WorldWideScience

Sample records for continued poor nutrition

  1. Poor nutritional status on admission predicts poor outcomes after stroke: observational data from the FOOD trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that undernourished patients with acute stroke do badly. The data, however, are not robust. We aimed to reliably assess the importance of baseline nutritional status as an independent predictor of long-term outcome after stroke in a large prospective cohort enrolled in the Feed Or Ordinary Diet (FOOD) trial, a multicenter randomized trial evaluating various feeding policies. Patients admitted to hospital with a recent stroke were enrolled in the FOOD trial. Data on nutritional status and other clinical predictors of outcome were collected at trial entry. At 6 months, the coordinating center collected data on survival and functional status (modified Rankin Scale). Outcome assessment was done by researchers blinded to baseline assessments and treatment allocation. Between November 1996 and November 2001, 3012 patients were enrolled, and 2955 (98%) were followed up. Of the 275 undernourished patients, 102 (37%) were dead by final follow-up compared with only 445 (20%) of 2194 patients of normal nutritional status (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% CI, 1.78 to 3.02). After adjustment for age, prestroke functional state, and stroke severity, this relationship, although weakened, still held (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.47). Undernourished patients were more likely to develop pneumonia, other infections, and gastrointestinal bleeding during their hospital admission than other patients. These data provide reliable evidence that nutritional status early after stroke is independently associated with long-term outcome. It supports the rationale for the FOOD trial, which continues to recruit and aims to estimate the effect of different feeding regimes on outcome after stroke and thus determine whether the association observed in this study is likely to be causal.

  2. Food security and nutrition: Innovation helps the world's poor feed ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... ... in 1970, IDRC has contributed to increased food security and better nutrition. ... made farming practices more efficient, preserved environments, and brought ... the developing world has always been central to IDRC's work.

  3. Factors associated with poor outcomes of continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chin Kao

    Full Text Available Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is one of the dialysis modalities for critically ill patients. Despite intensive dialysis care, a high mortality rate is found in these patients. Our objective was to investigate the factors associated with poor outcomes in these patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance Research Database. Records of critically ill patients who received CRRT between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved, and the patients were categorized into two groups: those with acute kidney injury (AKI and those with history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Our primary and secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and long-term survival and non-renal recovery (long-term dialysis dependence, respectively, in the AKI group. We enrolled 15,453 patients, with 13,204 and 2249 in the AKI and ESRD groups, respectively. Overall, 66.5% patients died during hospitalization. In-hospital mortality did not differ significantly between groups (adjusted odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84-1.02. Age, chronic liver disease, and cancer history were identified as independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality in both groups. Hypertension was associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with AKI. Age, coronary artery disease, and admission to the medical intensive care unit (MICU were risk factors for long-term dialysis dependence in patients with AKI. Patients with AKI and ESRD have similarly poor outcomes after CRRT. Older age and presence of chronic liver disease and cancer were associated with higher mortality. Older age, presence of coronary artery disease, and admission to MICU were associated with lower renal recovery rate in patients with AKI.

  4. Children-at-risk for poor nutrition: expanding the approach of future professionals in educational institutions.

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    Shor, Ron

    2011-08-01

    To examine how the subject of nutrition is being addressed in the work with children at risk of poor nutrition in educational institutions and what the barriers are which may hinder inclusion of this subject. A structured questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of this study and was implemented with 111 students in Israel who are working in their internships in educational institutions with children who are exposed to risk factors of poor nutrition (e.g., parental neglect, lack of knowledge, poverty). Participants attributed a high level of importance to integrating nutrition-related components in their work. However, the findings indicate less emphasis on nutrition-related components than on psycho-social-educational components, as well as a low level of collaboration with specialists in the area of nutrition. In addition, it was found that knowledge-based barriers and institutional-related systemic barriers may hinder future teachers' capabilities to incorporate those components despite their favorable approach towards this subject. The findings illuminate the need to reduce barriers hampering the individual work with children at risk of poor nutrition in educational institutions. In the training of future teachers, there is a need to advance a bio-psycho-social educational approach incorporating a knowledge base about assessing situations of poor nutrition, including how to advance an interdisciplinary collaboration with specialists in the area of nutrition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comprehensive care improves physical recovery of hip-fractured elderly Taiwanese patients with poor nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Yun; Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Li, Hsiao-Juan; Wu, Chi-Chuan; Cheng, Huey-Shinn; Yang, Ching-Tzu; Chou, Shih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yen; Shyu, Yea-Ing L

    2014-06-01

    The effects of nutritional management among other intervention components have not been examined for hip-fractured elderly persons with poor nutritional status. Accordingly, this study explored the intervention effects of an in-home program using a comprehensive care model that included a nutrition-management component on recovery of hip-fractured older persons with poor nutritional status at hospital discharge. A secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up. A 3000-bed medical center in northern Taiwan. Subjects were included only if they had "poor nutritional status" at hospital discharge, including those at risk for malnutrition or malnourished. The subsample included 80 subjects with poor nutritional status in the comprehensive care group, 87 in the interdisciplinary care group, and 85 in the usual care group. The 3 care models were usual care, interdisciplinary care, and comprehensive care. Usual care provided no in-home care, interdisciplinary care provided 4 months of in-home rehabilitation, and comprehensive care included management of depressive symptoms, falls, and nutrition as well as 1 year of in-home rehabilitation. Data were collected on nutritional status and physical functions, including range of motion, muscle power, proprioception, balance and functional independence, and analyzed using a generalized estimating equation approach. We also compared patients' baseline characteristics: demographic characteristics, type of surgery, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, cognitive function, and depression. Patients with poor nutritional status who received comprehensive care were 1.67 times (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.61) more likely to recover their nutritional status than those who received interdisciplinary and usual care. Furthermore, the comprehensive care model improved the functional independence and balance of patients who recovered their nutritional status over the first year following discharge

  6. Nutritional quality of two cyanobacteria : How rich is 'poor' food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, K.; Jonasdottir, Sigrun

    1997-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have often been described to be nutritionally inadequate and to interfere with zooplankton feeding. In laboratory experiments we offered 2 cyanobacteria, a unicellular Microcystis aeruginosa strain and the filamentous Nodularia sprumigena, to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa...... as the sole diet and in food mixtures with the nutritious diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. Egg production was used as criterion of food quality. The use of cyanobacteria alone was an insufficient diet. However, with increasing additions of M. aeruginosa and N. spumigena to the diatom, different effects were...... observed. Large additions of cyanobacteria resulted in lower egg production and often in elevated mortality of the females, but small additions of M. aeruginosa caused an increase of about 25 % in egg production compared to a pure diatom diet. The influence of similar low concentrations of N. spumigena...

  7. Food for thought: an exploratory study of how physicians experience poor workplace nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Jean E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition is often a casualty of the busy work day for physicians. We aimed to explore physicians' views of their nutrition in the workplace including their perceptions of the impact of inadequate nutrition upon their personal wellness and their professional performance. Methods This is a qualitative study of a sample of 20 physicians practicing in a large urban teaching hospital. Semi-structured open ended interviews were conducted to explore physicians' views of workplace nutrition. The same physicians had agreed to participate in a related nutrition based wellness intervention study that compared nutritional intake and cognitive function during a day of usual nutrition patterns against another day with scheduled nutrition breaks. A second set of interviews was conducted after the intervention study to explore how participation in the intervention impacted these views. Detailed interview content notes were transcribed and analyzed independently with differences reconciled by discussion. Results At initial interview, participants reported difficulty accessing adequate nutrition at work, linking this deficit with emotional (irritable and frustrated, physical (tired and hungry, and cognitive (difficulty concentrating and poor decision making symptoms. In addition to identifying practical barriers such as lack of time to stop and eat, inconvenient access to food and poor food choices, the physicians described how their sense of professionalism and work ethic also hinder their work nutrition practices. After participating in the intervention, most physicians reported heightened awareness of their nutrition patterns and intentions to improve their workplace nutrition. Conclusions Physicians report that inadequate workplace nutrition has a significant negative impact on their personal wellness and professional performance. Given this threat to health care delivery, health care organizations and the medical profession need to

  8. Poor nutrition on the menu: children's meals at America's top chain restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batada, Ameena; Bruening, Meg; Marchlewicz, Elizabeth H; Story, Mary; Wootan, Margo G

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the nutritional quality of children's meals at chain restaurants, because children obtain about a third of their daily calories from away-from-home foods and studies show that restaurant foods are often higher in calories and lower in nutritional value than foods prepared at home. We assessed the nutritional quality of children's meals at the 50 largest U.S. restaurant chains by visiting each chain's web site or calling the company. Eighteen of the chains did not have children's meals and 10 did not provide adequate nutrition information to be included in the study. The nutritional quality of each meal combination was evaluated against a set of nutrition standards based on key nutrition recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the 22 restaurants that had children's menus and available nutrition information, 99% of 1662 children's meal combinations were of poor nutritional quality. Restaurants should support healthier choices for children by reformulating existing menu items and adding new healthier items, posting calories on menus, and setting nutrition standards for marketing to children.

  9. Inequity and health. Is malnutrition really caused by poor nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmal, F Y

    2000-08-01

    To look at inequities leading to malnutrition and from the wider picture to find root causes and deal with them in order to alleviate malnutrition. Literature review. The health of the population is adversely affected by the inequities in the country. Women and children being most vulnerable are worst affected. The prevalence of Protein Energy Malnutrition (P.E.M.) in children under five years of age is 51 percent. Such a magnitude of malnutrition in a country, where availability of food per capita is more than adequate, points towards the fact that the inequities within the country are at the root of the problem. Poor income is not the only predictor of malnutrition, gender, urban-rural differences in access, utilization and quality of health care also influence health. In addition, there are some underlying factors such as illiteracy, unawareness of the mother about healthy behaviors, lack of decision-making power of women, along with deep-rooted cultural values of a patriarchal system. Malnutrition is caused by a multitude of factors, some of which are biological, others are environmental, cultural or social. Education of the invisible half of the population, who actually look after the children and the family, is an important strategy to alleviate this problem.

  10. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

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    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  11. Undernutrition, poor feeding practices, and low coverage of key nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K; Daelmans, Bernadette M E G; de Onis, Mercedes; Kothari, Monica T; Ruel, Marie T; Arimond, Mary; Deitchler, Megan; Dewey, Kathryn G; Blössner, Monika; Borghi, Elaine

    2011-12-01

    To estimate the global burden of malnutrition and highlight data on child feeding practices and coverage of key nutrition interventions. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to estimate prevalence rates and numbers of underweight and stunted children according to United Nations region from 1990 to 2010 by using surveys from 147 countries. Indicators of infant and young child feeding practices and intervention coverage were calculated from Demographic and Health Survey data from 46 developing countries between 2002 and 2008. In 2010, globally, an estimated 27% (171 million) of children younger than 5 years were stunted and 16% (104 million) were underweight. Africa and Asia have more severe burdens of undernutrition, but the problem persists in some Latin American countries. Few children in the developing world benefit from optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Fewer than half of infants were put to the breast within 1 hour of birth, and 36% of infants younger than 6 months were exclusively breastfed. Fewer than one-third of 6- to 23-month-old children met the minimum criteria for dietary diversity, and only ∼50% received the minimum number of meals. Although effective health-sector-based interventions for tackling childhood undernutrition are known, intervention-coverage data are available for only a small proportion of them and reveal mostly low coverage. Undernutrition continues to be high and progress toward reaching Millennium Development Goal 1 has been slow. Previously unrecognized extremely poor breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices and lack of comprehensive data on intervention coverage require urgent action to improve child nutrition.

  12. Low resting energy expenditure in middle-aged and elderly hemodialysis patients with poor nutritional status.

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    Kogirima, Miho; Sakaguchi, Katsuhiko; Nishino, Kohsuke; Ichikawa, Yoko; Hiramatsu, Fumie; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2006-02-01

    Due to high resting energy expenditure (REE) in maintenance hemodialysis patients, an increase in energy intake is usually recommended to improve their nutritional status. However, some patients appear to have poor appetite and low energy intake. In such patients low energy metabolism is expected. We hypothesized that in maintenance hemodialysis patients there are two types of the energy metabolism, high and low. This study was aimed at finding the energy metabolism in maintenance hemodialysis patients, especially in those with poor nutritional status. Subjects were hemodialysis out-patients (34 males and 20 females, mean age 59.1+/-10.7 y). REE was measured by an indirect calorimeter. Protein intake was obtained from normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), and physical activity level (PAL) was obtained by time study. Nutritional status assessed by serum albumin concentration was poor (3.7+/-0.2 g/dL) in spite of the adequate protein intake (1.1+/-0.3 g/kg per day). Only 11% of the subjects had appropriate serum albumin concentration. Mean REE was 24.6 kcal/kg per day which was lower than that of healthy Japanese (26.5 kcal/kg per day). REE and PAL positively correlated with serum albumin concentration (p<0.01). The results suggest that maintenance hemodialysis patients with poor nutritional status may have low REE.

  13. Poor Nutrition Status and Lumbar Spine Fusion Surgery in the Elderly: Readmissions, Complications, and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanesarajah, Varun; Jain, Amit; Kebaish, Khaled; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Sciubba, Daniel M; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Khanna, Akhil Jay; Hassanzadeh, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    Retrospective database review. To quantify the medical and surgical risks associated with elective lumbar spine fusion surgery in patients with poor preoperative nutritional status and to assess how nutritional status alters length of stay and readmission rates. There has been recent interest in quantifying the increased risk of complications caused by frailty, an important consideration in elderly patients that is directly related to comorbidity burden. Preoperative nutritional status is an important contributor to both sarcopenia and frailty and is poorly studied in the elderly spine surgery population. The full 100% sample of Medicare data from 2005 to 2012 were utilized to select all patients 65 to 84 years old who underwent elective 1 to 2 level posterior lumbar fusion for degenerative pathology. Patients with diagnoses of poor nutritional status within the 3 months preceding surgery were selected and compared with a control cohort. Outcomes that were assessed included major medical complications, infection, wound dehiscence, and mortality. In addition, readmission rates and length of stay were evaluated. When adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, malnutrition was determined to result in significantly increased odds of both 90-day major medical complications (adjusted odds ratio, OR: 4.24) and 1-year mortality (adjusted OR: 6.16). Multivariate analysis also demonstrated that malnutrition was a significant predictor of increased infection (adjusted OR: 2.27) and wound dehiscence (adjusted OR: 2.52) risk. Length of stay was higher in malnourished patients, though 30-day readmission rates were similar to controls. Malnutrition significantly increases complication and mortality rates, whereas also significantly increasing length of stay. Nutritional supplementation before surgery should be considered to optimize postoperative outcomes in malnourished individuals. 3.

  14. Poor nutrition and bullying behaviors: A comparison of deviant and non-deviant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2017-06-01

    Research on the topic of bullying has revealed that a substantial number of youth are bullied each year. Even so, a complete understanding of the origins of bullying behaviors remains elusive. In the current study, we propose that poor nutrition may constitute an important modifiable risk factor for bullying behaviors during adolescence, and that behavioral sensitivity to nutrition may vary across deviant and non-deviant youth. We employ data from the US sample of youth (52% male) ages 10-17 from the 2009-2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study to examine our hypothesis (N = 8753). The results reveal that poor nutrition significantly increases the odds of persistent bullying among youth, and that this relationship is particularly pronounced for non-deviant youth. The findings suggest that efforts to improve the nutrition of non-deviant youth may have the added benefit of reducing their likelihood of engaging in persistent bullying behaviors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enteral nutrition increases interstitial brain glucose levels in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois J; Beer, Ronny; Gaasch, Maxime; Rhomberg, Paul; Stover, John; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2018-03-01

    Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition. Sixty-three interventions were analyzed. The mean amount of EN per intervention was 472.4 ± 10.7 kcal. CMD-glucose levels significantly increased from 1.59 ± 0.13 mmol/l at baseline to a maximum of 2.03 ± 0.2 mmol/l after 5 h (p  40) and the microdialysis probe location. The increase in CMD-glucose was directly dependent on the magnitude of increase of serum glucose levels (p = 0.007). No change in CMD-lactate, CMD-pyruvate, CMD-LPR, or CMD-glutamate (p > 0.4) was observed. Routine EN also increased CMD-glucose even if baseline concentrations were critically low ( < 0.7 mmol/l, neuroglucopenia; p < 0.001). These results may have treatment implications regarding glucose management of poor-grade aneurysmal SAH patients.

  16. Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173. WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001 and vitamin A deficiency (p Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.

  17. Eggs: the uncracked potential for improving maternal and young child nutrition among the world's poor.

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    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Bunn, David A; Stewart, Christine P

    2014-06-01

    Eggs have been consumed throughout human history, though the full potential of this nutritionally complete food has yet to be realized in many resource-poor settings around the world. Eggs provide essential fatty acids, proteins, choline, vitamins A and B12 , selenium, and other critical nutrients at levels above or comparable to those found in other animal-source foods, but they are relatively more affordable. Cultural beliefs about the digestibility and cleanliness of eggs, as well as environmental concerns arising from hygiene practices and toxin exposures, remain as barriers to widespread egg consumption. There is also regional variability in egg intake levels. In Latin American countries, on average, greater proportions of young children consume eggs than in Asian or African countries. In China and Indonesia, nutrition education and social marketing have been associated with greater amounts of eggs in the diets of young children, though generally, evidence from interventions is minimal. Homestead chicken-and-egg production with appropriate vaccination, extension service, and other supports can simultaneously address poverty and nutrition in very poor rural households. With undernutrition remaining a significant problem in many parts of the world, eggs may be an uncracked part of the solution. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  18. Beneficial effect of nutritional supportive plan among under-nourished children in poor families in Iran with collaborating Ministry of Health and Emam Khomeini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaei, Mina; Zarei, Maryam; Araste, Razieh; Kamali, Behroo

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition in the form of Protein – Energy Malnutrition (PEM) and micro nutrient deficiencies, is one of the most important health problems in developing countries, Iran included. The purpose of this study was to improve nutritional status among under-nourished children in poor families. Methods: A total of 50,000 children under 5 (girls and boys) in 30 provinces in Iran which suffered by moderate and severe malnutrition participated (<-2SD weight for age) in this program. Malnourished children belong to poor families were determined; weights and heights were measured and anthropometric indicators were determined based on WHO, 2007. Then, these malnourished children were introduced to Imam Khomeini Foundation. Khomeini Foundation as one of the biggest NGO in Iran which supports poor families since 1979. This study collaborated with Ministry of Welfare, Ministry of Health and Emam Khomeini. They have started to receive monthly supportive food basket which could support their daily nutritional requirements. This basket included (meat, egg, cheese, legumes, milk, tuna fish, chicken, liquid oil). Along with food support community health workers were actively involved with counseling of mothers on the nutritional requirements of children. Nutritional support cut for whoever has been improved nutritional status. However, nutritional education still had continued. Results: The results of monitoring & evaluation (according to anthropometric indicators) of this plan have shown around more than 45% of children that received food basket had consistently improved nutritional status. Conclusion: Likewise other intervention nutrition programs in developing countries this project showed that inter sector collaboration have been the best way for decreasing malnutrition in children. (author)

  19. Social value of a nutritional counselling and support program for breastfeeding in urban poor settings, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Sophie; Griffiths, Paula L; Wainaina, Caroline W; Macharia, Teresia N; Wekesah, Frederick M; Wanjohi, Milka; Muriuki, Peter; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth

    2018-04-02

    In Kenya, poor maternal nutrition, suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices and high levels of malnutrition have been shown among the urban poor. An intervention aimed at promoting optimal maternal infant and young child nutrition (MIYCN) practices in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya was implemented. The intervention involved home-based counselling of pregnant and breastfeeding women and mothers of young children by community health volunteers (CHVs) on optimal MIYCN practices. This study assesses the social impact of the intervention using a Social Return on Investment (SROI) approach. Data collection was based on SROI methods and used a mixed methods approach (focus group discussions, key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, quantitative stakeholder surveys, and revealed preference approach for outcomes using value games). The SROI analysis revealed that the MIYCN intervention was assessed to be highly effective and created social value, particularly for mothers and their children. Positive changes that participants experienced included mothers being more confident in child care and children and mothers being healthier. Overall, the intervention had a negative social impact on daycare centers and on health care providers, by putting too much pressure on them to provide care without providing extra support. The study calculated that, after accounting for discounting factors, the input ($USD 419,716) generated $USD 8 million of social value at the end of the project. The net present value created by the project was estimated at $USD 29.5 million. $USD 1 invested in the project was estimated to bring USD$ 71 (sensitivity analysis: USD$ 34-136) of social value for the stakeholders. The MIYCN intervention showed an important social impact in which mothers and children benefited the most. The intervention resulted in better perceived health of mothers and children and increased confidence of mothers to provide care for their children, while it

  20. Experiences of Second-Class Citizenship Related to Continued Poor Academic Performance of Minority Xhosa Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Lorna M.; Singh, Suzanne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the subjective life experiences of racial minority Xhosa speakers and the factors that contribute to their continued poor academic performance in a previously Whites-only school in South Africa. Vygotskian sociocultural perspective in relation to creating a democratic educational system and Bronfenbrenner's biosystemic theory…

  1. The Unhealthy Lifestyle Factors Associated with an Increased Risk of Poor Nutrition among the Elderly Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W-Q; Wang, H H X; Yuan, L-X; Li, B; Jing, M-J; Luo, J-L; Tang, J; Ye, B-K; Wang, P-X

    2017-01-01

    The associations between nutritional status and lifestyle factors have not been well established. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of poor nutrition and to examine the relationships between nutritional status and unhealthy lifestyle and other related factors among the elderly. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaobu Town, Dongguan city, China. A total of 708 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥60 years were recruited by stratified random sampling. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health and lifestyle factors, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores were collected using structured questionnaires via face-to-face interviews. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to identify the risk factors of poor nutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the elderly adults in this study was 1.3%, and 24.4% were at risk of malnutrition (RM). Poor nutrition was significantly associated with female gender, older age, lower education, a high number of self-reported chronic diseases, and hospitalization in the last year. Unhealthy lifestyle factors associated with poor nutrition included current smoking status, higher alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity, longer duration of sitting, negative attitude towards life, and a poor family relationship. While the prevalence of malnutrition was low, RM was high in the elderly population in China. The determinants of malnutrition were explored and the relationships between nutritional status and unhealthy lifestyle factors were examined. The results of this study provide information for future longitudinal studies with multi-factorial interventional design in order to determine the effects of the causal relationships.

  2. Effect of poverty reduction program on nutritional status of the extreme poor in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Chowdhury S B; Frongillo, Edward A

    2013-12-01

    Poverty alleviation programs for the extreme poor improve participants' economic status and may impact other important outcomes that are seldom evaluated. A program targeted to the extreme poor by BRAG, a development organization in Bangladesh, has been successful in significantly alleviating extreme poverty. We hypothesized that the program also improved the nutritional status of women and preschool children. A nonequivalent control, pre- and posttest quasi-experimental design that was longitudinal at the village level was used to test the hypotheses. Data were collected from a random sample of 4,131 children and 3,551 women from 3,409 households in 159 villages of 3 northern districts of Bangladesh in 2002 and 2006. Linear mixed random-intercept models accounted for clustering effects and potential confounders. The weight-for-height of children between 24 and 35 months of age from program households was significantly higher (p growth and body-composition indicators in three other age categories of preschool children or in women. These results are important, as this is a large-scale program that has already been extended to more than half the country. The findings will contribute to judging the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of the program and in garnering support for the expansion of such programs.

  3. Correlations between Poor Micronutrition in Family Members and Potential Risk Factors for Poor Diet in Children and Adolescents Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

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    Hye Ah Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we investigated correlations between micronutrients in the diet of family members and the possible risk factors for children and adolescents consuming an inadequate diet. We examined two-generation households with children aged 2–18 years. The quality of the family diet with regard to the following nine nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C was assessed based on the Index of Nutritional Quality. Correlations between quality of diet and selected variables were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software, and those between diet quality and potential risk factors for poor diet in offspring were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, calcium was the most commonly under-consumed micronutrient. More than half of sons and daughters showed insufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron intake, and both mothers and fathers showed insufficiency with respect to vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin C. The correlation between a poor diet in parents and that in offspring was 0.17 (p < 0.0001, and this correlation coefficient was higher between mothers and offspring than between fathers and offspring. Additionally, eating breakfast provided a significant protective effect against the risk of poor nutrition in offspring, even after adjusting for covariates. Our results add to evidence indicating that children should be encouraged to eat breakfast to improve the quality of their diet.

  4. Poor nutrition at age 3 and schizotypal personality at age 23: the mediating role of age 11 cognitive functioning.

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    Venables, Peter H; Raine, Adrian

    2012-08-01

    Poor prenatal nutrition has been associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the Netherlands and China, and it has been suggested that perinatal and postnatal nutritional factors lead to the development of schizophrenia and the exhibition of schizotypal traits later in life. There appears to be no prior research on the existence of possible factors that may mediate the relationship between malnutrition and schizophrenia spectrum disorders or whether this association is a direct one. The authors tested the hypothesis that low IQ mediates the relationship between early childhood malnutrition and adult schizotypal personality. Participants were drawn from a birth cohort of 1,795 boys and girls who were followed prospectively. Objective indicators of malnutrition (anemia and stunting) were assessed at age 3. Verbal and performance intelligence were assessed at age 11, and schizotypal personality was assessed at age 23. Both stunting and anemia at age 3 were associated with low IQ at age 11. Low performance IQ at age 11 was associated with increased interpersonal and disorganized features of schizotypal personality at age 23. Poor performance IQ was found to mediate the relationship between poor nutrition at age 3 and interpersonal and disorganized features of schizotypy at age 23. Findings in female participants were replicated in male participants. Given that poor nutrition is an alterable risk factor, these findings suggest that nutritional enhancements may improve brain functioning and possibly reduce some features of schizotypal personality disorder.

  5. Nurse managers' experiences in continuous quality improvement in resource-poor healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakyo, Tracy Alexis; Xiao, Lily Dongxia

    2017-06-01

    Ensuring safe and quality care for patients in hospitals is an important part of a nurse manager's role. Continuous quality improvement has been identified as one approach that leads to the delivery of quality care services to patients and is widely used by nurse managers to improve patient care. Nurse managers' experiences in initiating continuous quality improvement activities in resource-poor healthcare settings remain largely unknown. Research evidence is highly demanded in these settings to address disease burden and evidence-based practice. This interpretive qualitative study was conducted to gain an understanding of nurse managers' Continuous Quality Improvement experiences in rural hospitals in Uganda. Nurse managers in rural healthcare settings used their role to prioritize quality improvement activities, monitor the Continuous Quality Improvement process, and utilize in-service education to support continuous quality improvement. The nurse managers in our sample encountered a number of barriers during the implementation of Continuous Quality Improvement, including: limited patient participation, lack of materials, and limited human resources. Efforts to address the challenges faced through good governance and leadership development require more attention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Amina; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Msuya, Sia E; Swai, Mark; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2012-10-05

    The current study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children less than 36 months of age in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Using a cross sectional study design, children and their caregivers were recruited into the study. Anthropometric measures were taken based on established protocol while a standard questionnaire was utilized to collect socio-demographic data. A finger-prick blood sample was collected from all the children and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration analyzed using a HemoCue photometer (HemoCue AB, Angelholm, Sweden). Four hundred and twenty three (423) children (214 females) took part in this study. Participating children were aged between 1–35 months (mean = 13.04, SD = 7.70). We observed high rates of stunting (44.2%) and underweight (19.1%). Nearly 70% (n = 295) of the sample was anaemic (Hb education, and child's age were found to independently predict stunting; whereas concerns over child's growth and development, and distance to water source were found to uniquely predict being underweight. Maternal education was the only factor related to the child's anaemia. The current study further emphasizes the need to implement context relevant interventions to combat malnutrition in this region of Tanzania and other similar settings.

  7. Gluconeogenesis continues in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the contribution of total gluconeogenesis, to glucose production in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) providing glucose exceeding normal infant glucose turnover rate, eight infants (0.955 +/- 0.066 kg, 26.5 - 0.5 wks, 4-1 d) were studied while receiving routine ...

  8. [Nutritional status and body composition of poor children in the outlying neighborhoods of La Plata, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyhenart, Evelia E; Torres, María F; Quintero, Fabián A; Luis, María A; Cesani, María F; Zucchi, Mariel; Orden, Alicia B

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate nutritional status and body composition as indicators of quality of life among poor children served by neighborhood soup kitchens in La Plata, Argentina. From April to November 2004, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 608 healthy children from 1-11 years of age who were being served by two neighborhood soup kitchens in the outlying areas of the city of La Plata. The sample was stratified by age and sex. Height-for-age, weight-for age, and weight-for-height, were measured, as well as BMI, muscle mass and adipose tissue. Z-scores were computed for the data. Odds ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Prevalence of low weight-for-age was 9%; low weight-for-height, 3%; and low height-for-age, 15%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 12.5% and 7.1%, respectively. Among the study sample, 47.2% had low muscle mass and 20.4% had low adipose tissue. Among overweight and obese children, adipose tissue was 34.3% higher than that of the reference population, while muscle mass was 12.5% lower. Undernutrition and obesity are both found among the community of children studied. The high prevalence of delayed growth (i.e., low height-for-age), undernutrition (i.e., low weight-for-age), and the acute lack of muscle mass even among overweight and obese children, seem to be part of the consequences of an inevitable process that unfolds in the face of adverse living conditions.

