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Sample records for continuous blood sampling

  1. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  2. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Tine Lindberg; Nybo, Mads

    2016-01-01

    blood drawings by 39 phlebotomists were observed in the pilot study, while 84 blood drawings by 34 phlebotomists were observed in the follow-up study. In the pilot study, the three major error items were hand hygiene (42% error), mixing of samples (22%), and order of draw (21%). Minor significant...

  3. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...... corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters...

  4. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  5. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood gas sampling is part of everyday practice in the care of babies admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, particularly for those receiving respiratory support. There is little published guidance that systematically evaluates the different methods of neonatal blood gas sampling, where each method has its individual ...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use continuous sampling techniques for measurements that involve raw or dilute sampling. Make sure continuous sampling...

  7. Continuous Blood Volume Monitoring and Ultrafiltration Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopot, František; Nejedlý, Bohdan; Sulková, Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Continuous blood volume monitoring (CBVM) is believed to be a promising method for making the determination of patients' "dry weight" more objective, and ultrafiltration (UF) control more appropriate. Although blood volume response to UF and the interrelation between blood volume changes and changes in hemodynamic parameters are highly individual, certain principles of this response and interrelation can be identified and exploited for effective use of CBVM. The present work summarizes the authors' findings from practical CBVM application over the past 5 years and their opinions on the future development of this method. Four distinct types of blood volume response to constant UF rate were identified: Type 1, flat line throughout the whole session; Type 2, flat line during the first part of dialysis, followed by a linear decrease during the remaining time; Type 3, linear decrease right from dialysis start; and Type 4, linear decrease first, followed by a flat line during the remaining time. The possibility of a shift from one type to the other was verified. Blood volume reduction due to UF was found to have a static and a dynamic component. The most important factors affecting both components were found to be, by sensitivity analysis of a three-pool kinetic model, degree of overhydration, vascular system compliance, and UF volume (for the static component); and UF coefficient of the capillary wall and UF rate (for the dynamic component). Type 3 response, induced by more vigorous UF, was found to significantly decrease the volume of residual daily diuresis on the first postdialysis day. If confirmed, this finding may serve as a basis for the response type choice in patients with still significant residual renal function. Exploitation of the existence of dynamic blood volume reduction component for the first generation of automated biofeedback UF controllers may be complemented by automated identification of patient's plasma refilling capacity and/or position of his

  8. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions...

  9. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    in blood samples. Studies were extracted from PubMed and Embase. The search period ended November 2016. RESULTS: A total of 39 studies were retrieved. Of these, only 12 studies were conducted on inpatients, mainly intensive care unit patients. Blood gases, hematology, and clinical chemistry were well...... investigated, whereas coagulation, rotational thromboelastometry, and platelet function in acutely ill patients were addressed by only 1 study each. Only a few parameters were affected in a clinically significant way (clotting time parameter in extrinsic system thromboelastometry, pO2 in blood gas, multiplate...

  10. Microfiltration platform for continuous blood plasma protein extraction from whole blood during cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Kiana; Fok, Alex; Sasso, Lawrence A; Kamdar, Neal; Guan, Yulong; Sun, Qi; Ündar, Akif; Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2011-09-07

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a cross-flow filtration microdevice, for the continuous extraction of blood plasma from a circulating whole blood sample in a clinically relevant environment to assist in continuous monitoring of a patient's inflammatory response during cardiac surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures (about 400,000 adult and 20,000 pediatric patients in the United States per year). The microfiltration system consists of a two-compartment mass exchanger with two aligned sets of PDMS microchannels, separated by a porous polycarbonate (PCTE) membrane. Using this microdevice, blood plasma has been continuously separated from blood cells in a real-time manner with no evidence of bio-fouling or cell lysis. The technology is designed to continuously extract plasma containing diagnostic plasma proteins such as complements and cytokines using a significantly smaller blood volume as compared to traditional blood collection techniques. The microfiltration device has been tested using a simulated CPB circulation loop primed with donor human blood, in a manner identical to a clinical surgical setup, to collect plasma fractions in order to study the effects of CPB system components and circulation on immune activation during extracorporeal circulatory support. The microdevice, with 200 nm membrane pore size, was connected to a simulated CPB circuit, and was able to continuously extract ~15% pure plasma volume (100% cell-free) with high sampling frequencies which could be analyzed directly following collection with no need to further centrifuge or modify the fraction. Less than 2.5 ml total plasma volume was collected over a 4 h sampling period (less than one Vacutainer blood collection tube volume). The results tracked cytokine concentrations collected from both the reservoir and filtrate samples which were comparable to those from direct blood draws, indicating very high protein recovery of the microdevice

  11. Automated system for fractionation of blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N. E.; Genung, R. K.; Johnson, W. F.; Mrochek, J. E.; Scott, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A prototype system for preparing multiple fractions of blood components (plasma, washed red cells, and hemolysates) using automated techniques has been developed. The procedure is based on centrifugal separation and differential pressure-induced transfer in a rotor that has been designed to process numerous samples simultaneously. Red cells are sedimented against the outer walls of the sample chamber, and plasma is syphoned, by imposition of eithr a slight positive or negative pressure, into individual reservoirs in a collection ring. Washing of cells is performed in situ; samples of washed cells, either packed or in saline solution, can be recovered. Cellular hemolysates are prepared and automatically transferred to individual, commercially available collection vials ready for storage in liquid nitrogen or immediate analysis. The system has potential application in any biomedical area which requires high sample throughput and in which one or more of the blood fractions will be used. A separate unit has been designed and developed for the semiautomated cleaning of the blood processing vessel.

  12. Improving blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics and handling at hospitals has great potential. This research will show how a simulation model can be used to evaluate changes made to two different cases of transportation of blood samples at a hospital, by evaluating diffe...... different scenarios against the current situation. The simulation showed that big potential could be obtained by changing the current approach, implementing a pneumatic tube system showed that a reduction in transportation of up to 35 % could be obtained....

  13. Blood safety and availability: continuing challenges in China's blood banking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jing-Xing; Stevens, Lori; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-02-01

    Social and economic development, along with increased health care coverage, has caused a sharp increase in the clinical demand for blood in China. Whole blood collection has increased rapidly in the past decade but has failed to keep pace with the ever-increasing demand. Overall, the country's blood safety has been improved with 99% of whole blood donations collected from voluntary unpaid donors. However, the unmet clinical demand for blood and the increasing incidence of human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis in the general population pose new challenges to China's blood banking system. To ensure a safe and adequate blood supply, continued efforts are required to recruit and retain a sufficient number of low-risk voluntary blood donors, improve donor prescreening and blood testing process, ease donor restrictions, and strengthen patient blood management. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. Blood donors and factors impacting the blood donation decision: motives for donating blood in Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia

    2013-12-01

    Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  16. Multidrug resistant Salmonellae isolated from blood culture samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the prevalence of R-plasmids in Salmonella sp. isolated from blood samples of suspected typhoid patients in Warri, Nigeria. A total of 136 blood samples were collected between May and December,2009 and screened for the presence of Salmonellae using standard blood culture techniques of which ...

  17. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique is described which allows automatic collection of jugular venous blood from tethered cows. In this system, blood is pumped continuously from an intravenous cannula which has a double lumen while an anticoagulant is pumped through the second opening. Diluted blood is collected in a fraction collector which ...

  18. Identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents an introductory survey ofthe methodsthat have been developed for identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input-output data. The two basic approaches may be described as. the indirect method, where first a discrete-time model is estimated from the sampled data and then an ...

  19. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Foreman, William T.; Iverson, Jana L.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19–23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  20. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods | Goenka | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little published guidance that systematically evaluates the different methods of neonatal blood gas sampling, where each method has its individual benefits and risks. This review critically surveys the available evidence to generate a comparison between arterial and capillary blood gas sampling, focusing on their ...

  1. Effects of post-sampling analysis time, type of blood samples and collection tubes on values of blood gas testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajić, Jasmina; Kadić, Damira; Hasić, Sabaheta; Serdarević, Nafija

    2015-08-01

    To investigate effects of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes on blood gas testing. This study included 100 patients at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Centre Sarajevo. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed in the arterial blood samples (ABS) and capillary blood samples (CBS) by a potentiometric method using a blood gas analyzer ABL 555 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Paired measurements of ABS were performed within 15 minutes and after 60 minutes from sampling and compared. The results of CBS obtained within 15 minutes were compared with matching ABS results, as well as the results obtained from CBS within 15 minutes taken into glass and plastic tubes. pO2 and sO2 values were significantly lower after 60 minutes compared to those within 15 minutes in ABS (9.20±1.89 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±5.03 vs. 92.40±4.5; pblood values were not influenced significantly (p>0.05). The length of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes have significant impact on blood oxygen parameters. Analysis within 15 minutes after blood sampling is considered as appropriate. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  2. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2014-01-01

    of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.......g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do...

  3. The pathology of facial vein blood sampling in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ket; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Bollen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    vein blood sampling. Therefore, we investigated if this technique was associated with pathological changes of the jaw region. Methods: 43 NMRI mice were subjected to facial vein blood sampling by using the lancet method during 12 months, starting at the age of 8 weeks. The mice were restrained manually......, and the tissue of the jaw was evaluated. Results: In the 23 mice, from which blood samples had been taken 2 days previously, 5 mice had no signs of gross pathological changes, whereas 12 mice had signs of minimal local subcutaneous bleeding and 6 mice had moderate local subcutaneous bleeding. No additional gross...... pathological changes were observed. In the 23 mice, from which blood samples had been taken 4 weeks earlier, no hemorrhage or signs of scar tissue formation could be observed. Histological slides are currently being processed (HE staining) and will be evaluated and discussed....

  4. Scanning tunneling microscope with continuous flow cryostat sample cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behler, S.; Rose, M.K.; Dunphy, J.C.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chapelier, C. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA/Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1997-06-01

    We have constructed an ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM) for operation in the temperature range 20{endash}300 K. The design consists of a vibration isolated sample holder mounted on a continuous flow cryostat. By rotation and linear motion of the cryostat, the sample can be positioned in front of various surface preparation and analysis instruments contained in a single vacuum chamber. A lightweight beetle-type STM head is lowered from the top onto the sample by a linear manipulator. To minimize helium convection in the cryostat, the entire vacuum system, including a liquid helium storage Dewar, can be tilted by a few degrees perpendicular to the cryostat axis, which improves the operation. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of the Pd(111) surface and adsorbed CO molecules. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Sample size formulae for the Bayesian continual reassessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ying Kuen

    2013-01-01

    In the planning of a dose finding study, a primary design objective is to maintain high accuracy in terms of the probability of selecting the maximum tolerated dose. While numerous dose finding methods have been proposed in the literature, concrete guidance on sample size determination is lacking. With a motivation to provide quick and easy calculations during trial planning, we present closed form formulae for sample size determination associated with the use of the Bayesian continual reassessment method (CRM). We examine the sampling distribution of a nonparametric optimal design and exploit it as a proxy to empirically derive an accuracy index of the CRM using linear regression. We apply the formulae to determine the sample size of a phase I trial of PTEN-long in pancreatic cancer patients and demonstrate that the formulae give results very similar to simulation. The formulae are implemented by an R function 'getn' in the package 'dfcrm'. The results are developed for the Bayesian CRM and should be validated by simulation when used for other dose finding methods. The analytical formulae we propose give quick and accurate approximation of the required sample size for the CRM. The approach used to derive the formulae can be applied to obtain sample size formulae for other dose finding methods.

  6. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players, and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure.Blood samples were collected five times during a six...... months period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, players were tested for body composition, VO2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance sub-max test (IE2).Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during...... the observation period, including a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit as the competitive season progressed. Iron and transferrin was stabile, whereas ferritin showed a decrease at the end of the season. IgA and IgM increased in the period with basal physical training and at the end...

  7. Water sampling techniques for continuous monitoring of pesticides in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šunjka Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good ecological and chemical status of water represents the most important aim of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which implies respect of water quality standards at the level of entire river basin (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EC. This especially refers to the control of pesticide residues in surface waters. In order to achieve the set goals, a continuous monitoring program that should provide a comprehensive and interrelated overview of water status should be implemented. However, it demands the use of appropriate analysis techniques. Until now, the procedure for sampling and quantification of residual pesticide quantities in aquatic environment was based on the use of traditional sampling techniques that imply periodical collecting of individual samples. However, this type of sampling provides only a snapshot of the situation in regard to the presence of pollutants in water. As an alternative, the technique of passive sampling of pollutants in water, including pesticides has been introduced. Different samplers are available for pesticide sampling in surface water, depending on compounds. The technique itself is based on keeping a device in water over a longer period of time which varies from several days to several weeks, depending on the kind of compound. In this manner, the average concentrations of pollutants dissolved in water during a time period (time-weighted average concentrations, TWA are obtained, which enables monitoring of trends in areal and seasonal variations. The use of these techniques also leads to an increase in sensitivity of analytical methods, considering that pre-concentration of analytes takes place within the sorption medium. However, the use of these techniques for determination of pesticide concentrations in real water environments requires calibration studies for the estimation of sampling rates (Rs. Rs is a volume of water per time, calculated as the product of overall mass transfer coefficient and area of

  8. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter; Storskov, Anders; Kjær, Michael; Andersen, Jesper L

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure. Blood samples were collected 5 times during a 6-month period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, the players were tested for body composition, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance submax test (IE2). Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during the observation period, including a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit as the competitive season progressed. Iron and transferrin were stable, whereas ferritin showed a decrease at the end of the season. The immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM increased in the period with basal physical training and at the end of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max decreased toward the end of the season, whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test. The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes that may be related to changes in training pattern, match exposure, or length of the match season. Especially the end of the preparation season and at the end of the competitive season seem to be time points were the blood-derived values indicate that the players are under excessive physical strain and might be more subjected to a possible overreaching-overtraining conditions. We suggest that regular analyses of blood samples could be an important initiative to optimize training adaptation, training load, and game participation, but sampling has to be regular, and a database has to be built for each individual player.

  9. Automated blood-sample handling in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Bodtker, K; Uyeno, D; Goh, L O

    1990-09-01

    The only significant advances in blood-taking in 25 years have been the disposable needle and evacuated blood-drawing tube. With the exception of a few isolated barcode experiments, most sample-tracking is performed through handwritten or computer-printed labels. Attempts to reduce the hazards of centrifugation have resulted in air-tight lids or chambers, the use of which is time-consuming and cumbersome. Most commonly used clinical analyzers require serum or plasma, distributed into specialized containers, unique to that analyzer. Aliquots for different tests are prepared by handpouring or pipetting. Moderate to large clinical laboratories perform so many different tests that even multi-analyzers performing multiple analyses on a single sample may account for only a portion of all tests ordered for a patient. Thus several aliquots of each specimen are usually required. We have developed a proprietary serial centrifuge and blood-collection tube suitable for incorporation into an automated or robotic sample-handling system. The system we propose is (a) safe--avoids or prevents biological danger to the many "handlers" of blood; (b) small--minimizes the amount of sample taken and space required to adapt to the needs of satellite and mobile testing, and direct interfacing with analyzers; (c) serial--permits each sample to be treated according to its own "merits," optimizes throughput, and facilitates flexible automation; and (d) smart--ensures quality results through monitoring and intelligent control of patient identification, sample characteristics, and separation process.

  10. Two samples for blood transfusion: single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W; Davies, J; Asamoah, A; Scott-Molloy, C; Sansom, V; Kerr, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the introduction of two-sample policy for transfusion at our hospital and reduction of the risk of ABO incompatible transfusion. ABO incompatible transfusion can be a fatal but avoidable event. Wrong blood in tube is a cause of ABO incompatible transfusion and there are various strategies available to try and expunge this event. Survey of policy/practice before and after the introduction of a two-sample policy. Staff training is inadequate in reducing the risk of ABO incompatible transfusion. A two-sample policy was introduced and does not significantly increase workload or use of group O blood and does not compromise patient safety by causing delay in blood provision. Post hoc analysis confirms good understanding of the policy by medical staff. Observation of medical staff taking transfusion samples demonstrated consistent deviation from policy, enforcing the need for confirmatory samples. A two-sample policy adds an extra layer of safety to transfusion practice and can be introduced without creating new problems. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Continuous blood pressure recordings simultaneously with functional brain imaging: studies of the glymphatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienkiewicz, Aleksandra; Huotari, Niko; Raitamaa, Lauri; Raatikainen, Ville; Ferdinando, Hany; Vihriälä, Erkki; Korhonen, Vesa; Myllylä, Teemu; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2017-03-01

    The lymph system is responsible for cleaning the tissues of metabolic waste products, soluble proteins and other harmful fluids etc. Lymph flow in the body is driven by body movements and muscle contractions. Moreover, it is indirectly dependent on the cardiovascular system, where the heart beat and blood pressure maintain force of pressure in lymphatic channels. Over the last few years, studies revealed that the brain contains the so-called glymphatic system, which is the counterpart of the systemic lymphatic system in the brain. Similarly, the flow in the glymphatic system is assumed to be mostly driven by physiological pulsations such as cardiovascular pulses. Thus, continuous measurement of blood pressure and heart function simultaneously with functional brain imaging is of great interest, particularly in studies of the glymphatic system. We present our MRI compatible optics based sensing system for continuous blood pressure measurement and show our current results on the effects of blood pressure variations on cerebral brain dynamics, with a focus on the glymphatic system. Blood pressure was measured simultaneously with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with an ultrafast functional brain imaging (fMRI) sequence magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG, 3D brain 10 Hz sampling rate).

  12. Single versus duplicate blood samples in ACTH stimulated adrenal vein sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, T.; Arntz, M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Deinum, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the preferred test for subtyping primary aldosteronism. However, the procedure is technically demanding and costly. In AVS it is common practice to take duplicate blood samples at each location. In this paper we explore whether a single sample procedure

  13. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    , and 30 days at the same temperatures. 27 inflammatory markers in serum and plasma and 25 markers in DBSS were measured by a previously validated multiplex sandwich immunoassay using Luminex xMAP technology. The measurable concentrations of several cytokines in serum and plasma were significantly......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable...

  14. Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkinis, V.; Popp, T. J.; Blunier, T.; Bigler, M.; Schüpbach, S.; Kettner, E.; Johnsen, S. J.

    2011-11-01

    A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We built an interface between a Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS) purchased from Picarro Inc. and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of δ18O and δD on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub μl amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100% efficiency in a~home made oven at a temperature of 170 °C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW-SLAP scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on the water concentration in the optical cavity. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1‰ and 0.5‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the temporal resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of δ18O and δD, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to be deployed for field ice core studies. We present

  15. Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gkinis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We built an interface between a Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS purchased from Picarro Inc. and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of δ18O and δD on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub μl amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100% efficiency in a~home made oven at a temperature of 170 °C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW–SLAP scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on the water concentration in the optical cavity. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1‰ and 0.5‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the temporal resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of δ18O and δD, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to

  16. Efficiency of Extraction of Trace metals from Blood samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Efficiency of Extraction of Trace metals from Blood samples using Wet Digestion and. Microwave Digestion Techniques. *1M. I. YAHAYA; A. SHEHU; F.G. DABAI. Department of Applied Chemistry, Federal University Dutsin – Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria. Biology Department, Kebbi State College of Basic and Advanced Studies ...

  17. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods | Goenka | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indwelling arterial catheters are a practical, reliable and accurate method of measuring acid-base parameters, provided they are inserted and maintained with the proper care. Capillary blood gas sampling is accurate, and a good substitute for radial 'stab' arterial puncture, avoiding many of the complications of repeated ...

  18. Fetal scalp blood sampling in labor - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, electronic fetal monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) were introduced without robust evidence. With a methodical review of the published literature, and using one randomized controlled trial, seven controlled studies, nine randomized studies of various surve...

  19. The Welsh Blood Service - 70 years of continuous change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, G D

    2017-06-01

    The National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) in England and Wales was established as a single entity in 1946 and operated as such for almost half a century. During those 50 years, the blood service in Wales, as in the rest of the UK, saw many technological and operational changes. The automation of donation testing, the introduction of successive layers of microbiological screening, the creation of the Tissue Typing Laboratory (later renamed the Welsh Transplantation and Immunogenetics Laboratory) and the development of information technology brought - over a relatively long period - highly significant improvements to an organisation that had begun life as an Emergency Medical Service. Differing funding and reporting arrangements for the Welsh and English blood services made little difference in practice, but the devolution of government following the 1997 referendum in Wales would have a profound influence. Four years before the Government of Wales Act (1998) was passed through the UK parliament, the National Blood Authority (NBA) assumed executive control of the English blood services but not the blood service in Wales. The Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service and the Northern Ireland Blood Transfusion Service had been created as independent organisations in 1946; thus, the scene was set for diversification between the four independent blood services, each operating in different political environments with different funding streams. The creation of the UK Blood Services Forum and its Joint Professional Advisory Committee in 1999 has, however, ensured consistency in professional matters. The blood transfusion service in Wales, in its new headquarters in Talbot Green, became known as the Welsh Blood Service (WBS), or Gwasanaeth Gwaed Cymru in Welsh, reporting for most of its life to the Velindre NHS Trust, part of NHS Wales. Considerable changes would impact the WBS in the 21st century. Social changes would mean that the role of recruitment and marketing

  20. Validation of a Blood Stability Score as an easy-to-use blood sample quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N; Kirchbichler, A; Banuls, O; Mader, M; Aikin, R; Sottas, P-E; D'Onofrio, G

    2016-12-01

    The athlete biological passport (ABP) was implemented based on conservative requirements on sample storage and transport to ensure blood integrity. Blood remains stable over periods longer than the currently employed time limits. We investigated whether time and temperature requirements for sample storage can be used in a flexible model rather than based on fixed limits. A literature review was performed analyzing the stability blood variables. A Blood Stability Score (BSS) was derived to integrate the direct dependence of the degradation rate on temperature. A validation study was then carried out in real testing conditions with antidoping blood samples. Upon sample reception, a full blood count was obtained, and then again after refrigeration for an extended period. A BSS formula integrating storage temperature (T) and collection to analysis time (CAT) was developed: BSS = CAT + 3 × T. In real testing conditions, negligible differences were observed for some variable as BSS values approached a score of 95, while no difference was observed in HGB and RET%. This study confirms that samples can be transported for longer periods and that the adaptive time and temperature approach as formalized in a rule that the BSS should not exceed 85 guarantees the stability of RBC variables used in the ABP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Verification of complete blood cell count (CBC) data from heparinized blood gas samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoguchi, Takafumi; Fujii, Seiji; Inuzumi, Koji; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Hirose, Munetaka; Masaki, Mitsuru; Koshiba, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    Complete blood cell count (CBC) data from heparinized blood gas (H-Gas) samples were verified with primary focus on the platelet count (PLT). When a part of H-Gas sample was taken to a separation tube from the blood collection syringe and CBC of the sample in the separation tube was repeatedly measured (Procedure 1), the PLT from 5 samples relative to that obtained immediately after the separation was gradually reduced to 72.6-94.2% during serial measurements (every 5 minutes, up to 30 minutes). The change in the scattergram pattern suggested that this PLT decrease was due to the formation of platelet clumps. The white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) values did not significantly change during the repeated measurements. On the other hand, PLT was significantly improved to 96.8-99.8% when the H-Gas sample was kept in the blood collection syringe so as to minimizing the exposure to the air, and the sample for the measurement from H-Gas was taken every time to separation tube from the syringe, followed by CBC measurement without delay (Procedure 2). In addition, while there were significant variations (CV: 11.8-18.2%) in PLT reproducibility among H-Gas samples by Procedure 1, measurements utilizing the Procedure 2 resulted in much smaller variations (CV: 2.2-3.7%). Thus the CBC data obtained from H-Gas samples were equivalent to those from EDTA samples when the Procedure 2 was applied. These data suggest that H-Gas samples can be used for the accurate CBC measurement, including PLT, by applying the Procedure 2.

  2. Evaluation of a continuous blood glucose monitoring system using central venous microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2012-11-01

    Glycemic control in critically ill patients has been shown to be beneficial. In this prospective study, we evaluated the accuracy and technical feasibility of a continuous glucose monitoring system using intravascular microdialysis. Fifty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were monitored using a 4 Fr intravenous microdialysis catheter (Eirus SLC™, Dipylon Medical AB, Solna, Sweden) percutaneously placed with the tip of the catheter positioned in the superior vena cava. The catheter was connected to the Eirus™ monitoring system, and the patients were monitored for up to 48 h postoperatively in the intensive care unit (ICU). As reference, arterial blood samples were taken every hour and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Data were available from 48 patients. A total of 994 paired (arterial blood gas microdialysis) samples were obtained. Glucose correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.85. Using Clarke error grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in region AB, and 99% were in region A. Mean glucose level was 8.3 mmol/liter (149 mg/dl), mean relative difference was 0.2%, and mean absolute relative difference was 5%. A total of 99.2% of the paired samples were correct according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) criteria. Bland-Altman analysis showed that bias ± limits of agreement were 0.02 ± 1.1 mmol/liter (0.36 ± 20 mg/dl). Central venous microdialysis using the Eirus monitoring system is a highly accurate and reliable method for continuous blood glucose monitoring up to 48 h in ICU patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The system may thus be useful in critically ill ICU patients. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads; Nybo, Mads

    2017-08-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. Elements were extracted from punches and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was evaluated with quality controls with defined element concentration and blood spiked with elements to assess accuracy and imprecision. DBS element concentrations were compared with concentrations in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect. The established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, As and Se in DBS and venous whole blood. Hematocrit influenced the DBS element measurement, especially for K, Fe and Zn. Trace elements can be measured with high accuracy and low imprecision in DBS, but contribution of signal from the filter paper influences measurement of some elements present at low concentrations. Simultaneous measurement of K and Fe in DBS extracts may be used to estimate sample hematocrit. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The continuous high-precision measurement of the density of flowing blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, T; Leopold, H; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H

    1977-07-29

    The "mechanical oscillator" technique for the measurement of the density of fluids is based on the influence of mass on the natural frequency of a mechanical oscillator. The practical application of this principle was worked out by Kratky et al. (1969) and Leopold (1970). It is demonstrated in this study that the method permits the continuous high-precision measurement of the density of flowing blood in anesthetized animals. The accuracy is 10(5) g/ml, the maximum sampling rate 20/min. As found in rabbits and cats during the control state, physiological blood density changes related to spontaneous blood pressure variations are up to 2-10(4) g/ml. The method can be combined with i.v. injections of isotonic and iso-oncotic solutions to determine cardiac output and blood volume on the basis of a "density dilution" principle. Since the density of the interstitial fluid is lower than that of blood, fluid shifts through the capillary walls can be detected. The effects of hypertonic glucose and of hyperoncotic dextran have been examined. Changes in the density of the arterial blood appear within 10 s after i.v. injection of these fluids. Similarly, density changes result from hemorrhage and reinfusion. During and after i.v. administration of vasoactive drugs (noradrenaline, angiotensin II, acetylcholine), marked transient changes in blood density are seen which obviously reflect the effects of fluid shifts through the capillary walls. During hemorrhagic hypotension we found periodic variations in the blood density synchronous with spontaneously occurring Mayer waves. The new method seems to be a promising tool for investigations physiological and pathological capillary fluid dynamics.

  5. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ... samples but plasma propionate, caproate, isovalerate (P hemolysis. Interactions with hemolysis and other fixed effects were not found (P > 0.05). In Exp. 2...

  6. Molecular recognition of HER-1 in whole-blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoveanu, Iuliana; Stanciu Gavan, Camelia; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana

    2014-11-01

    Multimode sensing was proposed for molecular screening and recognition of HER-1 in whole blood. The tools used for molecular recognition were platforms based on nanostructured materials such as the complex of Mn(III) with meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin, and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalence between 4 and 7), immobilized in diamond paste, graphite paste or C60 fullerene paste. The identification of HER-1 in whole-blood samples, at molecular level, is performed using stochastic mode and is followed by the quantification of it using stochastic and differential pulse voltammetry modes. HER-1 can be identified in the concentration range between 280 fg/ml and 4.86 ng/ml using stochastic mode, this making possible the early detection of cancers such as gastrointestinal, pancreatic and lung cancers. The recovery tests performed using whole-blood samples proved that the platforms can be used for identification and quantification of HER-1 with high sensitivity and reliability in such samples, these making them good molecular screening tools. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Outcome vector dependent sampling with longitudinal continuous response data: stratified sampling based on summary statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Garbett, Shawn P; Heagerty, Patrick J

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of longitudinal trajectories usually focuses on evaluation of explanatory factors that are either associated with rates of change, or with overall mean levels of a continuous outcome variable. In this article, we introduce valid design and analysis methods that permit outcome dependent sampling of longitudinal data for scenarios where all outcome data currently exist, but a targeted substudy is being planned in order to collect additional key exposure information on a limited number of subjects. We propose a stratified sampling based on specific summaries of individual longitudinal trajectories, and we detail an ascertainment corrected maximum likelihood approach for estimation using the resulting biased sample of subjects. In addition, we demonstrate that the efficiency of an outcome-based sampling design relative to use of a simple random sample depends highly on the choice of outcome summary statistic used to direct sampling, and we show a natural link between the goals of the longitudinal regression model and corresponding desirable designs. Using data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program, where genetic information required retrospective ascertainment, we study a range of designs that examine lung function profiles over 4 years of follow-up for children classified according to their genotype for the IL 13 cytokine. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  8. Outcome vector dependent sampling with longitudinal continuous response data: stratified sampling based on summary statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Garbett, Shawn P.; Heagerty, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The analysis of longitudinal trajectories usually focuses on evaluation of explanatory factors that are either associated with rates of change, or with overall mean levels of a continuous outcome variable. In this manuscript we introduce valid design and analysis methods that permit outcome dependent sampling of longitudinal data for scenarios where all outcome data currently exist, but a targeted sub-study is being planned in order to collect additional key exposure information on a limited number of subjects. We propose a stratified sampling based on specific summaries of individual longitudinal trajectories, and we detail an ascertainment corrected maximum likelihood approach for estimation using the resulting biased sample of subjects. In addition, we demonstrate that the efficiency of an outcome-based sampling design relative to use of a simple random sample depends highly on the choice of outcome summary statistic used to direct sampling, and we show a natural link between the goals of the longitudinal regression model and corresponding desirable designs. Using data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program, where genetic information required retrospective ascertainment, we study a range of designs that examine lung function profiles over four years of follow-up for children classified according to their genotype for the IL 13 cytokine. PMID:23409789

  9. Appropriate timing of blood sampling for blood gas analysis in the ventilated rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Kiguna; Fujita, Masanori; Okawa, Shinpei; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi; Ishihara, Miya

    2016-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analyses (BGAs) are essential to evaluate devices that measure biological oxygenation. The appropriate timing of blood sampling for BGA after respiratory rate (RR) change in animal experiments has not been reported. This study investigated the appropriate timing of blood sampling for BGA in ventilated rabbits and whether venous samples are an alternative to arterial samples. Under general anesthesia, 14 rabbits (body weight, 3.02 ± 0.09 kg) were ventilated and their RR was changed (40/min, 30/min, and 20/min). Blood was sampled through cervical arterial and venous catheters. Experiment 1: in seven rabbits, arterial BGA was measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after the RR change. Experiment 2: in seven different rabbits, simultaneous arterial and venous BGA were measured at 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after the RR change. Oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and saturation (SO2) of the arterial blood stabilized 0.5 min after the RR changed. In venous BGA, no index stabilized during observation. The arterial and venous values of the carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) and pH had significant correlations (arterial PCO2 = 0.9316 × venous PCO2-4.4425 [r = 0.9178]; arterial pH = 1.0835 × venous pH-0.5795 [r = 0.9453]). In ventilated rabbits, arterial PO2 and SO2 stabilized in 0.5 min. No venous value stabilized after the RR change. Only the PCO2 and pH of venous samples may be an alternative to arterial samples under the defined formula. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in Intramuscular Blood Volume Induced by Continuous Shortwave Diathermy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karasuno, Hiroshi; Morozumi, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Goh, Ah Cheng; Yamamoto, Iwao; Senga, Fujitoshi

    2005-01-01

    ...) under continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) and compare them with the electric hot pack (EHP). The subjects consisted of 41 healthy adults, who received one of three interventions: CSWD (n=17), EHP (n=12...

  11. Intrapartum fetal surveillance : Monitoring fetal oxygenation with fetal blood sampling and umbilical cord blood analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P; Slager, E; Fauser, B; VanGeijn, H; Brolmann, H; Vervest, H

    2005-01-01

    Although electronic fetal heart rate monitoring remains the most popular technique for fetal surveillance during labour, there is much concern about the ever rising Caesarean section rate, probably partly due to this practice. Fetal blood sampling is still the gold standard when it comes to

  12. Continued decline in blood collection and transfusion in the United States–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Katherine D.; Sapiano, Mathew R. P.; Haass, Kathryn A.; Savinkina, Alexandra A.; Baker, Misha L.; Chung, Koo-Whang; Henry, Richard A.; Berger, James J.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2011 and 2013, the National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey (NBCUS) revealed declines in blood collection and transfusion in the United States. The objective of this study was to describe blood services in 2015. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The 2015 NBCUS was distributed to all US blood collection centers, all hospitals performing at least 1000 surgeries annually, and a 40% random sample of hospitals performing 100 to 999 surgeries annually. Weighting and imputation were used to generate national estimates for units of blood and components collected, deferred, distributed, transfused, and outdated. RESULTS Response rates for the 2015 NBCUS were 78.4% for blood collection centers and 73.9% for transfusing hospitals. In 2015, 12,591,000 units of red blood cells (RBCs) (95% confidence interval [CI], 11,985,000–13,197,000 units of RBCs) were collected, and 11,349,000 (95% CI, 10,592,000–11,747,000) were transfused, representing declines since 2013 of 11.6% and 13.9%, respectively. Total platelet units distributed (2,436,000; 95% CI, 2,230,000–2,642,000) and transfused (1,983,000; 95% CI, 1,816,000=2,151,000) declined by 0.5% and 13.1%, respectively, since 2013. Plasma distributions (3,714,000; 95% CI, 3,306,000–4,121,000) and transfusions (2,727,000; 95% CI, 2,594,000–2,859,000) in 2015 declined since 2013. The median price paid per unit in 2015—$211 for leukocyte-reduced RBCs, $524 for apheresis platelets, and $54 for fresh frozen plasma—was less for all components than in 2013. CONCLUSIONS The 2015 NBCUS findings suggest that continued declines in demand for blood products resulted in fewer units collected and distributed Maintaining a blood inventory sufficient to meet routine and emergent demands will require further monitoring and understanding of these trends. PMID:28591469

  13. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  14. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels......Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...

  15. Impact of blood sampling in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L P; Rasmussen, M K; Bjerregaard, L L

    2000-01-01

    In a prospective investigation, 99 very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) 24 32 weeks, birthweight 560-2,255 g) were studied during the first 4 weeks of life. The infants were divided into two groups: infants born extremely early (GA <28 weeks, n = 20) and infants of GA 28 - 32 weeks; the gro......In a prospective investigation, 99 very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) 24 32 weeks, birthweight 560-2,255 g) were studied during the first 4 weeks of life. The infants were divided into two groups: infants born extremely early (GA .../kg. For the extremely preterm infants a significant correlation between sampled and transfused blood volume was found (mean 37.1 and 33.3 ml/kg, respectively, r = + 0.71, p = 0.0003). The most frequently requested analyses were glucose, sodium and potassium. Few blood gas analyses were requested (1.9/ infant). No blood...... in extremely preterm, critically ill infants. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Apr...

  16. Non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring: a review of current applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Elena; Chen, Guo; Alexander, Brenton; Cannesson, Maxime

    2013-03-01

    Blood pressure monitoring has come a long way from the initial observations made by Reverend Hales in the 18th century. There are none that deny the importance of monitoring perioperative blood pressure; however, the limited ability of the current prevalent technology (oscillometric blood pressure monitoring) to offer continuous blood pressure measurements leaves room for improvement. Invasive monitoring is able to detect beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement, but the risks inherent to the procedure make it unsuitable for routine use except when this risk is outweighed by the benefits. This review focuses on the discoveries which have led up to the current blood pressure monitoring technologies, and especially the creation of those offering non-invasive but continuous blood pressure monitoring capabilities, including their methods of measurement and limitations.

  17. Circadian variation of blood pressure in patients with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Ladefoged, Jens

    1995-01-01

    a non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure recorder. Average 24-h blood pressure was significantly higher in the group of CAPD patients than in the group of healthy controls, i.e. 141 +/- 22/82 +/- 8 mmHg (systolic and diastolic blood pressure +/- SD) vs. 126 +/- 18/80 +/- 7, p ...The circadian pattern of blood pressure variation was investigated in 10 patients with advanced chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and in an age-matched group of controls without renal disease with similar office blood pressure level. Monitoring was done using...... of abnormal 24-h blood pressure profiles among CAPD patients. In the group of controls these profiles were in accordance with the established normal pattern, whereas nocturnal blood pressure reductions were significantly less pronounced in the patient group. The reduction +/- SD in the mean arterial blood...

  18. Evaluation of a continuous blood glucose monitoring system using a central venous catheter with an integrated microdialysis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Öwall, Anders; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Glycemic control in critically ill patients has been the topic of an interesting debate during the last decade. An accurate continuous glucose monitoring system is essential to better understand this field. This prospective study thus evaluates the accuracy and technical feasibility of a continuous glucose monitoring system using intravascular microdialysis. Thirty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were monitored using a triple-lumen central venous catheter (Eirus TLC; Eirus Medical AB, Solna, Sweden) with an integrated microdialysis function. The catheter functions as a central venous catheter, enabling blood sampling and administration of infusions and medication while simultaneously providing continuous glucose monitoring. The patients were monitored for up to 48 h postoperatively. As reference, arterial blood gas samples were taken every hour and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Six hundred seven paired samples were obtained for analysis. Using Clarke Error Grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in Zones A+B, and 97% were in Zone A. Mean difference (bias) was -0.12 mmol/L, and mean absolute relative difference was 5.6%. Of the paired samples, 97.5% were correct according to International Organization for Standardization criteria. Bland-Altman analysis showed bias ± limits of agreement were -0.12 ± 0.7 mmol/L. No hypoglycemic episodes were observed. Central venous microdialysis is an accurate and reliable method for continuous blood glucose monitoring up to 48 h in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. With the microdialysis function integrated in a central venous catheter, no extra device for the continuous glucose monitoring is required. The system may be useful in critically ill patients.

  19. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade; Maria Emília Cambria Guimaro Siqueira; Luciano Chaves Arantes; Larissa Silva Queiroz; Rayane Luiza Viegas Silva; Eduardo Dias Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood) their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions ...

  20. Continuous-Variable Instantaneous Quantum Computing is Hard to Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douce, T; Markham, D; Kashefi, E; Diamanti, E; Coudreau, T; Milman, P; van Loock, P; Ferrini, G

    2017-02-17

    Instantaneous quantum computing is a subuniversal quantum complexity class, whose circuits have proven to be hard to simulate classically in the discrete-variable realm. We extend this proof to the continuous-variable (CV) domain by using squeezed states and homodyne detection, and by exploring the properties of postselected circuits. In order to treat postselection in CVs, we consider finitely resolved homodyne detectors, corresponding to a realistic scheme based on discrete probability distributions of the measurement outcomes. The unavoidable errors stemming from the use of finitely squeezed states are suppressed through a qubit-into-oscillator Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill encoding of quantum information, which was previously shown to enable fault-tolerant CV quantum computation. Finally, we show that, in order to render postselected computational classes in CVs meaningful, a logarithmic scaling of the squeezing parameter with the circuit size is necessary, translating into a polynomial scaling of the input energy.

  1. Continuous-Variable Instantaneous Quantum Computing is Hard to Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douce, T.; Markham, D.; Kashefi, E.; Diamanti, E.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.; van Loock, P.; Ferrini, G.

    2017-02-01

    Instantaneous quantum computing is a subuniversal quantum complexity class, whose circuits have proven to be hard to simulate classically in the discrete-variable realm. We extend this proof to the continuous-variable (CV) domain by using squeezed states and homodyne detection, and by exploring the properties of postselected circuits. In order to treat postselection in CVs, we consider finitely resolved homodyne detectors, corresponding to a realistic scheme based on discrete probability distributions of the measurement outcomes. The unavoidable errors stemming from the use of finitely squeezed states are suppressed through a qubit-into-oscillator Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill encoding of quantum information, which was previously shown to enable fault-tolerant CV quantum computation. Finally, we show that, in order to render postselected computational classes in CVs meaningful, a logarithmic scaling of the squeezing parameter with the circuit size is necessary, translating into a polynomial scaling of the input energy.

  2. Natural Antioxidants Improve Red Blood Cell “Survival” in Non-Leukoreduced Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Kucherenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood collected in an anticoagulant can be kept refrigerated in an unmodified state within 5 - 6 weeks. Oxidative damage is considered to be a one of the major factors contributing to the development of storage lesions. Lipid and membrane proteins oxidation results in changes in cation gradients that affect the cell survival. Aim: In the present study we used the natural antioxidants and ion channels blockers (L-carnosine, spermine, phloretin and their mixtures to prolong “survival” of red blood cells (RBCs, measured as the lack of PS exposure and cell hemolysis, in the Alsever's preservative solution upon hypothermic storage. Results: We show that the mixture of carnosine (20 mM, spermine (20 µM and phloretin (100 µM effectively blunted phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, Ca2+ accumulation and RBCs hemolysis in non-leukoreduced low (∼2% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage as well as after 1 day of post-storage incubation of the stored cells in physiological saline solution. In addition, a slight but significant decrease in PS exposure was observed in non-leukoreduced high (∼20% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage with the mixture of substances. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of the mixture of natural antioxidants (carnosine, spermine, and phloretin as an additive to blood preservative solution provides better RBCs storage and “survival”.

  3. The reliability of continuous noninvasive finger blood pressure measurement in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemson, Joris; Hofhuizen, Charlotte M.; Schraa, Olaf; Settels, Jos J.; Scheffer, Gert Jan; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure can be measured in finger arteries using an inflatable finger cuff (FINAP) with a special device and has proven to be feasible and reliable in adults. We studied prototype pediatric finger cuffs and pediatric software to compare this blood

  4. The reliability of continuous noninvasive finger blood pressure measurement in critically ill children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemson, J.; Hofhuizen, C.M.; Schraa, O.; Settels, J.J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure can be measured in finger arteries using an inflatable finger cuff (FINAP) with a special device and has proven to be feasible and reliable in adults. We studied prototype pediatric finger cuffs and pediatric software to compare this blood

  5. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveforms in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Jerson R.; Westerhof, Berend E.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; van Goudoever, Jeroen; Westers, Paul; Chamuleau, Steven; van Dijk, Diederik; Rodermans, Ben F. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Lahpor, Jaap R.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure and echocardiography may provide useful physiological information regarding cardiac support in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs). We investigated the accuracy and characteristics of noninvasive blood pressure during cf-LVAD support.

  6. Continuous non-invasive blood pressure monitoring: reliability of Finapres device during the Valsalva manoeuvre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B. P.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Settels, J. J.; van der Hoeven, G. M.; Karemaker, J. M.; Wieling, W.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the inherent risks of intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring a new non-invasive device, Finapres, which measures blood pressure continuously in the finger, was evaluated in 14 hypertensive and one normotensive subject. Brachial intra-arterial and finger pressures were compared during a

  7. The influence of blood sample storage time on the propofol concentration in plasma and solid blood elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, A L; Fijalkowska, A; Nestorowicz, A; Fornal, E

    2001-10-01

    In order to describe the changes of propofol concentration in whole blood and in its components during the blood storage we examined venous blood samples collected from patients anaesthetized either with or without propofol. Blood samples from patients anaesthetized without propofol were spike with propofol 45 min before analysis. Propofol concentration was examined in whole blood, plasma, rinsed formed elements and rinsed and lysed formed blood elements by means of HPLC after 1, 4, 7, 13, 21, 25 and 28 days of storage. There was significant decrease in plasma concentration of propofol during the first few days of sample storage followed by its increase during subsequent days. The opposite phenomenon was observed for formed blood elements. The findings support the hypothesis that propofol distribution between blood components changes in time. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Determination of hematocrit interference in blood samples derived from patients with different blood glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-01-01

    We performed a blood glucose meter hematocrit (HCT) interference test with lower sample manipulation requirements by using blood samples from patients with different blood glucose (BG) levels. Blood from five patients with different BG levels (2.8, 5.6, 8.3, 13.9, 19.4 mmol/liter) was manipulated to contain five different HCT concentrations (35/40/45/50/55%). Each sample was measured three times in parallel with 14 BG testing devices (reference method: YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ Glucose Analyzer). The largest mean deviations in both directions from the reference method (normalized to 100% at 45% HCT) were added as a measure for hematocrit interference factor (HIF). A HIF >10% was considered to represent clinically relevant HCT interference. Few devices showed no clinically relevant HCT interference at high/low BG levels: BGStar® (7.2%, 7.3%), iBGStar® (9.0%, 8.6%), Contour® (10.0%, 4.6%), OneTouch® Verio™ 2 (10.0%, 5.2%), and GlucoMen® LX (7.2%, 5.1%). Other devices showed interference at one or both glucose ranges: ACCU-CHEK® Aviva (12.6%, 10.7%), Aviva Nano (7.2%, 10.5%), Breeze2 (3.6%, 30.2%), GlucoCard G+ (12.6%, 7.0%), OneTouch® Ultra®2 (12.6%, 25.6%), FreeStyle Freedom Lite® (9.0%, 11.0%), Precision Xceed (16.2%, 15.3%), and MediTouch® (19.8%, 28.0%). The deviations in all devices were less pronounced in the HCT range of 35-50%. The results of this trial with less sample manipulation (HCT only) confirmed previous examinations with HCT and glucose manipulation. The same devices showed HCT stability as previously observed. Artificial sample manipulation may be less crucial than expected when evaluating HCT interference. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Midazolam sedates Passeriformes for field sampling but affects multiple venous blood analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heatley JJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Jennifer Cary,2,3 Lyndsey Kingsley,1 Hughes Beaufrere,4 Karen E Russell,5 Gary Voelker2,3 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, 3Texas A&M Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 4Health Sciences Centre, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada; 5Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Feasibility and effect of midazolam administration on blood analytes and for sedation of Passeriformes being collected in a larger study of genetic biodiversity was assessed. Midazolam (5.6±2.7 mg/kg was administered intranasally prior to sampling, euthanasia, and specimen preparation of 104 passerine birds. Each bird was assessed for sedation score and then multiple analytes were determined from jugular blood samples using the i-STAT® point of care analyzer at “bird side”. Most birds were acceptably sedated, sedation became more pronounced as midazolam dose increased, and only a single bird died. Electrolyte concentrations and venous blood gas analytes were affected by midazolam administration while blood pH, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, and calculated hematocrit were not. Intranasal midazolam gives adequate sedation and is safe for short-term use in free-living Passeriformes. Based on venous blood analyte data, sedation of Passeriformes prior to handling appears to reduce stress but also produces venous blood gas differences consistent with hypoventilation relative to birds which were not given midazolam. Further study is recommended to investigate midazolam's continued use in free-living avian species. Studies should include safety, reversal and recovery, effect upon additional endogenous analytes, and compatibility with studies of ecology and toxicology

  10. Circadian variation of blood pressure in patients with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Ladefoged, Jens

    1995-01-01

    The circadian pattern of blood pressure variation was investigated in 10 patients with advanced chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and in an age-matched group of controls without renal disease with similar office blood pressure level. Monitoring was done using....... In patients with chronic renal failure undergoing CAPD, an otherwise unnoticed 24-h hypertension and nocturnal blood pressure elevation can be discovered by use of 24-h blood pressure monitoring and this may indicate a need of earlier start of antihypertensive treatment in CAPD patients with borderline...

  11. Continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Liang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the use of implantable enzyme electrode sensor is the main method for continuous blood glucose monitoring. But the effect of electrochemical reactions and the significant drift caused by bioelectricity in body will reduce the accuracy of the glucose measurements. So the enzyme-based glucose sensors need to be calibrated several times each day by the finger-prick blood corrections. This increases the patient's pain. In this paper, we proposed a method for continuous Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method in the near infrared band. The method uses a high-precision CCD detector to switch the filter in a very short period of time, obtains the spectral images. And then by using the morphological method to obtain the spectral image differences, the dynamic change of blood sugar is reflected in the image difference data. Through the experiment proved that this method can be used to monitor blood glucose dynamically to a certain extent.

  12. Tissue-Informative Mechanism for Wearable Non-invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Bien, Franklin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2014-10-01

    Accurate continuous direct measurement of the blood pressure is currently available thru direct invasive methods via intravascular needles, and is mostly limited to use during surgical procedures or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive methods that are mostly based on auscultation or cuff oscillometric principles do provide relatively accurate measurement of blood pressure. However, they mostly involve physical inconveniences such as pressure or stress on the human body. Here, we introduce a new non-invasive mechanism of tissue-informative measurement, where an experimental phenomenon called subcutaneous tissue pressure equilibrium is revealed and related for application in detection of absolute blood pressure. A prototype was experimentally verified to provide an absolute blood pressure measurement by wearing a watch-type measurement module that does not cause any discomfort. This work is supposed to contribute remarkably to the advancement of continuous non-invasive mobile devices for 24-7 daily-life ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring.

  13. Systematic sampling of discrete and continuous populations: sample selection and the choice of estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry T. Valentine; David L. R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire

    2009-01-01

    Systematic sampling is easy, efficient, and widely used, though it is not generally recognized that a systematic sample may be drawn from the population of interest with or without restrictions on randomization. The restrictions or the lack of them determine which estimators are unbiased, when using the sampling design as the basis for inference. We describe the...

  14. Evaluation of artificial pancreas technology for continuous blood glucose monitoring in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Lee, Peter; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Oda, Hitomi; Saeki, Kaori; Miki, Yohei; Nozawa, Satoshi; Azakami, Daigo; Momota, Yutaka; Makino, Yuki; Matsubara, Takako; Osaka, Motohisa; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2011-06-01

    Artificial pancreas technology, involving "closed-loop" controls with real-time blood glucose monitoring, has been increasing in reliability as its potential for clinical use and application grows. One such device, based on this technology, is the STG-22 (Nikkiso Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) artificial pancreas apparatus. In order to assess the reliability and accuracy of the device for measuring blood glucose, it is important to compare its readings to those obtained using a 'gold standard' method, such as the hexokinase method. Therefore, in the present study, canine blood [glucose] measurements using the STG-22 were compared to those obtained using a previously established commercial reagent, Quickauto-Neo GLU-HK. Furthermore, two different sample types (whole blood versus plasma constituent) were compared to determine which sample type results in more accurate and optimal readings with the STG-22. Given that the STG-22 was not primarily designed for canine blood samples, results for canine blood samples were not accurate. Measurements performed by the STG-22 with whole blood were significantly lower than reference [glucose] counterparts. Alternatively, an opposite trend was observed with plasma measurements that were significantly higher. A conversion format using the following formula, Hexokinase [glucose] = STG-22 [glucose] × 1.407 + 1.532, was observed with canine samples in our study.

  15. Blood transfusion and cancer surgery outcomes: a continued reason for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Refaie, Waddah B; Parsons, Helen M; Markin, Abraham; Abrams, Jerome; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2012-09-01

    The adverse effects of blood transfusion after cancer surgery have been recently challenged in older anemic persons or those with substantial intraoperative blood loss. We hypothesized that intraoperative blood transfusions continue to adversely impact short-term cancer surgery outcomes regardless of age or preoperative hematocrit levels. Using the 2005 to 2008 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, we identified 38,926 patients who underwent cancer surgery. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors were compared by units of blood transfusion a patient received. Stratified multivariable analyses, by age and hematocrit level, were performed to assess the impact of blood transfusion on operative outcomes, adjusting for covariates. Fourteen percent of patients received an intraoperative blood transfusion. Of those, >60% received only 1 to 2 units of blood. Receipt of intraoperative blood transfusion was associated with higher rates of 30-day operative mortality, major complications, total number of complications, and prolonged length of stay across age groups and in persons with low to normal hematocrit levels. The present study shows that intraoperative blood transfusion adversely impacts short-term operative cancer surgery outcomes across all age groups and in those with low to normal hematocrit levels. These findings provide insightful implications on the patterns of blood transfusion during cancer surgery that deserve further investigation. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. Bacterial Isolates from Blood Samples of Patients in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1ml of venous blood was aseptically inoculated into two blood culture bottles, brain heart infusion broth and thioglycollate broth while giving great attention to sterile process. They were incubated overnight at 37 C and were examined daily for growth. Growth is usually characterized by gas bubbles or turbidity. If there was ...

  17. Bacterial Isolates from Blood Samples of Patients in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thioglychollate broth was sub cultured onto blood agar plate for anaerobic incubation, while the brain heart infusion broth was sub cultured onto chocolate, blood agar and McConkey agar for aerobic incubation. The anaerobic incubation was done by putting the culture plates into an anaerobic jar and filling it with ...

  18. Effects of sample storage time, temperature and syringe type on blood gas tensions in samples with high oxygen partial pressures.

    OpenAIRE

    Pretto, J. J.; Rochford, P D

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although plastic arterial sampling syringes are now commonly used, the effects of sample storage time and temperature on blood gas tensions are poorly described for samples with a high oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) taken with these high density polypropylene syringes. METHODS--Two ml samples of tonometered whole blood (PaO2 86.7 kPa, PaCO2 4.27 kPa) were placed in glass syringes and in three brands of plastic blood gas syringes. The syringes were placed either at room temperature...

