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Qiujuan; Wu Haicheng; Ge Zhigang
2014-01-01
In order to verify the reliability of the multiple-temperature continuous energy cross section library CENACE-1.0 when used for calculating nuclear heating in reactor core, NJOY99/HEATR module and auxiliary code chkACEheat developed locally were used to perform energy-balance check for all materials in the library. The test results show that the pass rate of KERMA factors and heat production cross sections of the CENACE-1.0 library is better than that of the other ACE libraries used as comparison. However, unreasonable KERMA factors still exist in various evaluation libraries, and methods to directly revise the calculation results of KERMA factors need to be developed. (authors)
POLIDENT: A Module for Generating Continuous-Energy Cross Sections from ENDF Resonance Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunn, M.E.; Greene, N.M.
2000-12-01
POLIDENT (Point Libraries of Data from ENDF/B Tapes) is an AMPX module that accesses the resonance parameters from File 2 of an ENDF/B library and constructs the continuous-energy cross sections in the resonance energy region. The cross sections in the resonance range are subsequently combined with the File 3 background data to construct the cross-section representation over the complete energy range. POLIDENT has the capability to process all resonance reactions that are identified in File 2 of the ENDF/B library. In addition, the code has the capability to process the single- and multi-level Breit-Wigner, Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler resonance formalisms that are identified in File 2. POLIDENT uses a robust energy-mesh-generation scheme that determines the minimum, maximum and points of inflection in the cross-section function in the resolved-resonance region. Furthermore, POLIDENT processes all continuous-energy cross-section reactions that are identified in File 3 of the ENDF/B library and outputs all reactions in an ENDF/B TAB1 format that can be accessed by other AMPX modules.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kunio.
1996-05-01
A code system has been developed to produce neutron cross section libraries for the MVP continuous energy Monte Carlo code from an evaluated nuclear data library in the ENDF format. The code system consists of 9 computer codes, and can process nuclear data in the latest ENDF-6 format. By using the present system, MVP neutron cross section libraries for important nuclides in reactor core analyses, shielding and fusion neutronics calculations have been prepared from JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, JENDL-FUSION file and ENDF/B-VI data bases. This report describes the format of MVP neutron cross section library, the details of each code in the code system and how to use them. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Kunio
1996-05-01
A code system has been developed to produce neutron cross section libraries for the MVP continuous energy Monte Carlo code from an evaluated nuclear data library in the ENDF format. The code system consists of 9 computer codes, and can process nuclear data in the latest ENDF-6 format. By using the present system, MVP neutron cross section libraries for important nuclides in reactor core analyses, shielding and fusion neutronics calculations have been prepared from JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, JENDL-FUSION file and ENDF/B-VI data bases. This report describes the format of MVP neutron cross section library, the details of each code in the code system and how to use them. (author).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiang, Min-Han; Wang, Jui-Yu [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Rong-Jiun, E-mail: rjsheu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering System and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Wan Hsueh [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering System and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)
2014-05-01
The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Japan is a helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactor designed and operated for the future development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two detailed full-core models of HTTR have been established by using SCALE6 and MCNP5/X, respectively, to study its neutronic properties. Several benchmark problems were repeated first to validate the calculation models. Careful code-to-code comparisons were made to ensure that two calculation models are both correct and equivalent. Compared with experimental data, the two models show a consistent bias of approximately 20–30 mk overestimation in effective multiplication factor for a wide range of core states. Most of the bias could be related to the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section library or incomplete modeling of impurities in graphite. After that, a series of systematic analyses was performed to investigate the effects of cross sections on the HTTR criticality and burnup calculations, with special interest in the comparison between continuous-energy and multigroup results. Multigroup calculations in this study were carried out in 238-group structure and adopted the SCALE double-heterogeneity treatment for resonance self-shielding. The results show that multigroup calculations tend to underestimate the system eigenvalue by a constant amount of ∼5 mk compared to their continuous-energy counterparts. Further sensitivity studies suggest the differences between multigroup and continuous-energy results appear to be temperature independent and also insensitive to burnup effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiang, Min-Han; Wang, Jui-Yu; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Liu, Yen-Wan Hsueh
2014-01-01
The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Japan is a helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactor designed and operated for the future development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two detailed full-core models of HTTR have been established by using SCALE6 and MCNP5/X, respectively, to study its neutronic properties. Several benchmark problems were repeated first to validate the calculation models. Careful code-to-code comparisons were made to ensure that two calculation models are both correct and equivalent. Compared with experimental data, the two models show a consistent bias of approximately 20–30 mk overestimation in effective multiplication factor for a wide range of core states. Most of the bias could be related to the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section library or incomplete modeling of impurities in graphite. After that, a series of systematic analyses was performed to investigate the effects of cross sections on the HTTR criticality and burnup calculations, with special interest in the comparison between continuous-energy and multigroup results. Multigroup calculations in this study were carried out in 238-group structure and adopted the SCALE double-heterogeneity treatment for resonance self-shielding. The results show that multigroup calculations tend to underestimate the system eigenvalue by a constant amount of ∼5 mk compared to their continuous-energy counterparts. Further sensitivity studies suggest the differences between multigroup and continuous-energy results appear to be temperature independent and also insensitive to burnup effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goluoglu, Sedat; Dunn, Michael E.; Greene, Norman Maurice; Petrie Jr, Lester M.; Hollenbach, Daniel F.
2007-01-01
KENO V.a and KENO-VI are Monte Carlo codes that solve the multigroup form of the Boltzmann transport equation. These codes are part of the SCALE system of codes and are used for performing criticality calculations of systems with fissionable material. In general, continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods are preferred because such an approach avoids many of the assumptions inherent in the multigroup treatment. On the other hand, continuous-energy treatment is much more demanding in terms of computer storage space for data, memory requirements, and calculation speed. Continuous-energy versions of KENO V.a and KENO-VI have been created and are being extensively tested. Generation of ENDF/B-VI continuous-energy cross sections is explained, and the results of the validation and verification of the codes and the data are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
John, T.M.; de Leege, P.F.A.; Hoogenboom, J.E.
1996-01-01
The continuous energy representation of cross sections for neutronics calculations avoids the requirement of resonance self shielding and the assumptions about the neutron spectrum used for weighing cross sections, required in the preparation of a multigroup cross sections library. The cross sections library prepared for a particular temperature of the nuclide is valid irrespective of the environment of the nuclide and can be used in calculations for many types of reactors. It is comparatively easier to incorporate them in Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport. The Monte Carlo code MCNP is capable of using a continuous energy representation of nuclear cross sections in simulation of neutron or photon transport. The ACER module of NJOY is able to generate the continuous energy cross section of any nuclide in a format that can be used by MCNP, from any evaluated data file in ENDF/B format. Continuous energy cross sections prepared from the evaluated data file JEF2.2 was used to analyse some standard critical benchmarks and also the critical configuration of the HOR, a 2 MW research reactor at Delft, the Netherlands. Results show that continuous energy cross sections prepared from JEF2.2 evaluated file predicts the multiplication factor of critical systems very close to unity. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig
Gonzales, Matthew Alejandro
The calculation of the thermal neutron Doppler temperature reactivity feedback co-efficient, a key parameter in the design and safe operation of advanced reactors, using first order perturbation theory in continuous energy Monte Carlo codes is challenging as the continuous energy adjoint flux is not readily available. Traditional approaches of obtaining the adjoint flux attempt to invert the random walk process as well as require data corresponding to all temperatures and their respective temperature derivatives within the system in order to accurately calculate the Doppler temperature feedback. A new method has been developed using adjoint-weighted tallies and On-The-Fly (OTF) generated continuous energy cross sections within the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP6) transport code. The adjoint-weighted tallies are generated during the continuous energy k-eigenvalue Monte Carlo calculation. The weighting is based upon the iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux, which is the steady state population in a critical nuclear reactor caused by a neutron introduced at that point in phase space. The adjoint-weighted tallies are produced in a forward calculation and do not require an inversion of the random walk. The OTF cross section database uses a high order functional expansion between points on a user-defined energy-temperature mesh in which the coefficients with respect to a polynomial fitting in temperature are stored. The coefficients of the fits are generated before run- time and called upon during the simulation to produce cross sections at any given energy and temperature. The polynomial form of the OTF cross sections allows the possibility of obtaining temperature derivatives of the cross sections on-the-fly. The use of Monte Carlo sampling of adjoint-weighted tallies and the capability of computing derivatives of continuous energy cross sections with respect to temperature are used to calculate the Doppler temperature coefficient in a research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Chong; Wang Minghuang; Zou Jun; Xu Dezheng; Zeng Qin
2012-01-01
The ADS (accelerator driven sub-critical system) has great energy spans, complex energy spectrum structures and strong physical effects. Hence, the existing nuclear data libraries can't fully meet the needs of nuclear analysis in ADS. In order to do nuclear analysis for ADS system, a point-wise data library HENDL-ADS/MC (hybrid evaluated nuclear data library) was produced by FDS team. Meanwhile, to test the availability and reliability of the HENDL-ADS/MC data library, a series of shielding and critical safety benchmarks were performed. To validate and qualify the reliability of the high-energy cross section for HENDL-ADS/MC library further, a series of high neutronics integral experiments have been performed. The testing results confirm the accuracy and reliability of HENDL-ADS/MC. (authors)
Continuous energy cross section library for MCNP/MCNPX based on JENDL high energy file 2007. FXJH7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasa, Toshinobu; Sugawara, Takanori; Fukahori, Tokio; Kosako, Kazuaki
2008-11-01
The latest JENDL High Energy File (JENDL/HE) was released in 2007 to respond the requirements of reaction data in high energy range up to several GeV to design accelerator facilities such as accelerator-driven systems and research complex like J-PARC. To apply the JENDL/HE-2007 file to the design study, the cross section library of FXJH7 series was constructed from the JENDL/HE file for the calculation using MCNP and MCNPX codes which are widely used in the field of nuclear reactors, fusion reactors, accelerator facilities, medical applications, and so on. In this report, the outline of the JENDL/HE-2007 file, modification of nuclear data processing code NJOY99, construction of FXJH7 library and test calculations for shielding and eigenvalue analyses are summarized. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Zhifeng; Yu Tao; Xie Jinsen; Qin Mian
2012-01-01
Based on the recently released ENDF/B-VII. 1 library, high temperature neutron cross-section files are generated through SIGACE code using low temperature ACE format files. To verify the processed ACE file of SIGACE, benchmark calculations are performed in this paper. The calculated results of selected ICT, standard CANDU assembly, LWR Doppler coefficient and SEFOR benchmarks are well conformed with reference value, which indicates that high temperature ACE files processed by SIGACE can be used in related neutronics calculations. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haeck, Wim [Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCartney, Austin Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-05-25
The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of all Quality Assurance tests that have to be performed on a nuclear data set to be transformed into an ACE formatted nuclear data file. The ACE file is capable of containing different types of data such as continuous energy neutron data, thermal scattering data, etc. Within this report, we will limit ourselves to continuous energy neutron data.
Empirical continuation of the differential cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borbely, I.
1978-12-01
The theoretical basis as well as the practical methods of empirical continuation of the differential cross section into the nonphysical region of the cos theta variable are discussed. The equivalence of the different methods is proved. A physical applicability condition is given and the published applications are reviewed. In many cases the correctly applied procedure turns out to provide nonsignificant or even incorrect structure information which points to the necessity for careful and statistically complete analysis of the experimental data with a physical understanding of the analysed process. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.
1996-01-01
Selected neutron reaction nuclear data evaluations for elements of interest to the IAEA's program on Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) have been processed into ACE format using the NJOY system by R.E. MacFarlane. This document summarizes the resulting continuous energy cross-section data library FENDL/MC version 1.1. The data are available cost free, upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, online or on magnetic tape. (author). 1 tab
Low Energy Neutrino Cross Sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeller, G.P.
2004-01-01
Present atmospheric and accelerator based neutrino oscillation experiments operate at low neutrino energies (Ev ∼ 1 GeV) to access the relevant regions of oscillation parameter space. As such, they require precise knowledge of the cross sections for neutrino-nucleon interactions in the sub-to-few GeV range. At these energies, neutrinos predominantly interact via quasi-elastic (QE) or single pion production processes, which historically have not been as well studied as the deep inelastic scattering reactions that dominate at higher energies.Data on low energy neutrino cross sections come mainly from bubble chamber, spark chamber, and emulsion experiments that collected their data decades ago. Despite relatively poor statistics and large neutrino flux uncertainties, these measurements provide an important and necessary constraint on Monte Carlo models in present use. The following sections discuss the current status of QE, resonant single pion, coherent pion, and single kaon production cross section measurements at low energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okumura, Keisuke; Nagaya, Yasunobu
2011-09-01
In May 2010, JENDL-4.0 was released from Japan Atomic Energy Agency as the updated Japanese Nuclear Data Library. It was processed by the nuclear data processing system LICEM and an arbitrary-temperature neutron cross section library MVPlib - nJ40 was produced for the neutron and photon transport calculation code MVP based on the continuous-energy Monte Carlo method. The library contains neutron cross sections for 406 nuclides on the free gas model, thermal scattering cross sections, and cross sections of pseudo fission products for burn-up calculations with MVP. Criticality benchmark calculations were carried out with MVP and MVPlib - nJ40 for about 1,000 cases of critical experiments stored in the hand book of International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), which covers a wide variety of fuel materials, fuel forms, and neutron spectra. We report all comparison results (C/E values) of effective neutron multiplication factors between calculations and experiments to give a validation data for the prediction accuracy of JENDL-4.0 for criticalities. (author)
VIM: a continuous energy Monte Carlo code at ANL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blomquist, R.N.; Lell, R.M.; Gelbard, E.M.
1980-01-01
The continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code VIM and its auxiliaries are briefly described. The ENDF/B cross section data processing procedure is summarized and its benchmarking against MC 2 -2 is reviewed. Several representative applications at ANL are described, including fast critical assembly benchmark calculations and STF and TREAT Upgrade benchmark calculations. 2 figures
Continuous Energy Photon Transport Implementation in MCATK
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, Terry R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trahan, Travis John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sweezy, Jeremy Ed [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nolen, Steven Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry Grady [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pritchett-Sheats, Lori A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Werner, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-10-31
The Monte Carlo Application ToolKit (MCATK) code development team has implemented Monte Carlo photon transport into the MCATK software suite. The current particle transport capabilities in MCATK, which process the tracking and collision physics, have been extended to enable tracking of photons using the same continuous energy approximation. We describe the four photoatomic processes implemented, which are coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, pair-production, and photoelectric absorption. The accompanying background, implementation, and verification of these processes will be presented.
Perturbation analysis for Monte Carlo continuous cross section models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennedy, Chris B.; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.
2011-01-01
Sensitivity analysis, including both its forward and adjoint applications, collectively referred to hereinafter as Perturbation Analysis (PA), is an essential tool to complete Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) and Data Assimilation (DA). PA-assisted UQ and DA have traditionally been carried out for reactor analysis problems using deterministic as opposed to stochastic models for radiation transport. This is because PA requires many model executions to quantify how variations in input data, primarily cross sections, affect variations in model's responses, e.g. detectors readings, flux distribution, multiplication factor, etc. Although stochastic models are often sought for their higher accuracy, their repeated execution is at best computationally expensive and in reality intractable for typical reactor analysis problems involving many input data and output responses. Deterministic methods however achieve computational efficiency needed to carry out the PA analysis by reducing problem dimensionality via various spatial and energy homogenization assumptions. This however introduces modeling error components into the PA results which propagate to the following UQ and DA analyses. The introduced errors are problem specific and therefore are expected to limit the applicability of UQ and DA analyses to reactor systems that satisfy the introduced assumptions. This manuscript introduces a new method to complete PA employing a continuous cross section stochastic model and performed in a computationally efficient manner. If successful, the modeling error components introduced by deterministic methods could be eliminated, thereby allowing for wider applicability of DA and UQ results. Two MCNP models demonstrate the application of the new method - a Critical Pu Sphere (Jezebel), a Pu Fast Metal Array (Russian BR-1). The PA is completed for reaction rate densities, reaction rate ratios, and the multiplication factor. (author)
Hardon cross sections at ultra high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yodh, G.B.
1987-01-01
A review of results on total hadronic cross sections at ultra high energies obtained from a study of longitudinal development of cosmic ray air showers is given. The experimental observations show that proton-air inelastic cross section increases from 275 mb to over 500 mb as the collision energy in the center of mass increases from 20 GeV to 20 TeV. The proton-air inelastic cross section, obtained from cosmic ray data at √s = 30 TeV, is compared with calculations using various different models for the energy variation of the parameters of the elementary proton-proton interaction. Three conclusions are derived
Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laptev, Alexander
2005-01-01
The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)
Continuing growth for world energy consumption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon
2000-01-01
The World Energy Outlook of the global energy markets from 1971 to 2020, recently released by the International Energy Agency, is summarised. Covering demand, supply and energy prices, it provides an in-depth review of oil, gas, coal, biomass and power generation. With projections for all energy sectors, it offers a valuable insight into the development of the international energy business. The projections cover all world regions, including industrial and developing countries, and provide a comprehensive view of the main developments and issues affecting demand and supply on a global basis. The Outlook's projections have been derived from a 'reference scenario' that assumes global economic growth of more than 3% per annum, but a slowdown in population growth. Fossil-fuel prices are generally assumed to remain flat throughout the first decade of the projection period (to 2020), with oil and gas prices increasing after 2010 in response to the supply-side pressures. The scenario takes account of a range of major new policies and measures adopted in OECD countries, many of which relate to commitments under the Kyoto Protocol enacted or announced up to mid-2000. Despite the policies and measures in the OECD countries, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions will increase, averaging 2.1% per annum to 2020. This amounts to 60% increase between 1997 and 2020. Fast-growing developing countries heavily contributing to increase in carbon dioxide, as they do in global energy demand
Continuous-Integration Laser Energy Lidar Monitor
Karsh, Jeremy
2011-01-01
This circuit design implements an integrator intended to allow digitization of the energy output of a pulsed laser, or the energy of a received pulse of laser light. It integrates the output of a detector upon which the laser light is incident. The integration is performed constantly, either by means of an active integrator, or by passive components.
Instrumentation for continuous monitoring of low energy cosmic ray intensity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, S; Prasad, R; Yadav, R S [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Naqvi, T H [Z.H. Engineering Coll., Aligarh (India); Ahmed, Rais [National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi (India)
1975-12-01
A high counting rate neutron monitor developed at Aligarh for continuous monitoring of low energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays is described. Transistorized electronic circuits used are described.
Development of a continuous energy version of KENO V.a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunn, M.E.; Bentley, C.L.; Goluoglu, S.; Paschal, L.S.; Dodds, H.L.
1997-01-01
KENO V.a is a multigroup Monte Carlo code that solves the Boltzmann transport equation and is used extensively in the nuclear criticality safety community to calculate the effective multiplication factor k eff of systems containing fissile material. Because of the smaller amount of disk storage and CPU time required in calculations, multigroup approaches have been preferred over continuous energy (point) approaches in the past to solve the transport equation. With the advent of high-performance computers, storage and CPU limitations are less restrictive, thereby making continuous energy methods viable for transport calculations. Moreover, continuous energy methods avoid many of the assumptions and approximations inherent in multigroup methods. Because a continuous energy version of KENO V.a does not exist, the objective of the work is to develop a new version of KENO V.a that utilizes continuous energy cross sections. Currently, a point cross-section library, which is based on a raw continuous energy cross-section library such as ENDF/B-V is not available for implementation in KENO V.a; however, point cross-section libraries are available for MCNP, another widely used Monte Carlo transport code. Since MCNP cross sections are based on ENDF data and are readily available, a new version of KENO V.a named PKENO V.a has been developed that performs the random walk using MCNP cross sections. To utilize point cross sections, extensive modifications have been made to KENO V.a. At this point in the research, testing of the code is underway. In particular, PKENO V.a, KENO V.a, and MCNP have been used to model nine critical experiments and one subcritical problem. The results obtained with PKENO V.a are in excellent agreement with MCNP, KENO V.a, and experiments
Does cross-generational epigenetic inheritance contribute to cultural continuity?
Pembrey, Marcus E
2018-04-01
Human studies of cross-generational epigenetic inheritance have to consider confounding by social patterning down the generations, often referred to as 'cultural inheritance'. This raises the question to what extent is 'cultural inheritance' itself epigenetically mediated rather than just learnt. Human studies of non-genetic inheritance have demonstrated that, beyond foetal life, experiences occurring in mid-childhood before puberty are the most likely to be associated with cross-generational responses in the next generation(s). It is proposed that cultural continuity is played out along the axis, or 'payoff', between responsiveness and stability. During the formative years of childhood a stable family and/or home permits small children to explore and thereby learn. To counter disruptions to this family home ideal, cultural institutions such as local schools, religious centres and market places emerged to provide ongoing stability, holding the received wisdom of the past in an accessible state. This cultural support allows the growing child to freely indulge their responsiveness. Some of these prepubertal experiences induce epigenetic responses that also transfer molecular signals to the gametes through which they contribute to the conception of future offspring. In parallel co-evolution with growing cultural support for increasing responsiveness, 'runaway' responsiveness is countered by the positive selection of genetic variants that dampen responsiveness. Testing these ideas within longitudinal multigenerational cohorts will need information on ancestors/parents' own communities and experiences (Exposome scans) linked to ongoing Phenome scans on grandchildren; coupled with epigenome analysis, metastable epialleles and DNA methylation age. Interactions with genetic variants affecting responsiveness should help inform the broad hypothesis.
Continuous-energy version of KENO V.a for criticality safety applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunn, Michael E.; Greene, N. Maurice; Petrie, Lester M.
2003-01-01
KENO V.a is a multigroup Monte Carlo code that solves the Boltzmann transport equation and is used extensively in the criticality safety community to calculate the effective multiplication factor of systems with fissionable material. In this work, a continuous-energy or pointwise version of KENO V.a has been developed by first designing a new continuous-energy cross-section format and then by developing the appropriate Monte Carlo transport procedures to sample the new cross-section format. In order to generate pointwise cross sections for a test library, a series of cross-section processing modules were developed and used to process 50 ENDF/B-6 Release 7 nuclides for the test library. Once the cross-section processing procedures were in place, a continuous-energy version of KENO V.a was developed and tested by calculating 21 critical benchmark experiments. The point KENO-calculated results for the 21 benchmarks are in agreement with calculated results obtained with the multigroup version of KENO V.a using the 238-group ENDF/B-5 and 199-group ENDF/B-6 Release 3 libraries. Based on the calculated results with the prototypic cross-section library, a continuous-energy version of the KENO V.a code has been successfully developed and demonstrated for modeling systems with fissionable material. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Möller, S., E-mail: s.moeller@fz-juelich.de
2017-03-01
Ion beam analysis is a set of precise, calibration free and non-destructive methods for determining surface-near concentrations of potentially all elements and isotopes in a single measurement. For determination of concentrations the reaction cross-section of the projectile with the targets has to be known, in general at the primary beam energy and all energies below. To reduce the experimental effort of cross-section measurements a new method is presented here. The method is based on the projectile energy reduction when passing matter of thick targets. The continuous slowing down approximation is used to determine cross-sections from a thick target at projectile energies below the primary energy by backward calculation of the measured product spectra. Results for {sup 12}C({sup 3}He,p){sup 14}N below 4.5 MeV are in rough agreement with literature data and reproduce the measured spectra. New data for reactions of {sup 3}He with {sup 13}C are acquired using the new technique. The applied approximations and further applications are discussed.
Continuous energy Monte Carlo method based lattice homogeinzation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Mancang; Yao Dong; Wang Kan
2014-01-01
Based on the Monte Carlo code MCNP, the continuous energy Monte Carlo multi-group constants generation code MCMC has been developed. The track length scheme has been used as the foundation of cross section generation. The scattering matrix and Legendre components require special techniques, and the scattering event method has been proposed to solve this problem. Three methods have been developed to calculate the diffusion coefficients for diffusion reactor core codes and the Legendre method has been applied in MCMC. To the satisfaction of the equivalence theory, the general equivalence theory (GET) and the superhomogenization method (SPH) have been applied to the Monte Carlo method based group constants. The super equivalence method (SPE) has been proposed to improve the equivalence. GET, SPH and SPE have been implemented into MCMC. The numerical results showed that generating the homogenization multi-group constants via Monte Carlo method overcomes the difficulties in geometry and treats energy in continuum, thus provides more accuracy parameters. Besides, the same code and data library can be used for a wide range of applications due to the versatility. The MCMC scheme can be seen as a potential alternative to the widely used deterministic lattice codes. (authors)
Distributed continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niesse, Astrid
2015-01-01
This thesis presents DynaSCOPE as distributed control method for continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants (DVPP). DVPPs aggregate the flexibility of distributed energy units to address current energy markets. As an extension of the Virtual Power Plant concept they show high dynamics in aggregation and operation of energy units. Whereas operation schedules are set up for all energy units in a day-ahead planning procedure, incidents may render these schedules infeasible during execution, like deviation from prognoses or outages. Thus, a continuous scheduling process is needed to ensure product fulfillment. With DynaSCOPE, software agents representing single energy units solve this problem in a completely distributed heuristic approach. Using a stepped concept, several damping mechanisms are applied to allow minimum disturbance while continuously trying to fulfill the product as contracted at the market.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.
2012-01-01
More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO 2 fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for 240 Pu and 242 Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)
Instrumentation for continuous monitoring of low energy cosmic ray intensity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, S.; Prasad, R.; Yadav, R.S.; Ahmed, Rais
1975-01-01
A high counting rate neutron monitor developed at Aligarh for continuous monitoring of low energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays is described. Transistorized electronic circuits used are described. (author)
Continuous Time Modeling of the Cross-Lagged Panel Design
Oud, J.H.L.
2002-01-01
Since Newton (1642-1727) continuous time modeling by means of differential equations is the standard approach of dynamic phenomena in natural science. It is argued that most processes in behavioral science also unfold in continuous time and should be analyzed accordingly. After dealing with the
Energy efficient cross layer design for spectrum sharing systems
Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem
2016-01-01
We propose a cross layer design that optimizes the energy efficiency of spectrum sharing systems. The energy per good bit (EPG) is considered as an energy efficiency metric. We optimize the secondary user's transmission power and media access frame
EU initiative on energy infrastructures and continuity of supply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, W.
2004-01-01
On December 10, 2003, the European Commission presented a comprehensive legislative package about energy infrastructure and continuity of supply. The proposals result in an agglomeration and extension of Community law provisions in the energy sector. A key role is played by the proposed directive ensuring the continuity of electricity supply and investments into infrastructure. This implies the need for the member countries henceforth to define the roles and responsibilities of grid operators and suppliers. The Energy Services Directive is to create a harmonized framework in the field of energy services and energy efficiency by providing common definitions, instruments, and methods. The legislative package has been forwarded to the European Parliament and to the Council. A first reading in the European Parliament is to be completed still in this legislative term by early May 2004. The Energy Ministers of the EU member countries were presented the package on continuity of supply on December 15, 2003. European legislation in the energy sector is keeping member countries busy, leaving them fewer and fewer possibilities for shaping policies of their own. There is danger of overregulation. (orig.)
Continuing bonds after bereavement:A cross-cultural perspective
Valentine, Christine A
2009-01-01
The ways in which eastern and western cultures grieve for their dead are often contrasted. Eastern cultures are seen to place greater value on traditional ritual and ceremony that, it is argued, serve to create a lasting, and comforting, bond with the deceased. By contrast, western societies are seen to be much more materialist and individualistic. This article takes a cross-cultural look at responses to death and loss in the UK and Japan, both post-industrial societies but with very differen...
ICT energy efficiency in higher education. Continuous measurement and monitoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ter Hofte, H. [Novay, Enschede (Netherlands)
2011-11-15
Power consumption of information and communications technology (ICT) is rising rapidly worldwide. Reducing (the growth in) energy demand helps to achieve sustainability goals in the area of energy resource depletion, energy security, economy, and ecology. Various governments and industry consortia have set out policies and agreements to reduce the (growth in) demand for energy. In the MJA3 agreements in the Netherlands, various organizations, including all 14 universities and 39 universities of applied sciences pledged to achieve 30% increase in energy efficiency in 2020 compared to 2005. In this report, we argue that using the number of kilowatt-hours of final electricity used for ICT per enrolled student per day (kWh/st/d), should be used as the primary metric for ICT energy efficiency in higher education. For other uses of electricity than ICT in higher education, we express electricity use in kilowatthours per person per day (kWh/p/d). Applying continuous monitoring and management of ICT energy is one approach one could take to increase ICT energy efficiency in education. In households, providing direct (i.e. real-time) feedback about energy use typically results in 5-15% energy savings, whereas indirect feedback (provided some time after consumption occurs), results in less energy savings, typically 0-10%. Continuous measurement of ICT electricity use can be done in a variety of ways. In this report, we distinguish and describe four major measurement approaches: (1) In-line meters, which require breaking the electrical circuit to install the meter; (2) clamp-on-meters, which can be wrapped around a wire; (3) add-ons to existing energy meters, which use analog or digital ports of existing energy meters; (4) software-only measurement, which uses existing network interfaces, protocols and APIs. A measurement approach can be used at one or more aggregation levels: at building level (to measure all electrical energy used in a building, e.g. a datacenter); at
ENERGY RECOVERY FOR CONTINUOUS DYEING PROCESS IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. N. Romaniuk
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper ascertains and presents alteration in the energy consumption as a consequence of utilizing the low-temperature waste streams commonly used in the lines of continuous dyeing at the finishing shops of textile enterprises of Belarus. The utilization realizes through the engagement of lithium-bromide absorption heat pumps with various energy characteristics such as the heating coefficient (relative conversion ratio COPhp = 1,15; 1,7; 2,2 and the heating capacity. The latter associates with the converted heat-flow energy utilization variant with the heat-transfer medium heating system scheme (one-, twoand multistage heating. The article considers transition to previously not applied service-water preheating due to the technological acceptance of feeding higher temperature water into the dyeing machine and widening specification of the heattransfer media. The authors adduce variants of internal and external energy use and their evaluation based on the relative energy and exergy characteristics. With results of the thermodynamic analysis of the modernized production effectiveness the researchers prove that alongside with traditional and apparent interior utilization of the energy associated with the stream heat recuperation, it is advisable to widen the range of applied heat-transfer media. The transition to the service water twoand multi-stage preheating is feasible. The study shows that the existing energy supply efficiency extremely low index-numbers improve by one or two degrees. Since they are conditioned, inter alia, by the machinery design, traditional approach to energy supply and heat-medium usage as well as the enterprise whole heating system answering requirements of the bygone era of cheap energy resources. The authors examine the continuous dyeing line modernization options intending considerable investments. Preliminary economic assessment of such inevitable modernization options for the enterprise entire heat-and-power system
Electrons with continuous energy distribution from energetic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berenyi, D.
1984-01-01
The properties and origin of continuous electron spectrum emitted in high energy heavy ion collisions are reviewed. The basic processes causing the characteristic regions of the continuous spectrum are described. The contribution of electrons ejected from the target and from the projectile are investigated in detail in the cases of light and heavy projectiles. The recently recognized mechanisms, electron-capture-to-continuum (ECC) and electron-loss-to-continuum (ELC), leading to a cusp in forward direction, and their theoretical interpretations are discussed. The importance of data from ion-atom collisions in the field of atomic physics and in applications are briefly summarized. (D.Gy)
Hoelder continuity of energy minimizer maps between Riemannian polyhedra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouziane, Taoufik
2004-10-01
The goal of the present paper is to establish some kind of regularity of an energy minimizer map between Riemannian polyhedra. More precisely, we will show the Hoelder continuity of local energy minimizers between Riemannian polyhedra with the target spaces without focal points. With this new result, we also complete our existence theorem obtained elsewhere, and consequently we generalize completely, to the case of target polyhedra without focal points (which is a weaker geometric condition than the nonpositivity of the curvature), the Eells-Fuglede's existence and regularity theorem which is the new version of the famous Eells-Sampson's theorem. (author)
MCB. A continuous energy Monte Carlo burnup simulation code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cetnar, J.; Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.
1999-01-01
A code for integrated simulation of neutrinos and burnup based upon continuous energy Monte Carlo techniques and transmutation trajectory analysis has been developed. Being especially well suited for studies of nuclear waste transmutation systems, the code is an extension of the well validated MCNP transport program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Among the advantages of the code (named MCB) is a fully integrated data treatment combined with a time-stepping routine that automatically corrects for burnup dependent changes in reaction rates, neutron multiplication, material composition and self-shielding. Fission product yields are treated as continuous functions of incident neutron energy, using a non-equilibrium thermodynamical model of the fission process. In the present paper a brief description of the code and applied methods are given. (author)
Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.
1976-10-01
Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.
Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.
1976-10-01
Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended
Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik
2017-01-01
. The results show that while both measures increase the system utilisation of renewable energy and the system efficiency, the cross-sector interconnection gives the best system performance. To analyse the possible interaction between cross-sector and cross-border interconnectivity, two main aspects have......In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating...... renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection...
Palladium-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling in Continuous Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christophe Len
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Carbon–carbon cross-coupling reactions are among the most important processes in organic chemistry and Suzuki–Miyaura reactions are the most widely used protocols. For a decade, green chemistry and particularly catalysis and continuous flow, have shown immense potential in achieving the goals of “greener synthesis”. To date, it seems difficult to conceive the chemistry of the 21st century without the industrialization of continuous flow process in the area of pharmaceuticals, drugs, agrochemicals, polymers, etc. A large variety of palladium Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions have been developed using a continuous flow sequence for preparing the desired biaryl derivatives. Our objective is to focus this review on the continuous flow Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts.
Energy, innovation, and microprocessors: continuity in the research policy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hauff, V [Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie, Bonn-Bad Godesberg (Germany, F.R.)
1978-07-01
The present West German Minister for Research and Technology took up his official duties three months ago. So Umschau asked some questions concerning his future policies. First, the minister confirmed the continuity of the existing science policies. In the field of energy he claimed that efficient and frugal use of energy is the priority. The second priority concerns the utilization of domestic coal. No hindrances in the further development of fast breeder reactors and nuclear recycling are expected. The Minister layed stress on the encouragement of technological innovations, which are indispensable for economic growth, given the present worldwide structural change in the division of labor; the country must search for very new products. Microelectronics will play a major role in future developments. The Minister gave some examples of new fields that present chances for innovative endeavors. Another field of interest is the forecasting models.
Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik
2017-01-01
renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection...... systems that represent Northern and Southern Europe. Both systems go through three developmental steps that increase the cross-sector interconnectivity. At each developmental step an increasing level of transmission capacities is examined to identify the benefits of cross-border interconnectivity...
Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update
Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M
2002-01-01
Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.
Ideal gas scattering kernel for energy dependent cross-sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothenstein, W.; Dagan, R.
1998-01-01
A third, and final, paper on the calculation of the joint kernel for neutron scattering by an ideal gas in thermal agitation is presented, when the scattering cross-section is energy dependent. The kernel is a function of the neutron energy after scattering, and of the cosine of the scattering angle, as in the case of the ideal gas kernel for a constant bound atom scattering cross-section. The final expression is suitable for numerical calculations
The energy sector at a cross roads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2000-01-01
The power and gas markets in Europe are changing radically. Increasing competition and comprehensive structural changes affect the conditions for value creation in the energy sector and the development of the Norwegian energy companies, which are mainly publicly owned. At the same time the demand on the owners is increasing, above all when it comes to strategic vigour in connection with necessary structural changes to adapt the companies to the new market conditions. The development of powerful Norwegian energy companies requires that the owners consider changes in the corporate structures, that the companies are partially privatised and at the same time that the goals of the ownership are clarified and the owner competence strengthened
Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik
2017-01-01
In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection, and the second is cross-sector interconnection, i.e., the integration between different parts of an energy system, for instance heat and electricity. This paper seeks to compare the types of interconnectivity and discuss to which extent they are mutually beneficial. To do this, the study investigates two energy systems that represent Northern and Southern Europe. Both systems go through three developmental steps that increase the cross-sector interconnectivity. At each developmental step an increasing level of transmission capacities is examined to identify the benefits of cross-border interconnectivity. The results show that while both measures increase the system utilisation of renewable energy and the system efficiency, the cross-sector interconnection gives the best system performance. To analyse the possible interaction between cross-sector and cross-border interconnectivity, two main aspects have to be clarified. The first part defines the approach and the second is the construction of the two archetypes. - Highlights: • A method to investigate system integration and system interconnection is suggested. • The implementation is investigated across a Northern and Southern energy system. • The study identifies benefits of system integration and system interconnection. • The performance of the energy system benefits most from system integration.
High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2002-05-01
New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees
Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.
1991-01-01
Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for 235 U and 238 U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions
Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
1991-01-01
Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.
Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1997-03-01
The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)
Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.
1986-12-01
Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borbely, I.; Nichitiu, F.
1975-01-01
We propose to apply rational fraction approximations instead of polynomial ones for analytic continuation of the differential cross section. On the example of p-d scattering it is demonstrated that the spectroscopic in-formation extracted in this way is more reliable
Semi-continuous protein fractionating using affinity cross-flow filtration
Borneman, Zandrie; Zhang, W.; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; Smolders, C.A.
2002-01-01
Protein purification by means of downstream processing is increasingly important. At the University of Twente a semi-continuous process is developed for the isolation of BSA out of crude protein mixtures. For this purpose an automated Affinity Cross-Flow Filtration, ACFF, process is developed. This
The cross-over points in lattice gauge theories with continuous gauge groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvitanovic, P.; Greensite, J.; Lautrup, B.
1981-01-01
We obtain a closed expression for the weak-to-strong coupling cross-over point in all Wilson type lattice gauge theories with continuous gauge groups. We use a weak-coupling expansion of the mean-field self-consistency equation. In all cases where our results can be compared with Monte Carlo calculations the agreement is excellent. (orig.)
Continuous Extraction of Subway Tunnel Cross Sections Based on Terrestrial Point Clouds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhizhong Kang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient method for the continuous extraction of subway tunnel cross sections using terrestrial point clouds is proposed. First, the continuous central axis of the tunnel is extracted using a 2D projection of the point cloud and curve fitting using the RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus algorithm, and the axis is optimized using a global extraction strategy based on segment-wise fitting. The cross-sectional planes, which are orthogonal to the central axis, are then determined for every interval. The cross-sectional points are extracted by intersecting straight lines that rotate orthogonally around the central axis within the cross-sectional plane with the tunnel point cloud. An interpolation algorithm based on quadric parametric surface fitting, using the BaySAC (Bayesian SAmpling Consensus algorithm, is proposed to compute the cross-sectional point when it cannot be acquired directly from the tunnel points along the extraction direction of interest. Because the standard shape of the tunnel cross section is a circle, circle fitting is implemented using RANSAC to reduce the noise. The proposed approach is tested on terrestrial point clouds that cover a 150-m-long segment of a Shanghai subway tunnel, which were acquired using a LMS VZ-400 laser scanner. The results indicate that the proposed quadric parametric surface fitting using the optimized BaySAC achieves a higher overall fitting accuracy (0.9 mm than the accuracy (1.6 mm obtained by the plain RANSAC. The results also show that the proposed cross section extraction algorithm can achieve high accuracy (millimeter level, which was assessed by comparing the fitted radii with the designed radius of the cross section and comparing corresponding chord lengths in different cross sections and high efficiency (less than 3 s/section on average.
Differential bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, Haakon A.
2003-01-01
Detailed differential cross sections for high energy bremsstrahlung and pair production are derived with specific attention to the differences between the two processes, which are considerable. For the integrated cross sections, which are the only cross sections specifically known until now, the final state integration theorem guarantees that the exact cross section formulas can be exchanged between bremsstrahlung and pair production by the same substitution rules as for the Born-approximation Bethe-Heitler cross sections, for any amount of atomic screening. In fact the theorem states that the Coulomb corrections to the integrated bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections are identical for any amount of screening. The analysis of the basic differential cross sections leads to fundamental physical differences between bremsstrahlung and pair production. Coulomb corrections occur for pair production in the strong electric field of the atom for 'large' momentum transfer of the order of mc. For bremsstrahlung, on the other hand, the Coulomb corrections take place at a 'large' distance from the atom of the order of ((ℎ/2π)/mc)ε, with a 'small' momentum transfer mc/ε, where ε is the initial electron energy in units of mc 2 . And the Coulomb corrections can be large, of the order of larger than (Z/137) 2 , which is considerably larger than the integrated cross section corrections
China cuts energy intensity, but overall energy growth continues, report notes
Showstack, Randy
2012-02-01
A new report states that China has cut its energy intensity—defined as energy use per unit of economic output—by 19.1% from 2006 to 2010, reversing the previous upward trend. However, energy use and carbon emissions in the country continue to grow sharply, according to the Climate Policy Initiative's (CPI) Annual Review of Low-Carbon Development in China: 2010, the second of such reports. China nearly hit its goal of a 20% target reduction in energy intensity during that time period, which spanned the country's eleventh Five-Year Period (FYP) for social and economic development, but during that same period energy-related growth in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China increased by 33.6%, from 5.15 billion tons to 6.88 billion tons, said Qi Ye, CPI's Beijing office director, at a 2 February briefing held at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D. C.
Generating entangled states of continuous variables via cross-Kerr nonlinearity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Zhiming [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khosa, Ashfaq H [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ikram, Manzoor [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2007-05-28
We propose a scheme for generating entanglement of quantum states with continuous variables (coherent states and squeezed vacuum states) of electromagnetical fields. The scheme involves cross-Kerr nonlinearity. It was shown that the cross-Kerr nonlinearity required for generating the superposition and entanglement of squeezed vacuum states is smaller than that required for coherent states. It was also found that the fidelity monotonously decreases with both the increase of the amplitude of the input coherent field and the increase of the deviation of the nonlinear phase shift from {pi}.
SWAT2: The improved SWAT code system by incorporating the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mochizuki, Hiroki; Suyama, Kenya; Okuno, Hiroshi
2003-01-01
SWAT is a code system, which performs the burnup calculation by the combination of the neutronics calculation code, SRAC95 and the one group burnup calculation code, ORIGEN2.1. The SWAT code system can deal with the cell geometry in SRAC95. However, a precise treatment of resonance absorptions by the SRAC95 code using the ultra-fine group cross section library is not directly applicable to two- or three-dimensional geometry models, because of restrictions in SRAC95. To overcome this problem, SWAT2 which newly introduced the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, MVP into SWAT was developed. Thereby, the burnup calculation by the continuous energy in any geometry became possible. Moreover, using the 147 group cross section library called SWAT library, the reactions which are not dealt with by SRAC95 and MVP can be treated. OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality safety benchmark problems Phase-IB (PWR, a single pin cell model) and Phase-IIIB (BWR, fuel assembly model) were calculated as a verification of SWAT2, and the results were compared with the average values of calculation results of burnup calculation code of each organization. Through two benchmark problems, it was confirmed that SWAT2 was applicable to the burnup calculation of the complicated geometry. (author)
Meeting cross-section requirements for nuclear-energy design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weisbin, C.R.; de Saussure, G.; Santoro, R.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Gilai, T. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))
1982-01-01
Current requirements in cross-section data that are essential to nuclear-energy programmes are summarized and explained and some insight into how these data might be obtained is provided. The six sections of the paper describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation and analysis; determination of high-accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; identification of important cross sections and inferred needs.
Cross section recondensation method via generalized energy condensation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglass, Steven; Rahnema, Farzad
2011-01-01
Highlights: → A new method is presented which corrects for core environment error from specular boundaries at the lattice cell level. → Solution obtained with generalized energy condensation provides improved approximation to the core level fine-group flux. → Iterative recondensation of the cross sections and unfolding of the flux provides on-the-fly updating of the core cross sections. → Precomputation of energy integrals and fine-group cross sections allows for easy implementation and efficient solution. → Method has been implemented in 1D and shown to correct the environment error, particularly in strongly heterogeneous cores. - Abstract: The standard multigroup method used in whole-core reactor analysis relies on energy condensed (coarse-group) cross sections generated from single lattice cell calculations, typically with specular reflective boundary conditions. Because these boundary conditions are an approximation and not representative of the core environment for that lattice, an error is introduced in the core solution (both eigenvalue and flux). As current and next generation reactors trend toward increasing assembly and core heterogeneity, this error becomes more significant. The method presented here corrects for this error by generating updated coarse-group cross sections on-the-fly within whole-core reactor calculations without resorting to additional cell calculations. In this paper, the fine-group core flux is unfolded by making use of the recently published Generalized Condensation Theory and the cross sections are recondensed at the whole-core level. By iteratively performing this recondensation, an improved core solution is found in which the core-environment has been fully taken into account. This recondensation method is both easy to implement and computationally very efficient because it requires precomputation and storage of only the energy integrals and fine-group cross sections. In this work, the theoretical basis and development
Continuous energy Monte Carlo method based homogenization multi-group constants calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Mancang; Wang Kan; Yao Dong
2012-01-01
The efficiency of the standard two-step reactor physics calculation relies on the accuracy of multi-group constants from the assembly-level homogenization process. In contrast to the traditional deterministic methods, generating the homogenization cross sections via Monte Carlo method overcomes the difficulties in geometry and treats energy in continuum, thus provides more accuracy parameters. Besides, the same code and data bank can be used for a wide range of applications, resulting in the versatility using Monte Carlo codes for homogenization. As the first stage to realize Monte Carlo based lattice homogenization, the track length scheme is used as the foundation of cross section generation, which is straight forward. The scattering matrix and Legendre components, however, require special techniques. The Scattering Event method was proposed to solve the problem. There are no continuous energy counterparts in the Monte Carlo calculation for neutron diffusion coefficients. P 1 cross sections were used to calculate the diffusion coefficients for diffusion reactor simulator codes. B N theory is applied to take the leakage effect into account when the infinite lattice of identical symmetric motives is assumed. The MCMC code was developed and the code was applied in four assembly configurations to assess the accuracy and the applicability. At core-level, A PWR prototype core is examined. The results show that the Monte Carlo based multi-group constants behave well in average. The method could be applied to complicated configuration nuclear reactor core to gain higher accuracy. (authors)
Calculation of the intermediate energy activation cross section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furihata, Shiori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)
1997-03-01
We discussed the activation cross section in order to predict accurately the activation of soil around an accelerator with high energy and strong intensity beam. For the assessment of the accuracy of activation cross sections estimated by a numerical model, we compared the calculated cross section with various experimental data, for Si(p,x){sup 22}Na, Al(p,x){sup 22}Na, Fe(p,x){sup 22}Na, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be, O(p,x){sup 3}H, Al(p,x){sup 3}H and Si(p,x){sup 3}H reactions. We used three computational codes, i.e., quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) plus statistical decay model (SDM), HETC-3STEP and the semiempirical method developed by Silberberg et.al. It is observed that the codes are accurate above 1GeV, except for {sup 7}Be production. We also discussed the difference between the activation cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reaction. For the incident energy at 40MeV, it is found that {sup 3}H production cross sections of neutron-induced reaction are ten times as large as those of proton-induced reaction. It is also observed that the choice of the activation cross sections seriously affects to the estimate of saturated radioactivity, if the maximum energy of neutron flux is below 100MeV. (author)
Implementation of the probability table method in a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sutton, T.M.; Brown, F.B.
1998-10-01
RACER is a particle-transport Monte Carlo code that utilizes a continuous-energy treatment for neutrons and neutron cross section data. Until recently, neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance range (URR) have been treated in RACER using smooth, dilute-average representations. This paper describes how RACER has been modified to use probability tables to treat cross sections in the URR, and the computer codes that have been developed to compute the tables from the unresolved resonance parameters contained in ENDF/B data files. A companion paper presents results of Monte Carlo calculations that demonstrate the effect of the use of probability tables versus the use of dilute-average cross sections for the URR. The next section provides a brief review of the probability table method as implemented in the RACER system. The production of the probability tables for use by RACER takes place in two steps. The first step is the generation of probability tables from the nuclear parameters contained in the ENDF/B data files. This step, and the code written to perform it, are described in Section 3. The tables produced are at energy points determined by the ENDF/B parameters and/or accuracy considerations. The tables actually used in the RACER calculations are obtained in the second step from those produced in the first. These tables are generated at energy points specific to the RACER calculation. Section 4 describes this step and the code written to implement it, as well as modifications made to RACER to enable it to use the tables. Finally, some results and conclusions are presented in Section 5
Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B.
2002-01-01
When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes than can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured electron energy spectra. (author)
Gao, Qingfei; Wang, Zonglin; Jia, Hongyu; Liu, Chenguang; Li, Jun; Guo, Binqiang; Zhong, Junfei
2015-01-01
To address the drawback of traditional method of investigating dynamic responses of the continuous girder bridge with uniform cross-section under moving vehicular loads, the orthogonal experimental design method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, some empirical formulas of natural frequencies are obtained by theoretical derivation and numerical simulation. The effects of different parameters on dynamic responses of the vehicle-bridge coupled vibration system are discussed using our own progr...
Daniel Tudor
2014-01-01
This paper analyzes two special cases of C* -algebras, the cases of universal crossed product and reduced crossed product of a group by a C* -algebra. In the hypothesis that the universal crossed product is a continuous trace C* -algebra or a type I C* -algebra, it is proved that the reduced crossed product is a continuous trace C* -algebra or, respectively, a type I C* -algebra. Moreover, these results can be extended in the case when the crossed products are obtained from a groupoid an...
Crossing the phantom divide: Dark energy internal degrees of freedom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Wayne
2005-01-01
Dark energy constraints have forced viable alternatives that differ substantially from a cosmological constant Λ to have an equation of state w that evolves across the phantom divide set by Λ. Naively, crossing this divide makes the dark energy gravitationally unstable, a problem that is typically finessed by unphysically ignoring the perturbations. While this procedure does not affect constraints near the favored cosmological constant model it can artificially enhance the confidence with which alternative models are rejected. Similar to the general problem of stability for w<0, the solution lies in the internal degrees of freedom in the dark energy sector. We explicitly show how to construct a two scalar field model that crosses the phantom divide and mimics the single field behavior on either side to substantially better than 1% in all observables. It is representative of models where the internal degrees of freedom keep the dark energy smooth out to the horizon scale independently of the equation of state
Double differential cross sections for methane molecules at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yavuz, Murat; Ozer, Zehra Nur; Ulu, Melike; Dogan, Mevlut; Okumus, Nimet; Sahlaoui, Mohammed; Benmansour, Houda; Bouamoud, Mammar
2014-01-01
Double differential cross sections (DDCS) can be obtained by the measurements of energy and angular distributions of one of the two outgoing electrons by a detector. In this pespective, we used methane molecule as a target that is reasonable to expect to understand ionization mechanisms of polyatomic molecular systems.
The rise of the proton-(anti)proton total cross section at tevatron energies and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kluit, P.M.; Timmermans, J.