  9. Prognostic Indices of Poor Nutritional Status and Their Impact on Prolonged Hospital Stay in a Greek University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Tsaousi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ascertain the potential contributors to nutritional risk manifestation and to disclose the factors exerting a negative impact on hospital length of stay (LOS, by means of poor nutritional status, in a nonselected hospitalized population. Materials and Methods. NutritionDay project questionnaires were applied to 295 adult patients. Study parameters included anthropometric data, demographics, medical history, dietary-related factors, and self-perception of health status. Body Mass Index (BMI and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST were calculated for each participant. MUST score was applied for malnutrition assessment, while hospital LOS constituted the outcome of interest. Results. Of the total cohort, 42.3% were at nutritional risk and 21.4% malnourished. Age, gender, BMI, MUST score, autonomy, health quality, appetite, quantity of food intake, weight loss, arm or calf perimeter (P7 days. Conclusion. Nutritional status and nutrition-related parameters such as weight loss, quantity of food intake, appetite, arm circumference, dietary type, and extent of dependence confer considerable prognostic value regarding hospital LOS in acute care setting.

  10. High proportions of older people with normal nutritional status have poor protein intake and low diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväkorpi, S K; Pitkälä, K H; Puranen, T M; Björkman, M P; Kautiainen, H; Strandberg, T E; Soini, H H; Suominen, M H

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is a well-validated instrument examining the nutritional status of older people. The aim of this study was to examine how older people's energy and nutrient intakes are associated with the MNA and to determine how sensitive and specific MNA is in identifying those having low energy and protein intakes. This cross-sectional study combined data from five nutritional studies (N=900): both home-dwelling and institutionalized older people without and with disabilities. Their nutritional status was assessed with MNA, and nutrient intakes were retrieved from 1 to 3day food diaries. Nutrient intakes were divided according to MNA status (normal nutritional status, at-risk of malnutrition, malnourished). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of MNA of various cut-off points were tested with recommended protein and energy intakes. ROC curves was constructed. Energy, protein and most nutrient intakes showed logical linear trends according to MNA classes. However, more than three-fourths of the participants with MNA>23.5 had lower than recommended protein intakes. Sensitivity of MNA ranged from 0.32 to 0.82 for recommended energy (F:1570kcal/d/M:2070kcal/d) and protein intakes (1.0g/kg BW or 1.2g/kgBW) cut-off points, and specificity from 0.75 to 0.25, respectively. AUC values were low (0.52-0.53). MNA status was consistently associated with nutrient intakes and diet quality. However, a high proportion of older people even with normal nutritional status had poor energy and protein intakes. Thus, MNA does not identify all those with poor nutrient intakes who may be at risk of developing malnutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Comparison of Continuous and Intermittent Enteral Nutrition In Cerebrovascular Patients

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    Levent Güngör

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Dysphagia and malnutrition are not so rare in stroke patients, and have an unfavorable influence on recovery. Nutritional support may reduce infections, duration of hospital stay and mortality. However, there is no clear evidence about the modality of nasogastric nutrition. In this study, intermittent and continuous enteral nutrition is compared by means of pulmonary infections and gastrointestinal tolerance, among acute cerebrovascular patients. METHODS: Sixty two acute cerebrovascular patients with dysphagia were included the study. The same volume of nutrition product was infused 4 times daily to 31 patients, and continuously for 24 hours to the remaining 31. After 10 days of follow-up, the rates of pulmonary infections, diarrhea, increased gastric residual volumes, vomiting and tube occlusion were compared between two groups. RESULTS: Twenty patients developed pneumonia (32% and 8 diarrhea (13%. Mortality due to complications associated with tube feeding was 6%. Aspiration and related pneumonia was present in 11 patients in the intermittent nutrition group (35%, and in 9 patients in the continuous nutrition group (29%. The rate of pulmonary infection was not statistically different between two groups (p>0.05. Diarrhea was observed in 7 intermittently fed patients (23%, while was present only in 1 patient (3% in the continuously fed group. Diarrhea was more common in the intermittent nutrition group, just at the statistical border (p=0.05. None of the patients developed tube occlusion, vomiting and gastric retention. The rate of mortality and the interruption of feeding was not significantly different between two groups (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Diarrhea and pulmonary infections are more prevalent with intermittent tube feeding with respect to continuous enteral nutrition, though the difference is not so conspicuous. The reason may be contamination of the equipments and the feeding solution because of frequent manipulation and

  12. The Comparison of Continuous and Intermittent Enteral Nutrition In Cerebrovascular Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Güngör

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Dysphagia and malnutrition are not so rare in stroke patients, and have an unfavorable influence on recovery. Nutritional support may reduce infections, duration of hospital stay and mortality. However, there is no clear evidence about the modality of nasogastric nutrition. In this study, intermittent and continuous enteral nutrition is compared by means of pulmonary infections and gastrointestinal tolerance, among acute cerebrovascular patients. METHODS: Sixty two acute cerebrovascular patients with dysphagia were included the study. The same volume of nutrition product was infused 4 times daily to 31 patients, and continuously for 24 hours to the remaining 31. After 10 days of follow-up, the rates of pulmonary infections, diarrhea, increased gastric residual volumes, vomiting and tube occlusion were compared between two groups. RESULTS: Twenty patients developed pneumonia (32% and 8 diarrhea (13%. Mortality due to complications associated with tube feeding was 6%. Aspiration and related pneumonia was present in 11 patients in the intermittent nutrition group (35%, and in 9 patients in the continuous nutrition group (29%. The rate of pulmonary infection was not statistically different between two groups (p>0.05. Diarrhea was observed in 7 intermittently fed patients (23%, while was present only in 1 patient (3% in the continuously fed group. Diarrhea was more common in the intermittent nutrition group, just at the statistical border (p=0.05. None of the patients developed tube occlusion, vomiting and gastric retention. The rate of mortality and the interruption of feeding was not significantly different between two groups (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Diarrhea and pulmonary infections are more prevalent with intermittent tube feeding with respect to continuous enteral nutrition, though the difference is not so conspicuous. The reason may be contamination of the equipments and the feeding solution because of frequent manipulation and

  13. [Investigation of nutritional status of pupils and dietary survey in primary schools in poor counties of Guangxi and Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenjing; Shen, Xiuhua; Mao, Xuanxia; Huang, Jingyan; Cai, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To understand the nutritional status of pupils and to provide basic evidence for the nutritional interventions. The subjects of the study were 2046 pupils from 9 primary schools in poor counties of Guangxi and Yunnan. The contents of the investigation included medical physical examination, haematoglobin determination and dietary survey. Nutritional Status was evaluated according to WHO growth standards. The prevalence of stunting and wasting in children from 6 to 14 years old in poor areas of Guangxi and Yunnan were 34.3% and 6.5% respectively. The anemia prevalence of them was 20.5%. The diet provided by the canteens of local school was mainly composed of plant food. Animal food was deficient. The cooking oil in local school was most of lard oil. The per pupil average daily intake of energy, protein, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C and calcium was 1491.29 kcal, 36.36 g, 179.15 ug, 0.57 mg, 0.37 mg, 53.67 mg and 163.14 mg respectively, which were lower than RNI or Al. The chronic malnutrition of pupils in poor areas is still serious. The variety of food provided by the canteens of local school is quite single, and the quality of the meals is low. Intakes of energy, protein and micronutrient from school diet are insufficient for pupils.

  14. Low Preoperative Prognostic Nutritional Index Predicts Poor Survival Post-gastrectomy in Elderly Patients with Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Katsunobu; Tamura, Tatsuro; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-10-01

    Preoperative nutritional status may predict short- and long-term outcomes of patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of preoperative nutritional status on outcomes of elderly patients who have undergone gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC). A review examining 147 patients treated for GC by gastrectomy at our institution between January 2004 and December 2011 was conducted. Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (PNI) was invoked, using an optimal cutpoint to stratify patients by high (PNI > 43.8; n = 84) or low (PNI ≤ 43.8; n = 63) nutritional status. Clinicopathologic features and short- and long-term outcomes, including the cause of death, were compared. In multivariate analysis, low PNI was identified as an independent correlate of poor 5-year overall survival (OS). In subgroup analysis, 5-year OS rates for patients with stage 1 GC were significantly worse in the low PNI (vs. high PNI) patient subset, which also posed a significantly higher risk of death from other disease; however, 5-year cancer-specific survival and PNI were unrelated. Deaths from recurrence in both groups were statistically similar, and morbidity rates did not differ significantly by group. PNI is useful in predicting long-term outcomes of elderly patients surgically treated for GC, helping to identify those at high risk of death from other disease. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, nutritional status and oncologic staging merit attention.

  15. Poor cognitive ageing: Vulnerabilities, mechanisms and the impact of nutritional interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Sophie; Champ, Claire; Day, Jon; Aarts, Esther; Bahr, Ben A; Bakker, Martijntje; Bánáti, Diána; Calabrese, Vittorio; Cederholm, Tommy; Cryan, John; Dye, Louise; Farrimond, Jonathan A; Korosi, Aniko; Layé, Sophie; Maudsley, Stuart; Milenkovic, Dragan; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Sijben, John; Solomon, Alina; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Thuret, Sandrine; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Vauzour, David; Vellas, Bruno; Wesnes, Keith; Willatts, Peter; Wittenberg, Raphael; Geurts, Lucie

    2018-03-01

    Ageing is a highly complex process marked by a temporal cascade of events, which promote alterations in the normal functioning of an individual organism. The triggers of normal brain ageing are not well understood, even less so the factors which initiate and steer the neuronal degeneration, which underpin disorders such as dementia. A wealth of data on how nutrients and diets may support cognitive function and preserve brain health are available, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological action in both normal ageing, age-related cognitive decline, and in the development of neurodegenerative disorders have not been clearly elucidated. This review aims to summarise the current state of knowledge of vulnerabilities that predispose towards dysfunctional brain ageing, highlight potential protective mechanisms, and discuss dietary interventions that may be used as therapies. A special focus of this paper is on the impact of nutrition on neuroprotection and the underlying molecular mechanisms, and this focus reflects the discussions held during the 2nd workshop 'Nutrition for the Ageing Brain: Functional Aspects and Mechanisms' in Copenhagen in June 2016. The present review is the most recent in a series produced by the Nutrition and Mental Performance Task Force under the auspice of the International Life Sciences Institute Europe (ILSI Europe). Coupling studies of cognitive ageing with studies investigating the effect of nutrition and dietary interventions as strategies targeting specific mechanisms, such as neurogenesis, protein clearance, inflammation, and non-coding and microRNAs is of high value. Future research on the impact of nutrition on cognitive ageing will need to adopt a longitudinal approach and multimodal nutritional interventions will likely need to be imposed in early-life to observe significant impact in older age. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Poor performance of mandatory nutritional screening of in-hospital patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Larsen, Sisse Marie Hørup; Stender, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Background & aims: Since 2006 it has been mandatory at Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 h of admittance. Audits conducted by department staff estimate that 70-80% of assessments are correctly executed, but the validity of this estimate ...

  17. Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

    Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

  18. Household food (in)security and nutritional status of urban poor children aged 6 to 23 months in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Maurice; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Kabiru, Caroline W

    2015-10-13

    Millions of people in low and low middle income countries suffer from extreme hunger and malnutrition. Research on the effect of food insecurity on child nutrition is concentrated in high income settings and has produced mixed results. Moreover, the existing evidence on food security and nutrition in children in low and middle income countries is either cross-sectional and/or is based primarily on rural populations. In this paper, we examine the effect of household food security status and its interaction with household wealth status on stunting among children aged between 6 and 23 months in resource-poor urban setting in Kenya. We use longitudinal data collected between 2006 and 2012 from two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers and their new-borns were recruited into the study at birth and followed prospectively. The analytical sample comprised 6858 children from 6552 households. Household food security was measured as a latent variable derived from a set of questions capturing the main domains of access, availability and affordability. A composite measure of wealth was calculated using asset ownership and amenities. Nutritional status was measured using Height-for-Age (HFA) z-scores. Children whose HFA z-scores were below -2 standard deviation were categorized as stunted. We used Cox regression to analyse the data. The prevalence of stunting was 49 %. The risk of stunting increased by 12 % among children from food insecure households. When the joint effect of food security and wealth status was assessed, the risk of stunting increased significantly by 19 and 22 % among children from moderately food insecure and severely food insecure households and ranked in the middle poor wealth status. Among the poorest and least poor households, food security was not statistically associated with stunting. Our results shed light on the joint effect of food security and wealth status on stunting. Study findings underscore the need for social protection policies to

  19. Enteral nutrition for preterm infants: by bolus or continuous? An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bozzetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of nutritional management of preterm infants is crucial for achievement of their long-term health. Enteral nutrition is preferred to total parenteral nutrition (TPN because the former avoids complications related to vascular catheterization, sepsis, adverse effects of TPN, and fasting. Due to the lack of ability of preterm infants to coordinate suckling, swallowing, and breathing, tube feeding is necessary for most infants less than 1500 g to ensure sufficient feeding tolerance, to support optimal growth and to reduce the risk of aspiration. Therefore, feeding by orogastric or nasogastric tube using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery of formula or human milk is common practice for these infants. Theoretical risks and benefits of both continuous nasogastric milk feeding and intermittent bolus milk feeding have been proposed. According to the literature, continuous nutrition could be preferred in smaller infants (as those with a birthweight below 1250 g or hemodynamically impaired infants; in stable growing infants nutrition can be administered intermittently as in healthy term infants.

  20. Poor nutritional status is associated with a higher risk of falling and fracture in elderly people living at home in France: the Three-City cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Féart, C; Samieri, C; Dorigny, B; Luiking, Y; Berr, C; Barberger-Gateau, P; Letenneur, L

    2015-08-01

    Falling and fractures are a public health problem in elderly people. The aim of our study was to investigate whether nutritional status is associated with the risk of falling or fracture in community-dwelling elderly. Poor nutritional status was significantly associated with a higher risk of both falling and fractures. Nutrition could play a role to prevent falls and fractures. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a poor nutritional status is associated with the risk of falling and of fracture in community dwelling elderly. Baseline nutritional status of participants was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). After a follow-up of 12 years, 6040 individuals with available data for falls and 6839 for fracture were included. People who presented the outcomes at baseline were excluded. Cox models were used to evaluate the associations between nutritional status and the risks of fall or fracture. The frequency of poor nutritional status (MNA ≤ 23.5), at baseline, was respectively 12.0% in the "fall study sample" and 12.8% in the "fracture study sample." Incident fall and fracture over 12 years were reported in 55.8 and 18.5% of the respective samples, respectively. In multivariate models controlled for sociodemographic data and several baseline health indicators, poor nutritional status was significantly associated with a higher risk of falling (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.66, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.35-2.04 in men and HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34 in women) and with a higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.49). Poor nutritional status was associated with a higher risk of both falling and fractures in French elderly community-dwellers. Early screening and management of the nutritional status may be useful to reduce the frequency of these events in older people.

  1. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.

  2. Are products sold in university vending machines nutritionally poor? A food environment audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    (i) To audit the nutritional composition, promotion and cost of products available from vending machines available to young adults; and (ii) to examine the relationship between product availability and sales. A cross-sectional analysis of snacks and beverages available and purchased at a large urban university was conducted between March and September 2014. Sales were electronically tracked for nine months. A total of 61 vending machines were identified; 95% (n = 864) of the available snacks and 49% of beverages (n = 455) were less-healthy items. The mean (SD) nutrient value of snacks sold was: energy 1173 kJ (437.5), saturated fat 5.36 g (3.6), sodium 251 mg (219), fibre 1.56 g (1.29) and energy density 20.16 kJ/g (2.34) per portion vended. There was a strong correlation between the availability of food and beverages and purchases (R 2 = 0.98, P Vending machines market and sell less-healthy food and beverages to university students. Efforts to improve the nutritional quality are indicated and afford an opportunity to improve the diet quality of young adults, a group at risk of obesity. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  3. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were dissolved once a day in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for parenteral nutrition of newborn infants and infused continuously to 88 infants in whom septicaemia was suspected or had been proved. The mean dosages were 162 and 5.3 mg/kg per 24 hours...

  4. [Residual renal function and nutritional status in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Natasa; Lausević, Mirjana; Stojimirović, Biljana

    2005-01-01

    During the last years, an increasing number of patients with end-stage renal failure caused by various underlying diseases, all over the world, is treated by renal replacement therapy. NUTRITIONAL STATUS: Malnutrition is often found in patients affected by renal failure; it is caused by reduced intake of nutritional substances due to anorexia and dietary restrictions hormonal and metabolic disorders, comorbid conditions and loss of proteins, amino-acids, and vitamins during the dialysis procedure itself. Nutritional status significantly affects the outcome of patients on chronic dialysis treatment. Recent epiodemiological trials have proved that survival on chronic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis program depends more on residual renal function (RRF) than on peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of RRF on common biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutrition in 32 patients with end-stage renal failure with various underlying diseases during the first 6 months on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The mean residual creatinine clearance was 8,3 ml/min and the mean RRF was 16,24 l/week in our patients at the beginning of the chronic peritoneal dialysis treatment. During the follow-up, the RRF slightly decreased, while the nutritional status of patients significantly improved. Gender and age, as well as the leading disease and peritonitis didn't influence the RRF during the first 6 months of CAPD treatment. We found several positive correlations between RRF and laboratory and anthropometric markers of nutrition during the follow-up, proving the positive influence of RRF on nutritional status of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

  5. Poor nutrition in prepubertal Japanese children at the end of World War II suppressed bone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Tohya, Toshimitsu; Onoda, Chikashi; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-09-16

    To assess the extent to which malnutrition in childhood affects bone mineral density (BMD) decades later. BMDs were compared in healthy women (35-59 years old) who visited our hospital for annual examinations between 1992 and 1993 (group 1) and between 1999 and 2002 (group 2). The BMDs of 50- to 54-year-old women in group 1 averaged 0.86+/-0.15 g/cm2, which was significantly (pWar II (1945) undernutrition was rampant throughout Japan, and there were unprecedented numbers of cases of malnutrition. BMD was lower in women who experienced those conditions while they were 5 years old in average, a time when rapid skeletal growth was beginning. Thus, nutrition in childhood is a particularly crucial determinant of lifelong bone health.

  6. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution mediate socioeconomic differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes in Cape Coast, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeladza K Amegah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiological evidence linking socioeconomic deprivation with adverse pregnancy outcomes has been conflicting mainly due to poor measurement of socioeconomic status (SES. Studies have also failed to evaluate the plausible pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage impacts on pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the importance of maternal SES as determinant of birth weight and gestational duration in an urban area and evaluated main causal pathways for the influence of SES. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 559 mothers accessing postnatal services at the four main health facilities in Cape Coast, Ghana in 2011. Information on socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers was collected in a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: In multivariate linear regression adjusting for maternal age, parity and gender of newborn, low SES resulted in 292 g (95% CI: 440-145 reduction in birth weight. Important SES-related determinants were neighborhood poverty (221 g; 95% CI: 355-87, low education (187 g; 95% CI: 355-20, studentship during pregnancy (291 g; 95% CI: 506-76 and low income (147 g; 95% CI: 277-17. In causal pathway analysis, malaria infection (6-20%, poor nutrition (2-51% and indoor air pollution (10-62% mediated substantial proportions of the observed effects of socioeconomic deprivation on birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders indicated a 218% (RR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.41-7.21 risk increase of LBW and 83% (RR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.31-2.56 of PTB among low income mothers. Low and middle SES was associated with 357% (RR: 4.57; 95% CI: 1.67-12.49 and 278% (RR: 3.78; 95% CI: 1.39-10.27 increased risk of LBW respectively. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution respectively mediated 10-21%, 16-44% and 31-52% of the observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on LBW risk. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence of the effects of socioeconomic deprivation

  7. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution mediate socioeconomic differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes in Cape Coast, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza K; Damptey, Obed K; Sarpong, Gideon A; Duah, Emmanuel; Vervoorn, David J; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological evidence linking socioeconomic deprivation with adverse pregnancy outcomes has been conflicting mainly due to poor measurement of socioeconomic status (SES). Studies have also failed to evaluate the plausible pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage impacts on pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the importance of maternal SES as determinant of birth weight and gestational duration in an urban area and evaluated main causal pathways for the influence of SES. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 559 mothers accessing postnatal services at the four main health facilities in Cape Coast, Ghana in 2011. Information on socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers was collected in a structured questionnaire. In multivariate linear regression adjusting for maternal age, parity and gender of newborn, low SES resulted in 292 g (95% CI: 440-145) reduction in birth weight. Important SES-related determinants were neighborhood poverty (221 g; 95% CI: 355-87), low education (187 g; 95% CI: 355-20), studentship during pregnancy (291 g; 95% CI: 506-76) and low income (147 g; 95% CI: 277-17). In causal pathway analysis, malaria infection (6-20%), poor nutrition (2-51%) and indoor air pollution (10-62%) mediated substantial proportions of the observed effects of socioeconomic deprivation on birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders indicated a 218% (RR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.41-7.21) risk increase of LBW and 83% (RR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.31-2.56) of PTB among low income mothers. Low and middle SES was associated with 357% (RR: 4.57; 95% CI: 1.67-12.49) and 278% (RR: 3.78; 95% CI: 1.39-10.27) increased risk of LBW respectively. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution respectively mediated 10-21%, 16-44% and 31-52% of the observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on LBW risk. We provide evidence of the effects of socioeconomic deprivation, substantially mediated by malaria infection, poor nutrition

  8. Research review: maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition - mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K; Osterholm, Erin A

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy - an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress - significantly affect children's future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (a) the associations between pregnant women's inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients - protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline - as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children's neurocognitive development; and (b) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for 'disentangling' the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories - and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Local concentration of fast-food outlets is associated with poor nutrition and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Greenberg, Emily; Murphy, Jillian B; DiFazio, Lindsay A; Youra, Kathryn R

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of the local availability of fast-food restaurant locations with diet and obesity. We geocoded addresses of survey respondents and fast-food restaurant locations to assess the association between the local concentration of fast-food outlets, BMI, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The survey was conducted in Genesee County, Michigan. There were 1345 individuals included in this analysis, and the response rate was 25%. The Speak to Your Health! Community Survey included fruit and vegetable consumption items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, height, weight, and demographics. We used ArcGIS to map fast-food outlets and survey respondents. Stepwise linear regressions identified unique predictors of body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable consumption. Survey respondents had 8 ± 7 fast-food outlets within 2 miles of their home. Individuals living in close proximity to fast-food restaurants had higher BMIs t(1342) = 3.21, p food availability, which may constrain the success of nutrition promotion efforts. Efforts to decrease the local availability of unhealthy foods as well as programs to help consumers identify strategies for obtaining healthy meals at fast-food outlets may improve health outcomes.

  10. Critical Care Nurses' Reasons for Poor Attendance at a Continuous Professional Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Myra; Coetzee, Isabel; Heyns, Tanya

    2016-12-01

    Society demands competent and safe health care, which obligates professionals to deliver quality patient care using current knowledge and skills. Participation in continuous professional development programs is a way to ensure quality nursing care. Despite the importance of continuous professional development, however, critical care nurse practitioners' attendance rates at these programs is low. To explore critical care nurses' reasons for their unsatisfactory attendance at a continuous professional development program. A nominal group technique was used as a consensus method to involve the critical care nurses and provide them the opportunity to reflect on their experiences and challenges related to the current continuous professional development program for the critical care units. Participants were 14 critical care nurses from 3 critical care units in 1 private hospital. The consensus was that the central theme relating to the unsatisfactory attendance at the continuous professional development program was attitude. In order of importance, the 4 contributing priorities influencing attitude were communication, continuous professional development, time constraints, and financial implications. Attitude relating to attending a continuous professional development program can be changed if critical care nurses are aware of the program's importance and are involved in the planning and implementation of a program that focuses on the nurses' individual learning needs. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition – mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359

  12. Time to address continued poor vegetable intake in Australia for prevention of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathryn; Havill, Michelle; Watson, Wendy L; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    Australian and most international Dietary Guidelines recommend people consume more fruits and vegetables (F&V) to maintain a healthy weight and reduce chronic disease risk. Previous Australian and international surveys have shown sub-optimal consumption of F&V. This study aimed to assess adults' F&V consumption, knowledge of recommended servings, readiness to change, barriers/enabling factors, so that this knowledge might be used for campaigns that support improved consumption. An online survey of a representative sample of adults living in New South Wales, Australia (n = 2474) measuring self-reported F&V consumption; attitudes towards F&V consumption; stage of change for increasing F&V; barriers to consumption; and knowledge of cancer-health benefits. F&V consumption was below recommendations, with vegetable consumption notably low. Only 10% of participants ate at least five servings of vegetables/day (median intake was two daily servings), and 57% consumed two servings fruit/day. There was poor recognition that intake of vegetables was inadequate and this was a barrier to improving vegetable consumption; with preferences for other foods, habit and cost also important barriers. Key barriers to increasing fruit intake were habit, preferences for other foods, perishability, and cost. For vegetable consumption, 49% of participants were in the pre-contemplation stage of change, whereas for fruits 56% were in the action/maintenance stage. Sixty-four percent of respondents believed that eating F&V would protect against cancer, with 56% reporting they thought not eating enough F&V would cause cancer. Understanding what motivates and prevents people from consuming F&V is important for developing effective health promotion programs. Similar to previous surveys, there has been little shift in F&V consumption. Social marketing campaigns have been shown to improve health-related behaviours, and this study may assist in identifying audience segmentation for better targeted

  13. Poor Adherence to US Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Emilyn C; Liu, Yan; Davis, Jennifer S; Chang, Shine; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Poor diet quality in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse health outcomes throughout life, yet the dietary habits of American children and how they change across childhood and adolescence are unknown. This study sought to describe diet quality among children and adolescents by assessing adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and to determine whether any differences in adherence occurred across childhood. We employed a cross-sectional design using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Of 9,280 children aged 4 to 18 years who participated in NHANES from 2005 to 2010, those with insufficient data on dietary recall (n=852) or who were pregnant or lactating during the time of interview (n=38) were excluded from the final study sample (n=8,390). We measured adherence to the DGA using the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and stratified participants into three age groups (4 to 8, 9 to 13, and 14 to 18 years of age). We analyzed each of 12 HEI-2010 components and total HEI-2010 score. The youngest children had the highest overall diet quality due to significantly greater scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dairy, and whole grains. These children also had the highest scores for sodium, refined grains, and empty calories. Total HEI-2010 scores ranged from 43.59 to 52.11 out of 100, much lower than the minimum score of 80 that is thought to indicate a diet associated with good health. Overall, children and adolescents are failing to meet the DGA and may be at an increased risk of chronic diseases throughout life. By analyzing which food groups show differences between age groups, we provide data that can inform the development of dietary interventions to promote specific food groups targeting specific ages and improve diet quality among children and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Removing the Australian tax exemption on healthy food adds food stress to families vulnerable to poor nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Timothy J; Kerr, Deborah A; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Savage, Victoria; Pollard, Christina M

    2017-12-01

    To assess the impact of changing the Australian Goods and Services Tax (GST) on household food stress, which occurs when >25% of disposable income needs to be spent on food. Weekly healthy meal plan costs for average-income (AI), low-income (LI) and welfare-dependent (WDI) families were calculated using the 2013 Western Australian (WA) Food Access and Costs Survey. Four GST scenarios were compared: 1) status quo; 2) increasing GST to 15%; 3) expanding base to include exempt foods at 10% GST; and 4) expanding base to include exempt foods and increasing the tax to 15%. Single-parent families risk food stress regardless of their income or the GST scenario (requiring 24-42% of disposable income). The probability of food stress in Scenario 1 is 100% for WDI two-parent families and 36% for LI earners. In Scenarios 3 and 4, food stress probability is 60-72% for two-parent LI families and AI single-parent families, increasing to 88-94% if residing in very remote areas. There is food stress risk among single-parent, LI and WDI families, particularly those residing in very remote areas. Implications for public health: Expanding GST places an additional burden on people who are already vulnerable to poor nutrition and chronic disease due to their socioeconomic circumstances. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. [Continuity of nutritional care at discharge in the era of ICT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Olmos, Miguel Ángel

    2015-05-07

    Telemedicine represents the union of information technology and telecommunication services in health. This allows the improvement of health care, especially in underserved areas, bringing professionals working in continuing education and improving patient care at home. The application of telemedicine in various hospital complexes, clinics and health centers, has helped to provide a better service, within the parameters of efficiency, effectiveness, cost-benefit, with increasing satisfaction of medical staff and patients. The development and application of various types of telemedicine, the technological development of audio, text, video and data, and constant improvement of infrastructure in telecommunications, have favored the expansion and development of telemedicine in various medical specialties. The use of electronic health records by different health professionals can have a positive impact on the care provided to patients. This should also be supported by the development of better health policies, legal security and greater awareness in health professionals and patients regarding the potential benefits. Regarding the clinical activity in Nutrition, new technologies also provide an opportunity to improve in various educational, preventive, diagnostic and treatment aspects, including shared track between Nutrition Units and Primary Care Teams, for patients who need home nutritional care at, with shared protocols, providing teleconsultation in required cases and avoiding unnecessary travel to hospital.