  19. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  20. [Basic evaluation of sampling step angle and spatial resolution in continuous rotating acquisition with SPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangai, Yoshiharu; Nagaki, Akio; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Sugino, Shuichi; Ohata, Yasushi; Mimura, Hiroaki; Onishi, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    In the data sampling in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the continuous rotating acquisition method has high clinical utility. There have been various reports about the optimum sampling step angle for continuous rotating acquisition. Objective evaluation was performed visually and by measuring spatial resolution with a column phantom to find the optimum sampling step angle for continuous rotating acquisition. In locations far from the rotation center, a large sampling step angle produced artificial images with tangential elongation. The spatial resolution was 11.58 ± 0.19 mm full width half maximum (FWHM) as measured at a sampling step angle of 3 degrees and at 10 cm away from the rotation center. Increasing the sampling step angle to more than 3 degrees resulted in an increase of FWHM in the tangential direction. The optimum sampling step angle for continuous rotating acquisition in SPECT needs to be below that calculated from the sampling theorem.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    2018-01-01

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in mailed blood samples in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimizu, Tomomi; Ota, Makoto; Hirata, Ryuzo; Sato, Kenji; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Imanishi, Akio; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathlete and a tennis player, ran a course that was 247.4 m in circumference for 5 h while wearing a continuous glucose monitoring system. Blood was obtained at time-points of -1, 1, 3 and 5 h. The athletes had free access to food and fluids throughout the run. The athletes ran at almost the same pace without a sudden decrease in pace. The blood glucose levels increased and remained high in the triathlete, whereas the tennis player remained hypoglycemic throughout the run. Carbohydrate ingestion did not affect the blood glucose levels. The magnitude of hormonal changes, e.g. insulin, adrenaline and cortisol, was greater in the tennis player. The blood glucose concentration did not correlate with the running velocity or the carbohydrate ingestion; however, a discrepancy in blood glucose transition was observed between the triathlete and the tennis player, indicating a possible association between the adaptation to endurance exercise and the blood glucose kinetics during prolonged running.

  3. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours for postopera......Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0...... than 0.03) in the other five patients as the level of sensory analgesia regressed postoperatively. These data suggest that changes in epidural blood flow during continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine, and thus changes in rates of vascular absorption of bupivacaine from the epidural space, may...

  4. Changes in blood plasma of professional football players during the continuous training-emulative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chernev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Any physical activity is accompanied by speed changing of metabolic processes in the organism, peculiar changing of their directivities and accordingly, the emergence of biochemical changes in the muscles that perform work, in the internal organs, as well as in blood system. Aim. To determine the changes that occur in blood plasma of professional footballers during continuous physical activity, 84 professional players were examined. Methods and results. We have determined the direction and peculiarity of the cumulative effect of the impact of physical activity on changes in the blood of sportsmen during continuous period of an educational-training session (ETS. It was established that under the conditions of intensive or continuous physical load a steady prevalence of catabolic processes in the organism wes observed. The given changes, specified by the fact that during ETS sportsmen’s tension of adaptation processes is gradually increasing. Moderate hyper-thrombotonin background in blood of the most sportsmen were observed in the beginning of ETS. Increase of permittivity membrane erythrocytes that reflected sorption capacity growth of the red blood cells was detected in individual sportsmen. Cell membrane structures damage of during intensive or continuous training is of generalized character and takes place almost in all organs and tissues. Also serum AST (Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT (Alanine transaminase and LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase activity was studied in footballers during the ETS. Conclusions. The specified level of activity of certain enzymes indicates hypoxic / ischemic state due to the training load during ETS.

  5. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. METHODS: Elements were...... extracted from punches and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was evaluated with quality controls with defined element concentration and blood spiked with elements to assess accuracy and imprecision. DBS element concentrations were compared with concentrations...

  6. Implementation of continuous infusion of blood coagulation factors at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lindsey B; Eckel, Stephen F; Savage, Scott W

    2012-03-15

    A multidisciplinary initiative to promote more cost-effective use of blood factor derivatives and increase pharmacist involvement in associated order verification, dispensing, and monitoring activities is described. After an evaluation of a hospital's procedures for the use of blood factor derivatives identified inconsistencies and opportunities for cost savings, a revised medication-use process promoting continuous infusion of selected products (factors VIII, IX, and VIII/von Willebrand factor) was developed by pharmacy staff with input from physicians and nurse educators. The implementation of the enhanced medication-use procedures included (1) the publication of a compendium of key information on commonly used blood factors, including specific guidance on dosing and administration, (2) the use of Web-based educational modules targeting pharmacists and nurses, (3) greater involvement by pharmacists in blood factor order justification and verification, (4) routine pharmacist assessment of pertinent laboratory values and other determinants of optimal dosing, and (5) refined procedures for changing i.v. tubing. Surveys of pharmacists conducted before and after the practice changes indicated a significant increase in their knowledge of blood factor products and evidence-based best practices for the management of hemophilia. Through a multidisciplinary initiative involving pharmacists, physicians, and nurses, new procedures to promote continuous infusion of selected blood factor products were implemented. Results of a postimplementation survey indicated that educational tools were effective in increasing pharmacists' knowledge of blood factor derivatives and hemophilia management.

  7. A system for sampling changes in blood pressure from a videotape, using Finapres(TM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Näring, G.W.B.; Wittebrood, J.; Staak, C. van der; DeMey, H.; Schaap, C.

    1996-01-01

    A system is described that measures blood pressure noninvasively and continuously during a videotaped verbal interaction. The system incorporates the use of the Finapres to nonintrusively and continuously measure BP during a verbal interaction. Segments from the interaction, in which blood pressure

  8. Evaluation of different sized blood sampling tubes for thromboelastometry, platelet function, and platelet count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Pistor-Riebold, Thea Unger; Knudsen, Ingrid Hell

    2014-01-01

    Background: To minimise the volume of blood used for diagnostic procedures, especially in children, we investigated whether the size of sample tubes affected whole blood coagulation analyses. Methods: We included 20 healthy individuals for rotational thromboelastometry (RoTEM®) analyses and compa......Background: To minimise the volume of blood used for diagnostic procedures, especially in children, we investigated whether the size of sample tubes affected whole blood coagulation analyses. Methods: We included 20 healthy individuals for rotational thromboelastometry (RoTEM®) analyses...

  9. Cuffless and Continuous Blood Pressure Estimation from the Heart Sound Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chao Peng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease, like hypertension, is one of the top killers of human life and early detection of cardiovascular disease is of great importance. However, traditional medical devices are often bulky and expensive, and unsuitable for home healthcare. In this paper, we proposed an easy and inexpensive technique to estimate continuous blood pressure from the heart sound signals acquired by the microphone of a smartphone. A cold-pressor experiment was performed in 32 healthy subjects, with a smartphone to acquire heart sound signals and with a commercial device to measure continuous blood pressure. The Fourier spectrum of the second heart sound and the blood pressure were regressed using a support vector machine, and the accuracy of the regression was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. Statistical analysis showed that the mean correlation coefficients between the predicted values from the regression model and the measured values from the commercial device were 0.707, 0.712, and 0.748 for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively, and that the mean errors were less than 5 mmHg, with standard deviations less than 8 mmHg. These results suggest that this technique is of potential use for cuffless and continuous blood pressure monitoring and it has promising application in home healthcare services.

  10. Continuous Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring, a Validation Study of Nexfin in a Pregnant Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Diepeveen, M.; Ganzevoort, W.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Westerhof, B. E.; Wolf, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the accuracy of a non-invasive beat-to-beat continuous blood pressure monitoring device (Nexfin) in pregnancy according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Methods: The validation was performed according to the International Protocol of the

  11. Orthostatic circulatory control in the elderly evaluated by non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B. P.; Dambrink, J. H.; Karemaker, J. M.; Wieling, W.

    1990-01-01

    1. Continuous orthostatic responses of blood pressure and heart rate were measured in 40 healthy and active elderly subjects over 70 years of age in order to assess the time course and rapidity of orthostatic cardiovascular adaptation in old age. 2. During the first 30 s (initial phase) the effects

  12. The impact of different blood sampling methods on laboratory rats under different types of anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Martin Fitzner; Petersen, Mikke Haxø; Dragsted, Nils

    2006-01-01

    and that it might take an extra hour to recover from it. CO2 anaesthesia seemed unable to prevent the increase in blood pressure and the fluctuations in body temperature induced by blood sampling, and up to 10 h after sampling, the rats were still affected by CO2 anaesthesia. Rats anaesthetized with isoflurane......Rats with implanted telemetry transponders were blood sampled by jugular puncture, periorbital puncture or tail vein puncture, or sampled by jugular puncture in carbon dioxide (CO?), isoflurane or without anaesthesia in a crossover design. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were...... registered for three days after sampling. Initially blood pressure increased, but shortly after sampling it decreased, which led to increased heart rate. Sampling induced rapid fluctuations in body temperature, and an increase in body temperature. Generally, rats recovered from sampling within 2-3 h, except...

  13. BION-M 1: First continuous blood pressure monitoring in mice during a 30-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Popova, Anfisa; Lloret, Jean-Christophe; Aubry, Patrick; Borovik, Anatoliy; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga; Ilyin, Eugeniy; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Animals are an essential component of space exploration and have been used to demonstrate that weightlessness does not disrupt essential physiological functions. They can also contribute to space research as models of weightlessness-induced changes in humans. Animal research was an integral component of the 30-day automated Russian biosatellite Bion-M 1 space mission. The aim of the hemodynamic experiment was to estimate cardiovascular function in mice, a species roughly 3000 times smaller than humans, during prolonged spaceflight and post-flight recovery, particularly, to investigate if mice display signs of cardiovascular deconditioning. For the first time, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were continuously monitored using implantable telemetry during spaceflight and recovery. Decreased HR and unchanged BP were observed during launch, whereas both HR and BP dropped dramatically during descent. During spaceflight, BP did not change from pre-flight values. However, HR increased, particularly during periods of activity. HR remained elevated after spaceflight and was accompanied by increased levels of exercise-induced tachycardia. Loss of three of the five mice during the flight as a result of the hardware malfunction (unrelated to the telemetry system) and thus the limited sample number constitute the major limitation of the study. For the first time BP and HR were continuously monitored in mice during the 30-day spaceflight and 7-days of post-flight recovery. Cardiovascular deconditioning in these tiny quadruped mammals was reminiscent of that in humans. Therefore, the loss of hydrostatic pressure in space, which is thought to be the initiating event for human cardiovascular adaptation in microgravity, might be of less importance than other physiological mechanisms. Further experiments with larger number of mice are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. A novel wearable device for continuous, non-invasion blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qin; Wu, Jianping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have developed a wearable cuffless device for daily blood pressure (BP) measurement. We incorporated the light based sensor and other hard wares in a small volume for BP detection. With optimized algorithm, the real-time BP reading could be achieved, the data could be presented in the screen and be transmitted by internet of things (IoT) for history data comparison and multi-terminal viewing. Thus, further analysis provides the probability for diet or sports suggestion and alarm. We have measured BP from more than 60 subjects, compare to traditional mercury blood pressure meter, no obvious error in both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are detected. Such device can be used for continues non-invasion BP detection, and further data docking and health analysis could be achieved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of Blood Sample Collection Pre- and Post- Slaughter, Edta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were immediately subjected to Wet mount (WM), Haemotocrit centrifugation test (HCT) and Thin smear (TS) tests. The results revealed that, of the 100 samples examined, 19 (19%) were positive for the presence of Microfilaria spp while 6(6%) yielded Trypanosome spp. Of the 19 samples detected having ...

  16. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  17. Studies with sample conductivity, insertion rates, and particle deflection in a continuous flow electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous flow electrophoresis system makes electrophoresis possible in a free-flowing film of aqueous electrolyte medium. The sample continuously enters the electrolyte at the top of the chamber and is subjected to the action of a lateral dc field. This divides the sample into fractions since each component has a distinctive electrophoretic mobility. Tests were made using monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres to determine optimum sample conductivity, insertion rates and optimum electric field applications as baseline data for future STS flight experiments. Optimum sample flow rates for the selected samples were determined to be approximately 26 micro-liters/min. Experiments with samples in deionized water yielded best results and voltages in the 20 V/cm to 30 V/cm range were optimum. Deflections of formaldehyde fixed turkey and bovine erythrocytes were determined using the continuous flow electrophoresis system. The effects of particle interactions on sample resolution and migration in the chamber was also evaluated.

  18. Evaluating sample allocation and effort in detecting population differentiation for discrete and continuously distributed individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin L. Landguth; Michael K. Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues in spatial genetics concerns sampling. Traditionally, substructure and gene flow are estimated for individuals sampled within discrete populations. Because many species may be continuously distributed across a landscape without discrete boundaries, understanding sampling issues becomes paramount. Given large-scale, geographically broad...

  19. Using meta-differential evolution to enhance a calculation of a continuous blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new model of glucose dynamics. The model calculates blood glucose level as a function of transcapillary glucose transport. In previous studies, we validated the model with animal experiments. We used analytical method to determine model parameters. In this study, we validate the model with subjects with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we combine the analytic method with meta-differential evolution. To validate the model with human patients, we obtained a data set of type 1 diabetes study that was coordinated by Jaeb Center for Health Research. We calculated a continuous blood glucose level from continuously measured interstitial fluid glucose level. We used 6 different scenarios to ensure robust validation of the calculation. Over 96% of calculated blood glucose levels fit A+B zones of the Clarke Error Grid. No data set required any correction of model parameters during the time course of measuring. We successfully verified the possibility of calculating a continuous blood glucose level of subjects with type 1 diabetes. This study signals a successful transition of our research from an animal experiment to a human patient. Researchers can test our model with their data on-line at https://diabetes.zcu.cz. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term facial artery catheter implantation for serial arterial blood sampling and invasive arterial blood pressure measurement in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Deborah Penteado Martins; Teixeira, Luisa Gouvêa; Canola, Paulo Aléscio; Albernaz, Raquel Mincarelli; Marques, José Antônio; Neto, José Corrêa de Lacerda

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate surgical catheter implantation in the facial artery of horses and the long-term maintenance of such arteries using heparin and ascorbic acid as filling solution. Nine horses were implanted with a polyurethane catheter. The catheters were flushed with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution every 8h and remained patent for 25 days. Arterial blood samples were collected twice a day, and one exercise test that included serial blood samples and arterial pressure recordings was performed on a treadmill. Polyurethane catheters surgically implanted in the facial artery can be kept patent by filling with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution and provide convenient invasive arterial access in horses which is suitable for use for serial blood sampling and blood pressure recordings, even during exercise on treadmill. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Salmonella typhi by nested polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and stool samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, Mochammad; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen in blood, urine, and stool samples from 131 patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever. The sensitivity of blood culture, the PCRs with blood, urine, and feces,

  2. Estimation method for mathematical expectation of continuous variable upon ordered sample

    OpenAIRE

    Domchenkov, O. A.

    2014-01-01

    Method for estimation of mathematical expectation of a continuous variable based on analysis of the ordered sample is proposed. The method admits the estimation class propagation on nonlinear estimation classes.

  3. The Effect of One Session Continuous and Intermittent Aerobic Exercise on Blood Responses of HSP72 , Cortisol and Creatine Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Heat shock proteins help the cells’ ability to keep their structures against different stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of one ses-sion continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on blood responses of HSP72, cortisol and creatine kinase (CK. Materials & Methods: This study is semi-experimental in which 21 male student athletes were divided in continuous group (n=7, intermittent group (n=7 and control group (n=7. Exer-cise protocol of continuous group included 1 hour running with 80% maximum heart rate in-tensity and that of intermittent group was 3 stages of 20 minute running with the same inten-sity as of continuous group . Blood sampling of basal, pre exercise, immediately after exer-cise and 90 minutes after exercise were gathered and the amounts of HSP72, cortisol and CK, were measured by ELISA, RIA and Enzymatic methods respectively. The data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and repeated measure analysis of variance at P?0.05 significance level. Results: HSP72 levels in the continuous group and intermittent group despite an increase in the average did not show a statistically significant difference. Changes between the groups were significant in immediately after exercise and 90 minutes after exercise (P.values respectively 0.017 and 0.002. CK changes in continuous group were significant but cortisol changes in different stages hadn’t significant difference Conclusion: Exercise with its role associated with cortisol and CK will stimulate HSP72 and continuous exercise will make further increase in HSP72 and CK increasing leads to a greater HSP72 response. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:223-231

  4. Antibiogram pattern of Salmonella in blood samples of enteric fever patients at Lalitpur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biraj Gurung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the status of isolation blood stream serotypes of enteric fever pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and to guide clinicians for appropriate therapy. Methods: Samples were examined by microbiological techniques to identify the causative agent and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion methods and interpreted as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Among 403 blood samples, 76 (18.85% showed growth for Salmonella isolates. Distribution of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A isolates were found to be 54% and 46% respectively. Among 76 Salmonella isolates, 28 (36.84% were from male and remaining 48 (63.15% were from female belonging to all age-groups. Multidrug-resistance was found to be 17% among the Salmonella isolates. Nalidixic acid resistance was 73.68% in Salmonella with higher proportion in Salmonella paratyphi A (85.7% in comparison to Salmonella typhi (63.42%. Salmonella isolates demonstrated 100% susceptibility to azithromycin, ceftriazone, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and imipenem. Conclusions: The need of continual surveillance of resistance levels to guide clinicians for appropriate therapy based on the antibiotic susceptibility pattern for Salmonella isolates is sustained with discouragement in misuse of antibiotics prior to prescription as multidrugresistance-nalidixic acid resistant strains.

  5. Residual renal function and blood count in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Most of patients with chronic renal failure are affected by normochromic, normocytic anemia caused by different etiological factors. Anemia causes a series of symptoms in chronic renal failure, which can hardly be recognized from the uremic signs. Anemia adds to morbidity and mortality rates in patients affected by advanced chronic renal failure. Blood count partially improves during the first months after starting the chronic renal replacement therapy, in correlation with the quality of depuration program, with extension of erythrocyte lifetime and with hemoconcentration due to reduction of plasma volume. Recent trials found that higher residual renal function (RRF significantly reduced co-morbidity, the rate and duration of hospitalization and risk of treatment failure. Objective: The aim of the study was to follow blood count parameters in 32 patients on chronic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD during the first six months of treatment, to evaluate the influence of demographic and clinical factors on blood count and RRF, and to examine the correlation between RRF and blood count parameters. Method: A total of 32 patients affected by end-stage renal disease of different major cause during the first six months of CADP treatment were studied. RRF and blood count were evaluated as well as their relationship during the follow-up. Results: Blood count significantly improved in our patients during the first six months of CAPD treatment even if Hb and HTC failed to reach normal values. Iron serum level slightly decreased because of more abundant erythropoiesis and iron utilization during the first six months of treatment. RRF slightly decreased. After six months of CAPD treatment, the patients with higher RRF had significantly higher Hb, HTC and erythrocyte number and a lot of positive correlations between RRF and anemia markers were observed. Conclusion: After 6-month follow-up period, the patients with higher RRF had

  6. Continuous determination of blood glucose in children admitted with malaria in a rural hospital in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Lola; Sitoe, Antonio; Varo, Rosauro; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Lanaspa, Miguel; Nhama, Abel; Acácio, Sozinho; Riaño, Isolina; Casellas, Aina; Bassat, Quique

    2017-05-02

    Hypoglycaemia is a frequent complication among admitted children, particularly in malaria-endemic areas. This study aimed to estimate the occurrence of hypoglycaemia not only upon admission but throughout the first 72 h of hospitalization in children admitted with malaria. A simple pilot study to continuously monitor glycaemia in children aged 0-10 years, admitted with malaria in a rural hospital was conducted in Southern Mozambique by inserting continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) in subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal area, producing glycaemia readings every 5 min. Glucose was continuously monitored during a mean of 48 h, in 74 children. Continuous measurements of blood glucose were available for 72/74 children (97.3%). Sixty-five of them were admitted with density-specific malaria diagnosis criteria (17 severe, 48 uncomplicated). Five children (7.7%) had hypoglycaemia (determination. Analysing the data collected by the CGMs, hypoglycaemia episodes (determined.

  7. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  8. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0......Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... for postoperative pain relief. The epidural blood flow was measured by a local 133Xe clearance technique in which 15-35 MBq 133Xe diluted in 1 ml saline was injected through the epidural catheter on the day before surgery (no bupivacaine), 30 minutes after the initial dose of bupivacaine on the morning before...

  9. Can we rely on out-of-hospital blood samples? A prospective interventional study on the pre-analytical stability of blood samples under prehospital emergency medicine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottengeier, Johannes; Jess, Nicola; Harig, Frank; Gall, Christine; Schmidt, Joachim; Birkholz, Torsten

    2017-03-04

    Prehospital intravenous access provides the opportunity to sample blood from an emergency patient at the earliest possible moment in the course of acute illness and in a state prior to therapeutic interventions. Our study investigates the pre-analytical stability of biomarkers in prehospital emergency medicine and will answer the question whether an approach of blood sampling out in the field will deliver valid laboratory results. We prepared pairs of blood samples from healthy volunteers and volunteering patients post cardio-thoracic surgery. While one sample set was analysed immediately, the other one was subjected to a worse-than-reality treatment of 60 min time-lapse and standardized mechanical forces outside of the hospital through actual ambulance transport. We investigated 21 parameters comprising blood cells, coagulation tests, electrolytes, markers of haemolysis and markers of cardiac ischemia. Bland-Altman analysis was used to investigate differences between test groups. Differences between test groups were set against the official margins of test accuracy as given by the German Requirements for Quality Assurance of Medical Laboratory Examinations. Agreement between immediate analysis and our prehospital treatment is high as demonstrated by Bland-Altman plotting. Mechanical stress and time delay do not produce a systematic bias but only random inaccuracy. The limits of agreement for the tested parameters are generally within clinically acceptable ranges of variation and within the official margins as set by the German Requirements for Quality Assurance of Medical Laboratory Examinations. We subjected blood samples to a standardized treatment marking a worse-than-reality scenario of prehospital time delay and transport. Biomarkers including indicators of myocardial ischemia showed high pre-analytical stability. We conclude the validity of blood samples from a prehospital environment.

  10. The use of heparin in preparing samples for blood-gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2007-10-01

    Heparin is the only anticoagulant used to prepare samples for blood-gas analysis. There are two ways in which heparin can interfere with results. The first is high heparin concentration in blood, and the second is heparin dilution of blood if liquid rather than dried (lyophilized) heparin is used. Traditional blood-gas analytes (pH, pCO2, and pO2) are less affected than electrolytes (particularly ionized calcium), also measured on modern blood-gas analyzers. The sample requirements as far as heparin is concerned are thus less exacting if only pH, pCO2, and pO2 are to be measured. For these analytes, it is still essential that the heparin (either sodium or lithium) concentration is less than 200 IU/mL blood and that the blood is not diluted more than 5%. The inclusion of electrolytes in the test repertoire excludes the use of sodium heparin in favor of lithium heparin. The inclusion of ionized calcium in the test repertoire demands that the heparin should be lyophilized, and the concentration should not exceed 10 IU/mL blood, unless a specialized heparin that eliminates the effect of calcium binding by heparin is used. Whatever the heparin formulation, it is essential for accurate results that the correct volume of blood is sampled to achieve a correct heparin concentration (and dilution, if liquid heparin is used), and that blood and anticoagulant are well mixed immediately after sampling. One of the most common practical problems associated with blood-gas analysis is inadequate anticoagulation and the formation of small blood clots that can block the sample pathway of blood-gas analyzers and invalidate results. Inadequate mixing of specimen with heparin is usually the problem. Clearly, the lower the heparin concentration the greater is the risk that poor mixing technique will give rise to inadequate anticoagulation and the associated problems.

  11. Bayesian sample size determination for a clinical trial with correlated continuous and binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamey, James D; Natanegara, Fanni; Seaman, John W

    2013-01-01

    In clinical trials, multiple outcomes are often collected in order to simultaneously assess effectiveness and safety. We develop a Bayesian procedure for determining the required sample size in a regression model where a continuous efficacy variable and a binary safety variable are observed. The sample size determination procedure is simulation based. The model accounts for correlation between the two variables. Through examples we demonstrate that savings in total sample size are possible when the correlation between these two variables is sufficiently high.

  12. Non-invasive continuous finger blood pressure measurement during orthostatic stress compared to intra-arterial pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B. P.; Settels, J. J.; van der Meiracker, A. H.; Wesseling, K. H.; Wieling, W.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether invasive blood pressure responses to orthostatic stress can be replaced by non-invasive continuous finger blood pressure responses. DESIGN - Intrabrachial and Finapres blood pressures were simultaneously measured during passive head up tilt and during

  13. Microcapillary blood sampling for serological examinations by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Valicek, L.; Jurak, E. (Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia))

    1984-01-01

    Methods were tested of sampling blood and blood serum for serological examinations on filtration paper and into heparinized glass capillaries with transfer into the dilution solution of the given composition. Samples were also examined for ACH virus antibodies. The suitability of the sampling was verified by an examination of samples using ELISA and RIA methods. The results showed the suitability of sampling using microcapillaries. The titres of virus antibodies found using the ELISA and RIA methods were identical and the sensitivity of antibody detection was not reduced even after the sample had been stored for 60 days at a temperature of 20 degC.

  14. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics at hospitals has great potential. This study shows how a simulation model displaying the morning blood-taking round at a Danish public hospital can be developed and utilized with the aim of improving the logistics. The focus...... of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood samples......, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential lowering the AWT...

  15. Continuous non-invasive monitoring improves blood pressure stability in upright position: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Jan; Simanova, Alena; Tovarnicka, Tereza; Sevcikova, Silvie; Kletecka, Jakub; Zatloukal, Jan; Pradl, Richard; Chytra, Ivan; Kasal, Eduard

    2015-02-01

    Intermittent blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the standard-of-care during low and intermediate risk anaesthesia, yet it could lead to delayed recognition of BP fluctuations. Perioperative hypotension is known to be associated with postoperative complications. Continuous, non-invasive methods for BP monitoring have been developed recently. We have tested a novel non-invasive, continuous monitor (using the volume clamp method) to assist with maintaining BP in safe ranges for patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. Forty adult patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery in an upright position were included in this prospective randomised controlled trial. Patients were equally allocated to the group with continuous monitoring of BP using the CNAP® Monitor and to the control group managed using an intermittent oscillometric BP cuff. The absolute and proportional time spent outside the range of ±20% of the target BP along with other hemodynamic and clinical parameters were evaluated. The continuous monitoring decreased the anaesthesia time spent below -20% pressure range [absolute: 12 min (4-20) vs. 27 min (16-34); p=0.001; relative to procedure length: 14% (7-20) vs. 33.5% (17.5-53); p=0.003]. No significant differences were observed in postoperative morbidity or in hospital length of stay. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring via the CNAP® Monitor allows for better BP management in patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. In our randomised trial the time spent in hypotension was significantly shorter using continuous monitoring.

  16. Microwave Blood Thawing: Biochemical Analysis of Small Samples of Thawed Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    lactate + NAD+ ( Lehninger , 1977) The large increase in pyruvate observed at 6 hours post-wash was most likely due to the large lactate concentrations at...Storage of Blood. London: Academic Press. Lehninger , A.L. 1977. Biochemistry. New York: Worth Publishers, Inc. Lewis, G.P. 1965. Method using o-tolidine

  17. Validation of a continuous penile blood-flow measurement by pulse-volume-plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, P; Barbe, R; Gally, M

    2002-04-01

    Today, in the assessment of cavernous artery blood-flow, the most commonly used technique is Doppler ultrasound velocimetry (continuous, pulsed, color-coded or power), which is often considered as the gold standard. Plethysmographic techniques and radioactive tracers have been widely used for the assessment of global penis flow variations but are not adequate for continuous blood-flow measurement. A new pulse-volume plethysmographic (PVP) device using a water-filled penile cuff was employed to assess continuous blood-flow measurement in the penis. Simultaneously Doppler velocity was recorded and served as a gold standard. A penile water-cuff is connected through a pressure tube to a three-way tap. The pulse-volume changes in the penile water-cuff are measured by means of a latex membrane placed over one of the three-way taps. The displacements of the latex are recorded by a photoplethysmograph. The third tap is connected to a 5 l perfusion bag placed 30 cm above the penis so as to maintain constant pressure in the whole device whatever the penis volume. Twenty-four volunteers were tested. The Doppler velocity signal and pulse volume of cavernous arteries were measured simultaneously after PGE1 intra-cavernous injection. Blood-flow variations were induced by increasing penis artery compression with a second penile water-cuff used as a tourniquet fitted onto the penis root, and the pressure of which could be modified by a water-filled syringe. The amplitude of the plethysmographic pulse-volume signal and the area under the Doppler velocity signal were correlated. The inter-patient (n=24) correlation ranged from 0.455 to 0.904, with a mean correlation of 0.704 and P<0.0001. PVP measurement by a water-filled cuff was validated by ultrasound velocimetry. This new continuous, non-invasive and easy-to-use technique enables physiological and physiopathological flow-measurement during sleep, under visual sexual stimulation (VSS), or following artificial erection

  18. Correlation of glucose level among venous, gingival and finger-prick blood samples in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for a dental surgeon or a periodontist to detect blood glucose level for patients whose signs and symptoms are suggestive of diabetes. Seventy patients in the age group of 40 to 80 years of either sex were selected for the study. The study population included patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Venous blood was used as a control group, whereas gingival blood and finger-prick blood constituted the study groups I and II, respectively. The percentage deviations of gingival blood glucose level measurements and finger-prick blood glucose level measurements from the standard venous blood glucose level measurements were recorded, which showed that 72.86% of gingival and 68.57% of finger-prick blood glucose level measurements were found to be within ΁15% of the standard venous blood glucose level measurements. All values exhibited significant correlations among each other, but correlations between glucose values obtained using venous and gingival blood samples were higher than the correlations between glucose values obtained using venous and finger-prick blood samples.

  19. Obtaining Coagulation Blood Samples From Central Venous Access Devices: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kerri A; Aucoin, Julia; Meyer, Britt

    2015-08-01

    Central venous access devices are used for chemotherapy and other medication administration, blood product administration, parenteral nutrition, and for obtaining blood samples in patients where the vasculature is difficult to access. Patients may need additional blood samples prior to invasive procedures and when clinical situations arise during cancer care. In addition, monitoring coagulability through ongoing blood testing is common in patients with cancer and requires repeated sampling to adjust anticoagulant medications. The purpose of this review of the literature is to determine the best practices for collecting coagulation test samples from central venous access devices. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature. The only method for obtaining reliable coagulation test results from central venous access devices is the flush then waste/discard method. This method has only been studied with peripherally inserted central catheters. Additional randomized, controlled trials with larger sample sizes are needed to determine the most appropriate method for drawing coagulation test results from central venous access devices.

  20. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duale Nur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression.

  2. Evaluation of the analytical performances of a portable, 18-parameter hemometric system using capillary blood samples for blood donor enrolment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierelli, L; Zennaro, F; Patti, D; Miceli, M; Iudicone, P; Mannella, E

    2010-02-01

    Blood donor enrolment process is frequently based on the sole capillary haemoglobin (Hb) evaluation while platelet donors by apheresis also requires platelet (Plt) count. The 'sole Hb' approach prevents a complete donor evaluation and does not allow Plt donor enrolment. To extend blood counts before donations, we evaluated the performances of a multiparametric counter using capillary blood. The ABX Micros 60 (Micros 60) blood analyzer was employed on capillary blood and compared with venous counts by a reference counter (Coulter AcT 5diff) in a first series of 416 donors and in a second series of 136, after a 3-month period of routine use of this study counter. An average of 50 microl of capillary blood was collected whose 10 microl had been aspirated by Micros 60. High correlations were found between capillary counts using Micros 60 and venous counts using the reference counter. Mean Plt counts differed of 37 x 10(9)/l less for capillary approach in the first series of comparisons, but decreased to 10 x 10(9)/l less in the second series due to a greater expertise of operators in capillary sampling. All other parameters were accurate and never reached clinical relevance albeit they showed statistically significant differences. Data on Micros 60 demonstrated that capillary predonation counts may represent a feasible and effective approach to realize an accurate enrolment process of blood and Plt donors.

  3. Hypotensive effects of resistance exercise with continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rodrigues Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of low-intensity (LI resistance exercise (RE with continuous blood flow restriction (CBFR and intermittent blood flow restriction (IBFR on systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP. After a one-repetition maximum test, 10 normotensive recreationally trained men performed three experimental protocols. In the three RE protocols, increases in SBP, DBP, and MAP were observed immediately after exercise, but the effect sizes (ESs were greater for the LI + CBFR and high-intensity protocols. There were hypotensive effects on SBP, DBP, and MAP in all three protocols; however, the effects on MAP lasted longer for the LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR protocols. These long-lasting hypotensive effects on DBP and MAP occurred in all three protocols. Thus, we conclude that the post exercise hypotensive effects on SBP, DBP, and MAP appear to occur in all three RE protocols, with the effect on SBP being longer in the LI + IBFR and LI + CBFR protocols.

  4. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    for postoperative pain relief. The epidural blood flow was measured by a local 133Xe clearance technique in which 15-35 MBq 133Xe diluted in 1 ml saline was injected through the epidural catheter on the day before surgery (no bupivacaine), 30 minutes after the initial dose of bupivacaine on the morning before...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0.......17 (mean +/- SEM). Postoperatively, two patients maintained the initial level of sensory analgesia and low pain score throughout the 16-hour study. In these two patients epidural blood flow remained constant after the initial increase. Flow increased further to 10.3 +/- 0.8 ml/min per 100 g tissue (P less...

  5. Continuous sample drop flow-based microextraction method as a microextraction technique for determination of organic compounds in water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinfar, Soleyman; Khayatian, Gholamreza; Milani-Hosseini, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-11-01

    Continuous sample drop flow-based microextraction (CSDF-ME) is an improved version of continuous-flow microextraction (CFME) and a novel technique developed for extraction and preconcentration of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene and o-xylene (BTEXs) from aqueous samples prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this technique, a small amount (a few microliters) of organic solvent is transferred to the bottom of a conical bottom test tube and a few mL of aqueous solution is moved through the organic solvent at relatively slow flow rate. The aqueous solution transforms into fine droplets while passing through the organic solvent. After extraction, the enriched analyte in the extraction solvent is determined by GC-FID. The type of extraction solvent, its volume, needle diameter, and aqueous sample flow rate were investigated. The enrichment factor was 221-269 under optimum conditions and the recovery was 89-102%. The linear ranges and limits of detection for BTEXs were 2-500 and 1.4-3.1 µg L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations for 10 µg L(-1) of BTEXs in water were 1.8-6.2% (n=5). The advantages of CSDF-ME are its low cost, relatively short sample preparation time, low solvent consumption, high recovery, and high enrichment factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of a new handheld point-of-care blood gas analyser using 100 equine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, David; West, Eleanor; Mark Senior, J

    2017-02-22

    To determine whether the Enterprise point-of-care blood analysis system (EPOC) produces results in agreement with two other blood gas analysers in regular clinical use (i-STAT and Radiometer ABL77) and to investigate the precision of the new machine when used with equine whole blood. Prospective, randomized, non-blinded, comparative laboratory analyser study. Horses admitted to a university teaching hospital requiring arterial or venous blood gas analysis as part of their routine clinical management. One hundred equine blood samples were run immediately, consecutively and in randomized order on three blood gas analysers. Results of variables common to all three analysers were tested for agreement and compared with guidelines used in human medicine. These require 80% of results from the test analyser to fall within a defined range or percentage of results from the comparator devices to achieve acceptability. Additionally, 21 samples were run twice in quick succession on the EPOC analyser to investigate precision. Agreement targets were not met for haematocrit, haemoglobin and base excess for either i-STAT or ABL77 analysers. EPOC precision targets were not met for partial pressure of carbon dioxide, ionized calcium, haematocrit and haemoglobin. Overall comparative performance of the EPOC was good to excellent for pH, oxygen tension, potassium, bicarbonate and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin, but marginal to poor for other parameters. The EPOC may be useful in performing analysis of equine whole blood, but trend analysis of carbon dioxide tension, ionized calcium, haematocrit and haemoglobin should be interpreted with caution. The EPOC should not be used interchangeably with other blood gas analysers. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceptual effects and efficacy of intermittent or continuous blood flow restriction resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitschen, P J; Kistler, B M; Jeong, J H; Chung, H R; Wu, P T; Walsh, M J; Wilund, K R

    2014-09-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise may be an alternative form of resistance training; however, a side of effect of BFR resistance exercise is acute muscle pain. Typically, BFR exercise studies restrict blood flow with a cuff continuously during the exercise bout, including rest periods. However, others have used intermittent BFR where the cuff is inflated only during sets. We performed two studies to compare intermittent and continuous BFR exercise. In study one, eleven subjects randomly proceeded through three treatments of unilateral leg extensions to failure: (i) continuous BFR, (ii) intermittent BFR and (iii) control (exercise without BFR). Pain measurements were taken immediately after each set. In study two, subjects (n = 32) underwent a 5-week resistance training programme after random assignment to one of the three conditions. Lean mass and strength were assessed at baseline and after training. Continuous BFR resulted in significantly greater pain than intermittent BFR or control. Both BFR conditions resulted in significantly fewer repetitions to failure than control. This suggests that an acute bout of intermittent BFR exercise may produce as much muscle fatigue as an acute bout of continuous BFR exercise, but with less pain. With training, maximal knee extension (P = 0·033) and maximum knee flexion (P = 0·007) strength increased among all groups. There were no significant differences between groups in strength or lean mass. These results suggest that short-term low-load resistance training increases muscle strength to a similar extent as low-load resistance training without BFR. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Continuous hemoglobin monitoring during massive blood transfusion in a multivisceral pediatric transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Beethe, Amy B; Sullivan, James N; Jones, Benjamin M; Adams, Jennifer J; Duhacheck-Stapleman, Amy L

    2013-11-01

    A 10 year old, 25 kg girl, who was formerly a conjoined twin at the heart, diaphragm, liver, duodenum, bile ducts, and intestine, was admitted for a repeat liver, small bowel, pancreas, and kidney multivisceral transplant after having intestinal and liver failure. Intraoperatively, the patient had excessive bleeding, coagulopathy, and acidosis. Pulse co-oximetry was used for continuous monitoring of hemoglobin (Hb) during the procedure. Although noninvasive Hb appeared to follow a trend that correlated with arterial Hb concentration, it did not show accurate agreement with measured values from intermittent blood gas analysis. It may not be reliable during cases with abnormal physiology, rapid blood loss, and massive transfusion. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Extracellular DNA in cord blood plasma and applications in cord blood banking for sample identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Maria S; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Stevens, Cladd E; Rubinstein, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    Human cord blood (CB) units donated for transplantation require testing for various markers in blood and plasma aliquots. Although the identity link between the CB unit and the labeled aliquots with the same identifiers can be confirmed by HLA-DNA assays, these methods have not been used for CB plasma. We have previously reported that viral DNA sequences are present in the CB plasma of carrier babies and now hypothesize that human genomic DNA may also be present in CB plasma. The aim of the study was to determine whether human genomic DNA is also present in CB plasma in quality and quantity able to support human genetic identification by short tandem repeat analysis (STR). The presence of extracellular DNA (EC-DNA) in CB and adult peripheral blood plasma was confirmed by HLA-DR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR of Alu (SB2) genes. High concentrations were seen in CB plasma (0.131 ng/mL vs. adult 0.005 ng/mL; p plasma aliquots could be established. This study demonstrates that infant-derived EC-DNA is present in CB plasma and provides a useful tool for the unambiguous confirmation of plasma aliquot identity, as routinely used in CB banking, by the use of a sensitive and highly accurate DNA assay.

  10. Approximate Optimal Control of Affine Nonlinear Continuous-Time Systems Using Event-Sampled Neurodynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an approximate optimal control of nonlinear continuous-time systems in affine form by using the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) with event-sampled state and input vectors. The knowledge of the system dynamics is relaxed by using a neural network (NN) identifier with event-sampled inputs. The value function, which becomes an approximate solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, is generated by using event-sampled NN approximator. Subsequently, the NN identifier and the approximated value function are utilized to obtain the optimal control policy. Both the identifier and value function approximator weights are tuned only at the event-sampled instants leading to an aperiodic update scheme. A novel adaptive event sampling condition is designed to determine the sampling instants, such that the approximation accuracy and the stability are maintained. A positive lower bound on the minimum inter-sample time is guaranteed to avoid accumulation point, and the dependence of inter-sample time upon the NN weight estimates is analyzed. A local ultimate boundedness of the resulting nonlinear impulsive dynamical closed-loop system is shown. Finally, a numerical example is utilized to evaluate the performance of the near-optimal design. The net result is the design of an event-sampled ADP-based controller for nonlinear continuous-time systems.

  11. Evaluation of some toxic metals in blood samples of smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine some toxic elements in the blood of cigarette and tobacco pipe smokers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study setting was Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh City. Male volunteers, aged 20 - 58 year, whose blood samples were collected, were classified into three groups of ...

  12. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Brinkhof, B.; Rothuizen, J.; Dekker, A.; Penning, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263

  13. Dried blood spots on carboxymethyl cellulose sheets: Rapid sample preparation based on dissolution and precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund Ask, Kristine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This short communication describes the use of carboxymethyl cellulose sheets as sampling material for dried blood spots. Whole blood, spiked with quetiapine, a hydrophobic and basic small molecule drug substance, was spotted on the sheet and subsequently dried. The dried spot was then almost...

  14. Clinical evaluation of Statstrip(R) Lactate for use in fetal scalp blood sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinis, A.M.F.; Dillen, J. van; Oosting, J.D.; Rhose, S.; Vandenbussche, F.P.; Drongelen, J. van

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care testing of fetal scalp blood lactate is used as an alternative to pH analysis in fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) during labor. Lactate measurements are not standardized and values vary with each device used. The aim of this study was to evaluate StatStrip(R) Lactate

  15. The applying of multisensory system to assessment of blood samples by composition of equilibrium gaseous phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article discussed the possibility of blood sample’s assessment with the following diagnostic characteristics: "endometriosis", "fibroids", "uterine body cancer" by the signals of multisensor system. It has been found that blood samples can be reliably ranking into groups according to their diagnostic characteristics using the geometry, square of "visual prints" and the sorption effectiveness parameters max ij А.

  16. Comparison of physical parameter measurements between peripheral and portal blood samples in patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Sun, Longci; Xu, Qing; Zhou, Hong; Gu, Lei; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Chihao; Zhu, Yiming; Lin, Jiayun; Luo, Meng

    2017-09-15

    Measuring portal venous pressure is necessary to examine, diagnose, and treat portal hypertension, but current methods are invasive. This study aimed to determine whether a noninvasive peripheral blood measurement could be used to estimate portal venous pressure by investigating correlations between certain physical parameter measurements in the peripheral blood with those obtained in portal blood samples. A total of 128 peripheral and portal blood samples from patients (n= 128) were analyzed for blood rheology and routine blood parameters. The mean peripheral and portal whole blood viscosities under the shear rates of 200 s-1 (BV 200 s-1) were 2.97 ± 0.50 mPa.s and 3.06 ± 0.39 mPa.s. The mean peripheral and portal BV 30 s-1 values were 3.96 ± 0.79 mPa.s and 4.16 ± 0.64 mPa.s. We observed strong correlations between peripheral and portal blood measurements of BV 200 s-1 (r2= 0.9649), BV 30 s-1 (r2= 0.9622), BV 5 s-1 (r2= 0.9610), and BV 1 s-1 (r2= 0.9623). Our results indicate that peripheral blood can be used to evaluate certain parameters in portal blood for use in biofluid mechanics studies, and to provide noninvasive measurement of portal venous pressure.

  17. The effects of storage temperature and duration of blood samples on DNA and RNA qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lien-Hung; Lin, Pei-Hsien; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Wang, Liang-Jen; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    DNA and RNA samples from blood are the common examination target for non-invasive physical tests and/or biomedical studies. Since high-quality DNA and RNA samples guarantee the correctness of these tests and/or studies, we investigated the effects of storage temperature and storage duration of whole blood on DNA and RNA qualities. Subjects were enrolled to donate blood samples which were stored for different durations and at different temperatures, followed by the examinations on RNA quality, qPCR, DNA quality and DNA methylation. For RNA, we observed obvious quality decline with storage duration longer than 24 hours. Storage at low temperature does not keep RNA samples from degradation. And, storing whole blood samples in freezer dramatically damage RNA. For DNA, quality decline was not observed even with storage duration for 15 days. However, DNA methylation significantly altered with storage duration longer than three days. Storage duration within 24 hours is critical for collecting high-quality RNA samples for next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays (RIN≧8). If microarray assays are expected (RIN≧7), storage duration within 32 hours is acceptable. Although DNA is resistant within 15 days when kept in whole blood, DNA quantity dramatically decreases owing to WBC lysis. In addition, duration for more than three days significantly alter DNA methylation status, globally and locally. Our result provides a reference for dealing with blood samples.

  18. A single-blood-sample method using inulin for estimating feline glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, M; Saito, J; Katayama, R; Yamagishi, N; Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Furuhama, K

    2013-01-01

    Application of a multisample method using inulin to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cats is cumbersome. To establish a simplified procedure to estimate GFR in cats, a single-blood-sample method using inulin was compared with a conventional 3-sample method. Nine cats including 6 clinically healthy cats and 3 cats with spontaneous chronic kidney disease. Retrospective study. Inulin was administered as an intravenous bolus at 50 mg/kg to cats, and blood was collected at 60, 90, and 120 minutes later for the 3-sample method. Serum inulin concentrations were colorimetrically determined by an autoanalyzer method. The GFR in the single-blood-sample method was calculated from the dose injected, serum concentration, sampling time, and estimated volume of distribution on the basis of the data of the 3-sample method. An excellent correlation was observed (r = 0.99, P = .0001) between GFR values estimated by the single-blood-sample and 3-sample methods. The single-blood-sample method using inulin provides a practicable and ethical alternative for estimating glomerular filtration rate in cats. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Validation study of Nexfin® continuous non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameloot, K; Van De Vijver, K; Van Regenmortel, N; De Laet, I; Schoonheydt, K; Dits, H; Broch, O; Bein, B; Malbrain, M L

    2014-12-01

    Nexfin® (BMEYE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) is a totally non-invasive blood pressure and cardiac output (CO) monitor based on finger arterial pulse contour analysis. We performed an open observational study in a mix of medical-surgical-burns critically ill patients (N.=45) to validate Nexfin obtained blood pressures (MAPnex) against PiCCO (MAPfem) derived blood pressure measurements. MAPnex, MAPfem and corresponding systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured continuously and registered with a 2 hour interval during the 8-hour study period. Statistical analysis was performed by Pearson regression, Bland and Altman, Concordance plot and Polar plot analysis. MAPnex shows excellent correlation with MAPfem (R² 0.88, mean bias ± LA -2.3±12.4 mmHg, 14.7% error) and may be used interchangeably with invasive monitoring. The excellent MAPnex -MAPfem correlation was preserved in subgroup analysis for patients with severe hypotension, high systemic vascular resistance, low CO, hypothermia and in patients supported by inotropic/vasopressive agents. MAPnex is able to follow changes in MAPfem during the same time interval (level of concordance 85.5%). Nexfin SBP and DBP show significant correlation with PiCCO but the criteria for interchangeability were not met. Finally, polar plot analysis showed that trending capabilities were excellent when changes in MAPnex (ΔMAPnex) were compared to ΔMAPfem (96.1% of changes were within the level of 10% limits of agreement). In this sample of critically ill patients we found a good correlation between MAPnex and invasive blood pressures obtained by PiCCO.

  20. An automated discontinuous venous blood sampling system for ex vivo glucose determination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Roland; Feichtner, Franz; Köhler, Hans; Bodenlenz, Manfred; Plank, Johannes; Wutte, Andrea; Mader, Julia K; Ellmerer, Martin; Hainisch, Reinhard; Pieber, Thomas R; Schaupp, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy reduces mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients but places great demands on medical staff who must take frequent blood samples for the determination of glucose levels. A cost-effective solution to this resourcing problem could be provided by an effective and reliable automated blood sampling (ABS) system suitable for ex vivo glucose determination. The primary study aim was to compare the performance of a prototype ABS system with a manual reference system over a 30 h sampling period under controlled conditions in humans. Two venous cannulae were inserted to connect the ABS system and the reference system. Blood samples were taken with both systems at 15, 30, and 60 min intervals and analyzed using a Beckman glucose analyzer. During the study, blood glucose levels were altered through four meal ingestions. The median Pearson coefficient of correlation between manually and automatically withdrawn blood samples was 0.976 (0.953-0.996). The system error was -3.327 ± 5.546% (-6.03-0.49). Through Clark error grid analysis, 420 data pairs were analyzed, showing that 98.6% of the data were in zone A and 1.4% were in zone B. Insulin titration error grid analysis revealed an acceptable treatment in 100% of cases. A 17.5-fold reduction in the occurrence of blood-withdrawal failures through occluded catheters was moreover achieved by the added implementation in the ABS system of a "keep vein open" saline infusion. Our study showed that the ABS system described provides a user-friendly, reliable automated means for reproducible and accurate blood sampling from a peripheral vein for blood glucose determination and thus represents a promising alternative to frequent manual blood sampling. © Diabetes Technology Society

  1. Effects of Transport and Storage Conditions on Gene Expression in Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Wyrich, Ralf; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara; Pazzagli, Mario; Gelmini, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Inappropriate handling of blood samples might induce or repress gene expression and/or lead to RNA degradation affecting downstream analysis. In particular, sample transport is a critical step for biobanking or multicenter studies because of uncontrolled variables (i.e., unstable temperature). We report the results of a pilot study implemented within the EC funded SPIDIA project, aimed to investigate the role of transport and storage of blood samples containing and not containing an RNA stabilizer. Blood was collected from a single donor both in EDTA and in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. Half of the samples were sent to a second laboratory both at room temperature and at 4°C, whereas the remaining samples were stored at room temperature and at 4°C. Gene expression of selected genes (c-FOS, IL-1β, IL-8, and GAPDH) known to be induced or repressed by ex vivo blood handling and of blood-mRNA quality biomarkers identified and validated within the SPIDIA project, which allow for monitoring changes in unstabilized blood samples after collection and during transport and storage, were analyzed by RT-qPCR. If the shipment of blood in tubes not containing RNA stabilizer is not performed under a stable condition, gene profile studies can be affected by the effects of transport. Moreover, also controlled temperature shipment (4°C) can influence the expression of specific genes if blood is collected in tubes not containing a stabilizer. The use of dedicated biomarkers or time course experiments should be performed in order to verify potential bias on gene expression analysis due to sample shipment and storage conditions. Alternatively, the use of RNA stabilizer containing tubes can represent a reliable option to avoid ex vivo RNA changes.

  2. Automated dried blood spots standard and QC sample preparation using a robotic liquid handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Zhang, Duxi; Aubry, Anne-Francoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    A dried blood spot (DBS) bioanalysis assay involves many steps, such as the preparation of standard (STD) and QC samples in blood, the spotting onto DBS cards, and the cutting-out of the spots. These steps are labor intensive and time consuming if done manually, which, therefore, makes automation very desirable in DBS bioanalysis. A robotic liquid handler was successfully applied to the preparation of STD and QC samples in blood and to spot the blood samples onto DBS cards using buspirone as the model compound. This automated preparation was demonstrated to be accurate and consistent. However the accuracy and precision of automated preparation were similar to those from manual preparation. The effect of spotting volume on accuracy was evaluated and a trend of increasing concentrations of buspirone with increasing spotting volumes was observed. The automated STD and QC sample preparation process significantly improved the efficiency, robustness and safety of DBS bioanalysis.

  3. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Andersen, Ida; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations, blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 minutes' resting time. Some components exhibit diurnal variation and in response to pressures to expand opening hours and reduce waiting time, the aims of this study were to investigate...... the impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening...... hours: 7am-3pm). Each patient's arrival time and time of blood sampling were registered. The impact of resting time and the time of day for all components was analysed using simple linear regression. The "maximum allowable bias" was used as quality indicator for the change in reference interval. RESULTS...

  4. A duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella spp. in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnejad, Reza; Mohamadi, Mozafar; Piranfar, Vahbeh; Mortazavi, Seied Mojtaba; Kachuei, Reza

    2013-06-01

    To design a duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella species. in human blood samples. Fifty-two peripheral bloods samples were collected from suspicious patients with brucellosis. Following DNA extraction, PCR assay were performed, using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate three major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Of the 52 peripheral bloods samples tested, 25 sample (48%) showed positive reactions in PCR. Twelve samples were positive for Brucella abortus 39 (B. abortus 39) (23%), 13 for Brucella melitensis 39 (B. melitensis 39) (25%) and 0 for Brucella ovis 39 (B. ovis 39) (0%). This work demonstrates that in case where specific primers were utilized, duplex PCR has proved to be a simple, fast, and relatively inexpensive method for simultaneous detection of important species of Brucella in clinical samples. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay...... and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed...... and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. RESULTS: For samples taken in the winter, relative...

  6. Effective prevention of pseudothrombocytopenia in feline blood samples with the prostaglandin I2 analogue Iloprost

    OpenAIRE

    Riond, Barbara; Waßmuth, Andrea Katharina; Hartnack, Sonja; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro platelet aggregation in feline blood samples is a well-known phenomenon in veterinary clinical laboratories resulting in high numbers of pseudothrombocytopenia. Several attempts have been made to prevent or dissolve platelet aggregates in feline blood samples and to increase the reliability of feline platelet counts. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) is the most powerful endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation but unstable. Iloprost is a stable PGI2 analogue. The aims of the p...