1987-12-01
A dispersion relation analysis of the UA4 result on the real part of the panti p elastic scattering amplitude is presented. The interpretation is twofold. Assuming that the pp and panti p cross sections are asymptotically identical, a steep rise is deduced of the total cross section in the 1-4 TeV domain. In case the pp and panti p cross sections are asymptotically different, it is deduced that there is a crossing of the total cross section of pp and panti p between ISR and Spanti pS energies followed by a steep rise of the difference of the pp and panti p total cross sections. It is shown that in both cases this rise can be accounted for if we add an additional term with an energy cut-off to the usual Amaldi parametrisation of the total cross section: ln 2 (s/s cut ) in the first case, or ln(s/s cuto ) in the second case, where √s cut lies around 500 GeV and √s cuto around 63 GeV. Both quantities can be interpreted as a threshold of a new process. For the first case, a continuous parametrisation without a threshold is also proposed with an extra term of the form ln 2 (1+ s/s 1 ), where √s 1 equals 700 GeV. 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs
Understanding change and continuity in residential energy consumption
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten
2011-01-01
of material consumer goods in practice theory. Case studies on household energy consumption are used as an empirical basis for these discussions. Looking at household energy consumption through the theoretical lens of practice theory necessitates discussion on whether energy consumption should be viewed......Practice theory has recently emerged within consumer studies as a promising approach that shifts focus from the individual consumer towards the collective aspects of consumption and from spectacular and conspicuous dimensions of consumption towards routine and mundane aspects of consumption...
Elastic scattering and total cross section at very high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castaldi, R.; Sanguinetti, G.
1985-01-01
The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the field of elastic scattering and total cross section in this new energy domain. In Section 2 a survey of the experimental situation is outlined. The most significant data are presented, with emphasis on the interpretation, not the specific details or technicalities. This section is therefore intended to give a self-contained look at the field, especially for the nonspecialist. In Section 3, hadron scattering at high energy is described in an impact parameter picture, which provides a model-independent intuitive geometrical representation. The diffractive character of elastic scattering, seen as the shadow of inelastic absorption, is presented as a consequence of unitarity in the s-channel. Spins are neglected throughout this review, inasmuch as the asymptotic behavior in the very high-energy limit is the main concern here. In Section 4 some relevant theorems are recalled on the limiting behavior of hadron-scattering amplitudes at infinite energy. There is also a brief discussion on how asymptotically rising total cross sections imply scaling properties in the elastic differential cross sections. A quick survey of eikonal models is presented and their predictions are compared with ISR and SPS Collider data
Sung, K T
2001-01-01
This article discusses major issues and concerns regarding family support for parents and elderly people in industrialized and urbanized Korea. It summarizes new trends in family support for elderly members, continuing influences of the traditional value of family support (filial piety), growing needs for public services for elderly people and their families, urgent calls for the state to assume greater responsibilities for providing social security and services for the elderly, needs for cross-cultural studies of family support, and certain cultural similarities and differences to be considered. The article concludes with some suggestions for future research.
Energy consumption optimization of a continuous ice cream process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
González-Ramírez, J.E.; Leducq, D.; Arellano, M.; Alvarez, G.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • This work investigates potential energy savings of an ice cream freezer. • From a full load compressor to a variable speed compressor one in freezer. • 30% less of energy consumption. • It is possible to save between 11 and 14 MWh per year by optimizing freezers. - Abstract: This work investigates potential energy saves in an ice cream freezer by using a variable speed compressor and optimization’s methodology for operating conditions during the process. Two configurations to control the refrigeration capacity were analyzed, the first one, modifies the pressure through the pilot control valve (conventional refrigeration system) and the second one with a variable speed compressor, both with a float expansion valve. Variable speed compressor configuration has showed the highest coefficient of performance and around of 30% less of energy consumption than the conventional one. The optimization of operating conditions in order to minimize the energy consumption is also presented. It was calculated only in France, for all ice cream and sorbet production, it is possible to save energy between 11 and 14 MWh per year by optimizing the operation of the refrigeration system through a variable speed compressor configuration
Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun, M.A.
1988-01-01
Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies are considered in the Glauber multiple scattering theory taking into account many-nucleon collisions. Correspondence is found between the AA amplitude and the effective action of the two-dimensional quantum field theory with exponential interaction. The tree and one-loop contributions are calculated in this formalism. The rules are derived, which relate the absorption part of the AA-collision amplitudes associated with various inclusive cross sections to the absorption parts of NN amplitudes. These rules generalize the well-known Agranowsky-Gribov-Kanchelli rules for hh and hA collisions. Formulas are written for single and double inclusive cross sections in AA collisions
CROSS LAYER COORDINATED ENERGY SAVING STRATEGY IN MANET
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Li; Zheng Baoyu
2003-01-01
Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) consists of a set of mobile hosts which can operate independently without infrastructure base stations. Energy saving is a critical issue for MANET since most mobile hosts will operate on battery powers. A cross layer coordinated framework for energy saving is proposed in this letter. On-demand power management, physical layer and medium access control layer dialogue based multi-packet reception, mobile agent based topology discovery and topology control based transmit power-aware and battery power-aware dynamic source routing are some of new ideas in this framework.
Transition-energy crossing with a γt-jump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Jie; Peggs, S.
1994-01-01
Expressions for the minimum size and speed of a transition-energy (γ t -) jump needed to diminish the chromatic non-linear effect, the self-field mismatch, and the microwave instabilities in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are obtained. A γ t -jump of 0.8 units is needed to be performed within 60 ms in order to achieve a ''clean'' transition crossing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Razaz, Mahdi; Yano, Jyunki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko
2013-01-01
Continuous measurements of streamflow and water temperature were carried out in a shallow gravel-bed river during dam flushing operations using a new shallow acoustic system with two crossing transmission lines. The fluvial acoustic system (FAS) was equipped with four 25 kHz broadband omnidirectional transducers. The reciprocal sound transmissions were performed between the two pairs of acoustic stations, located on both sides of the river. The four-station FAS enabled the measurement of the stream direction in addition to the depth- and range-averaged sound speed, and therefore water velocity. Discharge values computed from FAS reports were compared to those estimated by the moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and rating curve (RC) methods. FAS estimates were in good agreement with ADCP and RC estimates over a range of 50 to 180 m 3 s −1 . The temperature gradients induced strong sound scattering for the 25 kHz FAS. The fine suspended sediment particles also induced a gradual decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio of the FAS. Nevertheless, the FAS has been proved to be a reliable and accurate technique for the continuous measurement of cross-sectional average velocity/water temperature. (paper)
Kilovoltage energy imaging with a radiotherapy linac with a continuously variable energy range.
Roberts, D A; Hansen, V N; Thompson, M G; Poludniowski, G; Niven, A; Seco, J; Evans, P M
2012-03-01
In this paper, the effect on image quality of significantly reducing the primary electron energy of a radiotherapy accelerator is investigated using a novel waveguide test piece. The waveguide contains a novel variable coupling device (rotovane), allowing for a wide continuously variable energy range of between 1.4 and 9 MeV suitable for both imaging and therapy. Imaging at linac accelerating potentials close to 1 MV was investigated experimentally and via Monte Carlo simulations. An imaging beam line was designed, and planar and cone beam computed tomography images were obtained to enable qualitative and quantitative comparisons with kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging systems. The imaging beam had an electron energy of 1.4 MeV, which was incident on a water cooled electron window consisting of stainless steel, a 5 mm carbon electron absorber and 2.5 mm aluminium filtration. Images were acquired with an amorphous silicon detector sensitive to diagnostic x-ray energies. The x-ray beam had an average energy of 220 keV and half value layer of 5.9 mm of copper. Cone beam CT images with the same contrast to noise ratio as a gantry mounted kilovoltage imaging system were obtained with doses as low as 2 cGy. This dose is equivalent to a single 6 MV portal image. While 12 times higher than a 100 kVp CBCT system (Elekta XVI), this dose is 140 times lower than a 6 MV cone beam imaging system and 6 times lower than previously published LowZ imaging beams operating at higher (4-5 MeV) energies. The novel coupling device provides for a wide range of electron energies that are suitable for kilovoltage quality imaging and therapy. The imaging system provides high contrast images from the therapy portal at low dose, approaching that of gantry mounted kilovoltage x-ray systems. Additionally, the system provides low dose imaging directly from the therapy portal, potentially allowing for target tracking during radiotherapy treatment. There is the scope with such a tuneable system
Criticality safety validation of MCNP5 using continuous energy libraries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salome, Jean A.D.; Pereira, Claubia; Assuncao, Jonathan B.A.; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L.; Silva, Clarysson A.M. da
2013-01-01
The study of subcritical systems is very important in the design, installation and operation of various devices, mainly nuclear reactors and power plants. The information generated by these systems guide the decisions to be taken in the executive project, the economic viability and the safety measures to be employed in a nuclear facility. Simulating some experiments from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, the code MCNP5 was validated to nuclear criticality analysis. Its continuous libraries were used. The average values and standard deviation (SD) were evaluated. The results obtained with the code are very similar to the values obtained by the benchmark experiments. (author)
Smart border initiative: a Franco-German cross-border energy optimisation project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
Integrated and optimised local energy systems will play a key role in achieving the energy transition objectives set by France and Germany, in line with the Energy Union's goals, and contribute to ensuring a secure, affordable and climate-friendly energy supply in the EU. In order to capitalise on the French and German expertise and experiences in developing such systems and to continue strengthening the cross-border cooperation towards a fully integrated European energy market, both Governments have decided to launch a common initiative to identify and structure a cross-border energy optimisation project. Tilia and Dena have undertaken this mission to jointly develop the Smart Border Initiative (SBI). The SBI will, on the one hand, connect policies designed by France and Germany in order to support their cities and territories in their energy transition strategies and European market integration. It is currently a paradox that, though more balanced and resilient energy systems build up, bottom-up, at the local level, borders remain an obstacle to this local integration, in spite of the numerous complementarities observed in cross-border regions, and of their specific needs, in terms of smart mobility for example. The SBI project aims at enabling European neighbouring regions separated by a border to jointly build up optimised local energy systems, and jointly develop their local economies following an integrated, sustainable and low-carbon model. On the other hand, this showcase project will initiate a new stage in the EU electricity market integration, by completing high voltage interconnections with local, low voltage integration at DSO level, opening new optimisation possibilities in managing the electricity balance, and enabling DSOs to jointly overcome some of the current challenges, notably the increased share of renewable energy (RE) and ensuring Europe's security of supply
Energy efficient cross layer design for spectrum sharing systems
Alabbasi, Abdulrahman
2016-10-06
We propose a cross layer design that optimizes the energy efficiency of spectrum sharing systems. The energy per good bit (EPG) is considered as an energy efficiency metric. We optimize the secondary user\\'s transmission power and media access frame length to minimize the EPG metric. We protect the primary user transmission via an outage probability constraint. The non-convex targeted problem is optimized by utilizing the generalized convexity theory and verifying the strictly pseudo-convex structure of the problem. Analytical results of the optimal power and frame length are derived. We also used these results in proposing an algorithm, which guarantees the existence of a global optimal solution. Selected numerical results show the improvement of the proposed system compared to other systems. © 2016 IEEE.
SCALE Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Depletion with Parallel KENO in TRITON
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goluoglu, Sedat; Bekar, Kursat B.; Wiarda, Dorothea
2012-01-01
The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system is a powerful and robust tool for performing multigroup (MG) reactor physics analysis using either the 2-D deterministic solver NEWT or the 3-D Monte Carlo transport code KENO. However, as with all MG codes, the accuracy of the results depends on the accuracy of the MG cross sections that are generated and/or used. While SCALE resonance self-shielding modules provide rigorous resonance self-shielding, they are based on 1-D models and therefore 2-D or 3-D effects such as heterogeneity of the lattice structures may render final MG cross sections inaccurate. Another potential drawback to MG Monte Carlo depletion is the need to perform resonance self-shielding calculations at each depletion step for each fuel segment that is being depleted. The CPU time and memory required for self-shielding calculations can often eclipse the resources needed for the Monte Carlo transport. This summary presents the results of the new continuous-energy (CE) calculation mode in TRITON. With the new capability, accurate reactor physics analyses can be performed for all types of systems using the SCALE Monte Carlo code KENO as the CE transport solver. In addition, transport calculations can be performed in parallel mode on multiple processors.
Higher energy dissociative electron attachment cross sections in sulfur dioxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurepa, M.; Pejcev, V.; Cadez, I.
2000-01-01
Experimental results of total electron attachment cross sections are presented with, for comparison, two additional sets of data, those of Orient and Srivastava and of Spyrou et al.. Both were normalized to present values of the first attachment peak at 4,6 eV, in order to show more clearly differences in cross section curve shapes. In fact, data of Orient and Srivastava are larger that the present ones for a factor of 2,82; while those of Spyrou et al. are higher only for 3,70 %. Both these sets of data, as well as those by Cadez et al., cover an incident electron energy range 3,40 - 9,40 eV. Electron attachment processes at energies higher that 9,40 eV have been in fact detected and measured in the same set of experiments that led to former publication of lower energy attachment processes by Cadez et al.. At that time in none of experiments, that could distinguished ionic species formed in dissociation attachment processes, was a sign of ions at incident electron energies exceeding 9,40 eV. That caused our ignorance toward processes detected and measured at higher incident electron energies, mainly since they were at least one order of magnitude lower that the two peaks at 4,6 eV and 7,3 eV, respectively. Without additional experiments, that include mass analysis of ionic species formed in dissociative electron attachment processes, it is not possible to give any sound explanation to causes of peaks at energies higher that 8,0 eV
Uranium, thorium and bismuth photofission cross sections at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tavares, O.A.P.
1973-01-01
The U 238 , Th 232 and Bi 209 photofission using nuclear emulsion technique for fission fragments detection is presented. The photofission cross sections were measured using Bremsstrahlung photon which were produced irradiating thin tungsten radiators with electrons accelerated at the energy range from 1,0 to 5,5 GeV in the ''Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron'' (Hamburg), and aluminium radiator with electrons accelarated at 16,0 GeV in Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. A special revelation technique for nuclear emulsion pellicles loaded with uranium and thorium, allowed the discrimination between alpha particles tracks and fission fragments tracks. The results show a decrease in the cross sections, which is in good agreement, within experimental errors, with the conclusions of other authors. The estimations from the two-step mechanism for high energy nuclear reactions (intranuclear cascade followed by fission-evaporation competition) show that, the primary interaction according to the photomesonic model and the quasi-deuteron photon interaction are sufficient to explain the general behavior exhibited by photofission cross sections for investigated nuclei. The calculations show a resonant structure around 300 MeV, with a width at half maximum of 200 MeV, and another not so pronounced, near to 700 MeV. (Author) [pt
Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others
1997-04-01
Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.
Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A.; Hemmers, O.
1997-01-01
Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He + nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al
Safety research in the field of energy production. Plan for continued Nordic projects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahlstroem, P E [Statens Vattenfallsverk, Stockholm (Sweden); Berg, J [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway); Eckered, T [Statens Kaernkraftinspektion, Stockholm (Sweden)
1980-01-01
NGS, an ad hoc group of the Nordic Co-ordination Committee for Atomic Energy, has prepared this survey of proposed cooperative projects as a continuation of previous projects. New areas to be given priority are:- reactor safety, environmental effects in energy production and human reliability. Continued projects are:- quality assurance, radioactive waste and radioecology. (JIW)
Energy meshing techniques for processing ENDF/B-VI cross sections using the AMPX code system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunn, M.E.; Greene, N.M.; Leal, L.C.
1999-01-01
Modern techniques for the establishment of criticality safety for fissile systems invariably require the use of neutronic transport codes with applicable cross-section data. Accurate cross-section data are essential for solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation for fissile systems. In the absence of applicable critical experimental data, the use of independent calculational methods is crucial for the establishment of subcritical limits. Moreover, there are various independent modern transport codes available to the criticality safety analyst (e.g., KENO V.a., MCNP, and MONK). In contrast, there is currently only one complete software package that processes data from the Version 6 format of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) to a format useable by criticality safety codes. To facilitate independent cross-section processing, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is upgrading the AMPX code system to enable independent processing of Version 6 formats using state-of-the-art procedures. The AMPX code system has been in continuous use at ORNL since the early 1970s and is the premier processor for providing multigroup cross sections for criticality safety analysis codes. Within the AMPX system, the module POLIDENT is used to access the resonance parameters in File 2 of an ENDF/B library, generate point cross-section data, and combine the cross sections with File 3 point data. At the heart of any point cross-section processing code is the generation of a suitable energy mesh for representing the data. The purpose of this work is to facilitate the AMPX upgrade through the development of a new and innovative energy meshing technique for processing point cross-section data
Development and validation of continuous energy adjoint-weighted calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Truchet, Guillaume
2015-01-01
A key issue in nowadays Reactor Physics is to propagate input data uncertainties (e.g. nuclear data, manufacturing tolerances, etc.) to nuclear codes final results (e.g. k(eff), reaction rate, etc.). In order to propagate uncertainties, one typically assumes small variations around a reference and evaluates at first sensitivity profiles. Problem is that nuclear Monte Carlo codes are not - or were not until very recently - able to straightforwardly process such sensitivity profiles, even thought they are considered as reference codes. First goal of this PhD thesis is to implement a method to calculate k(eff)-sensitivity profiles to nuclear data or any perturbations in TRIPOLI-4, the CEA Monte Carlo neutrons transport code. To achieve such a goal, a method has first been developed to calculate the adjoint flux using the Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) principle that states that the adjoint flux at a given phase space point is proportional to the neutron importance in a just critical core after several power iterations. Thanks to our developments, it has been made possible, for the fist time, to calculate the continuous adjoint flux for an actual and complete reactor core configuration. From that new feature, we have elaborated a new method able to forwardly apply the exact perturbation theory in Monte Carlo codes. Exact perturbation theory does not rely on small variations which makes possible to calculate very complex experiments. Finally and after a deep analysis of the IFP method, this PhD thesis also reproduces and improves an already used method to calculate adjoint weighted kinetic parameters as well as reference migrations areas. (author) [fr
Proposed continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
J. Sekutowicz; S. A. Bogacz; D. Douglas; P. Kneisel; G. P. Williams; M. Ferrario; L. Serafini; I. Ben-Zvi; J. Rose; J. Smedley; T. Srinivasan-Rao; W.-D. Moeller; B. Petersen; D. Proch; S. Simrock; P. Colestock; J. B. Rosenzweig
2004-01-01
Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R and D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions
Continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacek Sekutowicz; Bogacz, S. A.; Douglas, D.; Kneisel, Peter; Williams, G. P.; Ferrario, M.; Serafini, L.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rose, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Mueller, W.-D.; Petersen, B.; Proch, D.; Simrock, S.; Colestock, P.; Rosenzweig, J. B.
2003-01-01
Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R and D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alm, Leif Kristian
2000-02-01
This is the national report for Norway in phase 5 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of maximum 7-8 TWH from 1990 to 1997. This corresponds to a saving of 0.5% per year. In the same period, final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy intensity can not be attributed to increased energy efficiency. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)
Two-electron photoionization cross sections at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Ya.; Krivec, R.; Mandelzweig, V.B.
2003-01-01
Double and single electron photoionization cross sections and their ratios at high and ultra-relativistic energies are calculated for H - , He and helium-like ions in ground and excited states including triplet states. The ratios contain shake-off and quasi-free terms. A high precision non-variational wave function is used. The quasi-free mechanism increases the ratios impressively: for He we get 0.0762 instead of 0.0164 in the non-relativistic case. Ratios are inversely proportional to Z 2 , with a factor increasing from 0.094 in the nonrelativistic to 0.595 in the ultra-relativistic limit. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alm, Leif Kristian
1998-12-01
This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)
Meadors, Grant David; Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Whelan, John T.; Zhang, Yuanhao
2018-02-01
Continuous-wave (CW) gravitational waves (GWs) call for computationally-intensive methods. Low signal-to-noise ratio signals need templated searches with long coherent integration times and thus fine parameter-space resolution. Longer integration increases sensitivity. Low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) such as Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) may emit accretion-driven CWs at strains reachable by current ground-based observatories. Binary orbital parameters induce phase modulation. This paper describes how resampling corrects binary and detector motion, yielding source-frame time series used for cross-correlation. Compared to the previous, detector-frame, templated cross-correlation method, used for Sco X-1 on data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run (O1), resampling is about 20 × faster in the costliest, most-sensitive frequency bands. Speed-up factors depend on integration time and search setup. The speed could be reinvested into longer integration with a forecast sensitivity gain, 20 to 125 Hz median, of approximately 51%, or from 20 to 250 Hz, 11%, given the same per-band cost and setup. This paper's timing model enables future setup optimization. Resampling scales well with longer integration, and at 10 × unoptimized cost could reach respectively 2.83 × and 2.75 × median sensitivities, limited by spin-wandering. Then an O1 search could yield a marginalized-polarization upper limit reaching torque-balance at 100 Hz. Frequencies from 40 to 140 Hz might be probed in equal observing time with 2 × improved detectors.
Utility DSM Programs from 1989 Through 1998: Continuation or Cross-Roads?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadley, S.
1995-01-01
Over the past five years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has been collecting data annually from US electric utilities on their demand-side management (DSM) programs, both current and projected. The latest data cover activities for 1993 and projections for 1994 and 1998. In 1993, 991 utilities operated DSM programs. That year, they spent $2.8 billion, a 13% increase over 1992 expenditures. These and earlier DSM programs saved 44,000 GWh of energy and reduced potential peak demand by 40,000 MW, 30% and 22% increases over the 1992 values, respectively. While some people predict the demise of electric-utility DSM programs, the data do not paint so bleak a picture. In most parts of the country, DSM programs grew in 1993 and utilities (as of Spring 1994) projected continued growth through 1998. Expenditures grew from 1.3% of revenues in 1992 to 1.5% in 1993, and are expected to grow 2.5% per year faster than inflation, which is equivalent to revenue growth. Thus, DSM spending is expected to stay constant at 1.5% of revenues through 1998. Because of the cumulative effect of DSM programs, energy savings are expected to grow from 1.2% of sales in 1992 to 1.6% in 1993 and 3.0% in 1998. Potential-peak reductions are expected to increase from 5.9% of peak demand in 1992 to 6.8% in 1993 and 8.9% in 1998. However, the growth in spending is not as rapid as the 8% annual real growth projected a year earlier. Actual expenditures in 1993 were 6.5% lower than projected early that year. Energy savings, on the other hand, were the same as projected earlier. Potential peak reductions were actually 9% higher than previously projected.
The continuous tower of scalar fields as a system of interacting dark matter–dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Paulo
2015-01-01
This paper aims to introduce a new parameterisation for the coupling Q in interacting dark matter and dark energy models by connecting said models with the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields model. Based upon the existence of a dark matter and a dark energy sectors in the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields, a simplification is considered for the evolution of a single scalar field from the tower, validated in this paper. This allows for the results obtained with the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields model to match those of an interacting dark matter–dark energy system, considering that the energy transferred from one fluid to the other is given by the energy of the scalar fields that start oscillating at a given time, rather than considering that the energy transference depends on properties of the whole fluids that are interacting.
Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqing Zhang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP, followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d33 coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d33 ⋅ g33 for a more typical d33 value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa−1. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm2 and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.
Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xiaoqing [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology & School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Wu, Liming [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology & School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sessler, Gerhard M., E-mail: g.sessler@nt.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)
2015-07-15
Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP), followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d{sub 33} coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d{sub 33} ⋅ g{sub 33}) for a more typical d{sub 33} value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa{sup −1}. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm{sup 2} and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.
A cross-sectional study of learning styles among continuing medical education participants.
Collins, C Scott; Nanda, Sanjeev; Palmer, Brian A; Mohabbat, Arya B; Schleck, Cathy D; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Mahapatra, Saswati; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M
2018-04-27
Experiential learning has been suggested as a framework for planning continuing medical education (CME). We aimed to (1) determine participants' learning styles at traditional CME courses and (2) explore associations between learning styles and participant characteristics. Cross-sectional study of all participants (n = 393) at two Mayo Clinic CME courses who completed the Kolb Learning Style Inventory and provided demographic data. A total of 393 participants returned 241 surveys (response rate, 61.3%). Among the 143 participants (36.4%) who supplied complete demographic and Kolb data, Kolb learning styles included diverging (45; 31.5%), assimilating (56; 39.2%), converging (8; 5.6%), and accommodating (34; 23.8%). Associations existed between learning style and gender (p = 0.02). For most men, learning styles were diverging (23 of 63; 36.5%) and assimilating (30 of 63; 47.6%); for most women, diverging (22 of 80; 27.5%), assimilating (26 of 80; 32.5%), and accommodating (26 of 80; 32.5%). Internal medicine and psychiatry CME participants had diverse learning styles. Female participants had more variation in their learning styles than men. Teaching techniques must vary to appeal to all learners. The experiential learning theory sequentially moves a learner from Why? to What? to How? to If? to accommodate learning styles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingfei Gao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available To address the drawback of traditional method of investigating dynamic responses of the continuous girder bridge with uniform cross-section under moving vehicular loads, the orthogonal experimental design method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, some empirical formulas of natural frequencies are obtained by theoretical derivation and numerical simulation. The effects of different parameters on dynamic responses of the vehicle-bridge coupled vibration system are discussed using our own program. Finally, the orthogonal experimental design method is proposed for the dynamic responses analysis. The results show that the effects of factors on dynamic responses are dependent on both the selected position and the type of the responses. In addition, the interaction effects between different factors cannot be ignored. To efficiently reduce experimental runs, the conventional orthogonal design is divided into two phases. It has been proved that the proposed method of the orthogonal experimental design greatly reduces calculation cost, and it is efficient and rational enough to study multifactor problems. Furthermore, it provides a good way to obtain more rational empirical formulas of the DLA and other dynamic responses, which may be adopted in the codes of design and evaluation.
Rens Hartkamp; Bengt Hillring; Warren Mabee; Olle Olsson; Kenneth Skog; Henry Spelter; Johan Vinterback; Antje Wahl
2009-01-01
The economic crisis has not reduced the demand for wood energy, which is expected to continue to grow. The downturn in sawmill production caused a shortage of raw material supply for wood pellet producers. With decreased demand for pulpwood-quality roundwood for wood and paper products in 2009, some pulpwood is being converted into wood energy. Economies of scale are...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arretche, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)], E-mail: farretche@hotmail.com; Mazon, K.T.; Michelin, S.E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Fujimoto, M.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Iga, I.; Lee, M.-T. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2008-02-15
Iterative Schwinger variational methods and the method of continued fractions, widely used for electron-molecule scattering, are applied for the first time to investigate positron-molecule interactions. Specifically, integral and differential cross sections for elastic positron scattering by CO in the (0.5-20) eV energy range are calculated and reported. In our calculation, a static plus correlation-polarization potential is used to represent the collisional dynamics. Our calculated results are in general agreement with the theoretical and experimental data available in the literature.
Energy crisis? The continuing need for a national energy policy in the United States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felmy, J.
2001-01-01
This article discusses the impact of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre on the 11th September 2001 on the price of crude oil and petroleum products and the ensuing concentration on security measures in the oil and gas industries. The reasons for the need of a comprehensive energy policy are listed and include ensuring the physical security of energy supplies, helping to diversify oil supplies and reducing the effects of market disruptions, benefiting from additional efforts to increase energy efficiency, promoting conservation, encouraging the use of renewable energy sources, investing in the energy delivery infrastructure, and increasing domestic energy supplies
Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colgan, James P.; Pindzola, M.S.; Robicheaux, F.
2008-01-01
Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium are calculated using a non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling method. Collision probabilities are found by projection of a time evolved nine dimensional coordinate space wave function onto fully antisymmetric products of spatial and spin functions representing three outgoing Coulomb waves. At an incident energy of 106 eV, we present double energy differential cross sections and pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections. The pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections are found to be in relative agreement with the shapes observed in recent (e,3e) reaction microscope experiments. Integration of the differential cross sections over all energies and angles yields a total ionization cross section that is also in reasonable agreement with absolute crossed-beams experiments.
Low energy neutron scattering for energy dependent cross sections. General considerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rothenstein, W; Dagan, R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1996-12-01
We consider in this paper some aspects related to neutron scattering at low energies by nuclei which are subject to thermal agitation. The scattering is determined by a temperature dependent joint scattering kernel, or the corresponding joint probability density, which is a function of two variables, the neutron energy after scattering, and the cosine of the angle of scattering, for a specified energy and direction of motion of the neutron, before the interaction takes place. This joint probability density is easy to calculate, when the nucleus which causes the scattering of the neutron is at rest. It can be expressed by a delta function, since there is a one to one correspondence between the neutron energy change, and the cosine of the scattering angle. If the thermal motion of the target nucleus is taken into account, the calculation is rather more complicated. The delta function relation between the cosine of the angle of scattering and the neutron energy change is now averaged over the spectrum of velocities of the target nucleus, and becomes a joint kernel depending on both these variables. This function has a simple form, if the target nucleus behaves as an ideal gas, which has a scattering cross section independent of energy. An energy dependent scattering cross section complicates the treatment further. An analytic expression is no longer obtained for the ideal gas temperature dependent joint scattering kernel as a function of the neutron energy after the interaction and the cosine of the scattering angle. Instead the kernel is expressed by an inverse Fourier Transform of a complex integrand, which is averaged over the velocity spectrum of the target nucleus. (Abstract Truncated)
Secondary electrons monitor for continuous electron energy measurements in UHF linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimek, Zbigniew; Bulka, Sylwester; Mirkowski, Jacek; Roman, Karol
2001-01-01
Continuous energy measurements have now became obligatory in accelerator facilities devoted to radiation sterilization process. This is one of several accelerator parameters like dose rate, beam current, bean scan parameters, conveyer speed which must be recorded as it is a required condition of accelerator validation procedure. Electron energy measurements are rather simple in direct DC accelerator, where the applied DC voltage is directly related to electron energy. High frequency linacs are not offering such opportunity in electron energy measurements. The analyzing electromagnet is applied in some accelerators but that method can be used only in off line mode before or after irradiation process. The typical solution is to apply the non direct method related to control and measurements certain accelerator parameters like beam current and microwave energy pulse power. The continuous evaluation of electron energy can be performed on the base of calculation and result comparison with calibration curve
Energy objectives Europe 2020: France must continue its efforts for renewable energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Rabai, Yacine
2014-08-01
After having recalled the European objectives for 2020 related to climate change and sustainable energies (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, share of renewable energies, and increase of energy efficiency), data are presented under the form of tables and graphs and discussed. These data concern the share of the different energy sources (coal, oil and oil products, gas, non renewable electricity, renewable energies, non renewable wastes) in the energy consumption for each of the 28 European countries, the evolutions of energy consumption and GDP between 2005 and 2012, the share of renewable energies in each European country, the level of greenhouse gas emissions in 2012 in each country and the target level for 2020, the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions and of GDP between 2005 and 2012. It appears that oil remains the main source in European energy consumption, that the share of renewable energies is nearly twice as it was in 2005, that three member states have already reached their objective in terms of share of renewable energies, and that fifteen countries have already reached their objectives of greenhouse gas emissions
Theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional continuous energy lattice physics code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zerkle, M.L.; Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Ott, M.W.; Winwood, J.P.
1997-01-01
The theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional, continuous energy lattice physics code are discussed. RAZOR solves the continuous energy neutron transport equation in one- and two-dimensional geometries, and calculates equivalent few-group diffusion theory constants that rigorously account for spatial and spectral self-shielding effects. A dual energy resolution slowing down algorithm is used to reduce computer memory and disk storage requirements for the slowing down calculation. Results are presented for a 2D BWR pin cell depletion benchmark problem
First validation of the new continuous energy version of the MORET5 Monte Carlo code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miss, Joachim; Bernard, Franck; Forestier, Benoit; Haeck, Wim; Richet, Yann; Jacquet, Olivier
2008-01-01
The 5.A.1 version is the next release of the MORET Monte Carlo code dedicated to criticality and reactor calculations. This new version combines all the capabilities that are already available in the multigroup version with many new and enhanced features. The main capabilities of the previous version are the powerful association of a deterministic and Monte Carlo approach (like for instance APOLLO-MORET), the modular geometry, five source sampling techniques and two simulation strategies. The major advance in MORET5 is the ability to perform calculations either a multigroup or a continuous energy simulation. Thanks to these new developments, we now have better control over the whole process of criticality calculations, from reading the basic nuclear data to the Monte Carlo simulation itself. Moreover, this new capability enables us to better validate the deterministic-Monte Carlo multigroup calculations by performing continuous energy calculations with the same code, using the same geometry and tracking algorithms. The aim of this paper is to describe the main options available in this new release, and to present the first results. Comparisons of the MORET5 continuous-energy results with experimental measurements and against another continuous-energy Monte Carlo code are provided in terms of validation and time performance. Finally, an analysis of the interest of using a unified energy grid for continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations is presented. (authors)
Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicholas P [INTEL
2009-01-01
We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
A - Description of program or function: (1) Problems to be solved: MVP/GMVP can solve eigenvalue and fixed-source problems. The multigroup code GMVP can solve forward and adjoint problems for neutron, photon and neutron-photon coupled transport. The continuous-energy code MVP can solve only the forward problems. Both codes can also perform time-dependent calculations. (2) Geometry description: MVP/GMVP employs combinatorial geometry to describe the calculation geometry. It describes spatial regions by the combination of the 3-dimensional objects (BODIes). Currently, the following objects (BODIes) can be used. - BODIes with linear surfaces: half space, parallelepiped, right parallelepiped, wedge, right hexagonal prism; - BODIes with quadratic surface and linear surfaces: cylinder, sphere, truncated right cone, truncated elliptic cone, ellipsoid by rotation, general ellipsoid; - Arbitrary quadratic surface and torus. The rectangular and hexagonal lattice geometry can be used to describe the repeated geometry. Furthermore, the statistical geometry model is available to treat coated fuel particles or pebbles for high temperature reactors. (3) Particle sources: The various forms of energy-, angle-, space- and time-dependent distribution functions can be specified. (4) Cross sections: The ANISN-type PL cross sections or the double-differential cross sections can be used in the multigroup code GMVP. On the other hand, the specific cross section libraries are used in the continuous-energy code MVP. The libraries are generated from the evaluated nuclear data (JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VI, JEF-3.0 etc.) by using the LICEM code. The neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance region are described by the probability table method. The neutron cross sections at arbitrary temperatures are available for MVP by just specifying the temperatures in the input data. (5) Boundary conditions: Vacuum, perfect reflective, isotropic reflective (white), periodic boundary conditions can be
Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy
1998-03-01
Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoogenboom, J. Eduard
2003-01-01
Adjoint Monte Carlo may be a useful alternative to regular Monte Carlo calculations in cases where a small detector inhibits an efficient Monte Carlo calculation as only very few particle histories will cross the detector. However, in general purpose Monte Carlo codes, normally only the multigroup form of adjoint Monte Carlo is implemented. In this article the general methodology for continuous-energy adjoint Monte Carlo neutron transport is reviewed and extended for photon and coupled neutron-photon transport. In the latter cases the discrete photons generated by annihilation or by neutron capture or inelastic scattering prevent a direct application of the general methodology. Two successive reaction events must be combined in the selection process to accommodate the adjoint analog of a reaction resulting in a photon with a discrete energy. Numerical examples illustrate the application of the theory for some simplified problems
Multi-Group Covariance Data Generation from Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Transport Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Dong Hyuk; Shim, Hyung Jin
2015-01-01
The sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) methodology in deterministic tools has been utilized for quantifying uncertainties of nuclear design parameters induced by those of nuclear data. The S/U analyses which are based on multi-group cross sections can be conducted by an simple error propagation formula with the sensitivities of nuclear design parameters to multi-group cross sections and the covariance of multi-group cross section. The multi-group covariance data required for S/U analysis have been produced by nuclear data processing codes such as ERRORJ or PUFF from the covariance data in evaluated nuclear data files. However in the existing nuclear data processing codes, an asymptotic neutron flux energy spectrum, not the exact one, has been applied to the multi-group covariance generation since the flux spectrum is unknown before the neutron transport calculation. It can cause an inconsistency between the sensitivity profiles and the covariance data of multi-group cross section especially in resolved resonance energy region, because the sensitivities we usually use are resonance self-shielded while the multi-group cross sections produced from an asymptotic flux spectrum are infinitely-diluted. In order to calculate the multi-group covariance estimation in the ongoing MC simulation, mathematical derivations for converting the double integration equation into a single one by utilizing sampling method have been introduced along with the procedure of multi-group covariance tally
Fenemor, S P; Homer, A R; Perry, T L; Skeaff, C M; Peddie, M C; Rehrer, N J
2018-06-01
To quantify and compare energy utilization associated with prolonged sitting alone, or interrupted with regular activity breaks and/or an additional bout of continuous physical activity. Thirty six adults (11 males, BMI 24.1 ± 4.6) completed four interventions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT), (2) sitting with 2-min of walking every 30 min (RAB), (3) prolonged sitting with 30-min of continuous walking at the end of the day (SIT + PA), (4) a combination of the activities in (2) and (3) above (RAB + PA). All walking was at a speed and incline corresponding to 60% V̇O 2max . Energy utilization over 7 h for each intervention was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Compared to SIT, SIT + PA increased total energy utilization by 709 kJ (95% CI 485-933 kJ), RAB by 863 kJ (95% CI 638-1088 kJ), and RAB + PA by 1752 kJ (95% CI 1527-1927 kJ) (all p energy utilization between SIT + PA and RAB, however, post-physical activity energy utilization in RAB was 632 kJ greater than SIT + PA (95% CI 561-704 kJ; p energy utilization compared to a single bout of continuous activity; however the total energy utilization is similar. Combining activity breaks with a longer continuous bout of activity will further enhance energy utilization, and in the longer term, may positively affect weight management of a greater magnitude than either activity pattern performed alone. ANZCTR12614000624684. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A discrete-continuous choice model of climate change impacts on energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, W.N.; Mendelsohn, R.
1998-01-01
This paper estimates a discrete-continuous fuel choice model in order to explore climate impacts on the energy sector. The model is estimated on a national data set of firms and households. The results reveal that actors switch from oil in cold climates to electricity and natural gas in warm climates and that fuel-specific expenditures follow a U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. The model implies that warming will increase American energy expenditures, reflecting a sizable welfare damage
Continuous energy adjoint Monte Carlo for coupled neutron-photon transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoogenboom, J.E. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.
2001-07-01
Although the theory for adjoint Monte Carlo calculations with continuous energy treatment for neutrons as well as for photons is known, coupled neutron-photon transport problems present fundamental difficulties because of the discrete energies of the photons produced by neutron reactions. This problem was solved by forcing the energy of the adjoint photon to the required discrete value by an adjoint Compton scattering reaction or an adjoint pair production reaction. A mathematical derivation shows the exact procedures to follow for the generation of an adjoint neutron and its statistical weight. A numerical example demonstrates that correct detector responses are obtained compared to a standard forward Monte Carlo calculation. (orig.)
Energy extraction from ocean currents using straight bladed cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prasad Dudhgaonkar
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Harvesting marine renewable energy remains to be a prime focus of researchers across the globe both in environmental and in commercial perspectives. India is blessed with a long coastline, and the seas around Indian peninsula offer ample potential to tap various ocean energy forms. National Institute of Ocean Technology carries out research and various ocean energy technologies, out of which harnessing kinetic energy in seawater currents is one. This article presents the open sea trials recently carried out on National Institute of Ocean Technology’s cross-flow hydrokinetic ocean current turbine in South Andaman. The turbine was designed to generate 100 W electricity at 1.2 m/s current speed and was built in-house. The turbine was initially tested in a seawater channel and then was deployed in Macpherson Strait in Andaman. It was fitted below a floating platform designed especially for this purpose, and the performance of the turbine was continuously logged inside an on-board data acquisition system. The trials were successful and in line with computations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdullah, M.A.; Agalgaonkar, A.P.; Muttaqi, K.M.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Difficulties in assessing distribution network adequacy with DG are addressed. • Indices are proposed to assess adequacy of energy supply and service continuity. • Analytical methodology is developed to assess the proposed indices. • Concept of joint probability distribution of demand and generation is applied. - Abstract: Continuity of electricity supply with renewable distributed generation (DG) is a topical issue for distribution system planning and operation, especially due to the stochastic nature of power generation and time varying load demand. The conventional adequacy and reliability analysis methods related to bulk generation systems cannot be applied directly for the evaluation of adequacy criteria such as ‘energy supply’ and ‘continuity of service’ for distribution networks embedded with renewable DG. In this paper, new indices highlighting ‘available supply capacity’ and ‘continuity of service’ are proposed for ‘energy supply’ and ‘continuation of service’ evaluation of generation-rich distribution networks, and analytical techniques are developed for their quantification. A probability based analytical method has been developed using the joint probability of the demand and generation, and probability distributions of the proposed indices have been used to evaluate the network adequacy in energy supply and service continuation. A data clustering technique has been used to evaluate the joint probability between coincidental demand and renewable generation. Time sequential Monte Carlo simulation has been used to compare the results obtained using the proposed analytical method. A standard distribution network derived from Roy Billinton test system and a practical radial distribution network have been used to test the proposed method and demonstrate the estimation of the well-being of a system for hosting renewable DG units. It is found that renewable DG systems improve the ‘energy supply’ and ‘continuity
6,7Li + 28Si total reaction cross sections at near barrier energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pakou, A.; Musumarra, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alamanos, N.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Divis, N.; Doukelis, G.; Gillibert, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Kalyva, G.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Nicolis, N.G.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Perdikakis, G.; Roubos, D.; Rusek, K.; Spyrou, S.; Zarkadas, Ch.
2007-01-01
Total reaction cross section measurements for the 6,7 Li + 28 Si systems have been performed at near-barrier energies. The results indicate that, with respect to the potential anomaly at barrier, 6 Li and 7 Li on light targets exhibit similar energy dependence on the imaginary potential. Comparisons are made with 6,7 Li cross sections on light and heavy targets, extracted via previous elastic scattering measurements and also with CDCC calculations. Energy dependent parametrisations are also obtained for total reaction cross sections of 6,7 Li on Si, as well as on any target, at near barrier energies
Low energy total cross section of 36Ar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mughabghab, S.F.; Magurno, B.A.
1975-01-01
To compare the predictions of the valence model with measured partial radiative widths of 36 Ar an accurate knowledge of the bound-level parameters is required. This is achieved by carrying out a Breit-Wigner parameter fit to the total cross section of 36 Ar measured by Chrien et al and renormalized to the recommended values of the thermal capture and scattering cross sections. (1 figure, 1 table) (U.S.)
Energy content in manufacturing exports: A cross-country analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amador, João
2012-01-01
This article compares the energy content in manufacturing exports in a set of 30 advanced and emerging economies and examines its evolution from 1995 to 2005, combining information from the OECD input–output matrices and international trade data in 17 manufacturing sectors. In addition, the article suggests a methodology to disentangle export structure and sectoral energy efficiency effects, presenting results according to technological categories. The article concludes that Brazil, India and, mostly, China, present a high energy content in manufacturing exports, which has increased from 1995 to 2005. Conversely, many advanced economies, notably in Europe and North America, which showed energy contents below the world average in 1995, reinforced their position as exporters with relatively lower energy usage. The contribution of export structure and energy efficiency effects to explain differences in the energy content of exports draws attention to the situation of China. This country increased its relative energy usage in the exports of all technological categories of goods. This effect was reinforced by the stronger export specialization in high-tech products and hindered by a comparatively lower specialization in medium-high-tech products. - Highlights: ► We compare the energy content in manufacturing exports in advanced and emerging economies. ► We suggest a methodology to disentangle export structure and sectoral energy efficiency effects. ► Large emerging economies present high energy content in manufacturing exports. ► China increased its relative energy usage in the exports of all technological categories of goods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barashenkov, V.S.; Gudowski, W.; Polanski, A.
1999-01-01
A parametrization of the integral cross sections σ nonel , σ tl , σ tot for the elastic nonelastic and total proton- and neutron-nucleus interactions is considered at medium and high energies. On the basis of this parametrization a code is created for the interpolational calculations of the integral cross sections for arbitrary target nuclei at proton energies E=1 MeV - 1 TeV and neutron energies E=12.5 MeV - 1 TeV
Quantum energy teleportation with an electromagnetic field: discrete versus continuous variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hotta, Masahiro
2010-01-01
It is well known that usual quantum teleportation protocols cannot transport energy. Recently, new protocols called quantum energy teleportation (QET) have been proposed, which transport energy by local operations and classical communication with the ground states of many-body quantum systems. In this paper, we compare two different QET protocols for transporting energy with the electromagnetic field. In the first protocol, a 1/2 spin (a qubit) is coupled with the quantum fluctuation in the vacuum state and measured in order to obtain one-bit information about the fluctuation for the teleportation. In the second protocol, a harmonic oscillator is coupled with the fluctuation and measured in order to obtain continuous-variable information about the fluctuation. In the spin protocol, the amount of teleported energy is suppressed by an exponential damping factor when the amount of input energy increases. This suppression factor becomes power damping in the case of the harmonic oscillator protocol. Therefore, it is concluded that obtaining more information about the quantum fluctuation leads to teleporting more energy. This result suggests a profound relationship between energy and quantum information.
Search for continuous and single day emission from ultra-high-energy sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Mei-Li.
1993-01-01
Data from the CYGNUS experiment has been used to search the northern sky for point sources of continuous ultra-high-energy gamma radiation and to examine 51 candidate sources on a daily basis to search for episodic emission. In this paper, we make use of our most recent data to update our previously published results from these searches. The data sample is approximately twice as large as the published data set for continuous emission, and contains an additional year for the daily search. The latest results, up to the time of the conference, will be presented at the meeting
SWAT3.1 - the integrated burnup code system driving continuous energy Monte Carlo codes MVP and MCNP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki; Takada, Tomoyuki; Ryufuku, Susumu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Murazaki, Minoru; Ohkubo, Kiyoshi
2009-05-01
Integrated burnup calculation code system SWAT is a system that combines neutronics calculation code SRAC,which is widely used in Japan, and point burnup calculation code ORIGEN2. It has been used to evaluate the composition of the uranium, plutonium, minor actinides and the fission products in the spent nuclear fuel. Based on this idea, the integrated burnup calculation code system SWAT3.1 was developed by combining the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP and MCNP, and ORIGEN2. This enables us to treat the arbitrary fuel geometry and to generate the effective cross section data to be used in the burnup calculation with few approximations. This report describes the outline, input data instruction and several examples of the calculation. (author)
Development of new cross-linked polyethylene for atomic energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Ohya, Shingo; Kubo, Masaji; Tsutsumi, Yukihiro; Seguchi, Tadao.
1988-01-01
Cross-linked polyethylene is the material which is used most as the insulating material for electric wires and cables, but for the cables for nuclear power stations and the wiring materials within machinery and equipment, the cross-linked polyethylene which is hard to burn by mixing burning-retarding agent is frequently used as the disaster-preventing countermeasures. As the burning-retarding agent for cross-linked polyethylene, bromine system agent that gives high burning retardation, chlorine system agent that can prevent melting and dripping at the time of burning and so on have been used so as to meet the objective. However by the addition of burning-retarding agents, the electrical and mechanical characteristics of cross-linked polyethylene lower, therefore consideration must be given to the use. In this paper, the results of the examination on the application of condensed acenaphthylene bromide as a new burning-retarding agent to cross-linked polyethylene are reported. White lead was effective for catching HBr. It was confirmed that more than 30 parts of this agent ensured burning retardation. By mixing this agent, the tensile strength increased, but the elongation lowered. It was found that the good radiation resistance was obtained by adding this agent. (K.I.)
Estimating the continuous-time dynamics of energy and fat metabolism in mice.
Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D
2009-09-01
The mouse has become the most popular organism for investigating molecular mechanisms of body weight regulation. But understanding the physiological context by which a molecule exerts its effect on body weight requires knowledge of energy intake, energy expenditure, and fuel selection. Furthermore, measurements of these variables made at an isolated time point cannot explain why body weight has its present value since body weight is determined by the past history of energy and macronutrient imbalance. While food intake and body weight changes can be frequently measured over several weeks (the relevant time scale for mice), correspondingly frequent measurements of energy expenditure and fuel selection are not currently feasible. To address this issue, we developed a mathematical method based on the law of energy conservation that uses the measured time course of body weight and food intake to estimate the underlying continuous-time dynamics of energy output and net fat oxidation. We applied our methodology to male C57BL/6 mice consuming various ad libitum diets during weight gain and loss over several weeks and present the first continuous-time estimates of energy output and net fat oxidation rates underlying the observed body composition changes. We show that transient energy and fat imbalances in the first several days following a diet switch can account for a significant fraction of the total body weight change. We also discovered a time-invariant curve relating body fat and fat-free masses in male C57BL/6 mice, and the shape of this curve determines how diet, fuel selection, and body composition are interrelated.
Continuously revised assurance cases with stakeholders’ cross-validation: a DEOS experience
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kimio Kuramitsu
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Recently, assurance cases have received much attention in the field of software-based computer systems and IT services. However, software changes very often, and there are no strong regulations for software. These facts are two main challenges to be addressed in the development of software assurance cases. We propose a method of developing assurance cases by means of continuous revision at every stage of the system life cycle, including in operation and service recovery in failure cases. Instead of a regulator, dependability arguments are validated by multiple stakeholders competing with each other. This paper reported our experience with the proposed method in the case of Aspen education service. The case study demonstrates that continuous revisions enable stakeholders to share dependability problems across software life cycle stages, which will lead to the long-term improvement of service dependability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morohashi, Yuko; Ishibashi, Junichi; Nishi, Hiroshi
2002-03-01
The criticality analysis of the MONJU initial critical core was conducted based on conventional methods developed by the JUPITER program. Effective cross sections were created, considering self-shielding effects, from the JAERI Fast Set (JFS-3-J3.2); group constants in 70 energy groups, which were processed from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-3.2). These were used in the standard calculation method: a 3-Dimensional Hexagonal-Z whole core calculation by diffusion theory. This standard calculation, however, involves several approximations. The continuous neutron energy spectrum is divided into 70 discrete energy groups and continuous spatial coordinates are represented by assembly-wise spatial meshes. Original transport equations are solved by diffusion theory (isotropic scattering) approximation and fine structures in fuel assemblies, such as fuel pins or wrapper tubes, are processed into cell-wise homogeneous mixture. To improve the accuracy of the results, these approximations are compensated for by applying corresponding correction factors. Cell heterogeneity effects, among them, were evaluated to be 0.3-0.4% Δk/kk' by diffusion calculations based on the group constants, obtained by heterogeneous cell model calculations. This method, however, has the drawback that it assumes that there is no interdependency of the related approximations; energy grouping, diffusion approximation, etc. A study on cell heterogeneity effects has been conducted using the continuous energy Monte Carlo method to validate the adequacy of this non-interdependency assumption. As a result, cell heterogeneity effects slightly larger than those from conventional methods have been obtained: 0.54% Δk/kk' for the initial critical core, and 0.50% Δk/kk' for the initial full power core. Dependency on plutonium enrichment and fuel temperature has also been identified, which implies the dependency of the cell heterogeneity effects on the specific core conditions. Grouping
DWBA differential and total pair production cross sections for intermediate energy photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selvaraju, C.; Bhullar, A.S.; Sud, K.K.