  16. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  17. The Controlling Nutritional Status Score Is a Significant Independent Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, Shinkichi; Toyokawa, Gouji; Taguchi, Kenichi; Edagawa, Makoto; Shimamatsu, Shinichiro; Toyozawa, Ryo; Nosaki, Kaname; Seto, Takashi; Hirai, Fumihiko; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Shoji, Fumihiro; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Ichinose, Yukito

    2017-07-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating neoplasm; however, some patients exhibit a good response to chemotherapy or multidisciplinary therapy, including surgery and chemotherapy. It is therefore important to discover the factors that can be used to select patients who will benefit from such treatment. Although the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score has been used to predict the prognosis in other types of malignancy, its utility in patients with MPM is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of the CONUT in patients with MPM. The data of 83 patients, who were treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or multidisciplinary therapy, were analyzed in the present study. A cut-off CONUT score of 2 was used to classify all of the patients into low or high CONUT groups. Fifty-two of the 83 patients were classified into the low CONUT group. A high CONUT score was significantly correlated with chemotherapy alone (P = .011). The high CONUT group had significantly poorer overall survival (OS) (P clinical stage and the CONUT score were found to be independent predictive factors for the OS: clinical stage, I/II and III/IV; P = .001 and CONUT score, ≥ 3 and ≤ 2; P = .011, respectively. The clinical stage and the CONUT score were also independent predictive factors for DFS/PFS: clinical stage, I/II and III/IV; P = .006 and CONUT score, ≥ 3 and ≤ 2; P = .013, respectively. The CONUT score was an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in the patients with MPM. This score provides useful information for selecting patients who will benefit from the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional status in the era of target therapy: poor nutrition is a prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sehhoon; Park, Seongyeol; Lee, Se-Hoon; Suh, Beomseok; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kim, Young Whan; Heo, Dae Seog

    2016-11-01

    Pretreatment nutritional status is an important prognostic factor in patients treated with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the era of target therapies, its value is overlooked and has not been investigated. The aim of our study is to evaluate the value of nutritional status in targeted therapy. A total of 2012 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were reviewed and 630 patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) were enrolled for the final analysis. Anemia, body mass index (BMI), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were considered as nutritional factors. Hazard ratio (HR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for each group were calculated by Cox proportional analysis. In addition, scores were applied for each category and the sum of scores was used for survival analysis. In univariable analysis, anemia (HR, 1.29; p = 0.015), BMI lower than 18.5 (HR, 1.98; p = 0.002), and PNI lower than 45 (HR, 1.57; p nutritional status is a prognostic marker in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR TKI. Hence, baseline nutritional status should be more carefully evaluated and adequate nutrition should be supplied to these patients.

  19. Effect of continued oral feeding on clinical and nutritional outcomes of acute diarrhea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K H; Gastañaduy, A S; Saavedra, J M; Lembcke, J; Rivas, D; Robertson, A D; Yolken, R; Sack, R B

    1988-02-01

    One hundred twenty-eight nonmalnourished male patients between 3 and 36 months of age were randomly assigned to receive one of four lactose-free dietary treatments to determine the effect of dietary therapy on the severity and nutritional outcome of diarrheal illness. Group 1 received a formula diet composed of casein, sucrose, dextrin with maltose (Dextri-Maltose), and vegetable oil to provide 110 kcal/kg body weight/d (CSO-110). Group 2 received CSO to provide 55 kcal/kg/d (CSO-55) for 2 days and then CSO-110. Group 3 received only oral glucose-electrolyte solution (GES) for 2 days, CSO-55 for the next 2 days, and then CSO-110. Group 4 received the same diets as Group 3 except that only intravenous GES was used for the first 2 days. The GES maintenance solutions provided 24 to 30 kcal/kg/d. Therapeutic success rates were similar among dietary groups, ranging from 90% to 97%. Fecal excretion was initially lower in group 4 (P less than 0.05) but was similar initially among groups treated orally and among all four groups beginning on day 3. Net apparent absorption of nitrogen, fat, carbohydrate, and total energy; retention of nitrogen; and increments in body weight, arm circumference, and skin-fold thickness were positively related to the amounts of dietary energy consumed. Thus continued oral feeding with the CSO diets during the early phase of therapy yielded improved nutritional results.

  20. Comparison of the effects of enteral feeding with continuous and intermittent parenteral nutrition on hepatic triglyceride secretion in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabel-Martinez, L.; Skinner, C.; Parkin, A.; Hall, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride turnover was measured during steady-state conditions in 22 postoperative patients. Nine had received nutritional support with an enteral regimen, seven had received an equivalent regimen as continuous parenteral nutrition, and six received the same parenteral regimen as a cyclical infusion. After 5 days of nutritional support, each patient received an intravenous bolus of tritiated glycerol. Plasma radiolabeled triglyceride content was measured during the subsequent 24 hours. The data were analyzed by means of a simple deterministic model of plasma triglyceride kinetics and compared with the results obtained by stochastic analysis. The rates of hepatic triglyceride secretion obtained by deterministic analysis were higher than those obtained by the stochastic approach. However, the mode of delivery of the nutritional regimen did not affect the rate of hepatic triglyceride secretion regardless of the method of analysis. The results suggest that neither complete nutritional bypass of the gastrointestinal tract nor interruption of parenteral nutrition in an attempt to mimic normal eating has any effect on hepatic triglyceride secretion. Any beneficial effect that enteral feeding or cyclical parenteral nutrition may have on liver dysfunction associated with standard parenteral nutrition appears to be unrelated to changes in hepatic triglyceride secretion

  1. Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth★

    OpenAIRE

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Blackmore, Heather L.; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; McConnell, Josie M.; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Giussani, Dino A.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weani...

  2. A continuous and highly effective static mixing process for antisolvent precipitation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Hu, Jun; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H

    2010-02-15

    Rapid and homogeneous mixing of the solvent and antisolvent is critical to achieve submicron drug particles by antisolvent precipitation technique. This work aims to develop a continuous and highly effective static mixing process for antisolvent precipitation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs with spironolactone as a model drug. Continuous antisolvent production of drug nanoparticles was carried out with a SMV DN25 static mixer comprising 6-18 mixing elements. The total flow rate ranged from 1.0 to 3.0 L/min while the flow rate ratio of solvent to antisolvent was maintained at 1:9. It is found that only 6 mixing elements were sufficient to precipitate the particles in the submicron range. Increasing the number of elements would further reduce the precipitated particle size. Increasing flow rate from 1.0 to 3.0 L/min did not further reduce the particle size, while higher drug concentrations led to particle size increase. XRD and SEM results demonstrated that the freshly precipitated drug nanoparticles are in the amorphous state, which would, in presence of the mixture of solvent and antisolvent, change to crystalline form in short time. The lyophilized spironolactone nanoparticles with lactose as lyoprotectant possessed good redispersibility and showed 6.6 and 3.3 times faster dissolution rate than that of lyophilized raw drug formulation in 5 and 10 min, respectively. The developed static mixing process exhibits high potential for continuous and large-scale antisolvent precipitation of submicron drug particles. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A bivariate measurement error model for semicontinuous and continuous variables: Application to nutritional epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Victor; Freedman, Laurence S; Carroll, Raymond J; Midthune, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Semicontinuous data in the form of a mixture of a large portion of zero values and continuously distributed positive values frequently arise in many areas of biostatistics. This article is motivated by the analysis of relationships between disease outcomes and intakes of episodically consumed dietary components. An important aspect of studies in nutritional epidemiology is that true diet is unobservable and commonly evaluated by food frequency questionnaires with substantial measurement error. Following the regression calibration approach for measurement error correction, unknown individual intakes in the risk model are replaced by their conditional expectations given mismeasured intakes and other model covariates. Those regression calibration predictors are estimated using short-term unbiased reference measurements in a calibration substudy. Since dietary intakes are often "energy-adjusted," e.g., by using ratios of the intake of interest to total energy intake, the correct estimation of the regression calibration predictor for each energy-adjusted episodically consumed dietary component requires modeling short-term reference measurements of the component (a semicontinuous variable), and energy (a continuous variable) simultaneously in a bivariate model. In this article, we develop such a bivariate model, together with its application to regression calibration. We illustrate the new methodology using data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (Schatzkin et al., 2001, American Journal of Epidemiology 154, 1119-1125), and also evaluate its performance in a simulation study. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  4. Poor nutritional status of older subacute patients predicts clinical outcomes and mortality at 18 months of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, K; Nichols, C; Bowden, S; Milosavljevic, M; Lambert, K; Barone, L; Mason, M; Batterham, M

    2012-11-01

    Older malnourished patients experience increased surgical complications and greater morbidity compared with their well-nourished counterparts. This study aimed to assess whether nutritional status at hospital admission predicted clinical outcomes at 18 months follow-up. A retrospective analysis of N=2076 patient admissions (65+ years) from two subacute hospitals, New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of outcomes at 18 months, according to nutritional status at index admission, was performed in a subsample of n = 476. Nutritional status was determined within 72 h of admission using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Outcomes, obtained from electronic patient records, included hospital readmission rate, total Length of Stay (LOS), change in level of care at discharge and mortality. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, included age, sex, Major Disease Classification, mobility and LOS at index admission as covariates. At baseline, 30% of patients were malnourished and 53% were at risk of malnutrition. LOS was higher in malnourished and at risk, compared with well-nourished patients (median (interquartile range): 34 (21, 58); 26 (15, 41); 20 (14, 26) days, respectively; Pclinical outcomes and identifies a need to target this population for nutritional intervention following hospital discharge.

  5. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  6. Compatibility of intravenous ibuprofen with lipids and parenteral nutrition, for use as a continuous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jowell; Garg, Alka; Song, Yunmei; Fotios, Ambados; Andersen, Chad; Garg, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing interest to administer ibuprofen as a continuous infusion instead of a traditional bolus for treating Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). However, its compatibility data with commonly used drugs in the neonatal period, including parenteral nutrition (PN) and lipids is unavailable. The aim is to determine the compatibility of intravenous ibuprofen lysine with various ANZNN parenteral nutrition consensus group standard neonatal PN formulations and lipids. The PN and lipid solutions used in a tertiary neonatal unit were obtained. These included a Starter, Standard Preterm and low carbohydrate PN, and IV SMOF lipid admixture (SMOFLipid 20% 15 mL; Vitalipid N infant 4 mL, Soluvit N 1 mL) plus vitamin mixtures. 10% glucose was used as a control. 1:1 mixtures of different concentrations (1.25 to 5mg/mL) of ibuprofen lysine and each of the PN/glucose/lipid formulations were made. Samples were taken at hourly intervals for a total of 4 hours and tested for both physical (visual assessment, pH and microscopy) and chemical compatibility (High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis). Zeta potential and particle diameter were measured for SMOF lipid admixture and ibuprofen combination to assess emulsion stability. 24 hour stability of ibuprofen dilution in 5 mL BD Luer-lok polypropylene syringes at 25°C was also assessed. Most PN formed opaque solutions when mixed with ibuprofen 2.5 and 5mg/mL solutions. However, ibuprofen dilution of 1.25mg/mL produced clear, colourless solutions with no microscopic particles when mixed with all PN/glucose/lipid formulations tested. Ibuprofen was chemically stable with all PN and SMOF lipid admixture, for a period of 4 hours. The zeta potential and particle diameter were within acceptable limits. Ibuprofen lysine was stable over 24 hours in Luer-lok polypropylene syringes. Ibuprofen 1.25mg/mL is physically and chemically compatible with 10% glucose, starter PN, standard preterm and low carbohydrate PN, and SMOF lipid

  7. Nutrition of the anterior cruciate ligament. Effects of continuous passive motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyhar, M.J.; Danzig, L.A.; Hargens, A.R.; Akeson, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Twelve freshly killed mature male rabbits were used to study the effects of continuous passive motion (CPM) on regional and overall nonvascular nutritional pathways of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). One hundred fifty microcuries of 35 S-sulfate was injected intraarticularly into each knee joint. The right knee underwent CPM for 1 hour, while the left knee remained immobilized. Both knee joints were then isolated and immediately frozen. The ACLs were removed while still mostly frozen, and sectioned into anterior, middle, and posterior thirds for the six rabbits in Group 1, and proximal, middle, and distal thirds for the six rabbits in Group 2. In addition, quadriceps tendon samples were harvested from each limb of three rabbits. After appropriate processing, all samples were counted in a scintillation counter, and counts per minute per milligram of tissue were calculated. There was significantly higher uptake in rest extremity ACLs compared to CPM extremity ACLs (P = 0.0001). No significant difference was demonstrated in regional uptake comparing respective thirds of the ACL in either Group 1 or Group 2. Quadriceps tendon uptake trended higher in the limbs exposed to CPM compared to those maintained at rest (P = 0.14). The ACL uses diffusion as a primary nutrient pathway. CPM does not increase nutrient uptake by the ACL in this avascular model, but CPM may facilitate transport of metabolites out of the joint. No regional differences in uptake within the ACL occurred in either group

  8. Online nutrition and T2DM continuing medical education course launched on state-level medical association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Kristen K; Murano, Peter S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether a 1-hour online continuing medical education (CME) course focused on nutrition for type 2 diabetes would result in a gain in nutrition knowledge by practicing physicians. A practicing physician and dietitian collaborated to develop an online CME course (both webinar and self-study versions) on type 2 diabetes. This 1-hour accredited course was launched through the state-level medical association's education library, available to all physicians. Physicians (n=43) registered for the course, and of those, 31 completed the course in its entirety. A gain in knowledge was found when comparing pre- versus post-test scores related to the online nutrition CME ( P Online CME courses launched via state-level medical associations offer convenient continuing education to assist practicing physicians in addressing patient nutrition and lifestyle concerns related to chronic disease. The present diabetes CME one-credit course allowed physicians to develop basic nutrition care concepts on this topic to assist patients in a better way.

  9. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  10. Poor Dietary Guidelines Compliance among Low-Income Women Eligible for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinyoung Jun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed program aims to improve nutritional intakes of low-income individuals (<185% poverty threshold. The objective of this study was to describe the compliance with Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains among SNAP-Ed eligible (n = 3142 and ineligible (n = 3168 adult women (19–70 years nationwide and SNAP-Ed participating women in Indiana (n = 2623, using the NHANES 2007–2012 and Indiana SNAP-Ed survey data, respectively. Sensitivity analysis further stratified women by race/ethnicity and by current SNAP participation (<130% poverty threshold. Nationally, lower-income women were less likely to meet the fruit (21% vs. 25% and vegetable (11% vs. 19% guidelines than higher-income women, but did not differ on whole grains, which were ~5% regardless of income. The income differences in fruit and vegetable intakes were driven by non-Hispanic whites. Fewer SNAP-Ed-eligible U.S. women met fruit (21% vs. 55% and whole grain (4% vs. 18% but did not differ for vegetable recommendations (11% vs. 9% when compared to Indiana SNAP-Ed women. This same trend was observed among current SNAP participants. Different racial/ethnic group relationships with DGA compliance were found in Indiana compared to the nation. Nevertheless, most low-income women in the U.S. are at risk of not meeting DGA recommendations for fruits (79%, vegetables (89%, and whole grains (96%; SNAP-Ed participants in Indiana had higher compliance with DGA recommendations. Increased consumption of these three critical food groups would improve nutrient density, likely reduce calorie consumption by replacing high calorie choices, and improve fiber intakes.

  11. Meeting the food and nutrition needs of the poor: the role of fish and the opportunities and challenges emerging from the rise of aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, M C M; Thilsted, S H; Phillips, M J; Metian, M; Troell, M; Hall, S J

    2013-10-01

    People who are food and nutrition insecure largely reside in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and for many, fish represents a rich source of protein, micronutrients and essential fatty acids. The contribution of fish to household food and nutrition security depends upon availability, access and cultural and personal preferences. Access is largely determined by location, seasonality and price but at the individual level it also depends upon a person's physiological and health status and how fish is prepared, cooked and shared among household members. The sustained and rapid expansion of aquaculture over the past 30 years has resulted in >40% of all fish now consumed being derived from farming. While aquaculture produce increasingly features in the diets of many Asians, it is much less apparent among those living in Sub-Saharan Africa. Here, per capita fish consumption has grown little and despite the apparently strong markets and adequate biophysical conditions, aquaculture has yet to develop. The contribution of aquaculture to food and nutrition security is not only just an issue of where aquaculture occurs but also of what is being produced and how and whether the produce is as accessible as that from capture fisheries. The range of fish species produced by an increasingly globalized aquaculture industry differs from that derived from capture fisheries. Farmed fishes are also different in terms of their nutrient content, a result of the species being grown and of rearing methods. Farmed fish price affects access by poor consumers while the size at which fish is harvested influences both access and use. This paper explores these issues with particular reference to Asia and Africa and the technical and policy innovations needed to ensure that fish farming is able to fulfil its potential to meet the global population's food and nutrition needs. © 2013 World Fish. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the

  12. Comparison of Subcutaneous Regular Insulin and Lispro Insulin in Diabetics Receiving Continuous Nutrition: A Numerical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Mamie C; Strilka, Richard J; Clemens, Michael S; Armen, Scott B

    2015-06-30

    Optimal management of non-critically ill patients with diabetes maintained on continuous enteral feeding (CEN) is poorly defined. Subcutaneous (SQ) lispro and SQ regular insulin were compared in a simulated type 1 and type 2 diabetic patient receiving CEN. A glucose-insulin feedback mathematical model was employed to simulate type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients on CEN. Each patient received 25 SQ injections of regular insulin or insulin lispro, ranging from 0-6 U. Primary endpoints were the change in mean glucose concentration (MGC) and change in glucose variability (GV); hypoglycemic episodes were also reported. The model was first validated against patient data. Both SQ insulin preparations linearly decreased MGC, however, SQ regular insulin decreased GV whereas SQ lispro tended to increase GV. Hourly glucose concentration measurements were needed to capture the increase in GV. In the type 2 diabetic patient, "rebound hyperglycemia" occurred after SQ lispro was rapidly metabolized. Although neither SQ insulin preparation caused hypoglycemia, SQ lispro significantly lowered MGC compared to SQ regular insulin. Thus, it may be more likely to cause hypoglycemia. Analyses of the detailed glucose concentration versus time data suggest that the inferior performance of lispro resulted from its shorter duration of action. Finally, the effects of both insulin preparations persisted beyond their duration of actions in the type 2 diabetic patient. Subcutaneous regular insulin may be the short-acting insulin preparation of choice for this subset of diabetic patients. Clinical trial is required before a definitive recommendation can be made. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Comparison of Subcutaneous Regular Insulin and Lispro Insulin in Diabetics Receiving Continuous Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Mamie C.; Strilka, Richard J.; Clemens, Michael S.; Armen, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Optimal management of non–critically ill patients with diabetes maintained on continuous enteral feeding (CEN) is poorly defined. Subcutaneous (SQ) lispro and SQ regular insulin were compared in a simulated type 1 and type 2 diabetic patient receiving CEN. Method: A glucose-insulin feedback mathematical model was employed to simulate type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients on CEN. Each patient received 25 SQ injections of regular insulin or insulin lispro, ranging from 0-6 U. Primary endpoints were the change in mean glucose concentration (MGC) and change in glucose variability (GV); hypoglycemic episodes were also reported. The model was first validated against patient data. Results: Both SQ insulin preparations linearly decreased MGC, however, SQ regular insulin decreased GV whereas SQ lispro tended to increase GV. Hourly glucose concentration measurements were needed to capture the increase in GV. In the type 2 diabetic patient, “rebound hyperglycemia” occurred after SQ lispro was rapidly metabolized. Although neither SQ insulin preparation caused hypoglycemia, SQ lispro significantly lowered MGC compared to SQ regular insulin. Thus, it may be more likely to cause hypoglycemia. Analyses of the detailed glucose concentration versus time data suggest that the inferior performance of lispro resulted from its shorter duration of action. Finally, the effects of both insulin preparations persisted beyond their duration of actions in the type 2 diabetic patient. Conclusions: Subcutaneous regular insulin may be the short-acting insulin preparation of choice for this subset of diabetic patients. Clinical trial is required before a definitive recommendation can be made. PMID:26134836

  14. Continuous parenteral and enteral nutrition induces metabolic dysfunction in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoll, Barbara; Puiman, Patrycja Jolanta; Cui, Liwei

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that parenteral nutrition (PN) compared with formula feeding results in hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in neonatal pigs. The current aim was to test whether the route of feeding (intravenous [IV] vs enteral) rather than other feeding modalities (diet, pattern) had...

  15. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Children born to mothers whose height was below 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted; children born with a low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted. Low feeding frequency and low consumption of eggs, dairy products, fruits and vegetables were associated with stunting and poor linear growth in children 6-23 months old. Children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Factors associated with poor nutritional status among community dwelling Lebanese elderly subjects living in rural areas: results of the AMEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, C; Salameh, P; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status, measured by MNA, and its association with socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics of a representative sample of community dwelling elderly subjects. Cross-sectional study. Community dwelling elderly individuals living in rural communities in Lebanon. 1200 elderly individuals aged 65 years or more. Socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics were recorded during a standardized interview. Nutritional status was assessed through Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The 5-item GDS score and the WHO-5-A score were used to assess mood, whereas Mini Mental Status (MMS) was applied to evaluate cognitive status. The prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition was 8.0% respective 29.1% of the study sample. Malnutrition was significantly more frequent in elderly subjects aged more than 85 years, in females, widowed and illiterate people. Moreover, participants who reported lower financial status were more often malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Regarding health status, poor nutritional status was more common among those reporting more than three chronic diseases, taking more than three drugs daily, suffering from chronic pain and those who had worse oral health status. Also, depressive disorders and cognitive dysfunction were significantly related to malnutrition. After multivariate analysis following variables remained independently associated to malnutrition: living in the governorate of Nabatieh (ORa 2.30, 95% CI 1.35 -3.93), reporting higher income (ORa 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97), higher number of comorbidities (ORa 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.32), chronic pain (ORa 1.72, 95% CI 1.24-2.39), and depressive disorders (ORa 1.66, 95% CI 1.47-1.88). On the other hand, better cognitive functioning was strongly associated with decreased nutritional risk (ORa 0.27, 95%CI 0.17-0.43). Our results highlighted the close relationship between health status and malnutrition. The

  17. Absence of effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on the esophageal phase of nutritive swallowing in newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeddi, Djamal; Cantin, Danny; Samson, Nathalie; Tian, Hao; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2013-08-01

    It is presently recommended that oral feeding be started in premature infants as soon as possible, often at an age at which nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is still required for ventilatory support. Our previous data showed that application of nCPAP up to 10 cmH2O in full-term lambs had no deleterious effect on cardiorespiratory safety, feeding efficiency, or on nutritive swallowing-breathing coordination. Besides fear of swallowing-breathing coordination disturbances, esophageal motility disruption by nCPAP could be a reason to delay oral feeding. To our knowledge, no study has focused on the effects of nCPAP on esophageal motility in the neonatal period. The aim of the present study was therefore to further assess the effects of nCPAP on oral feeding by assessing its effects on the esophageal phase of nutritive swallowing (nutritive esophagodeglutition). Six full-term lambs, ages 2 to 3 days, underwent esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring. Lambs were bottle-fed under 2 randomized conditions, namely spontaneous breathing and nCPAP 6 cmH(2)O. Beyond confirmation of unaltered feeding efficiency, analysis of multiple variables measured by impedance monitoring revealed that nCPAP 6 does not alter nutritive esophagodeglutition in any way (nCPAP vs spontaneous breathing, P > 0.1 for all variables). offering further support to neonatologists pleading for initiation of oral feeding in infants still on nCPAP, the present results set the foundations for similar clinical studies in preterm human infants to confirm the absence of effects of nCPAP on nutritive swallowing.

  18. Evaluation of a Continuing Educational Intervention for Primary Health Care Professionals about Nutritional Care of Patients at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, E; Orrevall, Y; Olin, A Ödlund; Strang, P; Szulkin, R; Törnkvist, L

    2016-04-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of a continuing educational intervention on primary health care professionals' familiarity with information important to nutritional care in a palliative phase, their collaboration with other caregivers, and their level of knowledge about important aspects of nutritional care. Observational cohort study. 10 primary health care centers in Stockholm County, Sweden. 140 district nurses/registered nurses and general practitioners/physicians working with home care. 87 professionals participated in the intervention group (IG) and 53 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of a web-based program offering factual knowledge; a practical exercise linking existing and new knowledge, abilities, and skills; and a case seminar facilitating reflection. The intervention's effects were measured by a computer-based study-specific questionnaire before and after the intervention, which took approximately 1 month. The CG completed the questionnaire twice (1 month between response occasions). The intervention effects, odds ratios, were estimated by an ordinal logistic regression. In the intra-group analyses, statistically significant changes occurred in the IG's responses to 28 of 32 items and the CG's responses to 4 of 32 items. In the inter-group analyses, statistically significant effects occurred in 20 of 32 statements: all 14 statements that assessed familiarity with important concepts and all 4 statements about collaboration with other caregivers but only 2 of the 14 statements concerning level of knowledge. The intervention effect varied between 2.5 and 12.0. The intervention was effective in increasing familiarity with information important to nutritional care in a palliative phase and collaboration with other caregivers, both of which may create prerequisites for better nutritional care. However, the intervention needs to be revised to better increase the professionals' level of knowledge about important aspects of nutritional care.

  19. Effectiveness of home-based nutritional counselling and support on exclusive breastfeeding in urban poor settings in Nairobi: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Griffiths, Paula L; Wekesah, Frederick Murunga; Wanjohi, Milka; Muhia, Nelson; Muriuki, Peter; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C; McGarvey, Stephen T; Musoke, Rachel N; Norris, Shane A; Madise, Nyovani J

    2017-12-19

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) improves infant health and survival. We tested the effectiveness of a home-based intervention using Community Health Workers (CHWs) on EBF for six months in urban poor settings in Kenya. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi. We recruited pregnant women and followed them until the infant's first birthday. Fourteen community clusters were randomized to intervention or control arm. The intervention arm received home-based nutritional counselling during scheduled visits by CHWs trained to provide specific maternal infant and young child nutrition (MIYCN) messages and standard care. The control arm was visited by CHWs who were not trained in MIYCN and they provided standard care (which included aspects of ante-natal and post-natal care, family planning, water, sanitation and hygiene, delivery with skilled attendance, immunization and community nutrition). CHWs in both groups distributed similar information materials on MIYCN. Differences in EBF by intervention status were tested using chi square and logistic regression, employing intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 1110 mother-child pairs were involved, about half in each arm. At baseline, demographic and socioeconomic factors were similar between the two arms. The rates of EBF for 6 months increased from 2% pre-intervention to 55.2% (95% CI 50.4-59.9) in the intervention group and 54.6% (95% CI 50.0-59.1) in the control group. The adjusted odds of EBF (after adjusting for baseline characteristics) were slightly higher in the intervention arm compared to the control arm but not significantly different: for 0-2 months (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.55 to 2.96; p = 0.550); 0-4 months (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.54 to 2.42; p = 0.696), and 0-6 months (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.02; p = 0.718). EBF for six months significantly increased in both arms indicating potential effectiveness of using CHWs to provide home-based counselling to

  20. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. Tarry-Adkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’ in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1 in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria, and increased xanthine oxidase (XO, p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB. Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1, all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  1. Development and Optimization of a Wet Granulation Process at Elevated Temperature for a Poorly Compactible Drug Using Twin Screw Extruder for Continuous Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Anuprabha K; Desai, Divyakant; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance tabletability of a poorly compactible drug, acetaminophen, by wet granulation using twin screw extruder at high temperature. It was desired that there would be minimum amounts of excipients used and the granules obtained after extrusion would be dry and fall within a size range suitable for tableting without any further processing. Mixtures of acetaminophen (95%) with binders (5% povidone or partially pregelatinized starch) were wet granulated through twin screw extruder at 70°C by adding 7% w/w water. The process had a short granulation time (processing temperature used, no drying after extrusion was needed. By optimizing formulation and processing parameters, >90% granules in the size range of 125 to 1000 μm (1.7 MPa, which was superior to that of tablets prepared by conventional high shear wet granulation. As the granules could be extruded continuously and did not require drying and milling, the method was amenable to continuous processing. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENYIMPANGAN POSITIF (POSITIVE DEVIANCE STATUS GIZI BALITA PADA KELUARGA MISKIN DI KABUPATEN GIZI-KURANG RENDAH DAN TINGGI DI PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN (FACTORS OF POSITIVE DEVIANCE IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVES AMONG POOR FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Luciasari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The amount of poor population in Jeneponto & Selayar districts, South Sulawesi, were relatively similar and higher than the national average. However, Janeponto had high prevalence in malnutrition among children under five (28%, whereas Selayar had low prevalence in malnutrition among children under five (11,31%. Objective: This research aims to measure positive deviance which affects nutrition status in two different districts with relative-similar poverty level as well as different nutrition deficiency prevalence. Method: This research is an advance analysis of Riskesdas 2007 data which targeted poor family with under-five-children as sample. As the first step, data verification is conducted to make sure data completeness. Analysis is done by using statistical description, whereas Chi square test is used to analyzing nutrition-status-factors difference between two districts. Result: Under-five-children nutrition status is highly affected by family socio-economy status which covers education level of parents, income, total of family member, access to clean water, environment hygiene and sanitation, and family morbidity. Conclusion: Positive deviation factor of less malnutrition nutritional status than high malnutrition in poor areas was the high parental education, the small number of household members, and ease of access to water.   Keywords: positive deviance, nutritional status, under-fives, poor family   ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Penduduk miskin di Kabupaten Jeneponto dan Selayar, Sulawesi Selatan, jumlahnya relatif sama dan lebih tinggi dari angka nasional. Namun, Jeneponto memiliki prevalensi balita gizi-kurang yang tinggi (28%, sedangkan Selayar memiliki prevalensi balita gizi-kurang yang rendah (11,3%. Tujuan: Menentukan faktor-faktor penyimpangan positif yang memengaruhi status gizi di dua kabupaten dengan tingkat kemiskinan relatif sama tetapi berprevalensi gizi kurang berbeda. Metode: Analisis lanjut data

  3. Effect of the nutritional status of semi-continuous microalgal cultures on the productivity and biochemical composition of Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Martiña; Seixas, Pedro; Coutinho, Paula; Fábregas, Jaime; Otero, Ana

    2011-12-01

    The rotifer Brachionus plicatilis was cultured using the microalga Isochrysis aff. galbana clone T-ISO as feed. T-ISO was cultured semi-continuously with daily renewal rates of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the volume of cultures. The increase of renewal rate led to increasing nutrient and light availability in microalgal cultures, which caused differences in the biochemical composition of microalgal biomass. Growth rate, individual dry weight, organic content, and biomass productivity of rotifer cultures increased in response to higher growth rate in T-ISO cultures. Rotifer growth rate showed a strong negative correlation (R² = 0.90) with the C/N ratio of microalgal biomass. Rotifer dry weight was also affected by nutrient availability of T-ISO cultures, increasing up to 50% from nutrient-limited to nutrient-sufficient conditions. Consequently, biomass productivity of rotifer cultures increased more than twofold with the increase of renewal rate of T-ISO cultures. Rotifer organic content underwent the same trend of total dry weight. Maximum content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was reached in rotifers fed T-ISO from the renewal rate of 40%, with percentages of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω-3, DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω-3, EPA) of 11% and 5% of total fatty acids, respectively. Selecting the most appropriate conditions for microalgal culture can therefore enhance the nutritive quality of microalgal biomass, resulting in a better performance of filter feeders and their nutrient content, and may constitute a useful tool to improve the rearing of fish larvae and other aquaculture organisms that require live feed in some or all the stages of their life cycle.