  7. VARIABILITY OF CONTINUOUSLY MEASURED ARTERIAL PH AND BLOOD-GAS VALUES IN THE NEAR-TERM FETAL LAMB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUDSTRA, BR; DEWOLF, BTHM; SMITS, TM; NATHANIELSZ, PW; ZIJLSTRA, WG; AARNOUDSE, JG

    1995-01-01

    In fetal sheep, arterial blood gas values show considerable spontaneous fluctuations. The aim of the present study was to obtain quantitative data on fetal blood gas variability. Accurate assessment of the intraindividual variations can hardly be obtained from intermittent blood samples, but

  8. Detection of α-thalassaemia in neonates on cord blood and dried blood spot samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alauddin, H; Langa, M; Mohd Yusoff, M; Raja Sabudin, R Z A; Ithnin, A; Abdul Razak, N F; Sardi, N H; Hussin, N H

    2017-04-01

    Haemoglobin Bart's (Hb Bart's) level is associated with α-thalassaemia traits in neonates, enabling early diagnosis of α-thalassaemia. The study aimed to detect and quantify the Hb Bart's using Cord Blood (CB) and CE Neonat Fast Hb (NF) progammes on fresh and dried blood spot (DBS) specimen respectively by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Capillarys Hemoglobin (E) Kit (for CB) and Capillarys Neonat Hb Kit (for NF) were used to detect and quantify Hb Bart's by CE in fresh cord blood and dried blood spot (DBS) specimens respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the β-Thal Short Programme was also performed concurrently with CE analysis. Confirmation was obtained by multiplex ARMS Gap PCR. This study was performed on 600 neonates. 32/600 (5.3%) samples showed presence of Hb Bart's peak using the NF programme while 33/600 (5.5%) were positive with CB programme and HPLC methods. The range of Hb Bart's using NF programme and CB programme were (0.5-4.1%) and (0.5-7.1%), respectively. Molecular analysis confirmed all positive samples possessed α-thalassaemia genetic mutations, with 23/33 cases being αα/--SEA, four -α3.7/-α3.7, two αα/-α3.7 and three αα/ααCS. Fifty Hb Bart's negative samples were randomly tested for α-genotypes, three were also found to be positive for α-globin gene mutations. Thus, resulting in sensitivity of 91.7% and 88.9% and specificity of 100% for the Capillarys Cord Blood programme and Capillarys Neonat Fast programme respectively. Both CE programmes using fresh or dried cord blood were useful as a screening tool for α-thalassaemia in newborns. All methods show the same specificity (100%) with variable, but acceptable sensitivities in the detection of Hb Bart.

  9. Markers infectious agent in the cord blood samples public register of donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Smoljaninov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the distribution of markers of infectious agents in umbilical cord blood samples Pokrovskij public stem cell bank donor registry for five years (2009 – 2013.Materials and Methods. 3533 plasma samples were investigatedafter selection during cord blood processing procedure for allogeneic use in Pokrovskij stem cell bank. All plasma samples were investigated in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health № 325 – 2003 by enzymelinked immunoassay method. In addition, during the period from November 2011 to December 2013 1030 plasma samples of umbilical cord blood were examined for the presence of HCV RNA, the RNA of HIV and HBV DNA.Results. Markers of the agents above have not been found in the plasma of 481 samples (13.6%. During the described period, no significant change in the share of samples containing antibodies to cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis (cytomegalovirus – 1978 samples (56%, Toxoplasma gondii – 112 samples (3.2%, 825 samples (23.4% cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii simultaneously were registered. 137 samples (3.9% were subjected to utilization in connection with detection of antibodies to HbcorAg – 116 samples (3.3%, antibodies to HCV – five samples (0.14%, and antibodies to Treponema pallidum – 16 samples (0.45%.Conclusion. The introduction of an additional method of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of nucleic acids of hepatitis viruses B, C, human immunodeficiency virus, along with study of cord blood samples by enzyme-linked immunoassay improve the quality of the control of the transmission of blood-borne infections.

  10. Bacterial Contamination of Blood DNA Samples is Associated with Donor's Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Shim, Sung-Mi; Kim, Jun-Woo; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Yoon Shin; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial contamination often occurs in human blood DNA samples, possibly due to bacteremia or an inappropriate procedure during sample preparation. This study aimed at analyzing the clinical significance of bacterial DNA contamination in human blood DNA samples and to assess its influence on experimental data. DNA samples (N = 1359) were randomly selected from population-based cohort samples to determine bacterial DNA contamination by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Bacterial DNA contaminated samples (N = 150) were then assessed for experimental quality of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip data, compared with uncontaminated DNA samples (N = 1209). DNA sequencing data showed that a major source of bacterial contaminants was derived from Alcaligenes species. The occurrence of bacterial DNA contaminations was significantly associated with some clinical variables including a postprandial glucose level at 60 min, % body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio. It was also found that there was no difference of SNP call rates between bacterial DNA contaminated samples and uncontaminated DNA samples. This study showed that bacterial DNA contamination in human blood samples was related to donor's health condition, suggesting that the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination may provide useful health information of blood donors and a potential tool for human disease genomics.

  11. Effectiveness of continuous warm blood cardioplegia in cardiac valve re-replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, H; Hirooka, K; Ohnuki, M; Fujiwara, N

    1999-03-01

    In order to achieve better operative results, myocardial protection for cardiac valve re-replacement must be further improved. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of continuous warm blood cardioplegia (CWBC) with that of intermittent cold potassium cardioplegia (ICPC) in cardiac valve re-replacement. A total of 49 consecutive patients underwent elective cardiac valve re-replacement via sternal re-entry; 27 patients received CWBC and 22 ICPC. During surgery, a narrower dissection of the heart was used in the CWBC group. The myocardial protective effects and operative outcome were analyzed in the two groups. Two ICPC patients died in hospital, one from cerebral bleeding and one from low output syndrome. The rate of spontaneous recovery of the heart-beat after aortic declamping was significantly higher in CWBC patients than in the ICPC group (92.3% versus 13.6%, p re-replacement surgery through sternal re-entry, and without wide exposure of the heart, continuous warm blood cardioplegia provides much greater myocardial protection than does intermittent cold potassium cardioplegia.

  12. Non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring of tachycardic episodes during interventional electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Roberto; Viscardi, Valentina; Furukawa, Toshiyuki; Brignole, Michele

    2010-11-01

    We thought to evaluate feasibility of continuous non-invasive blood pressure monitoring during procedures of interventional electrophysiology. We evaluated continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure (BP) monitoring by means of the Nexfin device in 22 patients (mean age 70 ± 24 years), undergoing procedures of interventional electrophysiology, in critical situations of hypotension caused by tachyarrhythmias or by intermittent incremental ventricular temporary pacing till to the maximum tolerated systolic BP fall (mean 61 ± 14 mmHg per patient at a rate of 195 ± 37 bpm). In all patients, Nexfin was able to detect immediately, at the onset of tachyarrythmia, the changes in BP and recorded reliable waveforms. The quality of the signal was arbitrarily classified as excellent in 11 cases, good in 10 cases, and sufficient in 1 case. In basal conditions, calibrations of the signal occurred every 49.2 ± 24.3 s and accounted for 4% of total monitoring time; during tachyarrhythmias their frequency increased to one every 12.7 s and accounted for 19% of total recording duration. A linear correlation for a range of BP values from 41 to 190 mmHg was found between non-invasive and intra-arterial BP among a total of 1055 beats from three patients who underwent simultaneous recordings with both methods (coefficient of correlation of 0.81, P invasive BP monitoring is feasible in the clinical practise of an interventional electrophysiology laboratory without the need of utilization of an intra-arterial BP line.

  13. Assessment of a continuous blood gas monitoring system in animals during circulatory stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzulli Attilio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was aimed to determine the measurement accuracy of The CDI™ blood parameter monitoring system 500 (Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation, Ann Arbor MI in the real-time continuous measurement of arterial blood gases under different cardiocirculatory stress conditions Methods Inotropic stimulation (Dobutamine 2.5 and 5 μg/kg/min, vasoconstriction (Arginine-vasopressin 4, 8 and 16 IU/h, hemorrhage (-10%, -20%, -35%, and -50% of the theoretical volemia, and volume resuscitation were induced in ten swine (57.4 ± 10.7 Kg.Intermittent blood gas assessments were carried out using a routine gas analyzer at any experimental phase and compared with values obtained at the same time settings during continuous monitoring with CDI™ 500 system. The Bland-Altman analysis was employed. Results Bias and precision for pO2 were - 0.06 kPa and 0.22 kPa, respectively (r2 = 0.96; pCO2 - 0.02 kPa and 0.15 kPa, respectively; pH -0.001 and 0.01 units, respectively ( r2 = 0.96. The analysis showed very good agreement for SO2 (bias 0.04,precision 0.33, r2 = 0.95, Base excess (bias 0.04,precision 0.28, r2 = 0.98, HCO3 (bias 0.05,precision 0.62, r2 = 0.92,hemoglobin (bias 0.02,precision 0.23, r2 = 0.96 and K+ (bias 0.02, precision 0.27, r2 = 0.93. The sensor was reliable throughout the experiment during hemodynamic variations. Conclusions Continuous blood gas analysis with the CDI™ 500 system was reliable and it might represent a new useful tool to accurately and timely monitor gas exchange in critically ill patients. Nonetheless, our findings need to be confirmed by larger studies to prove its reliability in the clinical setting.

  14. Comparative infectious serology testing of pre- and post-mortem blood samples from cornea donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkemeyer, I; Pruss, A; Kalus, U; Schroeter, J

    2012-08-01

    Defined serological blood tests of deceased cornea donors are required to minimize the risk of viral infections of a transplant recipient as much as possible. Haemolysis, autolysis and bacterial contamination, may produce significant changes of post-mortem blood samples, which may lead to false serological test results. Pre- and post-mortem findings from the same cornea donors of the University Tissue Bank of the Charité in the years 2004-2009 (n = 487) were retrospectively analyzed and compared. The test results from pre-mortem blood samples were defined as the reference for the post-mortem blood test. Of 487 cornea donors, there were a total of 21 cases (4.3%) with discrepancies between serological test results from pre- and post-mortem blood samples. Of these, 7 values referred to the HBsAg-testing, 3 to the anti-HBs-, 1 to the anti-HBcIgG + IgM-, 1 to the anti-HCV-, 4 to the anti-HIV 1/2- and 5 to the TPLA-findings. False negative results within post-mortem serology occurred in 4 of 487 cases (0.8%). False positive results within the post-mortem blood samples occurred at a much more frequent rate, with 17 of 487 cases (3.5%). Discrepancies between serological pre- and post-mortem blood tests occur mainly due to the use of non-validated test systems. Therefore, it seems reasonable to test pre- and post-mortem blood samples serologically, whenever possible, at the same time, regardless of the sample age. Positive results, regardless of the sample type, should always be retested with validated confirmation tests (e.g. NAT), in order to differentiate between false and true positive results.

  15. Study on sampling of continuous linear system based on generalized Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiguang

    2003-09-01

    In the research of signal and system, the signal's spectrum and the system's frequency characteristic can be discussed through Fourier Transform (FT) and Laplace Transform (LT). However, some singular signals such as impulse function and signum signal don't satisfy Riemann integration and Lebesgue integration. They are called generalized functions in Maths. This paper will introduce a new definition -- Generalized Fourier Transform (GFT) and will discuss generalized function, Fourier Transform and Laplace Transform under a unified frame. When the continuous linear system is sampled, this paper will propose a new method to judge whether the spectrum will overlap after generalized Fourier transform (GFT). Causal and non-causal systems are studied, and sampling method to maintain system's dynamic performance is presented. The results can be used on ordinary sampling and non-Nyquist sampling. The results also have practical meaning on research of "discretization of continuous linear system" and "non-Nyquist sampling of signal and system." Particularly, condition for ensuring controllability and observability of MIMO continuous systems in references 13 and 14 is just an applicable example of this paper.

  16. Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring May Detect Carotid Occlusion Intolerance during Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Furuse, Motomasa; Yagi, Ryokichi; Ohmura, Tomohisa; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Naokado; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Kawabata, Shinji; Miyachi, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2018-02-05

    The frequency of the occurrence of adverse events associated with carotid artery stenting (CAS) is usually low, but serious adverse events such as cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) may occur. Real-time monitoring is ideal for the early detection of adverse events during the surgical procedure. This study aimed to evaluate continuous blood glucose (BG) monitoring for the detection of adverse events during CAS. Forty patients undergoing scheduled CAS were prospectively enrolled. An artificial pancreas was used for continuous BG monitoring (once per minute), using venous blood extracted at a rate of 2 mL/hr during CAS. The primary endpoint was a correlation between BG change and adverse events. CAS was discontinued in 1 patient, and BG was not measured in 5 patients (12.5%) because of the inability to extract blood. Among 34 evaluable patients, no patient developed CHS, but 3 patients (9%) experienced carotid occlusion intolerance. During CAS, BG was significantly higher in patients with carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 5 mg/dL) than in patients without carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 0 mg/dL) (P = 0.0221). A cutoff BG value ≥4 mg/dL during CAS showed 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of carotid occlusion intolerance. There was no significant correlation between BG change and other adverse events. BG elevation may help detect carotid occlusion intolerance although it is still unknown whether BG monitoring can detect CHS. Further studies should validate that a cutoff BG elevation value of ≥4 mg/dL during CAS indicates carotid occlusion intolerance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial discrimination associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in a sample of American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Blair, Irene V; Buchwald, Dedra S; Manson, Spero M

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate the association of racial discrimination with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Racial discrimination, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed as continuous variables. All analyses adjusted for sex, waist circumference, age, posttraumatic stress disorder status, and education. We found that 61% of participants experienced discrimination that they attributed to their race or ancestry. Racial discrimination was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.22, SE = 0.09, p = .02), and with a similar non-significant trend toward higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.25, SE = 0.15, p = .09). The results of this analysis suggest that racial discrimination may contribute to higher diastolic blood pressure within Native communities. These findings highlight one pathway through which the social environment can shape patterns of biology and health in AI and other socially and politically marginalized groups. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Imam Reza Hospital blood bank samples, Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddel, M; Mirzaii Dizgah, I; Sharif, F

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of toxoplasma gondii (T.g) infection in blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products. A total of 223 blood products (101 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 122 packed cells (PC)) in Imam Reza hospital blood bank, Tehran, Iran were tested for specific T.g antibodies (IgG and IgM) by ELISA method. Positive IgG anti-T.g samples were further tested for IgM anti-T.g. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis respectively. Of 223 samples 38.6% and 0.45% were positive for IgG anti-T.g and IgM anti-T.g levels respectively. Therefore, one and 85 samples were involved acute and chronic toxoplasmosis respectively. Twenty-six of fresh frozen plasma samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g and one of them was positive for IgM anti-T.g. Sixty packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g. Our study showed that there were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T.g antibodies may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of degree of RBC agglutination for blood typing using a small quantity of blood sample in a microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Jen; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Zhou, Xin-Miao; Yen, Hsiu-Rong

    2018-04-15

    Blood typing assay is a critical test to ensure the serological compatibility of a donor and an intended recipient prior to a blood transfusion. This paper presents a microfluidic blood typing system using a small quantity of blood sample to determine the degree of agglutination of red blood cell (RBC). Two measuring methods were proposed: impedimetric measurement and electroanalytical measurement. The charge transfer resistance in the impedimetric measurement and the power parameter in the electroanalytical measurement were used for the analysis of agglutination level. From the experimental results, both measuring methods provide quantitative results, and the parameters are linearly and monotonically related to the degree of RBC agglutination. However, the electroanalytical measurement is more reliable than the impedimetric technique because the impedimetric measurement may suffer from many influencing factors, such as chip conditions. Five levels from non-agglutination (level 0) to strong agglutination (level 4+) can be discriminated in this study, conforming to the clinical requirement to prevent any risks in transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stability of diazepam in blood samples at different storage conditions and in the presence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, V N; Stoykova, S; Runiov, A; Dimitrova, T; Aleksandrova, D; Tsakovski, S; Mitewa, M

    2012-02-10

    Diazepam is one of the mostly used benzodiazepines and it is frequently analyzed in different biological samples, especially blood samples. The diazepam stability in the sample matrices is an important factor regarding reliable data obtaining. The storage is the main factor determining the stability of diazepam in blood samples and it is the object of the study presented. Remaining diazepam amount in spiked whole blood and plasma samples were tested at different storage temperatures, in the absence or presence of sodium fluoride as stabilizer as well as the influence of ethanol on diazepam stability was evaluated. The results of the study indicated that the temperature is the main storage factor affecting diazepam stability. In the fluoride stabilized blood samples the amount of diazepam decreases up to 85% of initial level when stored at -20° C for the period of testing (12 weeks). The presence of low (0.5 g/L) or high (3g/L) ethanol concentrations influences the stability of diazepam at -20 °C. In whole blood samples, the combination of sodium fluoride and ethanol decreases additionally (15-25%) the concentration of the analyte. Freeze-thaw experiments of whole blood samples show about 5-9% decrease in diazepam concentration after the first cycle. The freeze-thaw experiments on plasma samples, containing ethanol and/or fluoride show insignificant decreases of analyte concentration. Further experiments on benzodiazepines stability at different storage conditions or in combination of different factors should be undertaken in forensic toxicology to ensure the data quality, their reliability and reproducibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölenius Karin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. Findings We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. Conclusions The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

  3. Influence of pre-analytical procedures on genomic DNA integrity in blood samples: the SPIDIA experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, F; Ciniselli, C M; Pazzagli, M; Verderio, P; Barraud, L; Hartmann, C C; Pizzamiglio, S; Weisbuch, S; Wyrich, R; Gelmini, S

    2015-02-02

    DNA integrity is a critical part of the definition of genomic DNA (gDNA) quality and can influence downstream molecular applications. Pre-analytical variables as sample storage and DNA extraction methods can influence the quality and quantity of isolated DNA and affect molecular test performances. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of blood sample storage and DNA extraction procedures on gDNA integrity and gDNA fragmentation impact on a molecular test. 157 DNA samples deriving from the Pan European 1st SPIDIA DNA External Quality Assessment (EQA), aimed to investigate the influence of blood storage on gDNA quality and quantity, have been analyzed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and ImageJ imaging software. 157 DNA samples derived from the Pan European 1st SPIDIA DNA External Quality Assessment (EQA), which aimed to investigate the influence of blood storage on gDNA quality and quantity, have been analyzed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and ImageJ imaging software. Our results demonstrate that blood sample storage and DNA extraction procedures influence gDNA integrity and that the same blood sample which underwent a long range multiplex PCR based analytical test can provide different results if the adopted pre-analytical procedures are not standardized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Do plasma concentrations obtained from early arterial blood sampling improve pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort, A.M; Proost, Hans; Kuizenga, K; Houwertjes, M.C; Kleef, U.W; Wierda, J.MKH

    In pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling the first blood sample is usually taken 1 to 2 min after drug administration (late sampling). Therefore, investigators have to extrapolate the plasma concentration to Time 0. Extrapolation, however, erroneously assumes instantaneous and complete

  5. Sampling methods to the statistical control of the production of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Seghatchian, Jerard; Caldeira, Beatriz; Santos, Paula; Castro, Rosa; Fernandes, Teresa; Xavier, Sandra; de Sousa, Gracinda; de Almeida E Sousa, João Paulo

    2017-12-01

    The control of blood components specifications is a requirement generalized in Europe by the European Commission Directives and in the US by the AABB standards. The use of a statistical process control methodology is recommended in the related literature, including the EDQM guideline. The control reliability is dependent of the sampling. However, a correct sampling methodology seems not to be systematically applied. Commonly, the sampling is intended to comply uniquely with the 1% specification to the produced blood components. Nevertheless, on a purely statistical viewpoint, this model could be argued not to be related to a consistent sampling technique. This could be a severe limitation to detect abnormal patterns and to assure that the production has a non-significant probability of producing nonconforming components. This article discusses what is happening in blood establishments. Three statistical methodologies are proposed: simple random sampling, sampling based on the proportion of a finite population, and sampling based on the inspection level. The empirical results demonstrate that these models are practicable in blood establishments contributing to the robustness of sampling and related statistical process control decisions for the purpose they are suggested for. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    of blood sampling before peak time is discussed, and the importance of taking sampling time into consideration when analysing data from epidemiological studies is emphasized. A simple method is devised which can be used to adjust for the influence of time on mf intensities, in studies where accurate......The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...... information on mf intensities is necessary, and where it is impossible to obtain all samples at peak time....

  7. Method of evaluation of process of red blood cell sedimentation based on photometry of droplet samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristov, Alexander; Nosova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    The paper focuses on research aimed at creating and testing a new approach to evaluate the processes of aggregation and sedimentation of red blood cells for purpose of its use in clinical laboratory diagnostics. The proposed method is based on photometric analysis of blood sample formed as a sessile drop. The results of clinical approbation of this method are given in the paper. Analysis of the processes occurring in the sample in the form of sessile drop during the process of blood cells sedimentation is described. The results of experimental studies to evaluate the effect of the droplet sample focusing properties on light radiation transmittance are presented. It is shown that this method significantly reduces the sample volume and provides sufficiently high sensitivity to the studied processes.

  8. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  9. Practical security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with finite sampling bandwidth effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-02-01

    Practical security of the continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system with finite sampling bandwidth of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at the receiver's side is investigated. We find that the finite sampling bandwidth effects may decrease the lower bound of secret key rate without awareness of the legitimate communicators. This leaves security loopholes for Eve to attack the system. In addition, this effect may restrains the linear relationship of secret key bit rate with repetition rate of the system; subsequently, there is a saturation value for the secret key bit rate with the repetition rate. To resist such kind of effects, we propose a dual sampling detection approach in which two ADCs are employed so that the finite sampling bandwidth effects are removed.

  10. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Methods Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia. Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Results Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature, while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice

  11. Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 and 1,800 MHz Continuous Wave Radio Frequency Radiation (CW RFR) on the permeability of Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) of rats. Results have shown that 20 min RFR exposure of 900 and 1,800 MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of BBB of male rats. There was no change in female rats. The scientific evidence on RFR safety or harm remains inconclusive. More studies are needed to demonstrate the effects of RFR on the permeability of BBB and the mechanisms of that breakdown.

  12. Rapid and reliable determination of the halogenating peroxidase activity in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmig, Jörg; Schwarz, Pauline; Bäcker, Ingo; Leichsenring, Anna; Lange, Franziska; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-12-15

    By combining easy and fast leukocyte enrichment with aminophenyl-fluorescein (APF) staining we developed a method to quickly and specifically address the halogenating activity of the immunological relevant blood heme peroxidases myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, respectively. For leukocyte enrichment a two-fold hypotonic lysis procedure of the blood with Millipore water was chosen which represents a cheap, fast and reliable method to diminish the amount of erythrocytes in the samples. This procedure is shown to be suitable both to human and murine blood micro-samples, making it also applicable to small animal experiments with recurring blood sampling. As all types of leukocytes are kept in the sample during the preparation, they can be analysed separately after discrimination during the flow cytometry analysis. This also holds for all heme peroxidase-containing cells, namely neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes. Moreover additional parameters (e.g. antibody staining) can be combined with the heme peroxidase activity determination to gain additional information about the different immune cell types. Based on previous results we applied APF for specifically addressing the halogenating activity of leukocyte peroxidases in blood samples. This dye is selectively oxidized by the MPO and EPO halogenation products hypochlorous and hypobromous acid. This approach may provide a suitable tool to gain more insights into the immune-physiological role of the halogenating activity of heme peroxidases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Applying dried blood spot sampling with LCMS quantification in the clinical development phase of tasquinimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Leif D; Sennbro, Carl-Johan; Svanström, Camilla; Hansson, Gunnar P

    2015-01-01

    Tasquinimod is an orally active anticancer drug in late clinical development. Here we describe the development and validation of a bioanalytical method based upon dried blood spot analysis in combination with LCMS/MS and stable isotope dilution. The present method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, selectivity, carry-over and ruggedness. Data elucidating stability of tasquinimod in dried blood spots and in blood at ambient temperature was investigated and found adequate. Furthermore, in a clinical study, incurred samples reanalysis was performed, and the correlation of blood concentration versus plasma concentrations of tasquinimod was investigated. The method described here is suitable for bioanalysis of tasquinimod in whole blood from humans in clinical studies.

  14. Evaluation of blood glucose fluctuation in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus by self-monitoring of blood glucose and continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Nakae, Rie; Watanabe, Kahori; Akagami, Takafumi; Ochi, Fumihiro; Tokuda, Masaru; Murai, Kazuki; Miuchi, Masayuki; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of blood glucose fluctuation is essential for managing blood glucose control while avoiding hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. In this study, blood glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) whom self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was carried out three or more times per day, and evaluation was performed using blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by CGM and SMBG. Twenty-nine insulin-depleted patients with T1DM were enrolled. Their blood glucose fluctuations were measured at the same time by SMBG and CGM, and the correlations were evaluated. Correlations were found between the following values obtained by SMBG and CGM: mean and standard deviation of blood glucose levels, average daily risk range, Morbus value and high-blood-glucose index. The hypoglycemia duration and the nocturnal hypoglycemia duration showed no correlation with any of the blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by SMBG. The findings suggest that routine SMBG and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement are sufficient for evaluation of hyperglycemia in T1DM. On the other hand, blood glucose fluctuation parameters obtained by SMBG and HbA1c have been shown to have no correlations with either hypoglycemia duration or nocturnal hypoglycemia duration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time From Bioimpedance and Continuous Wave Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxi, Dilpreet; Redout, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-04-01

    We have developed and tested a new architecture for pulse transit time (PTT) estimation at the central arteries using electrical bioimpedance, electrocardiogram, and continuous wave radar to estimate cuffless blood pressure. A transmitter and receiver antenna are placed at the sternum to acquire the arterial pulsation at the aortic arch. A four-electrode arrangement across the shoulders acquires arterial pulse across the carotid and subclavian arteries from bioimpedance as well as a bipolar lead I electrocardiogram. The PTT and pulse arrival times (PATs) are measured on six healthy male subjects during exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Using linear regression, the estimated PAT and PTT values are calibrated to the systolic and mean as well as diastolic blood pressure from an oscillometric device. For all subjects, the Pearson correlation coefficients for PAT-SBP and PTT-SBP are -0.66 (p = 0.001) and -0.48 (p = 0.0029), respectively. Correlation coefficients for individual subjects ranged from -0.54 to -0.9 and -0.37 to -0.95, respectively. The proposed system architecture is promising in estimating cuffless arterial blood pressure at the central, proximal arteries, which obey the Moens-Korteweg equation more closely when compared to peripheral arteries. An important advantage of PTT from the carotid and subclavian arteries is that the PTT over the central elastic arteries is measured instead of the peripheral arteries, which potentially reduces the changes in PTT due to vasomotion. Furthermore, the sensors can be completely hidden under a patients clothes, making them more acceptable by the patient for ambulatory monitoring.

  16. Tracer input for kinetic modelling of liver physiology determined without sampling portal venous blood in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterdahl, Michael; Sørensen, Michael; Mortensen, Frank Viborg; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Quantification of hepatic tracer kinetics by PET requires measurement of tracer input from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV). We wished to develop a method for estimating dual tracer input without the necessity to sample PV blood. Methods Pigs weighing 40 kg were given bolus doses of C15O (CO), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), [11C]-methylglucose (MG), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose (FDGal) or H215O (H2O). Tracer concentration 3-min time courses were measured in the femoral artery and PV by blood sampling. Blood flow was measured in the HA and PV using flow-meters. A model for transfer of tracer through the splanchnic circulation was used to estimate values of a tracer-specific model parameter β. Tracer-specific mean values of β were used to estimate tracer concentration time courses in the PV from the measured arterial concentration. A model-derived dual-input was calculated using the mean HA flow fraction (0.25) and validated by comparison of the use of the measured dual-input and a kinetic model with a fixed ”true” K1true, i.e. clearance of tracer from blood to liver cells. Results The rank order of the means of β was CO tracer input, which is of great importance for the assessment of processes such as transfer across the plasma-hepatocyte membrane or hepatic blood perfusion, can be well approximated in pigs without the necessity to sample PV blood and measure hepatic blood flow; only arterial blood sampling is needed. PMID:20882283

  17. Effects of anesthesia and blood sampling techniques on plasma metabolites and corticosterone in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Myrtha; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2010-04-19

    Blood is routinely sampled from laboratory animals in biomedical research, and many of the commonly applied sampling techniques require anesthesia. Acute effects of many sampling and anesthesia procedures may confound the results, but those effects are incompletely characterized. We here compare the effects of four common anesthesia procedures (inhalation anesthesia with ether (EA) or isoflurane (IA) and intraperitoneal injection anesthesia with xylazin/ketamine (XKA) or medetomidine/midazolam/fentanyl (MMFA)) on plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and corticosterone in blood obtained from a previously implanted jugular vein (JV) catheter with the effect of JV blood sampling from non-anesthetized, freely-moving rats (JV-NA). Also, we included in the comparison two other blood sampling procedures usually performed without anesthesia (NA), i.e., puncture of the saphenic vein (SV) and tail incision (TI). Whereas the control procedure (JV-NA) did not significantly affect any of the target parameters, plasma glucose increased from 14 (JV-IA) to 44 (JV-MMFA) % (all Ps=0.05 when compared with the control procedure) in all blood samples collected in anesthesia and was 12 and 14% lower (both Pssamples, respectively. Plasma lactate increased from 74 (JV-IA) to 226% (SV-NA) (all Pssampling and anesthesia procedures except for JV-XKA and JV-MMF. Plasma NEFAs increased to 52% (P0.05). Finally, only the JV-EA and the JV-MMFA procedures increased plasma corticosterone (+525 and +353%, respectively, both Pssampling procedures can have profound acute effects on plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. This must be considered for the design and interpretation of blood sampling experiments in laboratory animals. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A nonlethal sampling method to obtain, generate and assemble whole blood transcriptomes from small, wild mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zixia; Gallot, Aurore; Lao, Nga T; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Jebb, David; Bekaert, Michaël; Teeling, Emma C

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of tissue samples from wild populations is a constant challenge in conservation biology, especially for endangered species and protected species where nonlethal sampling is the only option. Whole blood has been suggested as a nonlethal sample type that contains a high percentage of bodywide and genomewide transcripts and therefore can be used to assess the transcriptional status of an individual, and to infer a high percentage of the genome. However, only limited quantities of blood can be nonlethally sampled from small species and it is not known if enough genetic material is contained in only a few drops of blood, which represents the upper limit of sample collection for some small species. In this study, we developed a nonlethal sampling method, the laboratory protocols and a bioinformatic pipeline to sequence and assemble the whole blood transcriptome, using Illumina RNA-Seq, from wild greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). For optimal results, both ribosomal and globin RNAs must be removed before library construction. Treatment of DNase is recommended but not required enabling the use of smaller amounts of starting RNA. A large proportion of protein-coding genes (61%) in the genome were expressed in the blood transcriptome, comparable to brain (65%), kidney (63%) and liver (58%) transcriptomes, and up to 99% of the mitogenome (excluding D-loop) was recovered in the RNA-Seq data. In conclusion, this nonlethal blood sampling method provides an opportunity for a genomewide transcriptomic study of small, endangered or critically protected species, without sacrificing any individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. In vitro anti-platelet potency of ticagrelor in blood samples from infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Fredrik; Asztély, Anna-Karin; Jeppsson, Anders; Nylander, Sven; Berggren, Anders; Nelander, Karin; Castellheim, Albert; Romlin, Birgitta S

    2015-09-01

    Ticagrelor, a novel platelet inhibitor acting on the ADP-dependent P2Y12 receptor, is currently approved for treating adults with acute coronary syndrome. The effect of ticagrelor in children has not been explored. As a first step, we here evaluate if the in vitro anti-platelet potency of ticagrelor in blood samples from children of different age is different as compared with in blood samples from adults. Blood samples from 36 healthy children grouped by age (0-2 months, n=6; 2-6 months, n=6; 6months-2years, n=6; 2-6 years, n=10; 6-12 years, n=8) and 13 adults were collected for in vitro analysis using vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP) assay in whole blood and ADP-induced light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet rich plasma. Ticagrelor (0.01 - 10μmol/L) was added in vitro and its potency was assessed by calculating the concentration that provided 50% inhibition of the maximum response (IC50). The in vitro potency of ticagrelor in blood from adults and in blood from children of any age group were comparable, both when analyzed with LTA and with VASP. These in vitro results are consistent with the hypothesis that ticagrelor would achieve a comparable anti-platelet effect in children of different ages as in adults at equal plasma exposure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of pesticide residues in human blood samples from Punjab (India

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    Jasbir Singh Bedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to estimate the current status of residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, organophosphates (OPs and synthetic pyrethroids (SPs pesticides in human blood. Materials and Methods: Human blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of human blood samples collected from Punjab revealed the presence of p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE, p,p’ dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD, o,p’ DDE and β-endosulfan at mean levels of 15.26, 2.71, 5.62 and 4.02 ng/ml respectively. p,p’ DDE residue was observed in 18.0% blood samples, and it contributes 55% of the total pesticide burden in human blood. The difference of total dichlorordiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT between different age groups of humans was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. The difference of DDT and endosulfan between dietary habits, gender and spraying of pesticides was found statistically non-significant, however endosulfan residues were observed only in pesticide sprayer’s population. Conclusion: Occurrence of p,p’ DDE, p,p’ DDD, o,p’ DDE in human blood indicated restricted use of DDT. However, presence of endosulfan residues in occupationally exposed population is a matter of public health concern.

  1. Using a Single Blood Sample and Inulin to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigoshi, Yuuki; Yamagishi, Norio; Satoh, Hiroshi; Kato, Masaki; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    To establish a simple procedure for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in conscious rabbits, we used the conventional multisample approach to develop a single-blood-sample method. A bolus injection of inulin was administered intravenously at a dose of 40 mg/kg to male New Zealand White rabbits, and blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min later. Serum inulin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine concentrations were determined. Using this multi-sample method, the reference GFR in clinically healthy rabbits was 4.01 ± 0.17 mL/min/kg (n = 17). In rabbits given an intravenous injection of the antitumor agent cisplatin, GFR fell before serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations increased. Based on cumulative GFR data from healthy and nephropathy rabbits, the GFR obtained from the 3-sample method (30-, 60-, and 90-min samples) was closely correlated (r = 0.99) with that calculated from the estimated distribution volume and serum inulin concentration at 90 min after inulin injection in the single-blood-sample method. These results demonstrate that the single-blood-sample method supports sequential GFR measurements in rabbits and is a versatile procedure not only for research purposes but also in clinical settings. PMID:22330718

  2. Continuous blood purification treatment for endotoxin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Lin, R; Xu, Y; Zhang, S; Cui, K; Zhu, M; Li, A; Chen, C; Yang, J; Yang, W

    2017-02-16

    This study aimed to explore the effects of continuous blood purification (CBP) treatment in pigs affected with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A total of 12 healthy male pigs, weighing 12±1.8 kg, were randomly and equally assigned to the control and experimental groups. The ARDS pig model was prepared by intravenous injections of endotoxin (20 µg/kg). The control group was given conventional supportive therapy, while the experimental group was given continuous veno-venous hemofiltration therapy. During the treatment process, the variations in dynamic lung compliance, oxygenation index, hemodynamics, and urine volume per hour at different times (Baseline, 0, 2, 4, and 6 h) were recorded. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-10 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histomorphological changes of the lung, heart, and kidney were visualized using a light microscope. The nuclear factor κB p65 protein content of the heart, lung, and kidney tissues was also detected using western blot. The experimental group outperformed the control group in both respiratory and hemodynamic events. CBP treatment cleared TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 partially from serum and BALF. The pathological examination of the heart, lung, and kidney tissues revealed that the injury was less severe in the experimental group. CBP treatment can improve the organ functions of pigs affected with endotoxin-induced ARDS and protect these organs to some extent.

  3. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor: an appraisal of the physiological basis and scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-06-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions. The self-regulated redistribution of oxygenated blood from peripheral to central organs causes peripheral ischemia, thus theoretically bringing into question the scalp capillary bed as representative of the central circulation. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. EVALUATION OF ZEBU NELLORE CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USING THE CELL-DYN 3500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER

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    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cell-dyn 3500 is a multiparameter flow cytometer, which may analyze samples from several species performing several simultaneous analyses. It is able to perform white blood cells, red blood cells and platelet counts, besides differential leukocyte counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin determination. Cell-Dyn 3500 performs total leukocyte count both optically and by impedance. The equipment may choose one or other method, based on the reliability of the results. Erythrocyte and platelet counts are determined by impedance. Leukocyte differentiation is based on an optical principle, using separation in multiangular polarized light. The objective of this study was to compare the results of complete blood count of Zebu Nellore heifers from Celldyn 3500, with those obtained from a semi-automated cell counter (Celm CC 510 and the manual technique. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in 5 mL EDTA vacuum tubes from 58 Nellore heifers, at 24 months of age. Samples were processed in parallel in the three different techniques. Results were analyzed using paired t test, Pearson’s correlation and the Bland-Altmann method. There was a strong correlation for all parameters analyzed by Cell-Dyn 3500, manual method and semiautomated cell counter, except for basophils and monocytes counts. These results confirm that this analyzer is reliable for blood samples analysis of zebu cattle.

  5. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Pelle; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics at hospitals has great potential. This study shows how a simulation model displaying the morning blood-taking round at a Danish public hospital can be developed and utilized with the aim of improving the logistics. The focus of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood samples in the laboratory were used as the evaluation criteria. Four different scenarios were tested and compared with the current approach: (1) Using AGVs (mobile robots), (2) using a pneumatic tube system, (3) using porters that are called upon, or (4) using porters that come to the wards every 45 minutes. Furthermore, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential lowering the AWT and MWT with approx. 36% and 18%, respectively. Additionally, all of the scenarios had a more even distribution of arrivals except for porters coming to the wards every 45 min. As a consequence of the results obtained in the study, the hospital decided to implement a pneumatic tube system.

  6. The impact of the site of blood sampling on pharmacokinetic parameters following sublingual dosing to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, E; Halldin, M M; Annas, A; Königsson, K; Jansson, B; Pehrson, R; Borg, N

    2013-01-01

    Drugs are most commonly administered orally, but some potential drug candidates are not suited for oral administration due to poor absorption, high first pass metabolism or gastrointestinal side effects. The interest for transmucosal dosing for systemic drug delivery is increasing, e.g. buccal, sublingual and nasal routes. The evaluation of the systemic plasma concentration and the derivation of the pharmacokinetic parameters of candidate compounds in preclinical studies are essential for drug development. The effect of site of blood sampling on the measured drug concentration, in both animals and humans, is to some extent known but it is not always taken into consideration in the design of pharmacological and toxicological studies. Blood samples were collected both from leg and jugular veins from beagle dogs following a single sublingual dosing of Compound A in order to determine the impact of different sites of blood sampling on plasma pharmacokinetics. Plasma was prepared by centrifugation and plasma concentrations of Compound A were determined by protein precipitation and liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometric detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartment methods. Sampling from the jugular vein resulted in higher and more variable exposure during the absorption phase compared to sampling from a leg vein. The plasma exposure in the jugular vein, in terms of C(max), was 4-fold compared to that in the leg vein and an approximately 2-fold bioavailability was observed. The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact of the different sites of blood sampling on assessing systemic plasma exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters for Compound A following sublingual dosing to dogs. The results demonstrate the significant impact that the site of blood sampling has on PK parameters, and raise concerns of using the jugular vein as a site of sampling after sublingual and other transmucosal routes of dosing in the head

  7. Rapid microbial sample preparation from blood using a novel concentration device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Boardman

    Full Text Available Appropriate care for bacteremic patients is dictated by the amount of time needed for an accurate diagnosis. However, the concentration of microbes in the blood is extremely low in these patients (1-100 CFU/mL, traditionally requiring growth (blood culture or amplification (e.g., PCR for detection. Current culture-based methods can take a minimum of two days, while faster methods like PCR require a sample free of inhibitors (i.e., blood components. Though commercial kits exist for the removal of blood from these samples, they typically capture only DNA, thereby necessitating the use of blood culture for antimicrobial testing. Here, we report a novel, scaled-up sample preparation protocol carried out in a new microbial concentration device. The process can efficiently lyse 10 mL of bacteremic blood while maintaining the microorganisms' viability, giving a 30-μL final output volume. A suite of six microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans at a range of clinically relevant concentrations was tested. All of the microorganisms had recoveries greater than 55% at the highest tested concentration of 100 CFU/mL, with three of them having over 70% recovery. At the lowest tested concentration of 3 CFU/mL, two microorganisms had recoveries of ca. 40-50% while the other four gave recoveries greater than 70%. Using a Taqman assay for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSAto prove the feasibility of downstream analysis, we show that our microbial pellets are clean enough for PCR amplification. PCR testing of 56 spiked-positive and negative samples gave a specificity of 0.97 and a sensitivity of 0.96, showing that our sample preparation protocol holds great promise for the rapid diagnosis of bacteremia directly from a primary sample.

  8. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  9. Development of Chemically Amplified Optical Sensors for Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1162-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Stephen M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Livermore, CA (United States); Mastrototaro, John J. [Minimed Technologies, Inc., Sylmar, CA (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects 14 million people in the U.S. and more than 110 million people worldwide. Each year in this country 27,000 diabetic patients become blind, 15,000 have kidney failure, and over 54,000 have peripheral limb amputations. In 1992, total healthcare costs in the U.S. for diabetes were more than $105 billion, approximately 15% of our healthcare budget. Conventional therapy for the most severe form of diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or Type I diabetes, is to administer one or two injections per day of various forms of insulin while monitoring blood glucose levels twice or three times daily with commercial glucometers that require blood samples. Near normal blood sugar levels (glycemic control) is difficult to achieve with conventional therapy. In the fall of 1993, the results of the 10-year $165 million Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) were published which showed that intensive insulin management would lead to dramatically fewer cases of retinopathy (which leads to blindness), nephropathy (which leads to kidney failure), and neuropathy (which can lead to limb amputations) [New England Journal of Medicine, Vo1239, No.14 977-986 (1993)]. If existing commercial insulin pumps could be combined with a continuous glucose sensor, a more physiological and fine-tuned therapy could be provided - in effect, an artificial biomechanical pancreas would be available. Existing research suggested that such a development would dramatically improve glucose control, thus greatly reducing morbidity and mortality from this disease. MiniMed Technologies in Sylmar, CA, identified a number of optically based sensor strategies as well as candidate chemical reactions that could be used to implement a minimally invasive opto-chemical glucose sensor. LLNL evaluated these sensor strategies and chemical reactions. These evaluations were the first steps leading to development of a sensor of considerable importance that could

  10. A blood sampling microsystem for pharmacokinetic applications: design, fabrication, and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Barnett, Adam; Rogers, Karen L; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes a microsystem for automated blood sampling from laboratory mice used in pharmacokinetic studies. Intended to be mounted as a "backpack" on a mouse, it uses a microneedle, reservoir, and an actuator to instantaneously prick the animal for a time-point sample, eliminating the need for a tethered catheter with large dead volume. The blood is collected by capillary effect through a 31-33 gauge microneedle (250-210 microm OD) into a approximately 1 microL micromachined steel reservoir. The voice coil actuator provides a peak force of approximately 300 mN, which amply exceeds the measured piercing force of mouse skin (i.e., 60-85 mN for a 31-gauge needle with 12 degrees bevel). The sampling system was tested in vitro using a mock vessel with adjustable pressure; the reservoir was filled in <0.15 s by a combination of the capillary effect and blood pressure. The system may also be used to sample interstitial fluid, but the absence of blood pressure makes it necessary to enhance the capillary effect of the needle. This is accomplished by either electropolishing the inner surface to make it more hydrophilic or using a polymer wire insert to increase the surface area. The steel surface of the reservoir is also coated with silicon oxynitride by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to improve its hydrophilicity. Blood from fresh bovine tissue was collected into the reservoir to simulate interstitial fluid sampling. In vivo tests on live, anesthetized mice resulted in successful collection of blood into the reservoir. The possible integration of the device in microanalytical systems and the device scalability for multisampling are discussed.

  11. Reductions in Red Blood Cell 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Concentration during Continuous Renal Replacment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnara, Carlo; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Waikar, Sushrut S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Hypophosphatemia is a frequent complication during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), a dialytic technique used to treat AKI in critically ill patients. This study sought to confirm that phosphate depletion during CRRT may decrease red blood cell (RBC) concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), a crucial allosteric effector of hemoglobin’s (Hgb’s) affinity for oxygen, thereby leading to impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Phosphate mass balance studies were performed in 20 patients with severe AKI through collection of CRRT effluent. RBC concentrations of 2,3-DPG, venous blood gas pH, and oxygen partial pressure required for 50% hemoglobin saturation (P50) were measured at CRRT initiation and days 2, 4, and 7. Similar measurements were obtained on days 0 and 2 in a reference group of 10 postsurgical patients, most of whom did not have AKI. Associations of 2,3-DPG with laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes were examined using mixed-effects and Cox regression models. Results Mean 2,3-DPG levels decreased from a mean (±SD) of 13.4±3.4 µmol/g Hgb to 11.0±3.1 µmol/g Hgb after 2 days of CRRT (PCRRT were not significantly lower than those in the reference group on day 2. Among patients receiving CRRT, 2,3-DPG decreased by 0.53 µmol/g Hgb per 1 g phosphate removed (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.68 µmol/g Hgb; PCRRT-induced phosphate depletion is associated with measurable reductions in RBC 2,3-DPG concentration and a shift in the O2:Hgb affinity curve even in the absence of overt hypophosphatemia. 2,3-DPG reductions may be associated with higher risk for in-hospital death and represent a potentially avoidable complication of CRRT. PMID:25538269

  12. BLOOD SMEAR EVALUATION OF BALI DUCKS SAMPLED FROM TRADITIONAL FARMING SYSTEMS IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Haryono Utama

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research to confirm the abnormalities of blood corpuscles in Bali ducks based on blood smear examination has been conducted. The research samples consisted of 105 ducks from various regencies in Bali. The blood smear examination was conducted by the method described in this literature and the data was collected and tabulated by means of the descriptive method. Erythrocyte abnormalities were: polychromasia (61.9%, anisocytosis (17.1%, poikilocytosis (21.0%. Abnormalities associated with leukocyte composition were: Lymphopenic (46.7%; Heterophylic (44.8%; Heteropenic (3.8%, also Thrombocyto penia (2.9% was present in 105 ducks. In conclusion 61,9% ducks examined deal with regenerative anaemia. They also have some blood abnormalities such as basophylia, eosinophylia, heterophylia, heteropenia, lymphopenia, and monocytosis.

  13. Stability of heparin blood samples during transport based on defined pre-analytical quality goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther A; Stahl, Marta; Brandslund, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    , centrifuged and separated at the doctor's office within 45-60 min. This sample was considered as the best estimate of a comparison value. RESULTS: The pre-set quality goals were fulfilled for all the investigated components for samples transported to hospital by courier either as whole blood or as "on gel...... impact on the quality of results, we wanted to study which combination of transport conditions could fulfil our pre-defined goals for maximum allowable error. METHODS: Samples from 406 patients from nine general practitioners (GPs) in two Danish counties were sent to two hospitals for analyses, during...... whole blood if the above mentioned conditions are met. There is no need for centrifugation in the primary sector. Neither mailing of samples with plasma "on gel" nor public transport by coach bus fulfil our analytical goals....

  14. Dielectrophoretic separation of blood pathogens ou Bacterial extraction from biological samples using DEP forces

    OpenAIRE

    Bisceglia, Emilie; Cubizolles, Myriam; Mallard, Frédéric; Français, Olivier; Le Pioufle, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We report here a method based on DEP separation to concentrate pathogens out of a biological sample by combining positive and negative DEP to separate pathogens from the sample matrix. In this approach, we take advantage from the large tolerance of micro-organisms towards osmotic shock to perform dielectrophoretic separation in a low electric conductivity medium. This condition enables to collect micro-organisms by positive DEP, while lysed blood cells are repelled fro...

  15. Gram-negative and -positive bacteria differentiation in blood culture samples by headspace volatile compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Graßmann-Lichtenauer, Carola; Praun, Siegfried; Denzer, Wolfgang; Schelling, Gustav; Schubert, Sören

    2016-12-01

    Identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures still relies on standard techniques such as Gram staining followed by culturing with definite microorganism identification. Alternatively, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or the analysis of headspace volatile compound (VC) composition produced by cultures can help to differentiate between microorganisms under experimental conditions. This study assessed the efficacy of volatile compound based microorganism differentiation into Gram-negatives and -positives in unselected positive blood culture samples from patients. Headspace gas samples of positive blood culture samples were transferred to sterilized, sealed, and evacuated 20 ml glass vials and stored at -30 °C until batch analysis. Headspace gas VC content analysis was carried out via an auto sampler connected to an ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometer (IMR-MS). Measurements covered a mass range from 16 to 135 u including CO2, H2, N2, and O2. Prediction rules for microorganism identification based on VC composition were derived using a training data set and evaluated using a validation data set within a random split validation procedure. One-hundred-fifty-two aerobic samples growing 27 Gram-negatives, 106 Gram-positives, and 19 fungi and 130 anaerobic samples growing 37 Gram-negatives, 91 Gram-positives, and two fungi were analysed. In anaerobic samples, ten discriminators were identified by the random forest method allowing for bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive (error rate: 16.7 % in validation data set). For aerobic samples the error rate was not better than random. In anaerobic blood culture samples of patients IMR-MS based headspace VC composition analysis facilitates bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive.

  16. Theorical and practical bases for blood sample collection from the heel of newborns for neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vela-Amieva

    2014-07-01

    collected in a special filter paper (Guthrie’s card. Despite its apparent simplicity, NBS laboratories commonly receive a large number of samples collected incorrectly and technically unsuitable for perfor4ming biochemical determinations. The aim of the present paper is to offer recommendations based on scientific evidence, for the properly blood collection on filter paper for NBS programs.

  17. Comparison of fingertip to arterial blood samples at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Lands, Larry C; Schneider, Wolfgang; Carli, Franco

    2005-07-01

    The purpose was to determine whether arterialized fingertip blood-gas samples are comparable to arterial samples at rest and at exercise. Repeated measures, with subjects serving as their own controls. Department of Anesthesia, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, (January to April 2004). Fifteen healthy men (age = 25 +/- 4 y; weight = 76.4 +/- 11.4 kg; height = 180.7 +/- 8.0 cm; peak oxygen uptake or VO2peak = 46.0 +/- 9.0 mL . kg . min). Arterial blood gases, metabolites, electrolytes. Blood sampled simultaneously from the radial artery and warmed fingertip at rest and during 2 levels of exercise (vigorous 181 W or 70% VO2peak; maximal 261 W or 100% VO2peak) on a electronically braked ergometer. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen in blood combining rest and the 2 exercise levels was on average 13.6 +/- 9.0 mm Hg higher than arterialized fingertip samples, with the largest difference occurring at rest (18.8 +/- 6.5 mm Hg; 95% CI = 15.5, 22.1) and the smallest difference occurring at the highest level of exercise (8.3 +/- 9.2 mm Hg; 95% CI = 3.6, 13.0; P arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation or arterial oxygen pressure.

  18. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we hav...... in future analyses of genetic and environmental risk factors....

  19. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in hematocrit of blood samples obtained from two venipuncture sites in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Curtis, Eric W; Wilborn, Rachel E; Young, Forrest A

    2006-11-01

    To evaluate differences in Hct between 2 venipuncture sites in captive and free-ranging sharks. 32 healthy adult captive sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus, Carcharhinus plumbeus, Stegastoma fasciatum, Orectolobus japonicus, and Triaenodon obesus) and 15 captured free-ranging adult sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus and Carcharhinus acronotus). Blood samples were collected from the caudal tail artery followed by collection from the sinus located immediately caudal to the cranial dorsal fin. The Hct was determined for each sample and results were compared. Additionally, results for sharks that were highly active and used aerobic metabolism were compared with results for sharks that were less active and tolerant of anaerobic conditions. Mean Hct for all sharks was significantly less (8% less) in blood samples obtained from the cranial dorsal fin sinus, compared with the Hct for samples obtained from the caudal tail artery. When compared on the basis of metabolic class, sharks that were more tolerant of anaerobic conditions had lower Hct values and smaller differences between the 2 venipuncture sites. Hct values were significantly lower in blood samples collected from the cranial dorsal fin sinus compared with values for samples collected from the caudal tail artery. It is important to recognize this difference when evaluating hematologic variables in sharks and when establishing reference ranges for Hcts for shark populations. Sharks that were more active and relied on aerobic metabolism had higher Hct values than did anaerobic-tolerant sharks, and the difference in Hct values between venipuncture sites was more pronounced.