2001-01-01
We present in this communication the theoretical differential and total cross section for electron-positron pair creation by intermediate energy photons (5.0-10.0 MeV) on different targets (Z=1, 30, 50, 68, 82 and 92). The computed cross sections are in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) in point Coulomb potential. The database of the differential and total pair production cross sections is presented in tabulated as well as in graphical form and the interpolation of differential cross sections for different atomic numbers, positron and photon energies is discussed
Continuous thermal hydrolysis and energy integration in sludge anaerobic digestion plants.
Fdz-Polanco, F; Velazquez, R; Perez-Elvira, S I; Casas, C; del Barrio, D; Cantero, F J; Fdz-Polanco, M; Rodriguez, P; Panizo, L; Serrat, J; Rouge, P
2008-01-01
A thermal hydrolysis pilot plant with direct steam injection heating was designed and constructed. In a first period the equipment was operated in batch to verify the effect of sludge type, pressure and temperature, residence time and solids concentration. Optimal operation conditions were reached for secondary sludge at 170 degrees C, 7 bar and 30 minutes residence time, obtaining a disintegration factor higher than 10, methane production increase by 50% and easy centrifugation In a second period the pilot plant was operated working with continuous feed, testing the efficiency by using two continuous anaerobic digester operating in the mesophilic and thermophilic range. Working at 12 days residence time, biogas production increases by 40-50%. Integrating the energy transfer it is possible to design a self-sufficient system that takes advantage of this methane increase to produce 40% more electric energy. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.
Application of Energy Window Concept in Doppler Broadening of {sup 238}U Cross Section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khassnov, Azamat; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Deok Jung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
Currently, the NJOY code is used for construction and Doppler broadening of microscopic cross sections. There exist several methods or formalisms to produce microscopic cross sections and there are also different methods of Doppler broadening. In this paper, Multi-Level Breit-Wigner (MLBW) formalism and the Psi method are used for generation and Doppler broadening of the resonance cross section. Accuracy of the energy window concept applied MLBW (EW MLBW) Doppler broadened cross section was compared with that of the cross section generated by conventional MLBW (Con MLBW) formalism for {sup 2}38U isotope using MATLAB. The conventional method requires Doppler broadening of all resonances, including resonances far from the target energy point, which do not change much with respect to the temperature change. The energy window concept makes Doppler broadening possible with a smaller number of resonances neighboring to the energy point we are interested in, and just adds up 0 K temperature cross sections of other resonances. Multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism and the Doppler broadening method were used to construct microscopic cross sections of {sup 238}U at different temperatures. The energy window concept was applied only for the 1st resonance energy region (4.5∼11.2 eV). The energy window concept demonstrates high competitiveness because the relative differences were less than 0.0016% for all types of cross sections. The advantage of the energy window concept is that the number of resonances broadened for every energy point is significantly reduced, which allows a reduction of computation time by almost 45 % of Doppler broadening time of the cross section generation at temperatures higher than 0 K.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Yu
Continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) was used to prepare functional oxide nanoparticles. Materials synthesized include NiO, Y-doped ZrO2, Gd-doped CeO2, LaCrO3 and Ni-substituted CoFe2O4. These types of oxides can be applied in several energy conversion devices, e.g. as active materials...... as materials are continuously produced, and the technology can be scaled-up to an industrial-relevant production capacity. The thesis starts with investigating the most appropriate mixer design for a novel two-stage reactor by computational fluid dynamics modelling. On basis of the modelling results, a two......, dense continuous layers (
Energy Efficient, Cross-Layer Enabled, Dynamic Aggregation Networks for Next Generation Internet
Wang, Michael S.
Today, the Internet traffic is growing at a near exponential rate, driven predominately by data center-based applications and Internet-of-Things services. This fast-paced growth in Internet traffic calls into question the ability of the existing optical network infrastructure to support this continued growth. The overall optical networking equipment efficiency has not been able to keep up with the traffic growth, creating a energy gap that makes energy and cost expenditures scale linearly with the traffic growth. The implication of this energy gap is that it is infeasible to continue using existing networking equipment to meet the growing bandwidth demand. A redesign of the optical networking platform is needed. The focus of this dissertation is on the design and implementation of energy efficient, cross-layer enabled, dynamic optical networking platforms, which is a promising approach to address the exponentially growing Internet bandwidth demand. Chapter 1 explains the motivation for this work by detailing the huge Internet traffic growth and the unsustainable energy growth of today's networking equipment. Chapter 2 describes the challenges and objectives of enabling agile, dynamic optical networking platforms and the vision of the Center for Integrated Access Networks (CIAN) to realize these objectives; the research objectives of this dissertation and the large body of related work in this field is also summarized. Chapter 3 details the design and implementation of dynamic networking platforms that support wavelength switching granularity. The main contribution of this work involves the experimental validation of deep cross-layer communication across the optical performance monitoring (OPM), data, and control planes. The first experiment shows QoS-aware video streaming over a metro-scale test-bed through optical power monitoring of the transmission wavelength and cross-layer feedback control of the power level. The second experiment extends the performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downar, T.
2009-01-01
The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system. The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multidimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system. Specifically, the methods here utilize the existing continuous energy SCALE5 module, CENTRM, and the multi-dimensional discrete ordinates solver, NEWT to develop a new code, CENTRM( ) NEWT. The work here addresses specific theoretical limitations in existing CENTRM resonance treatment, as well as investigates advanced numerical and parallel computing algorithms for CENTRM and NEWT in order to reduce the computational burden. The result of the work here will be a new computer code capable of performing problem dependent self-shielding analysis for both existing and proposed GENIV fuel designs. The objective of the work was to have an immediate impact on the safety analysis of existing reactors through improvements in the calculation of fuel temperature effects, as well as on the analysis of more sophisticated GENIV/NGNP systems through improvements in the depletion/transmutation of actinides for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiatives.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barcellos, Luiz Felipe F.C.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T.M.B., E-mail: luizfelipe.fcb@gmail.com, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos Nucleares; Leite, Sergio Q. Bogado, E-mail: sbogado@ibest.com.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-07-01
In this work a Monte Carlo simulator with continuous energy is used. This simulator distinguishes itself by using the sum of three probability distributions to represent the neutron spectrum. Two distributions have known shape, but have varying population of neutrons in time, and these are the fission neutron spectrum (for high energy neutrons) and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (for thermal neutrons). The third distribution has an a priori unknown and possibly variable shape with time and is determined from parametrizations of Monte Carlo simulation. It is common practice in neutron transport calculations, e.g. multi-group transport, to consider that the neutrons only lose energy with each scattering reaction and then to use a thermal group with a Maxwellian distribution. Such an approximation is valid due to the fact that for fast neutrons up-scattering occurrence is irrelevant, being only appreciable at low energies, i.e. in the thermal energy region, in which it can be regarded as a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for thermal equilibrium. In this work the possible neutron-matter interactions are simulated with exception of the up-scattering of neutrons. In order to preserve the thermal spectrum, neutrons are selected stochastically as being part of the thermal population and have an energy attributed to them taken from a Maxwellian distribution. It is then shown how this procedure can emulate the up-scattering effect by the increase in the neutron population kinetic energy. Since the simulator uses tags to identify the reactions it is possible not only to plot the distributions by neutron energy, but also by the type of interaction with matter and with the identification of the target nuclei involved in the process. This work contains some preliminary results obtained from a Monte Carlo simulator for neutron transport that is being developed at Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. (author)
Total cross section for hadron production by e+e- annihilation at PETRA energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartel, W.; Canzler, T.; Cords, D.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Godermann, E.; Haidt, D.; Kawabata, S.; Krehbiel, H.
1979-10-01
The cross section for the process e + e - → multihadrons has been measured at the highest PETRA energies. We measure R (the total cross-section in units of the point-like e + e - → μ + μ - cross-section) to be 2.9 +- 0.7, 4.0 +- 0.5, 4.6 +- 0.4 and 4.2 +- 0.6 at √s of 22, 27.7, 30 and 31.6 GeV respectively. The observed average multiplicity, together with existing low energy data, indicate a rapid increase in multiplicity with increasing energy. (orig.)
Hatzell, Marta C.
2014-12-09
Efficient conversion of “mixing energy” to electricity through capacitive mixing (CapMix) has been limited by low energy recoveries, low power densities, and noncontinuous energy production resulting from intermittent charging and discharging cycles. We show here that a CapMix system based on a four-reactor process with flow electrodes can generate constant and continuous energy, providing a more flexible platform for harvesting mixing energy. The power densities were dependent on the flow-electrode carbon loading, with 5.8 ± 0.2 mW m–2 continuously produced in the charging reactor and 3.3 ± 0.4 mW m–2 produced in the discharging reactor (9.2 ± 0.6 mW m–2 for the whole system) when the flow-electrode carbon loading was 15%. Additionally, when the flow-electrode electrolyte ion concentration increased from 10 to 20 g L–1, the total power density of the whole system (charging and discharging) increased to 50.9 ± 2.5 mW m–2.
Continuous Improvement in Battery Testing at the NASA/JSC Energy System Test Area
Boyd, William; Cook, Joseph
2003-01-01
The Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas conducts development and qualification tests to fulfill Energy System Division responsibilities relevant to ASA programs and projects. EST A has historically called upon a variety of fluid, mechanical, electrical, environmental, and data system capabilities spread amongst five full-service facilities to test human and human supported spacecraft in the areas of propulsion systems, fluid systems, pyrotechnics, power generation, and power distribution and control systems. Improvements at ESTA are being made in full earnest of offering NASA project offices an option to choose a thorough test regime that is balanced with cost and schedule constraints. In order to continue testing of enabling power-related technologies utilized by the Energy System Division, an especially proactive effort has been made to increase the cost effectiveness and schedule responsiveness for battery testing. This paper describes the continuous improvement in battery testing at the Energy Systems Test Area being made through consolidation, streamlining, and standardization.
Continuous approximation for interaction energy of adamantane encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes
Baowan, Duangkamon; Hill, James M.; Bacsa, Wolfgang
2018-02-01
The interaction energy for two adjacent adamantane molecules and that of adamantane molecules encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes are investigated considering only dipole-dipole induced interaction. The Lennard-Jones potential and the continuous approximation are utilised to derive analytical expressions for these interaction energies. The equilibrium distance 3.281 Å between two adamantane molecules is determined. The smallest carbon nanotube radius b0 that can encapsulate the adamantane molecule and the radius of the tube bmax that gives the maximum suction energy, linearly depend on the adamantane radius, are calculated. For larger diameter tubes, the off axis position has been calculated, and equilibrium distance between molecule and tube wall is found to be close to the interlayer spacing in graphene.
Experimental research on energy circled fraction of continuous phase plates in focal spot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yuanhang; Yang Chunlin; Wen Shenglin; Shi Qikai; Wang Jian
2013-01-01
In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research process, the form of focal spot is extremely crucial. Especially in the indirect driven implosion, energy circled fraction is higher than 95% in focal spot. Based on the offline test platform, the focusing spot of continuous phase plates with different application error is clearly imaged on CCD. By experimental analysis, it is found that the beam rotation error, caliber error, translational error and inclination error have a high tolerance in affecting focal plane of CPP. Energy circled fraction is higher than 95%, the range is less than 0.5%. Nevertheless, the waterfront aberration seriously affects the shaping ability of the CPP. Clearly, the main factor of reducing energy circled fraction to less than 90% is waterfront aberration. (authors)
Reaction and total cross sections for low energy π+ and π- on isospin zero nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saunders, A.; Ho/ibraten, S.; Kraushaar, J.J.; Kriss, B.J.; Peterson, R.J.; Ristinen, R.A.; Brack, J.T.; Hofman, G.; Gibson, E.F.; Morris, C.L.
1996-01-01
Reaction and total cross sections for π + and π - on targets of 2 H, 6 Li, C, Al, Si, S, and Ca have been measured for beam energies from 42 to 65 MeV. The cross sections are proportional to the target mass at 50 MeV, consistent with transparency to these projectiles. The cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Shahhosseini, Zohreh
2013-12-27
Continuing education is one of the modern strategies to maintain and elevate knowledge and professional skills of nurses which in turn elevate the health status of society. Since several factors affect nurses' participation in continuing education, it's essential to know promoters and obstacles in this issue and plan accordingly. In this cross-sectional study, 361 Iranian nurses who were recruited by convenience sampling method completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire from October 2012 to April 2013. Topics covered the participants' attitudes towards facilitators and barriers of their participation in continuing education. Mean and standard deviation of participants ' age were 37.14±7.58 years and 93.94% were female. The maximum score of facilitators and barriers to nurses' participation in continuing education were related to "Update my knowledge" and "Work commitments" respectively. The results showed among Iranian nurses, the mean score of personal and structural barriers was significantly higher than the mean score of interpersonal ones (F=2122.66, peducation programs by enforcement of facilitators and reducing barriers focusing on the personal and structural barriers.
Behaviour of cross-sections for exclusive and inclusive processes at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Petrov, V.A.
1976-11-01
The character of the functional dependence of the cross-sections for inclusive and exclusive reactions on the energy of colliding particles has been established on the basis of the principles of casuality, spectrality and unitarity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, M.; Vonach, H.
1990-01-01
These proceedings of a specialists' meeting on neutron activation cross sections for fission and fusion energy applications are divided into 4 sessions bearing on: - data needs: 4 conferences - experimental work: 11 conferences - theoretical work: 4 conferences - evaluation work: 5 conferences
How fast is the growth of Total Cross Section at High Energies?
Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Sohail-Afzal, Tahir; Ayub-Faridi, M; Qadee-Afzal, M
2003-01-01
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Colliders have special agenda for the measurements of the total cross sections at high energies giving us an opportunity to touch cosmic ray energies. Recent analyses of the cosmic ray data together with earlier experimental measurements at ISR and SPS gives us an insight about the behaviour of this important parameter at asymptotic energies. We will study the growth of total cross section at high energies in the light of various theoretical approaches with special reference to measurements at RHIC and LHC.
Staple, Louis; Carter, Alix; Jensen, Jan L; Walker, Mark
2018-01-01
Paramedics participate in continuing medical education (CME) to maintain their skills and knowledge. An understanding of learning styles is important for education to be effective. This study examined the preferred learning styles of ground ambulance paramedics and describes how their preferred learning styles relate to the elective CME activities these paramedics attend. All paramedics (n=1,036) employed in a provincial ground ambulance service were invited to participate in a survey containing three parts: demographics, learning style assessed by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI), and elective CME activity. 260 paramedics (25%) participated in the survey. Preferred learning styles were: assimilator, 28%; diverger, 25%; converger, 24%; and accommodator, 23%. Advanced life support (ALS) providers had a higher proportion of assimilators (36%), and basic life support (BLS) providers had a higher proportion of divergers (30%). The learning style categories of CME activities attended by paramedics were: assimilators, 25%; divergers, 26%; convergers, 25%; and accommodators, 24%. These results suggest that paramedics are a diverse group of learners, and learning style differs within their demographics. Paramedics attend CME activities that complement all learning styles. Organizations providing education opportunities to paramedics should consider paramedics a diverse learning group when designing their CME programs.
Determination of extra-push energies for fusion from differential fission cross-section measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramamurthy, V.S.; Kapoor, S.S.
1993-01-01
Apparent discrepancies between values of extra-push energies for fusion of two heavy nuclei derived through measurements of fusion evaporation residue cross sections and of differential fission cross sections have been reported by Keller et al. We show here that with the inclusion of the recently proposed preequilibrium fission decay channel in the analysis, there is no inconsistency between the two sets of data in terms of the deduced extra-push energies
On total cross sections and slopes at superhigh energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremyan, Sh.S.; Zhamkochyan, V.M.
1985-01-01
A comparative analysis of hadron-hadron interactions in theories with critical and supercritical pomerons is carried out. The main characteristics of binary interactions in both theories are shown practically to coincide to each other in the whole range of accessible energies. Also an analysis of characteristics of hadron-nuclei interactions is given in the framework of Reggeon field theory with critical and supercritical pomerons and multiple scattering theory. The results obtained agree with available experimental data on proton-nuclei interactions at superhigh energies
Wang, Haiman; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Da; Zhou, Xiangtong; Feng, Yujie
2015-11-01
A continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor (CSMER) was developed by integrating anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrochemical system (MES). The system was capable of treating high strength artificial wastewater and simultaneously recovering electric and methane energy. Maximum power density of 583±9, 562±7, 533±10 and 572±6 mW m(-2) were obtained by each cell in a four-independent circuit mode operation at an OLR of 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). COD removal and energy recovery efficiency were 87.1% and 32.1%, which were 1.6 and 2.5 times higher than that of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Larger amount of Deltaproteobacteria (5.3%) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens (47%) can account for the better performance of CSMER, since syntrophic associations among them provided more degradation pathways compared to the CSTR. Results demonstrate the CSMER holds great promise for efficient wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukahori, Tokio; Iwamoto, Osamu; Chiba, Satoshi
2003-01-01
For an accelerator-driven nuclear waste transmutation system, it is very important to estimate sub-criticality of core system for feasibility and design study of the system. The fission cross section in the intermediate energy range has an important role. A program FISCAL has been developed to calculate neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections in the energy region from several tens of MeV to 3 GeV. FISCAL adopts the systematics considering experimental data for Ag- 243 Am. It is found that unified description of neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections is available. (author)
Development of continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okumura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Makoto
2001-01-01
Burn-up calculations based on the continuous energy Monte Carlo method became possible by development of MVP-BURN. To confirm the reliably of MVP-BURN, it was applied to the two numerical benchmark problems; cell burn-up calculations for High Conversion LWR lattice and BWR lattice with burnable poison rods. Major burn-up parameters have shown good agreements with the results obtained by a deterministic code (SRAC95). Furthermore, spent fuel composition calculated by MVP-BURN was compared with measured one. Atomic number densities of major actinides at 34 GWd/t could be predicted within 10% accuracy. (author)
Minimum Energy Control of 2D Positive Continuous-Discrete Linear Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaczorek Tadeusz
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The minimum energy control problem for the 2D positive continuous-discrete linear systems is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the reachability at the point of the systems are given. Sufficient conditions for the existence of solution to the problem are established. It is shown that if the system is reachable then there exists an optimal input that steers the state from zero boundary conditions to given final state and minimizing the performance index for only one step (q = 1. A procedure for solving of the problem is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ren Yuan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, S.I.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; El-Awady, J.; Woodward, C.; Uchic, M.D.
2011-01-01
The nudged elastic band (NEB) method is used to evaluate activation energies for dislocation intersection cross-slip in face-centered cubic (fcc) nickel and copper, to extend our prior work which used an approximate method. In this work we also extend the study by including Hirth locks (HL) in addition to Lomer-Cottrell locks and glide locks (GL). Using atomistic (molecular statics) simulations with embedded atom potentials we evaluated the activation barrier for a dislocation to transform from fully residing on the glide plane to fully residing on the cross-slip plane when intersecting a 120 o forest dislocation in both Ni and Cu. The initial separation between the screw and the intersecting dislocation on the (1 1 1) glide plane is varied to find a minimum in the activation energy. The NEB method gives energies that are ∼10% lower than those reported in our prior work. It is estimated that the activation energies for cross-slip from the fully glide plane state to the partially cross-slipped state at the 120 o intersection forming GL in Ni and Cu are ∼0.47 and ∼0.65 eV, respectively, and from the fully cross-slip plane state to the partially cross-slipped state forming LC are ∼0.68 and ∼0.67 eV. The activation energies for cross-slip from the fully glide plane state to the partially cross-slipped state at the 120 o intersection forming HL in Ni and Cu are estimated to be ∼0.09 and ∼0.31 eV, respectively. These values are a factor of 3-20 lower than the activation energy for bulk cross-slip in Ni and, a factor of 2-6 lower than the activation energy for cross-slip in Cu estimated by Friedel-Escaig analysis. These results suggest that cross-slip should nucleate preferentially at selected screw dislocation intersections in fcc materials and the activation energies for such mechanisms are also a function of stacking fault energy.
Nuclear Material Accountability Applications of a Continuous Energy and Direction Gamma Ray Detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerts, David; Bean, Robert; Paff, Marc
2010-01-01
The Idaho National Laboratory has recently developed a detector system based on the principle of a Wilson cloud chamber that gives the original energy and direction to a gamma ray source. This detector has the properties that the energy resolution is continuous and the direction to the source can be resolved to desired fidelity. Furthermore, the detector has low power requirements, is durable, operates in widely varying environments, and is relatively cheap to produce. This detector is expected, however, to require significant time to perform measurements. To mitigate the significant time for measurements, the detector is expected to scale to very large sizes with a linear increase in cost. For example, the proof of principle detector is approximately 30,000 cm3. This work describes the technical results that lead to these assertions. Finally, the applications of this detector are described in the context of nuclear material accountability.
Factorization of standard model cross sections at ultrahigh energy
Chien, Yang-Ting; Li, Hsiang-nan
2018-03-01
The factorization theorem for organizing multiple electroweak boson emissions at future colliders with energy far above the electroweak scale is formulated. Taking the inclusive muon-pair production in electron-positron collisions as an example, we argue that the summation over isospins is demanded for constructing the universal distributions of leptons and gauge bosons in an electron. These parton distributions are shown to have the same infrared structure in the phases of broken and unbroken electroweak symmetry, an observation consistent with the Goldstone equivalence theorem. The electroweak factorization of processes involving protons is sketched, with an emphasis on the subtlety of the scalar distributions. This formalism, in which electroweak shower effects are handled from the viewpoint of factorization theorem for the first time, is an adequate framework for collider physics at ultra high energy.
An intercomparison of medium energy cross-section codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearlstein, S.
1988-05-01
Five medium energy proton reaction cases are selected for benchmarking nuclear model codes. The quantities calculated are isotopic activation yields for 180 MeV protons on Al and 40-200 MeV protons on Co, and double differential neutron emission spectra from Al, Zr-90 and Pb-208 for 35, 80, 160, 318, and 800 presented consist of three types: a closed form preequilibrium plus evaporation model, an intranuclear-cascade and evaporation model, and a model relying on nuclear systematics. The characteristics of each code are described. There are orders of magnitude differences in the time for each type of code to calculate neutron emission spectra, with codes using systematics, preequilibrium and intranuclear-cascade models requiring seconds, minutes and hours, respectively. Calculations are not compared with experiment in this initial study. For double differential neutron emission spectra, there is good overall agreement in magnitude among the different types of codes at forward angles. Differences where they occur at forward angles are greatest for the mid-energy neutrons emitted. At back angles the incident energy at which the best overall agreement is obtained is 160 MeV and the material for which the best overall agreement is obtained is Al. 4 refs., 7 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Shiyang [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, School of Mathematical and Physical Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Pichl, Lukas [University of Aizu, Foundation of Computer Science Laboratory, Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Kimura, Mineo [Yamaguchi Univ., Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kato, Takako [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2003-01-01
Single-differential, partial and total ionization cross sections for the proton-hydrogen collision system at low energy range (0.1-10 keV/amu) are determined by using the electron translation factor corrected molecular-orbital close-coupling method. Full convergence of ionization cross sections as a function of H{sub 2}{sup +} molecular basis size is achieved by including up to 10 bound states, and 11 continuum partial waves. The present cross sections are in an excellent agreement with the recent experiments of Shah et al., but decrease more rapidly than the cross sections measured by Pieksma et al. with decreasing energy. The calculated cross section data are included in this report. (author)
A note on crossing the phantom divide in hybrid dark energy model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Hao; Cai Ronggen
2006-01-01
Recently a lot of attention has been given to building dark energy models in which the equation-of-state parameter w can cross the phantom divide w=-1. However, to our knowledge, these models with crossing the phantom divide only provide the possibility that w can cross -1. They do not answer another question: why crossing phantom divide occurs recently? Since in many existing models whose equation-of-state parameter can cross the phantom divide, w undulates around -1 randomly, why are we living in an epochw<-1? This can be regarded as the second cosmological coincidence problem. In this Letter, we propose a possible approach to alleviate this problem within a hybrid dark energy model
High-energy behaviour of e--H scattering cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, B.C.; Chaudhuri, J.; Ghosh, A.S.
1976-01-01
An integral form of the close coupling equation has been employed to investigate the high energy behaviour of the elastic and 2s excitation cross sections of hydrogen atom by electron impact retaining the 1s and 2s states. The results, with and without exchange, for both the total and the differential cross sections are presented. The effects of exchange as well as of couplings to the 1s-2s states on the elastic cross section have been studied. The FBA results for the elastic cross section differ from the present results appreciably in the energy range 100 to 200 eV where FBA is considered to be valid. On the other hand, the present 1s-2s excitation results are very close to the corresponding FBA results in the said energy region. (auth.)
Continuity equations for bound electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kholmetskii, A L; Missevitch, O V; Yarman, T
2011-01-01
We analyze the application of the Poynting theorem to the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic (EM) field and show that an often-used arbitrary elimination of the term of self-interaction in the product j·E (where j is the current density and E the electric field) represents, in general, an illegitimate operation, which leads to incorrect physical consequences. We propose correct ways of eliminating the terms of self-interaction from the Poynting theorem to transform it into the form that is convenient for problems with bound EM field, which yield the continuity equations for the proper EM energy density, the interaction part of EM energy density and the total EM energy density of bound fields, respectively. These equations indicate the incompleteness of the common EM energy-momentum tensor, and in our analysis, we find a missed term in its structure, which makes its trace non-vanished. Some implications of these results are discussed, in particular, in view of the notion of EM mass of charged particles.
Continuity equations for bound electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kholmetskii, A L [Department of Physics, Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Missevitch, O V [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, 11 Bobruiskaya Street, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Yarman, T, E-mail: khol123@yahoo.com [Department of Engineering, Okan University, Akfirat, Istanbul, Turkey and Savronik, Eskisehir (Turkey)
2011-05-01
We analyze the application of the Poynting theorem to the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic (EM) field and show that an often-used arbitrary elimination of the term of self-interaction in the product j{center_dot}E (where j is the current density and E the electric field) represents, in general, an illegitimate operation, which leads to incorrect physical consequences. We propose correct ways of eliminating the terms of self-interaction from the Poynting theorem to transform it into the form that is convenient for problems with bound EM field, which yield the continuity equations for the proper EM energy density, the interaction part of EM energy density and the total EM energy density of bound fields, respectively. These equations indicate the incompleteness of the common EM energy-momentum tensor, and in our analysis, we find a missed term in its structure, which makes its trace non-vanished. Some implications of these results are discussed, in particular, in view of the notion of EM mass of charged particles.
Solving the radiation diffusion and energy balance equations using pseudo-transient continuation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shestakov, A.I.; Greenough, J.A.; Howell, L.H.
2005-01-01
We develop a scheme for the system coupling the radiation diffusion and matter energy balance equations. The method is based on fully implicit, first-order, backward Euler differencing; Picard-Newton iterations solve the nonlinear system. We show that iterating on the radiation energy density and the emission source is more robust. Since the Picard-Newton scheme may not converge for all initial conditions and time steps, pseudo-transient continuation (Ψtc) is introduced. The combined Ψtc-Picard-Newton scheme is analyzed. We derive conditions on the Ψtc parameter that guarantee physically meaningful iterates, e.g., positive energies. Successive Ψtc iterates are bounded and the radiation energy density and emission source tend to equilibrate. The scheme is incorporated into a multiply dimensioned, massively parallel, Eulerian, radiation-hydrodynamic computer program with automatic mesh refinement (AMR). Three examples are presented that exemplify the scheme's performance. (1) The Pomraning test problem that models radiation flow into cold matter. (2) A similar, but more realistic problem simulating the propagation of an ionization front into tenuous hydrogen gas with a Saha model for the equation-of-state. (3) A 2D axisymmetric (R,Z) simulation with real materials featuring jetting, radiatively driven, interacting shocks
Enabling "new" practices of renewable energy sharing : A cross-cultural approach
Singh, A.; Van Dijk, H.W.; Romero Herrera, N.A.; Keyson, D.V.
2015-01-01
Local generation, distribution and consumption of renewable energy within neighborhood is an emerging application context for the concept of `sharing'. This position paper introduces a cross-cultural approach to enable `new' social practices of renewable energy sharing in neighborhoods. The approach
Possible explanation of the interaction cross-section growth at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belyakov, V.A.; Strel'tsov, V.N.
1992-01-01
On the basis of the relativized Yukawa potential it is shown that the mowing hadron transverse size grows with increasing its energy ∼(lnγ) 0.8 (γ is the Lorentz factor). The opinion is expressed that the known growth of the interaction cross section at high energies is due to the indicated reason. 9 refs.; 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dal Magro, Fabio; Meneghetti, Antonella; Nardin, Gioacchino; Savino, Stefano
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A system based on phase change material is inserted into the off-gas-line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace. • The off-gas temperature profile after scrap preheating is smoothed. • A heat transfer fluid through phase change material containers allows to control overheating issues. • The smoothed off-gas profiles enable efficient downstream power generation. • The recovery system investment cost is decreased due to lower sizes of components. - Abstract: In order to allow an efficient energy recovery from off-gas in the steel industry, the high variability of heat flow should be managed. A temperature smoothing device based on phase change materials at high temperatures is inserted into the off-gas line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace process with scrap preheating. To address overheating issues, a heat transfer fluid flowing through containers is introduced and selected by developing an analytical model. The performance of the smoothing system is analyzed by thermo-fluid dynamic simulations. The reduced maximum temperature of off-gas allows to reduce the size and investment cost of the downstream energy recovery system, while the increased minimum temperature enhances the steam turbine load factor, thus increasing its utilization. Benefits on environmental issues due to dioxins generation are also gained
New sampling method in continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation for pebble bed reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito; Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki.
1997-01-01
A pebble bed reactor generally has double heterogeneity consisting of two kinds of spherical fuel element. In the core, there exist many fuel balls piled up randomly in a high packing fraction. And each fuel ball contains a lot of small fuel particles which are also distributed randomly. In this study, to realize precise neutron transport calculation of such reactors with the continuous energy Monte Carlo method, a new sampling method has been developed. The new method has been implemented in the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP to develop a modified version MCNP-BALL. This method was validated by calculating inventory of spherical fuel elements arranged successively by sampling during transport calculation and also by performing criticality calculations in ordered packing models. From the results, it was confirmed that the inventory of spherical fuel elements could be reproduced using MCNP-BALL within a sufficient accuracy of 0.2%. And the comparison of criticality calculations in ordered packing models between MCNP-BALL and the reference method shows excellent agreement in neutron spectrum as well as multiplication factor. MCNP-BALL enables us to analyze pebble bed type cores such as PROTEUS precisely with the continuous energy Monte Carlo method. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, R.E.H.; Cowan, R.D.; Bobrowicz, F.W.
1986-01-01
Hartree--Fock wave functions have been used to calculate configuration -averaged photoionization cross sections and ionization energies for orbitals 1s< or =nl< or =5g in He-like through Al-like isoelectroni csequences. The photoionization cross sections have been fitted as a function of the nuclear charge, Z, and photon energy, X, in threshold units, with average error of less than 10%. The ionization energies have been fitted as a function of Z with errors of less than 0.5%
Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the 28Si+28Si reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vineyard, M.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Gosdin, C.H.; Trotter, R.S.; Kovar, D.G.; Beck, C.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Wilkins, B.D.; Rosner, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Ikezoe, H.; Kuhn, W.; Kolata, J.J.; Hinnefeld, J.D.; Maguire, C.F.; Mateja, J.F.; Prosser, F.W.; Stephans, G.S.F.
1990-01-01
Velocity distributions of mass-identified evaporation residues produced in the 28 Si+ 28 Si reaction have been measured at bombarding energies of 174, 215, 240, 309, 397, and 452 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. These distributions were used to identify evaporation residues and to separate the complete-fusion and incomplete-fusion components. Angular distributions and total cross sections were extracted at all six bombarding energies. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with lower energy data and the predictions of existing models
Cross section for electronic energy transfer between mercury isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lagushenko, R.; Grossman, M.W.; Maya, J.
1984-01-01
Previous estimates of the cross section (sigma) for the process 1 Hg(6 3 P 1 )+ /sup J/ Hg(6 1 S /sub o/ )→ 1 Hg(6 1 S /sub o/ )+ /sup J/ Hg(6 3 P 1 ), where i and j are any one of the six stable Hg isotopes, are no better than a factor of ten. We have recently measured the hyperfine structure of the 253.7nm Hg resonance line in low pressure Hg-Ar discharge for natural Hg as well as Hg enriched in 196 Hg by 2-4%, as a function of temperature. Using our previously developed resonance radiation transport model in a low pressure Hg+Ar plasma we calculated the exact shape of the hyperfine structure and found a high degree of sensitivity to the value of (sigma). By varying (sigma) we were able to obtain a best fit to the measured hyperfine structure as a function of temperature. This fit determined the value of (sigma). We believe the accuracy of this determination is about 30%
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Ho Jin; Cho, Jin Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
In this study, multi-group cross section libraries for the DeCART code were generated using a new procedure. The new procedure includes generating the RI tables based on the MC calculations, correcting the effective fission product yield calculations, and considering most of the fission products as resonant nuclides. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the transport lattice code KARMA (Kernel Analyzer by Ray-tracing Method for fuel Assembly) and DeCART (Deterministic Core Analysis based on Ray Tracing) for a multi-group neutron transport analysis of light water reactors (LWRs). These codes adopt the method of characteristics (MOC) to solve the multi-group transport equation and resonance fixed source problem, the subgroup and the direct iteration method with resonance integral tables for resonance treatment. With the development of the DeCART and KARMA code, KAERI has established its own library generation system for a multi-group transport calculation. In the KAERI library generation system, the multi-group average cross section and resonance integral (RI) table are generated and edited using PENDF (point-wise ENDF) and GENDF (group-wise ENDF) produced by the NJOY code. The new method does not need additional processing because the MC method can handle any geometry information and material composition. In this study, the new method is applied to the dominant resonance nuclide such as U{sup 235} and U{sup 238} and the conventional method is applied to the minor resonance nuclides. To examine the newly generated multi-group cross section libraries, various benchmark calculations such as pin-cell, FA, and core depletion problem are performed and the results are compared with the reference solutions. Overall, the results by the new method agree well with the reference solution. The new procedure based on the MC method were verified and provided the multi-group library that can be used in the SMR nuclear design analysis.
Inhibition of crossed-beam energy transfer induced by expansion-velocity fluctuations
Neuville, C.; Glize, K.; Loiseau, P.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Debayle, A.; Casanova, M.; Baccou, C.; Labaune, C.; Depierreux, S.
2018-04-01
Crossed-beam energy transfer between three laser beams has been experimentally investigated in a flowing plasma. Time-evolution measurements of the amplification of a first beam by a second beam highlighted the inhibition of energy transfer by hydrodynamic modifications of the plasma in the crossing volume due to the propagation of a third beam. According to 3D simulations and an analytical model, it appears that the long-wavelength expansion-velocity fluctuations produced by the propagation of the third beam in the crossing volume are responsible for this mitigation of energy transfer. This effect could be a cause of the over-estimation of the amount of the transferred energy in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments. Besides, tuning such long-wavelength fluctuations could be a way to completely inhibit CBET at the laser entrance holes of hohlraums.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demirel, Burak
2009-01-01
Continuous bio-methanization of an energy crop, namely the beet silage, was investigated in this laboratory-scale work as mono-substrate, using a mesophilic biogas digester controlled by a fuzzy logic control (FLC) technique and without using any supplementing or buffering agent, despite the low pH of the substrate around 3.80. The temperature, pH, redox potential (ORP), daily biogas production and composition of digester biogas were continuously measured online. During the operation, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 24.8 and 9 days, as the organic loading rate (OLR) ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 g L -1 d -1 . The average pH, specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) and volumetric gas production rate (vol. GPR) were determined to be 7.12, 0.31 L g VS -1 d -1 and 1.084 L L -1 d -1 , respectively. The average methane (CH 4 ) content of digester biogas was about 56%. The FLC technique, which was developed at HAW Hamburg for anaerobic conversion of acidic energy crops to methane, determined the daily feeding volume (∼ OLR/HRT) for the biogas digester, depending on the feedback from online pH and methane measurements, and on the calculation of the spec. GPR. The spec. GPR was calculated by the corrected daily biogas production. Through online monitoring of pH, biogas production rate and composition, and by use of the FLC technique, the acidic beet silage could continuously be converted to biogas, without using manure or any other kind of buffering or supplementing agent(s). The lab-scale anaerobic biogas digester performed stable and safe, without encountering any problems of instability, as indicated by an adequate amount of buffering capacity, a VFA content below 0.5 g L -1 and a neutral pH range throughout the study.
Effects of respiration depth on human body radar cross section Using 2.4GHz continuous wave radar.
Lee, Alexander; Xiaomeng Gao; Jia Xu; Boric-Lubecke, Olga
2017-07-01
In this study, it was tested whether deep and shallow breathing has an effect on the cardiopulmonary radar cross-section (RCS). Continuous wave radar with quadrature architecture at 2.4GHz was used to test 2 human subjects breathing deep and shallow for 30 seconds each while seated 2 meters away from the radar. A retro-reflective marker was placed on the sternum of each subject and measured by infrared motion capture cameras to accurately track displacement of the chest. The quadrature radar outputs were processed to find the radius of the arc on the IQ plot using a circle-fitting algorithm. Results showed that the effective RCS ratio of deep to shallow breathing for subjects 1 and 2 was 6.99 and 2.24 respectively.
Endpoint behavior of high-energy scattering cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul
2010-01-01
In high-energy processes near the endpoint, there emerge new contributions associated with spectator interactions. Away from the endpoint region, these new contributions are suppressed compared to the leading contribution, but the leading contribution becomes suppressed as we approach the endpoint and the new contributions become comparable. We present how the new contributions scale as we reach the endpoint and show that they are comparable to the suppressed leading contributions in deep inelastic scattering by employing a power-counting analysis. The hadronic tensor in deep inelastic scattering is shown to factorize including the spectator interactions, and it can be expressed in terms of the light cone distribution amplitudes of initial hadrons. We also consider the contribution of the spectator contributions in Drell-Yan processes. Here the spectator interactions are suppressed compared to double parton annihilation according to the power counting.
The demagnetizing energies of a uniformly magnetized cylinder with an elliptic cross-section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goode, D.A.; Rowlands, G.
2003-01-01
Analytic expressions for the demagnetizing energies are obtained in the form of partial series, for long elliptic cylinders and for squat ones where the ellipticity of the cross-section is unrestrained. This leaves just a small range where the demagnetizing energies are not well defined. It is found that by replacing the elliptic cylinders with rectangular blocks, a good approximation to the demagnetizing energy may be made in this small range
An analysis of MCNP cross-sections and tally methods for low-energy photon emitters.
Demarco, John J; Wallace, Robert E; Boedeker, Kirsten
2002-04-21
Monte Carlo calculations are frequently used to analyse a variety of radiological science applications using low-energy (10-1000 keV) photon sources. This study seeks to create a low-energy benchmark for the MCNP Monte Carlo code by simulating the absolute dose rate in water and the air-kerma rate for monoenergetic point sources with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV. The analysis compares four cross-section datasets as well as the tally method for collision kerma versus absorbed dose. The total photon attenuation coefficient cross-section for low atomic number elements has changed significantly as cross-section data have changed between 1967 and 1989. Differences of up to 10% are observed in the photoelectric cross-section for water at 30 keV between the standard MCNP cross-section dataset (DLC-200) and the most recent XCOM/NIST tabulation. At 30 keV, the absolute dose rate in water at 1.0 cm from the source increases by 7.8% after replacing the DLC-200 photoelectric cross-sections for water with those from the XCOM/NIST tabulation. The differences in the absolute dose rate are analysed when calculated with either the MCNP absorbed dose tally or the collision kerma tally. Significant differences between the collision kerma tally and the absorbed dose tally can occur when using the DLC-200 attenuation coefficients in conjunction with a modern tabulation of mass energy-absorption coefficients.
Energy-Efficient Integration of Continuous Context Sensing and Prediction into Smartwatches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Rawassizadeh
2015-09-01
Full Text Available As the availability and use of wearables increases, they are becoming a promising platform for context sensing and context analysis. Smartwatches are a particularly interesting platform for this purpose, as they offer salient advantages, such as their proximity to the human body. However, they also have limitations associated with their small form factor, such as processing power and battery life, which makes it difficult to simply transfer smartphone-based context sensing and prediction models to smartwatches. In this paper, we introduce an energy-efficient, generic, integrated framework for continuous context sensing and prediction on smartwatches. Our work extends previous approaches for context sensing and prediction on wrist-mounted wearables that perform predictive analytics outside the device. We offer a generic sensing module and a novel energy-efficient, on-device prediction module that is based on a semantic abstraction approach to convert sensor data into meaningful information objects, similar to human perception of a behavior. Through six evaluations, we analyze the energy efficiency of our framework modules, identify the optimal file structure for data access and demonstrate an increase in accuracy of prediction through our semantic abstraction method. The proposed framework is hardware independent and can serve as a reference model for implementing context sensing and prediction on small wearable devices beyond smartwatches, such as body-mounted cameras.
Energy-Efficient Integration of Continuous Context Sensing and Prediction into Smartwatches.
Rawassizadeh, Reza; Tomitsch, Martin; Nourizadeh, Manouchehr; Momeni, Elaheh; Peery, Aaron; Ulanova, Liudmila; Pazzani, Michael
2015-09-08
As the availability and use of wearables increases, they are becoming a promising platform for context sensing and context analysis. Smartwatches are a particularly interesting platform for this purpose, as they offer salient advantages, such as their proximity to the human body. However, they also have limitations associated with their small form factor, such as processing power and battery life, which makes it difficult to simply transfer smartphone-based context sensing and prediction models to smartwatches. In this paper, we introduce an energy-efficient, generic, integrated framework for continuous context sensing and prediction on smartwatches. Our work extends previous approaches for context sensing and prediction on wrist-mounted wearables that perform predictive analytics outside the device. We offer a generic sensing module and a novel energy-efficient, on-device prediction module that is based on a semantic abstraction approach to convert sensor data into meaningful information objects, similar to human perception of a behavior. Through six evaluations, we analyze the energy efficiency of our framework modules, identify the optimal file structure for data access and demonstrate an increase in accuracy of prediction through our semantic abstraction method. The proposed framework is hardware independent and can serve as a reference model for implementing context sensing and prediction on small wearable devices beyond smartwatches, such as body-mounted cameras.
Neutron total cross section measurements in the energy region from 47 keV to 20 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poenitz, W.P.; Whalen, J.F.
1983-05-01
Neutron total cross sections were measured for 26 elements. Data were obtained in the energy range from 47 keV to 20 MeV for 11 elements in the range of light-mass fission products. Previously reported measurements for eight heavy and actinide isotopes were extended to 20 MeV. Data were also obtained for Cu (47 keV to 1.4 MeV) and for Sc, Zn, Nd, Hf, and Pt (1.8 to 20 MeV). The present work is part of a continuing effort to provide accurate neutron total cross sections for evaluations and for optical-model parameteriztions. The latter are required for the derivation of other nuclear-data information of importance to applied programs. 37 references
Fusion cross sections for 6,7Li + 24Mg reactions at energies below and above the barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ray, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Pradhan, M. K.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, M. Saha; Dasmahapatra, B.; Palit, R.; Majumdar, I.; Joshi, P. K.; Jain, H. C.
2008-01-01
Measurement of fusion cross sections for the 6,7 Li + 24 Mg reactions by the characteristic γ-ray method has been done at energies from below to well above the respective Coulomb barriers. The fusion cross sections obtained from these γ-ray cross sections for the two systems are found to agree well with the total reaction cross sections at low energies. The relatively large difference between total cross sections and measured fusion cross sections at higher energies is consistent with the fact that other channels, in particular breakup, open up with an increase of bombarding energy. The breakup channel, however, appears not to have any influence on fusion cross sections. The critical angular momenta (l cr ) deduced from the fusion cross sections are found to have an energy dependence similar to other Li-induced reactions
Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Morcelle, V.
2010-06-01
Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range 6 Li- 238 U, and 158 projectile nuclei from 2 H up to 84 Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)
Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L., E-mail: emil@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2010-06-15
Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range {sup 6}Li-{sup 238}U, and 158 projectile nuclei from {sup 2}H up to {sup 84}Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng
2011-01-01
In this paper, we obtain a relation between the high-energy absorption cross section and the strong gravitational lensing for a static and spherically symmetric black hole. It provides us a possible way to measure the high-energy absorption cross section for a black hole from strong gravitational lensing through astronomical observation. More importantly, it allows us to compute the total energy emission rate for high-energy particles emitted from the black hole acting as a gravitational lens. It could tell us the range of the frequency, among which the black hole emits the most of its energy and the gravitational waves are most likely to be observed. We also apply it to the Janis-Newman-Winicour solution. The results suggest that we can test the cosmic censorship hypothesis through the observation of gravitational lensing by the weakly naked singularities acting as gravitational lenses.
Hadronic multiplicity and total cross-section: a new scaling in wide energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobylinsky, N.A.; Martynov, E.S.; Shelest, V.P.
1983-01-01
The ratio of mean multiplicity to total cross-section is shown to be the same for all the Regge models and to rise with energy as lns which is confirmed by experimental data. Hence, a power of multiplicity growth is unambiguously connected with that of total cross-section. As regards the observed growth, approximately ln 2 s, it tells about a dipole character of pomeron singularity
Total cross sections of hadron interactions at high energies in low constituents number model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramovskij, V.A.; Radchenko, N.V.
2009-01-01
We consider QCD hadrons interaction model in which gluons density is low in initial state wave function in rapidity space and real hadrons are produced from color strings decay. In this model behavior of total cross sections of pp, pp bar, π ± p, K ± p, γp, and γγ interactions is well described. The value of proton-proton total cross section at LHC energy is predicted
Measurement of the antiproton-nucleus annihilation cross-section at low energy
Aghai-Khozani, H.; Bianconi, A.; Corradini, M.; Hayano, R.; Hori, M.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Mascagna, V.; Murakami, Y.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Venturelli, L.; Yamada, H.
2018-02-01
Systematic measurements of the annihilation cross sections of low energy antinucleons were performed at CERN in the 80's and 90's. However the antiproton data on medium-heavy and heavy nuclear targets are scarce. The ASACUSA Collaboration at CERN has measured the antiproton annihilation cross section on carbon at 5.3 MeV: the value is (1.73 ± 0.25) barn. The result is compared with the antineutron experimental data and with the theoretical previsions.
General purpose dynamic Monte Carlo with continuous energy for transient analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sjenitzer, B. L.; Hoogenboom, J. E. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Radiation, Radionuclide and Reactors, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands)
2012-07-01
For safety assessments transient analysis is an important tool. It can predict maximum temperatures during regular reactor operation or during an accident scenario. Despite the fact that this kind of analysis is very important, the state of the art still uses rather crude methods, like diffusion theory and point-kinetics. For reference calculations it is preferable to use the Monte Carlo method. In this paper the dynamic Monte Carlo method is implemented in the general purpose Monte Carlo code Tripoli4. Also, the method is extended for use with continuous energy. The first results of Dynamic Tripoli demonstrate that this kind of calculation is indeed accurate and the results are achieved in a reasonable amount of time. With the method implemented in Tripoli it is now possible to do an exact transient calculation in arbitrary geometry. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siažik Ján
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Hydrates of the natural gas in the lithosphere are a very important potential source of energy that will be probably used in the coming decades. It seems as promising accumulation of the standard gas to form hydrates synthetically, stored, and disengage him when is peak demand. Storage of natural gas or biomethane in hydrates is advantageous not only in terms of storage capacity, but also from the aspect of safety storage hydrates. The gas stored in such form may occurs at relatively high temperatures and low pressures in comparison to other Technologies of gas- storage. In one cubic meter of hydrate can be stored up to 150 m3 of natural gas, depending on the conditions of thermobaric hydrate generation. This article discusses the design of the facility for the continuous generation of hydrates of natural gas measurement methodology and optimal conditions for their generation.
Derrida's Generalized Random Energy models; 4, Continuous state branching and coalescents
Bovier, A
2003-01-01
In this paper we conclude our analysis of Derrida's Generalized Random Energy Models (GREM) by identifying the thermodynamic limit with a one-parameter family of probability measures related to a continuous state branching process introduced by Neveu. Using a construction introduced by Bertoin and Le Gall in terms of a coherent family of subordinators related to Neveu's branching process, we show how the Gibbs geometry of the limiting Gibbs measure is given in terms of the genealogy of this process via a deterministic time-change. This construction is fully universal in that all different models (characterized by the covariance of the underlying Gaussian process) differ only through that time change, which in turn is expressed in terms of Parisi's overlap distribution. The proof uses strongly the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities that impose the structure of Neveu's process as the only possible asymptotic random mechanism.
A BGK model for reactive mixtures of polyatomic gases with continuous internal energy
Bisi, M.; Monaco, R.; Soares, A. J.
2018-03-01
In this paper we derive a BGK relaxation model for a mixture of polyatomic gases with a continuous structure of internal energies. The emphasis of the paper is on the case of a quaternary mixture undergoing a reversible chemical reaction of bimolecular type. For such a mixture we prove an H -theorem and characterize the equilibrium solutions with the related mass action law of chemical kinetics. Further, a Chapman-Enskog asymptotic analysis is performed in view of computing the first-order non-equilibrium corrections to the distribution functions and investigating the transport properties of the reactive mixture. The chemical reaction rate is explicitly derived at the first order and the balance equations for the constituent number densities are derived at the Euler level.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menicucci, David F.
2006-07-01
A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.
Well logging method and apparatus using a continuous energy spectrum photon source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turcotte, R.E.