  4. Monthly use of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system as an educational and motivational tool for poorly controlled type 1 diabetes adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowińska-Olszewska, B; Tobiaszewska, M; Łuczyński, W; Bossowski, A

    2013-01-01

    Experience with the use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems (RT-CGMS) in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is limited. We aimed to assess the possibility of glycaemic control improvement and to characterize the group of adolescents, who may gain long-term benefits from the use of the RT-CGMS. Forty T1DM patients, aged 14.6 ± 2.1 years, with diabetes duration 7.4 ± 3.6 years and initial HbA₁c 9.3 ± 1.5% were recruited. The analysis was based on one-month glucose sensors use, combined with the thorough family support. Patients were analysed in groups according to baseline HbA₁c: below and above 7.5%, and 10.0%. Comparison between patients with or without improvement in HbA₁c after 3-month follow-up was also performed. Patients' satisfaction based on the questionnaire was assessed. HbA₁c level in entire study group decreased after three months, from 9.3 ± 1.0% to 8.8 ± 1.6% (P10% did not achieve significant improvement: 11.2 ± 0.5% vs. 10.9 ± 1.1 (P=0.06). In satisfaction questionnaire the lowest scores (negative opinion) were reported by group of patients with initial HbA₁c above 10%, while the highest scores (positive opinion) were found in the group with improvement of HbA₁c after 3 month follow-up. Short-term use of CGMS RT, united with satisfaction questionnaire, performed in poorly controlled teenagers with T1DM, can be useful in defining the group of young patients, who can benefit from long-term CGMS RT use in metabolic control improvement.

  5. [Dietary approach to improving the nutritional status in institutionalized elderly hemodialysis patients with a poor dietary intake: a single-arm pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Makiko; Komatsu, Rieko; Maruyama, Yuko; Takaki, Tomoyuki; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Osamu; Sawase, Kenji; Harada, Takashi; Funakoshi, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    The hemodialysis (HD) diet, which is a high-calorie and high-fat regimen, may inadvertently lead to an inadequate dietary intake, resulting in undernutrition among elderly HD patients. Therefore, an attempt was made to improve the dietary intake by implementing a modified diet regimen in eligible elderly HD patients. Elderly HD patients who had ingested nutritional index [GNRI], 83.5±8.3; normalized protein catabolic ratio [nPCR], 0.78±0.14). The modified diet regimen, which involved reducing food portion sizes and incorporating a liquid diet, led to a significant increase in their dietary intake from 48.1% at baseline to 97.1% of the meals provided 3 months after the start of the modified HD diet regimen. Their GNRI also significantly increased from 83.5±8.3 to 86.1±10.2, and their serum albumin levels significantly increased from 3.2±0.2 g/dL to 3.4±0.4 g/dL, suggesting improvements in their nutritional status. The attempted dietary approach for elderly HD patients was shown to potentially increase their dietary intake and improve their nutritional status without affecting the efficiency of HD being implemented.

  6. Effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of older adults living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja

    2017-09-07

    The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status of protein, iron and vitamins of B 2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional

  7. Homestead food production model contributes to improved household food security and nutrition status of young children and women in poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talukder

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient malnutrition is a serious public health problem among women and children in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and the Philippines. Helen Keller International has been implementing homestead food production (HFP programs (coupled with nutrition education in these countries to increase and ensure year-round availability and intake of micronutrient-rich foods in poor households, particularly among women and children.  Between 2003 and 2007, the HFP program was implemented among ~30,000 households in these four countries. Data collected from representative samples taken for evaluations of HFP programs in these countries illustrated the benefit of the program for households. Data were collected through interviews with households in villages that had the HFP program and from control households in non-HFP program villages. Blood samples collected from ~1000 children aged 6-59 months and ~1200 non-pregnant women before and after program implementation were analyzed for hemoglobin. The review showed that the HFP program significantly improved dietary diversification. The combined data from all four countries showed improved animal food consumption among program households, with liver consumption increasing from 24% at baseline to 46% at endline and the median number of eggs consumed by families per week increasing from 2 to 5.  The sale of HFP products also improved household income. Anemia prevalence among children in program households decreased in all the countries; however, the decrease was only significant in Bangladesh and the Philippines.  Although anemia prevalence also decreased among control households in three countries, the magnitude of change was higher in program households compared with control households.Les carences en micronutriments représentent un grave problème de santé publique chez les femmes et les enfants au Bangladesh, au Cambodge, au Népal et aux Philippines. Helen Keller International met en œuvre dans ces pays

  8. Effectiveness of Dietetic Intervention on Nutritional Status and Hydration Status in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. LAM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Hong Kong, more than 3,000 patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF on CAPD in 20091. Protein-energy malnutrition and volume overload are common problems in CAPD patients and associated with high morbidity and mortality2-6. Hyperphosphatemia is also a frequent complication in Chinese CAPD patients and is associated with development of renal bone disease or osteodystrophy7. The Kidney Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI guidelines suggested a combination of valid, complementary measures should be used to assess nutritional status in CAPD patients and anthropometric measurements are valid and clinically useful indicators of protein-energy nutritional status in maintenance dialysis patients8. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA, which is a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive method, provides another powerful tool for monitoring of nutrition and hydration in CAPD patients9—10. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of dietetic intervention in a local acute hospital on nutritional status and hydration status of patients on CAPD in outpatient setting. This is a retrospective study of 22 ESRF patients receiving dietetic intervention during CAPD training from February 2010 to January 2011. Patients with cognitive impairment or contraindicated with bioimepdence analysis (BIA were excluded. Baseline demographic and clinical data were retrieved from the dietetic consultation record and the electronic records in Clinical Management System (CMS. The parameters related to the nutrition and hydration status in the first and follow-up dietetic consultation were also collected from the record. They included the dietary protein and energy intakes estimated from the dietary history, anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, body mass index (BMI, skeletal muscle mass (SMM, body fat mass (BFM, body fat percentage (BF%, intracellular water (ICW, extracellular water (ECW measured by body composition analyzer (In

  9. The Effect of Non-nutritive Sucking on Transcutaneous Oxygen Saturation in Neonates under the Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral beneficial effects of non-nutritive sucking in infants, including the physiological stability, relaxation, better transition from tube feeding to oral feeding have been reported. But its effect on oxygen saturation in neonates under the Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (NCPAPو (is not so clear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of non-nutritive sucking on transcutaneous oxygen saturation levels of neonates treated with NCPAP.Materials and MethodsThis quasi-experimental study was done on 25 preterm neonates, hospitalized with a diagnosis of respiratory distress, required NCPAP, in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at the Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital and Babol Clinic, North of Iran. Non-nutritive sucking was elicited by a standard pacifier appropriate to their age one hour a day, and the mean oxygen saturation was measured before and after intervention by cardiopulmonary monitoring (Saadat Co., Iran. Data analyzed using SPSS-18.0 software.ResultsIn the 25 cases studied, the mean oxygen saturation values ​​before performing non-nutritive sucking was 96.31±2.88%, which was changed to 98.35±1.6% after intervention, and this increase was statistically significant (P = 0.004.Results showed that the gender, birth weight and gestational age of neonates had no effect on mean Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2level.ConclusionAccording to the results, using the non-nutritive sucking in premature neonates under the NCPAP, can improve oxygenation.

  10. Breastfeeding in Mexico was stable, on average, but deteriorated among the poor, whereas complementary feeding improved: results from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cossío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Dinorah; Reyes-Vázquez, Horacio; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2013-05-01

    We present: 1) indicators of infant and young child feeding practices (IYCFP) and median age of introduction of foods analyzed by geographic and socioeconomic variables for the 2006 national probabilistic Health Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006); and 2) changes in IYCFP indicators between the 1999 national probabilistic Nutrition Survey and ENSANUT-2006, analyzed by the same variables. Participants were women 12-49 y and their <2-y-old children (2953 in 2006 and 3191 in 1999). Indicators were estimated with the status quo method. The median age of introduction of foods was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method using recall data. The national median duration of breastfeeding was similar in both surveys, 9.7 mo in 1999 and 10.4 mo in 2006, but decreased in the vulnerable population. In 1999 indigenous women breastfed 20.8 mo but did so for only 13.0 mo in 2006. The national percentage of those exclusively breastfeeding <6 mo also remained stable: 20% in 1999 and 22.3% in 2006. Nevertheless, exclusively breastfeeding <6 mo changed within the indigenous population, from 46% in 1999 to 34.5% in 2006. Between surveys, most breastfeeding indicators had lower values in vulnerable populations than in those better-off. Complementary feeding, however, improved overall. Complementary feeding was inadequately timed: median age of introduction of plain water was 3 mo, formula and non-human milk was 5 mo, and cereals, legumes, and animal foods was 5 mo. Late introduction of animal foods occurred among vulnerable indigenous population when 50% consumed these products at 8 mo. Mexican IYCFP indicate that public policy must protect breastfeeding while promoting the timely introduction of complementary feeding.

  11. A Customized Online Nutrition Guidance System Is Effective for Treating Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Supporting Continuity of Diet Therapy at Home: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Tomonori; Takada, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Akira; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Yamashina, Shunhei; Ikejima, Kenichi; Ban, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Sumio

    2017-01-01

    Continuity is required for diet therapy, but it depends on patients. We examined the utility of a new tool, the customized online nutrition guidance system, in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Seven patients plotted their body weight (BW) and marked a customized task card on completion for 90 days on a website. The instructors encouraged them by e-mail. BW, serum transaminase levels, and system usage were evaluated. The results showed that BW and serum alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly lower than at baseline. BW and task visualization as well as encouragement by e-mails were effective in ensuring continuity. Thus, this system is effective in keeping NAFLD patients motivated to continue their diet therapy. PMID:28674352

  12. The use of bat guano in the improvement of the nutritive value of poor quality roughage fed to ruminants in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Mlay, Paul; Sagamiko, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was carried out on six rumen fistulated cows to determine the potential of bat guano in the treatment (GU) of poor quality roughage in comparison with the use of urea (UR) alkali from “Magadi” (MG) with untreated straws as a control (C). One kg DM of rice straws were sprayed with one litre each of either 5% Urea, or “Magadi”, or Bats’ guano suspensions. The treated straws were kept in covered plastic buckets for 14 days after this, followed by sun drying, then ground by laborato...

  13. Effects Of Poor Quality Desert Grass And Subsequent Refeeding On A High Plane Of Nutrition On Growth And Body Composition Of Sudan Desert Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgoub, O.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty two, 21 males and 21 females, weaned Sudan Desert lambs were divided according to sex and live weight into three equal groups (3 x 14. Each group was randomly fed ad libitum for 11 weeks on one of three diets : humra Aristida funiculata Trin. & Rupr., humra plus limited amound of cotton seed cake, and a balanced ration. After those 11 weeks of differential feeding, each group was fed ad libitum on the balanced ration for 12 weeks. Six lambs (3 males and 3 females, 2 from each group, were randomly slaughtered at the start of the differential feeding period. Half of the remaining lambs (3 x 6 in each treatment group (3 x 12 were slaughtered at the end of the differential feeding period and the other half (3 x 6 at the end of the experiment. Live-weight growth of lambs fed humra, with or without supplemental cottonseed cake, was restricted compared to lambs fed the balanced ration. Upon refeeding, previously restricted growing lambs expressed compensatory growth. The pattern of relative increase in weight of body components was not affected by nutritional history but was influenced by body weight. Following refeeding, animals fed earlier humra with or without cottonseed cake, recovered in body conformation and composition. It was concluded that, supplementation of range lambs with a source of protein during the season of graze scarcity and afterwards feeding them on high energy yielding rations shortly before slaughter is recommended under the conditions of the Sudan.

  14. Kinetics and dose calculations of ampicillin and gentamicin given as continuous intravenous infusion during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Bentzon, M W

    1983-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were administered continuously intravenously to 88 newborn infants using individually calculated dosages. For infants with a mean value of plasma clearance of the antibiotics, it was calculated that the serum ampicillin and gentamicin concentrations would be between 35-5...

  15. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1984-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were given continuously i.v. to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule and the results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study including 88 infants who received individually calculated dosages. With the dosage schedule the variation in the serum concent...

  16. Identifying barriers to the implementation of nutrition education in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Hong, Youngsun

    2015-01-01

    To improve the nutritional status of children and adolescents, it is critical to identify the barriers to the implementation of nutrition education in schools. We carried out a cross-sectional study by analyzing data from 121 subjects (45 nutrition teachers and 76 school dietitians). Among the personal, environmental and systematic barriers, the top four barriers to the implementation of nutrition education were heavy workload (4.28 points), lack of a systematic curriculum (4.12 points), lack of perception of nutrition education by school administrators and teachers (4.07 points), and lack of continuing education for nutrition teachers and school dietitians (4.05 points). Additionally, poor working conditions, such as low pay, were identified as significant barriers to nutrition education for school dietitians compared with nutrition teachers (4.33 vs 3.47 points, peducation in schools in South Korea.

  17. Poor maternal nutrition leads to alterations in oxidative stress, antioxidant defense capacity, and markers of fibrosis in rat islets: potential underlying mechanisms for development of the diabetic phenotype in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Chen, Jian-Hua; Jones, Richard H; Smith, Noel H; Ozanne, Susan E

    2010-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in later life. Good evidence indicates that the environment plays an important role in this relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are defined poorly. Islets are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and this condition combined with fibrosis is thought to be instrumental in T2D pathogenesis. Here we use our maternal low-protein (LP) rat model to determine the effect of early diet on oxidative stress and fibrosis in pancreatic islets of male offspring at 3 and 15 mo of age. Islet xanthine oxidase (XO) expression was increased in 15-mo LP offspring, which suggests increased oxidative-stress. Manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (antioxidant enzymes) were reduced significantly in LP offspring, which indicated impairment of oxidative defense. Expression of fibrosis markers collagen I and collagen III also increased in 15-mo LP offspring. Angiotensin II receptor type I (AT(II)R(1)), induced by hyperglycemia and oxidative-stress, was significantly up-regulated in 15-mo LP offspring. Lipid peroxidation was also increased in 15-mo LP animals. We conclude that maternal protein restriction causes age-associated increased oxidative stress, impairment of oxidative defense, and fibrosis. These findings provide mechanisms by which suboptimal early nutrition can lead to T2D development later in life.

  18. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Chibarabada, Tendai; Modi, Albert

    2016-01-06

    Whereas sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region's agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  19. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region’s agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  20. Prevalence of gluten-free diet adherence among individuals without celiac disease in the USA: results from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Daniel V; Tennyson, Christina A; Green, Peter H; Demmer, Ryan T

    2013-08-01

    Clinical inference suggests the prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is substantially higher than that of celiac disease in the USA. Unfortunately, there are currently no data supporting these claims. The authors analyzed nationally representative data to estimate the prevalence of adherence to a gluten-free diet among participants without celiac disease and also to characterize the demographics and general health status of these participants. The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 enrolled 7762 individuals representing the civilian, non-institutionalized, US population free of celiac disease. Participants responded to interviewer administered questionnaires regarding current adherence to a gluten-free diet. Prevalence estimates were computed using SAS survey procedures. There were 49 individuals who reported current adherence to a gluten-free diet reflecting a weighted prevalence of 0.548% (95% CI 0.206-0.889). The prevalence of a gluten-free diet was higher in females (0.58%) than males (0.37%), although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.34). Participants reporting a gluten-free diet were older (46.6 vs. 40.5 years, p = 0.005), had higher high-density lipoprotein, lower iron and lower body mass index. The estimated national prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is 0.548%, approximately half that of celiac disease. Future studies are merited in order to better understand the population burden of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

  1. Consent to Specimen Storage and Continuing Studies by Race and Ethnicity: A Large Dataset Analysis Using the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if significant differences exist in consent rates for biospecimen storage and continuing studies between non-Hispanic Whites and minority ethnic groups in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Methods. Using logistic regression, we analyzed 2011-2012 NHANES data to determine whether race/ethnicity, age, gender, and education level influence consent to specimen storage or future testing. Results. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, some minorities were less willing to donate a specimen for storage and continuing studies, including other Hispanics (non-Mexican (OR 0.236, 95% CI: 0.079, 0.706, non-Hispanic Asians (OR 0.212, 95% CI: 0.074, 0.602, and other/multiracial ethnic groups (OR 0.189, 95% CI: 0.037, 0.957. Within race and ethnic groups, those aged 20–39 years (OR 2.215, 95% CI: 1.006–4.879 and 40–59 years (OR 9.375, 95% CI: 2.163–40.637 are more willing than those over 60 years to provide consent. Conclusion. Lower consent rates by other Hispanics, non-Hispanic Asians, and other/multiracial individuals in this study represent the first published comparison of consent rates among these groups to our knowledge. To best meet the health care needs of this segment of the population and to aid in designing future genetic studies, reassessment of ethnic minority groups concerning these issues is important.

  2. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Perdue Pledges Support on the Long Road to Recovery 4/5 USDA Continues Disaster Assistance in Puerto Rico USDA is continuing its efforts to address the nutrition needs of Puerto Rican residents affected by Hurricanes ...

  3. Evaluation of Nutrition Interventions in Children in Conflict Zones: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Grace J; Lama, Sonam D; Martinez-Brockman, Josefa L; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Food and nutrition insecurity becomes increasingly worse in areas affected by armed conflict. Children affected by conflict, or in war-torn settings, face a disproportionate burden of malnutrition and poor health outcomes. As noted by humanitarian response reviews, there is a need for a stronger evidence-based response to humanitarian crises. To achieve this, we systematically searched and evaluated existing nutrition interventions carried out in conflict settings that assessed their impact on children's nutrition status. To evaluate the impact of nutrition interventions on children's nutrition and growth status, we identified published literature through EMBASE, PubMed, and Global Health by using a combination of relevant text words and Medical Subject Heading terms. Studies for this review must have included children (aged ≤18 y), been conducted in conflict or postconflict settings, and assessed a nutrition intervention that measured ≥1 outcome for nutrition status (i.e., stunting, wasting, or underweight). Eleven studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Five different nutrition interventions were identified and showed modest results in decreasing the prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight, reduction in severe or moderate acute malnutrition or both, mortality, anemia, and diarrhea. Overall, nutrition interventions in conflict settings were associated with improved children's nutrition or growth status. Emergency nutrition programs should continue to follow recent recommendations to expand coverage and access (beyond refugee camps to rural areas) and ensure that aid and nutrition interventions are distributed equitably in all conflict-affected populations. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Continuous in-situ methane measurements at paddy fields in a rural area of India with poor electric infrastructure, using a low-cost instrument based on open-path near-IR laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidemori, T.; Matsumi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Sasago, H.; Takahashi, K.; Imasu, R.; Takeuchi, W.; Adachi, M.; Machida, T.; Terao, Y.; Nomura, S.; Dhaka, S. K.; Singh, J.

    2015-12-01

    In southeast and south Asia, the previous satellite observations suggest that the methane emission from rice paddies is significant and important source of methane during rainy season. Since it is difficult to measure methane stably and continuously at rural areas such as the paddy fields in terms of infrastructures and maintenances, there are large uncertainties in quantitative estimation of methane emission in these areas and there are needs for more certification between satellite and ground based measurements. To measure methane concentrations continuously at difficult situations such as the center of paddy fields and wetlands, we developed the continuous in-situ measurement system, not to look for your lost keys under the streetlight. The methane gas sensor is used an open-path laser based measurement instrument (LaserMethane, ANRITSU CORPORATION), which can quickly and selectively detect average methane concentrations on the optical path of the laser beam. The developed system has the power supply and telecommunication system to run the laser gas sensor in rural areas with poor electricity infrastructure.The methane measurement system was installed at paddy fields of Sonepat, Haryana on the north of Delhi in India and has been operated from the end of 2014. The air sampling along with our measurement has been carried out once a week during daytime to calibrate the laser instrument. We found that the seasonal variation of methane concentrations was different from the satellite observations and there were significant diurnal variations, which it was difficult to detect from occasional air samplings. We will present details of the measurement system and recent results of continuous methane measurements in India.

  5. Analysis of transtheoretical model of health behavioral changes in a nutrition intervention study--a continuous time Markov chain model with Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junsheng; Chan, Wenyaw; Tsai, Chu-Lin; Xiong, Momiao; Tilley, Barbara C

    2015-11-30

    Continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) models are often used to study the progression of chronic diseases in medical research but rarely applied to studies of the process of behavioral change. In studies of interventions to modify behaviors, a widely used psychosocial model is based on the transtheoretical model that often has more than three states (representing stages of change) and conceptually permits all possible instantaneous transitions. Very little attention is given to the study of the relationships between a CTMC model and associated covariates under the framework of transtheoretical model. We developed a Bayesian approach to evaluate the covariate effects on a CTMC model through a log-linear regression link. A simulation study of this approach showed that model parameters were accurately and precisely estimated. We analyzed an existing data set on stages of change in dietary intake from the Next Step Trial using the proposed method and the generalized multinomial logit model. We found that the generalized multinomial logit model was not suitable for these data because it ignores the unbalanced data structure and temporal correlation between successive measurements. Our analysis not only confirms that the nutrition intervention was effective but also provides information on how the intervention affected the transitions among the stages of change. We found that, compared with the control group, subjects in the intervention group, on average, spent substantively less time in the precontemplation stage and were more/less likely to move from an unhealthy/healthy state to a healthy/unhealthy state. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis1234

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype.

  7. Feasibility and pilot study of the effects of microfinance on mortality and nutrition in children under five amongst the very poor in India: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Shalini; Szatkowski, Lisa; Sinha, Ranjeet; Yaron, Gil; Fogarty, Andrew; Allen, Stephen; Choudhary, Sunil; Smyth, Alan R

    2014-07-23

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals include targets for the health of children under five years old. Poor health is linked to poverty and microfinance initiatives are economic interventions that may improve health by breaking the cycle of poverty. However, there is a lack of reliable evidence to support this. In addition, microfinance schemes may have adverse effects on health, for example due to increased indebtedness. Rojiroti UK and the Centre for Promoting Sustainable Livelihood run an innovative microfinance scheme that provides microcredit via women's self-help groups (SHGs). This pilot study, conducted in rural Bihar (India), will establish whether it is feasible to collect anthropometric and mortality data on children under five years old and to conduct a limited cluster randomized trial of the Rojiroti intervention. We have designed a cluster randomized trial in which participating tolas (small communities within villages) will be randomized to either receive early (SHGs and microfinance at baseline) or late intervention (SHGs and microfinance after 18 months). Using predesigned questionnaires, demographic, and mortality data for the last year and information about participating mothers and their children will be collected and the weight, height, and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) of children will be measured at baseline and at 18 months. The late intervention group will establish SHGs and microfinance support at this point and data collection will be repeated at 36 months.The primary outcome measure will be the mean weight for height z-score of children under five years old in the early and late intervention tolas at 18 months. Secondary outcome measures will be the mortality rate, mean weight for age, height for age, prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting among children under five years of age. Despite economic progress, marked inequalities in child health persist in India and Bihar is one of the worst affected states. There

  8. Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, C M; McElrath, T F; Scholl, T O

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy is a primary goal of the American Academy of Pediatrics and of many health providers. Nevertheless, many adolescents become pregnant every year in America. Pediatricians therefore should be aware of nutritional recommendations for pregnant adolescents to provide optimal care. The importance of nutrition during pregnancy is here reviewed from a pediatric perspective. Pregnancy, particularly during adolescence, is a time of extreme nutritional risk. The adolescents most likely to become pregnant are often those with inadequate nutritional status and unfavorable socio-economic background. There is increasing evidence of competition for nutrients between the growing pregnant adolescent and her fetus. Also, the prenatal environment has been implicated in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in both the mother and her offspring. Many adolescents have poor diet quality and poor knowledge of appropriate nutrition; these habits may not change during pregnancy. Current knowledge and recommendations regarding the intake of energy, calcium, and folate are discussed in detail.

  9. [Nutritional management in geriatric traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.

  10. Nutritional education and carbohydrate counting in children with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: the effects on dietary habits, body composition and glycometabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigliano, Marco; Morandi, Anita; Maschio, Maddalena; Sabbion, Alberto; Contreas, Giovanna; Tomasselli, Francesca; Tommasi, Mara; Maffeis, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    Carbohydrate counting (CHC) in combination with nutritional education has been used to optimize the insulin dose in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to test the impact of CHC and nutritional education on changes in dietary habits, body composition and body fat distribution in children with T1D treated with insulin pumps (CSII). Twenty-five children with T1D and CSII were recruited and valuated at baseline and after 18 months of follow-up. They were trained in CHC and following standard nutrition education program (based on American Diabetes Association and International Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes guidelines); clinical, biochemical and nutritional variables were measured. In the total population, body composition, body fat distribution and biochemical variables did not change, at follow-up; HbA1c was significantly reduced (8.50 ± 0.77 vs 7.92 ± 0.74 %; p nutritional education, does not affect dietary habits, body composition and body fat distribution in children with T1D treated with CSII. Moreover, the sub-group of subjects showing a significant improvement in glycometabolic control reported an increase in CHO intake and a reduction in fat and protein intake.

  11. Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

    Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

  12. Women's nutrition -- convergence of programmes -- a critical issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, S

    1990-01-01

    Many factors are responsible for malnutrition among women. Malnutrition is mainly caused by inadequate energy intake and nutritional anemia. Social factors affecting the energy balance include inappropriate intra family distribution, inadequate food intake during pregnancy, conception when younger than 18 years old, and continued high physical activity during pregnancy. Discrimination against girls in the form of insufficient food intake affects girls throughout their lives and contributes to poor adolescent growth and poor maternal stature (height and weight). Poor maternal stature has been linked with adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes: low birth weight infants and infant mortality. About 66% of infants were found to be of low birth weight among mothers weighing less than 40 kg and with a pregnancy weight gain of less than 5 kg. The recommended weight gain during pregnancy is 10-12 kg. Maternal weight has been found to be closely linked with negative effects on fetal growth and birth weight. Nutrition programs must contend with a variety of social, economic, health, and legislative approaches for improving women's status. Food supplementation during pregnancy and adolescence are as important as raising the marriage and conception age. Energy deficits of iron, vitamin A, and iodine need to be fulfilled. Energy saving devices would help to reduce the physical demands on women during pregnancy. Nutrition education for promoting adequate nutritional and energy intake and prevention of nutrient deficiencies needs to be implemented. Health workers have been known for inadequate attention to nutrition. The opportunity for nutritional supplementation and education is available during women's contacts with immunization interventions. A complex prescription applied continuously and in harmony with other health efforts will assure maternal nutritional support.