  1. Blood Pressure Response to Losartan and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunström, Erik; Manhem, Karin; Rosengren, Annika; Peker, Yüksel

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in people with hypertension, particularly resistant hypertension. Treatment with an antihypertensive agent alone is often insufficient to control hypertension in patients with OSA. To determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) added to treatment with an antihypertensive agent has an impact on blood pressure (BP) levels. During the initial 6-week, two-center, open, prospective, case-control, parallel-design study (2:1; OSA/no-OSA), all patients began treatment with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, 50 mg daily. In the second 6-week, sex-stratified, open, randomized, parallel-design study of the OSA group, all subjects continued to receive losartan and were randomly assigned to either nightly CPAP as add-on therapy or no CPAP. Twenty-four-hour BP monitoring included assessment every 15 minutes during daytime hours and every 20 minutes during the night. Ninety-one patients with untreated hypertension underwent a home sleep study (55 were found to have OSA; 36 were not). Losartan significantly reduced systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP in both groups (without OSA: 12.6, 7.2, and 9.0 mm Hg; with OSA: 9.8, 5.7, and 6.1 mm Hg). Add-on CPAP treatment had no significant changes in 24-hour BP values but did reduce nighttime systolic BP by 4.7 mm Hg. All 24-hour BP values were reduced significantly in the 13 patients with OSA who used CPAP at least 4 hours per night. Losartan reduced BP in OSA, but the reductions were less than in no-OSA. Add-on CPAP therapy resulted in no significant changes in 24-hour BP measures except in patients using CPAP efficiently. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00701428).​

  2. Comparison between intermittent and continuous spectra optia leukapheresis systems for autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenko, Katharina; Pavel, Petra; Bruckner, Thomas; Puthenparambil, Joe; Hundemer, Michael; Schmitt, Anita; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Ho, Anthony D; Wuchter, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Terumo BCT recently introduced a new system for mononuclear cell (MNC) collection that uses a Spectra Optia apheresis machine equipped with a redesigned disposable kit and software program (version 11.2). It allows for the continuous collection of MNCs, unlike the original Spectra Optia system (version 7.2), which included a chamber for two-step cell separation. The aim of this study was to compare the two apheresis systems in regard to specific performance parameters. A retrospective data analysis of 150 patients who had undergone peripheral blood stem cell collection between March of 2014 and May of 2015 at our institution was performed. For the matched comparison, patients were divided into two groups by diagnosis and by previous forms of therapy received: a homogeneous group of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) that had received first line therapy ("MM" group, n = 88) and a heterogeneous group that included all of the other patients ("other" group, n = 62). No significant differences in CD34+ collection yields between both collection regimens were found (pMM  = 0.19, pother  = 0.74) in either group. Moreover, similar performance ratios (collected/predicted CD34+ cell number in %) were observed (pMM  = 0.89, pother  = 0.1). No relevant variations in platelet or hemoglobin loss were found between the two systems. We conclude that the new continuous Spectra Optia MNC system is equally efficient in collecting CD34+ cells and can be used without sacrificing collection efficiency levels when treating a broad variety of autologous patients. J. Clin. Apheresis 32:27-34, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Continuous blood purification treatment for endotoxin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jiang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effects of continuous blood purification (CBP treatment in pigs affected with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. A total of 12 healthy male pigs, weighing 12±1.8 kg, were randomly and equally assigned to the control and experimental groups. The ARDS pig model was prepared by intravenous injections of endotoxin (20 µg/kg. The control group was given conventional supportive therapy, while the experimental group was given continuous veno-venous hemofiltration therapy. During the treatment process, the variations in dynamic lung compliance, oxygenation index, hemodynamics, and urine volume per hour at different times (Baseline, 0, 2, 4, and 6 h were recorded. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and IL-10 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histomorphological changes of the lung, heart, and kidney were visualized using a light microscope. The nuclear factor κB p65 protein content of the heart, lung, and kidney tissues was also detected using western blot. The experimental group outperformed the control group in both respiratory and hemodynamic events. CBP treatment cleared TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 partially from serum and BALF. The pathological examination of the heart, lung, and kidney tissues revealed that the injury was less severe in the experimental group. CBP treatment can improve the organ functions of pigs affected with endotoxin-induced ARDS and protect these organs to some extent.

  4. A Novel Continuous Blood Pressure Estimation Approach Based on Data Mining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Fen; Fu, Nan; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Ding, Xiao-Rong; Hong, Xi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2017-11-01

    Continuous blood pressure (BP) estimation using pulse transit time (PTT) is a promising method for unobtrusive BP measurement. However, the accuracy of this approach must be improved for it to be viable for a wide range of applications. This study proposes a novel continuous BP estimation approach that combines data mining techniques with a traditional mechanism-driven model. First, 14 features derived from simultaneous electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram signals were extracted for beat-to-beat BP estimation. A genetic algorithm-based feature selection method was then used to select BP indicators for each subject. Multivariate linear regression and support vector regression were employed to develop the BP model. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed approach were validated for static, dynamic, and follow-up performance. Experimental results based on 73 subjects showed that the proposed approach exhibited excellent accuracy in static BP estimation, with a correlation coefficient and mean error of 0.852 and -0.001 ± 3.102 mmHg for systolic BP, and 0.790 and -0.004 ± 2.199 mmHg for diastolic BP. Similar performance was observed for dynamic BP estimation. The robustness results indicated that the estimation accuracy was lower by a certain degree one day after model construction but was relatively stable from one day to six months after construction. The proposed approach is superior to the state-of-the-art PTT-based model for an approximately 2-mmHg reduction in the standard derivation at different time intervals, thus providing potentially novel insights for cuffless BP estimation.

  5. Barrier screens: a method to sample blood-fed and host-seeking exophilic mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkot Thomas R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the proportion of blood meals on humans by outdoor-feeding and resting mosquitoes is challenging. This is largely due to the difficulty of finding an adequate and unbiased sample of resting, engorged mosquitoes to enable the identification of host blood meal sources. This is particularly difficult in the south-west Pacific countries of Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea where thick vegetation constitutes the primary resting sites for the exophilic mosquitoes that are the primary malaria and filariasis vectors. Methods Barrier screens of shade-cloth netting attached to bamboo poles were constructed between villages and likely areas where mosquitoes might seek blood meals or rest. Flying mosquitoes, obstructed by the barrier screens, would temporarily stop and could then be captured by aspiration at hourly intervals throughout the night. Results In the three countries where this method was evaluated, blood-fed females of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles bancroftii, Anopheles longirostris, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles vagus, Anopheles kochi, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles tessellatus, Culex vishnui, Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia spp were collected while resting on the barrier screens. In addition, female Anopheles punctulatus and Armigeres spp as well as male An. farauti, Cx. vishnui, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes species were similarly captured. Conclusions Building barrier screens as temporary resting sites in areas where mosquitoes were likely to fly was an extremely time-effective method for collecting an unbiased representative sample of engorged mosquitoes for determining the human blood index.

  6. Whole genome transcript profiling from fingerstick blood samples: a comparison and feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Adam R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome gene expression profiling has revolutionized research in the past decade especially with the advent of microarrays. Recently, there have been significant improvements in whole blood RNA isolation techniques which, through stabilization of RNA at the time of sample collection, avoid bias and artifacts introduced during sample handling. Despite these improvements, current human whole blood RNA stabilization/isolation kits are limited by the requirement of a venous blood sample of at least 2.5 mL. While fingerstick blood collection has been used for many different assays, there has yet to be a kit developed to isolate high quality RNA for use in gene expression studies from such small human samples. The clinical and field testing advantages of obtaining reliable and reproducible gene expression data from a fingerstick are many; it is less invasive, time saving, more mobile, and eliminates the need of a trained phlebotomist. Furthermore, this method could also be employed in small animal studies, i.e. mice, where larger sample collections often require sacrificing the animal. In this study, we offer a rapid and simple method to extract sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from approximately 70 μl of whole blood collected via a fingerstick using a modified protocol of the commercially available Qiagen PAXgene RNA Blood Kit. Results From two sets of fingerstick collections, about 70 uL whole blood collected via finger lancet and capillary tube, we recovered an average of 252.6 ng total RNA with an average RIN of 9.3. The post-amplification yields for 50 ng of total RNA averaged at 7.0 ug cDNA. The cDNA hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips had an average % Present call of 52.5%. Both fingerstick collections were highly correlated with r2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.97. Similarly both fingerstick collections were highly correlated to the venous collection with r2 values ranging from 0.88 to 0

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of a Microfluidic Device to Ultrapurify Blood Samples

    KAUST Repository

    Tallerico, Marco

    2015-05-04

    The improvement of blood cell sorting techniques in recent years have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the possible benefits that these methods can lead in biology, regenerative medicine, materials science and therapeutic area. In this work a cell sorting technique based on filtration is described. The separation occurs by means of a microfluidic device, suitably designed, manufactured and tested, that is connected to an external experimental set-up. The fabrication process can be divided in two parts: at first it is described the manufacturing process of a filtering membrane, with holes of specific size that allow the passage of only certain cell types. Following the microfluidic device is fabricated through the mechanical micromilling. The membrane and the microdevice are suitably bonded and tested by means of an external connection with syringe pumps that inject blood samples at specific flow rates. The device is designed to separate blood cells and tumor cells only by using differences in size and shape. In particular during the first experiments red blood cells and platelets are sorted from white blood cells; in the other experiments red blood cells and platelets are separated from white blood cells and tumor cells. The microdevice has proven to be very efficient, in fact a capture efficiency of 99% is achieved. For this reason it could be used in identification and isolation of circulating tumor cells, a very rare cancer cell type whose presence in the bloodstream could be symptom of future solid tumor formation. The various experiments have also demonstrated that tumor cells survive even after the separation treatment, and then the suffered stress during the sorting process does not harm the biological sample.

  8. Analysis of whole blood samples with low gas flow inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sascha; Künnemeyer, Jens; Terborg, Lydia; Trümpler, Stefan; Günsel, Andreas; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Karst, Uwe; Buscher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Low gas flow ICP-OES with a total argon consumption below 0.7 L/min is introduced for the analysis of trace elements in blood samples to investigate the influence of samples containing an organic solvent in a demanding matrix on the performance of this plasma for the first time. Therefore, gadolinium was determined in human plasma samples and mercury in red blood cells, human plasma, and precipitated plasma protein fraction. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined to be in the low microgram per liter range for the analytes and the accuracy of the method was assessed by comparison with a conventional Fassel-type torch-based ICP-OES. It was proven that the low gas flow ICP-OES leads to comparable results with the instrument based on the Fassel-type torch.

  9. Should fetal scalp blood sampling be performed in the case of meconium-stained amniotic fluid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujenah, J; Oliveira, J; De La Hosseraye, C; Benbara, A; Tigaizin, A; Bricou, A; Carbillon, L

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of using fetal scalp blood sampling on the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). Prospective data collection with regard to MSAF during labor for low-risk term cephalic singleton live birth from 2012 to 2014. Maternal, obstetric and neonatal data were compared according to the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS group) or not (no RDS group). Of 515 newborns born through MSAF, 46 experienced RDS and from them 10 experienced meconium aspiration syndrome. No difference was observed according to maternal characteristic, abnormal fetal heart rate tracing pattern irrespective of its category and cesarean rate. Apgar at one minute was lower in the group RDS (7.6 versus 8.5, p scalp lactate sampling during the labor (71.1% versus 55.1%, p scalp blood assessment (p scalp blood assessment and MSAF diagnosed during the first stage of labor (after spontaneous rupture of membranes or at amniotomy) was found. In case of MSAF, fetal scalp blood sampling did not reduce the risk of RDS.

  10. Evaluation of PCR Approaches for Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Blood Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an effective diagnostic tool for Carrion's disease leads to misdiagnosis, wrong treatments and perpetuation of asymptomatic carriers living in endemic areas. Conventional PCR approaches have been reported as a diagnostic technique. However, the detection limit of these techniques is not clear as well as if its usefulness in low bacteriemia cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection limit of 3 PCR approaches.We determined the detection limit of 3 different PCR approaches: Bartonella-specific 16S rRNA, fla and its genes. We also evaluated the viability of dry blood spots to be used as a sample transport system. Our results show that 16S rRNA PCR is the approach with a lowest detection limit, 5 CFU/μL, and thus, the best diagnostic PCR tool studied. Dry blood spots diminish the sensitivity of the assay.From the tested PCRs, the 16S rRNA PCR-approach is the best to be used in the direct blood detection of acute cases of Carrion's disease. However its use in samples from dry blood spots results in easier management of transport samples in rural areas, a slight decrease in the sensitivity was observed. The usefulness to detect by PCR the presence of low-bacteriemic or asymptomatic carriers is doubtful, showing the need to search for new more sensible techniques.

  11. Use of dried blood sample for serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Bahia

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Eluates of 183 dried caprine blood samples on filter paper were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, using IFA, ELISA and dot-ELISA, and compared with results obtained by direct observations on comparable sera, usin the same tests. The results has showed that papers with dried blood can be preserved for up to 45 days at room temperature and for six months at 4°C, provided they are protected against humid conditions by using desiccating agents such as silica-gel. Comparison between serum and eluate reactions revelated 97-100% correspondance. The antibody titers remained constant throughout the study period.

  12. Continuous Flow Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Connected On-line with HPLC/MS for Spatially Resolved Analysis of Small Molecules and Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: A continuous flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe extracts soluble material from surfaces for direct ionization and detection by MS. Demonstrated here is the on-line coupling of such a probe with HPLC/MS enabling extraction, separation and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces in a spatially resolved (~0.5 mm diameter spots) manner. Methods: A continuous flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe was connected to a 6-port, 2-position valve for extract collection and injection to an HPLC column. A QTRAP 5500 hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap equipped with a Turbo V ion source operated in positive ESI mode was used for all experiments. System operation was tested with extraction, separation and detection of propranolol and associated metabolites from drug dosed tissues and proteins from dried sheep blood spots on paper. Results: Confirmed in the tissue were the parent drug and two different hydroxypropranolol glucuronides. The mass spectrometric response for these compounds from different locations in the liver showed an increase with increasing extraction time (5, 20 and 40 s extractions). For on-line separation and detection/identification of extracted proteins from dried sheep blood spots, two major protein peaks dominated the chromatogram and could be correlated with the expected masses for the hemoglobin and chains. Conclusions: Spatially resolved sampling, separation, and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces can be accomplished using a continuous flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe coupled on-line with HPLC/MS detection.

  13. Gene methylation parallelisms between peripheral blood cells and oral mucosa samples in relation to overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Milagro, Fermín I; Riezu-Boj, J Ignacio; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Brennan, Lorraine; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Epigenetics has an important role in the regulation of metabolic adaptation to environmental modifications. In this sense, the determination of epigenetic changes in non-invasive samples during the development of metabolic diseases could play an important role in the procedures in primary healthcare practice. To help translate the knowledge of epigenetics to public health practice, the present study aims to explore the parallelism of methylation levels between white blood cells and buccal samples in relation to obesity and associated disorders. Blood and buccal swap samples were collected from a subsample of the Spanish cohort of the Food4Me study. Infinium HumanMethylation450 DNA Analysis was carried out for the determination of methylation levels. Standard deviation for β values method and concordance correlation analysis were used to select those CpG which showed best parallelism between samples. A total of 277 CpGs met the criteria and were selected for an enrichment analysis and a correlation analysis with anthropometrical and clinical parameters. From those selected CpGs, four presented high associations with BMI (cg01055691 in GAP43; r = -0.92 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.89 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample), HOMA-IR (cg00095677 in ATP2A3; r = 0.82 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.8 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample) and leptin (cg14464133 in ADARB2; r = -0.9182 and rho = -0.94 for blood; r = -0.893 and rho = -0.79 for buccal sample). These findings demonstrate the potential application of non-invasive buccal samples in the identification of surrogate epigenetic biomarkers and identify methylation sites in GAP43, ATP2A3 and ADARB2 genes as potential targets in relation to overweight management and insulin sensibility.

  14. Effect of Ibuprofen dose on platelet aggregation and coagulation in blood samples from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Wenjun Z; Deguzman, Rodolfo; Rodriguez, Cassandra M; Guerra, Jessica; Martini, Angela K; Pusateri, Anthony E; Dubick, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Ibuprofen is commonly used by Soldiers in the deployed environment. This study investigated its dose-effects on in vitro coagulation. Blood samples were collected from 4 normal healthy pigs and were processed to make platelet-adjusted (100×10(3)/μL) blood samples. Ibuprofen was added to the samples at doses of 0 μg/mL (control), recommended oral dose (163 μg/mL, 1×), 2×, 4×, 8×, 10×, 12×, 16×, and 20×. Arachidonic acid or collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was assessed at 15 minutes after the addition of ibuprofen. Coagulation was assessed with measurements of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombelastography by Rotem. A robust inhibition of ibuprofen on arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation was observed at all doses tested. Collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was inhibited to 71%±5% and 10%±5% of the control values at ibuprofen doses of 4× and 20×, respectively (both pcoagulation time, clot formation time, maximum clot firmness, and A10 were compromised at dose 16× and 20× (all pcoagulation profile until at 16 times the recommended doses and higher. Further effort is needed to clarify whether there are different dose-responses between human and pig blood samples in trauma situations. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods: Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8 with high intactness of DNA. Results: PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion: The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

  16. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, Bram; Kamalandua, Aubeline; Zapico, Sara C; Van de Voorde, Wim; Decorte, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation from DNA methylation markers has seen an exponential growth of interest, not in the least from forensic scientists. The current published assays, however, can still be improved by lowering the number of markers in the assay and by providing more accurate models to predict chronological age. From the published literature we selected 4 age-associated genes (ASPA, PDE4C, ELOVL2, and EDARADD) and determined CpG methylation levels from 206 blood samples of both deceased and living individuals (age range: 0-91 years). This data was subsequently used to compare prediction accuracy with both linear and non-linear regression models. A quadratic regression model in which the methylation levels of ELOVL2 were squared showed the highest accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age of 3.75 years and an adjusted R(2) of 0.95. No difference in accuracy was observed for samples obtained either from living and deceased individuals or between the 2 genders. In addition, 29 teeth from different individuals (age range: 19-70 years) were analyzed using the same set of markers resulting in a MAD of 4.86 years and an adjusted R(2) of 0.74. Cross validation of the results obtained from blood samples demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of the assay. In conclusion, the set of 4 CpG DNA methylation markers is capable of producing highly accurate age predictions for blood samples from deceased and living individuals.

  17. [Efficacy of continuous blood purification in treatment of severe acute pancreatitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Cui, Y; Zhang, Y C; Miao, H J; Wang, F; Chen, R X; Rong, Q F

    2017-05-04

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic role of bedside continuous blood purification(CBP) in children with severe acute pancreatitis(SAP). Method: The clinical and laboratory data of 11 children with SAP who were admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Shanghai Children's Hospital from June 2013 to May 2016 were analyzed, including using pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) and pediatric risk of score mortality (PRISM)-Ⅲ score to assessing the severity of the disease.For those patients with severe organ dysfunction, CBP treatment was used when conventional therapy was not efficient.The evolution and prognosis of the disease were observed and analyzed.The measurement data were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Result: From June 2013 to May 2016, 11 cases with SAP were treated in PICU, of whom 7 cases had combined multiple organ dysfunction syndrome(MODS). After conservative treatment for 12-24 h, 6 cases with SAP deteriorated aggressively and were treated with CBP.PRISMA and PRISMA flex machines were used with Gambro PRISMA filter, and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration(CVVHDF) or high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) were chosen as the therapy model.All 6 SAP patients survived after bedside CBP treatment(the median time spent on CBP were 48.5(48.0, 55.5) h). The serum concentration of amylase before and after the CBP treatment were respectively 675(495, 1 334)vs.176(136, 246) U/L, lipase 551(385, 1 075)vs.143(117, 185) U/L, CRP 168(125, 192) vs. 67(28, 87) mg/L, and inflammatory cytokines(TNF alpha 67.2(51.0, 72.9)vs. 22.6(19.3, 31.0) ng/L, IL-6 47.8(35.2, 88.4)vs. 23.6(20.3, 42.9) ng/L, IL-10 21.3(16.8, 23.9)vs. 35.6(26.5, 38.6) ng/L), which were obviously improved after CBP treatment(all Ptreatment, partial pressure of oxygen(PaO(2))/fraction of inspiration O(2)(FiO(2)) (192(101, 208)and 240(207, 267) mmHg, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), MAP (58.3(56.3, 62.5) and 83.3(74.0, 87.4) mmHg) and PCIS scores (66(62.5, 72)and 92(89, 94) scores) were higher (all

  18. Business continuity in blood services: two case studies from events with potentially catastrophic effect on the national provision of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S J; Rackham, R A; Penny, S; Lawson, J R; Walsh, R J; Ismay, S L

    2015-02-01

    NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) and the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (ARCBS) are national blood establishments providing blood components to England and North Wales, and Australia, respectively. In 2012, both services experienced potentially catastrophic challenges to key assets. NHSBT suffered a flood that closed the largest blood-manufacturing centre in Europe, whilst ARCBS experienced the failure of a data centre network switch that rendered the national blood management system inaccessible for 42 h. This paper describes both crisis events, including the immediate actions, recovery procedures and lessons learned. Both incidents triggered emergency response plans. These included hospital reprovisioning and recovery from the incident. Once normal services had been restored, both events were subjected to root cause analysis (RCA) and production of 'lessons learned' reports. In both scenarios, the key enablers of rapid recovery were established emergency plans, clear leadership and the support of a flexible workforce. Product issues to hospitals were unaffected, and there were no abnormal trends in hospital complaints. RCA identified the importance of risk mitigations that require co-operation with external organizations. Reviews of both events identified opportunities to enhance business resilience through prior identification of external risks and improvements to contingency plans, for example by implementing mass messaging to staff and other stakeholders. Blood establishment emergency plans tend to focus on responding to mass casualty events. However, consolidation of manufacturing to fewer sites combined with a reliance on national IT systems increases the impact of loss of function. Blood services should develop business continuity plans which include prevention of such losses, and the maintenance of services and disaster recovery. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Reducing the risk of fatal and disabling hypoglycaemia: a comparison of arterial blood sampling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K A; Eapen, G; Turnbull, D

    2010-04-01

    In 2008, the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) published a report after 42 incidents and two deaths where glucose-containing flush solutions were attached to the arterial line. The molar concentration of 5% glucose is 277 mmol litre(-1). Only a tiny amount of sample contamination will lead to an artificially high glucose. As the NPSA sought a solution, a bench model was constructed to compare the performance of three open and three closed arterial line systems in limiting sample contamination. All arterial line systems were set up in a standard manner and pressurized to 300 mm Hg with 5% glucose used as the flush solution. This was connected to the 'radial artery' using an 18 G needle representing the radial cannula. The radial artery was simulated using a wide-bore extension set with 'blood' flow at 60 ml min(-1). Blood was simulated by the addition of red dye to Hartmann's solution. Increasing multiples of arterial line dead space were aspirated and discarded. Blood samples were then obtained and glucose concentration was measured. Significant glucose contamination (3 mmol litre(-1) +/-3.4) was detected in all open arterial line systems up to an aspiration volume of five times the dead space. No samples from the closed systems recorded glucose concentration >1 mmol litre(-1). Recommended minimal discard volumes are inadequate in the presence of glucose as the flush solution and can lead to high blood glucose readings, inappropriate insulin use, and iatrogenic neuroglycopaenia. Our study demonstrates that the closed-loop arterial sampling system could be the universal solution sought by the NPSA.

  20. Innovative continuous non-invasive cuffless blood pressure monitoring based on photoplethysmography technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Juan C; Ruiz-Sanmartín, Adolf; Ribas, Vicent; Caballero, Jesús; García-Roche, Alejandra; Riera, Jordi; Nuvials, Xavier; de Nadal, Miriam; de Sola-Morales, Oriol; Serra, Joaquim; Rello, Jordi

    2013-09-01

    To develop and validate a continuous non-invasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring system using photoplethysmography (PPG) technology through pulse oximetry (PO). This prospective study was conducted at a critical care department and post-anesthesia care unit of a university teaching hospital. Inclusion criteria were critically ill adult patients undergoing invasive BP measurement with an arterial catheter and PO monitoring. Exclusion criteria were arrhythmia, imminent death condition, and disturbances in the arterial or the PPG curve morphology. Arterial BP and finger PO waves were recorded simultaneously for 30 min. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were extracted from computer-assisted arterial pulse wave analysis. Inherent traits of both waves were used to construct a regression model with a Deep Belief Network-Restricted Boltzmann Machine (DBN-RBM) from a training cohort of patients and in order to infer BP values from the PO wave. Bland-Altman analysis was performed. A total of 707 patients were enrolled, of whom 135 were excluded. Of the 572 studied, 525 were assigned to the training cohort (TC) and 47 to the validation cohort (VC). After data processing, 53,708 frames were obtained from the TC and 7,715 frames from the VC. The mean prediction biases were -2.98 ± 19.35, -3.38 ± 10.35, and -3.65 ± 8.69 mmHg for SAP, MAP, and DAP respectively. BP can be inferred from PPG using DBN-RBM modeling techniques. The results obtained with this technology are promising, but its intrinsic variability and its wide limits of agreement do not allow clinical application at this time.

  1. Continual maintenance of the blood-testis barrier during spermatogenesis: the intermediate compartment theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazama, Futoshi

    2008-10-01

    Tight junctions occur between the lateral processes of neighboring Sertoli cells that divide the seminiferous epithelium into two compartments: basal and adluminal compartments. These tight junctions constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The established theory that the BTB must open when spermatocytes translocate from the basal compartment to the adluminal compartment is marked by one contradiction, that is, normal spermatogenesis occurs in the testis because the BTB is expected to constantly seclude the adluminal compartment from the basal compartment in order to protect haploid germ cells from the autoimmune system. Subsequently, another concept was proposed in which two BTBs divide the seminiferous epithelium into three compartments: basal, intermediate and adluminal compartments. It has been suggested that the transition from the basal region to the adluminal region without the BTB open occurs through the agency of a short-lived intermediate compartment embodying some primary spermatocytes. In contrast, the results of recent findings in the molecular architecture of the BTB suggest that the BTB in the seminiferous epithelium must "open". In this paper, I re-examine the BTBs of boar and experimental cryptorchid mouse testes by transmission electron microscope (TEM). TEM analysis showed that an atypical basal compartment existed in the thin seminiferous epithelium of 14-day post-cryptorchid mice testes. In developmental boar testes, ectoplasmic specialization (ES) of the seminiferous epithelium showed dynamic behavior. The intermediate compartment was clearly observed between the basal and adluminal compartments of the mature boar seminiferous epithelium. ESs were observed between Sertoli cells and spermatids at all developmental stages, including early, late and mature. Furthermore, ESs were situated on the apical surface of the seminiferous epithelium. From these results, I propose that the BTB is continually maintained during spermatogenesis and suggest a

  2. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1997-01-01

    blood pressure and related to the results of an invasive haemodynamic investigation, including measurements of intra-arterial blood pressure (9.00-11.00 h) in 37 patients with cirrhosis. RESULTS: The 24-h blood pressures were significantly lower and the heart rate was significantly higher in patients......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations...... with other clinical and haemodynamic characteristics have not been investigated and the aim of the present study was to identify splanchnic and systemic determinants of the 24-h blood pressure and heart rate in cirrhosis. METHODS: The variables were measured by an automatic ambulant device for monitoring...

  3. Capillary compared to venous blood sampling in clozapine treatment: patients׳ and healthcare practitioners׳ experiences with a point-of-care device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogers, Jan P A M; Bui, Hong; Herruer, Martien; Cohen, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Underuse of the antipsychotic clozapine for schizophrenia is an impediment to improving outcomes for patients. Because of its possible severe side effects, including granulocytopenia or even agranulocytosis, clozapine treatment entails regular WBC monitoring, which can be a major drawback for patients and practitioners. The HemoCue WBC DIFF system is a point-of-care device using capillary blood sampling which provides WBC counts with differentials, including granulocytes. We investigated if capillary sampling instead of conventional venous sampling might diminish the burden for patients and practitioners and motivate them to continue clozapine treatment. A randomized cross-over trial design was used to compare the two sampling methods. Patients׳ subjective experiences of various aspects of blood sampling were rated on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients and practitioners were also asked if they had any preference for venous or capillary sampling and patients were asked if the sampling method influenced their motivation to continue clozapine treatment. Seventy-three patients were included in this study. Three dropped out before completion. The VAS ratings on all five aspects and the total burden experienced showed a consistent pattern favouring capillary blood sampling (psampling at a laboratory and practitioners also preferred it. Using this method might therefore boost clozapine prescription rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Continuous standalone controllable aerosol/cloud droplet dryer for atmospheric sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, S.; Frank, G. P.; Berghof, M. I. A.; Martinsson, B. G.

    2012-08-01

    We describe a general-purpose dryer designed for continuous sampling of atmospheric aerosol, where a specified relative humidity (RH) of the sample flow (lower than the atmospheric humidity) is required. It is often prescribed to measure the properties of dried aerosol, for instance for monitoring networks. The specific purpose of our dryer is to dry highly charged cloud droplets (maximum diameter approximately 25 μm) with minimum losses from the droplet size distribution entering the dryer as well as on the residual dry particle size distribution exiting the dryer. This is achieved by using a straight vertical downwards path from the aerosol inlet mounted above the dryer, and removing humidity to a dry closed loop airflow on the other side of a semi-permeable GORE-TEX membrane (total area 0.134 m2). The water vapour transfer coefficient, k, was measured to 4.6 × 10-7 kg m-2 s-1% RH-1 in the laboratory and is used for design purposes. A net water vapour transfer rate of up to 1.2 × 10-6 kg s-1 was achieved in the field. This corresponds to drying a 5.7 L min-1 (0.35 m3 h-1) aerosol sample flow from 100% RH to 27% RH at 293 K (with a drying air total flow of 8.7 L min-1). The system was used outdoors from 9 May until 20 October 2010, on the mountain Brocken (51.80° N, 10.67° E, 1142 m a.s.l.) in the Harz region in central Germany. Sample air relative humidity of less than 30% was obtained 72% of the time period. The total availability of the measurement system was > 94% during these five months.

  5. Continuous stand-alone controllable aerosol/cloud droplet dryer for atmospheric sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, S.; Frank, G. P.; Berghof, M. I. A.; Martinsson, B. G.

    2013-02-01

    We describe a general-purpose dryer designed for continuous sampling of atmospheric aerosol, where a specified relative humidity (RH) of the sample flow (lower than the atmospheric humidity) is required. It is often prescribed to measure the properties of dried aerosol, for instance for monitoring networks. The specific purpose of our dryer is to dry cloud droplets (maximum diameter approximately 25 μm, highly charged, up to 5 × 102 charges). One criterion is to minimise losses from the droplet size distribution entering the dryer as well as on the residual dry particle size distribution exiting the dryer. This is achieved by using a straight vertical downwards path from the aerosol inlet mounted above the dryer, and removing humidity to a dry, closed loop airflow on the other side of a semi-permeable GORE-TEX membrane (total area 0.134 m2). The water vapour transfer coefficient, k, was measured to be 4.6 × 10-7 kg m-2 s-1% RH-1 in the laboratory (temperature 294 K) and is used for design purposes. A net water vapour transfer rate of up to 1.2 × 10-6 kg s-1 was achieved in the field. This corresponds to drying a 5.7 L min-1 (0.35 m3 h-1) aerosol sample flow from 100% RH to 27% RH at 293 K (with a drying air total flow of 8.7 L min-1). The system was used outdoors from 9 May until 20 October 2010, on the mountain Brocken (51.80° N, 10.67° E, 1142 m a.s.l.) in the Harz region in central Germany. Sample air relative humidity of less than 30% was obtained 72% of the time period. The total availability of the measurement system was >94% during these five months.

  6. [Influence of an observer in the haemolysis produced during the extraction of blood samples in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel-Peña, N; Mérida-de la Torre, F J

    2015-01-01

    To check whether an intervention based on direct observation and complementary information to nurses helps reduce haemolysis when drawing blood specimens. Random sampling study in primary care centres in the serrania de Málaga health management area, using a cross-sectional, longitudinal pre- and post-intervention design. The study period was from August 2012 to January 2015. The level of free haemoglobin was measured by direct spectrophotometry in the specimens extracted. It was then checked whether the intervention influenced the level of haemolysis, and if this was maintained over time. The mean haemolysis measured pre-intervention was 17%, and after intervention it was 6.1%. A year later and under the same conditions, the frequency of haemolysis was measured again the samples analysed, and the percentage was 9% These results are low when compared to the level obtained pre-intervention, but are higher when compared to the levels obtained immediately after the intervention. The transport and analysis conditions were the same. An intervention based on a direct and informative observation in the process of collecting blood samples contributes significantly to reduce the level of haemolysis. This effect is maintained in time. This intervention needs to be repeated to maintain its effectiveness. Audits and continuing education programs are useful for quality assurance procedures, and maintain the level of care needed for a good quality of care. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  8. Continuous-variable sampling from photon-added or photon-subtracted squeezed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaud, U.; Douce, T.; Markham, D.; van Loock, P.; Kashefi, E.; Ferrini, G.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a family of quantum circuits in continuous variables and we show that, relying on the widely accepted conjecture that the polynomial hierarchy of complexity classes does not collapse, their output probability distribution cannot be efficiently simulated by a classical computer. These circuits are composed of input photon-subtracted (or photon-added) squeezed states, passive linear optics evolution, and eight-port homodyne detection. We address the proof of hardness for the exact probability distribution of these quantum circuits by exploiting mappings onto different architectures of subuniversal quantum computers. We obtain both a worst-case and an average-case hardness result. Hardness of boson sampling with eight-port homodyne detection is obtained as the zero squeezing limit of our model. We conclude with a discussion on the relevance and interest of the present model in connection to experimental applications and classical simulations.

  9. [Unsegmented continuous-flow sample processing and electrochemical detection of gaseous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottola, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Goals were a continuous-flow, unsegmented, all-gas carrier and/or a segmented liquid/gas interface system for sample introduction and transport to detection/determination point; a regenerable electrode probe base on redox reactions of Fe(II) and Fe(III) complexes with 1, 10-phenanthroline and related ligands; and amperometric/coulometric current measurements providing analyte signals. Gases to be detected included NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2]. This report is divided into 3 parts: preparation of new ligands of 1,10-phenanthroline family; glassy carbon surfaces coated with polymeric films prepared from monomeric units of tris[5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline]iron(II); and sulfite oxidase/hexacyanoferrate modified C paste electrode.

  10. A new estimate technology of non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement based on electrocardiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Min Wu; Chueh Yu Chuang; Yeou-Jiunn Chen; Shih-Chung Chen

    2016-01-01

    Various physiological parameters have been widely used in the prevention and detection of diseases. In particular, the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases can be observed through daily measurement of blood pressure. Currently, the most common blood pressure measurement method records blood pressure on the upper arm. This can lead to the subject feeling uncomfortable and tension in the arm from the stress may lead to measurement errors. An electrocardiogram represents the electrical activity...

  11. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, YOSHIO; SHIMIZU, TOMOMI; OTA, MAKOTO; HIRATA, RYUZO; SATO, KENJI; TAMURA, YOSHIFUMI; IMANISHI, AKIO; WATANABE, MASAYUKI; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathl...

  12. Pre-analytical effects of blood sampling and handling in quantitative immunoassays for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Qureshi, Ferhan; Eastman, P Scott; Manning, William C; Alexander, Claire; Robinson, William H; Hesterberg, Lyndal K

    2012-04-30

    Variability in pre-analytical blood sampling and handling can significantly impact results obtained in quantitative immunoassays. Understanding the impact of these variables is critical for accurate quantification and validation of biomarker measurements. Particularly, in the design and execution of large clinical trials, even small differences in sample processing and handling can have dramatic effects in analytical reliability, results interpretation, trial management and outcome. The effects of two common blood sampling methods (serum vs. plasma) and two widely-used serum handling methods (on the clot with ambient temperature shipping, "traditional", vs. centrifuged with cold chain shipping, "protocol") on protein and autoantibody concentrations were examined. Matched serum and plasma samples were collected from 32 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients representing a wide range of disease activity status. Additionally, a set of matched serum samples with two sample handling methods was collected. One tube was processed per manufacturer's instructions and shipped overnight on cold packs (protocol). The matched tube, without prior centrifugation, was simultaneously shipped overnight at ambient temperatures (traditional). Upon delivery, the traditional tube was centrifuged. All samples were subsequently aliquoted and frozen prior to analysis of protein and autoantibody biomarkers. Median correlation between paired serum and plasma across all autoantibody assays was 0.99 (0.98-1.00) with a median % difference of -3.3 (-7.5 to 6.0). In contrast, observed protein biomarker concentrations were significantly affected by sample types, with median correlation of 0.99 (0.33-1.00) and a median % difference of -10 (-55 to 23). When the two serum collection/handling methods were compared, the median correlation between paired samples for autoantibodies was 0.99 (0.91-1.00) with a median difference of 4%. In contrast, significant increases were observed in protein biomarker

  13. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, T. L.; Nybo, M.

    2015-01-01

    . All observations were performed by the same person (TLS). Results: Already after three months critical issues can be pinpointed, where correction or educational steps are necessary, for example hand hygiene. However, at the meeting we will be able to present results from a six-month observation period...

  14. A comparison of various methods of blood sampling in mice and rats: Effects on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harikrishnan, Vs; Hansen, Axel K; Abelson, Klas Sp

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of blood sampling on animal welfare in a total of 60 NTac:SD rats and 72 C57BL/6NTac mice of both sexes. Blood was sampled either by sublingual vein puncture, tail vein puncture or by retrobulbar plexus/sinus puncture under light isoflurane...... anaesthesia and, additionally, by facial vein puncture in mice. Non-punctured animals as well as isoflurane-anaesthetised animals were used as controls. Pre- and post-puncture sucrose intake (1.5% w/w) was measured in rats, and nest building scores were studied in mice for 24 h post-puncture. Post...... procedures. Rats showed reduced activity in the open field test and an increased level of anxiety in the elevated plus maze test following retrobulbar plexus puncture and isoflurane anaesthesia. In mice, nest building activity was affected in all the groups compared with the control group, except for animals...

  15. Sample collection guidelines for trace elements in blood and urine. IUPAC Commission of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, R; Heinzow, B; Herber, R F; Christensen, J M; Poulsen, O M; Sabbioni, E; Templeton, D M; Thomassen, Y; Vahter, M; Vesterberg, O

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents an organized system for element-specific sample collection and handling of human blood (whole blood, serum or plasma, packed cells or erythrocytes) and urine also indicating a proper definition of the subject and sample. Harmonized procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control are suggested. The aim is to assist scientists worldwide to produce comparable data which will be useful on a regional, national and international scale. The guidelines are directed to the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. These include the most important elements measured for their occupational or clinical significance, and serve as examples of principles that will guide development of methods for other elements in the future.

  16. Prospective comparison of a PCR assay and a microbiological culture technique for identification of pathogens from blood and non-blood samples in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettig, Runa; Nowak, Andreas; Balau, Veronika; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Usichenko, Taras

    2015-01-01

    Molecular amplification techniques are suggested to be a useful adjunct in early detection of pathogens in septic patients. The aim was to study the feasibility of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay compared to the standard microbiological culture (MC) technique in identification of pathogenic microorganisms from blood and non-blood samples in septic patients. Samples for pathogen identification were taken during febrile septic episodes (SE) in 54 patients with sepsis and analyzed using both MC and PCR. Semi-automated multiplex PCR, provided by Philips Medical Systems, was able to detect nine different pathogens. The accuracy of pathogen identification using PCR vs. MC as well as the time-saving effect of PCR on the potential decision-making process for antimicrobial therapy was evaluated. In a total of 258 samples taken during 87 SE, both methods yielded more pathogens from the non-blood than blood samples (87 % vs. 45 %; p = 0.002). PCR identified more pathogens than MC in the blood samples (98 vs. 21; p microorganisms isolated from the blood samples than the standard MC technique. In the non-blood samples, PCR was comparable to that of MC.

  17. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  18. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1997-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: Although the 24-h blood pressure and the intra-arterial blood pressure were determined by different variables, the overall results indicate that abnormalities in both splanchnic and central haemodynamics and sodium-water retention are important in the pathophysiology of arterial hypotension...

  19. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1997-01-01

    with cirrhosis than in matched controls (p .... CONCLUSIONS: Although the 24-h blood pressure and the intra-arterial blood pressure were determined by different variables, the overall results indicate that abnormalities in both splanchnic and central haemodynamics and sodium-water retention are important in the pathophysiology of arterial hypotension...

  20. Effect of continuous blood purification in treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo observe the effect of continuous blood purification (CBP on serum inflammatory mediators in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. MethodsSixty-five SAP patients with MODS who were treated in General Hospital of Chengdu Command Area of Chinese PLA from April 2008 to December 2013 were enrolled and divided into two groups. The 33 patients in the control group received comprehensive internal medicine treatment, and the 32 patients in the treatment group received comprehensive internal medicine treatment and CBP. Changes in APACHE II score, MODS score, and the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-18, platelet-activating factor (PAF, and nitric oxide (NO after treatment were observed. Independent-samples t test was applied for comparison of continuous data between the two groups, and paired t test was applied for before-after comparison within the same group; chi-squared test was applied for comparison of categorical data between the two groups. ResultsIn both groups, APACHE II score, MODS score, and the serum levels of TNFα, CRP, IL-6, IL-18, PAF, and NO decreased significantly after treatment (all P<0.05, and the treatment group had significantly greater decreases in these values than the control group (all P<0.001; the survival rates in the treatment group and the control group were 90.6% (29/32 and 78.8% (26/33, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (χ2=1.749, P=0.186. ConclusionIn SAP patients with MODS, CBP can effectively clear the serum inflammatory mediators to block systemic inflammatory response and improve organ function, and, therefore, it is an effective method to treat SAP.

  1. Continuous arterial blood gas monitoring in rabbits: an efficient method for evaluation of ratio-based optrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roy C.; Olstein, Alan D.; Malin, Stephen F.; Perkovich, Anne

    1992-04-01

    Laboratory bench testing of optical blood gas sensors is insufficient to completely predict capabilities. Sensor testing in animals offers advantages of known physiologic and regulatory mechanisms of hemodynamics to better predict sensor performance. The domestic rabbit, Oryctalogis Cuniculus, a lagomorph of the family Leporidae was used for sensor evaluation. The rabbits are ventilated and blood gases modulated by variations in FIO2 and rate adjustments. Twenty gauge catheters are placed in the dorsal aorta, cartoid, and femoral arteries. Pressures are monitored via transducers on the arterial lines. The optical blood gas sensors are fitted within the catheters and blood samples are collected over them for bench analysis. Sensors are on 125 micrometers glass optic fibers. Proprietary prepolymers are applied on the fiber tips through in fiber photopolymerization. These sensors are then calibrated in tonometered water and blood. Sensor monitoring is accomplished through OSR microfluorimetry systems. We have used this model in 26 studies over the past six months evaluating over fifty blood gas sensors. These studies have lasted from six to twenty-four hours. Our correlation of sensor readings to assayed blood samples is r2 equals .97 for pH values of 6.80 - 7.70, r2 equals .94 for PCO2 values of 10 - 175 mmHg and r2 equals .94 for PO2 values of 10 - 350 mmHg.

  2. Optical detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood samples for diagnosis purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis, Elvio; Romero, Graciela; Alvarez, Liliana; Martinez, Carlos C.; Basombrio, Miguel A.

    2004-10-01

    An optical method for detection of Trypanosoma Cruzi (T. cruzi) parasites in blood samples of mice infected with Chagas disease is presented. The method is intended for use in human blood, for diagnosis purposes. A thin layer of blood infected by T. cruzi parasites, in small concentrations, is examined in an interferometric microscope in which the images of the vision field are taken by a CCD camera and temporarily stored in the memory of a host computer. The whole sample is scanned displacing the microscope plate by means of step motors driven by the computer. Several consecutive images of the same field are taken and digitally processed by means of image temporal differentiation in order to detect if a parasite is eventually present in the field. Each field of view is processed in the same fashion, until the full area of the sample is covered or until a parasite is detected, in which case an acoustical warning is activated and the corresponding image is displayed permitting the technician to corroborate the result visually. A discussion of the reliability of the method as well as a comparison with other well established techniques are presented.

  3. Gene expression profiling of human whole blood samples with the Illumina WG-DASL assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klotzle Brandy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray-based gene expression analysis of peripheral whole blood is a common strategy in the development of clinically relevant biomarker panels for a variety of human diseases. However, the results of such an analysis are often plagued by decreased sensitivity and reliability due to the effects of relatively high levels of globin mRNA in whole blood. Globin reduction assays have been shown to overcome such effects, but they require large amounts of total RNA and may induce distinct gene expression profiles. The Illumina whole genome DASL assay can detect gene expression levels using partially degraded RNA samples and has the potential to detect rare transcripts present in highly heterogeneous whole blood samples without the need for globin reduction. We assessed the utility of the whole genome DASL assay in an analysis of peripheral whole blood gene expression profiles. Results We find that gene expression detection is significantly increased with the use of whole genome DASL compared to the standard IVT-based direct hybridization. Additionally, globin-probe negative whole genome DASL did not exhibit significant improvements over globin-probe positive whole genome DASL. Globin reduction further increases the detection sensitivity and reliability of both whole genome DASL and IVT-based direct hybridization with little effect on raw intensity correlations. Raw intensity correlations between total RNA and globin reduced RNA were 0.955 for IVT-based direct hybridization and 0.979 for whole genome DASL. Conclusions Overall, the detection sensitivity of the whole genome DASL assay is higher than the IVT-based direct hybridization assay, with or without globin reduction, and should be considered in conjunction with globin reduction methods for future blood-based gene expression studies.

  4. RNA-stabilized whole blood samples but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be stored for prolonged time periods prior to transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debey-Pascher, Svenja; Hofmann, Andrea; Kreusch, Fatima; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Schultze, Joachim L; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea

    2011-07-01

    Microarray-based transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood as surrogate tissue has become an important approach in clinical implementations. However, application of gene expression profiling in routine clinical settings requires careful consideration of the influence of sample handling and RNA isolation methods on gene expression profile outcome. We evaluated the effect of different sample preservation strategies (eg, cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or freezing of PAXgene-stabilized whole blood samples) on gene expression profiles. Expression profiles obtained from cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells differed substantially from those of their nonfrozen counterpart samples. Furthermore, expression profiles in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples were found to undergo significant alterations with increasing storage period, whereas long-term freezing of PAXgene RNA stabilized whole blood samples did not significantly affect stability of gene expression profiles. This report describes important technical aspects contributing toward the establishment of robust and reliable guidance for gene expression studies using peripheral blood and provides a promising strategy for reliable implementation in routine handling for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dendritic cells in blood and urine samples from bladder cancer patients undergoing BCG immunotherapy

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    Raffaella Rossi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Immunotherapy with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor represents a highly effective primary treatment for intermediate and high-risk superficial bladder cancer. The effectiveness of this therapy has been documented, but its mechanism of action is not clear yet. In the present study, we investigated the changes of dendritic cells (DC numbers in peripheral blood and urine of patients with superficial bladder cancer undergoing BCG intravescical therapy Material and method: We have enumerated plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs in the peripheral blood and in the urine of patients with bladder cancer in order to clarify the role of these cells in the evolution of the disease and the effect of therapy. DCs in blood and urine samples were assessed using the single-platform TruCOUNT assay with monoclonal antibodies. The study population included 37 healthy donors and 13 patients with diagnosis of primitive superficial bladder cancer. Results: At the time of diagnosis a reduction of blood DCs was found in patients as opposed to healthy donors, while DCs were not found in the urine in the same way as in healthy subjects. Six of these patients were followed before and after weekly and monthly instillations of BCG. In the peripheral blood, we observed an immunological recovery of DCs from the third weekly instillation up to the sixth. In the urine of patients, we didn’t find mDCs or pDCs at T0, but we found a statistically significant change from the third instillation up to the sixth. On the contrary, we didn’t find mDCs in urine during monthly instillation. Conclusions: DC Count could be used in the monitoring of patients undergoing BCG therapy. Immunological restoration of mDC numbers in peripheral blood and the efflux in urine could be important for confirming the effectiveness of BCG instillation.

  6. Detecting type 2 diabetes by a single post-challenge blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Raber, Rüdiger; Janka, Hans-Uwe

    2003-09-01

    In the recent American Diabetes Association (ADA)/WHO recommendations, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was replaced by the measurement of a single fasting glucose concentration with a decision limit for the detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) reduced. This proposal, however, misses all cases of isolated post-prandial hyperglycaemia. Therefore, a study was undertaken to develop a post-challenge, one-sample mode of diagnosis. OGTT was performed in 240 high-risk subjects who were suspected to suffer from type 2 DM. Glucose concentrations were determined at 30 min intervals in the capillary blood, venous blood and plasma, and insulin was determined in venous plasma only. The test results were classified in non-disease and disease group according to the decision limits recommended by ADA/WHO. Furthermore, the early insulin response and an insulin sensitivity index were used to determine new cut-off values. These were identified as the concentrations demonstrating the highest diagnostic efficiency and were lower than the WHO limits. The 2 h post-load plasma concentration led to higher efficiency at a cut-off value of 9.0 mmol/l glucose (162 mg/dl) compared to concentrations of samples taken in the fasting state, at an earlier time of the OGTT, or in venous and capillary blood. Under this condition, 72 diabetic patients (35%) were detected in the study group (n = 207), whereas only 36 (17%) were found with one sample in the fasting state and 53 (26%) with two samples using the ADA/WHO criteria. Therefore, a single venous plasma sample taken after 2 h post-glucose challenge appeared to be most efficient for the early detection of DM.

  7. Discrete- vs. Continuous-Time Modeling of Unequally Spaced Experience Sampling Method Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Haan-Rietdijk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Experience Sampling Method is a common approach in psychological research for collecting intensive longitudinal data with high ecological validity. One characteristic of ESM data is that it is often unequally spaced, because the measurement intervals within a day are deliberately varied, and measurement continues over several days. This poses a problem for discrete-time (DT modeling approaches, which are based on the assumption that all measurements are equally spaced. Nevertheless, DT approaches such as (vector autoregressive modeling are often used to analyze ESM data, for instance in the context of affective dynamics research. There are equivalent continuous-time (CT models, but they are more difficult to implement. In this paper we take a pragmatic approach and evaluate the practical relevance of the violated model assumption in DT AR(1 and VAR(1 models, for the N = 1 case. We use simulated data under an ESM measurement design to investigate the bias in the parameters of interest under four different model implementations, ranging from the true CT model that accounts for all the exact measurement times, to the crudest possible DT model implementation, where even the nighttime is treated as a regular interval. An analysis of empirical affect data illustrates how the differences between DT and CT modeling can play out in practice. We find that the size and the direction of the bias in DT (VAR models for unequally spaced ESM data depend quite strongly on the true parameter in addition to data characteristics. Our recommendation is to use CT modeling whenever possible, especially now that new software implementations have become available.

  8. Quantization of Gaussian samples at very low SNR regime in continuous variable QKD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshgaran, Fred; Mondin, Marina

    2016-09-01

    The main problem for information reconciliation in continuous variable Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) at low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is quantization and assignment of labels to the samples of the Gaussian Random Variables (RVs) observed at Alice and Bob. Trouble is that most of the samples, assuming that the Gaussian variable is zero mean which is de-facto the case, tend to have small magnitudes and are easily disturbed by noise. Transmission over longer and longer distances increases the losses corresponding to a lower effective SNR exasperating the problem. This paper looks at the quantization problem of the Gaussian samples at very low SNR regime from an information theoretic point of view. We look at the problem of two bit per sample quantization of the Gaussian RVs at Alice and Bob and derive expressions for the mutual information between the bit strings as a result of this quantization. The quantization threshold for the Most Significant Bit (MSB) should be chosen based on the maximization of the mutual information between the quantized bit strings. Furthermore, while the LSB string at Alice and Bob are balanced in a sense that their entropy is close to maximum, this is not the case for the second most significant bit even under optimal threshold. We show that with two bit quantization at SNR of -3 dB we achieve 75.8% of maximal achievable mutual information between Alice and Bob, hence, as the number of quantization bits increases beyond 2-bits, the number of additional useful bits that can be extracted for secret key generation decreases rapidly. Furthermore, the error rates between the bit strings at Alice and Bob at the same significant bit level are rather high demanding very powerful error correcting codes. While our calculations and simulation shows that the mutual information between the LSB at Alice and Bob is 0.1044 bits, that at the MSB level is only 0.035 bits. Hence, it is only by looking at the bits jointly that we are able to achieve a

  9. Continuous stand-alone controllable aerosol/cloud droplet dryer for atmospheric sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sjogren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a general-purpose dryer designed for continuous sampling of atmospheric aerosol, where a specified relative humidity (RH of the sample flow (lower than the atmospheric humidity is required. It is often prescribed to measure the properties of dried aerosol, for instance for monitoring networks. The specific purpose of our dryer is to dry cloud droplets (maximum diameter approximately 25 μm, highly charged, up to 5 × 102 charges. One criterion is to minimise losses from the droplet size distribution entering the dryer as well as on the residual dry particle size distribution exiting the dryer. This is achieved by using a straight vertical downwards path from the aerosol inlet mounted above the dryer, and removing humidity to a dry, closed loop airflow on the other side of a semi-permeable GORE-TEX membrane (total area 0.134 m2.

    The water vapour transfer coefficient, k, was measured to be 4.6 × 10-7 kg m−2 s−1% RH−1 in the laboratory (temperature 294 K and is used for design purposes. A net water vapour transfer rate of up to 1.2 × 10-6 kg s−1 was achieved in the field. This corresponds to drying a 5.7 L min−1 (0.35 m3 h−1 aerosol sample flow from 100% RH to 27% RH at 293 K (with a drying air total flow of 8.7 L min−1. The system was used outdoors from 9 May until 20 October 2010, on the mountain Brocken (51.80° N, 10.67° E, 1142 m a.s.l. in the Harz region in central Germany. Sample air relative humidity of less than 30% was obtained 72% of the time period. The total availability of the measurement system was >94% during these five months.

  10. Sensitivity of PCR assays for murine gammaretroviruses and mouse contamination in human blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling Lee

    Full Text Available Gammaretroviruses related to murine leukemia virus (MLV have variously been reported to be present or absent in blood from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME patients and healthy controls. Using subjects from New York State, we have investigated by PCR methods whether MLV-related sequences can be identified in nucleic acids isolated from whole blood or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or following PBMC culture. We have also passaged the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP following incubation with plasma from patients and controls and assayed nucleic acids for viral sequences. We have used 15 sets of primers that can effectively amplify conserved regions of murine endogenous and exogenous retrovirus sequences. We demonstrate that our PCR assays for MLV-related gag sequences and for mouse DNA contamination are extremely sensitive. While we have identified MLV-like gag sequences following PCR on human DNA preparations, we are unable to conclude that these sequences originated in the blood samples.