1976-01-01
In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus for logging an earth formation of interest is disclosed in which repetitive bursts of a continuous energy spectrum of photons are emitted that penetrate the media surrounding a borehole traversing the earth formation. Thereafter, indications of photons resulting from the interaction of the emitted photons and the surrounding media are obtained, each indication being obtained at a different separation from the source along the axis of the borehole. Finally, the indications are compared to determine representations of a characteristic of the media surrounding the borehole. According to one aspect of the present invention, at least one of the indications is the result of annihilation photons produced by the interaction of the emitted photons and the surrounding media
Surles, M C; Richardson, J S; Richardson, D C; Brooks, F P
1994-02-01
We describe a new paradigm for modeling proteins in interactive computer graphics systems--continual maintenance of a physically valid representation, combined with direct user control and visualization. This is achieved by a fast algorithm for energy minimization, capable of real-time performance on all atoms of a small protein, plus graphically specified user tugs. The modeling system, called Sculpt, rigidly constrains bond lengths, bond angles, and planar groups (similar to existing interactive modeling programs), while it applies elastic restraints to minimize the potential energy due to torsions, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals and electrostatic interactions (similar to existing batch minimization programs), and user-specified springs. The graphical interface can show bad and/or favorable contacts, and individual energy terms can be turned on or off to determine their effects and interactions. Sculpt finds a local minimum of the total energy that satisfies all the constraints using an augmented Lagrange-multiplier method; calculation time increases only linearly with the number of atoms because the matrix of constraint gradients is sparse and banded. On a 100-MHz MIPS R4000 processor (Silicon Graphics Indigo), Sculpt achieves 11 updates per second on a 20-residue fragment and 2 updates per second on an 80-residue protein, using all atoms except non-H-bonding hydrogens, and without electrostatic interactions. Applications of Sculpt are described: to reverse the direction of bundle packing in a designed 4-helix bundle protein, to fold up a 2-stranded beta-ribbon into an approximate beta-barrel, and to design the sequence and conformation of a 30-residue peptide that mimics one partner of a protein subunit interaction. Computer models that are both interactive and physically realistic (within the limitations of a given force field) have 2 significant advantages: (1) they make feasible the modeling of very large changes (such as needed for de novo design), and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, L.
1976-11-01
The shape of the thorium absorption cross section near thermal energies was investigated. This shape is dominated by one or more negative energy resonances whose parameters are not directly known, but must be inferred from higher energy data. Since the integral quantity most conveniently describing the thermal cross section shape is the Westcottg-factor, effort was directed toward establishing this quantity to high precision. Three nearly independent g-factor estimates were obtained from measurements on a variety of foils in three different neutron spectra provided by polyethylene-moderated neutrons from a 252 Cf source and from irradiations in the National Bureau of Standards ''Standard Thermal Neutron Density.'' The weighted average of the three measurements was 0.993 +- 0.004. This is in good agreement with two recent evaluations and supports the adequacy of the current cross section descriptions
Valence shell photoionization energies and cross-sections of NF sub 3 and PF sub 3
Jürgensen, A
2003-01-01
Relative outer valence shell ionization potentials and cross-sections were determined for the isostructural, Group 15, trifluorides NF sub 3 and PF sub 3 in the gas phase using synchrotron radiation. Excitation photon energies ranged from 70 to 160 eV. The experimental spectra were assigned and cross-sections analyzed with the aid of both MS-X alpha and ab initio calculations. Spectral differences in peak energies and relative intensities are related to structural and electronic differences between these two fluoride molecules. Valence shell ionization potentials were compared to calculated values obtained by several different methods. The partial photoionization cross-sections for each orbital were obtained as a function of excitation energy and compared to theoretical results obtained with the X alpha method.
Sampling-based nuclear data uncertainty quantification for continuous energy Monte-Carlo codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, T.
2015-01-01
Research on the uncertainty of nuclear data is motivated by practical necessity. Nuclear data uncertainties can propagate through nuclear system simulations into operation and safety related parameters. The tolerance for uncertainties in nuclear reactor design and operation can affect the economic efficiency of nuclear power, and essentially its sustainability. The goal of the present PhD research is to establish a methodology of nuclear data uncertainty quantification (NDUQ) for MCNPX, the continuous-energy Monte-Carlo (M-C) code. The high fidelity (continuous-energy treatment and flexible geometry modelling) of MCNPX makes it the choice of routine criticality safety calculations at PSI/LRS, but also raises challenges for NDUQ by conventional sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) methods. For example, only recently in 2011, the capability of calculating continuous energy κ_e_f_f sensitivity to nuclear data was demonstrated in certain M-C codes by using the method of iterated fission probability. The methodology developed during this PhD research is fundamentally different from the conventional S/U approach: nuclear data are treated as random variables and sampled in accordance to presumed probability distributions. When sampled nuclear data are used in repeated model calculations, the output variance is attributed to the collective uncertainties of nuclear data. The NUSS (Nuclear data Uncertainty Stochastic Sampling) tool is based on this sampling approach and implemented to work with MCNPX’s ACE format of nuclear data, which also gives NUSS compatibility with MCNP and SERPENT M-C codes. In contrast, multigroup uncertainties are used for the sampling of ACE-formatted pointwise-energy nuclear data in a groupwise manner due to the more limited quantity and quality of nuclear data uncertainties. Conveniently, the usage of multigroup nuclear data uncertainties allows consistent comparison between NUSS and other methods (both S/U and sampling-based) that employ the same
Sampling-based nuclear data uncertainty quantification for continuous energy Monte-Carlo codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, T.
2015-07-01
Research on the uncertainty of nuclear data is motivated by practical necessity. Nuclear data uncertainties can propagate through nuclear system simulations into operation and safety related parameters. The tolerance for uncertainties in nuclear reactor design and operation can affect the economic efficiency of nuclear power, and essentially its sustainability. The goal of the present PhD research is to establish a methodology of nuclear data uncertainty quantification (NDUQ) for MCNPX, the continuous-energy Monte-Carlo (M-C) code. The high fidelity (continuous-energy treatment and flexible geometry modelling) of MCNPX makes it the choice of routine criticality safety calculations at PSI/LRS, but also raises challenges for NDUQ by conventional sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) methods. For example, only recently in 2011, the capability of calculating continuous energy κ{sub eff} sensitivity to nuclear data was demonstrated in certain M-C codes by using the method of iterated fission probability. The methodology developed during this PhD research is fundamentally different from the conventional S/U approach: nuclear data are treated as random variables and sampled in accordance to presumed probability distributions. When sampled nuclear data are used in repeated model calculations, the output variance is attributed to the collective uncertainties of nuclear data. The NUSS (Nuclear data Uncertainty Stochastic Sampling) tool is based on this sampling approach and implemented to work with MCNPX’s ACE format of nuclear data, which also gives NUSS compatibility with MCNP and SERPENT M-C codes. In contrast, multigroup uncertainties are used for the sampling of ACE-formatted pointwise-energy nuclear data in a groupwise manner due to the more limited quantity and quality of nuclear data uncertainties. Conveniently, the usage of multigroup nuclear data uncertainties allows consistent comparison between NUSS and other methods (both S/U and sampling-based) that employ the same
Neutron cross section standards for the energy region above 20 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
These proceedings of a specialists' meeting on Neutron cross section standards for the energy region above 20 MeV are divided into 6 sessions bearing on: - session 1: status of the date base for (n-p) scattering (2 conferences) - session 2: status of nucleon-nucleon phase shift calculations (1 conference) - session 3: recent and planned experimental work on n-p cross section measurements and facilities (7 conferences) - session 4: Instruments for utilizing the H (n.n) standard for neutron fluence measurement (4 conferences) - session 5: proposal for other neutron cross-section standards (4 conferences) - session 6: monitor reactions for radiation dosimetry (3 conferences)
MCNP6 Fission Cross Section Calculations at Intermediate and High Energies
Mashnik, Stepan G.; Sierk, Arnold J.; Prael, Richard E.
2013-01-01
MCNP6 has been Validated and Verified (V&V) against intermediate- and high-energy fission cross-section experimental data. An error in the calculation of fission cross sections of 181Ta and a few nearby target nuclei by the CEM03.03 event generator in MCNP6 and a "bug: in the calculation of fission cross sections with the GENXS option of MCNP6 while using the LAQGSM03.03 event generator were detected during our V&V work. After fixing both problems, we find that MCNP6 using CEM03.03 and LAQGSM...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gang-Jin Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We supply a new perspective to describe and understand the behavior of cross-correlations between energy and emissions markets. Namely, we investigate cross-correlations between oil and gas (Oil-Gas, oil and CO2 (Oil-CO2, and gas and CO2 (Gas-CO2 based on fractal and multifractal analysis. We focus our study on returns of the oil, gas, and CO2 during the period of April 22, 2005–April 30, 2013. In the empirical analysis, by using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA method, we find that cross-correlations for Oil-Gas, Oil-CO2, and Gas-CO2 obey a power-law and are weakly persistent. Then, we adopt the method of DCCA cross-correlation coefficient to quantify cross-correlations between energy and emissions markets. The results show that their cross-correlations are diverse at different time scales. Next, based on the multifractal DCCA method, we find that cross-correlated markets have the nonlinear and multifractal nature and that the multifractality strength for three cross-correlated markets is arranged in the order of Gas-CO2 > Oil-Gas > Oil-CO2. Finally, by employing the rolling windows method, which can be used to investigate time-varying cross-correlation scaling exponents, we analyze short-term and long-term market dynamics and find that the recent global financial crisis has a notable influence on short-term and long-term market dynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
A. T. Till; M. Hanuš; J. Lou; J. E. Morel; M. L. Adams
2016-05-01
The standard multigroup (MG) method for energy discretization of the transport equation can be sensitive to approximations in the weighting spectrum chosen for cross-section averaging. As a result, MG often inaccurately treats important phenomena such as self-shielding variations across a material. From a finite-element viewpoint, MG uses a single fixed basis function (the pre-selected spectrum) within each group, with no mechanism to adapt to local solution behavior. In this work, we introduce the Finite-Element-with-Discontiguous-Support (FEDS) method, whose only approximation with respect to energy is that the angular flux is a linear combination of unknowns multiplied by basis functions. A basis function is non-zero only in the discontiguous set of energy intervals associated with its energy element. Discontiguous energy elements are generalizations of bands and are determined by minimizing a norm of the difference between snapshot spectra and their averages over the energy elements. We begin by presenting the theory of the FEDS method. We then compare to continuous-energy Monte Carlo for one-dimensional slab and two-dimensional pin-cell problem. We find FEDS to be accurate and efficient at producing quantities of interest such as reaction rates and eigenvalues. Results show that FEDS converges at a rate that is approximately first-order in the number of energy elements and that FEDS is less sensitive to weighting spectrum than standard MG.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Actis, S [Paul-Scherrer-Institute Wuerenlingen and Villigen, Villigen (Switzerland); Arbuzov, A [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Balossini, G [Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica; INFN, Pavia [IT; and others
2009-12-15
We present the achievements of the last years of the experimental and theoretical groups working on hadronic cross section measurements at the low energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders in Beijing, Frascati, Ithaca, Novosibirsk, Stanford and Tsukuba and on {tau} decays. We sketch the prospects in these fields for the years to come. We emphasise the status and the precision of the Monte Carlo generators used to analyse the hadronic cross section measurements obtained as well with energy scans as with radiative return, to determine luminosities and {tau} decays. The radiative corrections fully or approximately implemented in the various codes and the contribution of the vacuum polarisation are discussed. (orig.)
Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of intermediate energy electrons from sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teubner, P.J.O.; Buckner, S.J.; Noble, C.J.
1977-11-01
Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons from sodium have been measured with high angular resolution for incident energies of 54.4, 75, 100 and 150 eV and over an angular range of 12 0 to 140 0 . The experimental data are compared with calculations based on the First Born approximation, the Glauber approximation and a close coupling impact parameter calculation. Calculations have been carried out for an optical model using the prescription of Vanderpoorten for localizing the absorptive part of the potential. Of the theoretical calculations the optical model is found to best reproduce the general features of the cross section at all energies. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Actis, S.; Arbuzov, A.
2009-12-01
We present the achievements of the last years of the experimental and theoretical groups working on hadronic cross section measurements at the low energy e + e - colliders in Beijing, Frascati, Ithaca, Novosibirsk, Stanford and Tsukuba and on τ decays. We sketch the prospects in these fields for the years to come. We emphasise the status and the precision of the Monte Carlo generators used to analyse the hadronic cross section measurements obtained as well with energy scans as with radiative return, to determine luminosities and τ decays. The radiative corrections fully or approximately implemented in the various codes and the contribution of the vacuum polarisation are discussed. (orig.)
FURGY – Cross-border Networking with Focus on Renewable Energies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Siegl, Michael; Vedder, Jan-Frederik
FURGY (Future Renewable Energies) which is a project supported by European INTERREG IV A funds shall establish a joint center of competence in the regions north and south of the German-Danish border for renewable resources and energy efficiency, helping to build a sustainable energy cluster status...... on international level. The project started in late 2009 with a runtime of 3 years. The FURGY project pursues the goal to strengthen this existing location advantage by a vital cross-border network. In the sector of renewable energy surveys, interdisciplinary networks and active information policies shall optimize...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Pascual-García
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Structural classifications of proteins assume the existence of the fold, which is an intrinsic equivalence class of protein domains. Here, we test in which conditions such an equivalence class is compatible with objective similarity measures. We base our analysis on the transitive property of the equivalence relationship, requiring that similarity of A with B and B with C implies that A and C are also similar. Divergent gene evolution leads us to expect that the transitive property should approximately hold. However, if protein domains are a combination of recurrent short polypeptide fragments, as proposed by several authors, then similarity of partial fragments may violate the transitive property, favouring the continuous view of the protein structure space. We propose a measure to quantify the violations of the transitive property when a clustering algorithm joins elements into clusters, and we find out that such violations present a well defined and detectable cross-over point, from an approximately transitive regime at high structure similarity to a regime with large transitivity violations and large differences in length at low similarity. We argue that protein structure space is discrete and hierarchic classification is justified up to this cross-over point, whereas at lower similarities the structure space is continuous and it should be represented as a network. We have tested the qualitative behaviour of this measure, varying all the choices involved in the automatic classification procedure, i.e., domain decomposition, alignment algorithm, similarity score, and clustering algorithm, and we have found out that this behaviour is quite robust. The final classification depends on the chosen algorithms. We used the values of the clustering coefficient and the transitivity violations to select the optimal choices among those that we tested. Interestingly, this criterion also favours the agreement between automatic and expert classifications
Direct acceleration of ions to low and medium energies by a crossed-laser-beam configuration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yousef I. Salamin
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Calculations show that 10 keV helium and carbon ions, injected midway between two identical 1 TW-power crossed laser beams of radial polarization, can be accelerated in vacuum to energies of utility in ion lithography. As examples, identical laser beams, crossed at 10° and focused to waist radii of 7.42 μm, accelerate He^{2+} and C^{6+} ions to average kinetic energies near 75 and 165 keV over distances averaging less than 7 and 6 mm, respectively. The spread in kinetic energy in both cases is less than 1% and the particle average angular deflection is less than 7 mrad. More energy-demanding industrial applications require higher-power laser beams for their direct ion laser acceleration.
Parameterization of pion production and reaction cross sections at LAMPF energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burman, R.L.; Smith, E.S.
1989-05-01
A parameterization of pion production and reaction cross sections is developed for eventual use in modeling neutrino production by protons in a beam stop. Emphasis is placed upon smooth parameterizations for proton energies up to 800 MeV, for all pion energies and angles, and for a wide range of materials. The resulting representations of the data are well-behaved and can be used for extrapolation to regions where there are no measurements. 22 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs
Total electron scattering cross sections for methanol and ethanol at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, D G M; Tejo, T; Lopes, M C A; Muse, J; Romero, D; Khakoo, M A
2010-01-01
Absolute total cross section (TCS) measurements of electron scattering from gaseous methanol and ethanol molecules are reported for impact energies from 60 to 500 eV, using the linear transmission method. The attenuation of intensity of a collimated electron beam through the target volume is used to determine the absolute TCS for a given impact energy, using the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Besides these experimental measurements, we have also determined TCS using the additivity rule.
Low-energy behavior of the 3He(α,γ)7Be cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborne, J.L.; Barnes, C.A.; Kavanagh, R.W.; Kremer, R.M.; Mathews, G.J.; Zyskind, J.L.; Parker, P.D.; California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena; Howard, A.J.; California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena
1984-01-01
Cross sections for the 3 He(α,γ) 7 Be reaction have been measured at several energies from Esub(c.m.)=165 to 1169 keV by counting prompt γ-rays from a windowless, differentially pumped, recirculating, 3 He gas target. The cross-section factor S 34 (Esub(c.m.)) and branching ratio γ 1 /γ 0 were determined at each energy. Cross sections were also measured at Esub(c.m.)=947 and 1255 keV by counting the γ-rays from the 7 Be produced in a 3 He gas cell with a Ni entrance foil. Combining the results of these two independent experiments yields a zero-energy intercept for the cross-section factor of S 34 (O) = 0.53+-0.03 keV x b. The relationship between these measurements and serveral theoretical calculations, and the import of the extrapolated cross section for the solar-neutrino problem are discussed. (orig.)
Energy-averaged neutron cross sections of fast-reactor structural materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.; McKnight, R.; Smith, D.
1978-02-01
The status of energy-averaged cross sections of fast-reactor structural materials is outlined with emphasis on U.S. data programs in the neutron-energy range 1-10 MeV. Areas of outstanding accomplishment and significant uncertainty are noted with recommendations for future efforts. Attention is primarily given to the main constituents of stainless steel (e.g., Fe, Ni, and Cr) and, secondarily, to alternate structural materials (e.g., V, Ti, Nb, Mo, Zr). Generally, the mass regions of interest are A approximately 50 to 60 and A approximately 90 to 100. Neutron total and elastic-scattering cross sections are discussed with the implication on the non-elastic-cross sections. Cross sections governing discrete-inelastic-neutron-energy transfers are examined in detail. Cross sections for the reactions (n;p), (n;n',p), (n;α), (n;n',α) and (n;2n') are reviewed in the context of fast-reactor performance and/or diagnostics. The primary orientation of the discussion is experimental with some additional attention to the applications of theory, the problems of evaluation and the data sensitivity of representative fast-reactor systems
Liu, Yang; Li, Feng; Li, Xue Wen; Shi, Wen Yong
2018-03-01
Rolling is currently a widely used method for manufacturing and processing high-performance magnesium alloy sheets and has received widespread attention in recent years. Here, we combined continuous variable cross-section direct extrusion (CVCDE) and rolling processes. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the resulting sheets rolled at different temperatures from CVCDE extrudate were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The results showed that a fine-grained microstructure was present with an average grain size of 3.62 μm in sheets rolled from CVCDE extrudate at 623 K. Dynamic recrystallization and a large strain were induced by the multi-pass rolling, which resulted in grain refinement. In the 573-673 K range, the yield strength, tensile strength and elongation initially increased and then declined as the CVCDE temperature increased. The above results provide an important scientific basis of processing, manufacturing and the active control on microstructure and property for high-performance magnesium alloy sheet.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.
1995-01-01
This progress report and continuation proposal summarizes our achievements for the period from July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1995 and requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past year we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons, and we have successfully defended two new experimental proposals: Photofission of Actinide and Preactinide Nuclei at SAL and Photoproduction of the ρ Meson from the Proton with Linearly Polarized Photons at CEBAF. (We are co-spokespersons on two previously approved Hall-B experiments at CEBAF, Photoreactions on 3 He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei.) As part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger for Hall B; we report excellent progress on the focal-plane detector array that is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, as well as progress on our plans for instrumentation of a tagged polarized-photon beam using coherent bremsstrahlung. Also, we shall soon receive a large computer system (from the SSC) which will form the basis for our new Data Analysis Center, which, like the Nuclear Detector Laboratory, will be operated under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Finally, during the past year we have published six more papers on the results of our measurements of pion scattering at LAMPF and of electron scattering at NIKHEF and Bates, and we can report that nearly all of the remaining papers documenting this long series of measurements are in the pipeline
New strategies of sensitivity analysis capabilities in continuous-energy Monte Carlo code RMC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiu, Yishu; Liang, Jingang; Wang, Kan; Yu, Jiankai
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Data decomposition techniques are proposed for memory reduction. • New strategies are put forward and implemented in RMC code to improve efficiency and accuracy for sensitivity calculations. • A capability to compute region-specific sensitivity coefficients is developed in RMC code. - Abstract: The iterated fission probability (IFP) method has been demonstrated to be an accurate alternative for estimating the adjoint-weighted parameters in continuous-energy Monte Carlo forward calculations. However, the memory requirements of this method are huge especially when a large number of sensitivity coefficients are desired. Therefore, data decomposition techniques are proposed in this work. Two parallel strategies based on the neutron production rate (NPR) estimator and the fission neutron population (FNP) estimator for adjoint fluxes, as well as a more efficient algorithm which has multiple overlapping blocks (MOB) in a cycle, are investigated and implemented in the continuous-energy Reactor Monte Carlo code RMC for sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, a region-specific sensitivity analysis capability is developed in RMC. These new strategies, algorithms and capabilities are verified against analytic solutions of a multi-group infinite-medium problem and against results from other software packages including MCNP6, TSUANAMI-1D and multi-group TSUNAMI-3D. While the results generated by the NPR and FNP strategies agree within 0.1% of the analytic sensitivity coefficients, the MOB strategy surprisingly produces sensitivity coefficients exactly equal to the analytic ones. Meanwhile, the results generated by the three strategies in RMC are in agreement with those produced by other codes within a few percent. Moreover, the MOB strategy performs the most efficient sensitivity coefficient calculations (offering as much as an order of magnitude gain in FoMs over MCNP6), followed by the NPR and FNP strategies, and then MCNP6. The results also reveal that these
The calculation of nucleus-nucleus interaction cross sections at high energy in the Glauber approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gal'perin, A.G.; Uzhinskij, V.V.
1994-01-01
Total, inelastic and elastic cross sections of nucleus-nucleus (AA)-interactions at high energy (HE) are calculated on the base of Glauber approach. The calculation scheme is realized as a set of routines. The statistical average method is used in calculations. Program runs in an interactive regime. User is prompted about charge and mass numbers of nuclei and NN-interaction characters at the energy he is interested in: total cross section, the slope parameter of differential cross section of elastic scattering and ratio of real part to imaginary part of elastic scattering amplitude at zero momentum transfer. These data can be extracted from proper compilations. Results of calculations are displayed and are written on user defined output file. The program runs on PC. 21 refs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwamoto, Yosuke; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Satoh, Daiki
2002-01-01
Neutron-production double-differential cross sections for 870-MeV π + and π - and 2.1-GeV π + mesons incident on iron and lead targets were measured with NE213 liquid scintillators by time-of-flight technique. NE213 liquid scintillators 12.7 cm in diameter and 12.7 cm thick were placed in directions of 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150deg. The typical flight path length was 15 m. Neutron detection efficiencies were derived from the calculation results of SCINFUL and CECIL codes. The experimental results were compared with the JAM code. The double differential cross sections calculated by the JAM code disagree with experimental data at neutron energies below about 30 MeV. JAM overestimates π + -incident neutron-production cross sections in forward angles at neutron energies of 100 to 500 MeV. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafieloo, Arman
2012-01-01
By introducing Crossing functions and hyper-parameters I show that the Bayesian interpretation of the Crossing Statistics [1] can be used trivially for the purpose of model selection among cosmological models. In this approach to falsify a cosmological model there is no need to compare it with other models or assume any particular form of parametrization for the cosmological quantities like luminosity distance, Hubble parameter or equation of state of dark energy. Instead, hyper-parameters of Crossing functions perform as discriminators between correct and wrong models. Using this approach one can falsify any assumed cosmological model without putting priors on the underlying actual model of the universe and its parameters, hence the issue of dark energy parametrization is resolved. It will be also shown that the sensitivity of the method to the intrinsic dispersion of the data is small that is another important characteristic of the method in testing cosmological models dealing with data with high uncertainties
Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the 28Si+12C reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vineyard, M.F.; Mateja, J.F.; Beck, C.; Atencio, S.E.; Dennis, L.C.; Frawley, A.D.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Kemper, K.W.; Kovar, D.G.; Maguire, C.F.; Padalino, S.J.; Prosser, F.W.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Tiede, M.A.; Wilkins, B.D.; Zingarelli, R.A.
1993-01-01
Fusion evaporation-residue cross sections for the 28 Si+ 12 C reaction have been measured in the energy range 18≤E c.m. ≤136 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. Velocity distributions of mass-identified reaction products were used to identify evaporation residues and to determine the complete-fusion cross sections at high energies. The data are in agreement with previously established systematics which indicate an entrance-channel mass-asymmetry dependence of the incomplete-fusion evaporation-residue process. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with earlier measurements and the predictions of existing models
Neutron cross sections for defect production by high-energy displacement cascades in copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinisch, H.L.; Mann, F.M.
1983-08-01
Defect production cross sections for copper have been devised, based on computer simulations of displacement cascades. One thousand cascades ranging in energy from 200 eV to 200 keV were generated with the MARLOWE computer code. The cascades were subjected to a semi-empirical cascade quenching procedure and to short-term annealing with the ALSOME computer code. Functions were fitted to the numbers of defects produced as a function of primary knock-on atom (PKA) damage energy for the following defect types: 1) the total number of point defects after quenching and after short-term annealing, 2) the numbers of free interstitials and free vacancies after shortterm annealing, and 3) the numbers and sizes of vacancy and interstitial clusters after shortterm annealing. In addition, a function describing the number of distinct damage regions (lobes) per cascade was fitted to results of a graphical analysis of the cascade configurations. The defect production functions have been folded into PKA spectra using the NJOY nuclear data processing code system with ENDF/B-V nuclear data to yield neutron cross sections for defect production in copper. The free vacancy cross section displays much less variation with neutron energy than the cross sections for damage energy or total point defects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. TN (United States). Physics Div.
1997-01-01
Due to the present interest in modeling and diagnosing the edge and divertor plasma regions in magnetically confined fusion devices, we have sought to provide new calculations regarding the elastic, excitation, ionization, and charge transfer cross sections in collisions among relevant ions, neutrals, and isotopes in the low-to intermediate-energy regime. We summarize here some of our recent work. (author)
Neutron cross sections for defect production by high energy displacement cascades in copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinisch, H.L.; Mann, F.M.
1984-01-01
Defect production cross sections for copper have been devised, based on computer simulations of displacement cascades. One thousand cascades ranging in energy from 200 eV to 200 keV were generated with the MARLOWE computer code. The cascades were subjected to a semi-empirical cascade quenching procedure and to short-term annealing with the ALSOME computer code. Functions were fitted to the numbers of defects produced as a function of primary knock-on atom (PKA) damage energy for the following defect types: 1) the total number of point defects after quenching and after short-term annealing, 2) the numbers of free interstitials and free vacancies after short-term annealing, and 3) the numbers and sizes of vacancy and interstitial clusters after short-term annealing. In addition, a function describing the number of distinct damage regions (lobes) per cascade was fitted to results of a graphical analysis of the cascade configurations. The defect production functions have been folded into PKA spectra using the NJOY nuclear data processing code system with ENDF/B-V nuclear data to yield neutron cross sections for defect production in copper. The free vacancy cross section displays much less variation with neutron energy than the cross sections for damage energy or total point defects. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribon, P.; Maillard, J.M.
1986-09-01
The idea of describing neutron cross-section fluctuations by sets of discrete values, called ''probability tables'', was formulated some 15 years ago. We propose to define the probability tables from moments by equating the moments of the actual cross-section distribution in a given energy range to the moments of the table. This definition introduces PADE approximants, orthogonal polynomials and GAUSS quadrature. This mathematical basis applies very well to the total cross-section. Some difficulties appear when partial cross-sections are taken into account, linked to the ambiguity of the definition of multivariate PADE approximants. Nevertheless we propose solutions and choices which appear to be satisfactory. Comparisons are made with other definitions of probability tables and an example of the calculation of a mixture of nuclei is given. 18 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribon, P.; Maillard, J.M.
1986-01-01
The idea of describing neutron cross-section fluctuations by sets of discrete values, called probability tables, was formulated some 15 years ago. The authors propose to define the probability tables from moments by equating the moments of the actual cross-section distribution in a given energy range to the moments of the table. This definition introduces PADE approximants, orthogonal polynomials and GAUSS quadrature. This mathematical basis applies very well to the total cross-section. Some difficulties appear when partial cross-sections are taken into account, linked to the ambiguity of the definition of multivariate PADE approximants. Nevertheless the authors propose solutions and choices which appear to be satisfactory. Comparisons are made with other definition of probability tables and an example of the calculation of a mixture of nuclei is given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Do, T. P. T. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); School of Education, Can Tho University, Campus II, 3/2 Street, Xuan Khanh, Ninh Kieu, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville (Australia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jones, D. B., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia)
2015-03-28
We report differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran, at intermediate incident electron energies (15-50 eV) and over the 10°-90° scattered electron angular range. These measurements extend the available DCS data for vibrational excitation for this species, which have previously been obtained at lower incident electron energies (≤20 eV). Where possible, our data are compared to the earlier measurements in the overlapping energy ranges. Here, quite good agreement was generally observed where the measurements overlapped.
Exadaktylos, G.; Stavropoulou, M.; Xiroudakis, G.; de Broissia, M.; Schwarz, H.
2008-12-01
Basic principles of the theory of rock cutting with rolling disc cutters are used to appropriately reduce tunnel boring machine (TBM) logged data and compute the specific energy (SE) of rock cutting as a function of geometry of the cutterhead and operational parameters. A computational code written in Fortran 77 is used to perform Kriging predictions in a regular or irregular grid in 1D, 2D or 3D space based on sampled data referring to rock mass classification indices or TBM related parameters. This code is used here for three purposes, namely: (1) to filter raw data in order to establish a good correlation between SE and rock mass rating (RMR) (or tunnelling quality index Q) along the chainage of the tunnel, (2) to make prediction of RMR, Q or SE along the chainage of the tunnel from boreholes at the exploration phase and design stage of the tunnel, and (3) to make predictions of SE and RMR or Q ahead of the tunnel’s face during excavation of the tunnel based on SE estimations during excavation. The above tools are the basic constituents of an algorithm to continuously update the geotechnical model of the rock mass based on logged TBM data. Several cases were considered to illustrate the proposed methodology, namely: (a) data from a system of twin tunnels in Hong Kong, (b) data from three tunnels excavated in Northern Italy, and (c) data from the section Singuerlin-Esglesias of the Metro L9 tunnel in Barcelona.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murata, Isao [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan); Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Itakura, Hirofumi
1996-03-01
The method to calculate neutronics parameters of a core composed of randomly distributed spherical fuels has been developed based on a statistical geometry model with a continuous energy Monte Carlo method. This method was implemented in a general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP, and a new code MCNP-CFP had been developed. This paper describes the model and method how to use it and the validation results. In the Monte Carlo calculation, the location of a spherical fuel is sampled probabilistically along the particle flight path from the spatial probability distribution of spherical fuels, called nearest neighbor distribution (NND). This sampling method was validated through the following two comparisons: (1) Calculations of inventory of coated fuel particles (CFPs) in a fuel compact by both track length estimator and direct evaluation method, and (2) Criticality calculations for ordered packed geometries. This method was also confined by applying to an analysis of the critical assembly experiment at VHTRC. The method established in the present study is quite unique so as to a probabilistic model of the geometry with a great number of spherical fuels distributed randomly. Realizing the speed-up by vector or parallel computations in future, it is expected to be widely used in calculation of a nuclear reactor core, especially HTGR cores. (author).
Application of Wielandt method in continuous-energy nuclear data sensitivity analysis with RMC code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiu Yishu; Wang Kan; She Ding
2015-01-01
The Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) method, an accurate method to estimate adjoint-weighted quantities in the continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality calculations, has been widely used for calculating kinetic parameters and nuclear data sensitivity coefficients. By using a strategy of waiting, however, this method faces the challenge of high memory usage to store the tallies of original contributions which size is proportional to the number of particle histories in each cycle. Recently, the Wielandt method, applied by Monte Carlo code McCARD to calculate kinetic parameters, estimates adjoint fluxes in a single particle history and thus can save memory usage. In this work, the Wielandt method has been applied in Rector Monte Carlo code RMC for nuclear data sensitivity analysis. The methodology and algorithm of applying Wielandt method in estimation of adjoint-based sensitivity coefficients are discussed. Verification is performed by comparing the sensitivity coefficients calculated by Wielandt method with analytical solutions, those computed by IFP method which is also implemented in RMC code for sensitivity analysis, and those from the multi-group TSUNAMI-3D module in SCALE code package. (author)
Continuous operation of an ultra-low-power microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source.
Lee, Inyoung; Sode, Takashi; Loew, Noya; Tsugawa, Wakako; Lowe, Christopher Robin; Sode, Koji
2017-07-15
An ultimate goal for those engaged in research to develop implantable medical devices is to develop mechatronic implantable artificial organs such as artificial pancreas. Such devices would comprise at least a sensor module, an actuator module, and a controller module. For the development of optimal mechatronic implantable artificial organs, these modules should be self-powered and autonomously operated. In this study, we aimed to develop a microcontroller using the BioCapacitor principle. A direct electron transfer type glucose dehydrogenase was immobilized onto mesoporous carbon, and then deposited on the surface of a miniaturized Au electrode (7mm 2 ) to prepare a miniaturized enzyme anode. The enzyme fuel cell was connected with a 100 μF capacitor and a power boost converter as a charge pump. The voltage of the enzyme fuel cell was increased in a stepwise manner by the charge pump from 330mV to 3.1V, and the generated electricity was charged into a 100μF capacitor. The charge pump circuit was connected to an ultra-low-power microcontroller. Thus prepared BioCapacitor based circuit was able to operate an ultra-low-power microcontroller continuously, by running a program for 17h that turned on an LED every 60s. Our success in operating a microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source indicated the probability of realizing implantable self-powered autonomously operated artificial organs, such as artificial pancreas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Empirical assessment of energy-price policies: the case for cross-price elasticities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frondel, M.
2004-01-01
Evaluations of energy-price policies are necessarily based on measures of the substitution of energy and non-energy inputs. Facing a variety of substitution elasticities, the central question arises which measure would be appropriate. Apparently, for a long time, this question has not been at issue: Allen's elasticities of substitution (AES) have been the most-used measures in applied production analysis. This paper's main contribution is an instructive survey of the origin of substitution measures and of the trinity of empirical substitution elasticities-AES, cross-price elasticities, and the Morishima elasticities of substitution (MES)-with particular emphasis on their interpretations and the perspectives that will be captured by these measures. This survey clarifies why classical cross-price elasticities are to be preferred for many practical purposes. Berndt and Wood's (Rev. Econom. Stat. 57(1975) 259) frequently applied data set of US manufacturing is used to illustrate why assessments of energy-price policies would be better based on cross-price elasticities like the energy-price elasticity of capital, rather than on AES or MES. (author)
Empirical assessment of energy-price policies: the case for cross-price elasticities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frondel, Manuel
2004-01-01
Evaluations of energy-price policies are necessarily based on measures of the substitution of energy and non-energy inputs. Facing a variety of substitution elasticities, the central question arises which measure would be appropriate. Apparently, for a long time, this question has not been at issue: Allen's elasticities of substitution (AES) have been the most-used measures in applied production analysis. This paper's main contribution is an instructive survey of the origin of substitution measures and of the trinity of empirical substitution elasticities - AES, cross-price elasticities, and the Morishima elasticities of substitution (MES) - with particular emphasis on their interpretations and the perspectives that will be captured by these measures. This survey clarifies why classical cross-price elasticities are to be preferred for many practical purposes. Berndt and Wood's (Rev. Econom. Stat. 57 (1975) 259) frequently applied data set of US manufacturing is used to illustrate why assessments of energy-price policies would be better based on cross-price elasticities like the energy-price elasticity of capital, rather than on AES or MES
Parameterization of α-nucleus total reaction cross section at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvi, M A; Abdulmomen, M A
2008-01-01
Applying a Coulomb correction factor to the Glauber model we have derived a closed expression for α-nucleus total reaction cross section, σ R . Under the approximation of rigid projectile model, the elastic S-matrix element S el (b) is evaluated from the phenomenological N-α amplitude and a Gaussian fit to the Helm's model form factor. Excellent agreements with the experimental data have been achieved by performing two-parameter fits to the α-nucleus σ R data in the energy range about 75 to 193 MeV. One of the parameters was found to be energy independent while the other, as expected, shows the energy dependence similar to that of N-α total cross section.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotov, Alexander; Chtchetkovski, Alexander; Fedorov, Oleg; Gavrikov, Yuri; Chestnov, Yuri; Poliakov, Vladimir; Vaishnene, Larissa; Vovchenko, Vil; Fukahori, Tokio
2003-01-01
The purpose of this work is experimental studies of the energy dependence of the fission cross sections of heavy nuclei, nat Pb, 209 Bi, 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu, by protons at the energies from 200 to 1000 MeV. At present experiment the method based on use of the gas parallel plate avalanche counters (PPACs) for registration of complementary fission fragments in coincidence and the telescope of scintillation counters for direct counting of the incident protons on the target has been used. First preliminary results of the energy dependences of proton induced fission cross sections for nat Pb, 209 Bi, 235 U and 238 U are reported. (author)
Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A
2002-01-01
Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV
Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) in children and adolescents is required for a better understanding of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance. Cross-sectional time series (CSTS) models, which account for correlation structure of repeated observati...
Investigation of the 93Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoriev, Yu.V.; Kitaev, V.Ya.; Zhuravlev, B.V.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Borzakov, S.B.; Faikov-Stanchik, H.; Ilchev, G.; Mezentseva, Zh.V.; Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Kim, G.N.
2002-01-01
The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for 93 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% 93 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of 93 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of 93 Nb. Standard capture cross-sections of 238 U and experimental gamma-ray multiplicity spectra were also used for determination of capture cross section 93 Nb in energy groups. Similar values were calculated using the ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3 evaluated data libraries with the help of the GRUKON computer program. Within the limits of experimental errors there is observed an agreement between the experiment and calculation, but in some groups the experimental values differ from the calculated ones. (author)
Cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient protocol for wireless sensor networks.
Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia
2015-04-09
Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED).
Cross-Layer Cluster-Based Energy-Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil Mammu
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs. One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs and a cluster head (CH. The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED.
MacWalter, Gordon; McKay, John; Bowie, Paul
2016-01-21
Participation in continuing professional development (CPD) is a professional and regulatory expectation of general practitioners (GPs). Traditionally, CPD activity was undertaken face-to-face in educational settings, but internet based formats have found increasing favour. The need for doctors to use the internet for service and educational purposes is growing, particularly in support of specialty training and appraisal. We aimed to determine how GPs in Scotland utilise online resources in support of their CPD. This involved identifying which resources are used and how frequently, along with their preferences as to how and why they access these resources. A cross sectional study was undertaken using an online questionnaire to survey general practitioners across Scotland. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and differences in attitudinal responses between groups and Fischer's exact tests were calculated. Three hundred and eighty-three GP responses were received, with the majority being female (n = 232, 60.6%) and GP partners (n = 236, 61.6%). The majority used the internet on three or more working days per week or more frequently (n = 361, 94.3%) with the three most common reasons being to obtain information for a patient (n = 358, 93.5%), answering a clinical question (n = 357, 93.2%) and CPD purposes (n = 308, 80.4%). Of 37 online resources used by respondents, the top five were SIGN Guidelines (n = 303, 79.3%), BMJ Learning (n = 279, 73.0%), NICE Guidelines (n = 255, 66.8%), GP Notebook (n = 243, 63.6%) and Google (n = 234, 61.3%). Low use of social media such as Facebook (n = 11, 2.9%) and Twitter (n = 11, 2.9%) was reported for CPD. A majority agreed that 'reading information online' (95.0%) and 'completing online learning modules' (87.4%) were the most valued online activities. Slow internet connections (n = 240, 62.7%), website access restrictions (n = 177, 46.2%) and difficulties logging
On unambiguous parametrization of neutron cross-sections in the low-energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novoselov, G.M.; Kolomiets, V.M.
1982-08-01
One of the most important aims of analysis in the resonance region is the evaluation of neutron resonance parameters on the basis of a given formalism of the theory of nuclear reactions. However, the task of finding resonance parameters from experimental data on the energy dependence of cross-sections is subject to a number of difficulties. These difficulties are not only of a theoretical character associated with the selection of one version or another of the theory taking into account the effects necessary (interference between resonances, Doppler effect etc.), but also involve problems of principle. Whether the set of parameters found is the only possible one within the context of a single formalism used remains open. The specific features of processing the experimental data are such that even with good resolution a number of overlapping resonances (occurring as a result of the fluctuation in inter-level distances or the Doppler effect) may be classified as an isolated resonance. Moreover, even given a very weak inter-level interference and Doppler effect, unambiguous parametrization of the cross-sections is not always possible. In the present paper these questions (the choice of the approximation needed for describing experimentally observed cross-sections, allowance for inter-level interference and the Doppler effect and the possibility of ambiguous reproduction of the resonance structure of cross-sections) are examined with reference to the parametrization of the total cross-sections for non-fissionable nuclei in the low-neutron-energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerstl, S.A.W.; LaBauve, R.J.; Young, P.G.
1980-05-01
On the example of General Atomic's well-documented Power Generating Fusion Reactor (PGFR) design, this report exercises a comprehensive neutron cross-section and secondary energy distribution (SED) uncertainty analysis. The LASL sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code SENSIT is used to calculate reaction cross-section sensitivity profiles and integral SED sensitivity coefficients. These are then folded with covariance matrices and integral SED uncertainties to obtain the resulting uncertainties of three calculated neutronics design parameters: two critical radiation damage rates and a nuclear heating rate. The report documents the first sensitivity-based data uncertainty analysis, which incorporates a quantitative treatment of the effects of SED uncertainties. The results demonstrate quantitatively that the ENDF/B-V cross-section data files for C, H, and O, including their SED data, are fully adequate for this design application, while the data for Fe and Ni are at best marginally adequate because they give rise to response uncertainties up to 25%. Much higher response uncertainties are caused by cross-section and SED data uncertainties in Cu (26 to 45%), tungsten (24 to 54%), and Cr (up to 98%). Specific recommendations are given for re-evaluations of certain reaction cross-sections, secondary energy distributions, and uncertainty estimates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuno, Kazuhiko
2007-04-01
Systematic cross section measurements for ion-molecule reactions in hydrogen systems and for charge transfer of multiply charged ions in low energy collisions with atoms and molecules have been performed continuously by the identical apparatus installed with an octo-pole ion beam guide (OPIG) since 1980 till 2004. Recently, all of accumulated cross section data for a hundred collision systems has been entered into CMOL and CHART of the NIFS atomic and molecular numerical database together with some related cross section data. In this present paper, complicated ion-molecule reactions in hydrogen systems are revealed and the brief outlines of specific properties in low energy charge transfer collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms and molecules are introduced. (author)
The cross section of 3He(3He,2p)4He measured at solar energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junker, M.; Arpesella, C.; Bellotti, E.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; D'Alessandro, A.; Fiorentini, G.; Fubini, A.; Gervino, G.; Greife, U.; Gustavino, C.; Lambert, J.; Prati, P.; Rodney, W.S.; Rolfs, C.; Trautvetter, H.P.; Zavatarelli, S.
1999-01-01
We report on the status of the 3 He( 3 He,2p) 4 He experiment at the underground accelerator facility LUNA (Gran Sasso). The lowest projectile energies for the measured cross section correspond already to energies below the center of the solar Gamow peak (E 0 =22 keV). The data provide no evidence for the existence of a hypothetical resonance in the energy range investigated. Although no extrapolation is needed anymore (except for energies at the low-energy tail of the Gamow peak), the data must be corrected for the effects of electron screening, clearly observed the first time for the 3 He( 3 He,2p) 4 He reaction. The effects are however larger than expected and not understood, leading presently to the largest uncertainty on the quoted S(0) value for bare nuclides (= 5.40 MeVb)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mulder, P. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); De Groot, H.L.F. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2004-07-01
This paper provides an empirical analysis of decoupling economic growth and energy use and its various determinants by exploring trends in energy- and labour productivity across 10 manufacturing sectors and 14 OECD countries for the period 1970-1997. We explicitly aim to trace back aggregate developments in the manufacturing sector to developments at the level of individual subsectors. A cross-country decomposition analysis reveals that in some countries structural changes contributed considerably to aggregate manufacturing energy-productivity growth and, hence, to decoupling, while in other countries they partly offset energy-efficiency improvements. In contrast, structural changes only play a minor role in explaining aggregate manufacturing labour-productivity developments. Furthermore, we find labour-productivity growth to be higher on average than energy-productivity growth. Over time, this bias towards labour-productivity growth is increasing in the aggregate manufacturing sector, while it is decreasing in most manufacturing subsectors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Al Sabbah H
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Haleama Al Sabbah,1 Sarah Khan,1 Abdallah Hamadna,2 Lamia Abu Ghazaleh,2 Anwar Dudin,2 Bashar Adnan Karmi3 1College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai, UAE; 2Faculty of Medicine, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine; 3Thalassemia Patients’ Friends Society, Ramallah, Palestine Purpose: Health care initiatives focusing on prenatal testing and premarital genetic screening aiming to reduce the incidence of β-thalassemia have emerged during the last decade. In Palestine, 4% of the population are known thalassemia carriers with new cases continuing to appear despite the availability of prenatal testing. This study aims to identify factors that influence the decision to retain or abort fetuses affected by β-thalassemia in Palestine. Methods: Convenience sampling was used to select 32 women (72 fetuses who were at risk of having a baby with β-thalassemia. A questionnaire on prenatal testing, test results, pregnancy outcomes, and factors influencing the decision to terminate the pregnancy were used for this cross-sectional study. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Among the fetuses screened, 36 (50% were thalassemia carriers and 20 (28% had β-thalassemia; 17 (85% affected fetuses were aborted. Religious beliefs were the most cited reason for opposing abortion while prior experience with β-thalassemia patients and awareness programs promoted abortions. Mothers who opted to retain an affected fetus had modest educational attainment. Higher educational level was significantly associated with the decision to abort an affected fetus (p<0.05. Conclusion: A religious consensus is needed on the abortion of fetuses affected by β-thalassemia. Improving female education and increasing awareness on thalassemia could help reduce the incidence of β-thalassemia in Palestine and around the world. Keywords: abortion, Islam, fetus, awareness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peelle, R.W.; de Sassure, G.
1977-01-01
Refined knowledge of the thermal neutron cross sections of the fissile nuclides and of the (n,α) reaction standards, together with the reasonably well known energy dependence of the latter, have permitted resonance-region and low-keV fissile nuclide cross sections to be based on these standards together with count-rate ratios observed as a function of energy using a pulsed ''white'' source. As one evaluates cross sections for energies above 20 keV, optimum results require combination of cross section shape measurements with all available absolute measurements. The assumptions of the ''thermal normalization method'' are reviewed, and an opinion is given of the status of some of the standards required for its use. The complications which may limit the accuracy of results using the method are listed and examples are given. For the 235 U(n,f) cross section, the option is discussed of defining resonance-region fission integrals as standards. The area of the approximately 9 eV resonances in this nuclide may be known to one percent accuracy, but at present the fission integral from 0.1 to 1.0 keV is known to no better than about two percent. This uncertainty is based on the scatter among independent results, and has not been reduced by the most recent measurements. This uncertainty now limits the accuracy attainable for the 235 U(n,f) cross section below about 50 keV. Suggestions are given to indicate how future detailed work might overcome past sources of error
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.
1980-08-28
The energy dependence of L-shell photoelectric cross sections for lead in the energy region 17-50 keV has been investigated. The method utilises external conversion x-rays as the source of photons and it yields relative rather than absolute cross sections, but is simpler and more accurate. The results show fairly good agreement with theory.
Dresscher, Douwe
2016-01-01
Walking robots consume more energy for locomotion than their wheeled and tracked counterparts. To achieve energy autonomous operation, a robot needs to run on energy that is harvested from its environment. In this light, it is meaningful to address reduction of energy consumption. The contribution
Energy-differential cross section measurement for the 51V(n,α)48Sc reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, I.; Meadows, J.W.; Smith, D.L.
1984-07-01
The activation method was used to measure cross sections for the 51 V(n,α) 48 Sc reaction in the threshold region, from 5.515 MeV up to 9.567 MeV. Twenty approximately-monoenergetic cross section values were obtained in this experiment. These data points span the energy region at roughly equal intervals. The experimental resolutions were in the range 0.153 to 0.233 MeV (FWHM). The present differential data cover approx. 50% of the total integral response of this reaction for the standard 235 U thermal-neutron-induced-fission neutron spectrum, and approx. 44% of the corresponding response for the standard 252 Cf spontaneous-fission neutron spectrum. Over the range 7.6 to 9.5 MeV the present experimental cross sections are noticeably larger (e.g., by approx. 50% at approx. 8.6 MeV) than the corresponding values from the ENDF/B-V evaluation. From approx. 6.7 to 7.5 MeV, the present values are somewhat below those of ENDF/B-V. At still lower energies the agreement is reasonably good considering the uncertainties introduced by energy scale definition very near the effective threshold where the cross section varies rapidly with neutron energy. Calculated integral cross sections based in part on the present work agree reasonably well within errors with reported integral results, provided that the reported data are renormalized to conform with recently-accepted values for appropriate standard reactions. 70 references
Measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections of Pb and Bi at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryzhov, Igor; Tutin, Gennady; Eismont, Vilen; Mitryukhin, Andrey; Oplavin, Valery; Soloviev, Sergey; Conde, Henri; Olsson, Nils; Renberg, Per-Ulf
2002-01-01
Neutron-induced fission cross sections of nat Pb and 209 Bi have been measured relative to the 238 U(n.f) cross section at energies 96 MeV for lead and 133 MeV for bismuth. The measurements were performed at the quasi-mono-energetic neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala using Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. The results obtained are compared with other experimental data. The present state of the Bi standard recommended by IAEA is discussed. (author)
Integral cross sections for π+p interactions at low energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedman, E.; Goldring, A.; Wagner, G.J.; Altman, A.; Johnson, R.R.; Meirav, O.; Jennings, B.K.
1990-02-01
Integral cross sections for the elastic scattering of π + by protons into angles greater than 20 degrees or 30 degrees (lab.) have been measured by the beam-attenuation technique over the energy range of 45 to 126 MeV. The measurements are aimed at providing independent checks on the absolute normalization of differential cross sections, where discrepancies exist between different data sets. Comparisons with predictions made with existing phase shifts show very good agreement with the dispersion-relation constrained phase shifts of the Karlsruhe group. (Author) 19 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pons, Anne; Gendron, Yves; De Cadenet, Pierre; Monkachi, Nadia; Saib, Ahmed; Muller, Lisa; Isenmann, Jean
2016-01-01
This publication briefly presents and comments the available energy offer in Alsace which has an important nuclear and hydraulic energy production, possesses an interesting potential of renewable energy to be valorised, and displays a consistency between local resources and production. It analyses energy needs for the region and outlines that a noticed reduction of consumption is to be relativized, a high fossil energy consumption, an important share for household consumption, and that some territories are consuming more than others
Intermediate energy cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Ellis-Gibbings, L.; García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); School of Biology, Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY (United Kingdom); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-09-07
We report differential cross sections (DCSs) and integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine, at incident electron energies in the range 15–50 eV. The scattered electron angular range for the DCS measurements was 15°–90°. The measurements at the DCS-level are the first to be reported for vibrational-excitation in pyrimidine via electron impact, while for the ICS we extend the results from the only previous condensed-phase study [P. L. Levesque, M. Michaud, and L. Sanche, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094701 (2005)], for electron energies ⩽12 eV, to higher energies. Interestingly, the trend in the magnitude of the lower energy condensed-phase ICSs is much smaller when compared to the corresponding gas phase results. As there is no evidence for the existence of any shape-resonances, in the available pyrimidine total cross sections [Baek et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032702 (2013); Fuss et al., ibid. 88, 042702 (2013)], between 10 and 20 eV, this mismatch in absolute magnitude between the condensed-phase and gas-phase ICSs might be indicative for collective-behaviour effects in the condensed-phase results.
NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS OF FISSION PRODUCTS BELOW THE FAST ENERGY REGION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
OH, S.Y.; CHANG, J.; MUGHABGHAB, S.
2000-01-01
Neutron cross section evaluations of the fission-product isotopes, 95 Mo, 99 Tc, 101 Ru, 103 Rh, 105 Pd, 109 Ag, 131 Xe, 133 Cs, 141 Pr, 141 Nd, 147 Sm, 149 Sm, 150 Sm, 151 Sm, 152 Sm, 153 Eu, 155 Gd, and 157 Gd were carried out below the fast neutron energy region within the framework of the BNL-KAERI international collaboration. In the thermal energy region, the energy dependence of the various cross-sections was calculated by applying the multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism. In particular, the strong energy dependence of the coherent scattering lengths of 155 Gd and 157 Gd were determined and were compared with recent calculations of Lynn and Seeger. In the resonance region, the recommended resonance parameters, reported in the BNL compilation, were updated by considering resonance parameter information published in the literature since 1981. The s-wave and, if available, p-wave reduced neutron widths were analyzed in terms of the Porter-Thomas distribution to determine the average level spacings and the neutron strength functions. Average radiative widths were also calculated from measured values of resolved energy resonances. The average resonance parameters determined in this study were compared with those in the BNL and other compilations, as well as the ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3.2 data libraries. The unresolved capture cross sections of these isotopes, computed with the determined average resonance parameters, were compared with measurements, as well as the ENDF/B-VI evaluations. To achieve agreement with the measurements, in a few cases minor adjustments in the average resonance parameters were made. Because of astrophysical interest, the Maxwellian capture cross sections of these nuclides at a neutron temperature of 30 keV were computed and were compared with other compilations and evaluations
NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS OF FISSION PRODUCTS BELOW THE FAST ENERGY REGION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
OH,S.Y.; CHANG,J.; MUGHABGHAB,S.
2000-05-11
Neutron cross section evaluations of the fission-product isotopes, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 105}Pd, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 141}Pr, {sup 141}Nd, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 155}Gd, and {sup 157}Gd were carried out below the fast neutron energy region within the framework of the BNL-KAERI international collaboration. In the thermal energy region, the energy dependence of the various cross-sections was calculated by applying the multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism. In particular, the strong energy dependence of the coherent scattering lengths of {sup 155}Gd and {sup 157}Gd were determined and were compared with recent calculations of Lynn and Seeger. In the resonance region, the recommended resonance parameters, reported in the BNL compilation, were updated by considering resonance parameter information published in the literature since 1981. The s-wave and, if available, p-wave reduced neutron widths were analyzed in terms of the Porter-Thomas distribution to determine the average level spacings and the neutron strength functions. Average radiative widths were also calculated from measured values of resolved energy resonances. The average resonance parameters determined in this study were compared with those in the BNL and other compilations, as well as the ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3.2 data libraries. The unresolved capture cross sections of these isotopes, computed with the determined average resonance parameters, were compared with measurements, as well as the ENDF/B-VI evaluations. To achieve agreement with the measurements, in a few cases minor adjustments in the average resonance parameters were made. Because of astrophysical interest, the Maxwellian capture cross sections of these nuclides at a neutron temperature of 30 keV were computed and were compared with other compilations and evaluations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vancura, J.; Kostroun, V.O.
1992-01-01
The absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar 8+ on Ar were measured as a function of projectile laboratory energy from 0.090 to 0.550 keV/amu. The effective one electron transfer cross section dominates above 0.32 keV/amu, while below this energy, the effective two electron transfer starts to become appreciable. The total cross section varies by a factor over the energy range explored. The overall error in the cross section measurement is estimated to be ± 15%
Measurement of the fission cross-section ratio for 237Np/235U around 14 MeV neutron energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desdin, L.; Szegedy, S.; Csikai, J.
1989-01-01
Fission cross-section ratio was determined for 237 Np/ 235 U around 14 MeV neutron energies with a back-to-back ionization chamber. Neutrons were produced by a 180 KV accelerator using T(d,n) 4 He reaction. No significant energy dependence was found in the cross section ratio
The measurement of anomalous neutron inelastic cross-sections at electronvolt energy transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayers, J; Abdul-Redah, T
2004-01-01
It has been proposed that short-lived quantum entanglement of protons in condensed matter systems would result in anomalous inelastic scattering cross-sections at electronvolt energy transfers. This proposal seems to be confirmed by neutron measurements on the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS and by measurements using other techniques. However, there have been a number of published suggestions of ways in which the observed effects on VESUVIO could be introduced by assumptions used in the data analysis. In this paper it is shown using experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations that these suggestions cannot explain the observed cross-section anomalies. The other assumptions of the data analysis are also examined. It is shown that the assumption of a Gaussian peak shape for the neutron Compton profile can introduce significant errors into the determination of cross-section ratios, but also cannot explain the observed anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Harpreet; Talekar, Anjali; Chien, Wen-Ming; Shi, Renhai; Chandra, Dhanesh; Mishra, Amrita; Tirumala, Muralidhar; Nelson, Daryl J.
2015-01-01
We report on TES (thermal energy storage) in new CT (continuous phase transitions) in multicomponent tetrahederally configured (orientationally disordered) crystals of NPG-neopentylglycol-C 5 H 12 O 2 , PG-pentaglycerine-C 5 H 12 O 3 , and PE-pentaerythritol-C 5 H 12 O 4 . This discovery is applicable in thermal energy storage in many systems which do not require conventional isothermal first-order phase transition energy storage. The above compounds exhibit polymorphs of orientationally disordered phases in which O–H…O bond rotation around the C–C bond stores significant amount of energy; for example, in PE 41.26 kJ/mol are absorbed isothermally during solid–solid transitions. In this paper we show, anisothermal continuous phase transitions (CT), due to compositional changes with changes in temperature, associated with a measurable amount of energy, not reported earlier. The correlation of phase stability regions in pseudo-binaries, calculated from ternary NPG–PG–PE phase diagrams, is validated by experimental ternary DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and in-situ x-ray diffraction data. We established equations for determining the CT in a temperature range, and their respective enthalpies of transitions for any composition of the ternaries. Thermodynamic calculations of the Gibbs energies of the solution phases are modeled as substitutional solid solutions, in which the excess Gibbs energies are expressed by the Redlich–Kister–Muggianu polynomial. There is excellent agreement between the experimental and CALPHAD calculated data. - Highlights: • Continuous phase transition (CT) thermal energy storage in organic ternary system. • Anisothermal temperature ramping leads to CT transitions as per lever rule. • Orientationally disordered phases store energy in O–H…O bond rotation/oscillation. • Validated calculated data with measured thermodynamic properties in ternary system. • Used CALPHAD methodology to calculate Gibbs energies of
Hatzell, Marta C.; Hatzell, Kelsey B.; Logan, Bruce E.
2014-01-01
Efficient conversion of “mixing energy” to electricity through capacitive mixing (CapMix) has been limited by low energy recoveries, low power densities, and noncontinuous energy production resulting from intermittent charging and discharging cycles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Chen
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient’s own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring.
Modeling and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Varying Cross-Sectional Area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maiara Rosa
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports on the modeling and on the experimental verification of electromechanically coupled beams with varying cross-sectional area for piezoelectric energy harvesting. The governing equations are formulated using the Rayleigh-Ritz method and Euler-Bernoulli assumptions. A load resistance is considered in the electrical domain for the estimate of the electric power output of each geometric configuration. The model is first verified against the analytical results for a rectangular bimorph with tip mass reported in the literature. The experimental verification of the model is also reported for a tapered bimorph cantilever with tip mass. The effects of varying cross-sectional area and tip mass on the electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric energy harvesters are also discussed. An issue related to the estimation of the optimal load resistance (that gives the maximum power output on beam shape optimization problems is also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sukhanov, Aleksei A.
2017-05-15
We study the energy spectra of bound states in quantum dots (QDs) formed by an electrostatic potential in two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and their transformation with changes in QD depth and radius. It is found that, unlike a trivial insulator, the energy difference between the levels of the ground state and first excited state can decrease with decreasing the radius and increasing the depth of the QD so that these levels intersect under some critical condition. The crossing of the levels results in unusual features of optical properties caused by intraceneter electron transitions. In particular, it leads to significant changes of light absorption due to electron transitions between such levels and to the transient electroluminescence induced by electrical tuning of QD and TI parameters. In the case of magnetic TIs, the polarization direction of the absorbed or emitted circularly polarized light is changed due to the level crossing.
3He(α, γ7Be cross section in a wide energy range
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szücs Tamás
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The reaction rate of the 3He(α,γ7 Be reaction is important both in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN and in the Solar hydrogen burning. There have been a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to determine this reaction rate with high precision. Some long standing issues have been solved by the more precise investigations, like the different S(0 values predicted by the activation and in-beam measurement. However, the recent, more detailed astrophysical model predictions require the reaction rate with even higher precision to unravel new issues like the Solar composition. One way to increase the precision is to provide a comprehensive dataset in a wide energy range, extending the experimental cross section database of this reaction. This paper presents a new cross section measurement between Ecm = 2.5 − 4.4 MeV, in an energy range which extends above the 7Be proton separation threshold.
Heavy flavour production cross-sections from fixed target to collider energies
Wöhri, H K
2004-01-01
We review the hadro-production data presently available on charm and beauty absolute production cross-sections, collected by experiments at CERN, DESY and Fermilab. After correcting the published values, in particular for the 'time evolution' of the branching ratios, the measurements are compared to LO pQCD calculations performed with Pythia. as a function of the collision energy, using the latest parametrizations of the parton distribution functions. We then estimate, including nuclear effects on the parton densities, the charm and beauty production cross-sections relevant for future measurements at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies, in proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. We also compare some indirect charm measurements, done using leptonic decays, to the others and we briefly address the importance of beauty production as a feed-down mechanism of J/ psi production. (34 refs).
Sukhanov, Aleksei A.
2017-05-01
We study the energy spectra of bound states in quantum dots (QDs) formed by an electrostatic potential in two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and their transformation with changes in QD depth and radius. It is found that, unlike a trivial insulator, the energy difference between the levels of the ground state and first excited state can decrease with decreasing the radius and increasing the depth of the QD so that these levels intersect under some critical condition. The crossing of the levels results in unusual features of optical properties caused by intraceneter electron transitions. In particular, it leads to significant changes of light absorption due to electron transitions between such levels and to the transient electroluminescence induced by electrical tuning of QD and TI parameters. In the case of magnetic TIs, the polarization direction of the absorbed or emitted circularly polarized light is changed due to the level crossing.
Forward elastic scattering and total cross-section at very high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castaldi, R.
1985-01-01
The successful cooling technique of antiproton beams at CERN has recently allowed the acceleration of proton and antiproton bunches simultaneously circulating in opposite directions in the SPS. Hadron-hadron collisions could so be produced at a centre-of-mass energy one order of magnitude higher than previously available, thus opening a new wide range of energies to experimentation. This technique also made it possible to replace one of the two proton beams in the ISR by a beam of antiprotons, allowing a direct precise comparison, by the same detectors, of pp and anti pp processes at the same energies. The recent results are summarized of the forward elastic scattering and total cross-section in this new energy domain. (Mori, K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grant Wilson, I. A.
2016-01-01
The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualization diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind- or solar-based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement, rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors, such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity, can all be displayed together. This, in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I.A. Grant Wilson
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualisation diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind or solar based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way in which to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity can all be displayed together. This in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grant Wilson, I. A., E-mail: grant.wilson@sheffield.ac.uk [Environmental and Energy Engineering Group, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)
2016-08-31
The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualization diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind- or solar-based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement, rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors, such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity, can all be displayed together. This, in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.
Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, G.; Manero, F.
1996-01-01
Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO 2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV have been measured with experimental errors of ∼3%. The present results have been compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The dependence of the total cross sections on electron energy shows an asymptotic behavior with increasing energies, in agreement with the Born-Bethe approximation. In addition, an analytical formula is provided to extrapolate total cross sections to higher energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Absolute cross sections measurement for the 12C + 12C system at astrophysically relevant energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barron-Palos, L.; Aguilera, E.F.; Aspiazu, J.; Huerta, A.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Monroy, R.; Moreno, E.; Murillo, G.; Ortiz, M.E.; Policroniades, R.; Varela, A.; Chavez, E.
2006-01-01
The 12 C + 12 C fusion reaction has been studied in the center-of-mass energy range of 2.25 to 6.01 MeV. Through the detection of gamma rays from the first excited states of the residual nuclei 20 Ne, 23 Na and 23 Mg, absolute cross sections for the 12 C( 12 C,-bar α), 12 C( 12 C,-bar p) and 12 C( 12 C,-bar n) reactions have been obtained. In this new measurement, the energy dependence of the S-factor is found to increase as the energy decreases below 3 MeV in the center of mass. This tendency was observed in previous measurements by Mazarakis et al., and has since then become a subject of controversy. In this work, where the cross sections are measured at even lower energies, we confirm the rise in the S-factor toward the energy region relevant for star evolution and nucleosynthesis calculations (E c.m. =1-3 MeV)
Investigation of the sup 9 sup 3 Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range
Grigoriev, Y V; Faikov-Stanchik, H; Ilchev, G; Kim, G N; Kitaev, V Ya; Mezentseva, Z V; Panteleev, T; Sinitsa, V V; Zhuravlev, B V
2001-01-01
The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for sup 9 sup 3 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% sup 9 sup 3 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of sup 9 sup 3 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of sup...
Fusion cross sections for 6,7Li + 24Mg at energies around the barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ray, Maitreyi; Pradhan, M.K.; Kshetri, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Biswas, M.; Roy, S.; Basu, P.; Majumdar, H.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Sinha, M.; Palit, R.; Mazumdar, I.; Joshi, P.K.; Jain, H.C.
2006-01-01
The 6,7 Li + 24 Mg reactions in the energy interval E lab = 11-32 MeV using 6,7 Li beams have been investigated from the 14 UD BARC-TIFR Pelletron accelerator at TIFR, Mumbai. The γ-ray cross sections were measured using a Compton suppressed clover detector, placed at 55 deg with respect to the beam direction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashima, Takao; Suyama, Kenya; Takada, Tomoyuki
2015-03-01
There have been two versions of SWAT depending on details of its development history: the revised SWAT that uses the deterministic calculation code SRAC as a neutron transportation solver, and the SWAT3.1 that uses the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP or MCNP5 for the same purpose. It takes several hours, however, to execute one calculation by the continuous energy Monte Carlo code even on the super computer of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Moreover, two-dimensional burnup calculation is not practical using the revised SWAT because it has problems on production of effective cross section data and applying them to arbitrary fuel geometry when a calculation model has multiple burnup zones. Therefore, SWAT4.0 has been developed by adding, to SWAT3.1, a function to utilize the deterministic code SARC2006, which has shorter calculation time, as an outer module of neutron transportation solver for burnup calculation. SWAT4.0 has been enabled to execute two-dimensional burnup calculation by providing an input data template of SRAC2006 to SWAT4.0 input data, and updating atomic number densities of burnup zones in each burnup step. This report describes outline, input data instruction, and examples of calculations of SWAT4.0. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagaya, Yasunobu
2013-01-01
Benchmark calculations with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code have been performed for delayed neutron data of JENDL-4.0. JENDL-4.0 gives good prediction for the effective delayed neutron fraction in the present benchmarks but further detailed analysis is required for some cores. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.
2016-01-01
An exactly solvable potential model is used to study the possibility of deducing information about the features of bound states for the system under consideration (binding energies and asymptotic normalization coefficients) on the basis of data on continuum states. The present analysis is based on an analytic approximation and on the subsequent continuation of a partial-wave scattering function from the region of positive energies to the region of negative energies. Cases where the system has one or two bound states are studied. The α+d and α+"1"2C systems are taken as physical examples. In the case of one bound state, the scattering function is a smooth function of energy, and the procedure of its analytic continuation for different polynomial approximations leads to close results, which are nearly coincident with exact values. In the case of two bound states, the scattering function has two poles—one in the region of positive energies and the other in the region of negative energies between the energies corresponding to the two bound states in question. Padéapproximants are used to reproduce these poles. The inclusion of these poles proves to be necessary for correctly describing the properties of the bound states.
Rashid, Evan; Hamidi, Armita; Tadesse, Yonas
2017-04-01
With increasing popularity of portable devices for outdoor activities, portable energy harvesting devices are coming into spot light. The next generation energy harvester which is called hybrid energy harvester can employ more than one mechanism in a single device to optimize portion of the energy that can be harvested from any source of waste energy namely motion, vibration, heat and etc. In spite of few recent attempts for creating hybrid portable devices, the level of output energy still needs to be improved with the intention of employing them in commercial electronic systems or further applications. Moreover, implementing a practical hybrid energy harvester in different application for further investigation is still challenging. This proposal is projected to incorporate a novel approach to maximize and optimize the voltage output of hybrid energy harvesters to achieve a greater conversion efficiency normalized by the total mass of the hybrid device than the simple arithmetic sum of the individual harvesting mechanisms. The energy harvester model previously proposed by Larkin and Tadesse [1] is used as a baseline and a continuous unidirectional rotation is incorporated to maximize and optimize the output. The device harvest mechanical energy from oscillatory motion and convert it to electrical energy through electromagnetic and piezoelectric systems. The new designed mechanism upgrades the device in a way that can harvest energy from both rotational and linear motions by using magnets. Likewise, the piezoelectric section optimized to harvest at least 10% more energy. To the end, the device scaled down for tested with different sources of vibrations in the immediate environment, including machinery operation, bicycle, door motion while opening and closing and finally, human motions. Comparing the results from literature proved that current device has capability to be employed in commercial small electronic devices for enhancement of battery usage or as a backup
Sundfør, T M; Svendsen, M; Tonstad, S
2018-07-01
Long-term adherence to conventional weight-loss diets is limited while intermittent fasting has risen in popularity. We compared the effects of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity and ≥1 additional component of metabolic syndrome. In total 112 participants (men [50%] and women [50%]) aged 21-70 years with BMI 30-45 kg/m 2 (mean 35.2 [SD 3.7]) were randomized to intermittent or continuous energy restriction. A 6-month weight-loss phase including 10 visits with dieticians was followed by a 6-month maintenance phase without additional face-to-face counselling. The intermittent energy restriction group was advised to consume 400/600 kcal (female/male) on two non-consecutive days. Based on dietary records both groups reduced energy intake by ∼26-28%. Weight loss was similar among participants in the intermittent and continuous energy restriction groups (8.0 kg [SD 6.5] versus 9.0 kg [SD 7.1]; p = 0.6). There were favorable improvements in waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol with no difference between groups. Weight regain was minimal and similar between the intermittent and continuous energy restriction groups (1.1 kg [SD 3.8] versus 0.4 kg [SD 4.0]; p = 0.6). Intermittent restriction participants reported higher hunger scores than continuous restriction participants on a subjective numeric rating scale (4.7 [SD 2.2] vs 3.6 [SD 2.2]; p = 0.002). Both intermittent and continuous energy restriction resulted in similar weight loss, maintenance and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors after one year. However, feelings of hunger may be more pronounced during intermittent energy restriction. www.clinicaltrials.govNCT02480504. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bulyzhenkov Igor E.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Non-empty space reading of Maxwell equations as local energy identities explains why a Coulomb field is carried rigidly by electrons in experiments. The analytical solution of the Poisson equation defines the sharp radial shape of charged elementary densities which are proportional to continuous densities of electric self-energy. Both Coulomb field and radial charge densities are free from energy divergences. Non-empty space of electrically charged mass-energy can be described by complex analytical densities resulting in real values for volume mass integrals and in imaginary values for volume charge integrals. Imaginary electric charges in the Newton gravitational law comply with real Coulomb forces. Unification of forces through complex charges rids them of radiation self-acceleration. Strong gravitational fields repeal probe bodies that might explainthe accelerated expansion of the dense Metagalaxy. Outward and inward spherical waves form the standing wave process within the radial carrier of complex energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camargo, Dayana Q. de; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T. de; Froehlich, Herberth B.
2011-01-01
In this work we developed a stochastic model to simulate neutron transport in a heterogeneous environment, considering continuous neutron spectra and the nuclear properties with its continuous dependence on energy. This model was implemented using the Monte Carlo method for the propagation of neutrons in different environments. Due to restrictions with respect to the number of neutrons that can be simulated in reasonable computational time we introduced a variable control volume together with (pseudo-) periodic boundary conditions in order to overcome this problem. This study allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of energy on the neutron population and its impact on the life cycle of neutrons. From the results, even for a simple geometrical arrangement, we can conclude that there is need to consider the energy dependence and hence defined a spectral effective multiplication factor per Monte Carlo step. (author)
From eV to EeV: Neutrino cross sections across energy scales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Formaggio, J. A.; Zeller, G. P.
2012-09-01
Since its original postulation by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, the neutrino has played a prominent role in our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. In the intervening 80 years, scientists have detected and measured neutrinos from a variety of sources, both man-made and natural. Underlying all of these observations, and any inferences we may have made from them, is an understanding of how neutrinos interact with matter. Knowledge of neutrino interaction cross sections is an important and necessary ingredient in any neutrino measurement. With the advent of new precision experiments, the demands on our understanding of neutrino interactions is becoming even greater. The purpose of this article is to survey our current knowledge of neutrino cross sections across all known energy scales: from the very lowest energies to the highest that we hope to observe. The article covers a wide range of neutrino interactions including coherent scattering, neutrino capture, inverse beta decay, low energy nuclear interactions, quasi-elastic scattering, resonant pion production, kaon production, deep inelastic scattering and ultra-high energy interactions. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental data whenever such measurements are available.
Investigation of the 232Th neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoriev, Yu.V.; Kitaev, V.Ya.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Zhuravlev, B.V.; Borzakov, S.B.; Faikov-Stanchik, H.; Ilchev, G.L.; Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Kim, G.N.
2001-01-01
The alternative path in the development of atomic energy is the uranium-thorium cycle. In connection with this, the measurements of the 232 Th neutron capture and total cross-sections and its resonance self-shielding coefficients in resonance energy range are necessary because of their low accuracy. In this work, the results of the investigations of the thorium-232 neutron cross-sections are presented. The measurements have been carried out on the gamma-ray multisection liquid detector and neutron detector as a battery of boron counters on the 120 m flight path of the pulsed fast reactor IBR-30. As the filter samples were used the metallic disks of various thickness and diameter of 45 mm. Two plates from metallic thorium with thickness of 0.2 mm and with the square of 4.5x4.5 cm 2 were used as the radiator samples. The group neutron total and capture cross-sections within the accuracy of 2-7% in the energy range of (10 eV-10 keV) were obtained from the transmissions and the sum spectra of g-rays from the fourth multiplicity to the seventh one. The neutron capture group cross-sections of 238 U were used as the standard for obtaining of thorium ones. Analogous values were calculated on the GRUCON code with the ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3 evaluated data libraries. Within the limits of experimental errors an agreement between the experiment and calculation is observed, but in some groups the experimental values are larger than the calculated ones. (author)
Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
2017-01-01
Continuous descent operations with controlled times of arrival at one or several metering fixes could enable environmentally friendly procedures without compromising terminal airspace capacity. This paper focuses on controlled time of arrival updates once the descent has been already initiated, assessing the feasible time window (and associated fuel consumption) of continuous descent operations requiring neither thrust nor speed-brake usage along the whole descent (i.e. only elevator control ...
Crossed, Small-Deflection Energy Analyzer for Wind/Temperature Spectrometer
Herrero, Federico A.; Finne, Theodore T.
2010-01-01
Determination of neutral winds and ion drifts in low-Earth-orbit missions requires measurements of the angular and energy distributions of the flux of neutrals and ions entering the satellite from the ram direction. The magnitude and direction of the neutral-wind (or ion-drift) determine the location of the maximum in the angular distribution of the flux. Knowledge of the angle of maximum flux with respect to satellite coordinates (pointing) is essential to determine the wind (or ion-drift) vector. The crossed Small-Deflection Energy Analyzer (SDEA) spectrometer (see Figure 1) occupies minimal volume and consumes minimal power. Designed for upper atmosphere/ionosphere investigations at Earth altitudes above 100 km, the spectrometer operates by detecting the angular and energy distributions of neutral atoms/molecules and ions in two mutually perpendicular planes. In this configuration, the two detection planes actually cross at the spectrometer center. It is possible to merge two SDEAs so they share a common optical axis and alternate measurements between two perpendicular planes, and reduce the number of ion sources from two to one. This minimizes the volume and footprint significantly and reduces the ion source power by a factor of two. The area of the entrance aperture affects the number of ions detected/second and also determines the energy resolution. Thermionic emitters require heater power of about 100 mW to produce 1 mA of electron beam current. Typically, electron energy is about 100 eV and requires a 100-V supply for electron acceleration to supply an additional 100 mW of power. Thus, ion source power is at most 200 mW. If two ion sources were to be used, the ion source power would be, at most, 400 mW. Detector power, deflection voltage power, and microcontroller and other functions require less than 150 mW. A WTS (wind/ temperature spectrometer) with two separate optical axes would consume about 650 mW, while the crossed SDEA described here consumes about
Porada, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Bryjak, M.; Presser, V.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Weingarth, D.
2014-01-01
Capacitive technologies, such as capacitive deionization and energy harvesting based on mixing energy (“capmix” and “CO2 energy”), are characterized by intermittent operation: phases of ion electrosorption from the water are followed by system regeneration. From a system application point of view,
Sun, wind, and waste have a role to play. Renewable energy sources merit continuing study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higgin, R M.R.
1976-09-23
Renewable energy sources in Canada are not viewed as alternatives to coal, oil, gas or electricity, but may have a place in the energy future dependent on the economics as a supplement to conventional energy sources, particularly for local point-of-use applications. It appears that renewable energy systems will be expensive, have high front-end costs, and require supplemental systems and conservation (in view of the cost). Solar-heated houses built in southern Ontario with government assistance are described. Such houses are not economic yet, even with life-cycle costing. Windmills, including Darrieus rotors, are being studied and experimented with. Possibilities of converting wastes (sawdust, etc.) to a low-Btu gas by pyrolysis are being investigated to produce energy, reduce disposal costs, and lessen environmental impact. (LTN)
Behaviour of cross sections of exclusive and inclusive processes at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Petrov, V.A.
1977-01-01
The character of the functional dependence of the cross sections of exclusive and inclusive processes on the energy of colliding particles is established according to the basic theoretical principles of causality, spectrality and unitarity. The Jost-Lehmann-Dyson representation for multiparticle amplitudes and distribution functions (DF) of an inclusive process is deduced. The asymptotic behaviour of the multiparticle amplitudes and DF at high energies is established on the basis of the higly general assumptions concerning the singularity character of the Jost-Lehmann-Dyson spectral functions. The restrictions on the possible increase of the amplitudes and DF are imposed. The asymptotic formulae for the DF are discussed in connection with the hypotheses of the limiting fragmentation and scale invariance. The method developed for obtaining the amlitude asymptotics at high energies is applied to the amplitude of a binary process
Crossed-beam energy transfer: polarization effects and evidence of saturation
Turnbull, D.; Colaïtis, A.; Follett, R. K.; Palastro, J. P.; Froula, D. H.; Michel, P.; Goyon, C.; Chapman, T.; Divol, L.; Kemp, G. E.; Mariscal, D.; Patankar, S.; Pollock, B. B.; Ross, J. S.; Moody, J. D.; Tubman, E. R.; Woolsey, N. C.
2018-05-01
Recent results on crossed-beam energy transfer are presented. Wavelength tuning was used to vary the amount of energy transfer between two beams in a quasi-stationary plasma with carefully controlled conditions. The amount of transfer agreed well with calculations assuming linear ion acoustic waves (IAWs) with amplitudes up to δ n/n≈ 0.015. Increasing the initial probe intensity to access larger IAW amplitudes for otherwise fixed conditions yields evidence of saturation. The ability to manipulate a beam's polarization, which results from the anisotropic nature of the interaction, is revisited; an example is provided to demonstrate how polarization effects in a multibeam situation can dramatically enhance the expected amount of energy transfer.
Cross-sectional Integration of the Water-energy Nexus in Brazil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Theodoros Semertzidis
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the cross-sectoral integration of the water-energy nexus in Brazil. Recent droughts resulted in unprecedented water scarcity. This caused water shortages for population and agriculture, as well as for electricity production (hydropower being the main source of electricity production. As a result, the system became more vulnerable to blackouts. To alleviate the problem, fossil fuels were used as a back up. Droughts, floods and other water-related problems will not dissipate as time goes by in Brazil. The dependency on one single predominant source (hydropower makes Brazil’s electricity supply vulnerable. This study shows through data analysis, flow diagrams and metrics the interrelation between water and energy. Based on historical data, the analysis shows the importance of the water demand for hydropower, cooling for thermal plants, and the extraction and production of biofuels, as well as of the energy demand of water services (water supply, wastewater treatment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duque, H. V.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Pettifer, Z.; Silva, G. B. da; Limão-Vieira, P.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; White, R. D.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Brunger, M. J.
2014-01-01
Differential and integral cross section measurements, for incident electron energies in the 20–50 eV range, are reported for excitation of several composite vibrational modes in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Optimisation and frequency calculations, using GAUSSIAN 09 at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, were also undertaken for the two most abundant conformers of THFA, with results being reported for their respective mode classifications and excitation energies. Those calculations assisted us in the experimental assignments of the composite features observed in our measured energy loss spectra. There are, to the best of our knowledge, no other experimental or theoretical data currently available in the literature against which we can compare the present results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Pettifer, Z. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Limão-Vieira, P. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); White, R. D. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2014-06-07
Differential and integral cross section measurements, for incident electron energies in the 20–50 eV range, are reported for excitation of several composite vibrational modes in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Optimisation and frequency calculations, using GAUSSIAN 09 at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, were also undertaken for the two most abundant conformers of THFA, with results being reported for their respective mode classifications and excitation energies. Those calculations assisted us in the experimental assignments of the composite features observed in our measured energy loss spectra. There are, to the best of our knowledge, no other experimental or theoretical data currently available in the literature against which we can compare the present results.
Experimental measurement of the 12C+16O fusion cross sections at astrophysical energies
Fang, X.; Tan, W. P.; Beard, M.; deBoer, R. J.; Gilardy, G.; Jung, H.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Robertson, D.; Setoodehnia, K.; Seymour, C.; Stech, E.; Vande Kolk, B.; Wiescher, M.; de Souza, R.; Hudan, S.; Singh, V.; Tang, X. D.; Uberseder, E.
2018-05-01
The total cross sections of the 12C+16O fusion have been experimentally determined at low energies to investigate the role of this reaction during late stellar evolution burning phases. A high-intensity oxygen beam was produced by the 5MV pelletron accelerator at the University of Notre Dame impinging on a thick ultra-pure graphite target. Protons and γ-rays were measured simultaneously in the center-of-mass energy range from 3.64 to 5.01 MeV, using strip silicon and HPGe detectors. Statistical model calculations were employed to interpret the experimental results. A new broad resonance-like structure is observed for the 12C+16O reaction, and a decreasing trend of its S-factor towards low energies is found.
Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C
2017-01-01
To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance...... during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy......-skiing has demonstrated an anaerobic energy contribution of 18%, with GE being the strongest predictor of performance....
Crossing the phantom divide with Ricci-like holographic dark energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lepe, S. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Casilla, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, F. [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Temuco (Chile)
2010-10-15
In this work we study the dark energy problem by adopting an holographic model proposed recently in the literature. In this model there has been postulated an energy density {rho}{proportional_to}R, where R is the Ricci scalar curvature. Under this consideration, we have obtained a cosmological scenario which arises from considering two non-interacting fluids along the lines of a reasonable Ansatz for the cosmic coincidence parameter. We have adjusted the involved parameters in the model according to the observational data, showing that the equation of state for the dark energy exhibits a cross through the -1 barrier. Additionally, we have found a disagreement of these parameters in comparison with a scalar field theory approach. (orig.)
Ellis-Gibbings, L.; Krupa, K.; Colmenares, R.; Blanco, F.; Muńoz, A.; Mendes, M.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limá Vieira, P.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.; García, G.
2016-09-01
Recent theoretical and experimental studies have provided a complete set of differential and integral electron scattering cross section data from furfural over a broad energy range. The energy loss distribution functions have been determined in this study by averaging electron energy loss spectra for different incident energies and scattering angles. All these data have been used as input parameters for an event by event Monte Carlo simulation procedure to obtain the electron energy deposition patterns and electron ranges in liquid furfural. The dependence of these results on the input cross sections is then analysed to determine the uncertainty of the simulated values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitake, Susumu
2003-01-01
Validation of the continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality-safety analysis system, comprising the MVP code and neutron cross sections based on JENDL-3.2, was examined using benchmarks evaluated in the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments'. Eight experiments (116 configurations) for the plutonium solution and plutonium-uranium mixture systems performed at Valduc, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and other facilities were selected and used in the studies. The averaged multiplication factors calculated with MVP and MCNP-4B using the same neutron cross-section libraries based on JENDL-3.2 were in good agreement. Based on methods provided in the Japanese nuclear criticality-safety handbook, the estimated criticality lower-limit multiplication factors to be used as a subcriticality criterion for the criticality-safety evaluation of nuclear facilities were obtained. The analysis proved the applicability of the MVP code to the criticality-safety analysis of nuclear fuel facilities, particularly to the analysis of systems fueled with plutonium and in homogeneous and thermal-energy conditions
Chen, Xi; Xu, Yixuan; Liu, Anfeng
2017-04-19
High transmission reliability, energy efficiency, and long lifetime are pivotal issues for wireless body area networks (WBANs. However, these performance metrics are not independent of each other, making it hard to obtain overall improvements through optimizing one single aspect. Therefore, a Cross Layer Design Optimal (CLDO) scheme is proposed to simultaneously optimize transmission reliability, energy efficiency, and lifetime of WBANs from several layers. Firstly, due to the fact that the transmission power of nodes directly influences the reliability of links, the optimized transmission power of different nodes is deduced, which is able to maximize energy efficiency in theory under the premise that requirements on delay and jitter are fulfilled. Secondly, a relay decision algorithm is proposed to choose optimized relay nodes. Using this algorithm, nodes will choose relay nodes that ensure a balance of network energy consumption, provided that all nodes transmit with optimized transmission power and the same packet size. Thirdly, the energy consumption of nodes is still unbalanced even with optimized transmission power because of their different locations in the topology of the network. In addition, packet size also has an impact on final performance metrics. Therefore, a synthesized cross layer method for optimization is proposed. With this method, the transmission power of nodes with more residual energy will be enhanced while suitable packet size is determined for different links in the network, leading to further improvements in the WBAN system. Both our comprehensive theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the performance of our proposed scheme is better than reported in previous studies. Relative to the relay selection and power control game (RSPCG) scheme, the CLDO scheme can enhance transmission reliability by more than 44.6% and prolong the lifetime by as much as 33.2%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Purohit, G., E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.in; Singh, P.; Patidar, V.
2014-12-15
Highlights: • We present triply differential cross section (TDCS) results for the perpendicular plane ionization of xenon atoms. • The TDCS has been calculated in the modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism. • The effects of target polarization and post collision interaction have also been included. • The polarization potential, higher order effects and PCI has been found to be useful in the description of TDCS. - Abstract: Triple differential cross section (TDCS) results are reported for the perpendicular plane ionization of Xe (5p) at incident electron energies 5 eV, 10 eV, 20 eV, and 40 eV above ionization potential. The modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism with first as well as the second order Born terms has been used to calculate the TDCS. Effects of target polarization and post collision interaction have also been included. We compare the (e, 2e) TDCS results of our calculation with the recent available experimental data and theoretical results and discuss the process contributing to structure seen in the differential cross section. It has been observed from the present study that the second order effect and target polarization make significant contribution in description of collision dynamics of xenon at the low and intermediate energy for the perpendicular emission of electrons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purohit, G.; Singh, P.; Patidar, V.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We present triply differential cross section (TDCS) results for the perpendicular plane ionization of xenon atoms. • The TDCS has been calculated in the modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism. • The effects of target polarization and post collision interaction have also been included. • The polarization potential, higher order effects and PCI has been found to be useful in the description of TDCS. - Abstract: Triple differential cross section (TDCS) results are reported for the perpendicular plane ionization of Xe (5p) at incident electron energies 5 eV, 10 eV, 20 eV, and 40 eV above ionization potential. The modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism with first as well as the second order Born terms has been used to calculate the TDCS. Effects of target polarization and post collision interaction have also been included. We compare the (e, 2e) TDCS results of our calculation with the recent available experimental data and theoretical results and discuss the process contributing to structure seen in the differential cross section. It has been observed from the present study that the second order effect and target polarization make significant contribution in description of collision dynamics of xenon at the low and intermediate energy for the perpendicular emission of electrons
Velasco, A M; Lavín, C; Dolgounitcheva, O; Ortiz, J V
2014-08-21
Vertical excitation energies of the methyl and silyl radicals were inferred from ab initio electron propagator calculations on the electron affinities of CH3(+) and SiH3(+). Photoionization cross sections and angular distribution of photoelectrons for the outermost orbitals of both CH3 and SiH3 radicals have been obtained with the Molecular Quantum Defect Orbital method. The individual ionization cross sections corresponding to the Rydberg channels to which the excitation of the ground state's outermost electron gives rise are reported. Despite the relevance of methyl radical in atmospheric chemistry and combustion processes, only data for the photon energy range of 10-11 eV seem to be available. Good agreement has been found with experiment for photoionization cross section of this radical. To our knowledge, predictions of the above mentioned photoionization parameters on silyl radical are made here for the first time, and we are not aware of any reported experimental measurements. An analysis of our results reveals the presence of a Cooper minimum in the photoionization of the silyl radical. The adequacy of the two theoretical procedures employed in the present work is discussed.
Cross-Regulation Assessment of DIDO Buck-Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deepak Elamalayil Soman
2017-06-01
Full Text Available When medium- or high-voltage power conversion is preferred for renewable energy sources, multilevel power converters have received much of the interest in this area as methods for enhancing the conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. In such cases, multilevel, multi-input multi-output (MIMO configurations of DC-DC converters come to the scenario for integrating several sources together, especially considering the stringent regulatory needs and the requirement of multistage power conversion systems. Considering the above facts, a three-level dual input dual output (DIDO buck-boost converter, as the simplest form of MIMO converter, is proposed in this paper for DC-link voltage regulation. The capability of this converter for cross regulating the DC-link voltage is analyzed in detail to support a three-level neutral point clamped inverter-based grid connection in the future. The cross-regulation capability is examined under a new type of pulse delay control (PDC strategy and later compared with a three-level boost converter (TLBC. Compared to conventional boost converters, the high-voltage three-level buck boost converter (TLBBC with PDC exhibits a wide controllability range and cross regulation capability. These enhanced features are extremely important for better regulating variable output renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, wave, marine current, etc. The simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the claim.
France's energy balance in 2013: an increase in consumption masking a continuing decrease
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rouquette, Celine
2014-07-01
2013 was marked by a cold period from January to May. Real primary energy consumption increased in relation to 2012, reaching 262 Mtoe. However, once data are corrected for climate variations, consumption decreased, as in 2012, even dipping below the threshold attained during the 2009 economic crisis. In fact, final energy consumption decreased for the second year running, all uses considered. National production of primary energy reached a record 139 Mtoe. This was due to additional production from renewables and an increase in energy recovered from waste, at 26 Mtoe. For its part, the nuclear sector maintained its level of production, at 110 Mtoe. Given the gap between energy production and consumption, the trade deficit increased slightly, in terms of physical flows. Conversely, the general drop in international and European energy prices, with the exception of natural gas, led to a decrease in the country's energy bill, which reached euro 66 billion, euro 3 billion less than the record level reached in 2012. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunieda, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takehito; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Ishibashi, Kenji; Satoh, Daiki; Nakamura, Takashi; Haight, Robert C.
2004-01-01
The inclusive measurements of neutron-incident neutron-production double-differential cross sections in intermediate energy range is now being carried out. Spallation neutrons are used as incident particles. As a part of this, the experiment was performed by using of NE213 liquid organic scintillators to detect outgoing-neutrons. Incident-neutron energy was determined by time-of-flight technique, and outgoing-neutron energy spectrum was derived by unfolding light-output spectrum of NE213 with response functions calculated by SCINFUL-R. Preliminary cross sections were obtained up to about 100 MeV, and were compared with calculations by the GNASH code. It is hoped to get pure measurements by using measured response functions for our detectors used in this study. (author)
Measurement of the elastic, total and diffraction cross sections at tevatron energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belforte, S.
1993-11-01
The CDF collaboration has measured the differential elastic cross section dσ el /dt, the single diffraction dissociation double differential cross section d 2 σ sd /dM 2 dt and the total inelastic cross section for antiproton-proton collisions at center of mass energies √s = 546 and 1,800 GeV. Data for this measurement have been collected in short dedicated runs during the 1988--1989 data taking period of CDF. The elastic scattering slope is 15.28 ± 0.58 (16.98 ± 0.25) GeV -2 at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Using the luminosity independent method (1 + ρ 2 )σ T is measured to be 62.64 ± 0.95 (81.83 ± 2.29) mb at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Assuming ρ = 0.15 the elastic, total and single diffraction cross sections are σ el = 12.87 ± 0.30, σ T = 61.26 ± 0.93 and σ sd = 7.89 ± 0.33 mb (σ el = 19.70 ± 0.85, σ T = 80.03 ± 2.24 and σ sd = 9.46 ± 0.44 mb) at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV
Institutionalizing cross-border cooperatives on European level in the energy sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulusma, A.C.
2008-01-01
The third energy package proposes the establishment of an Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) and the establishment of a European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSOE) and a European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (ENTSOG). This legislative initiative is a response to the need to further liberalise the energy sector and to create one single energy market. The proposals wish to remedy the lack of regulatory oversight for cross border issues and the existence of a regulatory gap on cross-border issues. This article addresses these proposals and places them in a historical context. The proposals indicate that the European legislator to some degree intends to institutionalize cross border cooperation of regulators and of transmission system operators. So far cross-border cooperation mostly has been brought about on a voluntary basis and not on the basis of European law. Also this cooperation takes place on a voluntary basis and largely outside the scope of the European Commission. If the proposals are excepted they will result in new forms of cooperation in the energy sector. The Agency will be a community body with legal personality that, besides having an advisory role, will in some circumstances be able to take binding decisions. Therefore it will entail more than voluntary cooperation and be a step closer to the establishment of a European regulator. With the creation of ENTSOG and ENTSOE cooperation between transmission system operators will for the first time be obligatory and take place on the basis of European legislation. It will therefore be a new phenomenon. Nevertheless, it is not always clear from the proposals what the result in practice will be nor how the new organizations will relate to each other, to the Commission and to the national regulators and transmission system operators. Currently, the main question is whether the proposals will be adopted by the Council and the European
Update on Emergency Department Visits Involving Energy Drinks: A Continuing Public Health Concern
... including older adults. 3 Marketing analysts reported increasing sales of energy shots in 2011 that were expected ... perceived health benefits are largely due to marketing techniques rather than scientific evidence. Because of the drinks’ ...
On the geometric nature of high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Townsend, L.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Bidasaria, H.B.
1982-01-01
Within the context of a high energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, eikonal scattering theory is used to investigate the validity of geometric reaction cross sections in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The potential used includes a finite range interaction and nuclear single-particle densities extracted from nuclear charge distributions by unfolding the proton charge distribution. Pauli correlation effects are also included in an approximate way. The sensitivity of the predictions to be assumed interaction, Pauli correlation approximation, and nuclear density distributions is investigated. These results are in agreement with early predictions concerning the geometric nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions and in disagreement with a recent analysis, utilizing the zero range approximation, which suggested otherwise. Reasons for the lack of agreement between the analyses are also presented. Finally, approximate applicability for geometric reaction cross sections are determined
3He(γ,pp)n cross sections with tagged photons below the Δ resonance energy
Kolb, N. R.; Feldman, G.; O'rielly, G. V.; Pywell, R. E.; Skopik, D. M.; Hackett, E. D.; Quraan, M. A.; Rodning, N. L.
1996-11-01
Cross sections have been measured for the 3He(γ,pp)n reaction with tagged photons in the range Eγ =161-208 MeV using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). The protons were detected over a range of polar angles of 40°-140° and azimuthal angles of 0°-360° with an energy threshold of 40 MeV. Comparisons are made with a microscopic calculation which includes one-, two-, and three-nucleon absorption mechanisms. One- and two-nucleon processes, including final-state interactions, are unable to account for the measured cross sections. The addition of three-nucleon absorption diagrams gives roughly the right strength, but the distribution in phase space is in disagreement with the data.
3He(γ,pp)n cross sections with tagged photons below the Δ resonance energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, N.R.; Feldman, G.; ORielly, G.V.; Pywell, R.E.; Skopik, D.M.; Hackett, E.D.; Quraan, M.A.; Rodning, N.L.
1996-01-01
Cross sections have been measured for the 3 He(γ,pp)n reaction with tagged photons in the range E γ =161 endash 208 MeV using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). The protons were detected over a range of polar angles of 40 degree endash 140 degree and azimuthal angles of 0 degree endash 360 degree with an energy threshold of 40 MeV. Comparisons are made with a microscopic calculation which includes one-, two-, and three-nucleon absorption mechanisms. One- and two-nucleon processes, including final-state interactions, are unable to account for the measured cross sections. The addition of three-nucleon absorption diagrams gives roughly the right strength, but the distribution in phase space is in disagreement with the data. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
High-energy behavior of the charge-transfer cross section in the eikonal approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewangan, D.P.
1982-01-01
In the now popular version of the eikonal theory of charge transfer, the eikonal wave function does not satisfy the proper boundary conditions and the charge-transfer amplitude is uncertain by an undefined phase factor. The inclusion of the internuclear potential in a consistent way, in the eikonal theory overcomes theses difficulties. However, it also changes the high-energy asymptotic form of proton-hydrogen charge-transfer cross section from sigma/sub eik/ approx.(23/48) sigma/sub BK/ by a small amount to sigma/sub G/approx.(20.109/48)sigma/sub BK/ where sigma/sub BK/ is the Brinkman-Kramers cross section
Proton-induced fission cross sections on "2"0"8Pb at high kinetic energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.L.; Benlliure, J.; Paradela, C.; Ayyad, Y.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Vargas, J.; Taieb, J.; Chatillon, A.; Belier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.F.; Pellereau, E.; Casarejos, E.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.
2014-01-01
Total fission cross sections of "2"0"8Pb induced by protons have been determined at 370 A, 500 A, and 650 A MeV. The experiment was performed at GSI Darmstadt where the combined use of the inverse kinematics technique with an efficient detection setup allowed us to determine these cross sections with an uncertainty below 6%. This result was achieved by an accurate beam selection and registration of both fission fragments in coincidence which were also clearly distinguished from other reaction channels. These data solve existing discrepancies between previous measurements, providing new values for the Prokofiev systematics. The data also allow us to investigate the fission process at high excitation energies and small deformations. In particular, some fundamental questions about fission dynamics have been addressed, which are related to dissipative and transient time effects. (authors)
Neutron-photon multigroup cross sections for neutron energies up to 400 MeV: HILO86R
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotegawa, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Akira; Tanaka, Shun-ichi
1993-02-01
A macroscopic multigroup cross section library of 66 neutron and 22 photon groups for neutron energies up to 400 MeV: HILO86R is prepared for 10 typical shielding materials; water, concrete, iron, air, graphite, polyethylene, heavy concrete, lead, aluminum and soil. The library is a revision of the DLC-119/HILO86, in which only the cross sections below 19.6 MeV have been exchanged with a group cross section processed from the JENDL-3 microscopic cross section library. In the HILO86R library, self shielding factors are used to produce effective cross sections for neutrons less than 19.6 MeV considering rather coarse energy meshes. Energy spectra and dose attenuation in water, concrete and iron have been compared among the HILO, HILO86 and HILO86R libraries for different energy neutron sources. Significant discrepancy has been observed in the energy spectra less than a couple of MeV energy in iron among the libraries, resulting large difference in the dose attenuation. The difference was attributed to the effect of self-shielding factor, namely to the difference between infinite dilution and effective cross sections. Even for 400 MeV neutron source the influence of the self-shielding factor is significant, nevertheless only the cross sections below 19.6 MeV are exchanged. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagaya, Yasunobu; Okumura, Keisuke; Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki
2005-06-01
In order to realize fast and accurate Monte Carlo simulation of neutron and photon transport problems, two vectorized Monte Carlo codes MVP and GMVP have been developed at JAERI. MVP is based on the continuous energy model and GMVP is on the multigroup model. Compared with conventional scalar codes, these codes achieve higher computation speed by a factor of 10 or more on vector super-computers. Both codes have sufficient functions for production use by adopting accurate physics model, geometry description capability and variance reduction techniques. The first version of the codes was released in 1994. They have been extensively improved and new functions have been implemented. The major improvements and new functions are (1) capability to treat the scattering model expressed with File 6 of the ENDF-6 format, (2) time-dependent tallies, (3) reaction rate calculation with the pointwise response function, (4) flexible source specification, (5) continuous-energy calculation at arbitrary temperatures, (6) estimation of real variances in eigenvalue problems, (7) point detector and surface crossing estimators, (8) statistical geometry model, (9) function of reactor noise analysis (simulation of the Feynman-α experiment), (10) arbitrary shaped lattice boundary, (11) periodic boundary condition, (12) parallelization with standard libraries (MPI, PVM), (13) supporting many platforms, etc. This report describes the physical model, geometry description method used in the codes, new functions and how to use them. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue Zhou
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI and dietary energy density (ED were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI (p ≤ 0.04. However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China.