  13. State of nutrition support teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  14. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  15. Nutritional management and growth in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Lesley; Jones, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Despite continuing improvements in our understanding of the causes of poor growth in chronic kidney disease, many unanswered questions remain: why do some patients maintain a good appetite whereas others have profound anorexia at a similar level of renal function? Why do some, but not all, patients respond to increased nutritional intake? Is feed delivery by gastrostomy superior to oral and nasogastric routes? Do children who are no longer in the 'infancy' stage of growth benefit from enteral feeding? Do patients with protein energy wasting benefit from increased nutritional input? How do we prevent obesity, which is becoming so prevalent in the developed world? This review will address these issues.

  16. Improving nutrition through nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Good nutrition is essential to health and quality of life. As a United Nations agency dedicated to helping Member States achieve their social and economic goals, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recognizes the importance of good nutrition and is working to address the problems underlying poor nutrition. In fact, many Agency activities serve basic human needs, by applying nuclear science to increase food production, improve health care, improve management of water resources, and assess sources of environmental pollution. Global progress in reducing malnutrition throughout the human life cycle has been slow and patchy. In its 2000 Report on the World Nutrition Situation, the United Nations Sub Committee on Nutrition estimated that in developing countries 182 million children under five years of age are chronically undernourished and 150 million are underweight. An estimated 30 million infants are born each year with impaired growth due to poor nutrition during pregnancy. Worldwide, renewed international commitments have been made to address this situation, and the IAEA is a vital partner in these efforts. Nuclear science provides valuable tools for monitoring factors that influence nutrition, such as micronutrients, body composition, and breast milk uptake. Through its sub-programme on nutrition, the Agency is helping countries to use isotope applications and other nuclear techniques to their nutritional problems and is supporting leading-edge research on the interaction between nutrition and environmental pollution and infection with the ultimate goal of improving human nutrition

  17. Demystifying Data: Data Use in State and Local Public Health Nutrition Programs--Measuring Achievement of the 1990 Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Objectives for the Nation. Proceedings of the Continuing Education Conference for the Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors and Association of Faculties of Graduate Programs in Public Health Nutrition (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, May 21-24, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Mildred, Comp.

    This document contains the proceedings from the Conference of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors and Faculties of Graduate Programs in Public Health Nutrition designed to improve participants' proficiency in data management. It includes an introduction by Mildred Kaufman, a conference agenda, and the following presentations:…

  18. The history of infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Barros Filho, Antônio Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    To retrace the history of infant nutrition with the objective of better understanding breastfeeding. Bibliographic searches were run on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and the Internet. Encyclopedias, scientific textbooks and books for the general public, in addition to literature, art and history, were also used. Texts on child care from several different periods were consulted, in addition to the history of medicine and recent scientific articles on infant nutrition. During the preindustrial period, customs varied little and the likelihood of survival was linked to breastfeeding or its substitution by a wetnurse's milk. Where this was not possible, infants were given animal milk, pre-chewed foods or paps that were poor in nutrients and contaminated, which caused high mortality rates. There was nothing that could successfully substitute breastfeeding and the survival of the species was dependent on breastfeeding. Once the industrial revolution had started, women who had been accustomed to breastfeeding went to work in factories, stimulating the search for alternative infant nutrition. Consumption of animal milk and formulae (diluted, flour-based, powdered milk) and premature introduction of complementary foods compromised children's health. The feminist movement and the contraceptive pill caused a fall in birth rates. Manufacturers in search of profits developed modified formulae and invested in advertising. Society reacted with breastfeeding support movements. Nowadays, the advantages of breastmilk are recognized and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months, to be supplemented with other foods from this age on and continued until at least 2 years of age. Infant nutrition, whether natural or artificial, has always been determined and conditioned by the social value attributed to breastfeeding.

  19. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  20. Estimating the association between metabolic risk factors and marijuana use in U.S. adults using data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Christin Ann; Hay, Joel W

    2015-07-01

    More research is needed on the health effects of marijuana use. Results of previous studies indicate that marijuana could alleviate certain factors of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity. Data on 6281 persons from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 to 2012 were used to estimate the effect of marijuana use on cardiometabolic risk factors. The reliability of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models was tested by replacing marijuana use as the risk factor of interest with alcohol and carbohydrate consumption. Instrumental variable methods were used to account for the potential endogeneity of marijuana use. OLS models show lower fasting insulin, insulin resistance, body mass index, and waist circumference in users compared with nonusers. However, when alcohol and carbohydrate intake substitute for marijuana use in OLS models, similar metabolic benefits are estimated. The Durbin-Wu-Hausman tests provide evidence of endogeneity of marijuana use in OLS models, but instrumental variables models do not yield significant estimates for marijuana use. These findings challenge the robustness of OLS estimates of a positive relationship between marijuana use and fasting insulin, insulin resistance, body mass index, and waist circumference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estado nutricional en la marginación y la pobreza de adultos triquis del estado de Oaxaca, México Nutritional status of the poor, marginalized adults of the Triqui ethnic group in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Ramos Rodríguez

    2007-10-01

    .OBJECTIVES: To further understanding of the nutritional transition process by studying possible changes over time in the nutritional status of the Triqui ethnic group in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using anthropometric data available from three prior studies (end of the 19th century, 1940, and 2002. Means and z scores for height, weight, and body mass index of Triqui adults were calculated using Frisancho reference data. Statistical analyses of the results were performed with Student's t and chi-square tests. Sociocultural information was collected through interviews and direct observations, as well as from the available literature. RESULTS: The height of Triqui adults has remained very low. A majority of Triqui women were found to be short or very short; this, coupled with the low level of education and high rates of illiteracy and monolingualism, is indicative of a culture that does not favor females. The appearance of overweight and obesity among the men studied in 2002, relative to those studied in 1940, is cause for concern. Overweight was also recorded among the women in 2002. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitations shared by all retrospective studies, these results confirm that the nutritional status of the Triquis is different now from what it was 60 years ago and that these changes are related to the cultural changes the group is experiencing. To further understand this epidemiologic phenomenon, where malnutrition and obesity coexist, cross-disciplinary studies are needed to analyze the biological, social, and cultural factors involved, so that culturally-appropriate measures can be adopted.

  2. Nutrition Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...

  3. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  4. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  5. Public health interventions, barriers, and opportunities for improving maternal nutrition in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Lowe, Alyssa; Vir, Sheila; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Chaturvedi, Anuraag; Noznesky, Elizabeth A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mason, John B

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake, early and multiple pregnancies, poverty, caste discrimination, and gender inequality contribute to poor maternal nutrition in India. While malnutrition is seen throughout the life cycle, it is most acute during childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, and lactation. Although nutrition policies are on the books and interventions are in place, child malnutrition and maternal undernutrition persist as severe public health problems. To evaluate the implementation of maternal nutrition programs in India. The research was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of a desk review of national and state policies pertinent to maternal nutrition and national-level key informant interviews with respondents who have a working knowledge of relevant organizations and interventions. Phase 2 utilized in-depth interviews and focus group discussions at the state, district, and community levels in eight districts of two states: Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. All data were analyzed thematically. India has a rich portfolio of programs and policies that address maternal health and nutrition; however, systematic weaknesses, logistical gaps, resource scarcity, and poor utilization continue to hamper progress. Elevating the priority given to maternal nutrition in government health programs and implementing strategies to improve women's status will help to address many of the challenges facing India's nutrition programs. Programs can be strengthened by promoting integration of services, ensuring effective procurement mechanisms for micronutrient and food supplements, establishing regional training facilities for improved program implementation, and strengthening program monitoring and evaluation.

  6. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior, and School Nutrition Association: Comprehensive Nutrition Programs and Services in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dayle; Contento, Isobel R; Weekly, Carol

    2018-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior that comprehensive, integrated nutrition programs in preschool through high school are essential to improve the health, nutritional status, and academic performance of our nation's children. Through the continued use of multidisciplinary teams, local school needs will be better identified and addressed within updated wellness policies. Updated nutrition standards are providing students with a wider variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, while limiting sodium, calories, and saturated fat. Millions of students enjoy school meals every day in the US, with the majority of these served to children who are eligible for free and reduced-priced meals. To maximize impact, the Academy, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: food and nutrition services available throughout the school campus, nutrition initiatives such as farm to school and school gardens, wellness policies, nutrition education and promotion, food and beverage marketing at school, and consideration of roles and responsibilities. It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior that comprehensive, integrated nutrition programs in preschool through high school are essential to improve the health, nutritional status, and academic performance of our nation's children. To maximize impact, the Academy, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: food and nutrition services available throughout the school campus; nutrition initiatives such as farm to school and school gardens; wellness policies; nutrition education and promotion; food and beverage marketing at school; and consideration of

  7. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  8. Instant and supersaturated dissolution of naproxen and sesamin (poorly water-soluble drugs and supplements) nanoparticles prepared by continuous expansion of liquid carbon dioxide solution through long dielectric nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, Toshihiko, E-mail: tarita@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (Japan); Manabe, Noriyoshi [Tohoku University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Nakahara, Koichi [Suntory Bussiness Expert Limited, Frontier Center for Value Creation (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of naproxen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, BCS Class 2) and sesamin (a poorly water-soluble lignan) were investigated. By applying a newly developed rapid expansion system of liquid carbon dioxide solutions equipped with a dielectric nozzle, well-separated and fine both naproxen NPs (averaged particle size (APS) = 46.9 nm) and sesamin NPs (APS = 60.2 nm) were obtained without heating, surfactants, and co-solvents. Obtained naproxen and sesamin NPs had large surface/weight ratio, therefore, they showed instant dissolution to water until about ten percent higher than the saturated concentrations. In addition, the technique developed in the study has big advantage on producing especially drug NPs because the NPs produced by the method never includes neither poisonous additives (especially co-solvents and detergents) nor thermally denatured compounds.

  9. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  10. Exploiting the Poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp Justesen, Mogens; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While extant research has focused on the causes and consequences of corruption at the macro-level, less effort has been devoted to understanding the micro-foundation of corruption. We argue that poor people are more likely to be victims of corrupt behavior by street-level bureaucrats as the poor...... often rely heavily on services provided by governments. We test this proposition using micro-level survey data from the Afrobaromenter. Multilevel regressions across 18 countries show that poor people are much more prone to experience having to pay bribes to government officials....

  11. Relationship of Mastication Capability and Nutrition Status of Elderly Buginese and Mandarnese

    OpenAIRE

    Bahruddin, Dr.drg.M.Kes

    2010-01-01

    The result show elderly Buginese had 64,9% with poor nutrition status caused by poor mastication capability, mastication capability and nutrition status elderly buginese had significant relation(p=0,04), while elderly Mandarnese had 39,8% with poor nutrition status caused by poor mastication, but statiscally, the relation between mastication capability with nutrition status in elderly mandarnese was not significant(P=0,076). As conclusion there was significant relationship between mastificati...

  12. Nutritional intake and nutritional status in elite Mexican teenagers soccer players of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo y Terán Elizondo, Roberto; Martín Bermudo, Francisco Manuel; Peñaloza Méndez, Ricardo; Berná Amorós, Genoveva; Lara Padilla, Eleazar; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco José

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: nutritional intake and status of soccer players has attracted not much research attention. Many soccer players follow an inadequate nutritional intake and have a poor nutritional status. This is relevant in youngsters soccer players, in order to improve performance and promote healthy dietary practices. Aims: analyze anthropometric characterizes, evaluate nutritional intake and status, dietary habits and pre- and post-exercise meals in elite teenagers soccer players. Methods: se...

  13. Accounting for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M. Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Economists and other social scientists have long tried to understand the nature of poverty and how poor people make decisions. For example, T.W. Schultz, a Nobel Laureate, former professor of economics at the University of Chicago, and former president of the American Economic Association, spent his career working in development and agricultural economics. In his 1980 Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Schultz suggests that there is some accounting for the behavior of the poor in agriculture. "Fa...

  14. 7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended to...

  15. Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward J; Storey, Ryan; Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2017-08-01

    Bouldering competitions are held up to International level and governed by the International Federation of Sport Climbing. Bouldering has been selected to feature at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, however, physiological qualities and nutritional requirements to optimize performance remain inadequately defined due to large gaps in the literature. The primary goals of training include optimizing the capacity of the anaerobic energy systems and developing sport-specific strength, with emphasis on the isometric function of the forearm flexors responsible for grip. Bouldering athletes typically possess a lean physique, similar to the characteristics of sport climbers with reported body fat values of 6-12%. Athletes strive for a low body weight to improve power to weight ratio and limit the load on the extremities. Specialized nutritional support is uncommon and poor nutritional practices such as chronic carbohydrate restriction are prevalent, compromising the health of the athletes. The high intensity nature of bouldering demands a focus on adequate carbohydrate availability. Protein intake and timing should be structured to maximize muscle protein synthesis and recovery, with the literature suggesting 0.25-0.3 g/kg in 3-4 hr intervals. Supplementing with creatine and b-alanine may provide some benefit by augmenting the capacity of the anaerobic systems. Boulderers are encouraged to seek advice from nutrition experts to enhance performance, particularly important when weight loss is the desired outcome. Further research is warranted across all nutritional aspects of bouldering which is summarized in this review.

  16. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  17. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at

  18. Development of nutrition education tool: healthy eating index in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taechangam, Sunard; Pinitchun, Utumporn; Pachotikarn, Chanida

    2008-01-01

    A healthful diet can reduce major risk factors for chronic diseases. To assess the dietary status of Thais and monitor changes in food consumption patterns, the Healthy Eating Index for Thais (THEI) is developed, an important tool for meeting the nutrition goals and determining people's overall diet quality. This index measures how well the diets of Thai people conform to the recommendations of the Food Guide Thailand Nutrition Flag. The THEI consists of 11 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet: Components 1-5 measure the degree to which a person's diet conforms to serving recommendations for the five major food groups of Thailand Nutrition Flag; Components 6, 7 and 8 measure total fat, saturated fat and added sugar consumption, respectively; Components 9 and 10 measure total cholesterol and sodium intake; and Component 11 examines variety in a person's diet. Each of the 11 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, for a total score of 110. The dietary intake data from selected working adults were collected to derive the THEI scores. The average THEI score indicated that the diets of most people needed improvement and some individuals were more likely than others to consume a poor diet. This suggests a continued role for nutrition education and promotion efforts should result in a significant improvement of people's overall diet quality. In conclusion, the THEI is an useful index for describing overall diet quality for Thais and serves as a basic tool for providing nutrition education and promotion.

  19. Impact of Early Parenteral Nutrition on Metabolism and Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gunst, Jan; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Casaer, Michaël P.; Hermans, Greet; Wouters, Pieter J.; Dubois, Jasperina; Claes, Kathleen; Schetz, Miet; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2013-01-01

    A poor nutritional state and a caloric deficit associate with increased morbidity and mortality, but a recent multicenter, randomized controlled trial found that early parenteral nutrition to supplement insufficient enteral nutrition increases morbidity in the intensive care unit, including prolonging the duration of renal replacement therapy, compared with withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week. Whether early versus late parenteral nutrition impacts the incidence and recovery of AKI is ...

  20. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  1. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  2. From wasting to obesity, changes in nutritional concerns in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankal, Pavan K; Kotler, Donald P

    2014-09-01

    Optimal nutrition is an important part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care; to support the immune system, limit HIV-associated complications as well as maintain better quality of life and survival. The presentation and nature of malnutrition in patients with HIV has changed dramatically over the past 30 years from predominantly a wasting syndrome to lipodystrophy and, now, frailty. Nevertheless, we continue to see all 3 presentations in patient care today. The pathogenesis of poor nutrition in HIV-infected patients depends on caloric intake, intestinal nutrient absorption/translocation, and resting energy expenditure, which are features seen in all chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fletcher, Antoinette

    2012-02-01

    The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.

  5. 9. Poor medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    Majority (60%) of the patients were reviewed at least twice in the last 6 months at the time of the interview. 195 (83%) patients reported that drugs prescribed were not available at the hospital pharmacy, but 186 (79%) of. Factors Associated With Poor Medication Adherence. In Hypertensive Patients In Lusaka, Zambia. 1,4. 1.

  6. Managing Agricultural Biodiversity for Nutrition, Health, Livelihoods ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Agricultural Biodiversity for Nutrition, Health, Livelihoods and ... on local ecosystems and human resources can provide sustainable solutions to ... and health among the rural and urban poor through increased dietary diversity.

  7. An audit to assess awareness and knowledge of nutrition in a UK spinal cord injuries centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S; Derry, F; Graham, A; Grimble, G; Forbes, A

    2012-06-01

    A single centre survey. To test: (i) awareness of nutrition screening tools and related care plans and; (ii) nutrition knowledge of doctors, nurses and dietitians working in spinal cord injuries (SCI) centres. The 14-item questionnaire was sent to 102 nurses, 17 doctors and 15 dietitians working in UK SCI centres during January-March 2010. Sixty-two (46.5%) questionnaires were completed and returned for analysis. The present audit demonstrated that awareness of the need for nutritional screening is good: 83% of staff reported that they are aware there is a nutrition screening tool. This audit also demonstrated areas of poor knowledge, such as calorie content of intravenous fluids, indicators of malnutrition, and choice of nutritional support in malnourished patients. All doctors, but only 38% of nurses, knew how to calculate body mass index. Surprisingly, nearly half (49%) of the participants thought that at least 20% weight loss was required to indicate malnutrition. This high-perceived cut-off point suggests that malnutrition is likely to continue to be undetected and unmanaged. The overall scores (median) showed clear differences in nutritional knowledge between groups (median: dietitians 92.8%; doctors 53.5%; nurses 35.7; Pnutrition. This study highlights the need for further education in SCI medicine in order to improve the efficacy of feeding and nutrition therapy for SCI patients.

  8. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  9. Coaches, Athletes and Nutrition: Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheff, Dennis; Mandali, Swarna; Conn, James

    2005-01-01

    Athletes often adjust their dietary routines to enhance sport performance, but problems can arise when athletes turn for guidance to coaches who may not be trained in the field of nutrition, or who, themselves, are poor examples when it comes to healthy eating habits. There are many myths regarding nutrition that are spread throughout the world of…

  10. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  11. Maternal and child nutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Anna

    2008-02-01

    Women of child-bearing age (especially pregnant and lactating women), infants and young children are in the most nutritionally-vulnerable stages of the life cycle. Maternal malnutrition is a major predisposing factor for morbidity and mortality among African women. The causes include inadequate food intake, poor nutritional quality of diets, frequent infections and short inter-pregnancy intervals. Evidence for maternal malnutrition is provided by the fact that between 5 and 20% of African women have a low BMI as a result of chronic hunger. Across the continent the prevalence of anaemia ranges from 21 to 80%, with similarly high values for both vitamin A and Zn deficiency levels. Another challenge is the high rates of HIV infection, which compromise maternal nutritional status. The consequences of poor maternal nutritional status are reflected in low pregnancy weight gain and high infant and maternal morbidity and mortality. Suboptimal infant feeding practices, poor quality of complementary foods, frequent infections and micronutrient deficiencies have largely contributed to the high mortality among infants and young children in the region. Feeding children whose mothers are infected with HIV continues to remain an issue requiring urgent attention. There are successful interventions to improve the nutrition of mothers, infants and young children, which will be addressed. Interventions to improve the nutrition of infants and young children, particularly in relation to the improvement of micronutrient intakes of young children, will be discussed. The recent release by WHO of new international growth standards for assessing the growth and nutritional status of children provides the tool for early detection of growth faltering and for appropriate intervention.

  12. Effect of a nutrition education programme on nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the indigenous and traditional food systems of poor and ... practices at the household level and by protecting the nutritional. Background. Globally, the .... be eaten daily; using salt sparingly; eating fats sparingly; and using food and ... Some of the households used more than one source of water, as communal tap ...

  13. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  14. Postgraduate education in nutrition in south Asia: a huge mismatch between investments and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Paul, Tanusree; Haddad, Lawrence; Bhalla, Surbhi; Gillespie, Stuart; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2014-01-07

    Despite decades of nutrition advocacy and programming, the nutrition situation in South Asian countries is alarming. We assume that modern training in nutrition at the post graduate level is an important contributor to building the capacity of individuals to think and act effectively when combating undernutrition. In this context, this paper presents a regional situation analysis of master's level academic initiatives in nutrition with a special focus on the type of programme we think is most likely to be helpful in addressing undernutrition at the population level: Public Health Nutrition (PHN). This situational analysis of Masters in nutrition across South Asian countries viz. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Maldives, Nepal, Bhutan was conducted using an intensive and systematic Internet search. Further, detailed information was extracted from the individual institute websites and library visits. Of the 131 master's degree programmes we identified one that was in PHN while another 15 had modules in PHN. Most of these universities and institutions were found in India with a few in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. In the rest of the countries, neither nutrition nor PHN emerged as an academic discipline at the master's level. In terms of eligibility Indian and Sri Lankan programmes were most inclusive, with the remaining countries restricting eligibility to those with health qualifications. On modules, no country had any on nutrition policy or on nutrition's interactions with agriculture, social protection, water and sanitation or women's empowerment. If a strong focus on public health nutrition is key to reducing undernutrition, then the poor availability of such courses in the region is cause for concern. Nutrition master's courses in general focus too little on the kinds of strategies highlighted in the recent Lancet series on nutrition. Governments seeking to accelerate declines in undernutrition should incentivize the delivery of postgraduate

  15. Nutritional rickets around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ann

    2013-07-01

    Nutritional rickets is a major public health problem in many countries of the world. The disease is characterized by deformities of the long bones, enlargement of the wrists and costochondral junctions, hypotonia and, in infants, craniotabes and delayed fontanelle closure. Predominantly caused by severe vitamin D deficiency, rickets can also be associated with hypocalcemic seizures and cardiac failure. First presentation is typically at 6-24 months of age, although hypocalcemia may be evident in younger infants. In many affluent industrialized countries, the prevalence of rickets in the general population diminished after the introduction of clean-air legislation and dietary supplementation. However, in such countries, vitamin-D deficiency rickets has re-emerged in recent years, particularly among groups with limited exposure to UVB-containing sunshine. Infants at risk of rickets tend to be those whose mothers had poor vitamin D status during pregnancy and those exclusively breast-fed for a prolonged period with little skin exposure to UVB. In other countries of the world, the prevalence of rickets can be high, even in regions with abundant year-round UVB-containing sunshine. In general, this is also due to vitamin D deficiency related to limited sun exposure. However, reports from Africa and Asia suggest that there may be other etiological factors involved. Studies in South Africa, Nigeria, The Gambia and Bangladesh have identified rickets in children, typically 3-5 years old at first presentation, in whom plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are higher than those characteristic of primary vitamin D deficiency. Calcium deficiency has been implicated, and in some, but not all, disturbances of phosphate metabolism, renal compromise and iron deficiency may also be involved. Continuing studies of the etiology of nutritional rickets will provide evidence to underpin guidelines for the prevention and treatment of rickets world-wide. This article is part of a

  16. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  17. Nutrition-sensitive interventions and programmes: how can they help to accelerate progress in improving maternal and child nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Marie T; Alderman, Harold

    2013-08-10

    Acceleration of progress in nutrition will require effective, large-scale nutrition-sensitive programmes that address key underlying determinants of nutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions. We reviewed evidence of nutritional effects of programmes in four sectors--agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling. The need for investments to boost agricultural production, keep prices low, and increase incomes is undisputable; targeted agricultural programmes can complement these investments by supporting livelihoods, enhancing access to diverse diets in poor populations, and fostering women's empowerment. However, evidence of the nutritional effect of agricultural programmes is inconclusive--except for vitamin A from biofortification of orange sweet potatoes--largely because of poor quality evaluations. Social safety nets currently provide cash or food transfers to a billion poor people and victims of shocks (eg, natural disasters). Individual studies show some effects on younger children exposed for longer durations, but weaknesses in nutrition goals and actions, and poor service quality probably explain the scarcity of overall nutritional benefits. Combined early child development and nutrition interventions show promising additive or synergistic effects on child development--and in some cases nutrition--and could lead to substantial gains in cost, efficiency, and effectiveness, but these programmes have yet to be tested at scale. Parental schooling is strongly associated with child nutrition, and the effectiveness of emerging school nutrition education programmes needs to be tested. Many of the programmes reviewed were not originally designed to improve nutrition yet have great potential to do so. Ways to enhance programme nutrition-sensitivity include: improve targeting; use conditions to stimulate participation; strengthen nutrition goals and actions; and optimise women's nutrition, time

  18. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  19. Nutrition impact symptoms, handgrip strength and nutritional risk in hospitalized patients with gastroenterological and liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens Knudsen, Anne; Naver, Astrid; Bisgaard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is common among patients with diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Nutritional intake may be negatively affected by nutrition impact symptoms (NIS). Therefore, the aims were to assess: 1) the prevalence of NIS in this group of patients and 2) the relationship...... between NIS and nutritional status as well as nutritional risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among patients with liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer or pancreatitis. Nutritional risk was assessed by the NRS-2002. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass......). The prevalence of low HGS was 38%, and the prevalence of those at nutritional risk was 58%. The number of NIS reported by 50% of the patients were 4 or more in the ESQ and 5 or more in the DRAQ. Patients who were both at nutritional risk and had a low HGS more frequently reported difficulties swallowing, poor...

  20. Acute nutritional axonal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; Logigian, Eric L

    2018-01-01

    This study describes clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features of a severe acute axonal polyneuropathy common to patients with acute nutritional deficiency in the setting of alcoholism, bariatric surgery (BS), or anorexia. Retrospective analysis of clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory data of patients with acute axonal neuropathy. Thirteen patients were identified with a severe, painful, sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy that developed over 2-12 weeks with sensory ataxia, areflexia, variable muscle weakness, poor nutritional status, and weight loss, often with prolonged vomiting and normal cerebrospinal fluid protein. Vitamin B6 was low in half and thiamine was low in all patients when obtained before supplementation. Patients improved with weight gain and vitamin supplementation, with motor greater than sensory recovery. We suggest that acute or subacute axonal neuropathy in patients with weight loss or vomiting associated with alcohol abuse, BS, or dietary deficiency is one syndrome, caused by micronutrient deficiencies. Muscle Nerve 57: 33-39, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Update on the nutrition situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J; Garcia, M

    1995-01-01

    The Update on the Nutrition Situation, 1994 was published in early 1995 by the United Nations Subcommittee on Nutrition. Thus, data available at the country level about estimates of the nutritional situation now provide trends of prevalences of underweight children in 35 countries for the 1990s. In Sub-Saharan Africa recent deterioration has occurred as a result of the general worsening of nutrition in Africa. However, in the Near East, North Africa, and South America the generally improving trends of the 1980s seem to be continuing with the likelihood of reaching the prevalences of the developed countries by the year 2000. A surveillance system in Bangladesh indicates improvement from 1990 to 1993; however, India data for 1991/92 indicate deterioration in 3 states and no significant change in 4, possibly connected the economic slowdown in the early 1990s. In many countries of southeast Asia, China, Middle America and the Caribbean, South America, the Near East and North Africa the improvement of rates could result in halving the prevalences of underweight children. The gross domestic product (GDP) is an important indicator of nutritional performance. During 1985-92 in Sub-Saharan Africa GDP declined by 0.8% and consequently the nutritional situation also deteriorated. In other areas of the world the GDP growth rates improved after 1990 and the underweight trends in the early 1990s were generally similar to those of the late 1980s. The nutritional improvement outside Sub-Saharan Africa and possibly India continued in the early 1990s. Rapid economic growth was associated with improving nutrition in Thailand and Vietnam in the 1980s and also to a smaller extent for Indonesia and China. Faster than average improvement is plausible for Jamaica, Sri Lanka, and Zimbabwe. Deteriorating cases are Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Rwanda. Economic growth, health, education, and community-based nutrition programs all contribute to improving nutrition.

  2. Savings for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Mas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the relevance of formal financial services – in particular, savings – to poor people, the economic factors that have hindered the mass-scale delivery of such services in developing countries, and the technology-based opportunities that exist today to make massive gains in financial inclusion. It also highlights the benefits to government from universal financial access, as well as the key policy enablers that would need to be put in place to allow the necessary innovati...