  11. In vitro study of thimerosal reactions in human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümpler, Stefan; Meermann, Björn; Nowak, Sascha; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe; Sperling, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Because of its bactericidal and fungicidal properties, thimerosal is used as a preservative in drugs and vaccines and is thus deliberately injected into the human body. In aqueous environment, it decomposes into thiosalicylic acid and the ethylmercury cation. This organomercury fragment is a potent neurotoxin and is suspected to have similar toxicity and bioavailability like the methylmercury cation. In this work, human whole blood and physiological simulation solutions were incubated with thimerosal to investigate its behaviour and binding partners in the blood stream. Inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for total mercury determination in different blood fractions, while liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provided information on the individual mercury species in plasma surrogate samples. Analogous behaviour of methylmercury and ethylmercury species in human blood was shown and an ethylmercury-glutathione adduct was identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. A Simple, Inexpensive and Safe Method for DNA Extraction of Frigid and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of blood genomicDNAis one of the main approaches for clinical and molecular biology studies. Although several methods have been developed for extraction of blood genomic DNA, most of these methods consume long time and use expensive chemicals such as proteinase K and toxic organic solvent such as phenol and chloroform. The objective of this study was to developed easy and safe method forDNAextraction from clotted and frozen whole blood. This method has many advantages: time reducing, using inexpensive materials, without phenol and chloroform, achieving of high molecular weight and good quality genomicDNA.Materials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed by two methods (new and phenol-chloroform method. Then quantity and quality parameters were evaluated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, Nano drop analysis and efficiency of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Results: Extracted DNA from 500μL of blood samples were 457.7ng/μl and 212ng/μL and their purity (OD260/OD280 were 1.8 and 1.81 for new recommended and phenol–chloroform methods respectively. The PCR results indicated that D16S539 and CSF1PO loci were amplified.Conclusion: These results shown that this method is simple, fast, safe and most economical.

  13. Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Deeley, Kathleen B.; Callahan, Nicholas F.; Noel, Jacqueline B.; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Carricato, Wendy M.; Schulhof, Louise P.; DeSensi, Rebecca S.; Gandhi, Pooja; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Rozhon, Christopher; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Wendell, Steven; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Seymen, Figen; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,424 DNA samples from humans. Our results suggest that we can determine the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in both DNA samples from caries-free and caries-affected individuals. However, we were not able to detect the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in any DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood, which suggests the assay may not be sensitive enough for this goal. Values of the threshold cycle of the real-time PCR reaction correlate with higher levels of caries experience in children, but this correlation could not be detected for adults. PMID:21731912

  14. Behavior of optical properties of coagulated blood sample at 633 nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cruzado, Beatriz; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio; Delgado Atencio, José Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Determination of tissue optical parameters is fundamental for application of light in either diagnostics or therapeutical procedures. However, in samples of biological tissue in vitro, the optical properties are modified by cellular death or cellular agglomeration that can not be avoided. This phenomena change the propagation of light within the biological sample. Optical properties of human blood tissue were investigated in vitro at 633 nm using an optical setup that includes a double integrating sphere system. We measure the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the blood sample and compare these physical properties with those obtained by Monte Carlo Multi-Layered (MCML). The extraction of the optical parameters: absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs and anisotropic factor g from the measurements were carried out using a Genetic Algorithm, in which the search procedure is based in the evolution of a population due to selection of the best individual, evaluated by a function that compares the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of those individuals with the experimental ones. The algorithm converges rapidly to the best individual, extracting the optical parameters of the sample. We compare our results with those obtained by using other retrieve procedures. We found that the scattering coefficient and the anisotropic factor change dramatically due to the formation of clusters.

  15. [Stability of alpha-tocopherol: pre-analytical conditions in its determination in blood samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezequel-Cuer, M; Le Moël, G; Covi, G; Lepage, S; Peynet, J; Gousson-Evstigneeff, T; Laureaux, C; Troupel, S

    1994-01-01

    Incomplete and controversial data exist concerning vitamin E or alpha-tocopherol stability in biological samples. Recent clinical interest in the protective function of alpha-tocopherol provided another reason for the setting-up of a multicenter study by the Sociéte Française de Biologie Clinique. Our purpose was to examine the effects on alpha-tocopherol stability, firstly, of collection and transportation of blood samples, and, secondly, of the temperature (-20 degrees C and -80 degrees C) and period of storage of serum or plasma. alpha-tocopherol was determined in serum or plasma by isocratic liquid chromatography with UV detection at 292 nm. Our results established that alpha-tocopherol was extremely stable in blood, serum or plasma over 8 hours without special handling conditions (light, temperature). Pools of serum or plasma were stable for at least 3 months at -20 degrees C and -80 degrees C. They are suitable for use in the quality control of alpha-tocopherol. On the other hand, in some samples, we observed great variability in the rate of alpha-tocopherol degradation. However, there was lesser degradation when these plasma samples were stored at -80 degrees C instead of -20 degrees C. We therefore do not advise storing serum or plasma for more than 1 month at -20 degrees C for more than 3 months at -80 degrees C. This latter temperature is recommended in epidemiological studies.

  16. Molecular Detection of Dirofilaria immitis Specific Gene from Infected Dog Blood Sample Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    OH, In Young; KIM, Kyung Tae; SUNG, Ho Joong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, is the most important parasite-affecting dogs, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. Current diagnostic tools for detecting D. immitis include morphological assays, antigen detection, and X-ray. Herein, we developed a method for the molecular detection of D. immitis in blood using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods: The study was conducted at Eulji University, Republic of Korea in 2016. To detect D. immitis-specific gene regions, we aligned the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes of seven filarial nematodes and designed primers targeting the unique region. We used dog glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-targeted primers as the internal control. We conducted PCR-amplified genomic DNA from canine blood samples. The products were confirmed by sequencing. Results: Gene alignment revealed a D. immitis COI-specific gene region, and the activity of designed primers was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid DNA made from the PCR products was a positive control. The limit of detection for our method was 50 copies. The D. immitis COI and dog GAPDH genes could be discriminated from blood samples simultaneously. Conclusion: This study provides a method for highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnosis of D. immitis used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool from the early stage of infection. PMID:28979354

  17. Molecular Detection of Dirofilaria immitis Specific Gene from Infected Dog Blood Sample Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young OH

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, is the most important parasite-affecting dogs, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. Current diagnostic tools for detecting D. immitis include morphological assays, antigen detection, and X-ray. Herein, we developed a method for the molecular detection of D. immitis in blood using polymerase chain reaction (PCR.Methods: The study was conducted at Eulji University, Republic of Korea in 2016. To detect D. immitis-specific gene regions, we aligned the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI genes of seven filarial nematodes and designed primers targeting the unique region. We used dog glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH-targeted primers as the internal control. We conducted PCR-amplified genomic DNA from canine blood samples. The products were confirmed by sequencing.Results: Gene alignment revealed a D. immitis COI-specific gene region, and the activity of designed primers was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid DNA made from the PCR products was a positive control. The limit of detection for our method was 50 copies. The D. immitis COI and dog GAPDH genes could be discriminated from blood samples simultaneously.Conclusion: This study provides a method for highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnosis of D. immitis used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool from the early stage of infection.

  18. Molecular Detection of Dirofilaria immitis Specific Gene from Infected Dog Blood Sample Using Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, In Young; Kim, Kyung Tae; Sung, Ho Joong

    2017-01-01

    Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, is the most important parasite-affecting dogs, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. Current diagnostic tools for detecting D. immitis include morphological assays, antigen detection, and X-ray. Herein, we developed a method for the molecular detection of D. immitis in blood using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The study was conducted at Eulji University, Republic of Korea in 2016. To detect D. immitis-specific gene regions, we aligned the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes of seven filarial nematodes and designed primers targeting the unique region. We used dog glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-targeted primers as the internal control. We conducted PCR-amplified genomic DNA from canine blood samples. The products were confirmed by sequencing. Gene alignment revealed a D. immitis COI-specific gene region, and the activity of designed primers was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid DNA made from the PCR products was a positive control. The limit of detection for our method was 50 copies. The D. immitis COI and dog GAPDH genes could be discriminated from blood samples simultaneously. This study provides a method for highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnosis of D. immitis used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool from the early stage of infection.

  19. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  20. Application of Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy for the screening of blood samples from patients with clinical variant and sporadic CJD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagge, Timothy J; Barclay, G Robin; Stove, G Colin; Stove, Gordon; Robinson, Michael J; Head, Mark W; Ironside, James W; Turner, Marc L

    2007-08-30

    Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc), although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS), which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors) were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors) screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems.

  1. Application of Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy for the screening of blood samples from patients with clinical variant and sporadic CJD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ironside James W

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc, although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. Methods We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS, which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Results Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. Conclusion ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems.

  2. First Molecular Identification of Dirofilaria repens in a Dog Blood Sample from Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Lopez, Sandra; León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Salas-Alatorre, Mariana; Lechuga-Arana, Alma A; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Gutiérrez-Chávez, Abner J

    2016-11-01

    Dirofilaria repens is the causative zoonotic agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis. Although the American continent is considered currently free of D. repens infections, in the past few years there have been some reports suggesting the presence of this agent in the Americas. In Guanajuato, Mexico, there is a report of the presence of D. repens. To determine whether this parasite is really present in Guanajuato, a total of 177 EDTA blood samples from dogs were tested using the modified Knott's technique. Using this technique, we found 15 positive samples, which were then analyzed using the PCR technique, with a panfilarial set of primers and a specific primer pair for D. repens. In one sample, the expected band was present and the corresponding amplicon, sequenced, displayed a 100% identity to D. repens, confirming the presence of this exotic and zoonotic filarial species in the municipality of Silao, Guanajuato, Mexico.

  3. Leakage of Oxygen from Blood and Water Samples Stored in Plastic and Glass Syringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter V.; Horton, J. N.; Mapleson, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    Theory and experiment showed that samples of blood and water stored in 2-ml and 5-ml syringes made of polypropylene, polystyrene, or S.A.N. co-polymer exchanged oxygen with their surroundings. In the first hour the exchange was due mainly to equilibration with the plastic of the syringe and only in small degree to permeation through the plastic. With high initial tension or with blood of low haemoglobin concentration the exchange can result in errors in Po2 of up to 6% in two minutes and 16% in 30 to 60 minutes. With all-glass syringes the exchange was much slower but, even so, after 24 hours was important in all but a few of 18 interchangeable glass syringes. Therefore unless analysis can be started immediately all-glass syringes are to be preferred, and for prolonged storage even these should be selected. PMID:5565518

  4. Infective respiratory syncytial virus is present in human cord blood samples and most prevalent during winter months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mary Fonceca

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV remains the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease amongst infants, and continues to cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease every winter worldwide. Demonstrating placental transmission of viable RSV in human samples is a major paradigm shift in respiratory routes considered likely for RSV transmission.Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR was used to identify RSV present in cord blood mononucleocytes (CBM. CBMs testing positive for RSV were treated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA, PHA and nitric oxide (NO or PHA, NO and palivizumab, and co-cultured with HeLa cell monolayers. Subsequent immuno-staining for RSV was used to visualize infective viral plaques.RSV was detected in 26 of 45 samples (57.7% by ddPCR. CBM's collected in winter were more likely to test positive for RSV (17/21 samples, risk = 80%, OR = 7.08; 95% CI 1.80-27.80; p = 0.005 compared to non-winter months (9/24 samples, 37.5%. RSV plaques were observed in non-treated and treated co-cultured HeLa monolayers.Demonstrating active RSV in CBMs suggests in utero transmission of infective virus to the fetus without causing overt disease. This is likely to have an important impact on immune development as well as future virus-host interactions, thereby warranting further investigation.

  5. Infective respiratory syncytial virus is present in human cord blood samples and most prevalent during winter months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonceca, Angela Mary; Chopra, Abha; Levy, Avram; Noakes, Paul Stanton; Poh, Matthew Wee-Peng; Bear, Natasha Leanne; Prescott, Susan; Everard, Mark Lloyd

    2017-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease amongst infants, and continues to cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease every winter worldwide. Demonstrating placental transmission of viable RSV in human samples is a major paradigm shift in respiratory routes considered likely for RSV transmission. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to identify RSV present in cord blood mononucleocytes (CBM). CBMs testing positive for RSV were treated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), PHA and nitric oxide (NO) or PHA, NO and palivizumab, and co-cultured with HeLa cell monolayers. Subsequent immuno-staining for RSV was used to visualize infective viral plaques. RSV was detected in 26 of 45 samples (57.7%) by ddPCR. CBM's collected in winter were more likely to test positive for RSV (17/21 samples, risk = 80%, OR = 7.08; 95% CI 1.80-27.80; p = 0.005) compared to non-winter months (9/24 samples, 37.5%). RSV plaques were observed in non-treated and treated co-cultured HeLa monolayers. Demonstrating active RSV in CBMs suggests in utero transmission of infective virus to the fetus without causing overt disease. This is likely to have an important impact on immune development as well as future virus-host interactions, thereby warranting further investigation.

  6. Evaluation of Chromosomal Disorders in Tissue and Blood Samples in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parvaneroo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Many studies have indicated that genetic disturbances are common findings in patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. Identification of these changes can be helpful in diagnostic procedures of these tumors.Purpose: The aim of this study was to appraise the chromosomal disorders in blood and tissue patients with OSCC.Methods and Materials: In this descriptive study, the study group consisted of all OSCC patients who were referred to the Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Shariati Hospital, and Amir Aalam Hospital fromSeptember 2000 to November 2002. In order to study chromosomal disorders in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, 5 mL of blood was obtained from each patient In patients with the large lesion, a piece of involved tissue were obtained and cultured for 24 hours.This led to 29 blood samples and 16 tissue specimens and any relation between OSCC and age, sex, smoking and alcohol use were evaluated.Results: In this study, OSCC was more common in males than in females (3 to 5. 31% of our patients were smokers, and one had a history of alcoholic consumption. There was an increase in incidence of OSCC with age. In this study, all patients had numerical(aneuploidy, polyploidy and structural chromosomal disorders (double minute, fragment,breakage and dicentric. There was significant difference between blood and tissue chromosomal disorders (aneuploidy, polyploidy,breakage in OSCC patients.Conclusion: It can be concluded that chromosomes in patients with OSCC might show some genetic aberration and evaluation of involved tissue might be better way for determining this disorders.

  7. Identification of a suitable internal control for fluorescence analysis on canine peripheral blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondato, F; Martini, V; Poggi, A; Rota, A; Comazzi, S; Sulce, M; Bruno, B; Borrelli, A; Miniscalco, B

    2016-04-01

    Reliable detection of fluorescence intensity (FI) by flow cytometry (FC) is fundamental. FI depends on instrument settings and sample processing procedures: thus, measurements should be done using internal controls with known FI. Commercially available beads-based standards are expensive, thus reducing their usability in the veterinary practice. Cell subsets with stable mean FI (MFI) within the population have been proposed as acceptable surrogates in human medicine. In veterinary medicine, no data exist about stability of antigen expression among different subjects or upon sample storage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate MFI variability of main lymphocytes antigens among the lymphoid cells within each subject, among different subjects, and upon 24-h storage, in order to identify the antigen most suitable as stable internal control in MFI analyses. Peripheral blood samples from 18 healthy dogs were analysed by FC within 3h from sampling to assess the expression of CD3, CD5, CD4, CD8, CD21 and cyCD79b using conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Analyses were restricted to the lymphoid population. Fluorescent microbeads were added to each tube, and antigen MFI was calculated as Relative Fluorescence Intensity RFI (CD/beads). Fluorescence histogram CV (fhCV) for each CD was regarded as an index of the variability of expression among lymphocytes within each subject (cell-to-cell variability); whereas the CV of RFI was regarded as an index of inter-subjects variability (dog-to-dog variability). In 11 cases, FC analyses were repeated after 24h storage at 4°C and RFI and CVs of fresh and stored samples were compared to assess variability linked to storage. CD4 was identified as the best antigen to be used as an internal control for MFI analyses in canine peripheral blood samples because of low cell-to-cell and dog-to-dog variability, and optimal stability upon 24-h storage. Blood samples from a second group of 21 healthy dogs were labelled only with CD4, in order

  8. Physiological and Pathological Impact of Blood Sampling by Retro-Bulbar Sinus Puncture and Facial Vein Phlebotomy in Laboratory Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Nygaard Madsen, Andreas; Holst, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    time points, and the samples were analyzed for plasma corticosterone. Body weights were measured at the day of blood sampling and the day after blood sampling, and the food consumption was recorded automatically during the 24 hours post-procedure. At the end of study, cheeks and orbital regions were...... weight following blood sampling, but the body weight loss was higher in mice subjected to facial vein phlebotomy. The food consumption was not significantly different between the two groups. At gross necropsy, subcutaneous hematomas were found in both groups and the histopathological analyses revealed...

  9. Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement From Invasive to Unobtrusive: Celebration of 200th Birth Anniversary of Carl Ludwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Rong; Zhao, Ni; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Pettigrew, Roderic I; Lo, Benny; Miao, Fen; Li, Ye; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2016-11-01

    The year 2016 marks the 200th birth anniversary of Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (1816-1895). As one of the most remarkable scientists, Ludwig invented the kymograph, which for the first time enabled the recording of continuous blood pressure (BP), opening the door to the modern study of physiology. Almost a century later, intraarterial BP monitoring through an arterial line has been used clinically. Subsequently, arterial tonometry and volume clamp method were developed and applied in continuous BP measurement in a noninvasive way. In the last two decades, additional efforts have been made to transform the method of unobtrusive continuous BP monitoring without the use of a cuff. This review summarizes the key milestones in continuous BP measurement; that is, kymograph, intraarterial BP monitoring, arterial tonometry, volume clamp method, and cuffless BP technologies. Our emphasis is on recent studies of unobtrusive BP measurements as well as on challenges and future directions.

  10. [Characteristic of sample banks isolated from EDTA-blood by sedimentation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-bin; Lin, Qin; Ma, Chang-hua; Liu, Kai-ning; Meng, Huan-xin

    2014-02-18

    To assess the characteristics of establishing the different sample banks of plasma, leukocytes and DNA by sedimentation method of isolating from ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid(EDTA)-blood and to clarify the sedimentation method of leukocyte isolation and plasma volume by comparative data and recommended procedures for applicability. In the study, 29 EDTA-bloods were obtained, the total amounts of leukocytes and the percentage of neutrophile granulocytes, and lymphocytes in the EDTA-blood detected as a control group and then assigned equally into 4 EP tubes with 1 mL EDTA-blood per tube as 4 test groups, then the 4 tubes were placed with the EDTA-blood at room temperature and the plasma layers were isolated at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h, receptively. The total amount of leukocytes and the percentage of neutrophile granulocytes, and lymphocytes were detected by automated hematology analyzer at the clinical laboratory. The volume of the plasma was also measured at the same time. The plasma volume at 0.5 h [(241.72 ± 101.52)μL] was substantially lower than those at 1 h[(317.24 ± 97.50)μL], at 2 h[(371.03 ± 91.66)μL], and at 3 h [(408.97 ± 97.43)μL] , P 0.05. The total amount of leukocytes in the plasma layer in 1 h group was substantially higher than that in 2 h and 3 h groups (P 0.05). The total amount of leukocytes in the plasma layer of the 4 test groups was substantially lower than that in the control group (P 0.05). The mean percentage of lymphocytes in the plasma layer in 0.5 h group (35.09% ± 10.84%) was substantially lower than those in the plasma layer in 1 h, 2 h and 3 h groups, respectively ( 41.48% ± 12.20%, 47.96% ± 12.27%, 45.50% ± 13.71%), which was significant higher than that in the control group(30.98% ± 7.33%), P 0.05). The best period of time in obtaining leukocytes is 0.5-1 h sedimentation of EDTA-blood. Both the plasma layer and leukocytes can be separated and obtained at the same time from the same sample by the sedimentation method of

  11. Capillary blood sampling: national recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Dorotic, Adrijana; Grzunov, Ana; Maradin, Miljenka

    2015-01-01

    Capillary blood sampling is a medical procedure aimed at assisting in patient diagnosis, management and treatment, and is increasingly used worldwide, in part because of the increasing availability of point-of-care testing. It is also frequently used to obtain small blood volumes for laboratory testing because it minimizes pain. The capillary blood sampling procedure can influence the quality of the sample as well as the accuracy of test results, highlighting the need for immediate, widespread standardization. A recent nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia has shown that capillary sampling procedures are not standardized and that only a small proportion of Croatian laboratories comply with guidelines from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this document is to provide recommendations for capillary blood sampling. This document has been produced by the Working Group for Capillary Blood Sampling within the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Our recommendations are based on existing available standards and recommendations (WHO Best Practices in Phlebotomy, CLSI GP42-A6 and CLSI C46-A2), which have been modified based on local logistical, cultural, legal and regulatory requirements. We hope that these recommendations will be a useful contribution to the standardization of capillary blood sampling in Croatia.

  12. Efficacy of nitric oxide, with or without continuing antihypertensive treatment, for management of high blood pressure in acute stroke (ENOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bath, Philip M W; Woodhouse, Lisa; Scutt, Polly

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is associated with poor outcome after stroke. Whether blood pressure should be lowered early after stroke, and whether to continue or temporarily withdraw existing antihypertensive drugs, is not known. We assessed outcomes after stroke in patients given drugs......), started within 48 h of stroke onset, or to no glyceryl trinitrate (control group). A subset of patients who were taking antihypertensive drugs before their stroke were also randomly assigned to continue or stop taking these drugs. The primary outcome was function, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale......), and was significantly reduced on day 1 in 2000 patients allocated to glyceryl trinitrate compared with 2011 controls (difference -7·0 [95% CI -8·5 to -5·6] mm Hg/-3·5 [-4·4 to -2·6] mm Hg; both pantihypertensive drugs compared with 1044 patients randomised...

  13. Validation of a non-invasive blood-sampling technique for doubly-labelled water experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Helversen, Otto Von; Michener, Robert H; Kunz, Thomas H

    2003-04-01

    Two techniques for bleeding small mammals have been used in doubly-labeled water (DLW) studies, including vena puncture and the use of starved nymphal stages of hematophagous reduviid bugs (Reduviidae, Hemiptera). In this study, we tested the validity of using reduviid bugs in doubly-labeled water experiments. We found that the isotope enrichment in initial blood samples collected with bugs was significantly lower compared to isotope enrichment in blood samples obtained using vena puncture. We therefore used the desiccation method for estimating total body water (TBW) in DLW experiments because TBW calculated using the isotope dilution method was overestimated when blood samples were collected using reduviid bugs. In our validation experiment with nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina), we compared estimates of daily energy expenditure (DEE) using DLW with those derived from the energy balance method. We considered Speakman's equation (controlling for 25% fractionated water loss) as the most appropriate for our study animal and calculated DEE accordingly. On average, DEE estimated with DLW was not significantly different from the mean value obtained with the energy balance method (mean deviation 1.2%). We conclude that although bug hemolymph or intestinal liquids most likely contaminate the samples, estimates of DEE are still valid because the DLW method does not depend on absolute isotope enrichments but on the rate of isotope decrease over time. However, dilution of blood with intestinal liquids or hemolymph from a bug may lead to larger variation in DEE estimates. We also tested how the relative error of DLW estimates changed with varying assumptions about fractionation. We used three additional equations for calculating DEE in DLW experiments. The basic equation for DLW experiments published by Lifson and McClintock (LM-6) assumes no fractionation, resulted in an overestimate of DEE by 10%. Nagy's equation (N-2) controls for changes in body mass but not for

  14. Heel blood sampling in European neonatal intensive care units: compliance with pain management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Losacco, Valentina; Cuttini, Marina; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    of heel blood sampling and associated procedures (oral sweet solutions, non-nutritive sucking, swaddling or positioning, topical anaesthetics and heel warming) were collected through a structured mail questionnaire. 284 NICUs (78% response rate) participated, but only 175 with >/=50 very low birth weight...... and France were the most likely, and Belgium and Spain the least likely to employ recommended combinations of evidence-based pain management measures. Conclusions Heel puncture is a common procedure in preterm neonates, but pain appears inadequately treated in many units and countries. Better compliance...

  15. Weekday variation in triglyceride concentrations in 1.8 million blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaskolowski, Jörn; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triglyceride (TG) concentration is used as a marker of cardio-metabolic risk. However, diurnal and possibly weekday variation exists in TG concentrations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate weekday variation in TG concentrations among 1.8 million blood samples drawn between 2008 and 2015 from...... variations in TG concentrations were recorded for out-patients between the age of 9 to 26 years, with up to 20% higher values on Mondays compared to Fridays (all PTriglyceride concentrations were highest after the weekend and gradually declined during the week. We suggest that unhealthy...

  16. Continuous measurement of the blood pressure response of normotensives and hypertensives during reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Näring, G.W.B.; Schaap, C.; DeMey, H.; Staak, C. van der

    1996-01-01

    Experiments on the response of blood pressure (BP) to speech were critically reviewed. Based on this review, it was concluded that evidence to support the assumption that the BP response to speech is higher for hypertensives than for normotensives is insufficient. The present investigation addressed

  17. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and show how well treatments are working. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  18. Seasonal and Temporal Variation in Release of Antibiotics in Hospital Wastewater: Estimation Using Continuous and Grab Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of antibiotics in the environment and their subsequent impact on resistance development has raised concerns globally. Hospitals are a major source of antibiotics released into the environment. To reduce these residues, research to improve knowledge of the dynamics of antibiotic release from hospitals is essential. Therefore, we undertook a study to estimate seasonal and temporal variation in antibiotic release from two hospitals in India over a period of two years. For this, 6 sampling sessions of 24 hours each were conducted in the three prominent seasons of India, at all wastewater outlets of the two hospitals, using continuous and grab sampling methods. An in-house wastewater sampler was designed for continuous sampling. Eight antibiotics from four major antibiotic groups were selected for the study. To understand the temporal pattern of antibiotic release, each of the 24-hour sessions were divided in three sub-sampling sessions of 8 hours each. Solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine the antibiotic residues. Six of the eight antibiotics studied were detected in the wastewater samples. Both continuous and grab sampling methods indicated that the highest quantities of fluoroquinolones were released in winter followed by the rainy season and the summer. No temporal pattern in antibiotic release was detected. In general, in a common timeframe, continuous sampling showed less concentration of antibiotics in wastewater as compared to grab sampling. It is suggested that continuous sampling should be the method of choice as grab sampling gives erroneous results, it being indicative of the quantities of antibiotics present in wastewater only at the time of sampling. Based on our studies, calculations indicate that from hospitals in India, an estimated 89, 1 and 25 ng/L/day of fluroquinolones, metronidazole and sulfamethoxazole respectively, might be getting released into the

  19. Seasonal and temporal variation in release of antibiotics in hospital wastewater: estimation using continuous and grab sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Diwan

    Full Text Available The presence of antibiotics in the environment and their subsequent impact on resistance development has raised concerns globally. Hospitals are a major source of antibiotics released into the environment. To reduce these residues, research to improve knowledge of the dynamics of antibiotic release from hospitals is essential. Therefore, we undertook a study to estimate seasonal and temporal variation in antibiotic release from two hospitals in India over a period of two years. For this, 6 sampling sessions of 24 hours each were conducted in the three prominent seasons of India, at all wastewater outlets of the two hospitals, using continuous and grab sampling methods. An in-house wastewater sampler was designed for continuous sampling. Eight antibiotics from four major antibiotic groups were selected for the study. To understand the temporal pattern of antibiotic release, each of the 24-hour sessions were divided in three sub-sampling sessions of 8 hours each. Solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to determine the antibiotic residues. Six of the eight antibiotics studied were detected in the wastewater samples. Both continuous and grab sampling methods indicated that the highest quantities of fluoroquinolones were released in winter followed by the rainy season and the summer. No temporal pattern in antibiotic release was detected. In general, in a common timeframe, continuous sampling showed less concentration of antibiotics in wastewater as compared to grab sampling. It is suggested that continuous sampling should be the method of choice as grab sampling gives erroneous results, it being indicative of the quantities of antibiotics present in wastewater only at the time of sampling. Based on our studies, calculations indicate that from hospitals in India, an estimated 89, 1 and 25 ng/L/day of fluroquinolones, metronidazole and sulfamethoxazole respectively, might be getting

  20. Prediction and analysis of the glycemic consumptions of newborn’s blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martos Monereo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally we can be with false situations of hypoglycemia in newborn caused by inadequate times of delay between extraction and analysis and therefore, it is necessary to make a new extraction and increase the baby controls. This is the reason why we proposed to elude these negative consequences elaborating the equation that calculates consumptions that occurs on any sample of unweaned babies in waiting times between 1 and 2 hours, and that will be by those variables that determine these consumptions.Observational, correlational and multivariant study, in which it is used blood samples of each unweaned baby admitted in the newborn unit, dividing them in three fractions to determinate hemogram, initial glucose, glucose after an hour of delay in the odds samples and glucose after two hours of delay in the even samples, writing down the age of the baby and the room temperature. N= 110Concluding, the glucolitic decrease in sanguineous samples of unweaned babies aged between 0 and 4 months, completely conserved and kept at room temperature between 1 and 2 hours, are related with the waiting time (p, number of red globules by unit of volume (h, and therefore with the haematocrit (ht, with the room temperature (t and the age (e, responding the average glucolitic consumptions (CGM: 0.20 * ht, and the minimum glucolitic consumption (CGMi: CGMi: 0.34 * ht + 0.1 * p – 25, being this last the most suitable one for, when conflicting situations, discarding false hypoglycemia without a new extraction.

  1. A review of blood sample handling and pre-processing for metabolomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Vinicius Veri; Barbas, Coral; Dudzik, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    Metabolomics has been found to be applicable to a wide range of clinical studies, bringing a new era for improving clinical diagnostics, early disease detection, therapy prediction and treatment efficiency monitoring. A major challenge in metabolomics, particularly untargeted studies, is the extremely diverse and complex nature of biological specimens. Despite great advances in the field there still exist fundamental needs for considering pre-analytical variability that can introduce bias to the subsequent analytical process and decrease the reliability of the results and moreover confound final research outcomes. Many researchers are mainly focused on the instrumental aspects of the biomarker discovery process, and sample related variables sometimes seem to be overlooked. To bridge the gap, critical information and standardized protocols regarding experimental design and sample handling and pre-processing are highly desired. Characterization of a range variation among sample collection methods is necessary to prevent results misinterpretation and to ensure that observed differences are not due to an experimental bias caused by inconsistencies in sample processing. Herein, a systematic discussion of pre-analytical variables affecting metabolomics studies based on blood derived samples is performed. Furthermore, we provide a set of recommendations concerning experimental design, collection, pre-processing procedures and storage conditions as a practical review that can guide and serve for the standardization of protocols and reduction of undesirable variation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Variation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell RNA Quality in Archived Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlakidis, Zisis; Mant, Christine; Abdinur, Fartun; Cope, Andrew; Steiner, Szabi; Peakman, Mark; Hayday, Adrian; Cason, John

    2011-09-01

    The Infectious Diseases BioBank (IDB) has consistently archived peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) RNA for transcriptome analyses. RNA is particularly labile, and hence, these samples provide a sensitive indicator for assessing the IDB's quality-assurance measures. Independent analyses of 104 PBMNC RNA specimens from 26 volunteers revealed that the mean RNA integrity number (RIN) was high (9.02), although RIN ranged between scores of 7 and 10. This variation of RIN values was not associated with ischemic time, PBMNC quality, number of samples processed per day, self-medication after immunization, freezer location, donor characteristics, differential white blood cell counts, or daily variation in RNA extractions (all P>0.05). RIN values were related to the date of collection, with those processed during mid-summer having highest RIN scores (P=0.0001). Amongst specimens with the lowest RIN scores, no common feature could be identified. Thus, no technical explanation for the variation in RNA quality could be ascertained and these may represent normal physiological variations. These data provide strong evidence that current IDB protocols for the isolation and preservation PBMNC RNA are robust.

  3. Development of stable isotope dilution assays for ochratoxin A in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Markus; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael

    2011-12-15

    Two new stable isotope dilution assays were developed for the quantification of ochratoxin A in human blood samples for exposure studies. The methods based on two different sample extraction and cleanup procedures including liquid-liquid extraction with following immunoaffinity chromatography (IA) as well as a dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) method. For detection, LC-MS/MS was applied. For the first time, exact quantitation of the reference compound ochratoxin A was performed by quantitative NMR spectroscopy (qNMR). Additionally, a comparison of different blood-drawing procedures revealed no differences for heparin plasma and serum whereas citrate plasma gave significantly lower results for the mycotoxin. Limits of detection (LOD: 0.02 ng/g (IA) vs 0.03 ng/g (DSPE)), limits of quantification (LOQ: 0.07 ng/g (IA) vs 0.08 ng/g (DSPE)), relative recovery (≥94%), precision, and linearity indicated excellent performance of the developed methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A survey: Glucose sedative effect in neonates during Venus blood sampling

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    fariba Tarhani

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of invasive procedures performed in newborns admitted in neonatal units is very high. Nonpharmacologic interventions are valuable alternatives for pain relief during minor procedures in neonates. The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effect of orally administered glucose with different concentration in neonate using a validated behavioral acute pain rating scale. Materials and methods: A clinical trial study was conducted in 65 neonates. Each infant received 3 treatments with sterile water, 30% Dextrose Solution and 50% solution during consecutive Venus blood sampling and their responses was measured by behavioral acute pain rating scale for neonate (DAN score. This study was done in form of double blind and observer was unaware. Data analysis was perform using SPSS software. Results: Results of this study showed that pain score significantly is lower in neonates that received sweet solution. Mean of pain scores for sterile water, Dextrose 30% and Dextrose 50% solutions, respectively were 8.74, 6.9 and 5.48. There was no statistical relationship between sex, gestational age and weight with pain score. Conclusions: A small dose (0.5ml of 30% or 50% of oral glucose have an analgesic effect in neonates during Venus blood sampling. This effect is higher in 50% glucose solution and it can be detected by a behavioral pain rating scale.

  5. An intelligent system for continuous blood pressure monitoring on remote multi-patients in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Marani, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an electronic system to perform a non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure based on the oscillometric method, which does not suffer from the limitations of the well-known auscultatory one. Moreover the proposed system is able to evaluate both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and makes use of a microcontroller and a Sallen-Key active filter. With reference to other similar devices, a great improvement of our measurement system is achieved since it performs the transmission of the systolic and diastolic pressure values to a remote computer. This aspect is very important when the simultaneous monitoring of multi-patients is required. The proposed system, prototyped and tested at the Electron Devices Laboratory (Electrical and Information Engineering Department) of Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy, is characterized by originality, by plainness of use and by a very high level of automation (so called intelligent system).

  6. Continuous removal of glycerol from frozen-thawed red blood cells in a microfluidic membrane device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusianti, Ratih E; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-09-01

    Cryopreservation of human red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of 40% glycerol allows a shelf-life of 10 years, as opposed to only 6 weeks for refrigerated RBCs. Nonetheless, cryopreserved blood is rarely used in clinical therapy, in part because of the requirement for a time-consuming (∼1 h) post-thaw wash process to remove glycerol before the product can be used for transfusion. The current deglycerolization process involves a series of saline washes in an automated centrifuge, which gradually removes glycerol from the cells in order to prevent osmotic damage. We recently demonstrated that glycerol can be extracted in as little as 3 min without excessive osmotic damage if the composition of the extracellular solution is precisely controlled. Here, we explore the potential for carrying out rapid glycerol extraction using a membrane-based microfluidic device, with the ultimate goal of enabling inline washing of cryopreserved blood. To assist in experimental design and device optimization, we developed a mass transfer model that allows prediction of glycerol removal, as well as the resulting cell volume changes. Experimental measurements of solution composition and hemolysis at the device outlet are in reasonable agreement with model predictions, and our results demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the glycerol concentration by more than 50% in a single device without excessive hemolysis. Based on these promising results, we present a design for a multistage process that is predicted to safely remove glycerol from cryopreserved blood in less than 3 min.

  7. Analysis of intraosseous blood samples using an EPOC point of care analyzer during resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Crystal Ives; Darracq, Michael; Young, Megann

    2017-03-01

    In the early phases of resuscitation in a critically ill patient, especially those in cardiac arrest, intravenous (IV) access can be difficult to obtain. Intraosseous (IO) access is often used in these critical situations to allow medication administration. When no IV access is available, it is difficult to obtain blood for point of care analysis, yet this information can be crucial in directing the resuscitation. We hypothesized that IO samples may be used with a point of care device to obtain useful information when seconds really do matter. Patients presenting to the emergency department requiring resuscitation and IO placement were prospectively enrolled in a convenience sample. 17 patients were enrolled. IO and IV samples obtained within five minutes of one another were analyzed using separate EPOC® point of care analyzers. Analytes were compared using Bland Altman Plots and intraclass correlation coefficients. In this analysis of convenience sampled critically ill patients, the EPOC® point of care analyzer provided results from IO samples. IO and IV samples were most comparable for pH, bicarbonate, sodium and base excess, and potentially for lactic acid; single outliers for bicarbonate, sodium and base excess were observed. Intraclass correlation coefficients were excellent for sodium and reasonable for pH, pO2, bicarbonate, and glucose. Correlations for other variables measured by the EPOC® analyzer were not as robust. IO samples can be used with a bedside point of care analyzer to rapidly obtain certain laboratory information during resuscitations when IV access is difficult. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Chronic vascular catheterization in the rat. Adaptation to injections and semi-continous blood sampling for hormonal studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, J F; Boucher, D; Leinot, M

    1978-01-01

    A method for frequent sampling of blood and injections of fluids in undisturbed rats is described. The right external jugular vein and the left carotid artery are cannulated without completely blood stream interruption in the vessel. Injection or perfusion can be performed during several weeks. Blood was collected for at least 15 post-operative days. The technique appears suitable for pituitary kinetics studies which can be carried out several times in rats bearing indwelling catheters.

  9. Use of dried blood samples for monitoring hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Onofre

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a problem in several regions of the world with limited resources. Blood samples dried on filter paper (DBS have been successfully used to diagnose and monitor several infectious diseases. In Mexico there is an urgent need for an affordable and easy sampling method for viral load (VL testing and monitoring of chronic HBV infection. The purpose of this work was to validate the utility of DBS samples for monitoring HBV infection in patients from Mexico City. Methods Matched samples of plasma and DBS on filter paper from 47 HBV infected patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, were included. To evaluate the DNA stability and purity from DBS stored at different temperature conditions, samples from ten patients were stored at 4 degree, 25 degree, and 37 degree C for 7 days. After DBS elution and DNA extraction, the purity of these samples was determined measuring the O.D. rate 260/280. The DBS utility for molecular studies was assessed with PCR assays to amplify a 322 bp fragment from the "a" determinant region of the HBV "S" gene. The VL from all samples was determined to evaluate the correlation between plasma and DBS matched samples. Results The quality of the DNA from DBS specimen is not adversely affected by storage at 4 degree, 25 degree and 37 degree C for up 7 days. Statistical ANOVA analyses did not show any significant difference. The same amplification efficiency was observed between DNA templates from samples stored at different temperatures. The Pearson correlation between the VL from DBS and plasma matched samples was 0.93 (p = 0.01. The SD was 1.48 for DBS vs.1.32 for Plasma, and an average of log10 copies/mL of 5.32 vs. 5.53. ANOVA analysis did not show any statistically significant difference between the analyzed groups (p = 0.92. Conclusion The results provide strong evidence that the isolation and quantification of DNA-HBV from DBS is a viable alternative

  10. Use of dried blood samples for monitoring hepatitis B virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Rosalia; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Ruiz-Tachiquin, Martha; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Cano-Dominguez, Carlos; Valdez-Salazar, Hilda; Gomez-Delgado, Alejandro; Muñoz, Onofre; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma-Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a problem in several regions of the world with limited resources. Blood samples dried on filter paper (DBS) have been successfully used to diagnose and monitor several infectious diseases. In Mexico there is an urgent need for an affordable and easy sampling method for viral load (VL) testing and monitoring of chronic HBV infection. The purpose of this work was to validate the utility of DBS samples for monitoring HBV infection in patients from Mexico City. Methods Matched samples of plasma and DBS on filter paper from 47 HBV infected patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), were included. To evaluate the DNA stability and purity from DBS stored at different temperature conditions, samples from ten patients were stored at 4 degree, 25 degree, and 37 degree C for 7 days. After DBS elution and DNA extraction, the purity of these samples was determined measuring the O.D. rate 260/280. The DBS utility for molecular studies was assessed with PCR assays to amplify a 322 bp fragment from the "a" determinant region of the HBV "S" gene. The VL from all samples was determined to evaluate the correlation between plasma and DBS matched samples. Results The quality of the DNA from DBS specimen is not adversely affected by storage at 4 degree, 25 degree and 37 degree C for up 7 days. Statistical ANOVA analyses did not show any significant difference. The same amplification efficiency was observed between DNA templates from samples stored at different temperatures. The Pearson correlation between the VL from DBS and plasma matched samples was 0.93 (p = 0.01). The SD was 1.48 for DBS vs.1.32 for Plasma, and an average of log10 copies/mL of 5.32 vs. 5.53. ANOVA analysis did not show any statistically significant difference between the analyzed groups (p = 0.92). Conclusion The results provide strong evidence that the isolation and quantification of DNA-HBV from DBS is a viable alternative for patient monitoring

  11. The Effects of Lavender Scent on Pain of Blood Sampling in Term Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Razaghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  After birth, many infants were in hospital undergo repeated invasive procedures and because there is increasing evidence of short-term and long-term adverse neurodevelopment consequences, pain management in neonates is very important. Methods and Materials This was a quasi experimental study of clinical trial type that carried out on 80 term neonate that were allocated to two intervention (40 neonates and control (40 neonates groups. In experimental group, infants at night for 8 hours before blood sampling were exposed to the scent of lavender. And the next day, at the time of blood sampling was used of the scent of lavender. Simultaneously with the needle, pain assessment scale scores Douleur Aigue Nouveau-ne (DAN or neonatal pain discomfort by a trained person, was calculated and recorded. Duration of crying in seconds from start cry to silence that lasted at least 5 seconds interval was measured. The control group did not receive additional action for pain relief. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 software. Results Average rating of DAN score was in control group 5.97 ± 1.94 and in experimental group 4.47+1.81. Mann–Whitney test results showed a significant difference in pain scores in the two groups (P=0.001. The crying time between groups was not significant difference (P = 0.12. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the scent of lavender is effective in reducing the pain caused by sampling in term neonates but had no effect on the duration of crying infants. Since neonatal pain management is an important task for nurse, using of the scent of lavender as a non pharmacological method of pain management in neonates requires further investigation.

  12. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in serum and blood samples from AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinicius; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini

    2018-01-01

    Background Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients. Methodology We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens. Samples were then analyzed by mycological, serological, and molecular methods, and stratified as histoplasmostic with (group I) or without AIDS (group II), uninfected (group III), and infected with HIV and other pathogens only (group IV). All patients were receiving treatment for histoplasmosis and other infections at the time of sample collection. Results Comparison of conventional methods with nested PCR using primers against H. capsulatum 18S rRNA (HC18S), 5.8S rRNA ITS (HC5.8S-ITS), and a 100 kDa protein (HC100) revealed that sensitivity against sera was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by immunoblotting, double immunodiffusion, PCR with HC18S, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was equally high for double immunodiffusion, immunoblotting and PCR with HC100, followed for PCR with HC18S and HC5.8-ITS. Against blood, sensitivity was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by PCR with HC18S, Giemsa staining, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was highest for Giemsa staining and PCR with HC100, followed by PCR with HC18S and HC5.8S-ITS. PCR was less efficient in patients with immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS and/or related diseases. Conclusion Molecular techniques may detect histoplasmosis even in cases with negative serology and mycology, potentially enabling early diagnosis. PMID:29342162

  13. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti from human blood samples in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoieb, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2017-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious vector-borne health problem, and Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) is the major cause of LF worldwide and is focally endemic in Egypt. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic and immunological criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. The aim of the present study was molecular detection of W.b in residents in endemic areas in Egypt, sequence variance analysis, and phylogenetic analysis of W.b DNA. Collected blood samples from residents in filariasis endemic areas in five governorates were subjected to semi-nested PCR targeting repeated DNA sequence, for detection of W.b DNA. PCR products were sequenced; subsequently, a phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences was performed. Out of 300 blood samples, W.b DNA was identified in 48 (16%). Sequencing analysis confirmed PCR results identifying only W.b species. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated genetically distinct clusters of W.b among the study population. Study results demonstrated that the semi-nested PCR proved to be an effective diagnostic tool for accurate and rapid detection of W.b infections in nano-epidemics and is applicable for samples collected in the daytime as well as the night time. PCR products sequencing and phylogenitic analysis revealed three different nucleotide sequences variants. Further genetic studies of W.b in Egypt and other endemic areas are needed to distinguish related strains and the various ecological as well as drug effects exerted on them to support W.b elimination.

  14. Cleaning the IceMole: collection of englacial samples from Blood Falls, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, J.; Digel, I.; Chua, M.; Davis, J.; Ghosh, D.; Lyons, W. B.; Welch, K. A.; Purcell, A.; Francke, G.; Feldmann, M.; Espe, C.; Heinen, D.; Dachwald, B.; Kowalski, J.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Minimally Invasive Direct Glacial Access project (MIDGE) used a maneuverable thermoelectric melting probe called the IceMole to collect the first englacial samples of brine from Blood Falls, Antarctica. In order to maintain the scientific integrity of samples collected and minimize impact to this specially protected ecosystem, microbial and chemical contamination of the IceMole needed to be minimized. Guidelines have been established for research in Antarctic subglacial systems by the scientific and regulatory community and have been detailed by the "Code of Conduct for the Exploration and Research of Subglacial Aquatic Environments" put forth by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Action Group, and was submitted to the Antarctic Treaty System. This Code of Conduct (CoC) recognizes the ecological importance and pristine nature of subglacial habitats and recommends a path forward towards clean exploration. Similarly, the US and European space agencies (NASA and ESA) have detailed instrument preparation protocols for the exploration of icy worlds in our solar system for planetary protection. Given the synergistic aims of these two groups we have adopted protocols from both subglacial and space exploration approaches. Here we present our approach to cleaning the IceMole in the field and report on ability to reduce the bioload inherent on the melter. Specifically our protocol reduced the exterior bio-load by an order of magnitude, to levels common in most clean rooms, and 1-3 orders of magnitude below that of Taylor Glacier ice surrounding Blood Falls. Our results indicate that the collection of englacial samples for microbiological analysis is feasible with melting probes.

  15. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of oxprenolol in man using continuous non-invasive blood pressure monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Oosterhuis, B.; Karemaker, J. M.; Wemer, J.; van Boxtel, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the plasma concentration of oxprenolol and its haemodynamic effects during physical exercise was studied in 6 healthy volunteers, in whom BP and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored by non-invasive techniques (Fin-A-Press-Tonometer) during repeated three-minute

  16. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  17. Concentrations of environmental contaminants in blood samples collected from Sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) from the Eastern Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Table 1 provides the results of organochlorine and mercury analysis on plasma and whole blood samples (respectively) collected from 20 sharp-shinned hawks at HMS...

  18. [Evaluating the applicability of medical examinations constituting "the protocol of obtaining a blood sample" in measuring the degree of intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelgardt, Piotr; Grzech, Weronika; Drzewiecki, Jarosław; Sliwka, Karol

    2010-01-01

    Breathalysing and blood analysis is the basic instrument of measuring the level of intoxication. Prior to collecting a blood sample, an individual suspected of being under the influence of alcohol is examined by a physician, who fills out the "protocol of obtaining a blood sample". This work aims at evaluating the applicability of the described examination in measuring the level of intoxication. In order to do so, our team analyzed 352 "protocols of obtaining blood sample" referred to the Forensic Laboratory KWP in Bydgoszcz, Poland, and compared them with the results of blood analysis. The results of the above analysis point to the fact that the elements of medical examination constituting "the protocol of obtaining a blood sample" are of a minor usefulness in determining the degree of intoxication with ethyl alcohol. The smell from the mouth and the conclusions formulated the examining physician prove to be the most useful. The summary usage of deviations from the norm does not seem to increase the usefulness of methods used within "the protocol of obtaining a blood sample" in evaluating the degree of intoxication.

  19. Assessing the eligibility of a non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement technique for application during total intravenous anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhle, Robert; Siegert, Joachim; Wonka, Fred; Schindler, Christoph; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Koch, Thea; Morgenstern, Ute; Theilen, Herman

    2016-06-01

    To assess the eligibility for replacement of invasive blood pressure as measured "within" the arterial vessel (IBP) with non-invasive continuous arterial blood pressure (cNIP) monitoring during total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA), the ability of cNiP to track fast blood pressure changes needs to be quantified. A new method of statistical data analysis is developed for this purpose. In a pilot study on patients undergoing neurosurgical anaesthesia, mean arterial pressure MAPIBP measured with IBP was compared to MAPCNP measured by the CNAP Monitor 500 in ten patients (age: 63±13 a). Correlation analysis of changes of device differences ΔeMAP=ΔMAPCNP-ΔMAPIBP with changes of MAPIBP (ΔMAPIBP) during intervals of vasoactivity was conducted. An innovative technique, of linear trend analysis (LTA) applied to two signals, is described to perform this analysis without a priori knowledge of intervals of vasoactivity. Analysis of ΔeMAP during vasoactivity revealed that ΔMAPCNP systematically underestimated ΔMAPIBP by 37%. This was confirmed in the complete data set using LTA technique showing a systematic, yet patient specific, underestimation in tracking ΔMAPIBP (16…120%). The proposed LTA technique is able to detect systematic errors in tracking short-term blood pressure changes otherwise masked by established analysis. LTA may thus be a useful tool to assess the eligibility of cNIP to replace IBP during TIVA.

  20. Clean Sampling of an Englacial Conduit at Blood Falls, Antarctica - Some Experimental and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Julia; Francke, Gero; Feldmann, Marco; Espe, Clemens; Heinen, Dirk; Digel, Ilya; Clemens, Joachim; Schüller, Kai; Mikucki, Jill; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Pettit, Erin; Berry Lyons, W.; Dachwald, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    There is significant interest in sampling subglacial environments for geochemical and microbiological studies, yet those environments are typically difficult to access. Existing ice-drilling technologies make it cumbersome to maintain microbiologically clean access for sample acquisition and environmental stewardship of potentially fragile subglacial aquatic ecosystems. With the "IceMole", a minimally invasive, maneuverable subsurface ice probe, we have developed a clean glacial exploration technology for in-situ analysis and sampling of glacial ice and sub- and englacial materials. Its design is based on combining melting and mechanical stabilization, using an ice screw at the tip of the melting head to maintain firm contact between the melting head and the ice. The IceMole can change its melting direction by differential heating of the melting head and optional side wall heaters. Downward, horizontal and upward melting, as well as curve driving and penetration of particulate-ladden layers has already been demonstrated in several field tests. This maneuverability of the IceMole also necessitates a sophisticated on-board navigation system, capable of autonomous operations. Therefore, between 2012 and 2014, a more advanced probe was developed as part of the "Enceladus Explorer" (EnEx) project. The EnEx-IceMole offers systems for accurate positioning, based on in-ice attitude determination, acoustic positioning, ultrasonic obstacle and target detection, which is all integrated through a high-level sensor fusion algorithm. In December 2014, the EnEx-IceMole was used for clean access into a unique subglacial aquatic environment at Blood Falls, Antarctica, where an englacial brine sample was successfully obtained after about 17 meters of oblique melting. Particular attention was paid to clean protocols for sampling for geochemical and microbiological analysis. In this contribution, we will describe the general technological approach of the IceMole and report on the

  1. MalHaploFreq: A computer programme for estimating malaria haplotype frequencies from blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers, particularly those associated with drug resistance, are important surveillance tools that can inform policy choice. People infected with falciparum malaria often contain several genetically-distinct clones of the parasite; genotyping the patients' blood reveals whether or not the marker is present (i.e. its prevalence, but does not reveal its frequency. For example a person with four malaria clones may contain both mutant and wildtype forms of a marker but it is not possible to distinguish the relative frequencies of the mutant and wildtypes i.e. 1:3, 2:2 or 3:1. Methods An appropriate method for obtaining frequencies from prevalence data is by Maximum Likelihood analysis. A computer programme has been developed that allows the frequency of markers, and haplotypes defined by up to three codons, to be estimated from blood phenotype data. Results The programme has been fully documented [see Additional File 1] and provided with a user-friendly interface suitable for large scale analyses. It returns accurate frequencies and 95% confidence intervals from simulated dataset sets and has been extensively tested on field data sets. Additional File 1 User manual for MalHaploFreq. Click here for file Conclusion The programme is included [see Additional File 2] and/or may be freely downloaded from 1. It can then be used to extract molecular marker and haplotype frequencies from their prevalence in human blood samples. This should enhance the use of frequency data to inform antimalarial drug policy choice. Additional File 2 executable programme compiled for use on DOS or windows Click here for file

  2. Levels of PCBs, DDT, DDE and DDD in Italian human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, C. La; Abate, V.; Alivernini, S.; Iacovella, N.; Mantovani, A.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Silvestroni, L.; Spera, G. [Dept. of Medical Pathophysiology, Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The environmental contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is effecting the exposure of the general population in a direct way through air inhalation, ingestion of particulate matter and dermal absorption and, most of all, in an indirect way through diet. Diet represents, in fact, the main way of human exposure to PCBs. PCBs have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal and immunological effects. An association between endometriosis and high levels of PCB in plasma has also been reported3. Moreover, some congeners (PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 153) have effects on thyroid hormones in animal models, although the PCB dose used in these experiments was an order of magnitude higher than the estimated human exposure. Humans are, however, exposed to a complex mixtures of PCB congeners. In this study identification and quantification of 60 PCB congeners and 3 chlorinated pesticides in human whole blood samples are presented. The subjects examined in this pilot study were a small group of patients with possible endocrine-related problems and unknown specific exposure. The aim of this study was to increase the present understanding about the distribution of the PCBs in human whole blood. The levels of DDT and metabolites were measured as well, since these compounds are consistently reported to contribute to the whole body burden of persistent chlorinated compounds, together with PCBs.