Evaluation of the neutron cross sections of 235U in the thermal energy region. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Kottwitz, D.A.; Thompson, J.K.
1976-02-01
The objective of this work has been to improve the knowledge of the thermal cross sections of the fissile nuclei as a step toward providing a standard data base for the nuclear industry. The methodology uses a form of the Adler-Adler multilevel-fission theory and Breit-Wigner multilevel-scattering theory. It incorporates these theories in a general nonlinear least-squares (LSQ) fitting program SIGLEARNThe analysis methodology in this work was applied to the thermal data on 235 U. A reference data file has been developed which includes most of the known data of interest. The first important result of this work is the assessment of the shape uncertainties of the partial cross sections. The results of our studies lead to the following values and error estimates for 235 U g factors in a thermal (20.44 0 C) energy spectrum: g/sub f/ = 0.97751 (+-0.11%); g/sub γ/ = 0.98230 (+-0.14%). A second important result of this study is the development of a recommended set of 2200 m/s (0.0253 eV) values of the parameters and the probable range of further adjustment which might be made. The analysis also provides the result of a common interpretation of energy-dependent absolute cross-section data of different measurements to yield a consistent set of experimental 0.0253 eV values with rigorous error estimates. It also provides normalization factors for relative fission and capture cross sections on a common basis with rigorous error estimates. The results of these analyses provide a basis for deciding what new measurements would be most beneficial. The most important of these would be improved direct capture data in the thermal region
Advanced techniques for energy-efficient industrial-scale continuous chromatography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeCarli, J.P. II (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (USA)); Carta, G. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Byers, C.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
1989-11-01
Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is a developing technology that allows truly continuous chromatographic separations. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of this technology for the separation of various materials by isocratic elution on a bench scale. Novel applications and improved operation of the process were studied in this work, demonstrating that CAC is a versatile apparatus which is capable of separations at high throughput. Three specific separation systems were investigated. Pilot-scale separations at high loadings were performed using an industrial sugar mixture as an example of scale-up for isocratic separations. Bench-scale experiments of a low concentration metal ion mixture were performed to demonstrate stepwise elution, a chromatographic technique which decreases dilution and increases sorbent capacity. Finally, the separation of mixtures of amino acids by ion exchange was investigated to demonstrate the use of displacement development on the CAC. This technique, which perhaps has the most potential, when applied to the CAC allowed simultaneous separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures on a continuous basis. Mathematical models were developed to describe the CAC performance and optimize the operating conditions. For all the systems investigated, the continuous separation performance of the CAC was found to be very nearly the same as the batchwise performance of conventional chromatography. the technology appears, thus, to be very promising for industrial applications. 43 figs., 9 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camargo, Dayana Queiroz de
2011-01-01
This thesis has developed a stochastic model to simulate the neutrons transport in a heterogeneous environment, considering continuous neutron spectra and the nuclear properties with its continuous dependence on energy. This model was implemented using Monte Carlo method for the propagation of neutrons in different environment. Due to restrictions with respect to the number of neutrons that can be simulated in reasonable computational processing time introduced the variable control volume along the (pseudo-) periodic boundary conditions in order to overcome this problem. The choice of class physical Monte Carlo is due to the fact that it can decompose into simpler constituents the problem of solve a transport equation. The components may be treated separately, these are the propagation and interaction while respecting the laws of energy conservation and momentum, and the relationships that determine the probability of their interaction. We are aware of the fact that the problem approached in this thesis is far from being comparable to building a nuclear reactor, but this discussion the main target was to develop the Monte Carlo model, implement the code in a computer language that allows extensions of modular way. This study allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of energy on the neutron population and its impact on the life cycle of neutrons. From the results, even for a simple geometrical arrangement, we can conclude the need to consider the energy dependence, i.e. an spectral effective multiplication factor should be introduced each energy group separately. (author)
Cross-layer Energy Optimization Under Image Quality Constraints for Wireless Image Transmissions.
Yang, Na; Demirkol, Ilker; Heinzelman, Wendi
2012-01-01
Wireless image transmission is critical in many applications, such as surveillance and environment monitoring. In order to make the best use of the limited energy of the battery-operated cameras, while satisfying the application-level image quality constraints, cross-layer design is critical. In this paper, we develop an image transmission model that allows the application layer (e.g., the user) to specify an image quality constraint, and optimizes the lower layer parameters of transmit power and packet length, to minimize the energy dissipation in image transmission over a given distance. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated by applying the proposed energy optimization to a reference ZigBee system and a WiFi system, and also by comparing to an energy optimization study that does not consider any image quality constraint. Evaluations show that our scheme outperforms the default settings of the investigated commercial devices and saves a significant amount of energy at middle-to-large transmission distances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seccombe, D.P.; Collins, S.A.; Reddish, T.J.; Selles, P.; Malegat, L.; Huetz, A.; Kazansky, A.K.
2002-01-01
The mutual angular distributions of the two ejected electrons following direct photodouble ionization have been measured for D 2 at an excess energy (E) of 25 eV using linearly polarized light. These (γ, 2e) 'triple' differential cross sections (TDCSs) were obtained for asymmetric electron energy conditions with energy sharing ratios (R=E 2 /E 1 ) of R=24, 11.5, 4 and 2.57. In all cases the 'reference' electron (energy = E 1 ) was oriented along the direction of the electric field vector (ε) and detected in coincidence with a second electron (energy = E 2 ) coplanar with ε and the photon beam direction (kγ). For comparison, helium TDCSs were obtained for the same E and R values under nearly identical spectrometer conditions. These show very good agreement with the results of hyperspherical-R-matrix with semi-classical outgoing waves calculations, thus providing even more confidence in the D 2 TDCSs where there is as yet no accurate ab initio theory. The similarities and differences between the experimental results associated with the two targets are qualitatively discussed in terms of Feagin's model (Feagin J M 1998 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31 L729). (author)
Universal law for the increase of hadronic cross sections at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Boukraa, S.
1987-01-01
We show that all known total cross sections can be well described by a simple universal formula σ/sub tot/ = σ 0 +A/s/sup 1/2/+0.388 ln 2 (s/44.44) mb (s in GeV 2 ). The constant σ 0 is the same for the reactions ab and a-barb. A number of further predictions are given, and a dynamical model for the high-energy logarithmic increase is suggested. The second term is due to exchange processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abufager, P N; Fainstein, P D; MartInez, A E; Rivarola, R D
2005-01-01
The generalized continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS II) approximation is employed to study differential cross sections (DCS) for single electron capture in H + + He collisions at intermediate and high energies. Present results are compared with theoretical calculations obtained using the previous CDW-EIS formulation in order to show the importance of the description of the bound and continuum target states in the entrance and exit channels, respectively. Both DCS are also shown together with other theoretical results and with experimental data
Sub-LET Threshold SEE Cross Section Dependency with Ion Energy
Garcia Alia, Ruben; Brandenburg, Sytze; Brugger, Markus; Daly, Eamonn; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Gaillard, Remi; Hoeffgen, Stefan; Menicucci, Alessandra; Metzger, Stefan; Zadeh, Ali; Muschitiello, Michele; Noordeh, Emil; Santin, Giovanni; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2015-01-01
This study focuses on the ion species and energy dependence of the heavy ion SEE cross section in the sub-let threshold region through a set of experimental data. In addition, a Monte Carlo based model is introduced and applied, showing a good agreement with the data in the several hundred MeV/n range while evidencing large discrepancies with the measurements in the 10-30 MeV/n interval, notably for the NE ion. Such discrepancies are carefully analysed and discussed.
Measure of the e+e-→bb Cross Section at the LEP Energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arce Dubois, P.
1992-01-01
In the present work I analyse the data collected during 1990 by the L3 detector, situated in the electron-positron collider LEP. After selecting the events e''+e''-→ bb through their semileptonic decays into muons, I calculate the cross section for the process e''+e''- → bb at different energy points around the mass of the vectorial boson Z, and I measure some parameters of the Standard Model, namely, the Br(b→μ ),Γ z n-→bb/Γ z n→had and Γ z n→bbΓ z n→e''+e''-. (Author) 26 refs
Measure of the e+e-→ bb-bar cross section at the LEP energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arce Dubois, P.
1992-01-01
In the present work I analyse the data collected during 1990 by the L3 detector, situated in the electron-positron collider LEP. After selecting the events e + e - → bb-bar through their semileptonic decays into muons, I calculate the cross section for the process e + e - → bb-bar at different energy points around the mass of the vectorial Z 0 , and I measure some parameters of the Standard Model, namely the Br(b→μ),γ Z degree celsius →bb/γ Z degree celsius → had and γ Z degree celsius → bb γ Z degree celsius → e + e -
The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rashdan, M.; Farhan, A.M.; Hassib, E.; Kareem, W. Abdel
2006-01-01
The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy is investigated within the multiple scattering theory. The multiple integrals are evaluated by Monte Carlo method as well as by the optical limit approximation of the Glauber model. Calculations are performed for 14-23 N, 16-24 O and 18-26 F isotopes colliding with carbon target around 1 GeV. It is found that rms radii and the density distributions show a halo structure of 22 N, 23 O and 24 F
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filipovic, D.M.
1989-01-01
Electron-impact excitation of the larger- number noble-gas atoms is a way of understanding excitation mechanisms in atomic collisional processes. Krypton and xenon have the largest atomic number of all the stable noble gases. Therefore, effects dependent on the size of a target atom, such as alignment and orientation of the atomic outer shell charge cloud after collisional excitation, are best observed by studying these atoms. Normalized, absolute differential cross sections (DCS's) for the lowest electronic states of Kr and Xe atoms, at intermediate energies, are the subject of this report
The energy-related inventions program: Continuing benefits to the inventor community
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braid, R.B. Jr.; Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Rizy, C.G.
1996-10-01
This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) - a technology commercialization program jointly operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1994. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1995 through mail and telephone surveys of 211 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 253 participants. As of September 1993, a total of 609 inventions had been recommended to DOE by NIST, which screens all submitted inventions for technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1994, at least 144 (or 24%) of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of $961 million (in 19944). It is estimated that in 1994 ERIP inventors earned royalties of $2.3 million, and over the lifetime of the program, royalties total $28.2 million. With $47.5 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1994 and $124 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. Further, it is estimated that at least 757 job-years of employment were supported by ERIP technologies in 1994, and that this resulted in a return of approximately $3.4 million in individual income taxes to the U.S. Treasury. Finally, approximately $334 million of energy expenditures were saved in 1994 as a result of the commercial success of five ERIP projects. These energy savings resulted in reduced emissions of 2.1 million metric tons of carbon in 1994 alone.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hakimifard, A.
2010-01-01
The effect of the donor impurity position and the form of confining potential on the binding energy and the photoionization cross-section if a semiconductor quantum well with Poschl-Teller potential is investigated. An analytical expression for the photoionization cross-section is obtained for the case when the polarization vector of light wave is directed along the direction of size quantization. It is shown that the photoionization cross-section has a threshold behavior
Continuous Energy Improvement in Motor Driven Systems - A Guidebook for Industry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilbert A. McCoy and John G. Douglass
2014-02-01
This guidebook provides a step-by-step approach to developing a motor system energy-improvement action plan. An action plan includes which motors should be repaired or replaced with higher efficiency models, recommendations on maintaining a spares inventory, and discussion of improvements in maintenance practices. The guidebook is the successor to DOE’s 1997 Energy Management for Motor Driven Systems. It builds on its predecessor publication by including topics such as power transmission systems and matching driven equipment to process requirements in addition to motors.
Neutron-capture-activation cross sections of 9496Zr and 98100Mo at thermal and 30 keV energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wyrick, J.M.; Poenitz, W.P.
1982-01-01
Neutron-capture cross sections of 94 96 Zr and 98 100 Mo were measured relative to the standard-capture cross section of gold at thermal and 30 keV neutron energies using the activation technique. The reported values are based upon available decay-scheme information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novoselov, G.M.; Litvinskij, L.L
2001-01-01
Different cross-section parameterization methods in the low-energy region are considered. It is shown that the potential scattering parameter value derived from analysis of experimental cross-section data is dependent essentially on the method used to take account of the nearest resonances. A formula describing this dependence is obtained. The results are verified by numerical model calculations. (author)
Scintillation Response of CaF2 to H and He over a Continuous Energy Range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Yanwen; Xiang, Xia; Weber, William J.
2008-01-01
Recent demands for new radiation detector materials with improved γ-ray detection performance at room temperature have prompted research efforts on both accelerated material discovery and efficient techniques that can be used to identify material properties relevant to detector performance. New material discovery has been limited due to the difficulties of large crystal growth to completely absorb γ-energies; whereas high-quality thin films or small crystals of candidate materials can be readily produced by various modern growth techniques. In this work, an ion-scintillator technique is demonstrated that can be applied to study scintillation properties of thin films and small crystals. The scintillation response of a benchmark scintillator, europium-doped calcium fluoride (CaF2:Eu), to energetic proton and helium ions is studied using the ion-scintillator approach based on a time of flight (TOF) telescope. Excellent energy resolution and fast response of the TOF telescope allow quantitative measurement of light yield, nonlinearity and energy resolution over an energy range from a few tens to a few thousands of keV
A leaf-inspired luminescent solar concentrator for energy-efficient continuous-flow photochemistry
Cambié, D.; Zhao, F.; Hessel, V.; Debije, M.G.; Noël, T.
2017-01-01
The use of solar light to promote chemical reactions holds significant potential with regard to sustainable energy solutions. While the number of visible light-induced transformations has increased significantly, the use of abundant solar light has been extremely limited. We report a leaf-inspired
Measurement of the e+e- → π+π-π+π- cross section in the rho'(1600) energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bacci, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Penso, G.; Stella, B.; Baldini-Celio, R.; Battistoni, G.; Capon, G.; Del Fabbro, R.; Iarocci, E.; Murtas, G.P.
1980-01-01
The cross section for the reaction e + e - → π + π - π + π - has been measured at the e + e - storage ring Adone, in the total c.m. energy range 1.42-2.20 GeV. The peak and the following descent of the rho'(1600) resonance is observed. Using also lower energy data, and assuming that only one resonant amplitude contributes to the observed cross section, the parameters of the rho'(1600) are deduced. (orig.)
Pion production differential cross section of heavy-ion collisions at subthreshold energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abumurad, K.M.
1987-01-01
A revised model for pion production in heavy-ion peripheral collisions at subthreshold energies is presented. The pion-production mechanism investigated here is a two step process involving the formation and subsequent decay of an isobar resonance in the projectile nucleus. The independent-particle shell model with harmonic oscillator states is used to approximate the internal structure of the nucleus. The pion production cross section shows a definite angular distribution characteristic of coherent production. It also gives an indication of the quantum signature of the emitted pions. The results show the disappearance of the quantum signature from the energy spectra because of the inclusion of higher order multipoles. The theory is compared to recent experimental data. The comparison reveals that the general trend is reproduced, which is encouraging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
О. О. Gritzay
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Development of the technique for determination of the total neutron cross sections from the measurements of sample transmission by filtered neutrons, scattered on hydrogen is described. One of the methods of the transmission determination TH52Cr from the measurements of 52Cr sample, using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam is presented. Using two methods of the experimental data processing, one of which is presented in this paper (another in [1], there is presented a set of transmissions, obtained for different samples and for different measurement angles. Two methods are fundamentally different; therefore, we can consider the obtained processing results, using these methods as independent. In future, obtained set of transmissions is planned to be used for determination of the parameters E0, Гn and R/ of the resonance 52Cr at the energy of 50 keV.
Energy transfer and cross-relaxation in Tb3+-doped borosilicate glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jung Hwan; Sol, Jung Sik
1990-01-01
Energy transfer in Tb 3+ -doped borosilicate glasses has been studied by the analysis of fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of 5 D 3 and 5 D 4 states as a function of Tb 3+ concentration. It is shown that as the Tb 3+ concentration is increased the cross-relaxation produces high population of the 5 D 4 state at the expense of 5 D 3 . It is also found that this interaction is predominantly dipole-dipole transition with critical distance of 13 A. The critical distance for energy transfer 5 D 4 5 D 3 which is responsible for the quenching of 5 D 4 emission at high concentration of Tb 3+ ions is 4.5 A. (Author)
QCD-motivated Pomeron and diffractive hadronic cross sections at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anisovich, V.V.; Dakhno, L.G.; Nikonov, V.A.
1996-01-01
The cross sections for soft diffractive processes in pp (or p-barp) and πp collisions are calculated by using the QCD-motivated Pomeron. Unitarization of the s-channel amplitude is performed in the eikonal approximation. Color screening is taken into account in the quark structure of hadrons. The resulting description of diffractive processes leads to the parameters of the bare Pomeron P that are close to the corresponding parameters of the Lipatov Pomeron. The parameters of the bare Pomeron and three-reggeon block PGG (G is a reggeized gluon) are fixed by fitting data at moderately high energies. Predictions for ultrahigh energies are made. The intercept for the bare Pomeron is obtained. It is consistent with data on deep-inelastic scattering at small x
Measurement of the energy dependence of the total photon-proton cross section at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; Univ. Coll. London (United Kingdom); Krakow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Applied Computer Science; Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)
2010-10-15
The energy dependence of the photon-proton total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}, was determined from e{sup +}p scattering data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three values of the center-of-mass energy, W, of the {gamma}p system in the range 194
Charge-state dependence of binary-encounter-electron cross sections and peak energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hidmi, H.I.; Richard, P.; Sanders, J.M.; Schoene, H.; Giese, J.P.; Lee, D.H.; Zouros, T.J.M.; Varghese, S.L.
1993-01-01
The charge-state dependence of the binary-encounter-electron (BEE) double-differential cross section (DDCS) at 0 degree with respect to the beam direction resulting from collisions of 1 MeV/amu H + , C q+ , N q+ , O q+ , F q+ , Si q+ , and Cl q+ , and 0.5 MeV/amu Cu q+ with H 2 is reported. The data show an enhancement in the BEE DDCS as the charge state of the projectile is decreased, in agreement with the data reported by Richard et al. [J. Phys. B 23, L213 (1990)]. The DDCS enhancement ratios observed for the three-electron isoelectronic sequence C 3+ :C 6+ , N 4+ :N 7+ , O 5+ :O 8+ , and F 6+ :F 9+ are about 1.35, whereas a DDCS enhancement of 3.5 was observed for Cu 4+ . The BEE enhancement with increasing electrons on the projectile has been shown by several authors to be due to the non-Coulomb static potential of the projectile and additionally to the e-e exchange interaction. An impulse-approximation (IA) model fits the shape of the BEE DDCS and predicts a Z p 2 dependence for the bare-ion cross sections. The IA also predicts a binary peak energy that is independent of q and Z p and below the classical value of 4t, where t is the energy of electrons traveling with the projectile velocity. We observed a BEE energy shift ΔE (ΔE=4t-E peak , where E peak is the measured energy at the peak of the binary encounter electrons) that is approximately independent of q for the low-Z p ions, whereas the measured ΔE values for Si, Cl, and Cu were found to be q dependent
Energy Dependent Removal Cross-Sections in Fast Neutron Shielding Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groenroos, Henrik
1965-05-01
The analytical approximations behind the energy dependent removal cross-section concept of Spinney is investigated and its predictions compared with exact values calculated by Case's singular integral method. The exact values are obtained in plane infinite geometry for the two absorption ratios Σ a /Σ t = 0. 1 and Σ a /Σ t = 0.7 over a range of 20 mfp and for varying degrees of forward anisotrophy in the elastic scattering. The latter is characterized by choosing a suitable general scattering function. It is shown that Spinney's original definition follows if Grosjean's formalism, i. e. the matching of moments, is applied. The prediction of the neutron flux is remarkably accurate, and mostly within 50 % for the spatial range and cases investigated. A definition of the removal cross-sections based on matching the exact asymptotic solution to the exponential part of the approximate solution is found to give less accurate flux values than Spinney's model. A third way to define a removal cross-section independent of the spatial coordinates is the variational method. The possible uses of this technique is briefly commented upon
Energy Dependent Removal Cross-Sections in Fast Neutron Shielding Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groenroos, Henrik
1965-05-15
The analytical approximations behind the energy dependent removal cross-section concept of Spinney is investigated and its predictions compared with exact values calculated by Case's singular integral method. The exact values are obtained in plane infinite geometry for the two absorption ratios {sigma}{sub a}/{sigma}{sub t} = 0. 1 and {sigma}{sub a}/{sigma}{sub t} = 0.7 over a range of 20 mfp and for varying degrees of forward anisotrophy in the elastic scattering. The latter is characterized by choosing a suitable general scattering function. It is shown that Spinney's original definition follows if Grosjean's formalism, i. e. the matching of moments, is applied. The prediction of the neutron flux is remarkably accurate, and mostly within 50 % for the spatial range and cases investigated. A definition of the removal cross-sections based on matching the exact asymptotic solution to the exponential part of the approximate solution is found to give less accurate flux values than Spinney's model. A third way to define a removal cross-section independent of the spatial coordinates is the variational method. The possible uses of this technique is briefly commented upon.
Characterization of radiation-cross-linked, high-density polyethylene for thermal energy storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitaker, R.B.; Craven, S.M.; Etter, D.E.; Jendrek, E.F.; Nease, A.B.
1983-01-01
Electron beam cross-linked high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets (DuPont Alathon, 0.93 MI) have been characterized for potential utility in thermal energy storage applications, before and after up to 500 melt-freeze cycles in ethylene glycol. Up to 95% of the HDPE's initial DSC differential scanning calorimetry Δ H/sub f/ value (44.7 cal/g) (at 1.25 0 C/min cooling rates) was retained up to 9.0 Mrad radiation dosage. Form-stability after 500 melt-freeze cycles was very good at this dosage level. X-ray diffraction measurements showed little difference between irradiated HDPE's and the unirradiated control, indicating that cross-linking occurred primarily in the amorphous regions. FTIR spectroscopy showed the pellets to be uniformly reacted. The ratios of the 965-cm -1 absorption band (trans RCH=CRH') to the 909-cm -1 band (RCH=CH 2 ) increased with increasing radiation dosage, up to 18 Mrad. Gel contents reached a maximum of 75% at the 13.5 Mrad dosage, indicating that other reactions, in addition to cross-linking, occurred at the highest (18 Mrad) dosage level. 15 references, 5 figures, 4 tables
Aichinger, Ida; Kersevan, Roberto
The underlying thesis on mathematical simulation methods in application and theory is structured into three parts. The first part sets up a mathematical model capable of predicting the performance and operation of an accelerator’s vacuum system based on analytical methods. A coupled species-balance equation system describes the distribution of the gas dynamics in an ultra-high vacuum system considering impacts of conductance limitations, beam induced effects (ion-, electron-, and photon-induced de- sorption), thermal outgassing and sticking probabilities of the chamber materials. A new solving algorithm based on sparse matrix representations, is introduced and presents a closed form solution of the equation system. The model is implemented in a Python environment, named PyVasco, and is supported by a graphical user interface to make it easy available for everyone. A sensitivity analysis, a cross-check with the Test-Particle Monte Carlo simulation program Molflow+ and a comparison of the simulation results t...
Continuous spatial modelling to analyse planning and economic consequences of offshore wind energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, Bernd
2011-01-01
Offshore wind resources appear abundant, but technological, economic and planning issues significantly reduce the theoretical potential. While massive investments are anticipated and planners and developers are scouting for viable locations and consider risk and impact, few studies simultaneously address potentials and costs together with the consequences of proposed planning in an analytical and continuous manner and for larger areas at once. Consequences may be investments short of efficiency and equity, and failed planning routines. A spatial resource economic model for the Danish offshore waters is presented, used to analyse area constraints, technological risks, priorities for development and opportunity costs of maintaining competing area uses. The SCREAM-offshore wind model (Spatially Continuous Resource Economic Analysis Model) uses raster-based geographical information systems (GIS) and considers numerous geographical factors, technology and cost data as well as planning information. Novel elements are weighted visibility analysis and geographically recorded shipping movements as variable constraints. A number of scenarios have been described, which include restrictions of using offshore areas, as well as alternative uses such as conservation and tourism. The results comprise maps, tables and cost-supply curves for further resource economic assessment and policy analysis. A discussion of parameter variations exposes uncertainties of technology development, environmental protection as well as competing area uses and illustrates how such models might assist in ameliorating public planning, while procuring decision bases for the political process. The method can be adapted to different research questions, and is largely applicable in other parts of the world. - Research Highlights: → A model for the spatially continuous evaluation of offshore wind resources. → Assessment of spatial constraints, costs and resources for each location. → Planning tool for
Monopolies, liberalization, energy turnaround. (Dis)continuities in the electricity market design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grashof, Katherina; Zipp, Alexander; Jachmann, Henning; Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard; Lechtenboehmer, Stefan
2015-01-01
After a long period of stability, the electricity industry is in the past 15 years, in a major state of flux. First, the switching of state-monitored and regulated regional monopolies to liberalized producer and consumer markets. At the moment we are in a similar change from conventional to renewable energy production. Below the main question will be addressed whether the paradigms of the individual phases are compatible, which still have their place and which should be modified. Moreover, it is shown that the current market design of the future cannot be designed on a blank sheet, but existing structures have to be considered. Given the stage of monopolies, the liberalization and the started energy turnaround respectively in terms of their sector structure, dominant generation technologies, the interaction between production and load and characteristic elements of market design and regulation are presented. Subsequently, a preliminary answer is given to the question raised. [de
Test of the universal rise of hadronic total cross sections at super-high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishida, Muneyuki; Igi, Keiji
2007-01-01
The increase of the total cross sections at very high energies described by log 2 (s/s 0 ) appears to be confirmed. In the analysis of the COMPETE collaboration in the Particle Data Group (2006), the Blog 2 (s/s 0 ) was assumed to extend the universal rise of all the total hadronic cross sections to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. We test if the assumption on the universality of B is justified, through investigation of the values of B for π ± p(K ± p) and pp,pp scatterings. We search for the simultaneous best fit to the σ tot and ρ ratios, using a constraint from the FESR of the P' type for π -+ p scatterings and constraints that are free from the unphysical regions for the pp, pp and K ± p scatterings. By including rich information of the low-energy scattering data owing to the use of FESR, the errors of the B parameters decrease especially for πp. The resulting value of B pp is consistent with B πp within two standard deviations, which appears to support the universality hypothesis. (orig.)
Evaluation of Wavelength Detuning to Mitigate Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Using the Nike Laser
McKenty, P. W.; Marozas, J. A.; Weaver, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.
2015-11-01
Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has become a serious threat to the overall success of direct-drive experiments, and especially for polar-direct-drive (PDD) ignition experiments. CBET redirects incident laser light before it can be absorbed into the target, thereby degrading overall target performance. CBET is particularly detrimental over the equator of the target, which is hydrodynamically very sensitive to such losses in the PDD configuration. A promising solution uses laser wavelength detuning between beams to shift the resonance, thereby reducing the interaction cross section between them. Testing this process for direct drive is now underway at the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. Calculations evaluating the effect CBET has on the scattered-light signals indicate such an experiment will demonstrate the benefits of wavelength detuning for direct-drive implosions. Two-dimensional simulation results will be presented, predicting the effect for both spherical and cylindrical experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
Exotic superconductivity with enhanced energy scales in materials with three band crossings
Lin, Yu-Ping; Nandkishore, Rahul M.
2018-04-01
Three band crossings can arise in three-dimensional quantum materials with certain space group symmetries. The low energy Hamiltonian supports spin one fermions and a flat band. We study the pairing problem in this setting. We write down a minimal BCS Hamiltonian and decompose it into spin-orbit coupled irreducible pairing channels. We then solve the resulting gap equations in channels with zero total angular momentum. We find that in the s-wave spin singlet channel (and also in an unusual d-wave `spin quintet' channel), superconductivity is enormously enhanced, with a possibility for the critical temperature to be linear in interaction strength. Meanwhile, in the p-wave spin triplet channel, the superconductivity exhibits features of conventional BCS theory due to the absence of flat band pairing. Three band crossings thus represent an exciting new platform for realizing exotic superconducting states with enhanced energy scales. We also discuss the effects of doping, nonzero temperature, and of retaining additional terms in the k .p expansion of the Hamiltonian.
Program TOTELA calculating basic cross sections in intermediate energy region by using systematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukahori, Tokio; Niita, Koji
2000-01-01
Program TOTELA can calculate neutron- and proton-induced total, elastic scattering and reaction cross sections and angular distribution of elastic scattering in the intermediate energy region from 20 MeV to 3 GeV. The TOTELA adopts the systematics modified from that by Pearlstein to reproduce the experimental data and LA150 evaluation better. The calculated results compared with experimental data and LA150 evaluation are shown in figures. The TOTELA results can reproduce those data almost well. The TOTELA was developed to fill the lack of experimental data of above quantities in the intermediate energy region and to use for production of JENDL High Energy File. In the case that there is no experimental data of above quantities, the optical model parameters can be fitted by using TOTELA results. From this point of view, it is also useful to compare the optical model calculation by using RIPL with TOTELA results, in order to verify the parameter quality. Input data of TOTELA is only atomic and mass numbers of incident particle and target nuclide and input/output file names. The output of TOTELA calculation is in ENDF-6 format used in the intermediate energy nuclear data files. It is easy to modify the main routine by users. Details are written in each subroutine and main routine
Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh
2017-11-01
This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.
Technical and economical conditions of nuclear energy usage continuation in Lithuania
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gylys, J.; Ziedelis, S.; Klevas, V.
2005-01-01
The main producer of electric energy in Lithuania is Ignalina NPP with its two RBMK-1500 type reactors. It covers up to 86% of total annual electricity production. The compulsory premature closure of Ignalina NPP due to the decision of EU authorities will decrease maximum power generating capacity to 3273 MW in the year 2010 (slump of 42% in respect to 5698 MW of the year 2000) and it will cause a complex of serious technical, economical, ecological, and social consequences. The most important ones for energy sector are the negative power balance and the shortage of power generating capacity which can emerge straight after closure of the second unit of Ignalina NPP. An attempt has been taken to prove, that the most realistic way for replacement of lost power generating capacities is the construction of new nuclear or combined cycle gas turbine power plants. The results of the comparative analysis of their effectiveness and competitiveness are presented in the paper. Estimating the basic prevailing technical and economical factors and three possible scenarios of economy growth, the changes of power balance and levelised cost of produced electricity are compared. It is demonstrated that a new modern nuclear power plant would be competitive and it would be even a more favourable option in respect to a combined cycle gas turbine power plant due to the relatively lower energy production cost, especially when estimating the possible future growth of price for fossil fuel. (authors)
Long-term continuous energy injection in the afterglow of GRB 060729
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Ming; Huang Yongfeng; Lu Tan
2009-01-01
A long plateau phase and an amazing level of brightness have been observed in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 060729. This peculiar light curve is likely due to long-term energy injection in external shock. Here, we present a detailed numerical study of the energy injection process of magnetic dipole radiation from a strongly magnetized millisecond pulsar and model the multi-band afterglow observations. It is found that this model can successfully explain the long plateaus in the observed X-ray and optical afterglow light curves. The sharp break following the plateaus could be due to the rapid decline of the emission power of the central pulsar. At an even later time (∼ 5 x 10 6 s), an obvious jet break appears, which implies a relatively large half opening angle of θ ∼ 0.3 for the GRB ejecta. Due to the energy injection, the Lorentz factor of the outflow is still larger than two even at 10 7 s after the GRB trigger, making the X-ray afterglow of this burst detectable by Chandra even 642 d after the burst.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moreno Luis
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1 provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2 to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference, EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Drischler, J.D.
1986-02-01
Multigroup cross sections (66 neutron groups and 22 photon groups) are described for neutron energies from thermal to 400 MeV. The elements considered are hydrogen, 10 B, 11 B, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, sulfur, potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, nickel, tungsten, and lead. The cross section data presented are a revision of similar data presented previously. In the case of iron, transport calculations using the earlier and the revised cross sections are presented and compared, and significant differences are found. The revised cross sections are available from the Radiation Shielding information Center of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 32 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs
Guelton, Nicolas; Lopès, Catherine; Sordini, Henri
2016-08-01
In hot dip galvanizing lines, strip bending around the sink roll generates a flatness defect called crossbow. This defect affects the cross coating weight distribution by changing the knife-to-strip distance along the strip width and requires a significant increase in coating target to prevent any risk of undercoating. The already-existing coating weight control system succeeds in eliminating both average and skew coating errors but cannot do anything against crossbow coating errors. It has therefore been upgraded with a flatness correction function which takes advantage of the possibility of controlling the electromagnetic stabilizer. The basic principle is to split, for every gage scan, the coating weight cross profile of the top and bottom sides into two, respectively, linear and non-linear components. The linear component is used to correct the skew error by realigning the knives with the strip, while the non-linear component is used to distort the strip in the stabilizer in such a way that the strip is kept flat between the knives. Industrial evaluation is currently in progress but the first results have already shown that the strip can be significantly flattened between the knives and the production tolerances subsequently tightened without compromising quality.
Continuous thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion of sludge. Energy integration study.
Pérez-Elvira, S I; Fdz-Polanco, F
2012-01-01
Experimental data obtained from the operation in a pilot plant are used to perform mass and energy balances to a global process combining units of thermal hydrolysis (TH) of secondary sludge, anaerobic digestion (AD) of hydrolysed secondary sludge together with fresh primary sludge, and cogeneration from biogas by using a gas engine in which the biogas produces electricity and heat from the exhaust gases. Three scenarios were compared, corresponding to the three digesters operated: C (conventional AD, 17 days residence time), B (combined TH + AD, same time), and A (TH + AD at half residence time). The biogas production of digesters B and A was 33 and 24% better, respectively when compared with C. In the case of the combined TH + AD process (scenarios A and B), the key factors in the energy balance were the recovery of heat from hot streams, and the concentration of sludge. The results of the balances showed that for 8% DS concentration of the secondary sludge tested in the pilot plant, the process can be energetically self-sufficient, but a fraction of the biogas must by-pass the gas engine to be directly burned. From an economic point of view, scenario B is more profitable in terms of green energy and higher waste removal, while scenario A reduces the digester volume required by a half. Considering a population of 100,000 inhabitants, the economic benefit is 87,600 €/yr for scenario A and 132,373 €/yr for B. This value can be increased to 223,867 €/yr by increasing the sludge concentration of the feeding to the TH unit to a minimum value that allows use of all the biogas to produce green energy. This concentration is 13% DS, which is still possible from a practical point of view. Additional benefits gained with the combined TH + AD process are the enhancement of the digesters rheology and the possibility of getting Class A biosolids. The integration study presented here set the basis for the scale-up to a demonstration plant.
Bi-continuous Multi-component Nanocrystal Superlattices for Solar Energy Conversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kagan, Cherie [University of Pennsylvania; Murray, Christopher [University of Pennsylvania; Kikkawa, James [University of Pennsylvania; Engheta, Nader [University of Pennsylvania
2017-06-14
Our SISGR program studied an emerging class of nanomaterials wherein different combinations of semiconductor or semiconductor and plasmonic nanocrystals (NCs) are self-assembled into three-dimensional multi-component superlattices. The NC assemblies were designed to form bicontinuous semiconductor NC sublattices with type-II energy offsets to drive charge separation onto electron and hole transporting sublattices for collection and introduce plasmonic NCs to increase solar absorption and charge separation. Our group is expert in synthesizing and assembling an extraordinary variety of artificial systems by tailoring the NC building blocks and the superlattice unit cell geometry. Under this DOE BES Materials Chemistry program, we introduced chemical methods to control inter-particle distance and to dope NC assemblies, which enabled our demonstration of strong electronic communication between NCs and the use of NC thin films as electronic materials. We synthesized, assembled and structurally, spectroscopically, and electrically probed NC superlattices to understand and manipulate the flow of energy and charge toward discovering the design rules and optimizing these complex architectures to create materials that efficiently convert solar radiation into electricity.
Hinterberger, F; Altmeier, M; Bauer, F; Bisplinghoff, J; Büsser, K; Busch, M; Colberg, T; Diehl, O; Dohrmann, F; Engelhardt, H P; Eversheim, P D; Felden, O; Gebel, R; Glende, M; Greiff, J; Gross-Hardt, R; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Jonas, E; Krause, H; Langkau, R; Lindemann, T; Lindlein, J; Maier, R; Maschuw, R; Mayer-Kuckuk, T; Meinerzhagen, A; Naehle, O; Prasuhn, D; Rohdjess, H; Rosendaal, D; Von Rossen, P; Schirm, N; Schulz-Rojahn, M; Schwarz, V; Scobel, W; Trelle, H J; Weise, E; Wellinghausen, A; Woller, K; Ziegler, R
2000-01-01
The EDDA experiment at the cooler synchrotron COSY measures proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions in the momentum range 0.8 - 3.4 GeV/c. In phase 1 of the experiment, spin-averaged differential cross sections were measured continuously during acceleration with an internal polypropylene (CH sub 2) fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of beam momentum. In phase 2, excitation functions of the analyzing power A sub N and the polarization correlation parameters A sub N sub N , A sub S sub S and A sub S sub L are measured using a polarized proton beam and a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target. The paper presents recent d sigma/d OMEGA and A sub N data. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. No evidence for narrow structures was found. The data are compared to recent phase shift solutions.
Montiel Corona, Virginia; Razo-Flores, Elías
2018-02-01
Continuous H 2 and CH 4 production in a two-stage process to increase energy recovery from agave bagasse enzymatic-hydrolysate was studied. In the first stage, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and stirring speed on volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) was evaluated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); by controlling the homoacetogenesis with the agitation speed and maintaining an OLR of 44 g COD/L-d, it was possible to reach a VHPR of 6 L H 2 /L-d, equivalent to 1.34 kJ/g bagasse. In the second stage, the effluent from CSTR was used as substrate to feed a UASB reactor for CH 4 production. Volumetric methane production rate (VMPR) of 6.4 L CH 4 /L-d was achieved with a high OLR (20 g COD/L-d) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT, 14 h), producing 225 mL CH 4 /g-bagasse equivalent to 7.88 kJ/g bagasse. The two-stage continuous process significantly increased energy conversion efficiency (56%) compared to one-stage hydrogen production (8.2%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CR Boardman; Samuel V. Glass
2015-01-01
The moisture transfer effectiveness (or latent effectiveness) of a cross-flow, membrane based energy recovery ventilator is measured and modeled. Analysis of in situ measurements for a full year shows that energy recovery ventilator latent effectiveness increases with increasing average relative humidity and surprisingly increases with decreasing average temperature. A...
Total photoabsorption cross section on nuclei measured in energy range 0.5-2.6 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirazita, M.
1998-03-01
The total photoabsorption cross section on several nuclei has been measured in the energy range 0.5 - 2.6 GeV. Nuclear data show a significant reduction of the absorption strength with respect to the free nucleon case suggesting a shadowing effect at low energies
Cardiovascular Effects of Energy Drinks in Familial Long QT Syndrome: A Randomized Cross-Over Study.
Gray, Belinda; Ingles, Jodie; Medi, Caroline; Driscoll, Timothy; Semsarian, Christopher
2017-03-15
Caffeinated energy drinks may trigger serious cardiac effects. The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular effects of caffeinated energy drink consumption in patients with familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). From 2014-2016, 24 LQTS patients aged 16-50 years were recruited to a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study of energy drink (ED) versus control (CD) with participants acting as their own controls (one week washout). The primary study outcome was an increase in corrected QT interval (QTc) by >20ms. Secondary outcomes were changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In 24 patients with LQTS (no dropout), mean age was 29±9 years, 13/24 (54%) were female, and 8/24 (33%) were probands. Intention to treat analysis revealed no significant change in QTc with ED compared with CD (12±28ms vs 16±27ms, 3% vs 4%, p=0.71). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly increased with ED compared to CD (peak change 7±16mmHg vs 1±16mmHg, 6% vs 0.8%, p=0.046 and 8±10 vs 2±9mmHg, 11% vs 3% p=0.01 respectively). These changes correlated with significant increases in serum caffeine (14.6±11.3 vs 0.5±0.1μmol/L, penergy drink consumption. Caffeinated energy drinks have significant haemodynamic effects in patients with LQTS, especifically an acute increase in blood pressure. Since dangerous QTc prolongation was seen in some LQTS patients, we recommend caution in young patients with LQTS consuming energy drinks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stern, Frank [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Spencer, Justin [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States)
2017-10-03
Savings from electric energy efficiency measures and programs are often expressed in terms of annual energy and presented as kilowatt-hours per year (kWh/year). However, for a full assessment of the value of these savings, it is usually necessary to consider the measure or program's impact on peak demand as well as time-differentiated energy savings. This cross-cutting protocol describes methods for estimating the peak demand and time-differentiated energy impacts of measures implemented through energy efficiency programs.
Wei, Zi; Shen, Yi; Liu, Dong; Liu, Fuqiang
2017-04-04
Greater levels of solar energy storage provide an effective solution to the inherent nature of intermittency, and can substantially improve reliability, availability, and quality of the renewable energy source. Here we demonstrated an all-vanadium (all-V) continuous-flow photoelectrochemical storage cell (PESC) to achieve efficient and high-capacity storage of solar energy, through improving both photocurrent and photocharging depth. It was discovered that forced convective flow of electrolytes greatly enhanced the photocurrent by 5 times comparing to that with stagnant electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study revealed a great reduction of charge transfer resistance with forced convective flow of electrolytes as a result of better mass transport at U-turns of the tortuous serpentine flow channel of the cell. Taking advantage of the improved photocurrent and diminished charge transfer resistance, the all-V continuous-flow PESC was capable of producing ~20% gain in state of charge (SOC) under AM1.5 illumination for ca. 1.7 hours without any external bias. This gain of SOC was surprisingly three times more than that with stagnant electrolytes during a 25-hour period of photocharge.
On the coherence between high-energy total cross-section data when compared with general principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Paris-6 Univ., 75
1993-12-01
An essential model is performed - an independent study of the internal coherence between high-energy total cross-section data by using classes of functions satisfying general principles. The study is practically independent of the ρ-parameter values. This general analysis, made without any fit, reveals certain inconsistencies in the existing set of high-energy data. Some of these inconsistencies are eliminated by giving up arbitrary assumptions sometimes made in 'fitology'. It is shown that the ln 2 s increase of total cross-sections at high energies is clearly favoured when compared with other possible behaviours. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sood, B S; Allawadhi, K L; Arora, S K [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.
1982-02-15
The method developed for the determination of K/L shell photoionization cross sections in various elements, 39 <= Z <= 92, in the characteristic X-ray energy region using a gamma excited variable energy X-ray source has been used for the measurement of Lsub(III) subshell photoionization cross section in Pb, Th and U. The measurements are made at the K X-ray energies of Rb, Nb and Mo, since these are able to excite selectively the Lsub(III) subshells of Pb, Th and U, respectively. The results, when compared with theoretical calculations of Scofield, are found to agree within the uncertainties of determination.
Heart rate profiles and energy cost of locomotion during cross-country skiing races.
Mognoni, P; Rossi, G; Gastaldelli, F; Canclini, A; Cotelli, F
2001-07-01
The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate responses and speed in two cross-country skiing races, which were run by seven male and seven female subjects by using classic and free style. Heart rates and skiing velocities were analyzed over flat, uphill and downhill sections, which were run from one to three times. Heart rates were higher in uphill sections than in flat sections; a steady-state heart rate was never reached in the downhill section. When the same uphill section was repeated, the heart rate tended to increase but the speed to decrease. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was calculated from heart rate:VO2 ratio, measured during uphill walking with the aid of poles. The mean (SD) energy cost of locomotion (i.e., the ratio between net VO2 and speed) was 162.1 (9.4) ml.km(-1).kg(-1) and 147.7 (7.1) ml.km(-1).kg(-1) when male subjects ran the flat section after first downhill by using classic and free style, respectively. Females had lower values for VO2 and speed, but similar energy costs. In general, the variability of the energy cost of locomotion in skiers of a similar competitive level is of the same order as that found in uphill walking on a treadmill.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Saturnino
2008-10-01
Full Text Available The issue of adaptive and distributed cross-layer resource allocation for energy efficiency in uplink code-division multiple-access (CDMA wireless data networks is addressed. The resource allocation problems are formulated as noncooperative games wherein each terminal seeks to maximize its own energy efficiency, namely, the number of reliably transmitted information symbols per unit of energy used for transmission. The focus of this paper is on the issue of adaptive and distributed implementation of policies arising from this approach, that is, it is assumed that only readily available measurements, such as the received data, are available at the receiver in order to play the considered games. Both single-cell and multicell networks are considered. Stochastic implementations of noncooperative games for power allocation, spreading code allocation, and choice of the uplink (linear receiver are thus proposed, and analytical results describing the convergence properties of selected stochastic algorithms are also given. Extensive simulation results show that, in many instances of practical interest, the proposed stochastic algorithms approach with satisfactory accuracy the performance of nonadaptive games, whose implementation requires much more prior information.
Bioeffects of low-energy continuous ultrasound on isolated sarcoma 180 cells.
Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong; Wang, Zhezhi; Wang, Pan; Hao, Qiao; Li, Chendi
2009-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying bioeffects of low-intensity continuous ultrasound on isolated sarcoma 180 (S180) cells and cellular responses to these effects. After sonication, several structural and functional parameters were examined to elucidate ultrasound-induced cell damage. Instant disruption of the cell membrane might be caused by acoustic cavitation, producing mechanical and chemical effects that acted simultaneously on S180 cells; this could be reflected by immediate (morphological) changes such as membrane permeability, membrane fluidity, lipid peroxidation and the generation of hydroxyl radicals in culture medium. Our results of the delayed effects also indicated S180 cells were sensitive to ultrasound-induced apoptosis, and the rate of apoptosis rose gradually with a prolonged incubation time. The presence of apoptotic cells was identified by a distinct morphological form characterized by membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, delayed cytotoxicity was accompanied by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the two events presented obviously a negative correlation. ROS secondarily generated from damaged mitochondria may play a role in the induction of apoptosis. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blink, J.A.; Dye, R.E.; Kimlinger, J.R.
1981-12-01
Calculation of neutron activation of proposed fusion reactors requires a library of neutron-activation cross sections. One such library is ACTL, which is being updated and expanded by Howerton. If the energy-dependent neutron flux is also known as a function of location and time, the buildup and decay of activation products can be calculated. In practice, hand calculation is impractical without energy-averaged cross sections because of the large number of energy groups. A widely used activation computer code, ORIGEN2, also requires energy-averaged cross sections. Accordingly, we wrote the ORLIB code to collapse the ACTL library, using the flux as a weighting function. The ORLIB code runs on the LLNL Cray computer network. We have also modified ORIGEN2 to accept the expanded activation libraries produced by ORLIB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Tomo
2008-01-01
We discuss the possibilities of the simultaneous determination of the neutrino masses and the evolution of dark energy from future cosmological observations such as cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure (LSS) and the cross-correlation between them. Recently it has been discussed that there is a degeneracy between the neutrino masses and the equation of state for dark energy. It is also known that there are some degeneracies among the parameters describing the dark energy evolution. We discuss the implications of these for the cross-correlation of CMB with LSS in some detail. Then we consider to what extent we can determine the neutrino masses and the dark energy evolution using the expected data from CMB, LSS and their cross-correlation
An Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) System for Continuous and Sustainable Cold Supply in Oman
Winterleitner, G.; Schütz, F.; Huenges, E.
2016-12-01
The aim of the GeoSolCool research programme between the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and The Research Council of Oman (TRC) is the development of an innovative and sustainable cooling system in combination with an aquifer thermal energy storage system in northern Oman. An integral part of this project is the design of a subsurface aquifer reservoir system for storage of thermal energy through hot water injection. An accurate characterisation of potential storage horizons is thus essential to ensure optimal efficiency of the cooling system. The study area, 40 km west of Muscat is characterised by a thick Cenozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary succession, containing at least 3 aquifer horizons. We used a multidisciplinary approach for the initial ATES development phase, including geological fieldwork dovetailed with remote sensing analyses, thin-section analyses, geological modelling and reservoir fluid flow forecasting. First results indicate two potential storage horizons: (1) a Miocene-aged clastic-dominated alluvial fan system and (2) an Eocene carbonate sequence. The alluvial fan system is a more than 300 m thick, coarse clastic (mainly gravels and sandstones) succession of coalesced individual fans. Thin-section analyses showed that hydraulic parameters are favourable for the gravel and sandstone intervals but reservoir architecture is complex due to multiple generations of interconnecting fans with highly heterogeneous facies distributions. The Eocene carbonates were deposited in a carbonate ramp setting, strongly influenced by currents and storm events. Individual facies belts extend over kilometres and thus horizontal reservoir connectivity is expected to be good with minor facies variability. Thin-section analyses showed that especially the fossil-rich sections show good storage qualities. Fluid flow forecasting indicate that both potential horizons have good to very good storage characteristics. However, intense diagenetic
Effects of continuous hypoxia on energy metabolism in cultured cerebro-cortical neurons.
Malthankar-Phatak, Gauri H; Patel, Anant B; Xia, Ying; Hong, Soonsun; Chowdhury, Golam M I; Behar, Kevin L; Orina, Isaac A; Lai, James C K
2008-09-10
Mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced neuronal adaptation have not been fully elucidated. In the present study we investigated glucose metabolism and the activities of glycolytic and TCA cycle enzymes in cerebro-cortical neurons exposed to hypoxia (3 days in 1% of O2) or normoxia (room air). Hypoxia led to increased activities of LDH (194%), PK (90%), and HK (24%) and decreased activities of CS (15%) and GDH (34%). Neurons were incubated with [1-(13)C]glucose for 45 and 120 min under normoxic or hypoxic (120 min only) conditions and 13C enrichment determined in the medium and cell extract using 1H-{13C}-NMR. In hypoxia-treated neurons [3-(13)C]lactate release into the medium was 428% greater than in normoxia-treated controls (45-min normoxic incubation) and total flux through lactate was increased by 425%. In contrast glucose oxidation was reduced significantly in hypoxia-treated neurons, even when expressed relative to total cellular protein, which correlated with the reduced activities of the measured mitochondrial enzymes. The results suggest that surviving neurons adapt to prolonged hypoxia by up-regulation of glycolysis and down-regulation of oxidative energy metabolism, similar to certain other cell types. The factors leading to adaptation and survival for some neurons but not others remain to be determined.
Shechter, Ari; Kovtun, Kyle; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre
2016-01-01
Obesity is among the leading risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A reciprocal relationship between obesity and OSA has been proposed, which may be due to excessive food intake. We conducted a pilot study to test the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on energy intake (EI) in OSA patients using a sham-controlled crossover design. In-laboratory total daily EI was assessed after 2 mo of active and sham CPAP. Four men were enrolled (age ± SEM: 51.8 ± 2.1 y; body mas...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schopper, H.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.