  3. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Annual Research Review: Improved Nutrition--A Pathway to Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early child nutritional deficiencies are prevalent in low- and middle-countries with consequences linked not only to poor survival and growth, but also to poor development outcomes. Children in disadvantaged communities face multiple risks for nutritional deficiencies, yet some children may be less susceptible or may recover more…

  5. Parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised.

  6. [Poor insight and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2017-01-01

    A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning. The theoretical approaches regarding impaired insight include the disturbed perceptual input, the impaired linkage between thought and emotion and the breakdown of the process of self-monitoring and error checking. The inability to distinguish between internally and externally generated mental events has been described by the metarepresentation theory. This theory includes the awareness of ones' goals, which leads to disorders of willed action, the awareness of intention, which leads to movement disorders, and the awareness of intentions of others, which leads to paranoid delusions. The theory of metarepresentation implies mainly output mechanisms, like the frontal cortex, while the input mechanism implies posterior brain systems, including the parietal lobe. There are many similarities between the disturbances of awareness seen in schizophrenia and those seen as a result of known neurological impairment. Neuropsychological models of impaired insight typically attribute the disturbance to any of a variety of core deficits in the processing of information. In this respect, lack of insight is on conceptual par with alogia, apraxia or aphasia in reflecting disturbed cognitive processing. In

  7. The 'poor man's laryngogram'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is reassessment of an old method improved by well-directed application of well-known maneuvers of laryngo-pharyngeal function. Although not as visually attractive as a dedicated laryngogram (now hardly ever requested), it does render similarly reliable diagnostic information, which, supported, as occasionally necessary, by conventional tomography, can even surpass that given by the older technique. Its main advantage lies in providing cheap, quick, noninvasive studies with minimal descomfort for the patient. Should further investigation be necessary, for analysis of deep extension, modern cross-sectional imaging methods (especially MR) far surpass even dedicated laryngography in diagnostic value and can be based adequately on 'poor mans's laryngography'. Ways in which this method may be optimised, especially those involving laryngopharyngeal function, are briefly presented - with emphasis on relevant practical aspects - as are normal and abnormal findings. (orig.) [de

  8. Nutrition and Liver Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan A

    2017-01-01

    Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions. At the level of the whole body, this is achieved through dietary supply and the capacity of the body to transform the substrates and cofactors necessary for metabolism. All of these domains (diet, metabolic capacity, activity of the microbiome, body composition and the level of demand for energy and nutrients) are influenced by levels of physical activity and can vary according to physiological and pathological disease states. The liver plays a central role in establishing and maintaining these regulated processes. Its capacity to achieve and maintain these functional capabilities is established during one's early life. When these capabilities are exceeded and the ability to maintain the milieu interieur is compromised, ill-health supervenes. Stress tests that assess flow through gateway pathways can be used to determine the maximal capacity and functional reserve for critical functions. The inability of the liver to reliably integrate body lipid metabolism and the accumulation of abnormal lipid are obvious manifestations of impaired regulation both in situations of weight loss, for example, the fatty liver of severe malnutrition, and in situations of energy excess, as in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The use of stable isotopic probes and the more recent definition of the variability in the metabolome in different nutritional and pathological states indicate the great potential for clinical tools

  9. REMO poor man's reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, H.; Moseley, C.; Haensler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Reanalyses depict the state of the atmosphere as a best fit in space and time of many atmospheric observations in a physically consistent way. By essentially solving the data assimilation problem in a very accurate manner, reanalysis results can be used as reference for model evaluation procedures and as forcing data sets for different model applications. However, the spatial resolution of the most common and accepted reanalysis data sets (e.g. JRA25, ERA-Interim) ranges from approximately 124 km to 80 km. This resolution is too coarse to simulate certain small scale processes often associated with extreme events. In addition, many models need higher resolved forcing data ( e.g. land-surface models, tools for identifying and assessing hydrological extremes). Therefore we downscaled the ERA-Interim reanalysis over the EURO-CORDEX-Domain for the time period 1989 to 2008 to a horizontal resolution of approximately 12 km. The downscaling is performed by nudging REMO-simulations to lower and lateral boundary conditions of the reanalysis, and by re-initializing the model every 24 hours ("REMO in forecast mode"). In this study the three following questions will be addressed: 1.) Does the REMO poor man's reanalysis meet the needs (accuracy, extreme value distribution) in validation and forcing? 2.) What lessons can be learned about the model used for downscaling? As REMO is used as a pure downscaling procedure, any systematic deviations from ERA-Interim result from poor process modelling but not from predictability limitations. 3.) How much small scale information generated by the downscaling model is lost with frequent initializations? A comparison to a simulation that is performed in climate mode will be presented.

  10. Inflammation and nutrition in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Juan; Cheung, Wai W; Mak, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and nutritional imbalance are important comorbid conditions that correlate with poor clinical outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nutritional disorders such as cachexia/protein energy wasting, obesity and growth retardation negatively impact the quality of life and disease progression in children with CKD. Inadequate nutrition has been associated with growth disturbances in children with CKD. On the other hand, over-nutrition and obesity are associated...

  11. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  12. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  13. The evaluation of short-term nutrition education on the nutrition habits of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbağ, Çiğdem

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition education provision during adolescence and its continuation in university have high impact for sustaining physically, mentally and socially healthy societies. Moreover, when a positive manner in nutrition habits is achieved following this activity, it is considered as a successful prosperity that continues lifelong. Because each age groups nutrition differs than other. The study was undertaken with the participation 395 students out of which 250 were female and 145 were. Questionnai...

  14. Nutritional state and lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, W

    1992-10-01

    The life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is largely dependent on the severity and progress of the pulmonary involvement associated with the disease. Many data support the view that malnutrition and deterioration of lung function are closely interrelated and interdependent, with each affecting the other, leading to a spiral decline in both. The occurrence of malnutrition appears to be associated with poor lung function and poor survival, and conversely prevention of malnutrition appears to be associated with better lung function and improved survival. Nutritional intervention may lead to an improvement in body weight, lung function and exercise tolerance, provided that the intervention is combined with exercise training in order to increase both respiratory and other muscle mass. These improvements can be preserved when patients have the stamina to continue with a high-energy, high-fat diet and daily exercise training at home.

  15. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  16. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-10

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  17. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data......Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine....... Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...

  18. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  19. Nutrition training improves health workers' nutrition knowledge and competence to manage child undernutrition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunguya, Bruno F; Poudel, Krishna C; Mlunde, Linda B; Urassa, David P; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-09-24

    Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers' nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and World Health Organization regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition-counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers' nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers' child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention. In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken toward improving the overall nutritional status of the child population.

  20. Making Agrifood Systems Work for the Rural Poor in Eastern and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Making Agrifood Systems Work for the Rural Poor in Eastern and Southern Africa ... areas rely on a range of indigenous or underutilized crops for food, nutrition and income security. ... Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment.

  1. Objective Understanding of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels among Nutritionally At-Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold K; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-08-24

    In the ongoing debate about front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels, little data exist regarding nutritionally at-risk populations, although they are critical targets of prevention programs. This study aimed to compare the impact of FOP labels on the ability to rank products according to their nutritional quality among French adults potentially at risk of poor dietary quality (N = 14,230). Four labels were evaluated: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), along with a reference without label. Mixed models were used to assess how individual characteristics and FOP labels were associated with the ability to rank products. Older participants and those with a lower educational level, income, nutritional knowledge, and likelihood of reading nutrition facts were less skilled at ranking food products according to nutritional quality. Compared with individual characteristics, nutrition labels had an increased impact on food product ranking ability. Overall, 5-CNL corresponded to the highest rate of correct responses, followed by MTL, GDA, and Tick (p < 0.0001). The strongest impact of 5-CNL was observed among individuals with no nutritional knowledge (odds ratio (OR): 20.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 13.19-31.06). Therefore, 5-CNL appeared to be effective at informing consumers, including those who are nutritionally at-risk, about the nutritional quality of food products.

  2. Objective Understanding of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels among Nutritionally At-Risk Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ducrot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the ongoing debate about front-of-package (FOP nutrition labels, little data exist regarding nutritionally at-risk populations, although they are critical targets of prevention programs. This study aimed to compare the impact of FOP labels on the ability to rank products according to their nutritional quality among French adults potentially at risk of poor dietary quality (N = 14,230. Four labels were evaluated: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL, Green Tick (Tick, along with a reference without label. Mixed models were used to assess how individual characteristics and FOP labels were associated with the ability to rank products. Older participants and those with a lower educational level, income, nutritional knowledge, and likelihood of reading nutrition facts were less skilled at ranking food products according to nutritional quality. Compared with individual characteristics, nutrition labels had an increased impact on food product ranking ability. Overall, 5-CNL corresponded to the highest rate of correct responses, followed by MTL, GDA, and Tick (p < 0.0001. The strongest impact of 5-CNL was observed among individuals with no nutritional knowledge (odds ratio (OR: 20.24; 95% confidence interval (CI: 13.19–31.06. Therefore, 5-CNL appeared to be effective at informing consumers, including those who are nutritionally at-risk, about the nutritional quality of food products.

  3. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  4. Effects of continuous versus bolus infusion of enteral nutrition in critical patients Efeitos da administração contínua versus intermitente da nutrição enteral em pacientes críticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Faria Serpa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Enteral alimentation is the preferred modality of support in critical patients who have acceptable digestive function and are unable to eat orally, but the advantages of continuous versus intermittent administration are surrounded by controversy. With the purpose of identifying the benefits and complications of each technique, a prospective controlled study with matched subjects was conducted. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive candidates for enteral feeding were divided into 2 groups (n = 14 each that were matched for diagnosis and APACHE II score. A commercial immune-stimulating polymeric diet was administered via nasogastric tube by electronic pump in the proportion of 25 kcal/kg/day, either as a 1-hour bolus every 3 hours (Group I, or continuously for 24 hours (Group II, over a 3-day period. Anthropometrics, biochemical measurements, recording of administered drugs and other therapies, thorax X-ray, measurement of abdominal circumference, monitoring of gastric residue, and clinical and nutritional assessments were performed at least once daily. The principal measured outcomes of this protocol were frequency of abdominal distention and pulmonary aspiration, and efficacy in supplying the desired amount of nutrients. RESULTS: Nearly half of the total population (46.4% exhibited high gastric residues on at least 1 occasion, but only 1 confirmed episode of pulmonary aspiration occurred (3.6%. Both groups displayed a moderate number of complications, without differences. Food input during the first day was greater in Group II (approximately 20% difference, but by the third day, both groups displayed similarly small deficits in total furnished volume of about 10%, when compared with the prescribed diet. CONCLUSIONS: Both administration modalities permitted practical and effective administration of the diet with frequent registered abnormalities but few clinically significant problems. The two groups were similar in this regard

  5. Transformando o problema da fome em questão alimentar e nutricional: uma crônica desigualdade social Transforming the hunger problem into food and nutritional approach: a continuous social inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rizzolo de Oliveira Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O processo de surgimento das políticas (públicas sociais relacionadas à alimentação e nutrição no Brasil tem um curso descontínuo e negligenciado pelo Estado brasileiro ao longo de sua história. Este artigo tem como objetivo resgatar este processo e identificar elementos que dificultam a inserção da questão alimentar e nutricional na agenda política brasileira. Assim, faz um breve resgate histórico sobre o conjunto de políticas e programas sociais formulados desde a década de quarenta com vistas ao enfrentamento do problema de fome no Brasil, sinalizando a mudança dos perfis epidemiológico e nutricional da população brasileira. É necessário avançar no entendimento de que as manifestações biológicas da fome - desnutrição ou obesidade (má nutrição - são reflexos de um modelo de desenvolvimento social que privilegia o capital em detrimento do bem-estar social. A questão social também se manifesta perante o contexto alimentar e nutricional, pois a submissão da sociedade aos ditames do capital produz reflexos nos modos de comer, viver, adoecer e morrer das populações.The origin of the social (public politics related to food and nutrition in Brazil has a discontinuous and neglected course by the Brazilian State throughout its history. The objective of this article is to rescue this process and to identify elements that interfere in the insertion of the food and nutrition question in the Brazilian politics agenda. Thus, it reviews thepolitics and social programs formulated since the decade of 40s aimed to solve the problem of hunger in Brazil, identifying the changes of an epidemiological and nutritional transition of the local population. It is necessary to progress in the agreement of the biological manifestations of the hunger: malnutrition or obesity (bad nutrition is reflected on a social development model that privileges the capital in detriment of the welfare state. Also it reflects the alimentary and

  6. Nutrition therapy issues in esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Keith R; Bozeman, Matthew C

    2012-08-01

    Esophageal cancer has traditionally been a disease with poor long term outcomes in terms of both survival and quality of life. In combination with surgical and pharmacologic therapy, nutrition support has been demonstrated to improve patient tolerance of treatment, quality of life, and longterm outcomes. An aggressive multi-disciplinary approach is warranted with nutrition support remaining a cornerstone in management. Historically, nutrition support has focused on adequate caloric provision to prevent weight loss and allow for tolerance of treatment regimens. Alterations in metabolism occur in these patients making their use of available calories inefficient and the future of nutritional support may lie in the ability to alter this deranged metabolism. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature surrounding the etiology, treatment, and role of nutrition support in improving outcomes in esophageal cancer.

  7. An educational model for improving diet counselling in primary care. A case study of the creative use of doctors' own diet, their attitudes to it and to nutritional counselling of their patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Palmvig, Birthe; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional counseling; Nutritional education; Nutritional assessment; Primary care; Continuing medical education; Doctors' diet; Doctors attitudes; Doctors' knowledge; Body mass index; Educational model; Food frequency questionaire......Nutritional counseling; Nutritional education; Nutritional assessment; Primary care; Continuing medical education; Doctors' diet; Doctors attitudes; Doctors' knowledge; Body mass index; Educational model; Food frequency questionaire...

  8. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  9. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  10. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  11. Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BACK Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  12. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  13. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Acidosis: new insights into the persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, M; Wertz-Lutz, A E

    2011-04-01

    The Ruminant Nutrition Symposium titled "Acidosis: New insights into the persistent problem" was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, Western Section-ASAS, and the Canadian Society of Animal Science in Denver, Colorado, July 11 to 15, 2010. The objective of the symposium was to provide the ruminant nutrition community with new insights and perspectives from recent research findings on acidosis. Under modern production systems, ruminants are fed high-grain diets to maximize their energy intake and productivity. However, feeding highly fermentable diets often causes excess fermentation and results in accumulation of fermentation acids in the rumen, leading to a decrease in feed intake, poor feed efficiency, liver abscesses, and lameness in feedlot cattle or lactating dairy cows. Although our understanding of nutritional factors (i.e., effects of type and processing method of grains and importance of physically effective fiber) affecting rumen pH have increased substantially over the past few decades, rumen acidosis has continued to be a common problem in the ruminant livestock industry. The symposium program was organized to review recent research findings in acidosis with more emphasis on physiological aspects, and provide novel insights into the persistent problem.

  14. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  15. CLINICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-PROTEIN DIET AND SUPPLEMENTED WITH α-KETOACIDS THERAPY ON NUTRITION STATUS AND RESIDUAL RENAL FUNCTION IN CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS(CAPD) PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Juan; Yuan, Weijie; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Ting

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to preserve residual renal function (RRF) in CAPD, as RRF is associated with lower morbidity and mortality. low- protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids was reported to have an important roles in delaying in follow-up period progression of renal failure and relieving malnutritional status in non-dialysis patients with chronic renal failure. We evaluate the effects on the nutritional status and RRF of a low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids on CAPD patients prospec...

  16. Avaliação do estado nutricional de pacientes em diálise peritoneal ambulatorial contínua (DPAC = Evaluation of the nutritional status of patients in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloá Angélica Koehnlein

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o estado nutricional dos pacientes em DPAC. Foram selecionados 16 pacientes com idade entre 20 e 75 anos, nos quais foram realizadas Avaliação Nutricional Subjetiva Global modificada, avaliação antropométrica, bioquímica e da ingestão alimentar. O excesso de peso prevaleceu na população estudada,atingindo 68,75%, de acordo com o Índice de massa corporal. No entanto, a avaliação da área muscular do braço corrigida demonstrou que 62,5% dos homens apresentavam algum grau de desnutrição, o que não foi observado na população feminina. Os níveis médios deuréia, hemoglobina, hematócrito, potássio, fósforo, cálcio e produto cálcio/fósforo estavam dentro da normalidade para esses pacientes. A ingestão média de nutrientes estava adequada em energia, lipídeos, fósforo, ferro, potássio e ácido fólico; insuficiente em proteínas, fibras, cálcio e vitamina B6; e excessiva em carboidratos, sódio e vitaminas C e B12. Dessa forma, destaca-se que o acompanhamento nutricional é uma conduta de destaque nessa população, em virtude da elevada prevalência de distúrbios nutricionais e dietéticos.This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of patients in CAPD. Sixteen patients aged between 20 and 75 years were selected,which were submitted to a modified global subjective nutritional assessment, as well as anthropometric, biochemical and food intake evaluations. Excess weight prevailed in the study population, reaching 68.75% according to the body mass index. However, thecorrected evaluation of the arm muscle area showed that 62.5% of men had some degree of malnutrition, which was not observed in the female population. Mean levels of urea, hemoglobin, hematocrit, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and product calcium/phosphorus were within normal range for these patients. The average intake of nutrients was adequatein energy, lipids, phosphorus, iron, potassium and folic acid

  17. Nutritional knowledge and habits of adolescents aged 9 to 13 years in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: a crosssectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yateem, Nabeel; Rossiter, Rachel

    2017-10-30

    Good nutritional knowledge and behaviour among adolescents is important to avoid health problems that can continue into adulthood. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide baseline data on nutritional knowledge and eating habits of adolescents in Sharjah. Data were collected from 300 adolescents aged 9-13 years attending 4 private schools using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Most students (86%) had poor nutritional knowledge, especially in key areas: nutritional terms, what constitutes healthy snacks and foods, daily nutritional requirements and components of food (e.g. fibre, fat, sugar). Only 34% of the students had healthy eating behaviour: 33% had eaten none or 1 vegetable only in the previous week, 25% had eaten unhealthy snacks 3 or more times, 19% had eaten frequently or daily at fast food outlets, and 36% had skipped breakfast frequently or daily. Culturally-specific, school-based educational interventions are warranted to build sound nutritional knowledge among adolescents and motivate the diet and behaviour changes needed to promote health throughout the lifespan.

  18. Usefulness Of Nutritional Parameters Based On Creatinine Kinetic Model In Predicting Prognosis In Severe Aki Patients Requring Crrt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Ho Song

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, nutritional state and chronic comorbidities were major factors predicting the clinical outcome of severe AKI patients requiring CRRT. CKM was a simple and useful method in the assessment of nutritional state during CRRT treatment. Low creatinine production reflecting poor nutrition and protein reserve was associated with poor prognosis in severely ill ARF patients.

  19. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  20. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Boys and Girls in Government School Children in Rompicherla Mandal Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is the intake of food to meet the body's dietary needs through different sources namely vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Good nutrition and well balanced diet with regular physical activities is acceptable. Poor nutrition leads to reduction in immunity of an individual, on the other hand increased levels of nutrition leads…

  1. Globalization of food and agriculture and the poor:

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Joachim; Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    The economic impact of globalization, particularly on poverty, and the changes in agri-food markets have received much attention in recent years. However, the intersection of these two trends has been neglected. The present volume fills this gap by focusing on the way globalization of agri-food systems affects the world's poor and its impact on food and nutrition security in developing countries. Rather than offering a single policy prescription or simplistic messages about globalization bein...

  2. Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with Diabetes mellitus in resource poor settings: A review. ... Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access ... Type 2 diabetes is increasing to epidemic levels globally.

  3. The impact of a nutrition education programme on feeding practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LF Mushaphi

    indigenous and traditional food systems of poor and rural communities need ..... Manu and Khetarpaul5 indicated that most rural Indian preschool children ..... nutritional status of scheduled Caste pre-school children of Amritsar. Anthropologist ...

  4. Comparative nutritional evaluation of some lesser known non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative nutritional evaluation of some lesser known non leguminous browse ... Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF) and ash level of the ... to be useful to ruminants as dietary supplement to poor quality dry season feed ...

  5. [Esthetic nutrition: body and beauty enhancement through nutritional care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Juliana da Silveira Gonçalves Zanini; Schnider, Aline Petter

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing quest for beauty and the models proposed by fashion goods and service segments, to achieve the perfect body. The standard of beauty corresponds to a thin body, without considering health aspects. The number of women who go on diets to control weight is increasing; and taking this into consideration the objective of this study is to conduct a bibliographical review and extract data on esthetics and body image to support the practice of nutritional care. Socio-cultural aspects, which motivate the quest for the perfect body, as well as body, beauty, esthetics, nutritional counseling and cognitive behavior therapy were examined in this survey. On the basis of this work, it is possible to conclude that the continuing obsession with the body may lead the person to go on diets and other drastic methods to control weight, such as surgical procedures. In this respect, nutritional care is far more than merely recommending a standard diet or giving information, as it represents providing an effective model for nutritional reeducation, prioritizing improvement in the style and quality of life. This article provides data about enhancing esthetics and beauty by means of appropriate nutrition.

  6. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  7. Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum proteinnutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.

  8. Nutritional deficiency in general practice: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wayenburg, van C.A.M.; Laar, van de F.A.; Weel, van C.; Staveren, van W.A.; Binsbergen, van J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Nutritional deficiency is an independent risk factor for mortality. Despite its clinical relevance, the prevalence in a primary care setting is poorly documented. We performed a systematic review of reported prevalence and clinical assessment of nutritional deficiency in general practice.

  9. Nutrition status and associated factors among children in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition among school-age children is due to inadequacies in one or more of the three main preconditions for good nutrition: food, care and health. Children stunted at school age are likely to have been exposed to poor nutrition since early childhood. Interventions for school age children can supplement ...

  10. Nutritional Status of Irish Older People in Receipt of Meals-on-Wheels and the Nutritional Content of Meals Provided

    OpenAIRE

    O'DWYER, CIARA MARY; TIMONEN, VIRPI

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED BACKGROUND: Research has suggested that meals-on-wheels recipients can be at risk for poor nutritional status. Despite this, few countries have statutory minimum requirements for the nutrient content of meals-on-wheels. This study examined both the nutritional status of a sample of Irish recipients and the nutrient content of a sample of meals provided to determine whether Irish recipients would benefit from statutory minimum nutritional standards. METHODS: The study had two phas...

  11. The Nutrition Challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Fanzo

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to some of the most nutritionally insecure people in the world. Poor infrastructure and limited resources compounded with conflict, HIV, and poor access to health services are factors that contribute to the staggering levels of malnutrition and food insecurity on the continent. Despite these enormous challenges, some countries in Africa are making progress towards food and nutrition security and there has never been a better time to work towards improved human devel...

  12. Limites e fronteiras das políticas assistenciais entre os séculos XVI e XVIII: continuidades e alteridades Limits and frontiers of the poor relief and health care policies between the 16th and 18th centuries: continuities and alterities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurinda Abreu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir dos conceitos de ação coletiva e de atores com interesses e do pressuposto de que o campo da caridade, assistência e saúde foi politicamente definido desde o início do período moderno, este texto tem dois objetivos principais: por um lado, analisar a construção do sistema assistencial português, identificando as suas linhas de continuidade durante todo o Antigo Regime. Por outro, avaliar as razões da maior eficácia da Coroa de quinhentos quando comparada com os governos da segunda metade de Setecentos, em termos de reforma das estruturas de apoio social e implementação de um novo paradigma assistencial. Em ambos os casos obviamente tendo em conta as diferenças entre os contextos políticos e sociais dos dois momentos em análise.Using the concepts of the collective action and actors with interests and the assumption that the poor relief and health care field was politically defined since the early modern period, this paper has two main purposes: on the one hand, to analyze the construction of the Portuguese assistance system, identifying its lines of continuity during the Ancient Regime. On the other hand, to evaluate the reasons why the Crown of the 16th century was more efficient when compared with the governments of the second half of the 18th century, in terms of reform of the social structures and implementation of a new paradigm of assistance. In both cases, taking into account the differences between the political and social contexts of those two moments.

  13. Nutritional supplementation for Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas B; Remington, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Evidence for the benefit of nutrition in Alzheimer's disease continues to accumulate. Many studies with individual vitamins or supplements show marginal, if any, benefit. However, new findings with combinatorial formulations demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance and behavioral difficulties that accompany Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we review some of the most recent clinical advances and summarize supportive preclinical studies. We present novel positive effects on Alzheimer's disease derived from diet, trace elements, vitamins and supplements. We discuss the inherent difficulty in conducting nutritional studies because of the variance in participants' nutritional history, versus pharmacological interventions in which participants are naive to the intervention. We examine the evidence that epigenetics play a role in Alzheimer's disease and how nutritional intervention can modify the key epigenetic events to maintain or improve cognitive performance. Overall consideration of the most recent collective evidence suggests that the optimal approach for Alzheimer's disease would seem to combine early, multicomponent nutritional approaches (a Mediterranean-style diet, multivitamins and key combinatorial supplements), along with lifestyle modifications such as social activity and mental and physical exercise, with ultimate addition of pharmacological agents when warranted.

  14. Nutrition support in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Korang, Steven Kwasi; Halberg Engell, Kirstine; Nielsen, Marie Skøtt; Zhang, Kang; Didriksen, Maria; Lund, Lisbeth; Lindahl, Niklas; Hallum, Sara; Liang, Ning; Xiong, Wenjing; Yang, Xuemei; Brunsgaard, Pernille; Garioud, Alexandre; Safi, Sanam; Lindschou, Jane; Kondrup, Jens; Gluud, Christian; Jakobsen, Janus C

    2017-05-19

    The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in Western European hospitals is estimated to be about 30%. There is no consensus whether poor nutritional status causes poorer clinical outcome or if it is merely associated with it. The intention with all forms of nutrition support is to increase uptake of essential nutrients and improve clinical outcome. Previous reviews have shown conflicting results with regard to the effects of nutrition support. To assess the benefits and harms of nutrition support versus no intervention, treatment as usual, or placebo in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid SP), LILACS (BIREME), and Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science). We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp); ClinicalTrials.gov; Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP); Google Scholar; and BIOSIS, as well as relevant bibliographies of review articles and personal files. All searches are current to February 2016. We include randomised clinical trials, irrespective of publication type, publication date, and language, comparing nutrition support versus control in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk. We exclude trials assessing non-standard nutrition support. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group. We used trial domains to assess the risks of systematic error (bias). We conducted Trial Sequential Analyses to control for the risks of random errors. We considered a P value of 0.025 or less as statistically significant. We used GRADE methodology. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, and health-related quality of life. We included 244 randomised clinical trials with 28,619 participants that met our inclusion criteria. We considered all trials to be at high risk of bias. Two

  15. The changing nutrition scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  16. The changing nutrition scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ′Green Revolution fatigue′. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  17. Are the energy poor also income poor? Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy poverty line is defined as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. This approach is applied to cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2005 household survey representative of both urban and rural India. The objective is to determine if the energy poor are also income poor and whether and how energy policies help reduce energy poverty, independent of income. The findings suggest that in rural areas some 57% of households are energy poor, versus 22% that are income poor. But in urban areas the energy poverty rate is 28% compared to 20% that are income poor. That is, energy policies are expected to play some roles in mitigating energy poverty. We find that reducing energy poverty requires not only support for rural electrification, but also more use of modern cooking fuels such as LPG. While income growth matters, a combination of energy related programs can play an independent and substantial role in reducing energy poverty. - Highlights: ► This paper applies a new approach to measuring energy poverty to rural and urban India. ► It also compares and contrasts income poverty with energy poverty in the context of India. ► Findings suggest that income poverty tracks energy poverty in urban India, but not in rural India. ► Income growth is very important in reducing energy poverty. ► In addition, access to and reliability of modern sources (electricity, LPG) are also helpful.

  18. CLINICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW-PROTEIN DIET AND SUPPLEMENTED WITH α-KETOACIDS THERAPY ON NUTRITION STATUS AND RESIDUAL RENAL FUNCTION IN CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS(CAPD PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is critical to preserve residual renal function (RRF in CAPD, as RRF is associated with lower morbidity and mortality. low- protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids was reported to have an important roles in delaying in follow-up period progression of renal failure and relieving malnutritional status in non-dialysis patients with chronic renal failure. We evaluate the effects on the nutritional status and RRF of a low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids on CAPD patients prospectively. Seventy eight CAPD patients who were randomly assigned to a low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acid group(keto acid group,31 patients,low-protein diet group(LPD group,26 patientsand routine protein diet group(RPD group,21 patientswere investigated and followed up for one year. The nutritional parameters were measured, and examinations of residual renal function (RRF, Kt/v, clearance of creatinine (Ccr and levels of serum amino acids, mean arterial pressure (MAP, peritoneal ultrafiltration(UF,residual urine volume(RUV and the status of water-sodium retentio were performed. Compared to LPD group, serum levels of prealbumin(PA, transferrin (TRF retinal binding protein (RBP had a significant increment both in keto acid group and RPD group(P〈0.01,but there was no significance between these two groups(p〉0.05□Compared to RPD group, There was an incremental tendency in albumin(Alb, total cholesterol(TC, triglyceride (TG, Triceps skinfoles (TSF,midarm riuscle circumference(MAMC,body mass index(BMI in keto acid group, but no significance(p〉0.05□The serum concentrations of Valine(Val,Leucine(Leu, Isoleucine (Ile were significantly increased in keto acid group(p〈0.01,compared to the other groups. Levels of RRF, Kt/V, Ccr, RUV were significantly higher both in keto acid group and LPD group than in RPD group(p〈0.01□There were no significant differences in MAP, UF and peritoneal dialysate albumin loss between these groups, However, the

  19. Effect of mother's education on child's nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A; Ciera, James; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth

    2012-06-21

    Malnutrition continues to be a critical public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in East Africa, 48 % of children under-five are stunted while 36 % are underweight. Poor health and poor nutrition are now more a characteristic of children living in the urban areas than of children in the rural areas. This is because the protective mechanism offered by the urban advantage in the past; that is, the health benefits that historically accrued to residents of cities as compared to residents in rural settings is being eroded due to increasing proportion of urban residents living in slum settings. This study sought to determine effect of mother's education on child nutritional status of children living in slum settings. Data are from a maternal and child health project nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). The study involves 5156 children aged 0-42 months. Data on nutritional status used were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We used binomial and multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of education in the univariable and multivariable models respectively. Results show that close to 40 % of children in the study are stunted. Maternal education is a strong predictor of child stunting with some minimal attenuation of the association by other factors at maternal, household and community level. Other factors including at child level: child birth weight and gender; maternal level: marital status, parity, pregnancy intentions, and health seeking behaviour; and household level: social economic status are also independently significantly associated with stunting. Overall, mothers' education persists as a strong predictor of child's nutritional status in urban slum settings, even after controlling for other factors. Given that stunting is a strong predictor of human capital, emphasis on girl-child education may contribute to breaking the poverty cycle in urban poor settings.