  3. Rate of manual leukocyte differentials in dog, cat and horse blood samples using ADVIA 120 cytograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Martina; Moritz, Andreas; Bauer, Natali

    2014-06-05

    Modern automated haematology instruments are capable of performing leukocyte differentials faster, cheaper and with a higher precision than the traditional 100-cell manual differential count. Thus, in human laboratories, criteria are defined for performing a manual review of the blood smear resulting in a marked reduction of manual differential counts. While common in human laboratories, this approach to reducing the number of manual differentials in veterinary laboratories is still not commonly performed. Thus, our aim was to determine the rate and causes of manual leukocyte differentials in a university clinical pathology laboratory using the automated laser-based haematology analyser ADVIA 120. Overall, 14,953 complete blood cell counts from dogs, cats and horses were reviewed. Manual leukocyte differentials were requested if abnormal ADVIA peroxidase and baso cytograms were detected (i.e. suspicion of left shift or atypical lymphocytes/blasts, inappropriate separation of cell populations). In 21% of canine, 32% of feline and 20% of equine samples, a manual differential was requested. Indistinct separation of the cell population was present in 10% to 15% of the cases. Depending on the species, atypical lymphocytes were suspected in 2% to 12%, left shift in 13% to 25% and suspicion of blasts was present in less than 0.4% of the cases. The obtained results are comparable to those published for human medicine and the rate of manual differentiation could be markedly reduced in veterinary laboratories if microscopic examination was used as a validation procedure rather than as a reflexive substitute for automated differentiation.

  4. Putative Epimutagens in Maternal Peripheral and Cord Blood Samples Identified Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of transcription and genome stability by epigenetic systems are crucial for the proper development of mammalian embryos. Chemicals that disturb epigenetic systems are termed epimutagens. We previously performed chemical screening that focused on heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation status in mouse embryonic stem cells and identified five epimutagens: diethyl phosphate (DEP, mercury (Hg, cotinine, selenium (Se, and octachlorodipropyl ether (S-421. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs to confirm the effects of 20 chemicals, including the five epimutagens, detected at low concentrations in maternal peripheral and cord blood samples. Of note, these individual chemicals did not exhibit epimutagenic activity in hiPSCs. However, because the fetal environment contains various chemicals, we evaluated the effects of combined exposure to chemicals (DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421 on hiPSCs. The combined exposure caused a decrease in the number of heterochromatin signals and aberrant DNA methylation status at multiple gene loci in hiPSCs. The combined exposure also affected embryoid body formation and neural differentiation from hiPSCs. Therefore, DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421 were defined as an “epimutagen combination” that is effective at low concentrations as detected in maternal peripheral and cord blood.

  5. Haematospirillum jordaniae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humrighouse, B W; Emery, B D; Kelly, A J; Metcalfe, M G; Mbizo, J; McQuiston, J R

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, spiral-shaped bacterium, strain H5569(T), was isolated from a human blood sample. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolate were investigated. Optimal growth was found to occur at 35 °C under aerobic conditions on Heart Infusion Agar supplemented with 5 % rabbit blood. The major fatty acids present in the cells were identified as C16:0, C16:1ω7c and C18:1ω7c. The predominant respiratory quinone was found to be ubiquinone-Q10. The G+C content of genomic DNA for strain H5569(T) was found to be 49.9 %. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis results, 13 additional isolates were also analysed in this study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism, represented by strain H5569(T), forms a distinct lineage within the family Rhodospirillaceae, closely related to two Novispirillum itersonii subspecies (93.9-94.1 %) and two Caenispirillum sp. (91.2-91.6 %). Based on these results, the isolate H5569(T) is concluded to represent a new genus and species for which the name Haematospirillum jordaniae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H5569(T) (=DSM(T) 28903 = CCUG 66838(T)).

  6. Maternal obesity alters immune cell frequencies and responses in umbilical cord blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Marshall, Nicole E; Jeske, Daniel R; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Thornburg, Kent; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-06-01

    Maternal obesity is one of the several key factors thought to modulate neonatal immune system development. Data from murine studies demonstrate worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization in offspring of obese dams. In humans, children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for asthma. These findings suggest a dysregulation of immune function in the children of obese mothers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and the human neonatal immune system. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from infants born to lean, overweight, and obese mothers. Frequency and function of major innate and adaptive immune cell populations were quantified using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis of circulating factors. Compared to babies born to lean mothers, babies of obese mothers had fewer eosinophils and CD4 T helper cells, reduced monocyte and dendritic cell responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, and increased plasma levels of IFN-α2 and IL-6 in cord blood. These results support the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences programming of the neonatal immune system, providing a potential link to increased incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  8. A separation theorem for the stochastic sampled-data LQG problem. [control of continuous linear plant disturbed by white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    This paper considers the control of a continuous linear plant disturbed by white plant noise when the control is constrained to be a piecewise constant function of time; i.e. a stochastic sampled-data system. The cost function is the integral of quadratic error terms in the state and control, thus penalizing errors at every instant of time while the plant noise disturbs the system continuously. The problem is solved by reducing the constrained continuous problem to an unconstrained discrete one. It is shown that the separation principle for estimation and control still holds for this problem when the plant disturbance and measurement noise are Gaussian.

  9. The gingival vein as a minimally traumatic site for multiple blood sampling in guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Mariana Valotta; de Castro, Simone Oliveira; de Albuquerque, Cynthia Zaccanini; Mattaraia, Vânia Gomes de Moura; Santoro, Marcelo Larami

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory animals are still necessary in scientific investigation and vaccine testing, but while novel methodological approaches are not available for their replacement, the search for new, humane, easy, and painless methods is necessary to diminish their stress and pain. When multiple blood samples are to be collected from hamsters and guinea pigs, the number of available venipuncture sites-which are greatly diminished in these species in comparison with other rodents due to the absence of a long tail-, harasses animal caregivers and researchers. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate if gingival vein puncture could be used as an additional route to obtain multiple blood samples from anesthetized hamsters and guinea pigs in such a way that animal behavior, well-being or hematological parameters would not be altered. Thus, twelve anesthetized Syrian golden hamsters and English guinea pigs were randomly allocated in two groups: a control group, whose blood samples were not collected, and an experimental group in which blood samples (200 microliters) were collected by gingival vein puncture at weekly intervals over six weeks. Clinical assessment, body weight gain and complete blood cell count were evaluated weekly, and control and experimental animals were euthanized at week seven, when the mentolabial region was processed to histological analyses. Multiple blood sampling from the gingival vein evoked no clinical manifestations or alteration in the behavioral repertoire, nor a statistically significant difference in weight gain in both species. Guinea pigs showed no alteration in red blood cell, leukocyte or platelet parameters over time. Hamsters developed a characteristic pattern of age-related physiological changes, which were considered normal. Histological analyses showed no difference in morphological structures in the interdental gingiva, confirming that multiple blood sampling is barely traumatic. Thus, these results evidence that blood collection from multiple

  10. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Prediction Based on Continuous Cerebral Blood Flow Monitoring – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Tewolde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the third most common neurological illness, affecting 1% of the world’s population. Despite advances in medicine, about 25 to 30% of the patients do not respond to or cannot tolerate the severe side effects of medical treatment, and surgery is not an option for the majority of patients with epilepsy. The objective of this article is to review the current state of research on seizure detection based on cerebral blood flow (CBF data acquired by thermal diffusion flowmetry (TDF, and CBF-based seizure prediction. A discussion is provided on the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of TDF in detecting and localizing seizure foci, as well as its role in seizure prediction. Also presented are an overview of the present challenges and possible future research directions (along with methodological guidelines of the CBF-based seizure detection and prediction methods.

  11. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in a Clinical Sample of Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2017-02-01

    Dietary pattern analysis provides important evidence revealing diet-disease relationships. It may be especially useful in areas less well researched, such as diet and hypertension in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to identify the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure (BP) in a sample of overweight adults volunteering for a clinical trial for weight loss. This cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the HealthTrack study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Dietary intake was evaluated with 4-day food records. Participants were 328 adults recruited from the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 and April 2015. Resting BP and 24-hour urine sodium and potassium were measured. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis from 21 food groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the extracted dietary patterns and BP. The participants' mean age was 43.6±8.0 years, mean body mass index was 32.4±4.2, and mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 124.9±14.5/73.3±9.9 mm Hg. Six major dietary patterns were identified: "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish," "milk and meat," "breads, cereals, and snacks," "cereal-based products, fats, and oils," "alcohol, eggs, and legumes," and "savoury sauces, condiments, and meat." The "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish" dietary pattern was significantly and inversely associated with systolic BP (F [7,320]=15.248; Pnuts, seeds, fruit, and fish was inversely associated with blood pressure in this clinical sample. The findings suggest that current dietary guidelines are relevant to an overweight clinical population and support the value of dietary pattern analysis when exploring the diet-disease relationship. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A policy of routine umbilical cord blood gas analysis decreased missing samples from high-risk births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, M; Elvander, C; Johansson, S; Cnattingius, S; Stephansson, O

    2017-01-01

    This study compared obstetric units practicing routine or selective umbilical cord blood gas analysis, with respect to the risk of missing samples in high-risk deliveries and in infants with birth asphyxia. This was a Swedish population-based cohort study that used register data for 155 235 deliveries of live singleton infants between 2008 and 2014. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate the association between routine and selective umbilical cord blood gas sampling strategies and the risk of missing samples. Selective sampling increased the risk ratios when routine sampling was used as the reference, with a value of 1.0, and these were significant in high-risk deliveries and birth asphyxia. The risk ratios for selective sampling were large-for-gestational age (9.07), preterm delivery at up to 36 weeks of gestation (8.24), small-for-gestational age (7.94), two or more foetal scalp blood samples (5.96), an Apgar score of less than seven at one minute (2.36), emergency Caesarean section (1.67) and instrumental vaginal delivery (1.24). Compared with routine sampling, selective umbilical cord blood gas sampling significantly increased the risks of missing samples in high-risk deliveries and in infants with birth asphyxia. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Podestà

    Full Text Available Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups.Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8 vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23 p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8 and 0.36% (0.15-3.2 respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004 and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017. The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168.We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  14. Vaccination and blood sampling acceptability during Ramadan fasting month: A cross-sectional study in Conakry, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer-Smadja, Nathan; Ouedraogo, Ramatou; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Cissé, Papa Ndiaga; Zeggani, Zahra; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Faye, Sylvain Landry; Le Marcis, Frédéric; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2017-05-02

    There are few data on the acceptability of vaccination or blood sampling during Ramadan fasting month in Muslim countries. This could impact vaccination campaigns, clinical trials or healthcare during Ramadan. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 201 practising Muslims and 10 religious leaders in Conakry, Guinea in the wake of the recent epidemic Ebola epidemic. Acceptability of vaccination and blood sampling during Ramadan were investigated as well as reasons for refusal. Vaccination was judged acceptable during Ramadan by 46% (93/201, 95% CI 0.40-0.53) of practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) of religious leaders (p=0.11). Blood sampling was judged acceptable during Ramadan by 54% (108/201, 95% CI 0.47-0.60) of practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) of religious leaders (p=0.19). The percentage of participants that judged both blood sampling and vaccination acceptable during Ramadan was 40% (81/201, 95% CI 0.34-0.47) for practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) for religious leaders (p=0.048). The most common reasons for refusal of vaccination or blood sampling were that nothing should enter or leave the body during Ramadan (43%), that adverse events could lead to breaking the fast (32%), that blood should not be seen during Ramadan (9%) and that the Quran explicitly forbids it (9%). Although most Muslims leaders and scientists consider that injections including immunization and blood sampling should be authorized during Ramadan, many Muslims in our study judged vaccination or blood sampling unacceptable when fasting. Widely available recommendations on healthcare during Ramadan would be useful to inform Muslims. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Blood Culture PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Jones, Claire; Gibani, Malick M; Dobinson, Hazel; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Shrestha, Sonu; Blohmke, Christoph J; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day. Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C) before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A. An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1-6.9) CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ≥ 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (≥0.3 CFU/ml blood), but utilized only half the volume of specimens. The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a lower limit of detection equal to 0.3 CFU

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Blood Culture PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Clinical Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing Zhou

    Full Text Available Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day.Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A.An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1-6.9 CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ≥ 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (≥0.3 CFU/ml blood, but utilized only half the volume of specimens.The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a lower limit of detection

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Blood Culture PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Jones, Claire; Gibani, Malick M.; Dobinson, Hazel; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Shrestha, Sonu; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Darton, Thomas C.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day. Methods Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C) before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A. Results An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1–6.9) CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ≥ 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (≥0.3 CFU/ml blood), but utilized only half the volume of specimens. Conclusions The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a

  18. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and can affect people who have a diet ... 2015 More on this topic for: Teens Blood Types Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Hemophilia When Cancer Keeps You ...

  19. Product sampling during transient continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil and development of a kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2013-11-01

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed for the transient stage of the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Departure functions and group contribution methods were applied to determine the equilibrium constants of the four reversible reactions in the kinetic model. Continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil in subcritical water was conducted experimentally in a lab-scale reactor over a range of temperatures and the concentrations of all neutral components were quantified. Several of the rate constants in the model were obtained by modeling this experimental data, with the remaining determined from calculated equilibrium constants. Some reactions not included in the present, or previous, hydrolysis modeling efforts were identified from glycerolysis kinetic studies and may explain the slight discrepancy between model and experiment. The rate constants determined in this paper indicate that diglycerides in the feedstock accelerate the transition from "emulsive hydrolysis" to "rapid hydrolysis". © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An everyday phrase may harm your patients: the influence of negative words on pain during venous blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Johannes; Aust, Stefanie; Nouri, Kazem; Promberger, Regina

    2012-05-01

    Venous blood sampling is one of the most common diagnostic medical procedures performed in clinical practice. It has been shown that negatively loaded words may result in negative affective reactions and, consequently, in an increased perception of pain. We aimed to evaluate whether common warnings before venous blood sampling might induce unnecessary pain. We included 100 healthy participants (50 females, 50 males) who were randomized to one of the 2 study groups ("sting" vs. "beware"). Directly before insertion of the needle, the participants were warned with either the word "sting" or "beware." Venous blood sampling was performed according to a standardized protocol. Preinterventional and postinterventional blood pressure and heart rate, as well as pain scores after venous blood sampling, were evaluated. There were 98 participants, 26.2 ± 3.2 years of age, who were included into the analysis. Participants experienced significantly more pain after having been warned with the word "sting" compared with the word "beware." The numeric rating scale results were 2.7 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively (P=0.001). Words associated with pain increase the perception of pain during venous blood sampling. Omitting these words may be a simple and essential method by which to avoid unnecessary pain.

  1. Direct blood culturing on solid medium outperforms an automated continuously monitored broth-based blood culture system in terms of time to identification and susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Idelevich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST should be available as soon as possible for patients with bloodstream infections. We investigated whether a lysis-centrifugation (LC blood culture (BC method, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification and Vitek 2 AST, provides a time advantage in comparison with the currently used automated broth-based BC system. Seven bacterial reference strains were added each to 10 mL human blood in final concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 CFU/mL. Inoculated blood was added to the Isolator 10 tube and centrifuged at 3000 g for 30 min, then 1.5 mL sediment was distributed onto five 150-mm agar plates. Growth was observed hourly and microcolonies were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 as soon as possible. For comparison, seeded blood was introduced into an aerobic BC bottle and incubated in the BACTEC 9240 automated BC system. For all species/concentration combinations except one, successful identification and Vitek 2 inoculation were achieved even before growth detection by BACTEC. The fastest identification and inoculation for AST were achieved with Escherichia coli in concentrations of 100 CFU/mL and 10 CFU/mL (after 7 h each, while BACTEC flagged respective samples positive after 9.5 h and 10 h. Use of the LC-BC method allows skipping of incubation in automated BC systems and, used in combination with rapid diagnostics from microcolonies, provides a considerable advantage in time to result. This suggests that the usefulness of direct BC on solid medium should be re-evaluated in the era of rapid microbiology.

  2. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Noninvasive, low-noise, fast imaging of blood volume and deoxygenation changes in muscles using light-emitting diode continuous-wave imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanqing; Lech, Gwen; Nioka, Shoko; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

    2002-08-01

    This article focuses on optimizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a three-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) near-infrared continuous-wave (cw) imager and its application to in vivo muscle metabolism measurement. The shot-noise limited SNR is derived and calculated to be 2 x104 for the physiological blood concentrations of muscle. Aiming at shot-noise limited SNR performance and fast imaging, we utilize sample and hold circuits to reduce high-frequency noise. These circuits have also been designed to be parallel integrating, through which SNR of 2 x103 and 2 Hz imaging acquisition rate have been achieved when the probe is placed on a muscle model. The noise corresponds to 2 x10-4 optical density error, which suggests an in vitro resolution of 15. 4 nM blood volume and 46.8 nM deoxygenation changes. A 48 dB digital gain control circuit with 256 steps is employed to enlarge the dynamic range of the imager. We utilize cuff ischemia as a living model demonstration and its results are reported. The instrument is applied during exercise to measure the changes of blood volume and deoxygenation, which provides important information about muscle metabolism. We find that the primary source of noise encountered during exercise experiment is from the random motion of muscle. The results demonstrate that the LED cw imager is ideal for the noninvasive study of muscle metabolism.

  4. Simultaneous screening and detection of drugs in small blood samples and bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Harald; Gotta, Jan Christoph; Erdmann, Freidoon; Risse, Manfred; Weiler, Günter

    2002-05-23

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is described for the screening and detection of morphine, codeine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, methylecgonine, cocaethylene, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA) and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB) in small blood samples and bloodstains using solid phase SPE columns and a pipetting robot (Gilson Aspec XL). The detection limits are in the order of 1.62-4.10 ng/50 microl spot (amphetamines), 0.15-0.82 ng/50 microl spot (cannabinoids), 1.67-4.70 ng/50 microl spot (cocaine and derivatives) and 4.53-4.91 ng/50 microl spot (opiates) and the correlation factors are between 0.9957 and 0.9999. The method has proven useful in forensic cases with only small sample volumes or bloodstains. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  5. [Detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in Somoto, Nicaragua, using indirect ELISA and IFI on blood samples on filter paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, X; Belli, A; Espino, A M

    2000-12-01

    We standardized a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in order to study the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in asymptomatic persons who live in an area of Nicaragua endemic for Chagas' disease. The test was standardized to analyze filter-paper blood samples, which are easy to transport. In the first phase of our investigation, ELISA was used to study 18 samples of total serum and 18 eluates of blood from patients with chronic Chagas' disease; 30 samples of serum and 30 eluates of blood from healthy people, used as negative controls; and 14 samples of serum and 14 eluates of blood from patients with cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis, which were used to study cross-reactions. Both with the total-serum and the blood-eluate samples, the ELISA test provided 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Cross-reactions in the patient samples were observed only with visceral leishmaniasis. The second phase of our investigation was a population study that included eight rural communities in the area of Somoto, Nicaragua. Through random sampling, filter-paper blood samples were collected from 2,434 people (1,335 men and 1,099 women) from the communities of Aguas Calientes, El Brocal, La Manzana, Las Playas, Los Canales, Santa Isabel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Teresa. Studied by ELISA and by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), the samples included 260 found seropositive by ELISA (10.7%), of which 207 were positive according to IIF (8.5%). With both techniques, the majority of seropositives were among women, but the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. There was a high level of agreement between the results obtained with the two techniques. There was an upward trend with age, with 5.4% of those found seropositive by ELISA being persons 10 years of age or younger and 42.7% of those found seropositive being older than 50. The vast majority of the individuals analyzed were asymptomatic.

  6. Time-Series Analysis of Continuously Monitored Blood Glucose: The Impacts of Geographic and Daily Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean T. Doherty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is known to be associated with environmental, behavioral, and lifestyle factors. However, the actual impacts of these factors on blood glucose (BG variation throughout the day have remained relatively unexplored. Continuous blood glucose monitors combined with human activity tracking technologies afford new opportunities for exploration in a naturalistic setting. Data from a study of 40 patients with diabetes is utilized in this paper, including continuously monitored BG, food/medicine intake, and patient activity/location tracked using global positioning systems over a 4-day period. Standard linear regression and more disaggregated time-series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA are used to explore patient BG variation throughout the day and over space. The ARIMA models revealed a wide variety of BG correlating factors related to specific activity types, locations (especially those far from home, and travel modes, although the impacts were highly personal. Traditional variables related to food intake and medications were less often significant. Overall, the time-series analysis revealed considerable patient-by-patient variation in the effects of geographic and daily lifestyle factors. We would suggest that maps of BG spatial variation or an interactive messaging system could provide new tools to engage patients and highlight potential risk factors.

  7. Coagulation indices in very preterm infants from cord blood and postnatal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, E; McCallion, N; Kevane, B; Cotter, M; Egan, K; Regan, I; Kirkham, C; Mooney, C; Coulter-Smith, S; Ní Áinle, F

    2015-11-01

    Very premature infants are at high risk of bleeding complications; however, few data exist on ranges for standard coagulation tests. The primary objective of this study was to measure standard plasma coagulation tests and thrombin generation in very premature infants compared with term infants. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether an association existed between coagulation indices and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Cord and peripheral blood of neonates coagulation factor levels were measured and tissue factor-stimulated thrombin generation was characterized. Control plasma was obtained from cord blood of term neonates. One hundred and sixteen infants were recruited. Median (range) GA was 27.7 (23.7-29.9) weeks and mean (SD) birth weight was 1020 (255) g. Median (5th-95th percentile) day 1 PT, APTT and fibrinogen were 17.5 (12.7-26.6) s, 78.7 (48.7-134.3) s and 1.4 (0.72-3.8) g L(-1) , respectively. No difference in endogenous thrombin potential between preterm and term plasma was observed, where samples were available. Levels of coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X, protein C, protein S and antithrombin were reduced in preterm compared with term plasma. Day 1 APTT and PT were not associated with IVH. In the largest cross-sectional study to date of very preterm infants, typical ranges for standard coagulation tests were determined. Despite long clotting times, thrombin generation was observed to be similar in very preterm and term infants. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  8. Correlation of hematocrit, platelet concentration, and plasma coagulation factors with results of thromboelastometry in canine whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie A; McMichael, Maureen A; Gilor, Shir; Galligan, Alyssa J; Hoh, Crystal M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the components of canine whole blood samples that contribute to results of thromboelastometry (TEM). 127 healthy dogs. For each dog, a blood sample was collected from a jugular vein into tubes containing no anticoagulant, EDTA, or citrate anticoagulant. Citrated whole blood samples underwent TEM with tissue factor and TEM with ellagic acid. Indicators of RBC mass and platelet concentration were evaluated, and plasma coagulation tests were performed; data obtained were compared with results of TEM. For technical reasons, samples were not available from all dogs for all tests. Coagulation time was correlated with concentrations of primarily extrinsic pathway coagulation factors for TEM with tissue factor and with most factors via TEM with ellagic acid. Clot formation time, α angle, and maximum clot firmness were highly correlated with fibrinogen and platelet concentrations and some individual factor concentrations. Sample Hct was strongly correlated with most measured variables; low Hct was associated with relative hypercoagulability, and high Hct was associated with relative hypocoagulability. For TEM of canine blood samples, coagulation time was primarily a function of coagulation factor concentrations, whereas other variables were dependent on platelet and fibrinogen concentrations. Sample Hct strongly influenced the results of TEM, likely because RBCs act as a diluent for plasma coagulation factors. Thromboelastometry appeared to be affected by abnormalities of coagulation factors, platelet concentrations, and RBC mass. In samples from anemic patients, results of TEM indicative of hypercoagulability may be artifactual because of low RBC mass.

  9. Determination of glucose levels using a functionalized hydrogel-optical fiber biosensor: toward continuous monitoring of blood glucose in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Sven; Falch, Berit M Hasle; Hjelme, Dag Roar; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2009-05-01

    Glucose-selective optical sensors were fabricated by incorporating 3-phenylboronic acid and a tertiary amine, dimethylaminopropylacrylamide, into a hydrogel matrix. Determination of glucose in solution is based on the glucose-induced contraction of the hydrogel. The gel was fabricated on the end of an optical fiber, and the optical length was measured by an interferometric technique. Previously it was found the gel could be tuned for enhanced glucose sensitivity and selectivity by varying the 3-phenylboronic acid/tertiary amine ratio. The properties of the responsive hydrogel as a glucose sensor were determined in more detail with respect to swelling kinetics and equilibrium swelling degree. Temperature effects, size variation, molecular interference, and reversibility were addressed. Results showed there was a good degree of reversibility, both for equilibrium swelling and swelling kinetics. Fabricated hydrogel sensors with slight differences in size yielded an overlapping relative response indicating an excellent degree of sensor reproducibility. The sensor proved to be temperature-dependent; by increasing the temperature from 25 to 37 degrees C, the swelling was about 4-fold more rapid, and a concomitant decrease in equilibrium swelling was seen. Identified interference from other analytes with determination of glucose was used a basis for selecting ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an anticoagulant for in vitro determination of glucose concentration in blood plasma. Glucose measurements performed in blood plasma were promising, showing that the sensor is capable of measuring physiological glucose levels in blood with a minimal effect from interfering molecules. The obtained results indicate that the developed sensor is a candidate for continuous monitoring of glucose in blood.

  10. Comparison of complete blood counts in samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Flatland, Bente

    2010-08-01

    To compare results of a CBC performed on blood samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample collection tubes. Evaluation study. 29 healthy client-owned animals (14 dogs and 15 cats). A blood sample (3 mL) was collected from each animal; 2.5 mL was transferred into a vacuum tube that contained sodium EDTA, and 0.5 mL was transferred into a microsample tube that contained sodium EDTA. Variables evaluated were total numbers of RBCs and WBCs, hemoglobin concentration, Hct, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean platelet volume, and plasma total protein concentration as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, and platelet counts. Results for the 2 types of tube in each species were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis. The Pearson correlation coefficient was low for basophil count in cats and moderate, high, or very high for all other variables. Constant and proportional biases were identified for MCHC in dogs by use of Passing-Bablok regression analysis, although the mean difference between types of blood collection tubes was small. No evidence of constant or proportional bias for any other variable was revealed by regression analysis or Bland-Altman analysis. Samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of microsample blood collection tubes provided clinically equivalent CBC results, compared with results for samples obtained by use of standard blood collection tubes, and minimized the total sample volume collected for diagnostic testing.

  11. Comparison of Continuous Noninvasive Blood Pressure Monitoring by TL-300 With Standard Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement in Patients Undergoing Elective Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Qian; Wu, Huang-Hui; Su, Chang-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Teng; Xiao, Jin-Rong; Cai, Yu-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Zhi; Chen, Guo-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative blood pressure (BP) is one of the basic vital signs monitoring. Compared with standard invasive BP measurement, TL-300 allows for a continuous and beat-to-beat noninvasive intraoperative BP monitoring. The current retrospective study compared the accuracy and precision of this noninvasive technique for continuous BP monitoring with that of standard invasive BP measurement in patients undergoing elective neurosurgery. BP records of 23 patients undergoing elective neurosurgery, measured by both noninvasive TL-300 and invasive radial arterial catheter method, were retrospectively analyzed. Variability in BP data was analyzed by using linear regressions and Bland-Altman analysis. Four thousand three hundred eighty-one pairs of BP measurements from a total of 23 patients were included. The coefficient of determination of systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were 0.908, 0.803, and 0.922, respectively. And their bias was found to be 1.3±5.87 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement: -10.2 to +12.8 mm Hg), 2.8±6.40 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement: -9.8 to +15.3 mm Hg), and 1.8±4.20 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement: -6.4 to +10.1 mm Hg), respectively. TL-300 system is a promising noninvasive alternative to the invasive arterial catheter method for intraoperative BP monitoring, with a high accuracy and precision. With the limitation of the current retrospective study, further prospective method comparison studies are needed.

  12. EPS-LASSO: Test for High-Dimensional Regression Under Extreme Phenotype Sampling of Continuous Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Fang, Jian; Shen, Hui; Wang, Yu-Ping; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2018-01-25

    Extreme phenotype sampling (EPS) is a broadly-used design to identify candidate genetic factors contributing to the variation of quantitative traits. By enriching the signals in extreme phenotypic samples, EPS can boost the association power compared to random sampling. Most existing statistical methods for EPS examine the genetic factors individually, despite many quantitative traits have multiple genetic factors underlying their variation. It is desirable to model the joint effects of genetic factors, which may increase the power and identify novel quantitative trait loci under EPS. The joint analysis of genetic data in high-dimensional situations requires specialized techniques, e.g., the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Although there are extensive research and application related to LASSO, the statistical inference and testing for the sparse model under EPS remain unknown. We propose a novel sparse model (EPS-LASSO) with hypothesis test for high-dimensional regression under EPS based on a decorrelated score function. The comprehensive simulation shows EPS-LASSO outperforms existing methods with stable type I error and FDR control. EPS-LASSO can provide a consistent power for both low- and high-dimensional situations compared with the other methods dealing with high-dimensional situations. The power of EPS-LASSO is close to other low-dimensional methods when the causal effect sizes are small and is superior when the effects are large. Applying EPS-LASSO to a transcriptome-wide gene expression study for obesity reveals 10 significant body mass index associated genes. Our results indicate that EPS-LASSO is an effective method for EPS data analysis, which can account for correlated predictors. The source code is available at https://github.com/xu1912/EPSLASSO. hdeng2@tulane.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Liver kinetics of glucose analogs measured in pigs by PET: importance of dual-input blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Bass, L; Roelsgaard, K

    2001-01-01

    -tissue exchange. Furthermore, the arterial input led to absurdly low estimates for the extracellular volume compared with the independently measured hepatic blood volume of 0.25 +/- 0.01 mL/mL (milliliter blood per milliliter liver tissue). In contrast, the use of a dual-input function provided parameter...... parameters, because of ignorance of the dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein to the liver. METHODS: Six pigs underwent PET after [15O]carbon monoxide inhalation, 3-O-[11C]methylglucose (MG) injection, and [18F]FDG injection. For the glucose scans, PET data were acquired for 90 min....... Hepatic arterial and portal venous blood samples and flows were measured during the scan. The dual-input function was calculated as the flow-weighted input. RESULTS: For both MG and FDG, the compartmental analysis using arterial input led to systematic underestimation of the rate constants for rapid blood...

  14. Efficacy of the FilmArray blood culture identification panel for direct molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases from samples other than blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Miquel; Navarro, Ferran; de Miniac, Daniela; González, Yésica; Brell, Albert; López, Cristina; Sánchez-Reus, Ferran; Mirelis, Beatriz; Coll, Pere

    2015-12-01

    Molecular-based techniques reduce the delay in diagnosing infectious diseases and therefore contribute to better patient outcomes. We assessed the FilmArray blood culture identification (BCID) panel (Biofire Diagnostics/bioMérieux) directly on clinical specimens other than blood: cerebrospinal, joint, pleural and ascitic fluids, bronchoscopy samples and abscesses. We compared the results from 88 samples obtained by culture-based techniques. The percentage of agreement between the two methods was 75 % with a Cohen κ value of 0.51. Global sensitivity and specificity using the FilmArray BCID panel were 71 and 97 %, respectively. Sensitivity was poorer in samples with a low bacterial load, such as ascitic and pleural fluids (25 %), whereas the sensitivity for abscess samples was high (89 %). These findings suggest that the FilmArray BCID panel could be useful to perform microbiological diagnosis directly from samples other than positive blood cultures, as it offers acceptable sensitivity and moderate agreement with conventional microbiological methods. Nevertheless, cost-benefit studies should be performed before introducing this method into algorithms for microbiological diagnostics.

  15. Effect of shear stress in the flow through the sampling needle on concentration of nanovesicles isolated from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štukelj, Roman; Schara, Karin; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Šuštar, Vid; Pajnič, Manca; Pađen, Ljubiša; Krek, Judita Lea; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Mrvar-Brečko, Anita; Janša, Rado

    2017-02-15

    During harvesting of nanovesicles (NVs) from blood, blood cells and other particles in blood are exposed to mechanical forces which may cause activation of platelets, changes of membrane properties, cell deformation and shedding of membrane fragments. We report on the effect of shear forces imposed upon blood samples during the harvesting process, on the concentration of membrane nanovesicles in isolates from blood. Mathematical models of blood flow through the needle during sampling with vacuumtubes and with free flow were constructed, starting from the Navier-Stokes formalism. Blood was modeled as a Newtonian fluid. Work of the shear stress was calculated. In experiments, nanovesicles were isolated by repeated centrifugation (up to 17,570×g) and washing, and counted by flow cytometry. It was found that the concentration of nanovesicles in the isolates positively corresponded with the work by the shear forces in the flow of the sample through the needle. We have enhanced the effect of the shear forces by shaking the samples prior to isolation with glass beads. Imaging of isolates by scanning electron microscopy revealed closed globular structures of a similar size and shape as those obtained from unshaken plasma by repetitive centrifugation and washing. Furthermore, the sizes and shapes of NVs obtained by shaking erythrocytes corresponded to those isolated from shaken platelet-rich plasma and from unshaken platelet rich plasma, and not to those induced in erythrocytes by exogenously added amphiphiles. These results are in favor of the hypothesis that a significant pool of nanovesicles in blood isolates is created during their harvesting. The identity, shape, size and composition of NVs in isolates strongly depend on the technology of their harvesting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuous blood pressure monitoring via non-invasive radial artery applanation tonometry and invasive arterial catheter demonstrates good agreement in patients undergoing colon carcinoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Chen, Hanjian; Zheng, Jun; Mao, Bin; Zhu, Shengmei; Feng, Jingyi

    2017-12-01

    Radial artery applanation tonometry (RAAT) has been developed and utilized for continuous arterial pressure monitoring. However, evidence is lacking to clinically verify the RAAT technology and identify appropriate patient groups before routine clinical use. This study aims to evaluate the RAAT technology by comparing systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values in patients undergoing colon carcinoma surgery. Blood Pressure (BP) values obtained via RAAT (TL-300, Tensys Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and conventional arterial catheterization from 30 colon carcinoma surgical patients were collected and compared via Bland-Atman method, linear regression and 4-quadrant plot concordance analysis. For SBPs, MBPs and DBPs, means of the differences (±standard deviation; 95% limits of agreement) were -0.9 (±7.6; -15.7 to 13.9) mmHg, 3.1 (±6.5; -9.6 to 15.8) mmHg and 4.3 (±7.4; -10.3 to 18.8) mmHg, respectively. Linear regression coefficients of determination were 0.8706 for SBPs, 0.8353 for MBPs and 0.6858 for DBPs. Four-quadrant concordance correlation coefficients were 0.8740, 0.8522 and 0.7108 for SBPs, MBPs and DBPs, respectively. A highly selected patient collective undergoing colon carcinoma surgery was studied. BP measurements obtained via the TL-300 had clinically acceptable agreement with that acquired invasively using an arterial catheter. For use in clinical routine, it is necessary to take measures for improvement regarding movement artifacts and dilution of noise. A large sample size of patients under various conditions is also needed to further evaluate the RAAT technology before clinically routine use.

  17. Trace samples of human blood in mosquitoes as a forensic investigation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Oliveira, N C L; Crovella, S

    2015-11-23

    Investigations of any type of crime invariably starts at the crime scene by collecting evidence. Thus, the purpose of this research was to collect and analyze an entomological trace from an environment that is similar to those of indoor crime scenes. Hematophagous mosquitoes were collected from two residential units; saliva of volunteers that were residents in the units was also collected for genetic analysis as reference samples. We examined the allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) and amelogenin. A total of 26 female hematophagous mosquitoes were identified as Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus; we were able to obtain 11 forensically valid genetic profiles, with a minimum of 0.028203 ng/μL of human DNA. Thus, the results of this study showed that it was possible to correlate human genetic information from mosquitoes with the volunteer reference samples, which validates the use of this information as forensic evidence. Furthermore, we observed mixed genetic profiles from one mosquito. Therefore, it is clearly important to collect these insects indoors where crimes were committed, because it may be possible to find intact genetic profiles of suspects in the blood found in the digestive tract of hematophagous mosquitoes for later comparison to identify an offender and/or exclude suspects.

  18. Correction of an input function for errors introduced with automated blood sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlyer, D.J.; Dewey, S.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Accurate kinetic modeling of PET data requires an precise arterial plasma input function. The use of automated blood sampling machines has greatly improved the accuracy but errors can be introduced by the dispersion of the radiotracer in the sampling tubing. This dispersion results from three effects. The first is the spreading of the radiotracer in the tube due to mass transfer. The second is due to the mechanical action of the peristaltic pump and can be determined experimentally from the width of a step function. The third is the adsorption of the radiotracer on the walls of the tubing during transport through the tube. This is a more insidious effect since the amount recovered from the end of the tube can be significantly different than that introduced into the tubing. We have measured the simple mass transport using [{sup 18}F]fluoride in water which we have shown to be quantitatively recovered with no interaction with the tubing walls. We have also carried out experiments with several radiotracers including [{sup 18}F]Haloperidol, [{sup 11}C]L-deprenyl, [{sup 18}]N-methylspiroperidol ([{sup 18}F]NMS) and [{sup 11}C]buprenorphine. In all cases there was some retention of the radiotracer by untreated silicone tubing. The amount retained in the tubing ranged from 6% for L-deprenyl to 30% for NMS. The retention of the radiotracer was essentially eliminated after pretreatment with the relevant unlabeled compound. For example less am 2% of the [{sup 18}F]NMS was retained in tubing treated with unlabelled NMS. Similar results were obtained with baboon plasma although the amount retained in the untreated tubing was less in all cases. From these results it is possible to apply a mathematical correction to the measured input function to account for mechanical dispersion and to apply a chemical passivation to the tubing to reduce the dispersion due to adsorption of the radiotracer on the tubing walls.

  19. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya Ami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively. In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively, 58% (n = 34, 53% (n = 31 and 29% (n = 17 of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure

  20. Triclosan/triclocarban levels in maternal and umbilical blood samples and their association with fetal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling; Qiao, Pengyun; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Yan; Yin, Jie; Wu, Qingqing; Shao, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are widely used as antimicrobial compounds in consumer products. TCS and TCC are frequently found in waste water and sewage. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of exposure to triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) on fetal abnormalities. We measured TCS and TCC levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples from 39 pregnant women diagnosed with fetal or post-birth abnormalities at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. 52 pregnant women who gave birth to healthy neonates during the same period of time were included as controls. Applying ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, TCS and TCC concentrations were measured in maternal and fetal sera. Significantly increased levels of TCS were detected in maternal sera from mothers with abnormal births. Similar levels of TCS or TCC were found in maternal and cord sera in control group. The concentrations of TCS or TCC in maternal sera correlated with those in umbilical cord sera (r=0.649, PTCC, and high exposure to TCS may be potentially associated with increased risk for fetal malformations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison of a continuous noninvasive arterial pressure (CNAP™) monitor with an invasive arterial blood pressure monitor in the cardiac surgical ICU

    OpenAIRE

    A M Jagadeesh; Naveen G Singh; Subramanyam Mahankali

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurement and display of arterial blood pressure is essential for rational management of adult cardiac surgical patients. Because of the lower risk of complications, noninvasive monitoring methods gain importance. A newly developed continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure (CNAP™) monitor is available and has been validated perioperatively. In a prospective study we compared the CNAP™ monitoring device with invasive arterial blood pressure (IAP) measurement in 30 patients in a...

  2. Development of a statistical model for predicting the ethanol content of blood from measurements on saliva or breath samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, J; Linares, P; Luque de Castro, M D; Caridad, J M; Valcarcel, M

    1989-01-01

    Blood, saliva and breath samples from a population of males and females subjected to the intake of preselected amounts of ethanol, whilst in different physical conditions (at rest, after physical exertion, on an empty stomach and after eating), were analysed by automatic methods employing immobilized (blood) or dissolved (saliva) enzymes and a breathanalyser. Treatment of the results obtained enabled the development of a statistical model for prediction of the ethanol concentration in blood at a given time from the ethanol concentration in saliva or breath obtained at a later time.

  3. BLOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit (altruism). '35 An individual who gives blood in replacement for that which has been given to his relation is referred to as family replacement donor. '2 But when a person donates blood for the purpose of transfusing a. defined patient, such a person is referred to as. AHMED S. G. AND HASSAN A. W. a directed donor.

  4. Continuity Between Interview-Rated Personality Disorders and Self-Reported DSM-5 Traits in a Danish Psychiatric Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Anderson, Jaime; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    diagnoses found in DSM-5 Section II, specified sets of facets are configured into familiar PD types. The current study aimed to evaluate the continuity across the Section II and III models of PDs. A sample of 142 psychiatric outpatients were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and rated...... showed that, overall, the interview-rated DSM-5 Section II disorders were most strongly associated with expected self-reported Section III traits. Results also supported the addition of facets not included in the proposed Section III PD criteria. These findings partly underscore the continuity between...... the Section II and III models of PDs and suggest how it may be enhanced; however, additional research is needed to further evaluate where continuity exists, where it does not exist, and how the traits system could be improved. (PsycINFO Database Record...

  5. Blood pressure and heart rate during orthostatic stress and walking with continuous postoperative thoracic epidural bupivacaine/morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Hjortsø, N C; Blemmer, T

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-one patients scheduled for elective cholecystectomy performed through a mini-laparotomy, were randomized to received either combined thoracic epidural anaesthesia/light general anaesthesia and postoperative balanced analgesia with continuous epidural bupivacaine 10 mg.h-1 and morphine 0.2 mg.......h-1 for 38 h after surgery plus systemic ibuprofen 600 mg x 8 h-1 (N = 15) or general anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia with systemic morphine and ibuprofen 600 mg x 8 h-1 (N = 16). During postoperative epidural infusion sensory blockade to pinprick was Th4 to L1, and analgesia at rest...... lower heart rate (approximately 10 bpm) 48 h after surgery at rest and during orthostatic stress in the epidural group. There was no significant difference between groups in number of patients with a reduction > 20 mmHg (2.7 kPa) in systolic blood pressure during orthostatic stress (two in each group...

  6. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  7. Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Monica Escolà; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A

    2014-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine...... the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After...

  8. Effects of continuous Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT on FSH, lipid profiles, blood chemistry, and skin thickness in menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to observe the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT of estradiol 2 mg + 1 mg acetate noretisterone administered continuously on FSH hormone, lipid profile, blood chemistry, and skin thickness in menopausal women. The duration of HRT administration was 6 months. The subjects of the study were 35 menopausal women. The study was conducted from January 2001 to June 2001. After HRT administration of 6 months, a significant decrease of FSH was observed. No effect of HRT was found in bilirubin level; however, there was a slight increase of alkali phosphatase enzyme, and a signifcant increase in SGOT and SGPT. HRT caused a decrease of total cholesterol level and triglyceride level. In addition, a slight increase of LDL level and significant decrease of HDL level were observed. HRT administration with progesterone synthetic noretisterone showed an increase of skin collagen synthesis, which was indicated by the significant increase of skin thickness. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 97-103Keywords: HRT, FSH, menopause, lipid profile, blood chemistry, skin thickness

  9. Microbiological comparison of blood culture and amplification of 16S rDNA methods in combination with DGGE for detection of neonatal sepsis in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gudiño, Isela; Yllescas-Medrano, Eucario; Maida-Claros, Rolando; Soriano-Becerril, Diana; Díaz, Nestor F; García-López, Guadalupe; Molina-Hernández, Anayansí; Flores-Herrera, Oscar; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco J; Del Rosario Peralta-Pérez, María; Flores-Herrera, Héctor

    2017-10-31

    It is estimated that 15% of all newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for suspected sepsis receive multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics without pathogen identification. The gold standard for bacterial sepsis detection is blood culture, but the sensitivity of this method is very low. Recently, amplification and analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) bacterial gene in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be a useful approach for identifying bacteria that are difficult to isolate by standard culture methods. The main goal of this study was to compare two methods used to identify bacteria associated with neonatal sepsis: blood culture and broad range 16S rDNA-DGGE. Twenty-two blood samples were obtained from newborns with (n = 15) or without (n = 7) signs and symptoms of sepsis. Blood samples were screened to identify pathogenic bacteria with two different methods: (1) bacteriological culture and (2) amplification of the variable V3 region of 16S rDNA-DGGE. Blood culture analysis was positive in 40%, whereas 16S rDNA-DGGE was positive in 87% of neonatal sepsis cases. All 16S rDNA-DGGE positive samples were associated with some other signs of neonatal sepsis. Our study shows that the molecular approach with 16S rDNA-DGGE identifies twofold more pathogenic bacteria than bacteriological culture, including complex bacterial communities associated with the development of bacterial sepsis in neonates. What is Known: • Neonatal sepsis affects 2.3% of birth in the NICU with a high mortality risk. • Evidence supports the use of molecular methods as an alternative to blood culture for identification of bacterial associated neonatal sepsis. What is New: • The DGGE gel is a good methodological approach for the identification of bacterial in neonatal blood samples. • This study describes the pattern of electrophoretic mobility obtained by DGGE gels and allows to determine the type of bacteria associated in

  10. Detection of bacterial DNA in blood samples from febrile patients: underestimated infection or emerging contamination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Remco P. H.; Mohammadi, Tamimount; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Danner, Sven A.; van Agtmael, Michiel A.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2004-01-01

    We applied real-time broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect bacteraemia in blood from febrile patients. Interpretation of amplification results in relation to clinical data and blood culture outcome was complex, although the reproducibility of the PCR results was good. Sequencing

  11. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available solutions, and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge...

  12. Immunosuppressant therapeutic drug monitoring by LC-MS/MS: workflow optimization through automated processing of whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Mariela; Artusi, Carlo; Brugnolo, Laura; Antonelli, Giorgia; Zaninotto, Martina; Plebani, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Although, due to its high specificity and sensitivity, LC-MS/MS is an efficient technique for the routine determination of immunosuppressants in whole blood, it involves time-consuming manual sample preparation. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop an automated sample-preparation protocol for the quantification of sirolimus, everolimus and tacrolimus by LC-MS/MS using a liquid handling platform. Six-level commercially available blood calibrators were used for assay development, while four quality control materials and three blood samples from patients under immunosuppressant treatment were employed for the evaluation of imprecision. Barcode reading, sample re-suspension, transfer of whole blood samples into 96-well plates, addition of internal standard solution, mixing, and protein precipitation were performed with a liquid handling platform. After plate filtration, the deproteinised supernatants were submitted for SPE on-line. The only manual steps in the entire process were de-capping of the tubes, and transfer of the well plates to the HPLC autosampler. Calibration curves were linear throughout the selected ranges. The imprecision and accuracy data for all analytes were highly satisfactory. The agreement between the results obtained with manual and those obtained with automated sample preparation was optimal (n=390, r=0.96). In daily routine (100 patient samples) the typical overall total turnaround time was less than 6h. Our findings indicate that the proposed analytical system is suitable for routine analysis, since it is straightforward and precise. Furthermore, it incurs less manual workload and less risk of error in the quantification of whole blood immunosuppressant concentrations than conventional methods. © 2013.

  13. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia: the effect of arterial blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, Flemming; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...... hypoglycaemia. The magnitude of the changes in arterial and venous blood were not significantly different. These results indicate that the above changes in blood volume and composition are whole-body phenomena: furthermore, the major part of the changes are likely to occur in tissues other than upper extremity...

  14. A Comparative Study of Blood Culture Sampling from Umbilical Catheter Line versus Peripheral Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Hamedi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of death and morbidity in newborns and is diagnosed by isolation of organism in blood culture. In several reports,reliablity of blood cultures were done from umbi lical catheters,have been demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to determine,wether an inde welling umbilical catheter, could be an alternative site for blood culture. In a prospective study over 6 months during 2006,141 paired blood cultures from 134 infant,were done simultaneously from peripheral site and umbilical catheter (mostly U. V. C,during the first four days of life. Majority of these infants were preterm and admitted to NICU for special care. these infants had indwelling umbilical line and had indication of sepsis workup. A total of 141 pairs of blood cultures were obtained from 134 infants. In 16 infants blood culture pairs were positive for one organism in both peripheral vein and umbilical site. 71. 6% of total cultures (n=11pairs were negative in boths site. A total of 22 pairs were positive in one site only,with 5 positive from peripheral vein only and the other 17 from umblical site. Two pairs were positve in boths site with two different organism. In over all 16 infant (11%of blood were considered to be contaminated. Contamination rate were 2. 4% and 9. 2% for peripheral and umbilical catheter site. Contamination rate increased after 48 hours of age in umbilical catheter. The result showed that after 2 days contamination rate for blood culture taken from catheter line increased and specifity decreased. We recommended that blood culture via umblical catheter in first 2 days in sick neonates with indwelling catheter can be a alternate site of blood culture sampelling.

  15. A Comparative Study of Blood Culture Sampling from Umbilical Catheter Line versus Peripheral Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Hamedi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nNeonatal sepsis is an important cause of death and morbidity in newborns and is diagnosed by isolation of organism in blood culture. In several reports,reliablity of blood cultures were done from umbi lical catheters,have been demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to determine,wether an inde welling umbilical catheter, could be an alternative site for blood culture. In a prospective study over 6 months during 2006,141 paired blood cultures from 134 infant,were done simultaneously from peripheral site and umbilical catheter (mostly U. V. C,during the first four days of life. Majority of these infants were preterm and admitted to NICU for special care. these infants had indwelling umbilical line and had indication of sepsis workup. A total of 141 pairs of blood cultures were obtained from 134 infants. In 16 infants blood culture pairs were positive for one organism in both peripheral vein and umbilical site. 71. 6% of total cultures (n=11pairs were negative in boths site. A total of 22 pairs were positive in one site only,with 5 positive from peripheral vein only and the other 17 from umblical site. Two pairs were positve in boths site with two different organism. In over all 16 infant (11%of blood were considered to be contaminated. Contamination rate were 2. 4% and 9. 2% for peripheral and umbilical catheter site. Contamination rate increased after 48 hours of age in umbilical catheter. The result showed that after 2 days contamination rate for blood culture taken from catheter line increased and specifity decreased. We recommended that blood culture via umblical catheter in first 2 days in sick neonates with indwelling catheter can be a alternate site of blood culture sampelling.

  16. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Asami; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Ayako; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR.

  17. Standardization of a Continuous Assay for Glycosidases and Its Use for Screening Insect Gut Samples at Individual and Populational Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeta, Gerson S; Pereira, Jessica A S; Costa, Samara G; Azambuja, Patricia; Garcia, Eloi S; Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Genta, Fernando A

    2017-01-01

    Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes able to recognize and cleave glycosidic bonds. Insect GHs play decisive roles in digestion, in plant-herbivore, and host-pathogen interactions. GH activity is normally measured by the detection of a release from the substrate of products as sugars units, colored, or fluorescent groups. In most cases, the conditions for product release and detection differ, resulting in discontinuous assays. The current protocols result in using large amounts of reaction mixtures for the obtainment of time points in each experimental replica. These procedures restrain the analysis of biological materials with limited amounts of protein and, in the case of studies regarding small insects, implies in the pooling of samples from several individuals. In this respect, most studies do not assess the variability of GH activities across the population of individuals from the same species. The aim of this work is to approach this technical problem and have a deeper understanding of the variation of GH activities in insect populations, using as models the disease vectors Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Phlebotominae). Here we standardized continuous assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl derived substrates for the detection of α-Glucosidase, β-Glucosidase, α-Mannosidase, N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, β-Galactosidase, and α-Fucosidase in the midgut of R. prolixus and L. longipalpis with results similar to the traditional discontinuous protocol. The continuous assays allowed us to measure GH activities using minimal sample amounts with a higher number of measurements, resulting in data that are more reliable and less time and reagent consumption. The continuous assay also allows the high-throughput screening of GH activities in small insect samples, which would be not applicable to the previous discontinuous protocol. We applied continuous GH measurements to 90 individual samples of R. prolixus anterior midgut

  18. Standardization of a Continuous Assay for Glycosidases and Its Use for Screening Insect Gut Samples at Individual and Populational Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson S. Profeta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs are enzymes able to recognize and cleave glycosidic bonds. Insect GHs play decisive roles in digestion, in plant-herbivore, and host-pathogen interactions. GH activity is normally measured by the detection of a release from the substrate of products as sugars units, colored, or fluorescent groups. In most cases, the conditions for product release and detection differ, resulting in discontinuous assays. The current protocols result in using large amounts of reaction mixtures for the obtainment of time points in each experimental replica. These procedures restrain the analysis of biological materials with limited amounts of protein and, in the case of studies regarding small insects, implies in the pooling of samples from several individuals. In this respect, most studies do not assess the variability of GH activities across the population of individuals from the same species. The aim of this work is to approach this technical problem and have a deeper understanding of the variation of GH activities in insect populations, using as models the disease vectors Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Phlebotominae. Here we standardized continuous assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl derived substrates for the detection of α-Glucosidase, β-Glucosidase, α-Mannosidase, N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, β-Galactosidase, and α-Fucosidase in the midgut of R. prolixus and L. longipalpis with results similar to the traditional discontinuous protocol. The continuous assays allowed us to measure GH activities using minimal sample amounts with a higher number of measurements, resulting in data that are more reliable and less time and reagent consumption. The continuous assay also allows the high-throughput screening of GH activities in small insect samples, which would be not applicable to the previous discontinuous protocol. We applied continuous GH measurements to 90 individual samples of R. prolixus

  19. Normotermic continuous blood cardioplegy

    OpenAIRE

    Braile, Domingo M.; Ardito, Roberto V; Marcos Zaiantchick; José L. Verde Santos; Soares, Marcelo José F

    1989-01-01

    Os autores discutem o emprego da cardioplegia, bem como sua composição. A parada imediata dos batimentos pode ser conseguida com soluções cardioplégicas cristalóides ou sangüíneas, oxigenadas ou não. O agente que leva o coração à parada pode ser potássio, magnésio, procaína ou, mesmo, quelantes e bloqueadores de cálcio associados entre si ou não, contando com a edição da hipotermia ou não. Deve-se ficar atento para a falsa sensação de proteção a que a baixa temperatura possa nos induzir, uma ...