1988-01-01
The aim of this report is to present a compilation of cross-sections (i.e. reaction rates) of elementary particles at high energy. The data are presented in the form of tables, plots and some fits, which should be easy for the reader to use and may enable him to estimate cross-sections for presently unmeasured energies. We have analyzed all the data published in the major Journals and Reviews for momenta of the incoming particles larger than ≅ 50 MeV/c, since the early days of elementary particle physics and, for each reaction, we have selected the best cross-section data available. We have restricted our attention to integrated cross-sections, such as total cross-sections, exclusive and inclusive cross-sections etc., at various incident beam energies. We have disregarded data affected by geometrical and/or kinematical cuts which would make them not directly comparable to other data at different energies. Also, in the case of exclusive reactions, we have left out data where not all of the particles in the final state were unambiguously identified. This work contains reactions induced by neutrinos, gammas, charged pions, kaons, nucleons, antinucleons and hyperons. (orig./HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Chang, Soon Woong; Jeong, Seong Yeob; Jeung, Jaehoon; Kim, Sungsu; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Energy self-sufficiency/energy recovery with thermophilic DScAD of FW was evaluated. • The maximum biogas production rate was positively influenced by OLRs. • Maximum (average) electrical energy recoverable from a 1 tons of FW was 1050 kW h. • Thermophilic DScAD can substantially reduce the VS and recover energy to serve itself. • A modified Gompertz model fitted well with the experimental results for all phases. - Abstract: A thermophilic, dry semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (DScAD) method was used to effectively transform food waste (FW) into renewable energy. This study aims to thoroughly evaluate the system performance and model simulation to predict biogas production, intermediate products and their outcomes, energy recovery potential, and energy balance, while operating with organic loading rates ranging from 2.3 to 9.21 kg-TS/m"3 day. The results indicate that volatile solids (VS) reduction and biogas production both improved as the organic loading rates (OLR) increased, and the cost of FW valorization remained low. The greatest VS reduction achieved was 87.01%, associated with 170 m"3 of biogas yield per ton of sludge (69% methane) at an ORL of 9.21 ± 0.89 kg-TS/m"3 day (8.62 ± 0.34 kg-VS/m"3 day) although the amounts of ammonia (3700 mg/L), hydrogen sulfide (420 ppm), and total volatile fatty acids (7101 mg/L) during fermentation were relatively high. Furthermore, 75% of total energy requirement for the system could be recovered via biomethane production, resulting in a considerably reduced specific energy supply (kW h/ton of treating FW). The results suggest that a modified Gompertz model is suitable for estimating the biogas and methane production potential and rate. The results also reveal that the DScAD of FW at 55 °C is a reliable, stable, and robust option for both solids reduction and energy recovery via biogas generation.
(e, 2e) triple differential cross sections of Ca atoms at low energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Purohit, G; Patidar, Vinod; Sud, K K [Department of Basic Sciences, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India)], E-mail: g_vpurohit@yahoo.com, E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.in
2009-12-15
Recently, several theoretical studies (Hitawala et al 2008 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41 035205; Khajuria and Deshmukh 2008 Phys. Rev. A 78 024702; Chauhan et al 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 032708) have been reported to analyze the measurements of triple differential cross section (TDCS) for (e, 2e) processes on Ca (4s{sup 2}) atom in coplanar geometry (Murray 2005 Phys. Rev. A 72 062711). In this paper, the (e, 2e) TDCS of the Ca atom has been revisited with the inclusion of correlation-polarization potential and post-collision interaction in the distorted wave Born approximation formalism. We note that the present attempt significantly improves the understanding of (e, 2e) processes at low energies on Ca atom. Still there are several discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical results that require more theoretical attempts to explain them properly.
CrossRef A study of upward going particles with the Extreme Energy Events telescopes
Abbrescia, M; Baldini, L; Ferroli, R Baldini; Batignani, G; Bencivenni, G; Bossini, E; Chiavassa, A; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccia, E; Corvaglia, A; De Gruttola, D; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D׳Incecco, M; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, F L; Fattibene, E; Ferraro, A; Forster, R; Frolov, V; Galeotti, P; Garbini, M; Gemme, G; Gnesi, I; Grazzi, S; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadu, D; La Rocca, P; Maggiora, A; Maron, G; Mazziotta, M N; Miozzi, S; Nania, R; Noferini, F; Nozzoli, F; Panareo, M; Panetta, M P; Paoletti, R; Perasso, L; Pilo, F; Piragino, G; Riggi, F; Righini, G C; Rodriguez, A R; Sartorelli, G; Scapparone, E; Schioppa, M; Scribano, A; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Squarcia, S; Stori, L; Taiuti, M; Terreni, G; Vistoli, M C; Votano, L; Williams, M C S; Zani, S; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R
2016-01-01
In this paper the first study of the upward going events detected by the telescopes of the Extreme Energy Event (EEE) project is reported. The EEE project consists of a detector array of Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers located at selected sites on the Italian territory. During autumn 2014 the first coordinated data taking period took place and around one billion candidate tracks were collected. Among them, of particular interest is the sample of particles which cross the telescopes from below. The results obtained demonstrate that the EEE telescopes can distinguish the electrons produced as decay products of cosmic muons stopped in the ground, or in the last chamber of the telescopes themselves, confirming the excellent performance of the system for the investigation of intriguing cosmic phenomena.
Observational constraints on dark matter-dark energy scattering cross section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Suresh [BITS Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Rajasthan (India); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
2017-11-15
In this letter, we report precise and robust observational constraints on the dark matter-dark energy scattering cross section, using the latest data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) Planck temperature and polarization, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurements and weak gravitational lensing data from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). The scattering scenario consists of a pure momentum exchange between the dark components, and we find σ{sub d} < 10{sup -29} cm{sup 2} (m{sub dm}c{sup 2}/GeV) at 95% CL from the joint analysis (CMB + BAO + CFHTLenS), where m{sub dm} is a typical dark matter particle mass. We notice that the scattering among the dark components may influence the growth of large scale structure in the Universe, leaving the background cosmology unaltered. (orig.)
Review of magnetic fusion energy neutron cross section needs: neutronics viewpoint
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudziak, D.J.; Muir, D.W.
1977-01-01
In the overall context of fusion nucleonic analysis, most cross section deficiencies lie in the energy range 14 MeV and below. This review deals not only with new data requirements generated by current interest in d-Li sources but also with the needs of conventional nucleonic studies (i.e., 14-MeV source calculations). The many compilations of requirements are referenced, and the current assessment of high-priority needs is succinctly summarized. Then typical methodology and results (sensitivity and uncertainty analysis) are given for quantitative data assessments of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and a fusion Experimental Power Reactor. Finally, a summary is presented of some probings into data above 14 MeV, which have potential applications for d-Li irradiation facilities, d-Be medical therapy sources, and electronuclear fuel production facilities. 2 figures, 9 tables
Systematics of intermediate-energy single-nucleon removal cross sections
Tostevin, J. A.; Gade, A.
2014-11-01
There is now a large and increasing body of experimental data and theoretical analyses for reactions that remove a single nucleon from an intermediate-energy beam of neutron- or proton-rich nuclei. In each such measurement, one obtains the inclusive cross section for the population of all bound final states of the mass A -1 reaction residue. These data, from different regions of the nuclear chart, and that involve weakly and strongly bound nucleons, are compared with theoretical expectations. These calculations include an approximate treatment of the reaction dynamics and shell-model descriptions of the projectile initial state, the bound final states of the residues, and the single-particle strengths computed from their overlap functions. The results are discussed in the light of recent data, more exclusive tests of the eikonal dynamical description, and calculations that take input from more microscopic nuclear structure models.
Cardiac Calcium ATPase Dimerization Measured by Cross-Linking and Fluorescence Energy Transfer.
Blackwell, Daniel J; Zak, Taylor J; Robia, Seth L
2016-09-20
The cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) establishes the intracellular calcium gradient across the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. It has been proposed that SERCA forms homooligomers that increase the catalytic rate of calcium transport. We investigated SERCA dimerization in rabbit left ventricular myocytes using a photoactivatable cross-linker. Western blotting of cross-linked SERCA revealed higher-molecular-weight species consistent with SERCA oligomerization. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements in cells transiently transfected with fluorescently labeled SERCA2a revealed that SERCA readily forms homodimers. These dimers formed in the absence or presence of the SERCA regulatory partner, phospholamban (PLB) and were unaltered by PLB phosphorylation or changes in calcium or ATP. Fluorescence lifetime data are compatible with a model in which PLB interacts with a SERCA homodimer in a stoichiometry of 1:2. Together, these results suggest that SERCA forms constitutive homodimers in live cells and that dimer formation is not modulated by SERCA conformational poise, PLB binding, or PLB phosphorylation. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A statistical method to estimate low-energy hadronic cross sections
Balassa, Gábor; Kovács, Péter; Wolf, György
2018-02-01
In this article we propose a model based on the Statistical Bootstrap approach to estimate the cross sections of different hadronic reactions up to a few GeV in c.m.s. energy. The method is based on the idea, when two particles collide a so-called fireball is formed, which after a short time period decays statistically into a specific final state. To calculate the probabilities we use a phase space description extended with quark combinatorial factors and the possibility of more than one fireball formation. In a few simple cases the probability of a specific final state can be calculated analytically, where we show that the model is able to reproduce the ratios of the considered cross sections. We also show that the model is able to describe proton-antiproton annihilation at rest. In the latter case we used a numerical method to calculate the more complicated final state probabilities. Additionally, we examined the formation of strange and charmed mesons as well, where we used existing data to fit the relevant model parameters.
A continuous latitudinal energy balance model to explore non-uniform climate engineering strategies
Bonetti, F.; McInnes, C. R.
2016-12-01
Current concentrations of atmospheric CO2 exceed measured historical levels in modern times, largely attributed to anthropogenic forcing since the industrial revolution. The required decline in emissions rates has never been achieved leading to recent interest in climate engineering for future risk-mitigation strategies. Climate engineering aims to offset human-driven climate change. It involves techniques developed both to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) methods) and to counteract the radiative forcing that it generates (Solar Radiation Management (SRM) methods). In order to investigate effects of SRM technologies for climate engineering, an analytical model describing the main dynamics of the Earth's climate has been developed. The model is a time-dependent Energy Balance Model (EBM) with latitudinal resolution and allows for the evaluation of non-uniform climate engineering strategies. A significant disadvantage of climate engineering techniques involving the management of solar radiation is regional disparities in cooling. This model offers an analytical approach to design multi-objective strategies that counteract climate change on a regional basis: for example, to cool the Artic and restrict undesired impacts at mid-latitudes, or to control the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. Using the Green's function approach the resulting partial differential equation allows for the computation of the surface temperature as a function of time and latitude when a 1% per year increase in the CO2 concentration is considered. After the validation of the model through comparisons with high fidelity numerical models, it will be used to explore strategies for the injection of the aerosol precursors in the stratosphere. In particular, the model involves detailed description of the optical properties of the particles, the wash-out dynamics and the estimation of the radiative cooling they can generate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, D.V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G.E.
2002-01-01
Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1 deg. -180 deg. . Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1 deg. -180 deg., for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance
Rao, D. V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.
2002-09-01
Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1°-180°. Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1°-180°, for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance.
Fletcher, Elly A; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A; Orellana, Liliana; Wadley, Glenn D; Bruce, Clinton; Dempsey, Paddy C; Lacy, Kathleen E; Dunstan, David W
2018-03-01
To explore the impact of uninterrupted sitting versus sitting with resistance-type activity breaks on adolescents' postprandial glucose responses while consuming a diet varying in energy. Cross-over randomised trial. Thirteen healthy participants (16.4±1.3years) completed a four-treatment cross-over trial: (1) uninterrupted sitting+high-energy diet; (2) sitting with breaks+high-energy diet; (3) uninterrupted sitting+standard-energy diet; and (4) sitting with breaks+standard-energy diet. For all four conditions, two identical meals were consumed; at 0h and 3h. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGM) recorded interstitial glucose concentrations every five minutes. Linear mixed models examined differences in glucose positive incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and total AUC between the sitting and diet conditions for the first meal, second meal and entire trial period. Compared to the uninterrupted sitting conditions, the breaks condition elicited a 36.0mmol/L/h (95%CI 6.6-65.5) and 35.9mmol/L/h (95%CI 6.6-65.5) lower iAUC response after the first and second meal, respectively, but not for the entire trial period or for total AUC. Compared to the standard-energy diet, the high-energy diet elicited a 55.0mmol/L/h (95%CI 25.8-84.2) and 75.7mmol/L/h (95%CI 8.6-142.7) higher iAUC response after the first meal and entire trial, respectively. Similar response to the high-energy diet were observed for total AUC. According to iAUC, interrupting sitting had a significant effect on lowering postprandial glucose for both dietary conditions, however, it was not significant when examining total AUC. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. ACTRN12615001145594. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christopoulos, Stamatios; Demir, Cansu; Kull, Michael
2016-01-01
Increasing the energy efficiency not only requires the improvement of current technologies, but also advancement of and more coherent institutional governance. This paper captures the major structural and organisational elements of institutional governance in place for promoting energy efficiency. Looking at Croatia – one of the most successful cases of energy efficiency programming of the past decade – the paper zooms in on governance coordination (metagovernance) between actors from different sectors and operating at multiple levels. By showcasing the positive implications of the programme, the authors contribute to the debate concerned with identifying better institutional frameworks to attain sustainable development. The programme showed effective governance through vertical and horizontal coordination among institutions and stakeholders resulting in simultaneous social and economic development and improved energy efficiency in public buildings. Through the case of Croatia, this study identifies how metagovernance has supported coordination among actors aiming to create sustainable development in general and how metagovernance functions in energy efficiency related projects, in particular. The paper also sheds light on communication frameworks of governance coordination and institutional constraints lying at the heart of the vagueness of sustainable development. It also discusses private sector involvement to achieve better institutional framework to attain sustainable development. - Highlights: • This study identified how metagovernance has supported coordination among actors. • State played a key role in the coordination by acting as a catalyst. • UNDP acted as a mediator between government and society for capacity building. • Public authorities are less likely to continue activities without external support. • Private sector’s knowledge and resources are crucial to support project objectives.
EVALPLOT2007, ENDF Plots Cross Section, Angular Distribution and Energy Distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2007-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: EVALPLOT is designed to plot evaluated cross sections in the ENDF/B format. The program plots cross sections, angular distributions, energy distributions and other parameters. IAEA1322/16: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: Evalplot Vers. 2007-1 (Jan. 2007): - checked against all ENDF/B-VII; - increased page size from 600,000 to 2,400,000; - increased the number of energies vs. legendre coefficients from 20,000 to 80,000 (must be 1/30 page size); - added (n,remainder) to first plot. 2 - Method of solution: In the case of processing neutron and photon cross sections (MF=3 or 23) and parameters (MF=1 or 27), all data in a file (MF) is read, grouped together by type, and plotted. All reactions of a data type appear on the same plot. The data types for MF=1 and 3 (neutrons) are: (1) total, elastic, capture, fission and total inelastic; (2) (n,2n), (n,3n) and (n,n' charged particle); (3) (n,charged particle); (4) particle production (proton, deuteron, etc.) and damage; (5) total, first, second, etc. chance fission; (6) total inelastic, inelastic discrete levels and continuum; (7) (n,p) total and levels (only if levels are given); (8) (n,d) total and levels (only if levels are given); (9) (n,t) total and levels (only if levels are given); (10) (n, 3 He) total and levels (only if levels are given); (11) (n, 4 He) total and levels (only if levels are given); (12) parameters mu-bar, xi and gamma; (13) nu-bar - total, prompt an delayed. The data types for MF=23 and 27 (photons) are: (14) total, coherent
Limão-Vieira, P.; Horie, M.; Kato, H.; Hoshino, M.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Buckman, S. J.; Tanaka, H.
2011-12-01
We report absolute elastic differential, integral and momentum transfer cross sections for electron interactions with CCl4. The incident electron energy range is 1.5-100 eV, and the scattered electron angular range for the differential measurements varies from 15°-130°. The absolute scale of the differential cross section was set using the relative flow technique with helium as the reference species. Comparison with previous total cross sections shows good agreement. Atomic-like behaviour in this scattering system is shown here for the first time, and is further investigated by comparing the CCl4 elastic cross sections to recent results on the halomethanes and atomic chlorine at higher impact energies [H. Kato, T. Asahina, H. Masui, M. Hoshino, H. Tanaka, H. Cho, O. Ingólfsson, F. Blanco, G. Garcia, S. J. Buckman, and M. J. Brunger, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074309 (2010)], 10.1063/1.3319761.
Cross sections for ionization of tetrahydrofuran by protons at energies between 300 and 3000 keV
Wang, Mingjie; Rudek, Benedikt; Bennett, Daniel; de Vera, Pablo; Bug, Marion; Buhr, Ticia; Baek, Woon Yong; Hilgers, Gerhard; Rabus, Hans
2016-05-01
Double-differential cross sections for ionization of tetrahydrofuran by protons with energies from 300 to 3000 keV were measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt ion accelerator facility. The electrons emitted at angles between 15∘ and 150∘ relative to the ion-beam direction were detected with an electrostatic hemispherical electron spectrometer. Single-differential and total ionization cross sections have been derived by integration. The experimental results are compared to the semiempirical Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht model as well as to the recently reported method based on the dielectric formalism. The comparison to the latter showed good agreement with experimental data in a broad range of emission angles and energies of secondary electrons. The scaling property of ionization cross sections for tetrahydrofuran was also investigated. Compared to molecules of different size, the ionization cross sections of tetrahydrofuran were found to scale with the number of valence electrons at large impact parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeWolf, R.
2003-01-01
This presentation discussed the implications of converging natural gas and electricity markets with reference to natural gas supply, demand and prices. Convergence is an outcome of the increasing use of natural gas in power generation. The author stated his view that convergence of natural gas and electricity will continue, and even increase. The issue of deliverability versus reserves in North America was discussed. While both Canada and the United States have significant existing natural gas reserves, the deliverability is declining and incremental production will come at higher prices because of production challenges in remote and untapped regions. Outlooks by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board and the National Energy Board indicate that traditional and maturing supply basins in Alberta will not be able to maintain the existing level of production. British Columbia has production opportunities, but they are offshore, and optimism for offshore production in eastern Canada is mixed. Gas supply in the United States is not expected to meet demand expectations. This presentation outlined incremental natural gas supplies for northern Canada, coalbed methane, eastern Canada, and offshore British Columbia. It also outlined the challenges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The forecast for increasing natural gas prices has raised the issue of looking at alternatives to natural gas for power generation, but environmental issues continue to favour natural gas. tabs., figs
Optimal Cross-Layer Design for Energy Efficient D2D Sharing Systems
Alabbasi, Abdulrahman
2016-11-23
In this paper, we propose a cross-layer design, which optimizes the energy efficiency of a potential future 5G spectrum-sharing environment, in two sharing scenarios. In the first scenario, underlying sharing is considered. We propose and minimize a modified energy per good bit (MEPG) metric, with respect to the spectrum sharing user’s transmission power and media access frame length. The cellular users, legacy users, are protected by an outage probability constraint. To optimize the non-convex targeted problem, we utilize the generalized convexity theory and verify the problem’s strictly pseudoconvex structure. We also derive analytical expressions of the optimal resources. In the second scenario, we minimize a generalized MEPG function while considering a probabilistic activity of cellular users and its impact on the MEPG performance of the spectrum sharing users. Finally, we derive the associated optimal resource allocation of this problem. Selected numerical results show the improvement of the proposed system compared with other systems.
Cross correlation analysis of medium energy gamma rays for the northern hemisphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, J.; Zanrosso, E.; Zych, A.D.; White, R.S.
1982-01-01
Data obtained with the UCR gamma telescope have been analyzed using the cross-correlation method. The observations extended over 37.5 hr from 0930 UT, 30 Sept. to 2300 UT, 1 oct. 1978 at 32deg N. Lat. (Palestine, Texas). The Crab Nebula- Anticenter region was observed on consecutive days. The telescope's wide field-of-view permitted the search for a number of other medium energy (1-30 MeV) source candidates. As the telescope swept the sky, the count rates for fixed celestial directions were correlated with the expected response as a function of time and telescope geometry. Similar correlations were carried out for sources measured in the laboratory and computer-simulated sources. In the correlation method the time independence and azimuthal symmetry of the atmospheric and cosmic diffuse backgrounds provide zero correlation. In contrast, a celestial source produces an asymmetric response with respect to the azimuthal direction which varies predictably in time to give a positive correlation. Preliminary correlation skymaps of the Anticenter region are presented and their statistical significance discussed. An energy spectrum obtained from the ''correlated counts'' is compared with measurements by other methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, E. K.; Boadle, R. A.; Machacek, J. R.; Makochekanwa, C.; Sullivan, J. P. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Chiari, L. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Buckman, S. J., E-mail: Stephen.buckman@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Brunger, M. J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fısica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientıficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fısica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ingolfsson, O. [Department of Chemistry, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 107 (Iceland)
2014-07-21
Measurements of the grand total and total positronium formation cross sections for positron scattering from uracil have been performed for energies between 1 and 180 eV, using a trap-based beam apparatus. Angular, quasi-elastic differential cross section measurements at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 eV are also presented and discussed. These measurements are compared to existing experimental results and theoretical calculations, including our own calculations using a variant of the independent atom approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimoura, S.
1992-01-01
The relation between nuclear density distribution and interaction cross section is discussed in terms of Glauber model. Based on the model, density distribution of neutron drip-line nucleus 11 Be and 11 Li is determined experimentally from incident energy dependence of interaction cross sections of 11 Be and 11 Li on light targets. The obtained distributions have long tails corresponding to neutron halos of loosely bound neutrons. (Author)
The averaged cross sections of natural carbon in the energy region 90-160 keV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gritzay, O.O.; Volkovetskyi, S.P.; Libman, V.A.
2012-01-01
This paper presents the results of measurements of the total cross-section of carbon in the energy region 90 - 160 keV. These results were obtained using a method of the modified filtered beams, developed in the Neutron Physics Department and implemented in the horizontal experimental channel HEC-9 at the Kyiv research reactor. The experiment was carried out using 5 modified filters. Ten values of the averaged cross-sections of carbon were obtained
Measurement of pair production cross sections in Ge for the 1. 238-3. 548 MeV energy range
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, R K; Singh, K; Sahota, H S
1985-02-28
Pair production cross sections have been determined for the 1.238-3.548 MeV energy range in germanium (Z = 32) using a Ge(Li) gamma ray detector. The experimental results have been compared with the theoretical cross sections of previous workers. The results of the present measurements agree with the Bethe-Heitler results down to 1.771 MeV. However, at 1.238 MeV the experimental results are higher than all the theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grieshemer, D.P.; Gill, D.F.; Nease, B.R.; Carpenter, D.C.; Joo, H.; Millman, D.L.; Sutton, T.M.; Stedry, M.H.; Dobreff, P.S.; Trumbull, T.H.; Caro, E.
2013-01-01
MC21 is a continuous-energy Monte Carlo radiation transport code for the calculation of the steady-state spatial distributions of reaction rates in three-dimensional models. The code supports neutron and photon transport in fixed source problems, as well as iterated-fission-source (eigenvalue) neutron transport problems. MC21 has been designed and optimized to support large-scale problems in reactor physics, shielding, and criticality analysis applications. The code also supports many in-line reactor feedback effects, including depletion, thermal feedback, xenon feedback, eigenvalue search, and neutron and photon heating. MC21 uses continuous-energy neutron/nucleus interaction physics over the range from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV. The code treats all common neutron scattering mechanisms, including fast-range elastic and non-elastic scattering, and thermal- and epithermal-range scattering from molecules and crystalline materials. For photon transport, MC21 uses continuous-energy interaction physics over the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The code treats all common photon interaction mechanisms, including Compton scattering, pair production, and photoelectric interactions. All of the nuclear data required by MC21 is provided by the NDEX system of codes, which extracts and processes data from EPDL-, ENDF-, and ACE-formatted source files. For geometry representation, MC21 employs a flexible constructive solid geometry system that allows users to create spatial cells from first- and second-order surfaces. The system also allows models to be built up as hierarchical collections of previously defined spatial cells, with interior detail provided by grids and template overlays. Results are collected by a generalized tally capability which allows users to edit integral flux and reaction rate information. Results can be collected over the entire problem or within specific regions of interest through the use of phase filters that control which particles are allowed to score each
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Hongqing; Qi Bujia; Zhou Zuying; Sa Jun; Ke Zunjian; Sui Qingchang; Xia Haihong; Shen Guanren
1992-01-01
The status and technique of double differential cross section measurement of secondary neutrons in the incident neutron energy range 9 to 13 MeV is reviewed with emphasis on the work done at CIAE. There are scarce measurements of secondary neutron double differential cross sections in this energy region up to now. A main difficulty for this is lack of an applicable monoenergetic neutron source. When monoenergetic neutron energy reaches 8 Me/v, the break-up neutrons from the d + D or p + T reaction starts to become significant. It is difficult to get a pure secondary neutron spectrum induced only by monoenergetic neutrons. To solve this problem an abnormal fast neutron TOF facility was designed and tested. Double differential neutron emission cross sections of 238 U and 209 Bi at 10 MeV were obtained by combining the data measured by both normal and abnormal TOF spectrometers and a good agreement between measurement and calculation was achieved
Investigation of the 10B(n,t) reaction cross-section in the subthreshold energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kornilov, N.V.; Balitskij, A.V.; Baryba, V.Ya.; Druzhnin, V.I.; Kagalenko, A.B.; Kharitonov, A.K.
1991-01-01
The 10 B(n,t) reaction cross-section has been measured at incident neutron energies of 0.025 eV, 420 KeV and 5 MeV. A detailed description of the experimental technique and the Monte Carlo simulation is given. It was confirmed that the cross-section of this reaction in the subthreshold region is non-zero. The recommended value of the 10 B(n,t) reaction cross-section at thermal is 8.5±2.0 mb. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geng, ZhiQiang; Dong, JunGen; Han, YongMing; Zhu, QunXiong
2017-01-01
Highlights: •An improved environment DEA cross-model method is proposed. •Energy and environment efficiency analysis framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. •This proposed method is efficient in energy-saving and emission reduction of complex chemical processes. -- Abstract: The complex chemical process is a high pollution and high energy consumption industrial process. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and evaluate the energy and environment efficiency of the complex chemical process. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of decision-making units (DMUs). However, the traditional DEA method usually cannot genuinely distinguish the effective and inefficient DMU due to its extreme or unreasonable weight distribution of input and output variables. Therefore, this paper proposes an energy and environment efficiency analysis method based on an improved environment DEA cross-model (DEACM) method. The inputs of the complex chemical process are divided into energy and non-energy inputs. Meanwhile, the outputs are divided into desirable and undesirable outputs. And then the energy and environment performance index (EEPI) based on the cross evaluation is used to represent the overall performance of each DMU. Moreover, the improvement direction of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of each inefficiency DMU is quantitatively obtained based on the self-evaluation model of the improved environment DEACM. The results show that the improved environment DEACM method has a better effective discrimination than the original DEA method by analyzing the energy and environment efficiency of the ethylene production process in complex chemical processes, and it can obtain the potential of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of ethylene plants, especially the improvement direction of inefficient DMUs to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emission.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyun S.; Nwankwo, Ikechi J.; Hong, Kelvin; McElgunn, Patrick S.J.
2006-01-01
Purpose. To assess clinical outcomes, complication rates, and unit energy applied using 980 nm diode endovenous laser treatment at 11 watts for symptomatic great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence and reflux disease. Methods. Thirty-four consecutive ablation therapies with a 980 nm diode endovenous laser at 11 watts were studied. The diagnosis of GSV incompetence with reflux was made by clinical evaluation and duplex Doppler examinations. The treated GSVs had a mean diameter of 1.19 cm (range 0.5-2.2 cm). The patients were followed with clinical evaluation and color flow duplex studies up to 18.5 months (mean 12.19 months ± 4.18). Results. Using 980 nm diode endovenous laser ablation in continuous mode, 100% technical success was noted. The mean length of GSVs treated was 33.82 cm (range 15-45 cm). The mean energy applied during the treatment was 1,155.81 joules (J) ± 239.50 (range 545.40-1620 J) for a mean treatment duration of 90.77 sec ± 21.77. The average laser fiber withdrawal speed was 0.35 cm/sec ± 0.054. The mean energy applied per length of GSV was 35.16 J/cm ± 8.43. Energy fluence, calculated separately for each patient, averaged 9.82 J/cm 2 ± 4.97. At up to 18.5 months follow-up (mean 12.19 months), 0% recanalization was noted; 92% clinical improvement was achieved. There was no major complication. Minor complications included 1 patient with hematoma at the percutaneous venotomy site, 1 patient with thrombophlebitis on superficial tributary varices of the treated GSV, 24% ecchymoses, and 32% self-limiting hypersensitivity/tenderness/'pulling' sensation along the treatment area. One patient developed temporary paresthesia. Four endovenous laser ablation treatments (12%) were followed by adjunctive sclerotherapies for improved cosmetic results. Conclusion. Endovenous laser ablation treatment of GSV using a 980 nm diode laser at 11 watts in continuous mode appears safe and effective. Mean energy applied per treated GSV length of 35.16 J/cm or mean
González-Lezana, Tomás; Scribano, Yohann; Honvault, Pascal
2014-08-21
The D(+) + H2 reaction is investigated by means of a time independent quantum mechanical (TIQM) and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods. Differential cross sections and product rotational distributions obtained with these two theoretical approaches for collision energies between 1 meV and 0.1 eV are compared to analyze the dynamics of the process. The agreement observed between the TIQM differential cross sections and the SQM predictions as the energy increases revealed the role played by the complex-forming mechanism. The importance of a good description of the asymptotic regions is also investigated by calculating rate constants for the title reaction at low temperature.
Wang, Z. H.; Zheng, Q.; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yong
2016-03-01
We study the energy-level crossing behavior in a two-dimensional quantum well with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings (SOCs). By mapping the SOC Hamiltonian onto an anisotropic Rabi model, we obtain the approximate ground state and its quantum Fisher information (QFI) via performing a unitary transformation. We find that the energy-level crossing can occur in the quantum well system within the available parameters rather than in cavity and circuit quantum eletrodynamics systems. Furthermore, the influence of two kinds of SOCs on the QFI is investigated and an intuitive explanation from the viewpoint of the stationary perturbation theory is given.
The Effect of Proton Energy on SEU Cross-Section of a 16Mbit TFT PMOS SRAM with DRAM Capacitors
Uznanski, Slawosz; Blackmore, Ewart; Brugger, Markus; Gaillard, Remi; Mekki, Julien; Todd, Benjamin; Trinczek, Michael; Vilar Villanueva, Andrea
2014-01-01
Proton experimental data are analyzed for a 16-Mbit Thin-Film-Transistor (TFT) PMOS Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) with DRAM capacitors. The presence of high-Z materials as tungsten causes an unusual increase of the Single Event Upset (SEU) proton cross-section for the energies above 100MeV. Monte-Carlo simulations reproduce the experimentally measured cross-sections up to 480MeV and predict a further increase up to GeV energies. The implications of this increase are analyzed in the context of the LHC and other radiation environments where a significant fraction of the fluence lies above 100MeV.
Razmjou, Amir; Liu, Qi; Simon, George P; Wang, Huanting
2013-11-19
The feasibility of bilayer polymer hydrogels as draw agent in forward osmosis process has been investigated. The dual-functionality hydrogels consist of a water-absorptive layer (particles of a copolymer of sodium acrylate and N-isopropylacrylamide) to provide osmotic pressure, and a dewatering layer (particles of N-isopropylacrylamide) to allow the ready release of the water absorbed during the FO drawing process at lower critical solution temperature (32 °C). The use of solar concentrated energy as the source of heat resulted in a significant increase in the dewatering rate as the temperature of dewatering layer increased to its LSCT more rapidly. Dewatering flux rose from 10 to 25 LMH when the solar concentrator increased the input energy from 0.5 to 2 kW/m(2). Thermodynamic analysis was also performed to find out the minimum energy requirement of such a bilayer hydrogel-driven FO process. This study represents a significant step forward toward the commercial implementation of hydrogel-driven FO system for continuous production of fresh water from saline water or wastewaters.
Neutron emission cross sections on 93Nb at 20 MeV incident energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcinkowski, A.; Kielan, D.
1991-01-01
Over the last years fully quantum-mechanical theories of nuclear reactions have been developed that provide, at least in principle, parameter-free methods of calculating double-differential continuum cross sections. The DWBA-based theory of direct processes to the continuum was derived by Tamura et al. The statistical theory of Feshback, Kerman and Koonin (FKK) introduced two reaction types in parallel as complementary mechanisms contributing to the preequilibrium decay. The multistep compound mechanism (MSC) results in symmetric angular distributions of the emitted particles, whereas the multistep direct mechanism (MSD) gives rise to the forward-peaked angular distributions. The theories of the MSC reactions differ in that the FKK theory incorporates the ''never come back'' hypothesis, which allowed the formulation of an applicable model that was successfully used in practical calculations. On the other hand the FKK theory of the MSD reactions differs conceptually from the theory of Tamura et al. and from the more general theory developed most recently by Nishioka et al. The latter theories were shown to be founded upon a postulated chaos located in the residual nucleus. In contrast, the theory of FKK assumes a chaotic interaction of the continuum particle to be emitted with the residual nucleus. The continuum or leading-particle statistics of the FKK theory results in the simple, convolution like, MSD cross section formula, which facilitates numerical calculations. Nevertheless two-step statistical DWBA calculations have been also performed. This paper extends the application of the FKK theory to the 93 Nb(n,xn) reaction at 20 MeV incident energy. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tribedi, L.C.; Richard, P.; Ling, D.; Wang, Y.D.; Lin, C.D.; Moshammer, R.; Kerby, G.W. III; Gealy, M.W.; Rudd, M.E.
1996-01-01
We have measured the double differential cross sections (DDCS) (d 2 σ/d var-epsilon ed Ω e ) of low-energy electron emission in the ionization of H 2 bombarded by bare carbon ions of energy 30 MeV. The energy and angular distributions of the electron DDCS have been obtained for 12 different emission angles and for electron energies varying between 0.1 and 300 eV. We have also deduced the single differential and total ionization cross section from the measured DDCS. The data have been compared with the predictions of first Born approximations and the CDW-EIS (continuum distorted wave endash eikonal initial state) model. The CDW-EIS model provides an excellent agreement with the data. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
The growth with energy of vector meson photo-production cross-sections and low $x$ evolution
Hentschinski, Martin
2017-01-01
We investigate the energy dependence of the exclusive photo-production cross-sections of vector mesons $J/\\Psi$ and $\\Upsilon$ on protons. In particular we are interested in the question whether their energy dependence has a description in terms of perturbative low $x$ (i.e. BFKL) evolution. As an update to the original publication [1] we include recent LHCb 13 TeV results in our comparison with data.
Simulation of cross-talk noise of high energy X-ray detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Rifeng; Zhang Ping; Zhang Zehong
2005-01-01
The signal-noise ratio of detectors and the image quality will be affected by the detector cross-talk noise. The authors use EGSnrc to research the cross-talk noise in the CdWO 4 detector module, and analyze various factors which can bring about the cross-talk noise. The work will facilitate the selection of detector module and offer some parameters for the correction of cross-talk noise with software. (authors)
Redistribution effects resulting from cross-border cooperation in support for renewable energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unteutsch, Michaela
2014-01-01
It has been shown that international cooperation in achieving renewable energy targets, e.g., via a common tradable green certificate market, increases overall welfare. However, cooperation in the support of electricity from renewable energy sources also leads to regional price effects, from which some groups benefit while others lose. On a regional level, the introduction of cross-border cooperation in RES-E support generally has an opposite effect on support expenditures and wholesale electricity prices, as long as grid congestion between the different regions exists. In this paper, a theoretical model is used to analyze under which conditions different groups bene t or suffer from the introduction of cooperation. Findings of the analysis include that effects on consumers and total producers per country can only be clearly determined if no grid congestions between the countries exist. If bottlenecks in the transmission system exist, the relationship between the slopes of the renewable and the non-renewable marginal generation cost curves for electricity generation as well as the level of the RES-E target essentially determine whether these groups bene t or lose from the introduction of green certificate trading. In contrast, system-wide welfare always increases once cooperation in RES-E support is introduced. Similarly, welfare on the country level always increases (compared to a situation without RES-E cooperation) if the countries are perfectly or not at all physically interconnected. In the case of congested interconnectors, each country always at least potentially benefits from the introduction of certificate trade, taking into account possible distributions of congestion rents between the countries.
Redistribution effects resulting from cross-border cooperation in support for renewable energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unteutsch, Michaela
2014-01-15
It has been shown that international cooperation in achieving renewable energy targets, e.g., via a common tradable green certificate market, increases overall welfare. However, cooperation in the support of electricity from renewable energy sources also leads to regional price effects, from which some groups benefit while others lose. On a regional level, the introduction of cross-border cooperation in RES-E support generally has an opposite effect on support expenditures and wholesale electricity prices, as long as grid congestion between the different regions exists. In this paper, a theoretical model is used to analyze under which conditions different groups bene t or suffer from the introduction of cooperation. Findings of the analysis include that effects on consumers and total producers per country can only be clearly determined if no grid congestions between the countries exist. If bottlenecks in the transmission system exist, the relationship between the slopes of the renewable and the non-renewable marginal generation cost curves for electricity generation as well as the level of the RES-E target essentially determine whether these groups bene t or lose from the introduction of green certificate trading. In contrast, system-wide welfare always increases once cooperation in RES-E support is introduced. Similarly, welfare on the country level always increases (compared to a situation without RES-E cooperation) if the countries are perfectly or not at all physically interconnected. In the case of congested interconnectors, each country always at least potentially benefits from the introduction of certificate trade, taking into account possible distributions of congestion rents between the countries.
Mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer: Implication of two-state focal zooming on OMEGA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froula, D. H.; Kessler, T. J.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Huang, H.; Hu, S. X.; Hill, E.; Kelly, J. H.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Shvydky, A.; Zuegel, J. D.
2013-01-01
Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) during OMEGA low-adiabat cryogenic experiments reduces the hydrodynamic efficiency by ∼35%, which lowers the calculated one-dimensional (1-D) yield by a factor of 7. CBET can be mitigated by reducing the diameter of the laser beams relative to the target diameter. Reducing the diameter of the laser beams by 30%, after a sufficient conduction zone has been generated (two-state zooming), is predicted to maintain low-mode uniformity while recovering 90% of the kinetic energy lost to CBET. A radially varying phase plate is proposed to implement two-state zooming on OMEGA. A beam propagating through the central half-diameter of the phase plate will produce a large spot, while a beam propagating through the outer annular region of the phase plate will produce a narrower spot. To generate the required two-state near-field laser-beam profile, a picket driver with smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) would pass through an apodizer, forming a beam of half the standard diameter. A second main-pulse driver would co-propagate without SSD through its own apodizer, forming a full-diameter annular beam. Hydrodynamic simulations, using the designed laser spots produced by the proposed zooming scheme on OMEGA, show that implementing zooming will increase the implosion velocity by 25% resulting in a 4.5× increase in the 1-D neutron yield. Demonstrating zooming on OMEGA would validate a viable direct-drive CBET mitigation scheme and help establish a pathway to hydrodynamically equivalent direct-drive–ignition implosions by increasing the ablation pressure (1.6×), which will allow for more stable implosions at ignition-relevant velocities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jayita Kedar Deodhar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Context: Training programs for volunteers prior to their working in palliative care are well-established in India. However, few studies report on continuing professional development programs for this group. Aims: To conduct a preliminary assessment of educational needs of volunteers working in palliative care for developing a structured formal continuing professional development program for this group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study conducted in the Department of Palliative Medicine of a tertiary care cancer institute in India. Materials and Methods: Participant volunteers completed a questionnaire, noting previous training, years of experience, and a comprehensive list of topics for inclusion in this program, rated in order of importance according to them. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics for overall data and Chi-square tests for categorical variables for group comparisons were applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 18. Results: Fourteen out of 17 volunteers completed the questionnaire, seven having 5-10-years experience in working in palliative care. A need for continuing professional development program was felt by all participants. Communication skills, more for children and elderly specific issues were given highest priority. Spiritual-existential aspects and self-care were rated lower in importance than psychological, physical, and social aspects in palliative care. More experienced volunteers (>5 years of experience felt the need for self-care as a topic in the program than those with less (<5-years experience ( P < 0.05. Conclusions: Understanding palliative care volunteers′ educational needs is essential for developing a structured formal continuing professional development program and should include self-care as a significant component.
AlYami, Noktan Mohammed
2017-04-15
This thesis presents an integrated study of nanocatalysts for heterogenous catalytic and electrochemical processes using pure ruthenium (Ru) with mixed-phase and platinum-based nanomaterials synthesized by continuous-flow chemistry. There are three major challenges to the application of nanomaterials in heterogenous catalytic reactions and electrocatalytic processes in acidic solution. These challenges are the following: (i) controlling the size, shape and crystallography of nanoparticles to give the best catalytic properties, (ii) scaling these nanoparticles up to a commercial quantity (kg per day) and (iii) making stable nanoparticles that can be used catalytically without degrading in acidic electrolytes. Some crucial limitations of these nanostructured materials in energy conversion and storage applications were overcome by continuous-flow chemistry. By using a continuous-flow reactor, the creation of scalable nanoparticle systems was achieved and their functionality was modified to control the nanoparticles’ physical and chemical characteristics. The nanoparticles were also tested for long-term stability, to make sure these nanoparticles were feasible under realistic working conditions. These nanoparticles are (1) shape- and crystallography-controlled ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles, (2) size-controlled platinum-metal (Pt-M= nickel (Ni) & copper (Cu)) nanooctahedra (while maintaining morphology) and (3) core-shell platinum@ruthenium (Pt@Ru) nanoparticles where an ultrathin ruthenium shell was templated onto the platinum core. Thus, a complete experimental validation of the formation of a scalable amount of these nanoparticles and their catalytic activity and stability towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in acid medium, hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB) along with plausible explanations were provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uddin, Md. Shuza [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumer [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Spellerberg, Stefan; Spahn, Ingo; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Shariff, Md. Asad; Das, Sopan [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Rashid, Md. Abdur [Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics
2016-08-01
A newly developed facility at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator at Dhaka for measurement of proton induced reaction cross sections in the energy region below 5 MeV is outlined and tests for the beam characterization are described. The results were validated by comparison with the well-known excitation function of the {sup 64}Ni(p, n){sup 64}Cu reaction. Excitation functions of the reactions {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 60,61}Cu, {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 55,57,58m+g}Co and {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 57}Ni were also measured from threshold to 16 MeV using the stacked-foil technique, whereby irradiations were performed with 5 MeV protons available at the Tandem Accelerator and 16.7 MeV protons at the BC 1710 cyclotron at Juelich, Germany. The radioactivity was measured using HPGe γ-ray detectors. A few results are new, the others strengthen the database. In particular, the results of the reaction {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 61}Cu below 3 MeV could serve as beam monitor.
Gatti, M.; Vielzeuf, P.; Davis, C.; Cawthon, R.; Rau, M. M.; DeRose, J.; De Vicente, J.; Alarcon, A.; Rozo, E.; Gaztanaga, E.; Hoyle, B.; Miquel, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gruen, D.; Gschwend, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Roodman, A.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Glazebrook, K.; Hinton, S. R.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Möller, A.; O'Neill, C. R.; Sommer, N. E.; Uddin, S. A.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carollo, D.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Hoormann, J. K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, B. E.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wolf, R. C.
2018-06-01
We use numerical simulations to characterize the performance of a clustering-based method to calibrate photometric redshift biases. In particular, we cross-correlate the weak lensing source galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample with redMaGiC galaxies (luminous red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts) to estimate the redshift distribution of the former sample. The recovered redshift distributions are used to calibrate the photometric redshift bias of standard photo-z methods applied to the same source galaxy sample. We apply the method to two photo-z codes run in our simulated data: Bayesian Photometric Redshift and Directional Neighbourhood Fitting. We characterize the systematic uncertainties of our calibration procedure, and find that these systematic uncertainties dominate our error budget. The dominant systematics are due to our assumption of unevolving bias and clustering across each redshift bin, and to differences between the shapes of the redshift distributions derived by clustering versus photo-zs. The systematic uncertainty in the mean redshift bias of the source galaxy sample is Δz ≲ 0.02, though the precise value depends on the redshift bin under consideration. We discuss possible ways to mitigate the impact of our dominant systematics in future analyses.
Simulating time-dependent energy transfer between crossed laser beams in an expanding plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hittinger, J.A.F.; Dorr, M.R.; Berger, R.L.; Williams, E.A.
2005-01-01
A coupled mode system is derived to investigate a three-wave parametric instability leading to energy transfer between co-propagating laser beams crossing in a plasma flow. The model includes beams of finite width refracting in a prescribed transverse plasma flow with spatial and temporal gradients in velocity and density. The resulting paraxial light equations are discretized spatially with a Crank-Nicholson-type scheme, and these algebraic constraints are nonlinearly coupled with ordinary differential equations in time that describe the ion acoustic response. The entire nonlinear differential-algebraic system is solved using an adaptive, backward-differencing method coupled with Newton's method. A numerical study is conducted in two dimensions that compares the intensity gain of the fully time-dependent coupled mode system with the gain computed under the further assumption of a strongly damped ion acoustic response. The results demonstrate a time-dependent gain suppression when the beam diameter is commensurate with the velocity gradient scale length. The gain suppression is shown to depend on time-dependent beam refraction and is interpreted as a time-dependent frequency shift
The 4p6 autoionization cross section of Rb atoms excited by low-energy electron impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borovik, A; Roman, V; Kupliauskienė, A
2012-01-01
The autoionization cross section of rubidium atoms was obtained by measuring the total normalized intensities of ejected-electron spectra arising from the decay of the 4p 5 n 1 l 1 n 2 l 2 autoionizing levels. The electron impact energy range from the 4p 6 excitation threshold at 15.31 up to 50 eV was investigated. The cross section reaches the maximum value of (2.9 ± 0.6) × 10 −16 cm 2 at 21.8 eV impact energy. The general behaviours of the cross section and the role of particular autoionizing configurations in its formation were considered on the basis of large-scale configuration interaction calculations of energies, cross sections, autoionization probabilities in 5snl(n ⩽ 7; l ⩽ 4) and 4d nl(n ⩽ 5; l ⩽ 2) configurations as well as the measured excitation functions for the lowest levels in 5s 2 and 4d5s configurations. The resonance behaviour of the cross section between 15.3 and 18.5 eV impact energy is caused exclusively by the negative-ion resonances present close to the excitation thresholds of the (5s 2 ) 2 P and (4d5s) 4 P autoionizing levels. At higher impact energies, the autoionization cross section is composed of contributions from the high-lying quartet and doublet levels in 4d5s, 5p and 5s5p, 5d, 6s, 6p configurations. From the comparison of the present data with available experimental and calculated ionization cross sections, the 5s + 4p 6 direct ionization cross section of rubidium atoms was determined with the maximum value of (7.2 ± 2.2) × 10 −16 cm 2 at 36 eV. It was also found that the 4p 6 excitation–autoionization is the dominant indirect ionization process contributing over 30% of the total single ionization of rubidium atoms by electron impact in the 15.3–50 eV energy range. (paper)
The (e,eprimep0) coincidence cross section for 12C at transfer energy of 40 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tadokoro, T.; Hotta, T.; Miura, T.; Sugawara, M.; Takahashi, A.; Tamae, T.; Tanaka, E.; Miyase, H.; Tsubota, H.
1994-01-01
The energy spectra and angular distributions of protons from the 12 C(e,e primep ) coincidence reaction have been measured at azimuthal angles of φ p =-45 circle and -135 circle out of the scattering plane, at energy transfer of 40 MeV and momentum transfer of 0.35 fm -1 (69 MeV/c). The longitudinal-transverse interference term, as well as the non-interference term of the (e,e primep 0 ) cross section have been obtained, and the transition amplitudes are deduced in the LS coupling basis. The cross sections are compared with an RPA calculation. The photo-reaction cross section derived from the transverse term is in reasonable agreement with previous experimental results. ((orig.))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.; Novopol'tsev, M.I.; Geltenbort, P.; Brenner, T.
2003-01-01
Some results of the test of the time-of-flight neutron spectrometers in the energy range (0.05-2.5)μeV are described. The measurements of total and differential cross sections were performed for several substances relevant to the experiments in the physics of ultracold neutrons: Zr, Al, polyethylene and liquid fluoropolymers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ryan P Thombs
2017-08-01
Full Text Available This cross-national study employs a time-series cross-sectional Prais-Winsten regression model with panel-corrected standard errors to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth, and its impact on total carbon dioxide emissions and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP. Findings indicate that renewable energy consumption has its largest negative effect on total carbon emissions and carbon emissions per unit of GDP in low-income countries. Contrary to conventional wisdom, renewable energy has little influence on total carbon dioxide emissions or carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP at high levels of GDP per capita. The findings of this study indicate the presence of a “renewable energy paradox,” where economic growth becomes increasingly coupled with carbon emissions at high levels of renewable energy, and the negative effect of economic growth on carbon emissions per unit of GDP lessens as renewable energy increases. These findings suggest that public policy should be directed at deploying renewable energy in developing countries, while focusing on non-or-de-growth strategies accompanied with renewable energy in developed nations.
Lee, Kun Sang
2014-01-01
Numerical investigations and a thermohydraulic evaluation are presented for two-well models of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system operating under a continuous flow regime. A three-dimensional numerical model for groundwater flow and heat transport is used to analyze the thermal energy storage in the aquifer. This study emphasizes the influence of regional groundwater flow on the heat transfer and storage of the system under various operation scenarios. For different parameters of the system, performances were compared in terms of the temperature of recovered water and the temperature field in the aquifer. The calculated temperature at the producing well varies within a certain range throughout the year, reflecting the seasonal (quarterly) temperature variation of the injected water. The pressure gradient across the system, which determines the direction and velocity of regional groundwater flow, has a substantial influence on the convective heat transport and performance of aquifer thermal storage. Injection/production rate and geometrical size of the aquifer used in the model also impact the predicted temperature distribution at each stage and the recovery water temperature. The hydrogeological-thermal simulation is shown to play an integral part in the prediction of performance of processes as complicated as those in ATES systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
de Saussure, G.; Olsen, D.K.; Perez, R.B.