  20. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  1. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Hefferon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  2. Estado nutricional y composición corporal de niños pobres residentes en barrios periféricos de La Plata, Argentina Nutritional status and body composition of poor children in the outlying neighborhoods of La Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia E. Oyhenart

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el estado nutricional y la composición corporal, como indicadores de la calidad de vida, en niños pobres que concurren a comedores comunitarios de La Plata, Argentina. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre abril y noviembre de 2004 con 608 niños y niñas sanos de 1 a 11 años de edad que asistían a dos comedores barriales ubicados en la periferia de la ciudad de La Plata, Argentina. La muestra se estratificó según la edad y el sexo de los participantes. Se determinó la talla para la edad, el peso para la edad y el peso para la talla, así como el índice de masa corporal, el área muscular y el área adiposa. Los datos se transformaron a puntuaciones z. Se calcularon la razón de posibilidades (odds ratio y sus respectivos intervalos de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de peso bajo para la edad fue de 9,0%, la de peso bajo para la talla fue de 3,0% y la de talla baja para la edad de 15,0%. Las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad fueron de 12,5% y 7,1%, respectivamente. En esta población, 47,2% presentó déficit de masa muscular y 20,4% tenía déficit de masa adiposa. En los niños con sobrepeso y obesidad, el área adiposa fue 34,3% mayor que la de la población de referencia; en contraste, el área muscular fue 12,5% menor. CONCLUSIONES: En las comunidades infantiles estudiadas coexisten la desnutrición y el sobrepeso. La elevada prevalencia de retraso en el crecimiento (talla baja para la edad y desnutrición global (peso bajo para la edad y la grave reducción de la masa muscular, aun en niños con sobrepeso u obesidad, parecen ser consecuencias de un proceso adaptativo inevitable frente a las condiciones adversas de vida.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate nutritional status and body composition as indicators of quality of life among poor children served by neighborhood soup kitchens in La Plata, Argentina. METHODS: From April to November 2004, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 608 healthy

  3. Recovery of nutritional metabolism after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Kohei; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Teramoto, Arisa; Urano, Eri; Katayama, Takafumi; Morine, Yuji; Imura, Satoru; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Shimada, Mitsuo; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative nutritional assessment is critically important to reflect nutritional management because liver transplantation (LTx) often is undertaken in patients with poor nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status, including the non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ), resting energy expenditure (REE), nitrogen balance, and blood biochemical parameters in patients before and after LTx. Fourteen patients undergoing LTx and 10 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The npRQ and REE were measured using indirect calorimetry before LTx and at 2, 3, and 4 wk after the procedure. Blood biochemistry and nitrogen balance calculated by 24-h urine collection were performed concurrently with indirect calorimetric measurement; the results were compared between the two groups. Before LTx, npRQ was significantly lower and serum non-esterified fatty acid levels were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Furthermore, a negative nitrogen balance was observed in the patients. These, however, improved significantly at 4 wk after LTx. REE did not significantly increase compared with the preoperative values in recipients. Blood biochemistry showed gradually increasing levels of serum cholinesterase and albumin. These failed to reach to normal levels by 4 wk post-transplant. The findings revealed that improvement of nutritional metabolism after LTx may require 4 wk. Additional nutritional strategies, therefore, may be needed to minimize catabolic state during the early post-transplant period. Adequate, individualized nutritional guidance before and after LTx should be performed in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tailored nutrition education: is it really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-03-01

    There has been a growing interest in tailored nutrition education over the previous decade, with a number of literature reviews suggesting this intervention strategy holds considerable potential. Nevertheless, the majority of intervention trials undertaken to date have employed subjective self-report outcome measures (such as dietary recalls). The aim of the present review is to further consider the likely true effect of tailored nutrition education by assessing the findings of tailored nutrition education intervention trials where objective outcome measures (such as sales data) have been employed. Four trials of tailored nutrition education employing objective outcome measures were identified: one was undertaken in eight low-cost supermarkets in New Zealand (2010; n 1104); one was an online intervention trial in Australia (2006; n 497); and two were undertaken in US supermarkets (1997 and 2001; n 105 and 296, respectively). Findings from the high-quality New Zealand trial were negative. Findings from the US trials were also generally negative, although reporting was poor making it difficult to assess quality. Findings from the high-quality online trial were positive, although have limited generalisability for public health. Trials employing objective outcome measures strongly suggest tailored nutrition education is not effective as a stand-alone strategy. However, further large, high-quality trials employing objective outcome measures are needed to determine the true effectiveness of this popular nutrition intervention strategy. Regardless, education plays an important role in generating social understanding and acceptance of broader interventions to improve nutrition.

  5. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Brooke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  6. Business continuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunhoelder, Gert

    2002-01-01

    This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters

  7. Assessment of surgical treatment and postoperative nutrition in gastric cancer patients older than 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanoko, Tomonori; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Ando, Koji; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Ohgaki, Kippei; Kimura, Yasue; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    A gastrectomy for gastric cancer is sometimes required in patients older than 80 years due to the continuously increasing age of society. However, if a gastrectomy worsens the postoperative quality of life and daily activity in elderly patients because of poor nutrition, the procedure may not always be a useful treatment strategy. Clinicopathological data of patients with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy at our Department between 1998 and 2008 (N=471) were collected and analyzed. The results of treatment for patients older than 80 years (N=41) were analyzed and compared against those of patients younger than 80 years (N=430). Patients older than 80 years had a higher frequency of preoperative co-morbidities than patients younger than 80 years. However, there was no statistical difference in postoperative complications regarding nutrition between the two groups. Older age is not a determinant of poor nutrition following gastrectomy. Gastrectomy for gastric cancer is, therefore, a useful treatment strategy, regardless of ageing. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Preoperative Nutrition Status and Postoperative Outcome in Elderly General Surgery Patients: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Korkic-Halilovic, Ines; Bakker, Marjan S. M.; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Poor nutrition status is considered a risk factor for postoperative complications in the adult population. In elderly patients, who often have a poor nutrition status, this relationship has not been substantiated. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the merit of

  9. Nutritional status of preschool children in informal settlement areas near Bloemfontein, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, A; Bester, C; Joubert, G; Badenhorst, P; Slabber, M; Badenhorst, A; Du Toit, E; Barnard, H; Botha, P; Nogabe, L

    2000-09-01

    To determine the nutritional status and household resources of preschool children. A cross-sectional survey. : Two informal settlement areas, Joe Slovo (JS) and JB Mafora (JBM) in Mangaung, near Bloemfontein, South Africa. Preschool children (poor household situation of the participants. The generally poor nutritional status and environmental conditions emphasize the urgency of intervention for these children.

  10. Continuous tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-04-01

    A tokamak configuration is proposed that permits the rapid replacement of a plasma discharge in a ''burn'' chamber by another one in a time scale much shorter than the elementary thermal time constant of the chamber first wall. With respect to the chamber, the effective duty cycle factor can thus be made arbitrarily close to unity minimizing the cyclic thermal stress in the first wall. At least one plasma discharge always exists in the new tokamak configuration, hence, a continuous tokamak. By incorporating adiabatic toroidal compression, configurations of continuous tokamak compressors are introduced. To operate continuous tokamaks, it is necessary to introduce the concept of mixed poloidal field coils, which spatially groups all the poloidal field coils into three sets, all contributing simultaneously to inducing the plasma current and maintaining the proper plasma shape and position. Preliminary numerical calculations of axisymmetric MHD equilibria in continuous tokamaks indicate the feasibility of their continued plasma operation. Advanced concepts of continuous tokamaks to reduce the topological complexity and to allow the burn plasma aspect ratio to decrease for increased beta are then suggested

  11. Poverty and the state of nutrition in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V

    2013-01-01

    India is often thought of as a development paradox with relatively high economic growth rates in the past few years, but with lower progress in areas of life expectancy, education and standard of living. While serious inequalities in growth, development and opportunity explain the illusion of the paradox at the country level, still, a significant proportion of the world's poor live in India, as do a significant proportion of the world's malnourished children. Poverty and undernutrition coexist, and poor dietary quality is associated with poor childhood growth, as well as significant micronutrient deficiencies. Food security is particularly vulnerable to changes in the economic scenario and to inequities in wealth distribution. Migration from rural to urban settings with a large informal employment sector also ensures that migrants continue to live in food insecure situations. While food production has for the most part kept pace with the increasing population, it has been with regard to cereal rather than of pulses and millet production. Oil seeds, sugar cane and horticultural crops, along with non-food crops are also being promoted, which do not address nutrition security, and, coupled with the increase in the consumption of pre-prepared food, may indeed predispose towards the double burden of malnutrition. Access to food is also particularly susceptible to poverty and inequality. Many strategies and policies have been proposed to counter undernutrition in India, but their implementation has not been uniform, and it is still too early to assess their lasting impact at scale.

  12. The Importance of Nutrition Journal Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptawati Bardosono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of nutrition journal publications indicate on the urgency of the problems in the world of nutrition. Research scientists had published various condition related to nutritional status and determined the cause of this problem. Expanding populations, newly achieved national freedoms, and the urge for a better life in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, together with food surpluses, enlightened self-interest, and awakened conscience in the more privileged countries of Europe, North America and Oceania have contributed to resurgence of interest in the world of health and nutrition problems.1 Indonesian Nutrition Association (registered as Perhimpunan Nutriti Indonesia, which was founded in 2011, has been continuing visions and misions to continue and develop the work of late Dr. Iqbal Mustafa, MD, PhD, FCCM. He encouraged the evolution of multidisciplinary Critical Care Systems in developing countries to provide benefit for great number of recipients at the lowest affordable cost. His interest in Nutritional Support had become a foundation to INA.2 To continue his legacy, INA has financially support the publishing of Journal Critical Care and Shock, the spreading of research to meet the needs of population. Since 2011, INA has taken an active role in all aspects of education and post-graduate trainings, practices, researches, and publications in nutrition disciplines. It also fosters collaboration among professionals involved in nutrition sciences. The yearly event held by INA, Nutri Symposium, has been running for 12 years. As part of this activity, we gather all participants to submit oral or poster presentation, which will also be published in form of abstracts in proceeding book. The demand from nutrition researchers and scientists to join the Nutri Symposium as a platform to publish their work has encouraged INA to create an International Journal focus on Nutrition, entitled World Nutrition Journal

  13. Consequences of the African Diaspora on Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Okonkwo, Sharon K.

    2002-01-01

    African-Americans, Afro-Carribeans and other children of the African diaspora continue to fare worse in many health measures of diet, nutrition, morbidity and mortality. What are some of the nutritional basis of such an outcome? What factors exist in the diet of these groups of people that have prevented them from obtaining the health outcomes of their predecessors? The African Diaspora is responsible for a huge transformation and translocation of millions of Africans during a four hundred ye...

  14. Feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Peter J; Agostoni, Carlo; Axelsson, Irene; De Curtis, Mario; Goulet, Olivier; Hernell, Olle; Koletzko, Berthold; Lafeber, Harry N; Michaelsen, Kim F; Puntis, John W L; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; Weaver, Lawrence T

    2006-05-01

    Survival of small premature infants has markedly improved during the last few decades. These infants are discharged from hospital care with body weight below the usual birth weight of healthy term infants. Early nutrition support of preterm infants influences long-term health outcomes. Therefore, the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition has reviewed available evidence on feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge. Close monitoring of growth during hospital stay and after discharge is recommended to enable the provision of adequate nutrition support. Measurements of length and head circumference, in addition to weight, must be used to identify those preterm infants with poor growth that may need additional nutrition support. Infants with an appropriate weight for postconceptional age at discharge should be breast-fed when possible. When formula-fed, such infants should be fed regular infant formula with provision of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Infants discharged with a subnormal weight for postconceptional age are at increased risk of long-term growth failure, and the human milk they consume should be supplemented, for example, with a human milk fortifier to provide an adequate nutrient supply. If formula-fed, such infants should receive special postdischarge formula with high contents of protein, minerals and trace elements as well as an long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply, at least until a postconceptional age of 40 weeks, but possibly until about 52 weeks postconceptional age. Continued growth monitoring is required to adapt feeding choices to the needs of individual infants and to avoid underfeeding or overfeeding.

  15. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.

  16. Continuous Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xu; Tian, Xinmei; Liu, Tongliang; Xu, Fang; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-10-03

    Dropout has been proven to be an effective algorithm for training robust deep networks because of its ability to prevent overfitting by avoiding the co-adaptation of feature detectors. Current explanations of dropout include bagging, naive Bayes, regularization, and sex in evolution. According to the activation patterns of neurons in the human brain, when faced with different situations, the firing rates of neurons are random and continuous, not binary as current dropout does. Inspired by this phenomenon, we extend the traditional binary dropout to continuous dropout. On the one hand, continuous dropout is considerably closer to the activation characteristics of neurons in the human brain than traditional binary dropout. On the other hand, we demonstrate that continuous dropout has the property of avoiding the co-adaptation of feature detectors, which suggests that we can extract more independent feature detectors for model averaging in the test stage. We introduce the proposed continuous dropout to a feedforward neural network and comprehensively compare it with binary dropout, adaptive dropout, and DropConnect on Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research-10, Street View House Numbers, NORB, and ImageNet large scale visual recognition competition-12. Thorough experiments demonstrate that our method performs better in preventing the co-adaptation of feature detectors and improves test performance.

  17. Nutritional status, nutrition practices and post-operative complications in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, A K; Newsome, C M; Simmance, N; Crowe, T C

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition and its associated complications are a considerable issue for surgical patients with upper gastrointestinal and colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether specific perioperative nutritional practices and protocols are associated with improved patient outcomes in this group. Patients admitted for elective upper gastrointestinal or colorectal cancer surgery (n = 95) over a 19-month period underwent a medical history audit assessing weight changes, nutritional intake, biochemistry, post-operative complications and length of stay. A subset of patients (n = 25) underwent nutritional assessment by subjective global assessment prior to surgery in addition to assessment of post-operative medical outcomes, nutritional intake and timing of dietetic intervention. Mean (SD) length of stay for patients was 14.0 (12.2) days, with complication rates at 35%. Length of stay was significantly longer in patients who experienced significant preoperative weight loss compared to those who did not [17.0 (15.8) days versus 10.0 (6.8) days, respectively; P nutritional assessment, 32% were classified as mild-moderately malnourished and 16% severely malnourished. Malnourished patients were hospitalised twice as long as well-nourished patients [15.8 (12.8) days versus 7.6 (3.5) days; P nutrition post surgery was a factor in post-operative outcomes, with a positive correlation with length of stay (r = 0.493; P cancer. Poor nutritional status coupled with delayed and inadequate post-operative nutrition practices are associated with worse clinical outcomes.

  18. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  19. Benefits of nutritional intervention on nutritional status, quality of life and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eys, J

    1998-01-01

    Most cancers in children are acute diseases. Therefore, the incidence of malnutrition, in general, is not different from the incidence in the referral population. Some specific tumors, such as neuroblastoma and those resulting in the diencephalic syndrome, can be exceptions. By contrast, malnutrition is a frequent problem during modern intensive cancer treatment as the result of the associated anorexia, altered taste sensations and catabolic effects of drugs. In addition, there are psychogenic factors and metabolic consequences associated with the tumor itself. Nutritional support does improve the feeling of well-being and performance status, while maintaining or improving the immune competence, thereby potentially affecting survival by limiting infectious episodes. There is no convincing evidence to date that nutritional support has an antineoplastic effect per se, but deficiency of a specific nutrient might be beneficial because of a differential requirement between tumor and normal cells. Theoretically, nutritional support might enhance tumor growth but also susceptibility to chemotherapy. In either case, nutrition is a support modality that must be given with appropriate tumor-directed therapy if curative intent is the goal of treatment. Nutrition remains a consideration after therapy is completed. This generates different challenges. If further tumor-directed therapy is futile, the decision to continue nutritional support is difficult, but if the child is well, nutritional rehabilitation must be pursued. Finally, the cured child continues to benefit from dietary advice. Nutrition should be viewed for what it is: supplying the most basic need of children.

  20. Annual Research Review: Improved nutrition--pathway to resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-04-01

    Early child nutritional deficiencies are prevalent in low- and middle-countries with consequences linked not only to poor survival and growth, but also to poor development outcomes. Children in disadvantaged communities face multiple risks for nutritional deficiencies, yet some children may be less susceptible or may recover more quickly from malnutrition. A greater understanding is needed about factors which moderate the effects of nutrition-related risks and foster resilience to protect against or ameliorate poor development outcomes. A literature review was undertaken from August to December 2011 and updated in August 2012. Key word searches using terms Nutrition, Malnutrition, Child Development, Responsive Care, Stimulation, Low and Middle Income Countries and Resilience were undertaken using PubMed and Psychinfo. Dietary adequacy is critical for growth and development, but current evidence indicates that nutrition supplementation alone is insufficient to foster resilience to protect against, mitigate, and recover from nutritional threats and to promote healthy development. The combination of nutrition interventions with stimulation and responsive care is necessary. Combined nutrition and psychosocial stimulation approaches can potentially work effectively together to promote protective factors and mitigate risks for poor cognitive, motor, social, and affective functioning helping children to adapt in times of adversity. However, there are gaps in our existing knowledge to combine nutrition and psychosocial stimulation interventions effectively and promote these interventions at scale. Research needs to address barriers at the level of family, community, programme, and policy which have prevented thus far the uptake of combined nutrition and psychosocial intervention strategies. Further investigations are needed on how to provide support to caregivers, enabling them to implement appropriate care for feeding and stimulation. Finally, the effect of combined

  1. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise - nutrition; Exercise - fluids; Exercise - hydration ... Bird R. Nutrition. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  2. Nutrition and OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta ( ... no foods or supplements that will cure OI. Nutrition Related Problems Difficulties eating solid food have been ...

  3. Nutrition.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gov Sites FAQ Contact Us En Español Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Browse by ... FAQs USDA Research, Education, and Economics Resources Welcome Nutrition.gov is a USDA-sponsored website that offers ...

  4. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  5. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  6. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition and COPD Most people are surprised to learn ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  7. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  8. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  9. Why cachexia kills: examining the causality of poor outcomes in wasting conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Rhee, Connie; Sim, John J.; Stenvinkel, Peter; Anker, Stefan D.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss is the hallmark of any progressive acute or chronic disease state. In its extreme form of significant lean body mass (including skeletal muscle) and fat loss, it is referred to as cachexia. It has been known for millennia that muscle and fat wasting leads to poor outcomes including death. On one hand, conditions and risk factors that lead to cachexia and inadequate nutrition may independently lead to increased mortality. Additionaly, cachexia per se, withdrawal of nutritional supp...

  10. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  11. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  12. [Oral nutritional supplementation in hematologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalva, A; San Martín, A; Rosselló, J; Pérez-Portabella, C; Palacios, A; Julià, A; Planas, M

    2009-01-01

    Hematological patients often present anorexia which along with other secondary effects from the chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatments compromise their nutritional status. Oral supplementation can aid to fulfill the energy and protein requirements of these patients. Nevertheless, the use of commercial nutritional supplements normally available, is limited by its poor intake. To evaluate the degree of fulfillment of the prescribed supplements and fulfillment of energy requirements, as well as the development of nutritional status in hematological patients hospitalized for treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Prospective, randomized and open study of inpatients at the hematological ward. Patients were randomized sequentially and they were assigned into 3 different nutritional interventions providing: Group 1 (G1), a flavored supplement; Group 2 (G2): a non flavored (neutral) supplement and Group 3 (G3): "kitchen" foods as supplements. Need and amount of nutritional supplements were provided according to the oral intake previously analyzed. Nutritional assessment (at admission and discharge) was based in the Subjective Global Assessment test (SGA), Risk Nutritional Index (RNI) and percentage of lost weight. Both fulfillment of supplement intake and achievement of energetic requirements were analyzed. 125 patients of 51.3 +/- 16.8 years; 45% men and 55% women. 54% lymphoma, 33% leukemia, 8% myeloma and others 4%. Length of stay (LOS): 7.0 +/- 3.6 d. The nutritional assessment done by SGA showed significant negative changes in G2 and G3 (G1: 30% developed malnutrition and 28% improved their nutritional status, p = NS; G2: 50% developed malnutrition against 7% whom improved their nutritional status, p = 0.002; y G3: 37% developed malnutrition against 21% whom improved their nutritional status, p = 0.02). According to RNI, patients evolved negatively from their nutritional state but no significant differences were found within groups (G1, from 81% of

  13. Continuation calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geron, B.; Geuvers, J.H.; de'Liguoro, U.; Saurin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head

  14. How poor are women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajuladevi, A K

    1992-07-01

    The assessment of poor women in India as dependent and exploited regardless of poverty focused strategies is reflected in this review of relevant literature. The scholarly approaches to the problems of poor women involve redirection and expansion of resources to women (increase bank credit) through policy and institutional changes, and involve improving women's welfare through changes in class and gender hierarchies; both pertain to restructuring power groups. A little ascribed to belief is that the organization of women's numbers will empower women; the constraints are stated. There is also some argument over whether to design women-specific programs or integrate women into existing programs; some examples are given of successes and difficulties. The regionalization of poverty in eastern and central India is discussed. The growth of the poor has been among the landless, wage-dependent households. 9.6% of households (7.5 million) are headed by women. Women work fewer hours and at lower wage scales and have fewer employment opportunities. Lower earnings are coupled with differentials in demand for female and male labor in agriculture and a crowded labor market. There is a concentration of women in less visible, nonmonetary subsistence production and domestic work. Women are undercounted in employment studies. Women predominate in agricultural activity. Women's status is influenced by economic status, caste, and ethnic background. Domestic work increases status for women and households. The poorer households have greater labor force participation, particularly as wage laborers rather than unpaid family workers. Regional factors affecting rural household strategies are factors affecting the economy (topography, rainfall, climate) and the degree of development, plus sociocultural variables (kinship and religious beliefs which affect the social domain of women), and the degree of dependence on hired vs. family labor. There are sharp contrasts in the value and survival

  15. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  16. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  17. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...

  18. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  19. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: oral health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touger-Decker, Riva; Mobley, Connie

    2013-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutrition is an integral component of oral health. The Academy supports integration of oral health with nutrition services, education, and research. Collaboration between dietetics practitioners and oral health care professionals is recommended for oral health promotion and disease prevention and intervention. Scientific and epidemiological data suggest a lifelong synergy between diet, nutrition, and integrity of the oral cavity in health and disease. Oral health and nutrition have a multifaceted relationship. Oral infectious diseases, as well as acute, chronic, and systemic diseases with oral manifestations, impact an individual's functional ability to eat and their nutrition status. Likewise, nutrition and diet can affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity and progression of oral diseases. As knowledge of the link between oral and nutrition health increases, dietetics practitioners and oral health care professionals must learn to provide screening, education, and referrals as part of comprehensive client/patient care. The provision of medical nutrition therapy, including oral and overall health, is incorporated into the Standards of Practice for registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered. Inclusion of didactic and clinical practice concepts that illustrate the role of nutrition in oral health is essential in education programs for both professional groups. Collaborative endeavors between dietetics, dentistry, medicine, and allied health professionals in research, education, and delineation of practice roles are needed to ensure comprehensive health care. The multifaceted interactions between diet, nutrition, and oral health in practice, education, and research in both dietetics and dentistry merit continued, detailed delineation. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Jane B

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome. Its defining feature is involuntary weight loss, which arises, in part, because of muscle atrophy and is accompanied by functional decline. International expert consensus recommends that nutritional support and counselling is a component of multimodal therapy for cancer cachexia, as poor nutritional intake can contribute to progression of the syndrome. The present paper focuses on what is presently known about the nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia. There is potential for nurses to play an important role. However, obstacles to this include lack of a robust evidence base to support their nutritional care practices and unmet need for education about nutrition in cancer. The nursing role's boundaries and the outcomes of nurse-delivered nutritional care in cancer cachexia are both uncertain and should be investigated.

  1. The role of agriculture in the nutrition of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Malcolm

    2014-11-01

    Data from across the developing world show consistently that a fundamental cause of poor nutrition is low agricultural productivity and consequent low incomes, especially amongst poor rural households. Conventionally, technical solutions have been sought to contribute to greater household food security, and thus better childhood nutrition. A more holistic approach is required. This paper draws from field examples, mainly in southern and east Africa, to illustrate the implementation and effectiveness of what is termed a 'green evolution' approach which emphasizes the efficient use of available resources of land, labour and inputs, thus allowing food to be sold profitably at low prices. With low food prices, the poor can use their limited funds to invest in better housing, education and health care. This is achieved through building thoughtful, farmer demand-led initiatives, backed by high quality science to deliver widespread improvements in nutrition for the poor.

  2. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  3. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  4. Nutrition education in medical school: a time of opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Van Horn, Linda; Rock, Cheryl L; Edwards, Marilyn S; Bales, Connie W; Kohlmeier, Martin; Akabas, Sharon R

    2014-05-01

    Undergraduate medical education has undergone significant changes in development of new curricula, new pedagogies, and new forms of assessment since the Nutrition Academic Award was launched more than a decade ago. With an emphasis on a competency-based curriculum, integrated learning, longitudinal clinical experiences, and implementation of new technology, nutrition educators have an opportunity to introduce nutrition and diet behavior-related learning experiences across the continuum of medical education. Innovative learning opportunities include bridging personal health and nutrition to community, public, and global health concerns; integrating nutrition into lifestyle medicine training; and using nutrition as a model for teaching the continuum of care and promoting interprofessional team-based care. Faculty development and identification of leaders to serve as champions for nutrition education continue to be a challenge.

  5. Nutrition education in medical school: a time of opportunity1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda; Rock, Cheryl L; Edwards, Marilyn S; Bales, Connie W; Kohlmeier, Martin; Akabas, Sharon R

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education has undergone significant changes in development of new curricula, new pedagogies, and new forms of assessment since the Nutrition Academic Award was launched more than a decade ago. With an emphasis on a competency-based curriculum, integrated learning, longitudinal clinical experiences, and implementation of new technology, nutrition educators have an opportunity to introduce nutrition and diet behavior–related learning experiences across the continuum of medical education. Innovative learning opportunities include bridging personal health and nutrition to community, public, and global health concerns; integrating nutrition into lifestyle medicine training; and using nutrition as a model for teaching the continuum of care and promoting interprofessional team-based care. Faculty development and identification of leaders to serve as champions for nutrition education continue to be a challenge. PMID:24646826

  6. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  7. Rich or poor: Who should pay higher tax rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic agent model is introduced with an annual random wealth multiplicative process followed by taxes paid according to a linear wealth-dependent tax rate. If poor agents pay higher tax rates than rich agents, eventually all wealth becomes concentrated in the hands of a single agent. By contrast, if poor agents are subject to lower tax rates, the economic collective process continues forever.