  20. The impact of continuous non-invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure stability during general anaesthesia in orthopaedic patients: A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidert, Agnes S; Nold, Johanna S; Hornung, Roman; Paulus, Alexander C; Zwißler, Bernhard; Czerner, Stephan

    2017-11-01

    In patients undergoing general anaesthesia, intraoperative hypotension occurs frequently and is associated with adverse outcomes such as postoperative acute kidney failure, myocardial infarction or stroke. A history of chronic hypertension renders patients more susceptible to a decrease in blood pressure (BP) after induction of general anaesthesia. As a patient's BP is generally monitored intermittently via an upper arm cuff, there may be a delay in the detection of hypotension by the anaesthetist. The current study investigates whether the presence of continuous BP monitoring leads to improved BP stability. Randomised, controlled and single-centre study. A total of 160 orthopaedic patients undergoing general anaesthesia with a history of chronic hypertension. The patients were randomised to either a study group (n = 77) that received continuous non-invasive BP monitoring in addition to oscillometric intermittent monitoring, or a control group (n = 83) whose BP was monitored intermittently only. The interval for oscillometric measurements in both groups was set to 3 min. After induction of general anaesthesia, oscillometric BP values of the two groups were compared for the first hour of the procedure. Anaesthetists were blinded to the purpose of the study. BP stability and hypotensive events. There was no difference in baseline BP between the groups. After adjustment for multiple testing, mean arterial BP in the study group was significantly higher than in the control group at 12 and 15 min. Mean ± SD for study and control group, respectively were: 12 min, 102 ± 24 vs. 90 ± 26 mmHg (P = 0.039) and 15 min, 102 ± 21 vs. 90 ± 23 mmHg (P = 0.023). Hypotensive readings below a mean pressure of 55 mmHg occurred more often in the control group (25 vs. 7, P = 0.047). Continuous monitoring contributes to BP stability in the studied population. NCT02519101.

  1. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  2. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method...... for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide......, and ethylene oxide, were increased in tobacco smokers. Highly significant correlations were found between cord and maternal blood with regard to measured adduct levels of the three compounds. The mean cord/maternal hemoglobin adduct level ratios were 0.48 (range 0.27-0.86) for acrylamide, 0.38 (range 0...

  3. Blood plasma sample preparation method to determine thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds in Effect-Directed Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bytingsvik, J.; Jonker, W.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Boer, J.; Jenssen, B.M.; Lie, E.; Aars, J.; Hamers, T.H.M.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    A sample preparation method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was developed to be used in Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) of blood plasma. Until now such a method was not available. It can be used for extraction of a broad range of thyroid hormone

  4. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  5. Preference changes of adult outpatients for giving saliva, urine and blood for clinical testing after actual sample collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhima, Matilda; Salinas, Thomas J; Wermers, Robert A; Weaver, Amy L; Koka, Sreenivas

    2013-01-01

    Patients' preferences of the type of sample collections for clinical testing are currently unknown. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess patients' preferences of three types of samples for clinical testing (saliva, urine and blood) both before and after collection and (2) to assess whether prior experiences with collection of saliva impacted patients responses. Adult outpatients underwent collection of one sample each of saliva, urine and blood. Patients' perceptions of comfort, convenience and easiness were assessed in pre-collection and post-collection questionnaires. Post-collection, patients' endorsement of saliva as being the "most comfortable" and "most convenient" significantly declined (pre vs. post, 61.5% vs. 37.5% and 73.1% vs. 42.3%). However, saliva was still endorsed as the "most convenient" post-collection (compared to urine 33.7% and blood 24.0%). Although not statistically significant, the proportion of patients who changed their response in terms of what sample was "easiest to collect at home" was considerably higher in the group with vs. without prior experience giving saliva (54.6% vs. 32.6%, p=0.19 Fisher's exact test). Overall, saliva remained as the most highly preferred sample to donate despite a decline in patients' preferences of saliva donation after sample collection. The results of the study are promising for future widespread patient acceptance of saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of helium diffusion behavior from continuous heating experiments: Sample screening and identification of multiple 4He components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannell, K. T.; Idleman, B. D.; Zeitler, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Old, slowly cooled apatites often yield overdispersed helium ages due to factors such as parent zonation, He implantation, radiation damage, crystal defects, and fluid inclusions. Careful mineral selection and many replicate analyses can mitigate the impact of some of these effects. However, this approach adds unnecessary costs in time and resources when dating well-behaved apatites and is generally ineffective at identifying the root cause of age dispersion and providing suitable age corrections for poorly behaved samples. We assess a new technique utilizing static-gas measurement during continuous heating as a means to rapidly screen apatite samples. In about the time required for a conventional total-gas analysis, this method can discriminate between samples showing the volume-diffusion behavior expected for apatite and those showing anomalous release patterns, inconsistent with their use in thermochronologic applications. This method may also have the potential to quantify and discriminate between the radiogenic and extraneous 4He fractions released by a sample. Continuously heated samples that outgas by volume diffusion during a linear heating schedule should produce a characteristic sigmoidal 4He fractional loss profile, with the exact shape and position of these profiles (in loss vs. heating time space) controlled by sample kinetics, grain size, and heating rate. Secondary factors such as sample zoning and alpha-loss distribution have a relatively minor impact on such profiles. Well-behaved examples such as the Durango standard and other apatites with good age reproducibility show the expected smooth, sigmoidal gas release with complete exhaustion by temperatures predicted for volume diffusion using typical apatite kinetics (e.g., by ~900˚C for linear heating at 20˚C/minute). In contrast, "bad actor" samples that do not replicate well show significant degrees of helium release deferred to higher temperatures. We report on screening results for a range of

  7. Evaluation of some toxic metals in blood samples of smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available ... Keywords: Blood, Heavy metals, Smokers, Tobacco pipe smokers, Inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Tropical .... total and free testosterone, genetic variation, carcinogenic effect [23].

  8. Influences of religion and culture on continuing bonds in a sample of British Muslims of Pakistani origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hanan; Oyebode, Jan R

    2009-11-01

    This study considered the nature of continuing bonds with deceased relatives in a sample of Pakistani Muslims living in the United Kingdom. Ten participants were interviewed following a cultural psychology approach and transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Dreaming, talking with others about the deceased, following the deceased's example, keeping memories and mementos, and doing actions thought to help the deceased were forms of continued relationship found. These were intertwined with the process of grieving and were influenced by the family, culture, and religion. Religion was a strong influence on the prominence given by participants to finishing well and on the notion of doing actions thought to help the deceased. Cultural mores, such as the community, and collectivist ethos and the expectation that emotion would be expressed around the time of death, were found to be supportive for some but sources of tension for other participants. Expressing a continuing bond through following the deceased's example so as to make them proud or happy seemed to be reinforced by cultural roots in respect for elders. Participants gave instances of tensions in areas such as expression of emotion and communality versus individualism that arose as a result of their position between two cultural frameworks, some illustrating how assimilation into the host culture set up conflict with the expected norms of their family/ancestral culture. The study highlights how understanding different cultural and religious influences may enrich the concept of continuing bonds.

  9. Association between anthropometry and high blood pressure in a representative sample of preschoolers in madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Beneit, Gloria; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Pocock, Stuart; Redondo, Juliana; Fuster, Valentín; Peñalvo, José L

    2015-06-01

    Program SI! is a multi-level, school-based intervention for the promotion of cardiovascular health from early childhood. The aim of this paper is to characterize the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure in the preschoolers enrolled in the study, and to compare various criteria for classifying obesity. The study was a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial including 24 state schools in Madrid (Spain). Weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 2011 children (1009 boys and 1002 girls) aged 3 to 5 years (3.7 [0.9]). Body mass index and blood pressure were classified by corresponding task force criteria. Obesity was studied by 6 different criteria. Associations of body mass index, body weight, body fat, and waist circumference on blood pressure were examined, and the risk of high blood pressure in relation to tertiles of body mass index was calculated. The prevalence of obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force varied from 2% at age 3 to 8% at age 5, and the overall prevalence of high blood pressure (≥ 90th percentile) was 20%. Sex- and age-specific criteria for obesity showed better agreement with the reference than a single generalized cutoff. The risk of high blood pressure was higher for the highest tertile of body mass index distribution. The highest prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure was found among older children. The classification of obesity in children was more accurate using sex- and age-specific cutoffs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. An effective method to purify Plasmodium falciparum DNA directly from clinical blood samples for whole genome high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Auburn

    Full Text Available Highly parallel sequencing technologies permit cost-effective whole genome sequencing of hundreds of Plasmodium parasites. The ability to sequence clinical Plasmodium samples, extracted directly from patient blood without a culture step, presents a unique opportunity to sample the diversity of "natural" parasite populations in high resolution clinical and epidemiological studies. A major challenge to sequencing clinical Plasmodium samples is the abundance of human DNA, which may substantially reduce the yield of Plasmodium sequence. We tested a range of human white blood cell (WBC depletion methods on P. falciparum-infected patient samples in search of a method displaying an optimal balance of WBC-removal efficacy, cost, simplicity, and applicability to low resource settings. In the first of a two-part study, combinations of three different WBC depletion methods were tested on 43 patient blood samples in Mali. A two-step combination of Lymphoprep plus Plasmodipur best fitted our requirements, although moderate variability was observed in human DNA quantity. This approach was further assessed in a larger sample of 76 patients from Burkina Faso. WBC-removal efficacy remained high (70% samples and lower variation was observed in human DNA quantities. In order to assess the Plasmodium sequence yield at different human DNA proportions, 59 samples with up to 60% human DNA contamination were sequenced on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. An average ~40-fold coverage of the genome was observed per lane for samples with ≤ 30% human DNA. Even in low resource settings, using a simple two-step combination of Lymphoprep plus Plasmodipur, over 70% of clinical sample preparations should exhibit sufficiently low human DNA quantities to enable ~40-fold sequence coverage of the P. falciparum genome using a single lane on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. This approach should greatly facilitate large-scale clinical and epidemiologic studies of P

  11. Blood and ultrafiltrate dosage of citrate as a useful and routine tool during continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration in septic shock patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Filippo; Morselli, Maurizio; Bergamo, Daniela; Hollo, Zsuzsanna; Scella, Sandro; Maio, Mariella; Tetta, Ciro; Dellavalle, Ambrogio; Stella, Maurizio; Triolo, Giorgio

    2011-12-01

    Citrate anticoagulation is gaining popularity in renal replacement therapies (RRT) for critically ill patients. In order to study whether citrate accumulates in septic shock patients, we determined citrate in plasma and dialysate during continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). An automated routine determination of citrate was set up using a commercial kit (citrate lyase method). Twelve patients with septic shock on CVVHDF and citrate anticoagulation were studied ex vivo for citrate levels in systemic and circuit blood and in the ultrafiltrate (at 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h). In vitro blood studies showed a near unit correlation between the plasma measured and predicted citrate concentrations for an exclusive extracellular distribution of citrate. Median systemic arterial citratemias were 0.09 (0.06-0.12) mmol/L (Time 0) and 0.23 (0.18-0.31) mmol/L during treatment; median sieving coefficient for citrate was 0.95 (0.88-1.02) and did not change with different volumes of CVVHDF effluent (from 1350 to 5100 mL/h). Net citrate and calcium removal by filter significantly correlated with effluent volume (r = 0.85 and 0.78, respectively). Median citrate load entering in the patients' bloodstream was 13.60 (9.1-19.6, n = 68) mmol/h. Although cost analysis of the citrate test demonstrated a minimally increased daily cost (from 2.96 to 3.51€), saving costs could be potentially relevant with more extended use of citrate anticoagulation. In septic shock patients with liver dysfunction citratemia is useful in guiding clinical application of RRT, where the citrate losses in the ultrafiltrate can be efficiently modulated by increasing the effluent volume.

  12. Effect of continuous blood purification on T lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory response in patients with severe sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of continuous blood purification (CBP on T lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory response in patients with severe sepsis, and to provide scientific evidence for the treatment of severe sepsis patients. Methods: 96 cases of severe sepsis patients from June 2013 to June 2016 in Yulin First People's Hospital were as the research subjects, randomly divided into observation group and control group, 48 cases in each group. The control group received routine treatment of sepsis, while the observation group adopted CBP therapy on the basis of the control group, fasting venous blood was collected 7 d before and after treatment respectively, and the change of IL-6, TNF-α, CRP levels, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ lymphocyte percentage and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in two groups were compared before and after treatment in two groups. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant differences in IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels between the two groups (P>0.05. After treatment, the IL-6 and TNF-α levels of observation group and the control group were significantly decreased, CRP level in the observation group decreased significantly, and the IL-6, TNF-α and CRP levels were significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05. Before treatment, there was no statistical difference in the percentage of T cell subsets between the two groups (P<0.05. After treatment, the two groups of patients with CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ were significantly elevated (P<0.05. After treatment, the CD3+, CD4+ and CD4+/ CD8+ were significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: CBP therapy can effectively reduce the level of inflammatory factors in patients with severe sepsis, reduce the inflammatory response, and can effectively improve the immune function of patients, and the effect is significant.

  13. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeej, Natalie; Elgán, Tobias H; Jalling, Camilla; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8%) had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005), lower age (p football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  14. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Yun-xia; WEN Yun-jie; HUANG Jin-li; LI Gui-hua; CHAI Xiao; WANG Hong

    2015-01-01

    The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method) is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P) in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA) is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the dige...

  15. Clot formation in canine whole blood as measured by rotational thromboelastometry is influenced by sample handling and coagulation activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie A; McMichael, Maureen; Galligan, Alyssa; Gilor, Shir; Hoh, Crystal M

    2010-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to systematically evaluate the impact of methodology on thromboelastometry with canine whole blood. Thromboelastometry was performed on citrated blood using a variety of combinations of clotting activators [ex-tem (tissue factor or TF), in-tem (ellagic acid), diluted TF from Innovin, or Ca (recalcification only)] and storage times. Thromboelastometry was also performed using diluted TF from Innovin on blood collected into a contact inhibitor. Ex-vivo contact activation was compared between canine and human blood. Clotting activator had a marked impact on coagulation time, a minor impact on alpha angle, and no impact on clot formation time or maximum clot firmness. When ex-tem or in-tem was the clotting activator, sample storage up to 30 min did not affect results. With diluted TF from Innovin or Ca, sample storage was associated with the development of increased coagulability (as indicated by shorter coagulation time and clot formation time and higher alpha angle) due to ex-vivo contact activation. Canine blood underwent markedly more ex-vivo contact activation than did human blood. Canine blood undergoes significant ex-vivo contact activation during and after collection, which influences thromboelastometry results when a weak clotting activator (such as low TF or recalcification) is used. Thromboelastometry with a strong activator (such as ex-tem or in-tem) is less influenced by ex-vivo changes, and, therefore, likely to be more reflective of in-vivo hemostatic capabilities and to provide consistently interpretable and comparable results.

  16. Ehrlichia canis detection in dogs from Várzea Grande: a comparative analysis of blood and bone marrow samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herica Makino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The objective of this study was to compare the DNA detection ofEhrlichia canisin blood and bone marrow to determine the prevalence of the agent in Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso. Blood samples and bone marrow from 80 dogs of both sexes, different breeds and age, were collected and processed for a cross-sectional study performed using nested PCR. Of the 80 dogs, 61 (76.3% had E. canisDNA in one of the samples. The buffy coat was positive in 42 dogs (52.5% and the bone marrow was positive in 33 (41.3%. There was no significant association between the positive biological samples of either the buffy coat or bone marrow and the presence or absence of clinical signs (P=0.49. No risk factor was associated with infection in the studied area. The bone marrow samples were efficient for the molecular diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis, particularly when there was a negative blood sample, although infection was present.

  17. Vessel Sampling and Blood Flow Velocity Distribution With Vessel Diameter for Characterizing the Human Bulbar Conjunctival Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Wentao; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; DeBuc, Delia C; Feuer, William J; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    This study determined (1) how many vessels (i.e., the vessel sampling) are needed to reliably characterize the bulbar conjunctival microvasculature and (2) if characteristic information can be obtained from the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter. Functional slitlamp biomicroscope was used to image hundreds of venules per subject. The bulbar conjunctiva in five healthy human subjects was imaged on six different locations in the temporal bulbar conjunctiva. The histograms of the diameter and velocity were plotted to examine whether the distribution was normal. Standard errors were calculated from the standard deviation and vessel sample size. The ratio of the standard error of the mean over the population mean was used to determine the sample size cutoff. The velocity was plotted as a function of the vessel diameter to display the distribution of the diameter and velocity. The results showed that the sampling size was approximately 15 vessels, which generated a standard error equivalent to 15% of the population mean from the total vessel population. The distributions of the diameter and velocity were not only unimodal, but also somewhat positively skewed and not normal. The blood flow velocity was related to the vessel diameter (r=0.23, P<0.05). This was the first study to determine the sampling size of the vessels and the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter, which may lead to a better understanding of the human microvascular system of the bulbar conjunctiva.

  18. Detection of JCPyV microRNA in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Irene; Martelli, Francesco; Repice, Anna; Massacesi, Luca; Azzi, Alberta; Giannecchini, Simone

    2015-12-01

    Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation and development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a health concern in multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy. Here, the JCPyV microRNA-J1-3p and microRNA-J1-5p expressions and genomic variability were investigated in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients before and under natalizumab therapy and in healthy controls. The two JCPyV microRNAs were detected in the JCPyV-DNA-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples and in the exosomes derived from plasma and urine obtained from JCPyV-DNA-positive and JCPyV-DNA-negative patients. In particular, the increased JCPyV microRNA expression in samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy was consistent with the high JCPyV-DNA positivity observed in these samples. Moreover, JCPyV microRNA genomic region showed few nucleotide differences in samples obtained from blood and urine of multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Overall, these data suggest a potential role of the JCPyV microRNA expression in counteracting the viral reactivation to maintain JCPyV asymptomatic persistence in the host.

  19. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodies in turkey blood samples by ELISA and by the slide agglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszanyitzky, E; Czifra, G; Stipkovits, L

    1994-01-01

    Comparative examination of a total of 1,030 blood samples from six turkey flocks of three Eastern Hungarian turkey farms was performed by the conventional haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and slide agglutination (SA) tests and by a competitive ELISA visualizing the inhibition by a positive test serum of the reaction between a monoclonal antibody and the specific epitope of Mycoplasma gallisepticum recognized by it. All the three tests detected the flocks which were certainly infected. The highest rate of positivity (93% of the samples tested) was revealed by the ELISA. By SA and HI the positivity rate was 56% and 55%, respectively. Thirty-five per cent of the positive blood samples reacted in all three tests, 17% of them only by ELISA and HI, another 17% only by ELISA and SA, while 3% only by SA and HI. In the case of positive flocks first the SA test and ELISA, then the HI test and ELISA give parallel results.

  20. [Responsibility of the physician for blood samples according to paragraph 81 a StPO?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, J H

    1992-03-01

    On principle no physician is under obligation to take blood-tests prescribed in Art. 81 a StPO (Code of Criminal Procedure). However, this principle is not valid without exception. Hence to be appointed expert by a judge or a public prosecutor shall give the reason for a legal pledge. An indirect obligation--but not to police authorities--may result from a contractually stipulated assumption or from being part of the Public Health Service staff. For the physician being employed in a hospital, the special rule 2 c fig. 3 par. 1 BAT (Federal Employees Tariff Treaty) is valid, which stipulates an obligation to take blood-tests, even if a contractual agreement is missing. Violation of contract and offence against legal pledges may justify giving notice to the physician. However, the obligation of taking blood-tests is not unlimited. Within the pale of law rights of refusal are stated in Art. 22, 24, 52, 72, 74 StPO (Code of Criminal Procedure). Moreover a refusal is justified, if the manoeuvre is injurious to health of the accused under consideration. In this case the physician on the spot taking blood-tests has got the exclusive responsibility, which cannot be shifted on to other authorities. In case of personally justified refusal the physician does not have to expect any prejudices. A physician refusing to take blood-tests does not incur a penalty under Art. 258 or Art. 258 a StGB (Criminal Code).

  1. Dermal PK/PD of a lipophilic topical drug in psoriatic patients by continuous intradermal membrane-free sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenlenz, Manfred; Höfferer, Christian; Magnes, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methodologies for continuous sampling of lipophilic drugs and high-molecular solutes in the dermis are currently lacking. We investigated the feasibility of sampling a lipophilic topical drug and the locally released biomarker in the dermis of non-lesional and lesional skin of psoriatic...... patients over 25h by means of membrane-free dermal open-flow microperfusion probes (dOFM) and novel wearable multi-channel pumps. METHODS: Nine psoriatic patients received a topical p-38 inhibitor (BCT194, 0.5% cream) on a lesional and a non-lesional application site once daily for 8 days. Multiple d...... and demonstrated significant drug concentrations in lesional as well as non-lesional skin after 8 days, but did not show significant differences between tissues. On day 8, TNFα release following probe insertion was significantly reduced compared to day 1. CONCLUSIONS: Novel membrane-free probes and wearable multi...

  2. Whole blood samples for adrenocorticotrophic hormone measurement can be stored at room temperature for 4 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Madsen, Rikke Fogt; Møller, Line Rosengreen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA-blood sa......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA......-blood samples from 30 patients were collected, aliquoted and stored on ice or at room temperature for 0, 2, 4, 24, or 48 h before centrifugation, and the plasma was stored frozen until analysis. All samples were analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on cobas 6000 e601. The change...... no clinically relevant change in ACTH recovery for up to 4 h compared to standard conditions. For samples stored at room temperature for 4 h, a significant (p temperature for up...

  3. A simplified method for determination of radioactive iron in whole-blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Klaus; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Hansen, M.

    2001-01-01

    for simultaneous determination of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood, using a dry-ashing procedure and recrystallization of the remaining iron. The detection Limit of the method permits measurements of 0.1 Bq/ml blood thus allowing detection of Less than 1% absorption from a 40 kBq dose, which is ethically acceptable......For studies on iron absorption in man radioisotopes represent an easy and simple tool. However, measurement of the orbital electron emitting radioiron, Fe-55, in blood is difficult and insufficiently described in the literature. The present study describes a relatively simple method...... a sensitive method for studying the intestinal absorption of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in man and at the same time allows estimation of the amount of radioiron Located in the vascular compartment....

  4. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  5. Rapid Diagnosis of Staphylococcal Catheter-Related Bacteraemia in Direct Blood Samples by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboromyrska, Yuliya; De la Calle, Cristina; Soto, Marcelo; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Soriano, Alex; Alvarez-Martínez, Míriam José; Almela, Manel; Marco, Francesc; Arjona, Ruth; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; Mensa, José; Martínez, José Antonio; Mira, Aurea; Vila, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, being staphylococci the main etiologic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a PCR-based assay for detection of staphylococci directly from blood obtained through the catheter to diagnose CRB caused by these microorganisms and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 92 patients with suspected CRB were included in the study. Samples were obtained through the catheter. Paired blood cultures were processed by standard culture methods and 4 ml blood samples were processed by GeneXpert-MRSA assay for the detection of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS). Sixteen CRB caused by staphylococci were diagnosed among 92 suspected patients. GeneXpert detected 14 out of 16 cases (87.5%), including 4 MSSA and 10 MR-CoNS in approximately 1 hour after specimen receipt. The sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert were 87.5% (CI 95%: 60.4-97.8) and 92.1% (CI 95%: 83-96.7), respectively, compared with standard culture methods. The sensitivity of GeneXpert for S. aureus was 100%. Regarding a cost-effectiveness analysis, the incremental cost of using GeneXpert was of 31.1€ per patient while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GeneXpert compared with blood culture alones was about 180€ per life year gained. In conclusion, GeneXpert can be used directly with blood samples obtained through infected catheters to detect S. aureus and MR-CoNS in approximately 1h after sampling. In addition, it is cost-effective especially in areas with high prevalence of staphylococcal CRB.

  6. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sample Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, A E; Rosing, H; Hillebrand, M J X; Blesson, S; Mengesha, B; Diro, E; Hailu, A; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Dorlo, T P C

    2016-04-01

    To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote regions in which the disease is endemic, a simple cheap sampling method is required for miltefosine quantification. The aims of this study were to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to validate its use with Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since hematocrit (Ht) levels are typically severely decreased in VL patients, returning to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values. Miltefosine was extracted from DBS samples using a simple method of pretreatment with methanol, resulting in >97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10 to 2,000 ng/ml, and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at the lower limit of quantification), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10 and 30 μl and for Ht levels of 20 to 35%, although a linear effect of Ht levels on miltefosine quantification was observed in the bioanalytical validation. DBS samples were stable for at least 162 days at 37°C. Clinical validation of the method using paired DBS and plasma samples from 16 VL patients showed a median observed DBS/plasma miltefosine concentration ratio of 0.99, with good correlation (Pearson'sr= 0.946). Correcting for patient-specific Ht levels did not further improve the concordance between the sampling methods. This successfully validated method to quantify miltefosine in DBS samples was demonstrated to be a valid and practical alternative to venous blood sampling that can be applied in future miltefosine pharmacokinetic studies with leishmaniasis patients, without Ht correction. Copyright © 2016 Kip et al.

  7. Investigation of endogenous blood lipids components that contribute to matrix effects in dried blood spot samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a rapidly developing approach in the field of biopharmaceutical analysis. DBS sampling enables analysis of small sample volumes with high sensitivity and selectivity while providing a convenient easy to store and ship format. Lipid components that may be extracted during biological sample processing may result in matrix ionization effects and can significantly affect the precision and accuracy of the results. Glycerophosphocholines (GPChos), cholesterols and triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main lipid components that contribute to matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Various organic solvents such as methanol, acetonitrile, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl ether, dichloromethane and n-hexane were investigated for elution of these lipid components from DBS samples. Methanol extracts demonstrated the highest levels of GPChos whereas ethyl ether and n-hexane extracts contained less than 1.0 % of the GPChos levels in the methanol extracts. Ethyl ether extracts contained the highest levels of cholesterols and TAG in comparison to other investigated organic solvents. Acetonitrile is recommended as an elution solvent due to low lipid recoveries. Matrix effects resulted from different extracted lipid components should be studied and assessed carefully in DBS samples. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Optimal time interval between repeated blood sampling for measurements of total homocysteine in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, A.; Melse-Boonstra, A.; Schultz, M.; Burema, J.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2001-01-01

    Many studies have shown that increased plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) are associated with cardiovascular disease (1). Like most biological variables, plasma tHcy fluctuates within an individual around a long-term mean (2)(3). tHcy measurements often are based on a single blood

  9. Evaluation of some toxic metals in blood samples of smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, 3Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, College of Pharmacy,. King Saud ... Purpose: To determine some toxic elements in the blood of cigarette and tobacco pipe smokers in. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ..... smoking on students at College of Applied Medical. Sciences ...

  10. [Lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in dried blood samples for neonatal screening for adrenogenital syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, N I; Laricheva, S Iu; Pomelova, V G; Osin, N S

    2010-12-01

    The first Russian assay of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in dried blood spots has been developed to use for neonatal screening for adrenogenital syndrome (AGS). The technique is modeled on solid-phase lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay with time-resolution detection and it ensures the hormone to be determined in a 3.2-mm dried blood spot in the concentration range of 0 to 400 nmol/l, the coefficient of variation being not greater than 15%, and the results correlated with those of the DELFIA Neo170HP test system. The tests of 387 dried blood samples carried out in three regions have demonstrated the efficiency of the technique for screening and verifying neonatal AGS.

  11. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in blood samples as a diagnostic method for complicated and persistent forms of urogenital chlamydia infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanakhmedov E.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal: the study of the effectiveness of the method for laboratory diagnostics of urogenital chlamydial infection in patients with chronic form of the disease. Material and methods. The presence of DNAof C. trachomatis was detected by PCR in either genital or extragenital (blood sites in eighth patients (four men and four women. Results. It is established that in biological material taken from extragenital (blood sites, C. trachomatis was detected in all patients examined (in 100% of cases, while in clinical samples obtained from genital sites, in seven patients only (87.5%. Conclusion. We found that specific chlamydial DNAcan be detected in extragenital (blood site, despite the negative reaction in the clinical material from the genital tract of patients with genital chlamydial infection.

  12. pH adjustment of human blood plasma prior to bioanalytical sample preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G.; Uges, D. R. A.; Franke, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    pH adjustment in bioanalytical sample preparation concerning ionisable compounds is one of the most common sample treatments. This is often done by mixing an aliquot of the sample with a proper buffer adjusted to the proposed pH. The pH of the resulting mixture however, does not necessarily have to

  13. Trace of heavy metals in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples in association with birth outcomes in Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan Rhaif Al-Sahlanee, Mayyadah; Maizan Ramli, Ramzun; Abdul Hassan Ali, Miami; Fadhil Tawfiq, Nada; Zahirah Noor Azman, Nurul; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Shahrim Mustafa, Iskandar; Noor Ashikin Nik Abdul Razak, Nik; Zakiah Yahaya, Nor; Mohammed Al-Marri, Hana; Syuhada Ayob, Nur; Zakaria, Nabela

    2017-10-01

    Trace elements are essential nutritional components in humans and inconvenient tissue content that have a significant influence on infant size. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of concentration of elements (uranium (U), lead (Pb) and iron (Fe)) and absorption of Pb and Fe on maternal and umbilical cord blood samples. The concentration and absorption of Pb and Fe in blood samples were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry device, while the uranium concentration was determined by using CR-39 detector. Fifty women of age 16-44 years are involved in this study. Results show that the maximum and minimum values of both concentration and absorption in the maternal samples were for Pb and Fe, respectively. In addition, for umbilical cord, the maximum values of concentration and absorption were for Fe and the minimum concentration and absorption were for U and Pb, respectively. A significant correlation between maternal and umbilical cord blood samples was found. This indicates that the Pb, U and Fe elements can easily transfer from maternal to the fetal body which impacts the growth of fetus.

  14. Levels of ochratoxin A and IgG against conidia of Penicillium verrucosum in blood samples from healthy farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Marit Aralt

    2003-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin frequently found in human blood and milk samples in the colder climatic zones. In addition to dietary intake, exposure may occur by inhalation of toxin containing fungal conidia. The purpose of this work was to investigate the level of OTA in blood samples from farm workers and non-farm working controls, and to examine if serum levels of OTA were related to inhalatory exposure to conidia of Penicillium verrucosum, the main OTA producer in temperate climates. Blood samples from 210 participants were analysed for the presence of OTA and IgG antibodies against P. verrucosum conidia. The concentration of OTA was determined by HPLC (DL 10 ng/l), and the IgG level was determined by ELISA. All serum samples contained OTA (mean 397 ng/l, range 21-5534 ng/l). The OTA level in serum was unrelated to farm working, gender, age, and IgG level. The mean IgG level was significantly higher among farm workers than controls. Farm working, or increased inhalatory exposure to P. verrucosum, was not related to higher OTA serum levels. Inhalatory exposure to OTA from farm working seems to be of minor importance compared to dietary intake.

  15. Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in AIDS Patients in Brazil: Importance of Molecular and Immunological Methods Using Peripheral Blood Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Fabio A.; Vidal, José E.; Oliveira, Augusto C. Penalva de; Hernandez, Adrián V.; Bonasser-Filho, Francisco; Nogueira, Roberta S.; Focaccia, Roberto; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral focal lesion in AIDS and still accounts for high morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Its occurrence is more frequent in patients with low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is directly related to the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the population. Therefore, it is important to evaluate sensitive, less invasive, and rapid diagnostic tests. We evaluated the value of PCR using peripheral blood samples on the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis and whether its association with immunological assays can contribute to a timely diagnosis. We prospectively analyzed blood samples from 192 AIDS patients divided into two groups. The first group was composed of samples from 64 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosed by clinical and radiological features. The second group was composed of samples from 128 patients with other opportunistic diseases. Blood collection from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis was done before or on the third day of anti-toxoplasma therapy. PCR for T. gondii, indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and an avidity test for toxoplasmosis were performed on all samples. The PCR sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in blood were 80% and 98%, respectively. Patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis (89%) presented higher titers of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than patients with other diseases (57%) (P < 0.001). These findings suggest the clinical value of the use of both PCR and high titers of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies for the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. This strategy may prevent more invasive approaches. PMID:16207959

  16. Detection of sepsis in patient blood samples using CD64 expression in a microfluidic cell separation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Wenjie; Zhou, Yun; Johnson, Amanda; Venable, Amanda; Hassan, Ahmed; Griswold, John; Pappas, Dimitri

    2017-11-16

    A microfluidic affinity separation device was developed for the detection of sepsis in critical care patients. An affinity capture method was developed to capture cells based on changes in CD64 expression in a single, simple microfluidic chip for sepsis detection. Both sepsis patient samples and a laboratory CD64+ expression model were used to validate the microfluidic assay. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the chip cell capture had a linear relationship with CD64 expression in laboratory models. The Sepsis Chip detected an increase in upregulated neutrophil-like cells when the upregulated cell population is as low as 10% of total cells spiked into commercially available aseptic blood samples. In a proof of concept study, blood samples obtained from sepsis patients within 24 hours of diagnosis were tested on the chip to further validate its performance. On-chip CD64+ cell capture from 10 patient samples (619 ± 340 cells per chip) was significantly different from control samples (32 ± 11 cells per chip) and healthy volunteer samples (228 ± 95 cells per chip). In addition, the on-chip cell capture has a linear relationship with CD64 expression indicating our approach can be used to measure CD64 expression based on total cell capture on Sepsis Chip. Our method has proven to be sensitive, accurate, rapid, and cost-effective. Therefore, this device is a promising detection platform for neutrophil activation and sepsis diagnosis.

  17. Hepatitis C genotype distribution in patient and blood donor samples in South Africa for the period 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabdial-Sing, N; Chirwa, T; Thaver, J; Smuts, H; Vermeulen, M; Suchard, M; Puren, A J

    2016-11-01

    There are limited molecular epidemiological studies of hepatitis C at a national level in South Africa. The introduction of newer treatment modalities for hepatitis C requires knowledge of the genotypes as these may have different prognostic and therapeutic implications. This retrospective study describes genotype distributions of patients attending specialist clinics and a blood donor group studied during the period 2008-2012 in South Africa. Residual samples from diagnostic viral load testing from specialist clinics in South Africa (n=941) and from the South African National Blood Service (n=294) were analysed quantitatively by real-time PCR and genotyped using the Versant line probe assay or sequencing. Genotype 1 was predominant in blood donors (34%), whilst genotype 5a was prevalent in patients (36%). In the blood donor group, genotype 4 was detected for the first time. Genotype 2 was rare in the patient group and not detected in blood donors. Genotype 1 was the predominant genotype in the younger age groups (less than 30 years), whereas genotype 5a was found at higher proportions in the older age groups for both the patient and blood donor groups, comprising more than 60% of genotypes in those older than 50 years. Genotypes 1 and 5 were at highest proportions across all provinces compared to other genotypes. In blood donors, genotype 1 was predominant among Caucasians (43%) and genotype 5a among Blacks (54%). Such information is required for planning the impact on the health sector with regard to newly emerging therapies for hepatitis C and burden of disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of time and temperature on 48 routine chemistry, haematology and coagulation analytes in whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Balveren, Jasmijn A; Huijskens, Mirelle Jaj; Gemen, Eugenie Fa; Péquériaux, Nathalie Cv; Kusters, Ron

    2017-07-01

    Background Phlebotomy for the purpose of blood analysis is often performed at remote locations, and samples are usually temporarily stored before transport to a central laboratory for analysis. The circumstances during storage and shipment may not meet the necessary requirements. If analysed anyway, false results may be generated. We therefore examined the influence of precentrifugation time and temperature of the most frequently requested tests in whole blood. Methods Healthy volunteers donated blood in which 48 analytes were tested. Routine chemistry was performed in lithium heparin tubes, haematology in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tubes, coagulation in citrate tubes and glucose in sodium fluoride tubes. One tube was measured directly. The others were kept at different temperatures (4, 8, 20 or 30℃) and stored for 4, 6, 8 or 24 h before analysis. Additionally, some analytes were examined at 12, 16, 24 and 28℃. The mean percentage deviation was compared with different decision levels, including the total allowable error. Results When using the total allowable error as an acceptable limit, most of the investigated analytes remained stable. However, bicarbonate is unstable at almost all tested time-points and temperatures. Calcium, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium and sodium are particularly affected at low temperatures, while phosphate is mainly affected at and above room temperature after 8 h. Conclusion We established the influence of time and temperature on a broad range of analytes, which may be applied to set the limits in transportation and storage of whole blood samples.

  19. Evaluation of carbon monoxide in blood samples from the second health and nutrition survey. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, E.P.

    1976-01-01

    This is a study of carbon monoxide (CO) in the blood of human subjects participating in the Second National Health and Nutrition Survey (HANES II), a detailed study of health indicators in sample populations of many communities throughout the U.S. The purpose of this aspect of the survey is to evaluate the levels of blood carboxyhemoglobin in normal individuals of all ages in typical U.S. communities, from whom accurate histories and clinical studies are available. This report gives results of the first of three years of analyses. A careful calibration of the analytical method has been completed, and more than 3000 blood samples have been analyzed. Although smoking histories are not yet available to permit evaluation of carboxyhemoglobin in non-smokers, in children under 12 years of age, blood COHb has been found to be consistently low, with less than 3% greater than 1.5% COHb. These preliminary results suggest that urban exposure to carbon monoxide among the general population is not now significant in the U.S., at least during the period of these early examinations.

  20. Phthalocyanine-BODIPY dye: synthesis, characterization, and utilization for pattern recognition of CYFRA 21-1 in whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Yanık, Hülya; Göksel, Meltem; Alexandru, Anghel; Durmuş, Mahmut

    2017-08-29

    Phthalocyanine-BODIPY dye (BODIPY = boron dipyrromethene) was synthesized, fully characterized, and used for molecular recognition of CYFRA 21-1, a lung cancer biomarker, from whole blood samples. Thin films of three magnesium oxides ((MgO) n , where n = 8, 9, or 10)) were deposited on a paper substrate, and they were immersed in a solution of phthalocyanine-BODIPY dye (1.17 × 10(-3) mol/L) for the design of stochastic sensors. Limits of determination of picograms per milliliter magnitude order were recorded for the proposed stochastic sensors. CYFRA 21-1 was reliably identified and determined with recoveries higher than 95% and RSD lower than 1% in whole blood samples.

  1. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-01

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 g mL-1. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL-1) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design.

  2. A global survey of clinicians' awareness, accessibility, utilization of e-continuous education, and quality of clinical blood use: policy considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cees Th Smit Sibinga,1 Maruff A Oladejo,2 Olamide Hakeem Adejumo,3 Quentin Eichbaum,4 Midori Kumagawa,5 Shuichi Kino,5 Sima Zolfaghari,6 Silvano Wendel,7 Gordana Rasovic,8 Namjil Erdenebayar,9 Maya Makhmudova,10 Loyiso Mpuntsha,11 Charlotte Ingram,11 Bakyt B Kharabaev,12 Isaac Kajja,13 Zainab Mukhtar Hussain Sanji,14 Maria M M Satti15 1IQM Consulting for International Development of Quality Management in Transfusion Medicine, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 2Department of Educational Management, University of Lagos, Lagos, 3Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria; 4Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 5Japanese Red Cross Hokkaido Block Blood Center, Japan; 6IBTO, Tehran, Iran; 7Blood Bank, Hospital Sirio Libanês, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 8Montenegro National Blood Transfusion Center, Podgorica, Montenegro; 9National Center for Transfusion Medicine, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; 10Consultant IQM Consulting, Tashkent, Uzbekistan; 11South Africa National Blood Transfusion Service, Johannesburg, South Africa; 12National Blood Transfusion Service, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan; 13Department of Orthopedics, Mulago Hospital, Makerere University, Uganda; 14Consultant, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan; 15National Blood Transfusion Service, Khartoum, Sudan Introduction: Clinical use of blood has shown the least developed part in the vein-to-vein transfusion chain. This global study was carried out in order to investigate the level of awareness, accessibility and utilization of continuous e-learning and education, and quality of blood use among blood prescribing clinicians and nurses.Approach: Descriptive ex post facto survey design.Methods: A total of 264 purposively selected blood prescribing clinicians and nurses from the four Human Development Index (HDI groups of countries (low, medium, high, and very high participated in this study

  3. Rate of manual leukocyte differentials in dog, cat and horse blood samples using ADVIA 120 cytograms

    OpenAIRE

    Stirn, Martina; Moritz, Andreas; Bauer, Natali

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Modern automated haematology instruments are capable of performing leukocyte differentials faster, cheaper and with a higher precision than the traditional 100-cell manual differential count. Thus, in human laboratories, criteria are defined for performing a manual review of the blood smear resulting in a marked reduction of manual differential counts. While common in human laboratories, this approach to reducing the number of manual differentials in veterinary laboratories is sti...

  4. Measuring the level of agreement in hematologic and biochemical values between blood sampling sites in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kimberly; Mitchell, Mark A; Norton, Terry; Krecek, Rosina C

    2012-12-01

    Conservation programs to protect endangered sea turtles are being instituted worldwide. A common practice in these programs is to collect blood to evaluate the health of the turtles. Several different venipuncture sites are used to collect blood from sea turtles for hematologic and biochemistry tests, depending on the species. To date, it is unknown what affect venipuncture site may have on sample results. The purpose of this study was to measure the level of agreement between hematologic and biochemistry values collected from the dorsal cervical sinus and the interdigital vein of leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) sea turtles. Paired heparinized blood samples were obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus and the interdigital vein of 12 adult female nesting leatherback sea turtles on Keys Beach, St. Kitts, West Indies. Even though the sample population was small, the data for each chemistry were normally distributed, except for creatine kinase (CK). There was no significant difference when comparing biochemistry or hematologic values by venipuncture site, except for CK (P = 0.02). The level of agreement between sampling sites was considered good for albumin, calcium, globulin, glucose, packed cell volume, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, total protein, total solids, uric acid, white blood cell count, and all of the individual white cell types, while the level of agreement for aspartate aminotransferase and CK were considered poor. This information, coupled with the fact that the interdigital vein affords a less-invasive procedure, demonstrates that the interdigital vein is an appropriate location to use when establishing a hematologic and biochemical profile for leatherback sea turtles.

  5. Boron detection from blood samples by ICP-AES and ICP-MS during boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, S; Revitzer, H; Zilliacus, R; Kortesniemi, M; Kouri, M; Savolainen, S

    2008-01-01

    The concept of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involves infusion of a (10)B containing tracer into the patient's bloodstream followed by local neutron irradiation(s). Accurate estimation of the blood boron level for the treatment field before irradiation is required. Boron concentration can be quantified by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), spectrofluorometric and direct current atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) or by prompt gamma photon detection methods. The blood boron concentrations were analysed and compared using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to ensure congruency of the results if the analysis had to be changed during the treatment, e.g. for technical reasons. The effect of wet-ashing on the results was studied in addition. The mean of all samples analysed with ICP-MS was 5.8 % lower than with ICP-AES coupled to wet-ashing (R (2) = 0.88). Without wet-ashing, the mean of all samples analysed with ICP-MS was 9.1 % higher than with ICP-AES (R (2) = 0.99). Boron concentration analysed from whole blood samples with ICP-AES correlated well with the values of ICP-MS with wet-ashing of the sample matrix, which is generally considered the reference method. When using these methods in parallel at certain intervals during the treatments, reliability of the blood boron concentration values remains satisfactory, taking into account the required accuracy of dose determination in the irradiation of cancer patients.

  6. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Miyamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  7. Nucleic Acid, Antibody, and Virus Culture Methods to Detect Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus in Human Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Kearney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The MLV-related retrovirus, XMRV, was recently identified and reported to be associated with both prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. At the National Cancer Institute-Frederick, MD (NCI-Frederick, we developed highly sensitive methods to detect XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus. Analysis of XMRV-spiked samples and/or specimens from two pigtail macaques experimentally inoculated with 22Rv1 cell-derived XMRV confirmed the ability of the assays used to detect XMRV RNA and DNA, and culture isolatable virus when present, along with XMRV reactive antibody responses. Using these assays, we did not detect evidence of XMRV in blood samples ( or prostate specimens ( from two independent cohorts of patients with prostate cancer. Previous studies detected XMRV in prostate tissues. In the present study, we primarily investigated the levels of XMRV in blood plasma samples collected from patients with prostate cancer. These results demonstrate that while XMRV-related assays developed at the NCI-Frederick can readily measure XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus, no evidence of XMRV was found in the blood of patients with prostate cancer.

  8. Accuracy of intrapartum fetal blood gas analysis by scalp sampling: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Ziad; Mrkvicka, Jennifer; Rezniczek, Günther A; Dogan, Askin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-12-01

    Fetal blood gas analysis (FBGA) using scalp blood is commonly used to identify serious fetal distress. However, there is a lack of data regarding its accuracy and reliability. The aim of this study was to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FBGA for predicting postpartum acidosis in case of nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracings (NRFHRT). To this end, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of singleton term deliveries with NRFHRT according to Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique and Fisher cardiotocography scores undergoing FBGA in a university hospital. The PPV and NPV of FBGA regarding neonatal acidosis (defined as a pH value ≤ 7.15 in arterial or venous umbilical cord blood) and Apgar scores indicating neonatal depression (defined as a 5-min Apgar score ≤5) were evaluated. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the influence of cardiotocography variations and the time delay between FBGA and delivery on the accuracy of FBGA. We analyzed 343 deliveries with NRFHRT. In 32 (9%) of these cases, fetal acidosis was confirmed by a postpartum umbilical cord blood pH value ≤ 7.15. In 308/343 (90%) cases, FBGA identified NRFHRT as false positive (as confirmed by nonacidotic postpartum pH values) and thus avoided unnecessary interventions such as operative delivery. The overall test accuracy of FBGA was 91%. FBGA accurately predicted postpartum cord blood pH values with a margin of ±0.2 in 319/343 (93%) cases. On the other hand, the false negative rate of FBGA was 8% (29/343). The PPV and NPV of FBGA for predicting postpartum acidosis were 50% and 91%, respectively. The sensitivity was 9% and the specificity was 99%. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal body mass index (odds ratio [OR] 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.17; P = .029) and cardiotocography variations (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.66-0.98; P = .029) independently affected the predictive value of

  9. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  10. Comparison of three methods for beat-to-beat-interval extraction from continuous blood pressure and electrocardiogram with respect to heart rate variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrbier, Alexander; Heringer, Rafael; Walther, Thomas; Malberg, Hagen; Wessel, Niels

    2006-07-01

    In recent years the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become a suitable method for characterizing autonomous cardiovascular regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in HRV estimated from continuous blood pressure (BP) measurement by different methods in comparison to electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The beat-to-beat intervals (BBI) were simultaneously extracted from the ECG and blood pressure of 9 cardiac patients (10 min, Colin system, 1000-Hz sampling frequency). For both data types, slope, peak, and correlation detection algorithms were applied. The short-term variability was calculated using concurrent 10-min BP and ECG segments. The root mean square errors in comparison to ECG slope detection were: 1.74 ms for ECG correlation detection; 5.42 ms for ECG peak detection; 5.45 ms for BP slope detection; 5.75 ms for BP correlation detection; and 11.96 ms for BP peak detection. Our results show that the variability obtained with ECG is the most reliable. Moreover, slope detection is superior to peak detection and slightly superior to correlation detection. In particular, for ECG signals with higher frequency characteristics, peak detection often exhibits more artificial variability. Besides measurement noise, respiratory modulation and pulse transit time play an important role in determining BBI. The slope detection method applied to ECG should be preferred, because it is more robust as regards morphological changes in the signals, as well as physiological properties. As the ECG is not recorded in most animal studies, distal pulse wave measurement in combination with correlation or slope detection may be considered an acceptable alternative.

  11. Impact of Spatial Sampling on Continuity of MODIS-VIIRS Land Surface Reflectance Products: A Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Sarkar, Sudipta; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Wolfe, Robert E.; Roman, Miguel; Vermote, Eric; Lin, Guoqing; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need to construct long-term climate-quality data records to understand, monitor, and predict climate variability and change, it is vital to continue systematic satellite measurements along with the development of new technology for more quantitative and accurate observations. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership mission provides continuity in monitoring the Earths surface and its atmosphere in a similar fashion as the heritage MODIS instruments onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Terra and Aqua satellites. In this paper, we aim at quantifying the consistency of Aqua MODIS and Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land Surface Reflectance (LSR) and NDVI products as related to their inherent spatial sampling characteristics. To avoid interferences from sources of measurement and/or processing errors other than spatial sampling, including calibration, atmospheric correction, and the effects of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function, the MODIS and VIIRSLSR products were simulated using the Landsat-8s Operational Land Imager (OLI) LSR products. The simulations were performed using the instruments point spread functions on a daily basis for various OLI scenes over a 16-day orbit cycle. It was found that the daily mean differences due to discrepancies in spatial sampling remain below 0.0015 (1) in absolute surface reflectance at subgranule scale (i.e., OLI scene size).We also found that the MODISVIIRS product intercomparisons appear to be minimally impacted when differences in the corresponding view zenith angles (VZAs) are within the range of -15deg to -35deg (VZA(sub v) - VZA(sub m)), where VIIRS and MODIS footprints resemble in size. In general, depending on the spatial heterogeneity of the OLI scene contents, per-grid-cell differences can reach up to 20.Further spatial analysis of the simulated NDVI and LSR products revealed that, depending on the user accuracy requirements for

  12. [Unsegmented continuous-flow sample processing and electrochemical detection of gaseous species]. Final report, March 1, 1985--February 28, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottola, H.A.

    1991-12-31

    Goals were a continuous-flow, unsegmented, all-gas carrier and/or a segmented liquid/gas interface system for sample introduction and transport to detection/determination point; a regenerable electrode probe base on redox reactions of Fe(II) and Fe(III) complexes with 1, 10-phenanthroline and related ligands; and amperometric/coulometric current measurements providing analyte signals. Gases to be detected included NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}. This report is divided into 3 parts: preparation of new ligands of 1,10-phenanthroline family; glassy carbon surfaces coated with polymeric films prepared from monomeric units of tris[5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline]iron(II); and sulfite oxidase/hexacyanoferrate modified C paste electrode.

  13. Quality Assessment of Platelet-Rich Fibrin-Like Matrix Prepared from Whole Blood Samples after Extended Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hideo; Isobe, Kazushige; Watanabe, Taisuke; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Nakamura, Masayuki; Suzuki, Masashi; Ryu, Jietsu; Kitamura, Yutaka; Okudera, Hajime; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Nakata, Koh; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2017-09-18

    The platelet-rich fibrin-like matrix (PRFM) is usually prepared onsite and immediately used for regenerative therapy. Nonetheless, to meet the clinical necessity of preserving the PRFM without quality deterioration, we developed a method for preparation of PRFMs from short-term-stored whole blood (WB) samples. In this study, to evaluate the practical expiration date of storage, we extended the storage time of WB samples from 2 to 7 days and assessed the quality of the resulting PRFMs. WB samples collected with acid-citrate-dextrose were stored with gentle agitation at ambient temperature. To prepare PRFMs, the stored WB samples were mixed with CaCl₂ in glass tubes and centrifuged. Fibrin fiber networks, CD41 and CD62P expression, and Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) levels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry, and an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA), respectively. Long-term storage had no significant effect on either blood cell counts or platelet functions tested. The resulting PRFMs were visually identical to freshly prepared ones. PDGF-BB levels did not markedly decrease in a time-dependent manner. However, fibrin fibers gradually became thinner after storage. Although the coagulation activity may diminish, we propose that PRFMs can be prepared-without evident loss of quality-from WB samples stored for up to 7 days by our previously developed method.

  14. Continuity, psychosocial correlates, and outcome of problematic substance use from adolescence to young adulthood in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzke Christa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of the continuity, psychosocial correlates, and prediction of problematic substance use (PSU across time from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Substance use was studied in a cohort of N = 593 subjects who had been assessed at three times between adolescence and young adulthood within the Zurich Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS. Based on the frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption, groups with PSU were defined at each of the three measurement points in time and compared to the rest of the sample. Comparisons included questionnaire data regarding emotional and behavioural problems, life events, coping style, self-related cognitions, perceived parenting style, perceived school environment, and size and efficiency of the social network. Results The size of the groups with PSU increased continuously across time. The cross-sectional correlates of PSU were characterized by a similar pattern that included higher scores for externalizing behaviour, and both number and negative impact of life events across all three times. At time 1 and 2 subjects with PSU also experienced less favourable parenting styles and school environments. Longitudinally, PSU in young adulthood was predicted most strongly and persistently by previous risk status, externalizing problems and male gender. Conclusion Problematic substance use is a major problem in youth. Its contributing pattern of associated and predictive psychosocial variables can be identified in the community.