1976-01-01
The ENDF/B-IV prescription fails to represent correctly the 238 U total (and scattering) cross section between the levels of the resolved range. It is shown how this representation can be improved by properly accounting for the contribution of levels outside the resolved region to the cross section at energies inside the resolved region, and by substituting the more precise multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the presently used single-level formula. The importance of computing accurately the minima in the total cross section is illustrated by comparing values of the self-shielded capture resonance integral computed with ENDF/B-IV and with a more accurate cross section model
Didier, Caroline; Forno, Guillermina; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Kratje, Ricardo; Goicoechea, Héctor
2009-09-21
The optimal blends of six compounds that should be present in culture media used in recombinant protein production were determined by means of artificial neural networks (ANN) coupled with crossed mixture experimental design. This combination constitutes a novel approach to develop a medium for cultivating genetically engineered mammalian cells. The compounds were collected in two mixtures of three elements each, and the experimental space was determined by a crossed mixture design. Empirical data from 51 experimental units were used in a multiresponse analysis to train artificial neural networks which satisfy different requirements, in order to define two new culture media (Medium 1 and Medium 2) to be used in a continuous biopharmaceutical production process. These media were tested in a bioreactor to produce a recombinant protein in CHO cells. Remarkably, for both predicted media all responses satisfied the predefined goals pursued during the analysis, except in the case of the specific growth rate (mu) observed for Medium 1. ANN analysis proved to be a suitable methodology to be used when dealing with complex experimental designs, as frequently occurs in the optimization of production processes in the biotechnology area. The present work is a new example of the use of ANN for the resolution of a complex, real life system, successfully employed in the context of a biopharmaceutical production process.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zinnbauer, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)
2001-07-01
As most of the electric utilities in Germany have decided by now to adopt the multi-utility strategy for sales promotion in the open electricity market, a questionnaire has been distributed to 1 000 households in order to find out whether product bundling or cross selling in combination with the low-interest product 'electricity' is a good strategy to enlarge the customer basis. EFOplan (Munic University) and the consulting firm Accenture have been in charge of the survey. The results show the current status of insight of household customers and their motives to change supplier, as well as the pattern of demand for product bundling. (orig./CB) [German] Da mittlerweile die meisten EVUs eine Multi-Utility-Strategie anstreben, wurde mittels einer schriftlichen Befragung von 1 000 deutschen Haushalten untersucht, ob die Vermarktung von Zusatz- bzw. Buendelprodukten in Kombination mit dem Low-Interest-Produkt Strom erfolgsversprechend ist. Die Befragung, die von EFOplan (Universitaet Muenchen) in Kooperation mit der Unternehmensberatung Accenture durchgefuehrt wurde, zeigt einerseits den aktuellen Status von Informationsstand und Wechselmotiven beim Stromkauf und andererseits die Bedarfsstruktur im Hinblick auf moegliche Buendelprodukte. (orig.)
Carter, S; Clifton, P M; Keogh, J B
2016-12-01
Weight loss improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, as achieving and maintaining weight loss is difficult, alternative strategies are needed. Our primary aim was to investigate the effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) compared to continuous energy restriction (CER) on glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Secondary aims were to assess effects on weight loss, body composition, medication changes and subjective measures of appetite. Using a 2-day IER method, we expected equal improvements to HbA1c and weight in both groups. Sixty-three overweight or obese participants (BMI 35.2±5kg/m 2 ) with T2DM (HbA1c 7.4±1.3%) (57mmol/mol) were randomised to a 2-day severe energy restriction (1670-2500kJ/day) with 5days of habitual eating, compared to a moderate CER diet (5000-6500kJ/day) for 12weeks. At 12weeks HbA1c (-0.7±0.9% P<0.001) and percent body weight reduction (-5.9±4% P<0.001) was similar in both groups with no group by time interaction. Similar reductions were also seen for medication dosages, all measures of body composition and subjective reports of appetite. In this pilot trial, 2days of IER compared with CER resulted in similar improvements in glycaemic control and weight reduction offering a suitable alternative treatment strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fabre, Nicolas; Mourot, Laurent; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah J; Holmberg, Hans-Christer
2015-04-01
Here, we tested the hypothesis that aerobic energy expenditure (AEE) is higher during a simulated 6-km (2 loops of 3-km each) "skiathlon" than during skating only on a treadmill and attempted to link any such increase to biomechanical and neuromuscular responses. Six elite male cross-country skiers performed two pre-testing time-trials (TT) to determine their best performances and to choose an appropriate submaximal speed for collection of physiological, biomechanical and neuromuscular data during two experimental sessions (exp). Each skier used, in randomized order, either the classical (CL) or skating technique (SK) for the first 3-km loop, followed by transition to the skating technique for the second 3-km loop. Respiratory parameters were recorded continuously. The EMG activity of the triceps brachii (TBr) and vastus lateralis (VLa) muscles during isometric contractions performed when the skiers were stationary (i.e., just before the first loop, during the transition, and after the second loop); their corresponding activity during dynamic contractions; and pole and plantar forces during the second loop were recorded. During the second 3-km of the TT, skating speed was significantly higher for the SK-SK than CL-SK. During this second loop, AEE was also higher (+1.5%) for CL-SKexp than SK-SKexp, in association with higher VLa EMG activity during both isometric and dynamic contractions, despite no differences in plantar or pole forces, poling times or cycle rates. Although the underlying mechanism remains unclear, during a skiathlon, the transition between the sections of classical skiing and skating alters skating performance (i.e., skiing speed), AEE and neuromuscular function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Bhutadia, Harshad; Antony, Bobby; Mason, Nigel
2011-01-01
This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H 2 CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy (∼15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakaamini, Ahmad; Murray, Andrew James; Amami, Sadek; Madison, Don; Ning, Chuangang
2016-01-01
Ionisation triple differential cross sections have been determined experimentally and theoretically for the neutral molecule N 2 over a range of geometries from coplanar to the perpendicular plane. Data were obtained at incident electron energies ∼10 and ∼20 eV above the ionisation potential of the 3 σ g , 1 π u and 2 σ g states, using both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies. The data were taken with the incident electron beam in the scattering plane ( ψ = 0°), at 45° to this plane and orthogonal to the plane ( ψ = 90°). The set of nine measured differential cross sections at a given energy were then inter-normalised to each other. The data are compared to new calculations using various distorted wave methods, and differences between theory and experiment are discussed. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poor HVincent
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina Comaniciu
2007-03-01
Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.
Carruthers, Alastair; Sadick, Neil; Brandt, Frederic; Trindade de Almeida, Ada Regina; Fagien, Steve; Goodman, Greg J; Raspaldo, Herve; Smith, Kevin; Darmody, Sarah; Gallagher, Conor J; Street, James; Romagnano, Linda
2015-06-01
Little information exists on how facial aesthetic treatments are incorporated into aesthetic regimens. Assess the evolution of facial aesthetic treatments in patients receiving long-term continuous onabotulinumtoxinA treatment. This international retrospective chart review included patients with ≥5 years of continuous onabotulinumtoxinA treatments including ≥1 glabellar lines treatment/year. Charts were reviewed for facial areas treated, number of treatments, doses/treatment visit, concomitant aesthetic procedures, and onabotulinumtoxinA-related adverse events. Data were collected from 5,112 onabotulinumtoxinA treatment sessions for 194 patients over an average of 9.1 years. Dosing was relatively stable over time; however, interinjection intervals increased. Glabellar lines' treatment temporally preceded crow's feet lines and forehead lines' treatment. A majority of patients (85%) also received treatment with fillers. Cumulative increases in onabotulinumtoxinA treatments occurred over time and by facial area corresponding with increases in treatments with injectable fillers, energy-based devices, and prescription topical creams. The longer the patients were treated, the younger they perceived themselves to look. Rates of adverse events were low. OnabotulinumtoxinA treatment evolved over time, coinciding with growth of the facial aesthetics market. Additional treatment modalities were added as complements to onabotulinumtoxinA. Long-term continuous onabotulinumtoxinA injections are an important component of contemporary facial aesthetic treatment regimens.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scielzo, N. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wu, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-10-27
Ba where the octupole deformation is evident from the measured B(E3; 3^{-}→0^{+}) strengths that significantly greater than the theoretical predictions. We anticipate that CHICO2 will continue to be a viable charged-particle detector for the research need of the low-energy nuclear physics community.
Measurement of (n,α) cross-sections for Cr, Fe and Ni at 14 MeV neutron energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wattecamps, E.; Liskien, H.; Arnotte, F.
1983-01-01
Helium production cross-sections for the main constituents of stainless steel (Cr, Fe, Ni) have recently been published for neutron energies between 5 and 10 MeV. The α-particles were detected with a multi-angle telescope and cross-section data relative to the well known n-p scattering cross-section were deduced. Those measurements have been performed now also at 14 MeV. At this energy the background condition had to be improved by changing the neutron collimation, by reducing the sensitive volume of the ΔE-proportional counters, and by replacing remaining low-Z material inside the chamber by tantalum. Listing mode data acquisition is used and α-particle identification is performed by transforming the observed (ΔE,E) signal into a (MZ 2 ,E) signal. The measurements yield the angle-differential cross sections for five fixed angles. Angle-integrated cross-sections are compared with the few results available in literature. (Auth.)
pbarp, pbarD, pbar sup 4 He annihilation cross sections at low energy
Tessaro, S; Capponi, M; Cereda, B; De Castro, S; Ferretti, A; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Piccinini, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vezzani, A; Vigotti, F; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Belli, G; Corradini, M; Donzella, A; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Temnikov, P P; Usai, G L; Ableev, V G; Denisov, O Yu; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sapozhnikov, M G; Tretyak, V I; Poli, M; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Nichitiu, F; Petrascu, C; Rosca, A; Cavion, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Lombardi, M; Vannucci, Luigi; Vedovato, G; Andrighetto, A; Morando, M; Ricci, R A; Bendiscioli, G; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Saino, A; Salvini, P; Filippi, A; Balestra, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Calvo, D; Cerello, P G; Costa, S; D'Isep, F; Fava, L; Feliciello, A; Ferrero, L; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Marcello, S; Mirfakhraee, N; Panzieri, D; Parena, D; Rossetto, E; Tosello, F; Zosi, G; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Minetti, B; Pauli, G; Tessaro, S; Santi, L
1999-01-01
New measurements of the pbarp annihilation cross section have been performed with the OBELIX apparatus between 37 and 70 MeV/c. From previous samples of data it was already clear that the 1/p behaviour for the annihilation cross section is drastically modified at very low momenta, due to the Coulomb interaction. However, at the lowest measured momentum (43.6 MeV/c), the annihilation cross section was unexpectedly high; this evidence suggested a more accurate investigation of this region. Furthermore, measurements of annihilation cross section have been performed with pbar impinging on D sub 2 and sup 4 He targets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Davids, C.N. [and others
1995-08-01
In this experiment we tried to measure the evaporation residue cross section over a wide range of beam energies for the {sup 100}Mo + {sup 116}Cd reaction using the FMA. However, because of longer-than-estimated runs needed at each beam energy, and the difficulty of bending evaporation residues at the higher energies in the FMA, data were taken only at beam energies of E{sub beam} = 460, 490, and 521 MeV, which correspond to excitation energies of E{sub exc} = 62, 78, and 95 MeV, respectively. By comparing to results for the {sup 32}S + {sup 184}W reactions measured recently, we expect to demonstrate a strong entrance channel effect related to the hindrance of complete fusion in near-symmetric heavy systems (a fusion hindrance factor of the order 7-10 is expected on the basis of the Extra-Push Model). The data are being analyzed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eichhammer, W.; Schlomann, B.
2001-02-01
The German national report for the SAVE project 'Cross-country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators' represents the recent energy efficiency trends in Germany based on the indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. For the second time, the 2000 country report only includes the development of energy consumption and efficiency in Germany after the unification, i.e. for the period 1991 to 1999. The year 1990 unfortunately could not be considered because most of the economic and energy consumption data for Germany (especially the revised National Accounts) are only available since 1991. The results for Western Germany since 1970 are described in the former country reports (Eichhammer et al., 1998). The report starts with a review on data collection and the recent trends in the general context of energy efficiency, i.e. economic and energy consumption development, energy and environmental policy and energy price trends. Afterwards, the energy efficiency trends are described both at the level of the whole economy (Chapter 3) and at sectoral level (Chapter 4 to 8). (orig.)
Cordeiro, C A; de Vries, M G; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P E; Cremers, T I F H; Westerink, B H C
2015-05-15
Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will provide better understanding of brain energy metabolism and its role in neuropathologies such as diabetes, ischemia, and epilepsy. We have developed and characterized an implantable multiplex microbiosensor device (MBD) for simultaneous and continuous in vivo monitoring of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate. First, we developed and characterized amperometric microbiosensors for monitoring lactate and pyruvate. In vitro evaluation allowed us to choose the most suitable biosensors for incorporation into the MBD, along with glucose and background biosensors. Fully assembled MBDs were characterized in vitro. The calculated performance parameters (LOD, LR, LRS, IMAX and appKM) showed that the multiplex MBD was highly selective and sensitive (LRS≥100 nA/mM) for each analyte and within an adequate range for in vivo application. Finally, MBDs were implanted in the mPFC of anesthetized adult male Wistar rats for in vivo evaluation. Following an equilibration period, baseline brain levels of glucose (1.3±0.2 mM), lactate (1.5±0.4 mM) and pyruvate (0.3±0.1 mM) were established. Subsequently, the MBDs recorded the responses of the animals when submitted to hyperglycemic (40% glucose i.v.) and hypoglycemic (5 U/kg insulin i.v.) challenges. Afterwards, MBDs were recalibrated to convert electrochemical readings into accurate substrate concentrations and to assess biofouling. The presented MBD can monitor simultaneously multiple biomarkers in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radgen, P.
1999-07-01
The aim of the paper is to show how Germany tries to improve the energy efficiency of the economy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions without affecting the competitiveness of the industry. Between 1990 to 1995 Germany has reduced its CO{sub 2} emission from 1029 to 933 million tonnes, which is equivalent to an emission reduction of 9%. To analyse and compare different options to reach the emission reduction target, multiple tools have been developed and can be used to help in setting policy priorities. The IKARUS model and database together with the use of energy efficiency indicators helps to keep the development of energy consumption and emission reduction on track to the reduction target. Voluntary agreements between industry and government had been worked out, to limit the emissions in the energy intensive sectors of the German industry. Results from the monitoring of this efforts will be presented together with a short evaluation of the factors influencing the improvements in energy efficiency. As energy related emissions can be reduced significantly by closing energy and material flows, the effect of recycling of energy intensive materials such as steel, glass, plastics, and paper is discussed. The possible role of renewables as energy carrier and feedstock is evaluated for the production of surfactants. If more oleochemical surfactants could be applied, this will help to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the use of fossil fuels as feedstock. The efficiency improvement by cross cutting technologies will be discussed for furnaces, compressed air systems and electric motors. Most of these improvement potentials are economic at present energy prices, but some barriers for their application has to be overcome. One way to help decision makers in industry is the use of energy benchmarking. Benchmarking helps to analyse the energy efficiency of the own company in comparison to the competitors and to set appropriate targets and to prepare a road map of measures to
R matrix analysis of 239Pu neutron cross sections in the energy range up to 1000 eV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on the results of an R matrix analysis of the 239 Pu neutron cross sections up to 1000-eV neutron energy. The analysis was performed with the multilevel multichannel Reich-Moore code SAMMY. The method of analysis is describe, and the selection of experimental data is discussed. Some tabular and graphical comparisons between calculated and measured cross sections and transmissions are presented. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are examined. The resonance parameters are proposed for the new evaluated data files ENDF/B-VI and JEF2
Total and inelastic cross-sections at LHC at CM energy of 7 TeV and beyond
Achilli, Andrea; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Shekhovtsova, Olga; Srivastava, Yogendra N
2011-01-01
We discuss expectations for the total and inelastic cross-sections at LHC CM energies $\\sqrt{s}\\ =\\ 7\\ TeV$ {and $ 14\\ TeV$} obtained in an eikonal minijet model augmented by soft gluon $k_t$-resummation, which we describe in some detail. We present a band of predictions which encompass recent LHC data and suggest that the inelastic cross-section described by two channel eikonal models include only uncorrelated processes. We show that this interpretation of the model is supported by the LHC data.
Cross section for induced L X-ray emission by protons of energy <400 keV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, Harsh; Jain, Arvind Kumar; Kaur, Mandeep; Singh, Parjit S.; Sharma, Sunita
2014-01-01
In performing ion beam analysis, cross section for induced L X-ray emission plays a crucial role. There are different approaches by which these can be found experimentally or can be calculated theoretically based on various models. L X-ray production cross sections for Bi with protons in the energy range 260–400 keV at the interval of 20 keV are measured. These are compared with calculations obtained on the basis of current prevailing theories ECPSSR and ECPSSR-UA. Their importance in understanding this phenomenon and existing arguments in this regard will be highlighted
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Drischler, J.D.
1986-01-01
For a variety of applications, e.g., accelerator shielding design, neutrons in radiotherapy, radiation damage studies, etc., it is necessary to carry out transport calculations involving medium-energy (greater than or equal to20 MeV) neutrons. A previous paper described neutron-photon multigroup cross sections in the ANISN format for neutrons from thermal to 400 MeV. In the present paper the cross-section data presented previously have been revised to make them agree with available experimental data. 7 refs., 1 fig
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talamo, Alberto E-mail: alby@neutron.kth.se; Gudowski, Waclaw E-mail: wacek@neutron.kth.se; Venneri, Francesco E-mail: venneri@lanl.gov
2004-01-01
We have investigated the waste actinide burnup capabilities of a Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR, similar to the reactor being designed by General Atomics and Minatom for surplus weapons plutonium destruction) with the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code MCB, an extension of MCNP developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and University of Mining and Metallurgy in Krakow. The GT-MHR is a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor, which can be powered with a wide variety of fuels, like thorium, uranium or plutonium. In the present work, the GT-MHR is fueled with the transuranic actinides contained in Light Water Reactors (LWRs) spent fuel for the purpose of destroying them as completely as possible with minimum reliance on multiple reprocessing steps. After uranium extraction from the LWR spent fuel (UREX), the remaining waste actinides, including plutonium are partitioned into two distinct types of fuel for use in the GT-MHR: Driver Fuel (DF) and Transmutation Fuel (TF). The DF supplies the neutrons to maintain the fission chain reaction, whereas the TF emphasizes neutron capture to induce a deep burn transmutation and provide reactivity control by a negative feedback. When used in this mode, the GT-MHR is called Deep Burn Modular Helium Reactor (DB-MHR). Both fuels are contained in a structure of triple isotropic coated layers, TRISO coating, which has been proven to retain fission products up to 1600 deg. C and is expected to remain intact for hundreds of thousands of years after irradiation. Other benefits of this reactor consist of: a well-developed technology, both for the graphite-moderated core and the TRISO structure, a high energy conversion efficiency (about 50%), well established passive safety mechanism and a competitive cost. The destruction of more than 94% of {sup 239}Pu and the other geologically problematic actinide species makes this reactor a valid proposal for the reduction of nuclear waste and the prevention of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talamo, Alberto; Gudowski, Waclaw; Venneri, Francesco
2004-01-01
We have investigated the waste actinide burnup capabilities of a Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR, similar to the reactor being designed by General Atomics and Minatom for surplus weapons plutonium destruction) with the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code MCB, an extension of MCNP developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and University of Mining and Metallurgy in Krakow. The GT-MHR is a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor, which can be powered with a wide variety of fuels, like thorium, uranium or plutonium. In the present work, the GT-MHR is fueled with the transuranic actinides contained in Light Water Reactors (LWRs) spent fuel for the purpose of destroying them as completely as possible with minimum reliance on multiple reprocessing steps. After uranium extraction from the LWR spent fuel (UREX), the remaining waste actinides, including plutonium are partitioned into two distinct types of fuel for use in the GT-MHR: Driver Fuel (DF) and Transmutation Fuel (TF). The DF supplies the neutrons to maintain the fission chain reaction, whereas the TF emphasizes neutron capture to induce a deep burn transmutation and provide reactivity control by a negative feedback. When used in this mode, the GT-MHR is called Deep Burn Modular Helium Reactor (DB-MHR). Both fuels are contained in a structure of triple isotropic coated layers, TRISO coating, which has been proven to retain fission products up to 1600 deg. C and is expected to remain intact for hundreds of thousands of years after irradiation. Other benefits of this reactor consist of: a well-developed technology, both for the graphite-moderated core and the TRISO structure, a high energy conversion efficiency (about 50%), well established passive safety mechanism and a competitive cost. The destruction of more than 94% of 239 Pu and the other geologically problematic actinide species makes this reactor a valid proposal for the reduction of nuclear waste and the prevention of
Shechter, Ari; Kovtun, Kyle; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre
2016-01-01
Obesity is among the leading risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A reciprocal relationship between obesity and OSA has been proposed, which may be due to excessive food intake. We conducted a pilot study to test the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on energy intake (EI) in OSA patients using a sham-controlled crossover design. In-laboratory total daily EI was assessed after 2 mo of active and sham CPAP. Four men were enrolled (age ± SEM: 51.8 ± 2.1 y; body mass index: 31.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2). All received active treatment first. Meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, snack) were served in excess portions at fixed times and additional palatable snacks were freely available throughout the day. Total EI was lower after active (3744 ± 511 kcal/d) vs. sham (4030 ± 456 kcal/d) CPAP but this difference was not significant (p = 0.51) due to variability in the free snack intake. When only fixed eating occasions were considered, daily EI was significantly lower in the active (3105 ± 513 kcal/d) vs. sham (3559 ± 420 kcal/d) condition (p = 0.006). This small pilot and feasibility study is the first to utilize a sham-controlled design to investigate the effects of CPAP treatment on objective measures of EI. Findings suggest that CPAP may cause a reduction in fixed meal intake. In demonstrating feasibility of study methodology, our study also suggests a larger randomized sham-controlled trial be conducted to fully characterize the effects of CPAP treatment on EI and energy balance overall. PMID:27769851
Precise Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p$ Total Cross-Section in the ISR Energy Range
2002-01-01
The major aim of this experiment is the precise measurement of the antiproton-proton total cross-section in the ISR energy range, using the total-rate method. The proton-proton total cross-section is remeasured with the same method and the same apparatus, and a precision of 0.5\\% is expected for both cross-sections. The total-rate method consists in the simultaneous measurement of the total interaction rate and the ISR luminosity. This is done with a set of scintillation-counter hodoscopes covering over 99.99\\% of the solid angle, which are sensitive to over 95\\% of all interactions. In addition to these detectors, small-angle drift-tube hodoscopes are used to measure the differential elastic cross-section as a function of the momentum transfert t. The total cross-section can be measured independently by extrapolating this differential cross-section to the forward direction and invoking the optical theorem. A study of the general features of charged-particle production is performed using finely divided scinti...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamagno, Pierre
2015-01-01
The work presented here aims to improve models used in the fission cross section evaluation. The results give insights for a significant breakthrough in this field and yielded large extensions of the evaluation code CONRAD. Partial cross sections are inherently strongly correlated together as of the competition of the related reactions must yield the total cross section. Therefore improving fission cross section benefits to all partial cross sections. A sound framework for the simulation of competitive reactions had to be settled in order to further investigate on the fission reaction; this was implemented using the TALYS reference code as guideline. After ensuring consistency and consistency of the framework, focus was made on fission. Perspective resulting from the use of macroscopic-microscopic models such as the FRDM and FRLDM were analyzed; these models have been implemented and validated on experimental data and benchmarks. To comply with evaluation requirements in terms of computation time, several specific numerical methods have been used and parts of the program were written to run on GPU. These macroscopic-microscopic models yield potential energy surfaces that can be used to extract a one-dimensional fission barrier. This latter can then be used to obtained fission transmission coefficients that can be used in a Hauser-Feshbach model. This method has been finally tested for the calculation of the average fission cross section for 239 Pu(n,f). (author) [fr
Parametrization of the cross sections for complete disintegration of nuclei at relativistic energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanov, V.G.; Plyushchev, V.A.; Solov'eva, Z.I.
1988-01-01
A phenomenological analysis of observations of the complete disintegration of target nuclei in emulsions in relativistic heavy-ion reactions is given. On the basis of the probability of complete disintegration obtained from the observations it is possible to determine the value of the disintegration cross sections. A parametrizatio of these inelastic cross sections is formulated
Total neutron cross sections at energies around 20 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morales, J.R.; Romero, J.L.; Martens, P.
1990-09-01
The results for measurements of total cross sections on C, Al, Mg, Cu, Ge and Pb at 17.6 and 19.8 MeV are reported. A detailed comparison is presented with previous data and with the global optical model by the Ohio group. We also discuss plans for total non elastic cross section measurements. 31 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs
Quantifying uncertainties in the high-energy neutrino cross-section
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2012-11-10
Nov 10, 2012 ... Corresponding author. E-mail: s.sarkar@physics.ox.ac.uk .... i.e. cross-sections in the present case, modern PDF sets provide not only the best-fit PDF, but also .... However, any power-law rise in the cross-section will eventu-.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Yongming; Geng, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Qunxiong; Qu, Yixin
2015-01-01
DEA (data envelopment analysis) has been widely used for the efficiency analysis of industrial production process. However, the conventional DEA model is difficult to analyze the pros and cons of the multi DMUs (decision-making units). The DEACM (DEA cross-model) can distinguish the pros and cons of the effective DMUs, but it is unable to take the effect of the uncertainty data into account. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis method based on FDEACM (fuzzy DEA cross-model) with Fuzzy Data. The proposed method has better objectivity and resolving power for the decision-making. First we obtain the minimum, the median and the maximum values of the multi-criteria ethylene energy consumption data by the data fuzzification. On the basis of the multi-criteria fuzzy data, the benchmark of the effective production situations and the improvement directions of the ineffective of the ethylene plants under different production data configurations are obtained by the FDEACM. The experimental result shows that the proposed method can improve the ethylene production conditions and guide the efficiency of energy utilization during ethylene production process. - Highlights: • This paper proposes an efficiency analysis method based on FDEACM (fuzzy DEA cross-model) with data fuzzification. • The proposed method is more efficient and accurate than other methods. • We obtain an energy efficiency analysis framework and process based on FDEACM in ethylene production industry. • The proposed method is valid and efficient in improvement of energy efficiency in the ethylene plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusakabe, Toshio; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Tawara, Hiroyuki
2011-01-01
Charge-transfer cross sections in collisions of H + ions with the ground state He, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms have been measured in the energy range below 4.0 keV with the initial growth rate method. These observed cross sections are also compared with previously published experimental data and theoretical predictions. In the He and Ar targets, it is found that some previous experimental data deviate significantly from the present observed cross sections as the collision energy decreases. It has been found that in the Kr and Xe targets, the energy dependence of the present observed cross sections behaves as “near-resonant” charge transfer. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Raj, E-mail: rajkumarfzr@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); School of Physics and Material Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India); Sharma, Manoj K. [School of Physics and Material Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India); Gupta, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)
2011-11-15
First, the nuclear proximity potential, obtained by using the semiclassical extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approach in Skyrme energy density formalism (SEDF), is shown to give more realistic barriers in frozen density approximation, as compared to the sudden approximation. Then, taking advantage of the fact that, in ETF method, different Skyrme forces give different barriers (height, position and curvature), we use the l-summed extended-Wong model of Gupta and collaborators (2009) under frozen densities approximation for calculating the cross-sections, where the Skyrme force is chosen with proper barrier characteristics, not-requiring additional 'barrier modification' effects (lowering or narrowing, etc.), for a best fit to data at sub-barrier energies. The method is applied to capture cross-section data from {sup 48}Ca + {sup 238}U, {sup 244}Pu, and {sup 248}Cm reactions and to fusion-evaporation cross-sections from {sup 58}Ni + {sup 58}Ni, {sup 64}Ni + {sup 64}Ni, and {sup 64}Ni + {sup 100}Mo reactions, with effects of deformations and orientations of nuclei included, wherever required. Interestingly, whereas the capture cross-sections in Ca-induced reactions could be fitted to any force, such as SIII, SV and GSkI, by allowing a small change of couple of units in deduced l{sub max}-values at below-barrier energies, the near-barrier data point of {sup 48}Ca + {sup 248}Cm reaction could not be fitted to l{sub max}-values deduced for below-barrier energies, calling for a check of data. On the other hand, the fusion-evaporation cross-sections in Ni-induced reactions at sub-barrier energies required different Skyrme forces, representing 'modifications of the barrier', for the best fit to data at all incident center-of-mass energies E{sub c.m.}'s, displaying a kind of fusion hindrance at sub-barrier energies. This barrier modification effect is taken into care here by using different Skyrme forces for reactions belonging to different regions of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Guo-Chin; Ng, Kin-Wang; Pen, Ue-Li
2011-01-01
Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect can be estimated by cross-correlating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky with tracers of the local matter distribution. At late cosmic time, the dark energy-induced decay of gravitation potential generates a cross correlation signal on large angular scales. The dominant noise is the intrinsic CMB anisotropies from the inflationary epoch. In this paper we use CMB polarization to reduce this intrinsic noise. We cross-correlate the microwave sky observed by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) with the radio source catalog compiled by NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to study the efficiency of the noise suppression. We find that the error bars are reduced by about 4 to 14% and the statistical power in the signal is improved.
Search for structure in the low-energy anti p-p annihilation cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jastrzembski, E.; Haik, N.; McFarlane, W.K.; Mandelkern, M.A.; Schultz, D.C.; Amsler, C.; Hermann, C.C.; Wolfe, D.M.
1980-01-01
The relative cross section for annihilation of antiprotons on hydrogen into one or more charged pions was measured. Incident beam momentum was 600 MeV/c. Numbers of observed events (relative) were compared with those expected from the sensitivity of the apparatus. A phase-space model was used for p-barp annihilation. Relative cross sections are plotted vs invariant mass. Upper limits on cross sections for the formation of narrow resonances in the S region are given; previously reported structures are not confirmed. 2 figures, 1 table
The total cross section as a function of energy for elastic scattering of noble gas atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linse, C.A.
1978-01-01
Precise relative measurements of the total cross-sections as a function of velocity is presented for the systems Ar-Ar, Ar-Kr, Kr-Ar, Ar-Xe, Ne-Ar, Ne-Kr, and Ne-Xe, the primary beam particle being mentioned first. A discription of the apparatus is given. Then the method for extracting total cross-sections from the measured beam attenuation is analyzed. A comparison is made with total cross-sections calculated from various potentials that have been proposed in the literature
The momentum transfer cross section and transport coefficients for low energy electrons in mercury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McEachran, R P; Elford, M T
2003-01-01
The momentum transfer cross section for electrons incident on mercury atoms has been determined from the solution of Dirac-Fock scattering equations which included both static and dynamic multipole polarization potentials as well as full anti-symmetrization to incorporate exchange effects. This cross section is in excellent agreement between 0.2 and 3.0 eV with the cross section derived from the most recent experimental measurements. The discrepancy below 0.2 eV has been investigated using two-term transport theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prades, A; Horlick-Jones, T; Oltra, C; Navajas, J
2009-07-01
This report presents the results of a cross-cultural comparative analysis of two corpora of data from Spain and the UK on lay and stake holders understanding and reasoning about fusion energy. The very same novel methodological approach was applied in Spain and the UK to promote a learning and deliberative process about fusion energy. A brief description of the method is included first, followed by the description of the two corpora of data. Next the main Spanish findings data are discussed in the light of the UK data and then vice versa (in other words, we first interrogate the UK corpus of data to look for resonances or places of tension with the Spanish findings, and then the other way around). Then we present the results of evaluating the Spanish and UK group-based processes as engagement exercises. Finally, the key conclusions of this cross-cultural data analysis are summarized. (Author) 40 refs.
Total electron scattering cross section from pyridine molecules in the energy range 10-1000 eV
Dubuis, A. Traoré; Costa, F.; da Silva, F. Ferreira; Limão-Vieira, P.; Oller, J. C.; Blanco, F.; García, G.
2018-05-01
We report on experimental total electron scattering cross-section (TCS) from pyridine (C5H5N) for incident electron energies between 10 and 1000 eV, with experimental uncertainties within 5-10%, as measured with a double electrostatic analyser apparatus. The experimental results are compared with our theoretical calculations performed within the independent atom model complemented with a screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) procedure which has been updated by including interference effects. A good level of agreement is found between both data sources within the experimental uncertainties. The present TCS results for electron impact energy under study contribute, together with other scattering data available in the literature, to achieve a consistent set of cross section data for modelling purposes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindle, D.W.; Ferrett, T.A.; Heimann, P.A.; Shirley, D.A.
1986-01-01
The quantum yield of the visible scintillator sodium salicylate is found to increase in the incident photon-energy range 80--270 eV. Because of its use as a photon-flux monitor in recent gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, previously reported partial cross sections for Hg (4f, 5p, and 5d subshells) and CH 3 I (I 4d subshell) in this energy range are corrected, and new values are reported. For Hg, the correction brings the experimental data into better overall agreement with theory. However, considerable uncertainty remains in the absolute scale derived from previous Hg photoabsorption measurements, and no single rescaling of the subshell cross sections could simultaneously bring all three into agreement with available theoretical calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prades, A.; Horlick-Jones, T.; Oltra, C.; Navajas, J.
2009-01-01
This report presents the results of a cross-cultural comparative analysis of two corpora of data from Spain and the UK on lay and stake holders understanding and reasoning about fusion energy. The very same novel methodological approach was applied in Spain and the UK to promote a learning and deliberative process about fusion energy. A brief description of the method is included first, followed by the description of the two corpora of data. Next the main Spanish findings data are discussed in the light of the UK data and then vice versa (in other words, we first interrogate the UK corpus of data to look for resonances or places of tension with the Spanish findings, and then the other way around). Then we present the results of evaluating the Spanish and UK group-based processes as engagement exercises. Finally, the key conclusions of this cross-cultural data analysis are summarized. (Author) 40 refs.
Measurement of the inelastic $pp$ cross-section at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV
Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Auriemma, Giulio; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brodski, Michael; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Da Silva, Cesar Luiz; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Del Buono, Luigi; Delaney, Blaise; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Didenko, Sergey; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Douglas, Lauren; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Durham, John Matthew; Dutta, Deepanwita; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Ene, Alexandru; Escher, Stephan; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fazzini, Davide; Federici, Luca; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Declara, Placido; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Lopes, Lino; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Färber, Christian; Gabriel, Emmy; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabowski, Jascha Peter; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruber, Lukas; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hancock, Thomas Henry; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Hasse, Christoph; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Hecker, Malte; Heinicke, Kevin; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huang, Wenqian; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kim, Kyung Eun; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Krupa, Wojciech; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Lenisa, Paolo; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Gianfranco; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nogay, Alla; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Ossowska, Anna; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panshin, Gennady; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Pereima, Dmitrii; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pietrzyk, Guillaume; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pisani, Flavio; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polukhina, Natalia; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Qin, Jia-Jia; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rinnert, Kurt; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Mark; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Strokov, Sergey; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitkovskiy, Arseniy; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Yilong; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano
2018-06-20
The cross-section for inelastic proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is measured with the LHCb detector. The fiducial cross-section for inelastic interactions producing at least one prompt long-lived charged particle with momentum $p>2$ GeV/$c$ in the pseudorapidity range $2<\\eta<5$ is determined to be $\\sigma_{\\rm acc}= 62.2 \\pm 0.2 \\pm 2.5$ mb. The first uncertainty is the intrinsic systematic uncertainty of the measurement, the second is due to the uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The statistical uncertainty is negligible. Extrapolation to full phase space yields the total inelastic proton-proton cross-section $\\sigma_{\\rm inel}= 75.4 \\pm 3.0 \\pm 4.5$ mb, where the first uncertainty is experimental and the second due to the extrapolation. An updated value of the inelastic cross-section at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is also reported.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam; Ahmad, Nasir; Aslam
2004-01-01
Several new WIMSD libraries based on recent cross-section evaluations such as IAEA, ENDFB-VI, JENDL, and JEF have been made available by IAEA. These libraries were used for the computation of multiplication factor and energy spectrum for Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). Methodology was validated for benchmark problems made available by IAEA and comparison with reference results. The value of effective multiplication factors for all newly released libraries are 1.8-3.2% less than that of 1981 WIMSD library. The effect of various cross-section libraries on neutron energy spectrum was also studied. Differences of about -10% to 12.5% were found in thermal flux using the newly released libraries as compared with that obtained using 1981 WIMSD library. From the analysis, it was found that the main source of the difference is the cross-sections of hydrogen bound in water. When these cross-sections of hydrogen (bound in water) from new libraries were used along with all other data in 1981 WIMSD library, the k eff obtained in this way has a difference of only 0.02-0.8% with that obtained from new libraries, while the flux spectrum agreed within 1% below 1 MeV with new libraries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Havener, Charles C.
2001-01-01
At ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF), charge exchange (CX) cross sections have been measured for multicharged ions (MCI) on neutral atoms and molecules. The ORNL ion-atom merged-beam apparatus was used to measure single electron capture by MCI from H at eV/amu energies. A gas cell was used to measure single and double electron capture by MCI from a variety of molecular targets at keV collision energies. The merged-beams experiment has been successful in providing benchmark total electron capture measurements for several collision systems with a variety of multicharged ions on H or D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M.
2009-01-01
This paper analyzed the effects of hydropower development in Laos and power trade between Laos and Thailand on economy wide, energy resource mix, power generation capacity mix, energy system cost, environment, as well as, energy security. A MARKAL-based model for an integrated energy system of Laos and Thailand was developed to assess the effects of energy resource development and trade to meet the national energy demands of the two countries. Two national MARKAL-based energy system models of Laos and Thailand were formulated for the study. The results show that 80% exploitation of water resource in Laos would induce power trade between the countries. The integrated energy system cost is found to decrease marginally but it would mitigate the CO 2 emission by 2% when compared with the base case. Thailand is expected to gain benefit from the increased level of power imported from Laos in terms of the lower energy system cost, better environmental quality and, greater diversification of energy sources. As compared to the base case, Laos would become the net energy exporter, earn significant export revenue, and improve the increase in revenue of energy export per increase in total energy system cost from the maximum exploitation of hydropower resource.
2007-01-01
Objective To compare the energy expenditure of adolescents when playing sedentary and new generation active computer games. Design Cross sectional comparison of four computer games. Setting Research laboratories. Participants Six boys and five girls aged 13-15 years. Procedure Participants were fitted with a monitoring device validated to predict energy expenditure. They played four computer games for 15 minutes each. One of the games was sedentary (XBOX 360) and the other three were active (Wii Sports). Main outcome measure Predicted energy expenditure, compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Mean (standard deviation) predicted energy expenditure when playing Wii Sports bowling (190.6 (22.2) kJ/kg/min), tennis (202.5 (31.5) kJ/kg/min), and boxing (198.1 (33.9) kJ/kg/min) was significantly greater than when playing sedentary games (125.5 (13.7) kJ/kg/min) (P<0.001). Predicted energy expenditure was at least 65.1 (95% confidence interval 47.3 to 82.9) kJ/kg/min greater when playing active rather than sedentary games. Conclusions Playing new generation active computer games uses significantly more energy than playing sedentary computer games but not as much energy as playing the sport itself. The energy used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children. PMID:18156227
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazlioglu, Saban; Lebe, Fuat; Kayhan, Selim
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: → Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. → Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. → The neutrality hypothesis is supported.
Cross-correlating CMB temperature fluctuations with high-energy γ-ray from Dark-Matter annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pieri, L.
2013-01-01
In this paper we compute the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect due to the presence of dark-matter structures on cosmological scale. We cross-correlate the CMB temperature fluctuations with the extragalactic high-energy γ-ray flux map obtained with FERMI-LAT. We find a null signal consistent with the theory and conclude that the presence of halos and subhalos at galactic and extragalactic scale, if not excluded, will be hardly discoverable.
The total neutron cross section of 58Fe in the energy range 7 to 325 keV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, L.D.; Beer, H.; Kaeppeler, F.
1976-08-01
The total neutron cross section of 58 Fe has been determined in the energy range 7-325 keV by a transmission measurement using enriched 58 Fe samples. The data have been shape fitted by means of an R-matrix multi-level formalism to extract resonance parameters for s- and l > 0 wave resonances. The s-wave strength function was determined to S 0 = (4.3 +- 1.9) c 10 -4 . (orig.) [de
On the Determination of the 7Be(n, α)4He Reaction Cross Section at BBN Energies
Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Hou, S. Q.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tumino, A.
2017-12-01
7Be destruction channels are currently a matter of study because of their influence on the 7Li cosmological abundances. Here, we determine the cross section of the (n, α) reaction by using Trojan Horse experimental data for the 7Li(p, α)4He reaction and correcting for Coulomb effects. The deduced 7Be(n, α)4He data overlap with the Big Bang nucleosynthesis energies and the deduced reaction rate allows us to evaluate the corresponding cosmological implications.
A comparative study of cross sections at few energy groups for thermal reactors fuel cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Claro, L.H.; Prati, A.
1992-01-01
A comparative study of nuclear constant calculated with LEOPARD and WIMSD-4 codes using a typical PWR cell was done. Few groups macroscopic cross section, spectral index burnup and power distribution were analyzed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sargsyan, V. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Adamian, G. G., E-mail: adamian@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Antonenko, N. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Mathematical Physics Department, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Diaz-Torres, A. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas, I-38123 Villazzano, Trento (Italy); Gomes, P. R. S. [de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea, s/n, Niterói, R.J. 24210-340 (Brazil); Lenske, H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik der Justus–Liebig–Universität, D–35392 Giessen (Germany)
2016-07-07
We suggest new methods to extract elastic (quasi-elastic) scattering angular distribution and reaction (capture) cross sections from the experimental elastic (quasi-elastic) backscattering excitation function taken at a single angle.
Rana, Jasmine; Mostaghimi, Arash
2017-05-15
Dermatology residents perform consults on hospitalized patients, but are often limited in their ability to follow-up with these patients after discharge, leading to inadequate follow-up and understanding of post-discharge transitions of care. In 2013, a discharge continuity clinic (DCC) staffed by the inpatient consult dermatology resident and attending dermatologist was established at one of the four adult hospital sites residents rotate through in the Harvard Combined Dermatology Residency Program. Resident perceptions about the DCC and their educational experience on inpatient consult rotations with a DCC and without a DCC were obtained using a cross-sectional survey instrument in June 2016. Self-reported data from a multi-year cohort of dermatology residents (n = 14 of 20, 70% response rate) reveals that the DCC enabled resident autonomy and resident satisfaction in care of their patients,insight into the disease-related challenges and the broader social context during transitions of care from inpatient to outpatient settings, and more enriching learning experiences than inpatient consult rotations without a DCC. Dermatology residents self-report participation in an inpatient consult rotation with aDCC supports their autonomy and achievement of post-discharge transitions-of-care competencies.
Pascanu, Vlad; Hansen, Peter R; Bermejo Gómez, Antonio; Ayats, Carles; Platero-Prats, Ana E; Johansson, Magnus J; Pericàs, Miquel À; Martín-Matute, Belén
2015-01-01
A diverse set of more than 40 highly functionalized biaryls was synthesized successfully through the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction catalyzed by Pd nanoparticles supported in a functionalized mesoporous MOF (8 wt % Pd@MIL-101(Cr)-NH2 ). This could be achieved under some of the mildest conditions reported to date and a strong control over the leaching of metallic species could be maintained, despite the presence of diverse functional groups and/or several heteroatoms. Some of the targeted molecules are important intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and we clearly exemplify the versatility of this catalytic system, which affords better yields than currently existing commercial procedures. Most importantly, Pd@MIL-101-NH2 was packed in a micro-flow reactor, which represents the first report of metallic nanoparticles supported on MOFs employed in flow chemistry for catalytic applications. A small library of 11 isolated compounds was created in a continuous experiment without replacing the catalyst, demonstrating the potential of the catalyst for large-scale applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahnaz Jabraeili
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Background The most common cause of admission to neonatal intensive care units (NICU is respiratory distress syndrome. One of the respiratory assistance methods is using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Regarding the importance of pain control which is one of the major priorities in neonatal nursing care, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of body position on pain due to nasal CPAP in premature neonates. Materials and Methods In this cross-over clinical trial, 50 premature neonates who were receiving nasal CPAP admitted to the NICU of Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, were included. The neonates were randomly placed at three body positions (fetal, supine, and prone positions. Pain was measured by Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital Pain Scale Neonates (ALPS-Neo pain assessment scale. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software (Version 22.0. Results Significant difference existed regarding pain of nasal CPAP among body positions (p< 0.001. Mean (SD pain was 5.15 (0.822 in fetal position, 6.260 (0.747 in prone position and 7.326 (0.792 in supine position. Conclusion Body positioning in premature neonates under nasal CPAP in NICU can be effective as a non-pharmacologic method in alleviating pain due to nasal CPAP. Among the studied positions, the lowest pain score was seen in fetal position.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieffer, L.J.
1976-03-01
A bibliography of original reports of measurements or calculations of electron, positron and photon cross sections and their ions is presented. A detailed index to the bibliography allows retrieval of cross section data for specific processes and atomic or molecular species. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1921 through calendar year 1974, but some references late in 1974 may not have been found and included. No references were found prior to 1921
Bibliography of low energy electron and photon cross section data. Report for Jan 1975-Dec 1977
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gallagher, J.W.; Rumble, J.R. Jr; Beaty, E.C.
1979-06-01
A bibliography of original reports of measurements or calculations of electron, positron, and photon cross sections for atoms, small molecules, and their ions is presented. A detailed index to the bibliography facilitates retrieval of cross section data for specific processes and associated atomic or molecular species. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the calendar years 1975-1977. This work supplements a previous bibliography which covered the literature through 1974
Energy-Aware Broadcasting and Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Cross-Layering Approach
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wieselthier, Jeffrey E; Nguyen, Gam D; Ephremides, Anthony
2004-01-01
...) problems, especially when energy-aware operation is required. To address the specific problem of energy-aware tree construction in wireless ad hoc networks, we have developed the Broadcast Incremental Power (BIP...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, H.P.
1993-01-01
The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method for continuum wave functions has been used to calculate the scattering length and phase shifts over extremely low energies ranging from 0 to 1 eV very accurately for electron-helium scattering. The scattering length is calculated very accurately with wave functions computed exactly at zero energy, resulting in an upper bound of 1.1784. The electron correlation and polarization of the target by the scattering electron, which are very important in these calculations, have been taken into account in an accurate ab initio manner through the configuration-interaction procedure by optimizing both bound and continuum orbitals simultaneously at each kinetic energy of the scattered electron. Detailed results for scattering length, differential, total, and momentum-transfer cross sections obtained from the phase shifts are presented. The present scattering length is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental result of Andrick and Bitsch [J. Phys. B 8, 402 (1975)] and the theoretical result of O'Malley, Burke, and Berrington [J. Phys. B 12, 953 (1979)]. There is excellent agreement between the present total cross sections and the corresponding experimental measurements of Buckman and Lohmann [J. Phys. B 19, 2547 (1986)]. The present momentum-transfer cross sections also show remarkable agreement with the experimental results of Crompton, Elford, and Robertson [Aust. J. Phys. 23, 667 (1970)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergmann, Ryan M.; Vujić, Jasmina L.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • WARP, a GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo neutron transport code, has been developed. • The NVIDIA OptiX high-performance ray tracing library is used to process geometric data. • The unionized cross section representation is modified for higher performance. • Reference remapping is used to keep the GPU busy as neutron batch population reduces. • Reference remapping is done using a key-value radix sort on neutron reaction type. - Abstract: In recent supercomputers, general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) are a significant faction of the supercomputer’s total computational power. GPGPUs have different architectures compared to central processing units (CPUs), and for Monte Carlo neutron transport codes used in nuclear engineering to take advantage of these coprocessor cards, transport algorithms must be changed to execute efficiently on them. WARP is a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code that has been written to do this. The main thrust of WARP is to adapt previous event-based transport algorithms to the new GPU hardware; the algorithmic choices for all parts of which are presented in this paper. It is found that remapping history data references increases the GPU processing rate when histories start to complete. The main reason for this is that completed data are eliminated from the address space, threads are kept busy, and memory bandwidth is not wasted on checking completed data. Remapping also allows the interaction kernels to be launched concurrently, improving efficiency. The OptiX ray tracing framework and CUDPP library are used for geometry representation and parallel dataset-side operations, ensuring high performance and reliability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Fayek, M.; Mostafa, M.; Hamouda, I.
1981-09-01
Total neutron cross-section measurements have been performed for natural Nb at liquid nitrogen, room and 425 0 K temperatures in the energy range from 2 MeV - 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels. The neutron diffraction pattern of Nb, at room temperature, was obtained using a double axis crystal spectrometer installed also at the ET-RR-1 reactor. The obtained total neutron cross-sections were analyzed using the single level Breit-Wigner formula. The coherent scattering amplitude was determined from the Bragg reflections observed in the total neutron cross-section of Nb and the analysis of its neutron diffraction pattern. The incoherent and thermal inelastic scattering cross-sections of Nb were determined from the analysis of the total cross-section of Nb beyond the cut-off wavelength. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(t) = (6.30+-0.20)b; sigmasub(coh) = (6.0+-0.3)b; sigmasub(incoh) = (2.0+-1.0)b; bsub(coh) = (6.91+-0.08)fm
Tailoring cross-sectional energy-efficiency measures to target groups in industry
Wohlfarth, Katharina; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Schlomann, Barbara; Worrell, Ernst
2018-01-01
The improvement of energy efficiency in industrial companies plays a crucial role for the energy transition. Although significant economic potentials have been identified, the concerned actors are still struggling to realize them fully. To support the implementation of energy efficiency measures by
Improvements to the nuclear model code GNASH for cross section calculations at higher energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.
1994-01-01
The nuclear model code GNASH, which in the past has been used predominantly for incident particle energies below 20 MeV, has been modified extensively for calculations at higher energies. The model extensions and improvements are described in this paper, and their significance is illustrated by comparing calculations with experimental data for incident energies up to 160 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chartier, J.-L.
1977-09-01
This study first describes a bent crystal monochromator developed for the production of monochromatic beams in a continuous energy range from 30 to 250 keV; it is completed by a metrological application of the device (determination of K absorption edge energy of Au, Th, U, Pu). A method and the associated experimental procedure were developed to measure the photo-electric cross section for high-Z elements; the results are presented with a relative uncertainty ranging between 3 and 6%. Finally, the experimental values are compared with values calculated from theories using self-consistent potential models [fr
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gobalasingham, Nemal S.; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Krebs, Frederik C
2017-01-01
of high-performance materials. To demonstrate the usefulness of the method, DArP-prepared PPDTBT via continuous flow synthesis is employed for the preparation of indium tin oxide (ITO)-free and flexible roll-coated solar cells to achieve a power conversion efficiency of 3.5% for 1 cm2 devices, which...... is comparable to the performance of PPDTBT polymerized through Stille cross coupling. These efforts demonstrate the distinct advantages of the continuous flow protocol with DArP avoiding use of toxic tin chemicals, reducing the associated costs of polymer upscaling, and minimizing batch-to-batch variations...