  15. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    Full Text Available Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8% had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005, lower age (p < 0.001, attending a local derby (p < 0.001, alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001, attending a weekend match (p < 0.001, and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001. About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  16. Frequency of enterovirus detection in blood samples of neonates admitted to hospital with sepsis-like illness in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Suhail; Dalwai, Ajmal; Al-Nakib, Widad

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the role of enteroviruses in sepsis-like illness among neonates in Kuwait. Serum samples from 139 consecutive neonates presenting with sepsis-like illness during a three and a half-year-period whose blood cultures were negative for bacterial pathogens were tested. Enterovirus RNA was detected by single-step reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Specific genotypes were identified by direct DNA sequencing of enteroviral genome. Serotype-specific antibodies in serum samples from some selected patients were detected by virus neutralization test using coxsackievirus B types (CBVs). All 139 neonates presented with sepsis-like illness and blood samples were uniformly negative for aerobic/anaerobic bacterial cultures. Fifty-six (40%) neonates had further complications of sepsis including carditis (n = 34) and multi-organ involvement (n = 22). Enterovirus RNA was detected by RT-PCR in 34 of 139 (24%) serum samples which is among the highest frequency reported so far in non-epidemic settings. Genotyping identified CBVs as most common enteroviruses, causing 19 of 34 (56%) enteroviral sepsis episodes in neonates. Of 34 carditis cases, 18 were positive for CBVs by serotyping including all 10 enterovirus RNA-positive samples. Only one fatality was observed due to liver failure in a neonate with hepatitis. Our data showed that enteroviruses are responsible for 24% of neonatal sepsis cases due to non-bacterial causes in Kuwait. The data indicate that enteroviruses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sepsis-like illness among neonates, particularly those with negative blood cultures for bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Validation of deuterium and oxygen18 in urine and saliva samples from children using on-line continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schierbeek, H.; Rieken, R.; Dorst, K. Y.; Penning, C.; van Goudoever, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    The doubly labelled water method is valuable for measuring energy expenditure in humans. It usually involves blood or urine sampling, which might be difficult in neonates and children with cerebral palsy or other disabilities. We therefore aimed to validate a method making use of saliva samples

  18. The regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the ischaemic forefoot during 24 hours. Studies using the 133-xenon wash-out technique continuously over 24 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1988-01-01

    A method for continuous measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours (SBF) is described. The method is based on the radioisotope wash-out principle using 133-Xenon. A portable semiconductor detector is placed just above a local depot of 1-2 microCi 133-Xen...

  19. Twenty four hour continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring: a novel approach to the evaluation of treatment in patients with autonomic failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omboni, S.; Smit, A. A.; Wieling, W.

    1995-01-01

    Occasional sphygmomanometric readings are not an effective way of evaluating the effect of treatment in patients with hypoadrenergic orthostatic hypotension. A novel non-invasive portable device (Portapres) was used to monitor 24 hour continuous finger blood pressure before and during chronic volume

  20. A modified device for continuous non-invasive blood pressure measurements in humans under hyperbaric and/or oxygen-enriched conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bel, René; Sliggers, Bart C.; van Houwelingen, Marc J.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Halliwill, John R.; van Hulst, Robert A.; Krediet, C. T. Paul

    2016-01-01

    It would be desirable to safely and continuously measure blood pressure noninvasively under hyperbaric and/or hyperoxic conditions, in order to explore haemodynamic responses in humans under these conditions. A systematic analysis according to 'failure mode and effects analysis' principles of a

  1. Computer simulation on a continuous moving chelation boundary in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-based sample sweeping in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jie; Shao, Jing; Li, Si; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2009-06-12

    This paper introduces a mathematic mode of moving chelation boundary (MCB) for computer simulation of a continuous EDTA-based sample sweeping in capillary electrophoresis (CE). Besides the equations of MCB used herein, the mode also includes electro-neutrality equation, constant current density, jump boundary condition of MCB, Kohlrausch' regulating function expressed in MCB formulation, product of water, ionic apparent mobility, ionic strength and conductivity of electrolyte as well as simple equilibrium reaction, etc. The simulation software is developed based on the mode. With the software the relevant simulation is carried out, and the corresponding experiments on a MCB are performed. The results on the simulation and experiments demonstrate that (1) the software can simulate a dynamic process, characteristic peak shape and relevant electrophoregram of a MCB; (2) the simulator can quantitatively compute velocities of MCB and complex boundary (CB), all of ionic concentrations (especially the concentration of complex) and sweeping efficiency; (3) these simulation results mentioned above are generally in accordance with the experiments. The simulation software holds evident significances for the study on a MCB and conditional optimization in such an EDTA-based sample sweeping of metal ion in CE.

  2. Continuous collection and simultaneous detection of picoliter volume of nucleic acid samples using a mille-feuille probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidenori; Tanaka, Motoki; Zhou, Yuanshu; Nashimoto, Yuji; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Ino, Kosuke; Matsue, Tomokazu; Shiku, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    Investigation of the positional heterogeneity of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in tissues requires a technology that facilitates analysis of mRNA expression in the selected single cells. We developed a mille-feuille probe (MP) that allows the lamination of the aqueous and organic phases in a nanopipette under voltage control. The MP was used for continuous collection of different nucleic acid samples and sequential evaluation of gene expression with mRNA barcoding tags. First, we found that the aqueous phases could be laminated into five individual layers and separated by the plugs of the organic phases in a nanopipette when the salt (THATPBCl) concentration in the organic phase was 100 mM. Second, the aspiration rate of the MP was stabilized and the velocity of the aqueous phase in the MP was lowered at higher THATPBCl concentrations in the organic phase. This was because the force during ingression of the aqueous phase into the organic - phase-filled nanopipette induced an electro-osmotic flow between the inside wall of the nanopipette and THATPBCl in the organic phase. Third, inclusion of mRNA barcoding tags in the MP facilitated complementary DNA construction and sequential analysis of gene expression. This technique has potential to be applicable to RNA sequencing from different cell samples across the life sciences. Graphical abstract We developed a mille-feuille probe (MP) that allows the lamination of the aqueous and organic phases in a nanopipette under voltage control.

  3. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  4. How Long can we Store Blood Samples: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-wen Wu

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Specimens stored >12 h. for CMP may generate unreliable results. For CBC, samples could reliably be stored for 24 h. For longer storage, refrigeration (at 4 °C would be a better choice.

  5. Differences between the genomes of lymphoblastoid cell lines and blood-derived samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joesch-Cohen LM

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lena M Joesch-Cohen, Gustavo Glusman Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs represent a convenient research tool for expanding the amount of biologic material available from an individual. LCLs are commonly used as reference materials, most notably from the Genome in a Bottle Consortium. However, the question remains how faithfully LCL-derived genome assemblies represent the germline genome of the donor individual as compared to the genome assemblies derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We present an in-depth comparison of a large collection of LCL- and peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived genomes in terms of distributions of coverage and copy number alterations. We found significant differences in the depth of coverage and copy number calls, which may be driven by differential replication timing. Importantly, these copy number changes preferentially affect regions closer to genes and with higher GC content. This suggests that genomic studies based on LCLs may display locus-specific biases, and that conclusions based on analysis of depth of coverage and copy number variation may require further scrutiny. Keywords: genomics, whole-genome sequencing, viral transformation, copy number changes, bioinformatics

  6. Egg sampling as a possible alternative to blood sampling when monitoring the exposure of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) to avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Abdessalem; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Boulinier, Thierry; Selmi, Slaheddine

    2014-01-01

    We explored whether antibody detection in egg yolks could serve as an alternative to antibody detection in plasma samples when monitoring yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) for exposure to avian influenza viruses (AIVs). We tested female plasma and eggs for anti-AIV antibodies and used the data we obtained to check whether the two sample types yielded the same antibody status (positive or negative) and to compare the antibody prevalence estimated from the blood data with that estimated from the yolk data. Our results showed that sampling one egg per clutch, regardless of that egg's position in the laying sequence, is sufficient to provide an unbiased estimate of antibody prevalence across clutches. The results also showed that almost 25% of the clutches laid by positive females contained only antibody-negative eggs, which suggests that yolk samples might underestimate female antibody prevalence. However, this result may stem from differences in the methods used to assess plasma versus yolk antibody status. Further research is needed to clarify this issue; while the number of false negatives could be reduced by adapting antibody detection techniques, it may be that they are an unavoidable consequence of natural avian maternal transfer dynamics.

  7. Broad band spectral analysis of 24 h continuous finger blood pressure: Comparison with intra-arterial recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglioni, P.; Parati, G.; Omboni, S.; Mancia, G.; Imholz, B.P.M.; Wesseling, K.H.; Rienzo, M. di

    1999-01-01

    The present study compares the spectral characteristics of 24-h blood pressure variability estimated invasively at the brachial artery level with those estimated by measurement of blood pressure at the finger artery using the non-invasive Portapres device. Broad-band spectra (from 3 x

  8. Serum cadmium levels in a sample of blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil, 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ricardo Maia da Costa de Faro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the distribution of serum cadmium (Cd levels in blood donors in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 922 volunteer blood donors from 18 to 65 years of age at the Hemoacre blood center in 2010-2011. Mean serum Cd was 0.37µg/L (95%CI: 0.33-0.41. Increased serum Cd was associated with lower schooling; individuals with less than five years of schooling showed a mean Cd of 0.61µg/L (95%CI: 0.34-0.89, compared to 0.34µg/L (95%CI: 0.28-0.40 among those with more than nine years of schooling. Mean serum Cd was three times higher among smokers. Smoking showed a positive association with Cd level, with an OR of 12.36 (95%CI: 7.70-19.84. Meanwhile, serum Cd was lower among individuals that regularly drank tea, as compared to non-tea drinkers. Serum Cd levels were mostly below the reference value (88.3% of participants. Mean serum Cd in the current study indicates that in general the population studied here is not exposed to worrisome Cd levels.

  9. Serum cadmium levels in a sample of blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, André Ricardo Maia da Costa de; Pinto, Wagner de Jesus; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Barbosa Jr, Fernando; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Fujimoto, Denys Eiti; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sérgio

    2014-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the distribution of serum cadmium (Cd) levels in blood donors in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 922 volunteer blood donors from 18 to 65 years of age at the Hemoacre blood center in 2010-2011. Mean serum Cd was 0.37µg/L (95%CI: 0.33-0.41). Increased serum Cd was associated with lower schooling; individuals with less than five years of schooling showed a mean Cd of 0.61µg/L (95%CI: 0.34-0.89), compared to 0.34µg/L (95%CI: 0.28-0.40) among those with more than nine years of schooling. Mean serum Cd was three times higher among smokers. Smoking showed a positive association with Cd level, with an OR of 12.36 (95%CI: 7.70-19.84). Meanwhile, serum Cd was lower among individuals that regularly drank tea, as compared to non-tea drinkers. Serum Cd levels were mostly below the reference value (88.3% of participants). Mean serum Cd in the current study indicates that in general the population studied here is not exposed to worrisome Cd levels.

  10. Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells from blood samples collected from the jugular and cephalic veins of healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley N; Seeto, Wen J; Winter, Randolph L; Zhong, Qiao; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry. RESULTS Colonies with cobblestone morphology were isolated from 15 of 17 horses. Blood collected from the cephalic vein yielded colonies significantly more often (14/17 horses) than did blood collected from the jugular vein (8/17 horses). Of 14 cephalic blood samples with colonies, 13 were obtained with DGC and 8 with WBA. Of 8 jugular blood samples with colonies, 8 were obtained with DGC and 4 with WBA. Colony frequency (colonies per milliliter of blood) was significantly higher for cephalic blood samples and samples isolated with DGC. Cells formed vascular tubules, had uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, and expressed endothelial markers by use of IFA and flow cytometry, which confirmed their identity as ECFCs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum yield of ECFCs was obtained for blood samples collected from both the jugular and cephalic veins and use of DGC to isolate cells. Consistent yield of ECFCs from peripheral blood of horses will enable studies to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

  11. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Tipple

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum, is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene and RNA (16S rRNA quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53. The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84. From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56 after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  12. Dairy cows with metritis: Coxiella burnetii test results in uterine, blood and bulk milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskens, J; van Maanen, C; Mars, M H

    2011-01-10

    In cattle, Coxiella burnetii infections are generally asymptomatic but can also be associated with reproductive disorders. Metritis is considered as one of the symptoms of C. burnetii infections, but reliable information is lacking. Therefore, information on the presence of C. burnetii in the uterine content of cows with metritis is important to increase our knowledge on this pathogen. In this study, the uterine content of 45 dairy cows with metritis belonging to 12 herds was tested for C. burnetii with a real-time PCR assay. Only one uterine sample tested PCR (highly) positive, all other samples were PCR negative. The PCR positive cow tested also positive for antibodies. Three other cows from other herds tested antibody positive. The bulk milk (BM) samples of these 12 herds were tested by real-time PCR assay and antibody-ELISA. Six BM samples (50%) were positive in PCR and 10 (83%) were positive in ELISA. Culturing the uterus samples by bacteriology, the most frequently cultured bacteria were arcanobacterium (n=24), E. coli (n=16), other streptococci (n=10), Streptococcus uberis (n=8) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=5). This study indicates that C. burnetii is not an important cause for metritis in dairy herds, although apparently C. burnetii was or had been present in most of these herds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microdialysis combined blood sampling technique for the determination of rosiglitazone and glucose in brain and blood of gerbils subjected to cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Wayne H-H; Chuang, Hsiu-Chun; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Lee, Maw-Rong; Chou, Chi-Chi; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2011-03-25

    Rosiglitazone is a potent synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist which improves glucose control in the plasma and reduces ischemic brain injury. However, the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone in the brain is still unclear. In this study, a method using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with microdialysis and an auto-blood sampling system was developed to determine rosiglitazone and glucose concentration in the brain and blood of gerbils subjected to treatment with rosiglitazone (3.0 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The results showed the limit of detection was 0.04 μg L(-1) and the correlation coefficient was 0.9997 for the determination of rosiglitazone in the brain. The mean parameters, maximum drug concentration (C(max)) and the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC(inf)), following rosiglitazone administration were 1.06±0.28 μg L(-1) and 296.82±44.67 μg min L(-1), respectively. The time to peak concentration (C(max) or T(max)) of rosiglitazone occurred at 105±17.10 min, and the mean elimination half-life (t(1/2)) from brain was 190.81±85.18 min after administration of rosiglitazone. The brain glucose levels decreased to 71% of the basal levels in the rosiglitazone-treated group when compared with those in the control (pglucose levels to 80% at 1h after pretreatment of rosiglitazone (pdetermination of rosiglitazone and glucose concentrations in brain and plasma. Rosiglitazone was effective at penetrating the blood-brain barrier as evidenced by the rapid appearance of rosiglitazone in the brain, and rosiglitazone may contribute to a reduction in the extent of injuries related to cerebral ischemic stroke via its hypoglycemic effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular diagnosis of Salmonella typhi and its virulence in suspected typhoid blood samples through nested multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabagaran, Solai Ramatchandirane; Kalaiselvi, Vellingiri; Chandramouleeswaran, Naganathan; Deepthi, Krishnan Nair Geetha; Brahmadathan, Kootallur Narayanan; Mani, Mariappa

    2017-08-01

    A nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis was developed for the detection of virulent Salmonella typhi in the blood specimens from patients suspected for typhoid fever. After the Widal test, two pairs of primers were used for the detection of flagellin gene (fliC) of S. typhi. Among them, those positive for fliC alone were subjected to identification of genes in Via B operon of Salmonella Pathogenesity Island (SPI-7) where four primer pairs were used to detect tviA and tviB genes. Among 250 blood samples tested, 115 were positive by fliC PCR; 22 of these were negative for tviA and tviB. Hence, the method described here can be used to diagnose the incidence of Vi-negative serovar typhi especially in endemic regions where the Vi vaccine is administered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic review of trials of the effect of continued use of oral non-selective NSAIDs on blood pressure and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Alan; Ramey, Dena Rosen; van Adelsberg, Janet; Watson, Douglas J

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the effects of continued use of non-selective NSAIDs (nsNSAIDs) on blood pressure and hypertension. This was a systematic review of randomized clinical trials of oral nsNSAIDs used for at least a 4-week duration. Searches were conducted of PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, using key terms for nsNSAIDs and blood pressure or hypertension, to identify articles published in the English language peer-reviewed literature through March 2007. Change from baseline to end of study in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the incidence of hypertension. Pooled statistics were computed using fixed and random-effects analyses. Thirty-two articles were included. The mean change (95% confidence interval [CI]) in blood pressure (in mmHg) from baseline to end of study for five trials of ibuprofen was 3.54 (2.70, 4.39) for SBP and 1.16 (0.68, 1.64) for DBP (p pressure and raises the incidence of hypertension. There appears to be heterogeneity in such effects with continued use of other nsNSAIDs but, due to limitations in the data, results for naproxen, sulindac, and nabumetone are inconclusive.

  16. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 and concentration of vitamin B6 in blood samples of German vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, A; Dörr, B; Koschizke, J W; Leitzmann, C; Hahn, A

    2006-09-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the dietary vitamin B6 intake and determine the vitamin B6 concentration in blood samples of German vegans. Cross-sectional study with 33 examination sites all over Germany. Subjects Ninety-three vegans (50 females) with a mean (+/- standard deviation (SD)) age of 43.7 +/- 15.7 years who took no vitamin supplements. Dietary intake was assed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase activity coefficient (EAST-AC) was calculated as the ratio of stimulated (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate added) to unstimulated activity in blood samples that were provided after an overnight fast. Mean +/- SD vitamin B6 intake was 2.83 +/- 0.98 mg day(-1) and mean +/- SD protein intake was 56.6 +/- 21.7 g day(-1). Of the participants 4% showed vitamin B6 intakes lower than daily recommended intakes for Germany, 16% showed EAST-AC > 1.85, and a further 58% showed EAST-AC of 1.5-1-85. Moderate vegans were affected to a lesser extent than strict vegans. None of the established confounders was a significant predictor of EAST-AC. In logistic regression analyses the contribution of nutriments and cereals to pyridoxine intake was the only predictor of EAST-AC classified as 1.85, respectively. In spite of the high total intake of vitamin B6, an adequate concentration in blood samples could not be realised for a majority of the participants. Due to the health implications of a marginal pyridoxine status, vegans should be encouraged to include foods with a high bioavailability of pyridoxine, such as beans, lentils and bananas, in the daily diet.

  17. Carbon dioxide generated from carbonates and acids for sampling blood-feeding arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Blosser, Erik M; Young, Ryan M; Toé, Laurent D; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2015-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is utilized to attract mosquitoes and other blood-feeding arthropods to traps around the world. Commercial forms of CO2 (e.g., dry ice and compressed gas) are often unavailable or extremely expensive in developing nations, where vector surveillance is essential to make life-saving decisions. We developed and tested inexpensive and reproducible methods of CO2 production from the combination of acids and carbonates, ranging from very basic (crushed seashells and vinegar) to relatively elaborate (a device that controls the timing of the acid-carbonate reaction and extends the reaction over several hours). When utilized with mosquito traps in Florida, USA and black fly traps in Region des Cascades, Burkina Faso, these carbonate-acid CO2 sources attracted significantly greater numbers of both vector groups, than did unbaited traps. CO2 was generated for more than four hours at levels sufficient to attract vectors over the entire period. The utility of this simple methodology in developing nations should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Noise contamination from PET blood sampling pump: Effects on structural MRI image quality in simultaneous PET/MR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Elizabeth; DeLorenzo, Christine; Parsey, Ramin; Huang, Chuan

    2018-02-01

    To fully quantify PET imaging outcome measures, a blood sampling pump is often used during the PET acquisition. With simultaneous PET/MR studies, a structural magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MP-RAGE) may also be acquired while the pump is generating electromagnetic noise. This study investigated whether this noise contamination would be detrimental to the quantification of volume and cortical thickness measures obtained from automated segmentation of the MP-RAGE image. MP-RAGE T1w structural images were acquired for a phantom and 10 healthy volunteers (five female, 27.2 ± 5.1 y old) with the blood sampling pump and without. The white matter signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was computed for all images. Region-wise cortical thickness and volume were extracted with Freesurfer 5.3.0. The phantom SNR and the white matter human subject SNR was degraded in the MP-RAGE images acquired with the pump (P = 0.005; white matter SNR: 43.9 and 50.8 with the pump and without). Intrasession, region-wise volume and cortical thickness estimates were significantly overestimated with the pump (percent difference: 1.14 ± 2.67% for volume (P = 0.0003) and 0.34 ± 1.59% (P = 0.02) for cortical thickness). Regions with percent differences greater than 5% between pump conditions were those close to tissue-air interfaces: entorhinal, frontal pole, parsorbitalis, temporal pole, and medial orbitofrontal. Synthetically adding Gaussian noise to the without pump MP-RAGE images yielded similar, significant detriments to cortical morphometry compared to without the pump. This study provides evidence that the use of PET blood sampling pumps may generate unstructured, Gaussian-distributed noise in MP-RAGE images that significantly alters the accuracy of Freesurfer-derived volume and cortical thickness estimates. While many cortical regions showed a percent difference of less than 1% with the pump, regions close to tissue-air interfaces, subject to larger susceptibility artifacts

  19. Successful Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Blood Samples Held at Room Temperature for up to 48 hr

    OpenAIRE

    Agu, Chukwuma A.; Soares, Filipa A.C.; Alderton, Alex; Patel, Minal; Ansari, Rizwan; Patel, Sharad; Forrest, Sally; Yang, Fengtang; Lineham, Jonathan; Vallier, Ludovic; Kirton, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The collection sites of human primary tissue samples and the receiving laboratories, where the human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) are derived, are often not on the same site. Thus, the stability of samples prior to derivation constrains the distance between the collection site and the receiving laboratory. To investigate sample stability, we collected blood and held it at room temperature for 5, 24, or 48?hr before isolating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and re...

  20. A pilot study of chromosomal aberrations and epigenetic changes in peripheral blood samples to identify patients with melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakub, James W; Grotz, Travis E; Jordan, Philip; Hunter, Ewan; Pittelkow, Mark; Ramadass, Aroul; Akoulitchev, Alexandre; Markovic, Svetomir

    2015-10-01

    Prognosis is markedly improved when melanoma is diagnosed early. Improved methods are needed for earlier detection and screening. We hypothesized that epigenetic analysis of blood samples could discriminate patients with melanoma from patients with other cutaneous lesions and from healthy volunteers. After institutional review board approval and consent, whole blood was obtained from 59 patients with melanoma, 20 patients with other skin cancers, 20 patients with benign skin conditions, and 20 healthy volunteers. Fifteen conformation biomarkers from five gene loci were analyzed on chromatin with the EpiSwitch technology using a modified chromatin conformation capture assay. Differentiation between patients with melanoma and those with nonmelanoma skin cancers was correct 85% of the time, resulting in a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 82%. Differentiation of patients with melanoma from healthy controls was correct 80% of the time, resulting in a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 75%. The noninvasive test was more accurate in early-stage melanoma (1/10 and 1/16 stage I and stage II patients were misclassified, respectively) and became less accurate with more advanced disease (3/14 and 4/19 stage III and IV patients were misclassified, respectively). We report the results of a noninvasive test using chromosomal aberrations and epigenetic changes identified in peripheral blood that, in this pilot study, distinguished patients with early-stage melanoma from other cohorts.

  1. A modified RNA-Seq approach for whole genome sequencing of RNA viruses from faecal and blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Batty

    Full Text Available To date, very large scale sequencing of many clinically important RNA viruses has been complicated by their high population molecular variation, which creates challenges for polymerase chain reaction and sequencing primer design. Many RNA viruses are also difficult or currently not possible to culture, severely limiting the amount and purity of available starting material. Here, we describe a simple, novel, high-throughput approach to Norovirus and Hepatitis C virus whole genome sequence determination based on RNA shotgun sequencing (also known as RNA-Seq. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method by sequencing three Norovirus samples from faeces and two Hepatitis C virus samples from blood, on an Illumina MiSeq benchtop sequencer. More than 97% of reference genomes were recovered. Compared with Sanger sequencing, our method had no nucleotide differences in 14,019 nucleotides (nt for Noroviruses (from a total of 2 Norovirus genomes obtained with Sanger sequencing, and 8 variants in 9,542 nt for Hepatitis C virus (1 variant per 1,193 nt. The three Norovirus samples had 2, 3, and 2 distinct positions called as heterozygous, while the two Hepatitis C virus samples had 117 and 131 positions called as heterozygous. To confirm that our sample and library preparation could be scaled to true high-throughput, we prepared and sequenced an additional 77 Norovirus samples in a single batch on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer, recovering >90% of the reference genome in all but one sample. No discrepancies were observed across 118,757 nt compared between Sanger and our custom RNA-Seq method in 16 samples. By generating viral genomic sequences that are not biased by primer-specific amplification or enrichment, this method offers the prospect of large-scale, affordable studies of RNA viruses which could be adapted to routine diagnostic laboratory workflows in the near future, with the potential to directly characterize within-host viral diversity.

  2. Serological Status of Rubella Virus in Cord Blood Samples of Newborn in Hospitals Affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Monavari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rubella is a disease caused by the rubella virus and is usually mild and self-limiting. Infection of a developing fetus is serious and important because the child may be born with congenital rubella syndrome. Its symptoms include mental retardation, heart defects, cataract, etc. In 2003, mass vaccination against measles and rubella in individuals 5-25 years old was done. One of the main objectives of this study was to survey congenital rubella infection status with the presence of IgM antibodies against rubella virus in cord blood samples and also the immunity assessment of maternal IgG antibodies against rubella virus in the samples.Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study 358 cord blood samples were collected in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2008-2009. The collected samples were analyzed by two ELISA methods for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies and RT-nested PCR tests on samples of IgG–negative and IgM-positive. In this study two groups of mothers were tested, one consisted of the ones29 with the frequency of 29.1%.Results: The mean age of subjects was 22.6 years old. Out of 358 samples, 326 (91.1% were IgG positive, and 10 (2.8% were IgM positive against rubella virus. All of the samples with negative result for IgG antibody, and positive result for IgM antibody against rubella virus were tested for the presence of rubella genome with RT-nested PCR method. None of these samples were positive according to the presence of the virus genome.Conclusion: According to the high immunity of mothers, the probability of congenital rubella transmission is low, but because of low immunity of mothers being >29 years old, it is highly reccommended to upgrade the age of vaccination to 28.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:16-21

  3. International Study to Evaluate PCR Methods for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijman, Alejandro G.; Bisio, Margarita; Orellana, Liliana; Sued, Mariela; Duffy, Tomás; Mejia Jaramillo, Ana M.; Cura, Carolina; Auter, Frederic; Veron, Vincent; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Hijar, Gisely; Zulantay, Inés; Lucero, Raúl Horacio; Velazquez, Elsa; Tellez, Tatiana; Sanchez Leon, Zunilda; Galvão, Lucia; Nolder, Debbie; Monje Rumi, María; Levi, José E.; Ramirez, Juan D.; Zorrilla, Pilar; Flores, María; Jercic, Maria I.; Crisante, Gladys; Añez, Néstor; De Castro, Ana M.; Gonzalez, Clara I.; Acosta Viana, Karla; Yachelini, Pedro; Torrico, Faustino; Robello, Carlos; Diosque, Patricio; Triana Chavez, Omar; Aznar, Christine; Russomando, Graciela; Büscher, Philippe; Assal, Azzedine; Guhl, Felipe; Sosa Estani, Sergio; DaSilva, Alexandre; Britto, Constança; Luquetti, Alejandro; Ladzins, Janis

    2011-01-01

    Background A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. Methodology/Findings An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) I, IV and VI (set A), human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B) and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C). Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA), 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA) and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05–0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10−3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood). The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3–94.4%, specificity of 85–95

  4. International study to evaluate PCR methods for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from Chagas disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro G Schijman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU I, IV and VI (set A, human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C. Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA, 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05-0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10(-3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood. The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3-94.4%, specificity of 85

  5. False data, positive results in neurobiology: moving beyond the epigenetics of blood and saliva samples in mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariaga-Martinez, A; Alelú-Paz, R

    2016-12-12

    Many psychiatric diseases are influenced by a set of several genetic and environmental factors that genetics alone cannot explain. Specifically, in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder the absence of consistently replicated genetic effects together with evidence for lasting changes in gene expression after environmental exposures suggest a role of epigenetic mechanisms in its pathophysiological mechanisms. In this field, the presence of positive results could potentially uncover molecular mechanisms of deregulated gene expression in these complex disorders. In this commentary we have reviewed the positive data obtained over the last 5 years from the scientific literature published in PubMed and we have shown that these results are based on peripheral samples (blood, saliva and other fluids) that do not allow us to obtain reliable and/or valid results, under any circumstances. Finally, we highlight the need to employ human brain samples in the epigenetic study of mental disorders.

  6. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in blood and splenic samples from dogs with splenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movilla, Rebeca; Altet, Laura; Serrano, Lorena; Tabar, María-Dolores; Roura, Xavier

    2017-03-13

    The spleen is a highly perfused organ involved in the immunological control and elimination of vector-borne pathogens (VBP), which could have a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of splenic disease. This study aimed to evaluate certain VBP in samples from dogs with splenic lesions. Seventy-seven EDTA-blood and 64 splenic tissue samples were collected from 78 dogs with splenic disease in a Mediterranean area. Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. were targeted using PCR assays. Sixty EDTA-blood samples from dogs without evidence of splenic lesions were included as a control group. More than half (51.56%) of the biopsies (33/64) were consistent with benign lesions and 48.43% (31/64) with malignancy, mostly hemangiosarcoma (25/31). PCR yielded positive results in 13 dogs with spleen alterations (16.67%), for Babesia canis (n = 3), Babesia gibsoni (n = 2), hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (n = 2), Rickettsia massiliae (n = 1) and "Babesia vulpes" (n = 1), in blood; and for B. canis, B. gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and L. infantum (n = 1 each), in spleen. Two control dogs (3.3%) were positive for B. gibsoni and H. canis (n = 1 each). Benign lesions were detected in the 61.54% of infected dogs (8/13); the remaining 38.46% were diagnosed with malignancies (5/13). Infection was significantly associated to the presence of splenic disease (P = 0.013). There was no difference in the prevalence of infection between dogs with benign and malignant splenic lesions (P = 0.69); however B. canis was more prevalent in dogs with hemangiosarcoma (P = 0.006). VBP infection could be involved in the pathogenesis of splenic disease. The immunological role of the spleen could predispose to alterations of this organ in infected dogs. Interestingly, all dogs with B. canis infection were diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma in the present survey. As previously

  7. MicroRNA profiling of dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder using blood and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael S; Zwingenberger, Allison; Westropp, Jodi L; Barrett, Laura E; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Ghosh, Paramita; Vinall, Ruth L

    2017-11-15

    Early signs of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are frequently assumed to be caused by other lower urinary tract diseases (LUTD) such as urinary tract infections, resulting in late diagnosis of TCC which could be fatal. The development of a non-invasive clinical test for TCC could dramatically reduce mortality. To determine whether microRNAs (miRNAs) can be used as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers, we assessed miRNA expression in blood and/or urine from dogs with clinically normal bladders (n = 28), LUTD (n = 25), and TCC (n = 17). Expression levels of 5 miRNA associated with TCC pathophysiology (miR-34a, let-7c, miR-16, miR-103b, and miR-106b) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Statistical analyses using ranked ANOVA identified significant differences in miR-103b and miR-16 levels between urine samples from LUTD and TCC patients (miR-103b, p = 0.002; and miR-16, p = 0.016). No statistically significant differences in miRNA levels were observed between blood samples from LUTD versus TCC patients. Expression levels of miR-34a trended with miR-16, let-7c, and miR-103b levels in individual normal urine samples, however, this coordination was completely lost in TCC urine samples. In contrast, co-ordination of miR-34a, miR-16, let-7c, and miR-103b expression levels was maintained in blood samples from TCC patients. Our combined data indicate a potential role for miR-103b and miR-16 as diagnostic urine biomarkers for TCC, and that further investigation of miR-103b and miR-16 in the dysregulation of coordinated miRNA expression in bladder carcinogenesis is warranted.

  8. Continuous non-invasive monitoring of blood pressure in the operating room: a cuffless optical technology at the fingertip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solà Josep

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Routine monitoring of blood pressure during general anaesthesia relies on intermittent measurements with a non-invasive brachial cuff every five minutes. This manuscript provides first experimental evidence that a physiology-based pulse wave analysis algorithm applied to optical data (as provided by a standard fingertip pulse oximeter is capable of accurately estimating blood pressure changes in-between cuff readings. Combined with the routine use of oscillometric cuffs, the presented novel approach is a candidate technology to increase patient safety by providing beat-to-beat hemodynamic measurements without the need of invasive monitoring procedures.

  9. Patient-Specific Method of Generating Parametric Maps of Patlak Ki without Blood Sampling or Metabolite Correction: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Sayre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, kinetic analyses using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET experience very limited use despite their potential for improving quantitative accuracy in several clinical and research applications. For targeted volume applications, such as radiation treatment planning, treatment monitoring, and cerebral metabolic studies, the key to implementation of these methods is the determination of an arterial input function, which can include time-consuming analysis of blood samples for metabolite correction. Targeted kinetic applications would become practical for the clinic if blood sampling and metabolite correction could be avoided. To this end, we developed a novel method (Patlak-P of generating parametric maps that is identical to Patlak Ki (within a global scalar multiple but does not require the determination of the arterial input function or metabolite correction. In this initial study, we show that Patlak-P (a mimics Patlak Ki images in terms of visual assessment and target-to-background (TB ratios of regions of elevated uptake, (b has higher visual contrast and (generally better image quality than SUV, and (c may have an important role in improving radiotherapy planning, therapy monitoring, and neurometabolism studies.

  10. Optimization of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kirstein, Oscar D; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon

    2016-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), one of the most important neglected tropical diseases, is caused by Leishmania donovani eukaryotic protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, the disease is prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, East Africa and Brazil. VL can be diagnosed by PCR amplifying ITS1 and/or kDNA genes. The current study involved the optimization of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood or tissue samples. Three LAMP systems were developed; in two of those the primers were designed based on shared regions of the ITS1 gene among different Leishmania species, while the primers for the third LAMP system were derived from a newly identified repeated region in the Leishmania genome. The LAMP tests were shown to be sufficiently sensitive to detect 0.1pg of DNA from most Leishmania species. The green nucleic acid stain SYTO16, was used here for the first time to allow real-time monitoring of LAMP amplification. The advantage of real time-LAMP using SYTO 16 over end-point LAMP product detection is discussed. The efficacy of the real time-LAMP tests for detecting Leishmania DNA in dried blood samples from volunteers living in endemic areas, was compared with that of qRT-kDNA PCR. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sources of pre-analytical variations in yield of DNA extracted from blood samples: analysis of 50,000 DNA samples in EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88% performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies.

  12. Analysis of the variable factors influencing tacrolimus blood concentration during the switch from continuous intravenous infusion to oral administration after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Kimitaka; Ikesue, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Yamamoto-Taguchi, Nanae; Tsuchiya, Yuichi; Matsukawa, Kumi; Uchida, Mayako; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Akashi, Koichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to identify variable factors affecting tacrolimus blood concentration during the switch from continuous intravenous infusion to twice-daily oral administration in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (n = 73). The blood concentration/dose ratio of tacrolimus immediately before the change from continuous infusion (C/Div) was compared with that between 3 and 5 days after the change to oral administration (C/Dpo). Median (C/Dpo)/(C/Div) was 0.21 (range 0.04-0.58). Multiple regression analysis showed that concomitant use of oral itraconazole or voriconazole significantly increased the (C/Dpo)/(C/Div) of tacrolimus (p = 0.002), probably owing to the inhibition of enterohepatic cytochrome P450 3A4. In addition, 5 of 18 (28%) patients who had the lowest quartile (C/Dpo)/(C/Div) values developed acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), which was significantly higher than in others [5 of 55 (9%) patients, p = 0.045]. Although the switch from intravenous to oral administration at a ratio of 1:5 appeared to be appropriate, a lower conversion ratio was suitable in patients taking oral itraconazole or voriconazole. In patients whose blood concentration decreases after the switch, the development of GVHD should be monitored and tacrolimus dosage should be readjusted to maintain an appropriate blood concentration.

  13. A modified device for continuous non-invasive blood pressure measurements in humans under hyperbaric and/or oxygen-enriched conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bel, René; Sliggers, Bart C; van Houwelingen, Marc J; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Halliwill, John R; van Hulst, Robert A; Krediet, C T Paul

    2016-03-01

    It would be desirable to safely and continuously measure blood pressure noninvasively under hyperbaric and/or hyperoxic conditions, in order to explore haemodynamic responses in humans under these conditions. A systematic analysis according to 'failure mode and effects analysis' principles of a commercially available beat-by-beat non-invasive blood pressure monitoring device was performed using specifications provided by the manufacturer. Possible failure modes related to pressure resistance and fire hazard in hyperbaric and oxygen-enriched environments were identified and the device modified accordingly to mitigate these risks. The modified device was compared to an unaltered device in five healthy volunteers under normobaric conditions. Measurements were then performed under hyperbaric conditions (243 kPa) in five healthy subjects. Modifications required included: 1) replacement of the carbon brush motorized pump by pressurized air connected through a balanced pressure valve; 2) modification of the 12V power supply connection in the multiplace hyperbaric chamber, and 3) replacement of gas-filled electrolytic capacitors by solid equivalents. There was concurrence between measurements under normobaric conditions, with no significant differences in blood pressure. Measurements under pressure were achieved without problems and matched intermittent measurement of brachial arterial pressure. The modified system provides safe, stable, continuous non-invasive blood pressure trends under both normobaric and hyperbaric conditions.

  14. Evaluation of a method for determination of the subcutaneous blood flow in the forefoot continuously over 24 h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J

    1984-01-01

    close to the tracer depot the washout rates registered are a mixture of rate constants due to tracer removal by blood flow and diffusion of the tracer depot away from the detector. Rate constants only due to diffusion were obtained over 24 h from amputated feet and similarly from normal feet...

  15. Diagnostic Efficacy of Molecular Techniques for Detection and Identification of Leishmania Species in Human Whole Blood and Skin Samples from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Erika B; Santander, Stephanie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Cardenas, Paul A; Fornasini, Marco; Cifuentes, Sara C; Salvador, Daniela; Baldeón, Manuel E

    2016-10-05

    Microscopic examination is the standard method for diagnosis of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis despite its low sensitivity. This study compared the diagnosis efficacy of microscopic examination versus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and DNA sequencing using whole blood and skin lesion samples from patients with suspected leishmaniasis. The presence of Leishmania was determined by microscopy and amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA gene from blood and skin samples of 22 patients. Twenty individuals were positive for leishmaniasis. Microscopic analysis identified 85%, whereas PCR identified 100% of positive cases from skin and 90% from blood. Cytochrome b gene (cyt-b) amplification and sequencing identified Leishmania guyanensis, Leishmania shawi, and Leishmania naiffi from skin and blood samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of whole blood and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and species identification of leishmaniasis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Diagnostic Efficacy of Molecular Techniques for Detection and Identification of Leishmania Species in Human Whole Blood and Skin Samples from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Erika B.; Santander, Stephanie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Cardenas, Paul A.; Fornasini, Marco; Cifuentes, Sara C.; Salvador, Daniela; Baldeón, Manuel E.

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic examination is the standard method for diagnosis of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis despite its low sensitivity. This study compared the diagnosis efficacy of microscopic examination versus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based methods and DNA sequencing using whole blood and skin lesion samples from patients with suspected leishmaniasis. The presence of Leishmania was determined by microscopy and amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA gene from blood and skin samples of 22 patients. Twenty individuals were positive for leishmaniasis. Microscopic analysis identified 85%, whereas PCR identified 100% of positive cases from skin and 90% from blood. Cytochrome b gene (cyt-b) amplification and sequencing identified Leishmania guyanensis, Leishmania shawi, and Leishmania naiffi from skin and blood samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of whole blood and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and species identification of leishmaniasis. PMID:27481055

  17. Viral Nucleic Acids in the Serum Are Dependent on Blood Sampling Site in Patients with Clinical Suspicion of Myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Agnieszka; Przybylski, Maciej; Durlik, Marek; Gil, Katarzyna; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna M; Byczkowska, Katarzyna; Ziemba, Andrzej; Gil, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of viral nucleic acids in the myocardium in many cases is difficult for clinical interpretation, whereas the presence of viral nucleic acids in the serum is a marker of active infection. We determined the diagnostic value of viral nucleic acids in ventricular serum and peripheral serum samples in comparison with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens in patients with clinically suspected myocarditis. The viral nucleic acid evaluation was performed in serum samples and EMB specimens by real-time PCR in 70 patients (age: 47 ± 16 years). The biopsy specimens were examined by histo- and immunohistochemistry to detect inflammatory response. The viral nucleic acids were detected in ventricular and peripheral serum, and EMB samples of 10 (14%), 14 (20%), and 32 (46%) patients, respectively. Notably, viral nucleic acids of the same virus as in the EMB sample were present more often in ventricular than in peripheral serum (60 vs. 7%, p = 0.01). A significant concurrence was observed between the positive and the negative results of viral nucleic acids present in EMB and ventricular serum (p = 0.0001). The detection of the same viral nucleic acid type in the myocardium and in ventricular serum being significantly more frequent than in the peripheral serum may suggest that the site of the blood collection is important for more precise and reliable confirmation of the active viral replication in the heart. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effects of blood sample anticoagulants on lateral flow assays using luminescent photon-upconverting and Eu(III) nanoparticle reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Etvi; Arppe, Riikka; Kalliomäki, Laura; Salminen, Teppo; Talha, Sheikh M; Myyryläinen, Tiina; Soukka, Tero; Pettersson, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Many quantitative and semiquantitative lateral flow (LF) assays have been introduced for clinical analytes such as biomarkers for cancer or acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Various detection technologies involving quantitative analyzing devices have been reported to have sufficient analytical sensitivity and quantification capability for clinical point-of-care tests. Fluorescence-based detection technologies such as quantum dots, Eu(III) nanoparticles, and photon-upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been introduced as promising solutions for point-of-care devices because of their high detectability by optical sensors. Lateral flow assays can be used for various sample types, e.g., urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood. This study focuses on the properties of serum and plasma because of their relevance in cancer and AMI diagnostics. The limit of detection was compared in LF assays having Eu(III) nanoparticles or UCNPs as reporters and the antibody configurations for two different analytes (prostate-specific antigen and cardiac troponin I (cTnI)). The results indicate a significant effect of anticoagulants in venipuncture tubes. The samples in K3EDTA tubes resulted in significant interference by decreased reporter particle mobility, and thus the limit of detection was up to eightfold less sensitive compared to serum samples. Despite the matrix interference in the cTnI assay with UCNP reporters, limits of detection of 41 ng/L with serum and 66 ng/L with the Li-heparin sample were obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Accuracy of delta 18O isotope ratio measurements on the same sample by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The doubly labeled water method is considered the reference method to measure energy expenditure. Conventional mass spectrometry requires a separate aliquot of the same sample to be prepared and analyzed separately. With continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, the same sample could be analy...

  20. Fetal cell detection in maternal blood : A study in 236 samples using erythroblast morphology, DAB and HbF staining, and FISH analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; Beverstock, GC; van Ommen, GJB; Kanhai, HHH; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    A protocol to detect fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) was tested in 217 pregnant women and in 19 nonpregnant controls. All the pregnant women were sampled after chorionic villus sampling (CVS); 20 were also sampled pre-CVS. NRBC recognition was based upon morphology by using staining of

  1. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol.

  2. Continuous and Accumulated Bouts of Cycling Matched by Intensity and Energy Expenditure Elicit Similar Acute Blood Pressure Reductions in Prehypertensive Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Guilherme F; Farinatti, Paulo T V; Midgley, Adrian W; Ferreira, Arthur; de Paula, Tainah; Monteiro, Walace D; Cunha, Felipe A

    2017-11-06

    Fonseca, GF, Farinatti, PTV, Midgley, AW, Ferreira, A, de Paula, T, Monteiro, WD, and Cunha, FA. Continuous and accumulated bouts of cycling matched by intensity and energy expenditure elicit similar acute blood pressure reductions in prehypertensive men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study investigated differences in postexercise hypotension (PEH) after continuous vs. accumulated isocaloric bouts of cycling. Ten prehypertensive men, aged 23-34 years, performed 2 bouts of cycling at 75% oxygen uptake reserve, with total energy expenditures of 400 kcal per bout. One exercise bout was performed continuously (CONTIN) and the other as 2 smaller bouts each expending 200 kcal (INTER1 and INTER2). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac autonomic control were monitored in a supine position for 10 minutes before and 60 minutes after each exercise bout, and during a control session. Compared with control, blood pressure was significantly reduced after CONTIN (SBP: [INCREMENT] - 3.4 mm Hg, p elicited greater PEH than INTER1 (SBP and MAP: [INCREMENT] - 2.0 and [INCREMENT] - 1.8 mm Hg, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). Increases in sympathovagal balance from baseline were inversely related to changes in SBP and DBP after CONTIN and INTER2 (r = -0.64 to -0.71; p = 0.021-0.047). These findings indicate that similar amounts of PEH are observed when exercise is performed as a single 400-kcal exercise bout or 2 × 200-kcal bouts and that the exercise recovery pattern of cardiac autonomic activity may be important in eliciting PEH.

  3. A comparison of a continuous noninvasive arterial pressure (CNAP™) monitor with an invasive arterial blood pressure monitor in the cardiac surgical ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesh, A M; Singh, Naveen G; Mahankali, Subramanyam

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurement and display of arterial blood pressure is essential for rational management of adult cardiac surgical patients. Because of the lower risk of complications, noninvasive monitoring methods gain importance. A newly developed continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure (CNAP™) monitor is available and has been validated perioperatively. In a prospective study we compared the CNAP™ monitoring device with invasive arterial blood pressure (IAP) measurement in 30 patients in a cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Patients were either mechanically ventilated or spontaneously breathing, with or without inotropes. CNAP™ was applied on two fingers of the hand contralateral to the IAP monitoring catheter. Systolic, diastolic and mean pressure data were recorded every minute for 2 h simultaneously for both IAP and CNAP™. Statistical analysis included construction of mountain plot and Bland Altman plots for assessing limits of agreement and bias (accuracy) calculation. Three thousand and six hundred pairs of data were analyzed. The CNAP™ systolic arterial pressure bias was 10.415 mmHg and the CNAP™ diastolic arterial pressure bias was -5.3386 mmHg; the mean arterial pressure (MAP) of CNAP™ was close to the MAP of IAP, with a bias of 0.03944 mmHg. The Bland Altman plot showed a uniform distribution and a good agreement of all arterial blood pressure values between CNAP™ and IAP. Percentage within limits of agreement was 94.5%, 95.1% and 99.4% for systolic, diastolic and MAP. Calculated limits of agreement were -4.60 to 25.43, -13.38 to 2.70 and -5.95 to 6.03 mmHg for systolic, diastolic and mean BP, respectively. The mountain plot showed similar results as the Bland Altman plots. We conclude CNAP™ is a reliable, noninvasive, continuous blood pressure monitor that provides real-time estimates of arterial pressure comparable to those generated by an invasive arterial catheter system. CNAP™ can be used as an alternative to IAP.

  4. Simple methodology to directly genotype Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units in single and mixed infections from human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, Iván A; Bizai, María L; Ortiz, Sylvia; Manattini, Silvia; Fabbro, Diana; Solari, Aldo; Diez, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Different DNA markers to genotype Trypanosoma cruzi are now available. However, due to the low quantity of parasites present in biological samples, DNA markers with high copy number like kinetoplast minicircles are needed. The aim of this study was to complete a DNA assay called minicircle lineage specific-PCR (MLS-PCR) previously developed to genotype the T. cruzi DTUs TcV and TcVI, in order to genotype DTUs TcI and TcII and to improve TcVI detection. We screened kinetoplast minicircle hypervariable sequences from cloned PCR products from reference strains belonging to the mentioned DTUs using specific kDNA probes. With the four highly specific sequences selected, we designed primers to be used in the MLS-PCR to directly genotype T. cruzi from biological samples. High specificity and sensitivity were obtained when we evaluated the new approach for TcI, TcII, TcV and TcVI genotyping in twenty two T. cruzi reference strains. Afterward, we compared it with hybridization tests using specific kDNA probes in 32 blood samples from chronic chagasic patients from North Eastern Argentina. With both tests we were able to genotype 94% of the samples and the concordance between them was very good (kappa=0.855). The most frequent T. cruzi DTUs detected were TcV and TcVI, followed by TcII and much lower TcI. A unique T. cruzi DTU was detected in 18 samples meantime more than one in the remaining; being TcV and TcVI the most frequent association. A high percentage of mixed detections were obtained with both assays and its impact was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing the effects of educational toilet posters: a novel way of reducing haemolysis of blood samples within ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkill, David

    2012-02-01

    Haemolysed blood samples are an unnecessary burden on Emergency Departments (ED) as they increase workloads and drive down efficiencies. Little empirical data exists that demonstrates the effectiveness of educational posters displayed in staff toilet cubicles. This study explored the impact educational toilet posters have on reducing haemolysis rates within the ED. A time series study of the clinical effect of educational toilet posters on reducing haemolysis rates throughout a 12 month period at the Gold Coast Hospital ED was undertaken. The GCH ED is a tertiary emergency service that has approximately 66,000 patient presentations per year. Data was collected prospectively. Analysis was undertaken to investigate the effects on total number of haemolysed samples and those clinically significant samples with a haemolytic index >3. Further investigation explored the specific effects on medical and nursing staff. Analysis undertaken using an independent t-test found that the pre-intervention data demonstrates a medium haemolysis rate of 4.92% (SD=1.04). This is a statistically significantly different (t=3.56, df=50, p=0.001) from the median post intervention data of 3.95% (SD=0.84). The difference of 0.97% (95%CI=0.42, 1.52) represents a 19.72% reduction in clinically significant haemolysed samples over the study period. This study reveals that the use of educational toilet posters had a positive impact on reducing the rates of haemolysed samples collected within the ED. This simple and cost effective educational initiative changed the behaviour of clinical staff. Further investigation is warranted to examine the impact of educational toilet posters on additional clinical scenarios. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement and Evaluation of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Rapid Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Human Blood Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Meng Sun

    Full Text Available Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, an attractive DNA amplification method, was developed as a valuable tool for the rapid detection of Toxoplasma gondii. In this study, species-specific LAMP primers were designed by targeting the AF146527 sequence, which was a conserved sequence of 200- to 300-fold repetitive 529 bp fragment of T.gondii. LAMP reaction system was optimized so that it could detect the minimal DNA sample such as a single tachyzoite or 10 copies of recombinant plasmid. No cross-reactivity was found when using DNA from other parasites as templates. Subsequently, a total of 200 human blood samples were directly investigated by two diagnostic methods, LAMP and conventional PCR. Fourteen of 200 (7% samples were positive for Toxoplasma by LAMP (the primers developed in this study, whereas only 5 of 200 (2.5% were proved positive by conventional PCR. The procedure of the LAMP assay was very simple, as the reaction would be carried out in a single tube under isothermal conditions at 64°C and the result would be read out with 1 h (as early as 35 min with loop primers. Thus, this method has the advantages of rapid amplification, simple operation, and easy detection and would be useful for rapid and reliable clinical diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis, especially in developing countries.

  7. Evaluation of a Jugular Venipuncture Alpaca Model to Teach the Technique of Blood Sampling in Adult Alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Marjolaine; Beauchamp, Guy; Nichols, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of teaching aids in veterinary medical education is not often assessed rigorously. The objective in the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available jugular venipuncture alpaca model as a complementary tool to teach veterinary students how to perform venipuncture in adult alpacas. We hypothesized that practicing on the model would allow veterinary students to draw blood in alpacas more rapidly with fewer attempts than students without previous practice on the model. Thirty-six third-year veterinary students were enrolled and randomly allocated to the model (group M; n=18) or the control group (group C; n=18). The venipuncture technique was taught to all students on day 0. Students in group M practiced on the model on day 2. On day 5, an evaluator blinded to group allocation evaluated the students' venipuncture skills during a practical examination using live alpacas. Success was defined as the aspiration of a 6-ml sample of blood. Measured outcomes included number of attempts required to achieve success (success score), total procedural time, and overall qualitative score. Success scores, total procedural time, and overall scores did not differ between groups. Use of restless alpacas reduced performance. The jugular venipuncture alpaca model failed to improve jugular venipuncture skills in this student population. Lack of movement represents a significant weakness of this training model.

  8. Rapid detection of bluetongue virus in blood and organ samples using a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanti, O; Luciani, M; Ronchi, G F

    2005-01-01

    An antigen capture ELISA for bluetongue (BT) virus was developed using tissue culture supernatant to identify different BT virus (BTV) serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9 and 16, which have been incriminated in the current epidemic in the Mediterranean Basin. To obtain a positive result and after amplification in tissue culture, the minimum amount of infecting virus required was 100 TCID(50). Results from the antigen capture ELISA were compared with conventional methods for virus isolation and identification, such as virus amplification on embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs), followed by tissue culture and the direct immunofluorescence test. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA in infected tissue culture supernatant using homogenates of BTV-positive ovine and bovine organs and blood, without a previous step in ECEs, were 100%. The assay was also applied to homogenates of chicken embryo tissues, which had been infected with different BTV serotypes. This method enabled detection of the virus with 100% sensitivity and specificity rates, also using amplification in ECEs. Furthermore, among the various embryo tissues tested, liver was found to be the most suitable for use with ELISA. In experimentally infected ovine blood samples, the ELISA revealed the presence of the virus. Given the high sensitivity and specificity obtained with the BTV serotypes in this trial, the method should greatly facilitate BT diagnosis.

  9. Continuous counter-current extraction on an industrial sample using dual-flow counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Remco; Mathews, Ben; Dubant, Stephane; Sutherland, Ian

    2009-05-08

    Both batch and continuous separations were performed on an industrial liquor