  8. Nutritional support for liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Ronald L; Avenell, Alison; Lipman, Timothy O

    2012-05-16

    Weight loss and muscle wasting are commonly found in patients with end-stage liver disease. Since there is an association between malnutrition and poor clinical outcome, such patients (or those at risk of becoming malnourished) are often given parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or oral nutritional supplements. These interventions have costs and adverse effects, so it is important to prove that their use results in improved morbidity or mortality, or both. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, and oral nutritional supplements on the mortality and morbidity of patients with underlying liver disease. The following computerised databases were searched: the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded (January 2012). In addition, reference lists of identified trials and review articles and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched. Trials identified in a previous systematic handsearch of Index Medicus were also considered. Handsearches of a number of medical journals, including abstracts from annual meetings, were done. Experts in the field and manufacturers of nutrient formulations were contacted for potential references. Randomised clinical trials (parallel or cross-over design) comparing groups of patients with any underlying liver disease who received, or did not receive, enteral or parenteral nutrition or oral nutritional supplements were identified without restriction on date, language, or publication status. Six categories of trials were separately considered: medical or surgical patients receiving parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or supplements. The following data were sought in each report: date of publication; geographical location; inclusion and exclusion criteria; the type of nutritional support and constitution of the nutrient formulation; duration of

  9. Energy poor or fuel poor: What are the differences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kang; Lloyd, Bob; Liang, Xiao-Jie; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Energy poverty and fuel poverty are descriptors of problems of households' energy consumption, they are both distinct problems and have been addressed by many researchers, organizations and governments. Cross use of the terms of energy poverty and fuel poverty in published papers is common. As an accurate descriptor is the presupposition of research and policy development, especially for those who just started to pay attention to this issue, this paper compares the definitions, research priorities, status quo, and problems of these two concepts, and summarizes the relationship between them. The paper suggests that only when the research targets are households who are living in a cold climate and have difficulty in getting access to electricity or modern cooking facilities, and in supplying indoor heating with appropriate cost, the concepts of energy poverty and fuel poverty have the chance to be broadened and mutually integrated. - Highlights: • Address energy poverty and fuel poverty simultaneously. • Compare energy poverty and fuel poverty from 4 perspectives. • Summarize the relationship between energy poverty and fuel poverty. • Divide energy poor and fuel poor into three categories

  10. [Effects of low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid on micro-inflammation and the relationship between micro-inflammation and nutritional status in patients performing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Hao; Sun, Li-Jing; Cai, Li-Li; Xu, Hai-Yan

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the effects of the combination of alpha-keto acid and low-protein diet on the levels of serum cytokines in patients performing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to explore the relationship between inflammation and malnutrition in CAPD patients. Eighty-nine CAPD patients were randomized into three groups, and 78 cases completed a one-year follow-up and with complete data. There were 31 cases in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid group, 26 cases in low-protein diet group and 21 cases in routine-protein diet group. The levels of serum albumin (Alb), prealbumin (PA), retinol-binding protein (RBP), transferrin (TRF), cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), leptin, and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), body mass index (BMI) were measured. The changes of serum interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also detected. Compared with low-protein diet group, serum levels of PA, RBP and TRF were significantly increased both in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid and routine-protein diet groups ( Pdiet plus alpha-keto acid group and routine-protein diet group. There was an increased tendency in the content of Alb, TC, TG, BMI, TSF and MAMC, but there were no significant differences. The plasma levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid group were decreased as compared with the routine-protein diet group, but there were no significant differences. The plasma level of CRP in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid group was lower than that in the routine-protein diet group ( Pketo acid and low-protein diet can ameliorate malnutrition and micro-inflammation in CAPD patients.

  11. Poorly studied phenomena in geoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Могилатов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, modern geoelectric technologies emerge in the result of the development of traditional approaches and techniques. However of more interest is the appearance of completely new technologies based on new effects and new models of interaction of geological medium and electromagnetic field. The author does not commit to indicate principally new directions, but only wants to discuss some poorly known facts from the theory and practice of geoelectrics. The outcome of this study could be considered attracting the attention of experts to non-traditional signals in geoelectrics. The reviewed phenomena of interest, not fully implemented in practice in the author’s opinion, are field split into two polarizations: transverse electric (the ТЕ-field and transverse magnetic (the ТМ-field, then some poorly known properties of ТМ-field, the role of bias currents, the anisotropy of horizontal resistances, the role of geomagnetic field in geoelectric sounding, the unique resolution of CSEM (Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic techniques at sea.

  12. Interactive Distance Learning Effectively Provides Winning Sports Nutrition Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jennifer; Hoelscher-Day, Sharon; Begeman, Gale; Houtkooper, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Interactive distance-education (n=226) and face-to-face (n=129) continuing education workshops for health care and education professionals on sports nutrition were evaluated immediately and after 6 months. The well-designed distance-education format was as effective and acceptable as face to face and increased sports nutrition knowledge. (SK)

  13. A Deficiency of Nutrition Education and Practice in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Stephen; Agatston, Arthur; Aggarwal, Monica; Aspry, Karen E; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Miller, Michael; O'Keefe, James H; Ros, Emilio; Rzeszut, Anne K; White, Beth A; Williams, Kim A; Freeman, Andrew M

    2017-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the foundations of cardiovascular guidelines for risk reduction and treatment. However, little is known about whether cardiologists, cardiology fellows-in-training, and cardiovascular team members have the nutrition education and knowledge necessary to implement these guidelines. The aim of this study was to describe the educational experiences, attitudes, and practices relating to nutrition among cardiovascular professionals. Surveys completed by cardiologists, fellows-in-training, and cardiovascular team members inquired about their personal dietary habits, history of nutrition education, and attitudes regarding nutrition interventions. A total of 930 surveys were completed. Among cardiologists, 90% reported receiving no or minimal nutrition education during fellowship training, 59% reported no nutrition education during internal medicine training, and 31% reported receiving no nutrition education in medical school. Among cardiologists, 8% described themselves as having "expert" nutrition knowledge. Nevertheless, fully 95% of cardiologists believe that their role includes personally providing patients with at least basic nutrition information. The percentage of respondents who ate ≥5 servings of vegetables and fruits per day was: 20% (cardiologists), 21% (fellows-in-training), and 26% (cardiovascular team members). A large proportion of cardiovascular specialists have received minimal medical education and training in nutrition, and current trainees continue to experience significant education and training gaps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Health indicators associated with poor sleep quality among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo

    Full Text Available Objective To associate the sleep quality of Brazilian undergraduate students with health indicators. Method A cross-sectional study was developed with a random sample of 662 undergraduate students from Fortaleza, Brazil. The demographic data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and health data indicators (smoking, alcoholism, sedentary lifestyle, nutritional condition and serum cholesterol were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood was collected at a clinical laboratory. In order to estimate the size of the associations, a Poisson Regression was used. Results For students who are daily smokers, the occurrence of poor sleep was higher than in non-smokers (p<0.001. Prevalence rate values were nevertheless close to 1. Conclusion The likelihood of poor sleep is almost the same in smokers and in alcoholics.

  15. Australian midwives and provision of nutrition education during pregnancy: A cross sectional survey of nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrish, Jamila; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-10-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy affects the health of the mother and the baby. Midwives are ideally placed to provide nutrition education to pregnant women. There is limited published research evidence of Australian midwives' nutrition knowledge, attitudes and confidence. To investigate Australian midwives' nutrition knowledge, attitudes and confidence in providing nutrition education during pregnancy. Members of the Australian College of Midwives (n=4770) were sent an invitation email to participate in a web-based survey, followed by two reminders. The completion rate was 6.9% (329 of 4770). The majority (86.6% and 75.7%, respectively) highly rated the importance of nutrition during pregnancy and the significance of their role in nutrition education. Midwives' nutrition knowledge was inadequate in several areas such as weight gain, dairy serves and iodine requirements (73.3%, 73.2% and 79.9% incorrect responses, respectively). The level of confidence in discussing general and specific nutrition issues ranged mostly from moderate to low. The majority of the midwives (93%) provided nutrition advice to pregnant women. This advice was mostly described as 'general' and focused on general nutrition topics. Only half of the midwives reported receiving nutrition education during midwifery education (51.1%) or after registration (54.1%). Australian midwives' attitudes towards nutrition during pregnancy and their role in educating pregnant women about it were positive but their knowledge and confidence did not align with these attitudes. This could be due to minimal nutrition education during midwifery education or during practice. Continued education to improve midwives' nutrition knowledge and confidence is essential. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  17. Nutritional Deficiency in Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Sciatti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. Although evidence-based treatments have substantially improved outcomes, prognosis remains poor with high costs for health care systems. In patients with HF, poor dietary behaviors are associated with unsatisfactory quality of life and adverse outcome. The HF guidelines have not recommended a specific nutritional strategy. Despite the role of micronutrient deficiency, it has been extensively studied, and data about the efficacy of supplementation therapy in HF are not supported by large randomized trials and there is limited evidence regarding the outcomes. The aim of the present review is to analyze the state-of-the-art of nutritional deficiencies in HF, focusing on the physiological role and the prognostic impact of micronutrient supplementation.

  18. Effect of mother’s education on child’s nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuya Benta A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition continues to be a critical public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in East Africa, 48 % of children under-five are stunted while 36 % are underweight. Poor health and poor nutrition are now more a characteristic of children living in the urban areas than of children in the rural areas. This is because the protective mechanism offered by the urban advantage in the past; that is, the health benefits that historically accrued to residents of cities as compared to residents in rural settings is being eroded due to increasing proportion of urban residents living in slum settings. This study sought to determine effect of mother’s education on child nutritional status of children living in slum settings. Methods Data are from a maternal and child health project nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS. The study involves 5156 children aged 0–42 months. Data on nutritional status used were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We used binomial and multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of education in the univariable and multivariable models respectively. Results Results show that close to 40 % of children in the study are stunted. Maternal education is a strong predictor of child stunting with some minimal attenuation of the association by other factors at maternal, household and community level. Other factors including at child level: child birth weight and gender; maternal level: marital status, parity, pregnancy intentions, and health seeking behaviour; and household level: social economic status are also independently significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion Overall, mothers’ education persists as a strong predictor of child’s nutritional status in urban slum settings, even after controlling for other factors. Given that stunting is a strong predictor of human capital, emphasis on girl-child education may

  19. Effect of mother’s education on child’s nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Malnutrition continues to be a critical public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in East Africa, 48 % of children under-five are stunted while 36 % are underweight. Poor health and poor nutrition are now more a characteristic of children living in the urban areas than of children in the rural areas. This is because the protective mechanism offered by the urban advantage in the past; that is, the health benefits that historically accrued to residents of cities as compared to residents in rural settings is being eroded due to increasing proportion of urban residents living in slum settings. This study sought to determine effect of mother’s education on child nutritional status of children living in slum settings. Methods Data are from a maternal and child health project nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). The study involves 5156 children aged 0–42 months. Data on nutritional status used were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We used binomial and multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of education in the univariable and multivariable models respectively. Results Results show that close to 40 % of children in the study are stunted. Maternal education is a strong predictor of child stunting with some minimal attenuation of the association by other factors at maternal, household and community level. Other factors including at child level: child birth weight and gender; maternal level: marital status, parity, pregnancy intentions, and health seeking behaviour; and household level: social economic status are also independently significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion Overall, mothers’ education persists as a strong predictor of child’s nutritional status in urban slum settings, even after controlling for other factors. Given that stunting is a strong predictor of human capital, emphasis on girl-child education may contribute to breaking the

  20. Zinc: physiology, deficiency, and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Callum

    2015-06-01

    The essential trace element zinc (Zn) has a large number of physiologic roles, in particular being required for growth and functioning of the immune system. Adaptive mechanisms enable the body to maintain normal total body Zn status over a wide range of intakes, but deficiency can occur because of reduced absorption or increased gastrointestinal losses. Deficiency impairs physiologic processes, leading to clinical consequences that include failure to thrive, skin rash, and impaired wound healing. Mild deficiency that is not clinically overt may still cause nonspecific consequences, such as susceptibility to infection and poor growth. The plasma Zn concentration has poor sensitivity and specificity as a test of deficiency. Consequently, diagnosis of deficiency requires a combination of clinical assessment and biochemical tests. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) are susceptible to Zn deficiency and its consequences. Nutrition support teams should have a strategy for assessing Zn status and optimizing this by appropriate supplementation. Nutrition guidelines recommend generous Zn provision from the start of PN. This review covers the physiology of Zn, the consequences of its deficiency, and the assessment of its status, before discussing its role in PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  2. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira

    2011-01-01

    "Evaluating dietary intake, determining energy metabolism, and conducting other nutritional assessments are essential in understanding the relationships between diet, exercise, health, and physical...

  3. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  4. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solution Center NOVEL Project Parenteral Nutrition Resources Intravenous Lipid Emulsions (ILE) Video Series SmartPN Practice and Research Toolkits Publications & ASPEN Journals Journal of Parenteral and ...

  5. Nutritional recommendations for divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardot, Dan; Zimmermann, Wes; Cox, Gregory R; Marks, Saul

    2014-08-01

    Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. Evidence is increasing that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. On the basis of daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3,500 kcal and 2,650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3-8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2-1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30 g amounts and timed appropriately after training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient-dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e., calcium and iron) may be advisable. Although sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid-intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multidisciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment, and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions.

  6. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  7. Nutritional rickets around the world: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creo, Ana L; Thacher, Tom D; Pettifor, John M; Strand, Mark A; Fischer, Philip R

    2017-05-01

    Worldwide, nutritional rickets continues to be an evolving problem with several causes. This paper provides an updated literature review characterising the prevalence, aetiology, pathophysiology and treatment of nutritional rickets worldwide. A systematic review of articles on nutritional rickets from various geographical regions was undertaken. For each region, key information was extracted, including prevalence, cause of rickets specific to the region, methods of confirming the diagnosis and current treatment and preventive measures. Calcium deficiency continues to be a major cause of rickets in Africa and Asia. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is perhaps increasing in the Americas, Europe and parts of the Middle East. There continues to be a distinct presentation of calcium-predominant versus vitamin D predominant rickets, although there are overlapping features. More careful diagnosis of rickets and reporting of 25-OHD concentrations has improved accurate knowledge of rickets prevalence and better delineated the cause. Nutritional rickets continues to be an evolving and multi-factorial problem worldwide. It is on a spectrum, ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency. Specific areas which require emphasis include a consistent community approach to screening and diagnosis, vitamin D supplementation of infants and at-risk children, prevention of maternal vitamin D deficiency and the provision of calcium in areas with low calcium diets.

  8. 45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section 1308.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START...

  9. Improving selenium nutritional value of major crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrient efficiency and development of nutrient-dense crops continue to be one of the most important global challenges. Se is an essential micronutrient to humans and serves as a cancer preventative agent. In order to improve Se nutritional and health promoting values in food crops, a better un...

  10. Integrating Nutrition into the Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children and teens continues to be a major public health concern in the United States. Approximately 16.9% of children and adolescents age 2-19 years are obese. To address this epidemic, schools have been encouraged to develop a coordinated school health program, which includes an interdisciplinary approach to nutrition education.…

  11. Nutrition and Goiter Status of Primary School Children in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    Sanusi R. A. and Ekerette N. N.. Department of Human Nutrition, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) has continued to be of significant health problem in some communities.

  12. Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body; food & nutrition; food and nutrition; food and nutrition articles; information about nutrition; health & nutrition; health and nutrition; health and nutrition articles; health and nutrition facts; health nutrition; nutrition and health; nutrition health; nutrition health articles; healthy; a healthy diet; diet healthy; eating healthy; healthy diet; healthy diets; nutrition diet; diet and nutrition; diet and nutrition articles; diet and nutrition article; diet nutrition; nutrition and diet; article on nutrition; article about nutrition; articles on nutrition; facts about nutrition; good nutrition; nutrition article; nutrition articles; healthy tips; eat healthy tips; eating healthy tips; healthy diet tips; healthy eating tip; healthy eating tips; healthy food tips; should eat; reasons why you should eat healthy; why people should eat healthy; why should I eat healthy; why should people eat healthy; why should we eat healthy; why should you eat healthy; why we should eat healthy; why you should eat healthy; healthy diet; a healthy diet; diets healthy eating; eat a healthy diet; eat healthy diet; eating a healthy diet; eating healthy diet; eating healthy diets; healthy diet; way to eat; best way to eat healthy; easy way to eat healthy; easy ways to eat healthy; healthy way of eating; healthy way to eat; healthy ways of eating; healthy ways to eat; ways to eat healthy; benefits; benefits eating healthy; benefits for eating healthy; benefits from eating healthy; benefits of eating healthy; benefits of healthy eating; benefits on eating healthy; benefits to eating healthy; eating healthy benefits; health benefits of eating healthy; eat healthier; eat healthier; eating healthier; healthier eating; healthier ways to eat; how can I eat healthier; how do I eat healthier; how to eat healthier; how to start eating healthier; tips to eat healthier; ways to start eating healthier

  13. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  14. An Integrative Review of Sleep for Nutrition Professionals12

    OpenAIRE

    Golem, Devon L.; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer T.; Koenings, Mallory M.; Davis, Katherine Finn; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is an essential lifestyle factor that contributes to overall health. The inverse relation between sleep duration and weight status has revealed the importance of sleep in nutritional health. This integrative review builds foundational knowledge with regard to sleep vis-à-vis nutrition by summarizing the importance and process of sleep, current sleep recommendations and trends, as well as lifestyle contributors to poor sleep. Additionally, it details the association between sleep and obe...

  15. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health.

  16. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBDG

    Associates of the Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of ... nutrition), the role of animal source foods as part of a healthy diet requires continuous investment ... Keywords: Animal source foods, livestock products, nutrition, health ..... sensation of fullness that persists after eating until hunger returns (Benelam, ...

  17. Why nutrition education is inadequate in the medical curriculum: a qualitative study of students' perspectives on barriers and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogre, Victor; Stevens, Fred C J; Aryee, Paul A; Amalba, Anthony; Scherpbier, Albert J J A

    2018-02-12

    The provision of nutrition care by doctors is important in promoting healthy dietary habits, and such interventions can lead to reductions in disease morbidity, mortality, and medical costs. However, medical students and doctors report inadequate nutrition education and preparedness during their training at school. Previous studies investigating the inadequacy of nutrition education have not sufficiently evaluated the perspectives of students. In this study, students' perspectives on doctors' role in nutrition care, perceived barriers, and strategies to improve nutrition educational experiences are explored. A total of 23 undergraduate clinical level medical students at the 5th to final year in the School of Medicine and Health Sciences of the University for Development Studies in Ghana were purposefully selected to participate in semi-structured individual interviews. Students expressed their opinions and experiences regarding the inadequacy of nutrition education in the curriculum. Each interview was audio-recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Using the constant comparison method, key themes were identified from the data and analysis was done simultaneously with data collection. Students opined that doctors have an important role to play in providing nutrition care to their patients. However, they felt their nutrition education was inadequate due to lack of priority for nutrition education, lack of faculty to provide nutrition education, poor application of nutrition science to clinical practice and poor collaboration with nutrition professionals. Students opined that their nutrition educational experiences will be improved if the following strategies were implemented: adoption of innovative teaching and learning strategies, early and comprehensive incorporation of nutrition as a theme throughout the curriculum, increasing awareness on the importance of nutrition education, reviewing and revision of the curriculum to incorporate nutrition, and involving

  18. Where is Nepal in the nutrition transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Yagya Prasad; Marais, Debbi; Newlands, David

    2017-03-01

    Nutrition transition is rapid in developing countries, but Nepalese transition is relatively unknown. This study aimed to describe nutrition transition in Nepal over the past 40 years by identifying the shifts in the Nepalese diets and nutritional status and the underlying shifts associated with this. Popkin's framework was used to identify shifts in Nepalese diet and the inter-relationship of diet with epidemiological, demographic and economic shifts. The current study used quantitative methodology including secondary data analysis based on food balance sheets, economic surveys and the government databases. The Nepalese diet is shifting away from agricultural staple based foods to modern processed foods with higher total energy, total fat, and sugar. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and diet related non-communicable diseases are increasing. Urbanisation is rapid and nutrition transition already advanced in urban area. The Nepalese economic structure has also changed shifting away from agricultural food supply system towards modern processing based food supply system. These changes in the Nepalese diet are triggered by income and urbanisation. The trade liberalisation has made processed foods, edible oil and sugar easily available at supermarkets and fast food outlets. It is clear that Nepal has now entered into the fourth stage of nutrition transition according to Popkin's framework. As a result, overweight, obesity and the prevalence of many noncommunicable diseases are all rapidly growing. A further study is recommended to identify whether urban versus rural, rich versus poor and educated versus uneducated families are experiencing the transition in similar way.

  19. Nutritional support in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera; Puig, Celia; Soldevillla, Cristina; Barata, Anna; Cuquet, Jordi; Recasens, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease which involves the gastrointestinal tract in about 90% of cases. It may contribute to nutritional deterioration. To assess whether the application of a nutritional support protocol to these patients could improve their nutritional status and quality of life. Single center prospective study, performed on an outpatient basis, in a county hospital. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) was used to screen risk for malnutrition. Health questionnaire SF-36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to assess quality of life and psychopathology respectively. Weight, height, energy and protein requirements, macronutrient intake and nutritional biochemical parameters were evaluated. Nutritional intervention was performed in patients at risk for malnutrition. Of the 72 patients, 12.5% were at risk for malnutrition. Iron deficiency anemia (18.35%) and vitamin D deficiency (54%) were the most frequently observed nutritional deficits. The questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life showed a high prevalence of anxiety and depression, and lower level poor quality of life in the physical and mental component. No significant improvements were observed in the weight, food intake, nutritional biochemical parameters, psychopathology and quality of life follow-up. Dietary intervention was able to maintain body weight and food intake. Iron deficiency anemia and vitamin D deficiency improved with iron and vitamine D supplements. No deterioration was observed in psychological assessment or quality of life. Studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to assess the efficacy of this intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of nutrition in preventing insulin resistance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasetti, Annalisa; Franchini, Simone; Comegna, Laura; Prezioso, Giovanni; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Nutrition during prenatal, early postnatal and pubertal period is crucial for the development of insulin resistance and its consequences. During prenatal period fetal environment and nutrition seems to interfere with metabolism programming later in life. The type of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, protein, fat and micronutrient content in maternal nutrition could influence insulin sensitivity in the newborn. The effects of lactation on metabolism and nutritional behavior later in life have been studied. Dietary habits and quality of diet during puberty could prevent the onset of a pathological insulin resistance through an adequate distribution of macro- and micronutrients, a diet rich in fibers and vegetables and poor in saturated fats, proteins and sugars. We want to overview the latest evidences on the risk of insulin resistance later in life due to both nutritional behaviors and components during the aforementioned periods of life, following a chronological outline from fetal development to adolescence.

  1. An integrative review of sleep for nutrition professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golem, Devon L; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer T; Koenings, Mallory M; Davis, Katherine Finn; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-11-01

    Sleep is an essential lifestyle factor that contributes to overall health. The inverse relation between sleep duration and weight status has revealed the importance of sleep in nutritional health. This integrative review builds foundational knowledge with regard to sleep vis-à-vis nutrition by summarizing the importance and process of sleep, current sleep recommendations and trends, as well as lifestyle contributors to poor sleep. Additionally, it details the association between sleep and obesity and potential mechanisms for this association. Furthermore, guidance is offered regarding the incorporation of sleep considerations in nutrition counseling, communication, and research. Like many other lifestyle factors that contribute to nutritional health, sleep needs to be considered when examining weight management and health promotion. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Nutritional and health status among nursing home residents in Lebanon: comparison across gender in a national cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Jacqueline H; Nasser, Ramzi N; Hanna, Dimitri R

    2014-06-20

    This study described the differences between elderly men and women living in Lebanese long-term care nursing homes on socio-economic, health and nutritional status. This study used a cross-sectional design. Field researchers obtained data from 221 residents; 148 (67%) women and 73 (33%) men, living in 36 nursing homes. Data on health conditions; nutritional, psychological, and functional status; socio-demographic characteristics, as well as social relations were collected. The analysis used both chi-square and t-test tests. The majority of elderly had low socio-economic and poor health status. In comparison to men, women were significantly less educated, had lower occupational status, had no partner, relied financially on their children and relatives, and enjoyed better social relations and health behaviours. Furthermore, the prevalence of both; malnutrition, and at risk of malnutrition, were at 3.2% and 27.6% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between women and men on Mini Nutritional Assessment, Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases. While women reported "good" health status compared to men, they continued to have higher prevalence of diseases and chronic pain. This study explored the socio-demographic, health, and nutritional status of elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes and compared these characteristics across gender. The results indicated the need of health support and institutional interventions for elderly women residents.

  3. A Lifetime Pursuit of a Sports Nutrition Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-09-01

    Sports nutrition in Canada has significantly evolved over the years from providing fundamental training dietary advice to applied precise assessment of nutritional status in a variety of settings, especially with the establishment of Canadian Sport Institutes and Centres across Canada. This progression has enhanced the level of dietary support to manage athletes' nutrition in a holistic perspective. Athletes are now educated about food fundamentals (acquiring foods, menu planning, preparing, food safety), personal accountability of hydration and energy monitoring (urinary and body weight assessments), individualized supplementation protocols, and customized nutrition for variable daily training environments according to their Yearly Training Plan. Sport dietitians are an important member of Integrated Sport Teams where collaboration exists amongst professionals who coordinate the athletes' personalized training and performance programming. Dietitians in sport are encouraged to continue to lobby for nutrition programming at the elite, varsity, provincial, and club levels to ensure that athletes receive accurate guidance from nutrition experts.

  4. Management of Hyperglycemia During Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a frequent complication of enteral and parenteral nutrition in hospitalized patients. Extensive evidence from observational studies indicates that the development of hyperglycemia during parenteral and enteral nutrition is associated with an increased risk of death and infectious complications. There are no specific guidelines recommending glycemic targets and effective strategies for the management of hyperglycemia during specialized nutritional support. Managing hyperglycemia in these patients should include optimization of carbohydrate content and administration of intravenous or subcutaneous insulin therapy. The administration of continuous insulin infusion and insulin addition to nutrition bag are efficient approaches to control hyperglycemia during parenteral nutrition. Subcutaneous administration of long-acting insulin with scheduled or corrective doses of short-acting insulin is superior to the sliding scale insulin strategy in patients receiving enteral feedings. Randomized controlled studies are needed to evaluate safe and effective therapeutic strategies for the management of hyperglycemia in patients receiving nutritional support. PMID:23065369

  5. Nutritional status of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia: A case for early and ongoing nutrition support and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lynda J; Capra, Sandra; Baguley, Brenton; Sinclair, Kate; Munro, Kate; Lewindon, Peter; Lavin, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare genomic syndrome resulting in severe disability. Chronic childhood disorders can profoundly influence growth and development. Nutrition-related issues in A-T are not well described, and there are no nutritional guidelines. This study investigated the nutrition-related characteristics and behaviours of Australian A-T patients attending a national clinic. A cross-sectional analysis of 13 A-T patients (nine females; aged: 4-23 years): nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric and body cell mass (BCM) calculations. Parents reported their child's diet history and physical and behavioural factors that affect nutrition including fatigue and need for assistance. Ten (77%) had short stature (height for age z scores nutritional barriers as chronic tiredness and the need for care giver assistance with meals. This study confirms profound malnutrition in Australian A-T patients. Poor intakes and diet quality suggest the need for early nutrition intervention. Ongoing support for families and early discussions on tube feeding are required to address changing needs in childhood and likely nutritional decline into adulthood. A prospective study is required to assess feasibility and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in young people with A-T. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Pro Poor Growth in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fambon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between economic growth, poverty and income distribution in Cameroon, using both the data derived from three Cameroonian household surveys and the Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR methodology developed by Kakwani et al. (2004, The study found that economic growth in Cameroon was pro poor over the period 1996–2007, which suggests that instead of increasing the economic growth rate alone, the poverty equivalent growth rate should also be maximized to achieve the poverty reduction objective, meaning that on the one hand, the growth rate should be boosted, and on the other, the distribution of income should also be concurrently improved. A decomposition of changes in poverty using the Kakwani (1997 approach reveal that the growth component dominates the redistribution component in the reduction of poverty. This suggests that the fall in absolute poverty over the survey period may be attributed to an increase in average household income, and not to the redistributive policies of the government.

  7. NUTRITIONAL INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN ELITE MEXICAN TEENAGERS SOCCER PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT AGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo y Teran Elizondo, Roberto; Martín Bermudo, Francisco Manuel; Peñaloza Mendez, Ricardo; Berná Amorós, Genoveva; Lara Padilla, Eleazar; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco José

    2015-10-01

    nutritional intake and status of soccer players has attracted not much research attention. Many soccer players follow an inadequate nutritional intake and have a poor nutritional status. This is relevant in youngsters soccer players, in order to improve performance and promote healthy dietary practices. analyze anthropometric characterizes, evaluate nutritional intake and status, dietary habits and pre- and post-exercise meals in elite teenagers soccer players. seventy-two young male soccer players (15-20 years) from four junior teams of a soccer Club from the Mexican National Soccer League were measured for height, seat height, weight, 6 skinfolds, 6 diameters and 7 circumferences, height-for-age and BMI-for-age values. Skin, adipose, muscle, bone and residual tissue masses were calculated with the Ross and Kerr equation. Resting energy expenditure and intake was also measured. Daily dietary intake was self-recorded for 4 consecutive days (excluding the match day) using a digital food-weighing scale and a food record questionnaire. Dietary analysis was performed using the NutriBase 7 Clinical software. Several biochemical values were determined. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc testing was performed using t-tests with a Bonferroni correction. all soccer players were within the normal range values for anthropometric parameters studies, when compared with other adolescent elite soccer teams. Values of plasma glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid, lipid profile and total proteins were within normal range for young adult population, although albumin levels were high. Moreover, 14% and 20% of soccer players presented hyperuricemia and elevated total cholesterol levels respectively. Energy expenditure and intake were within normal range for all teenager elite soccer players. However, two teams shower significant lower intakes than demands. All macronutrient intakes were within recommendations, except protein that was higher. Micronutrient intake exceeded

  8. Assessment of nutritional status in laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young-Gil; Kwon, In Gyu; Ryu, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is very common in gastric cancer patients and can be detected in up to 85% of patients with gastric cancer. Malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospital stay, poor treatment tolerance, and lower survival rate. Malnutrition also has an impact on quality of life. The early detection of nutritional risk with appropriate nutritional care can significantly reduce patient's postoperative morbidity and mortality. Because there is no gold standard tool, appropriate tools should be selected and applied depending on one's institutional conditions. And, it is recommended that nutritional assessment should be achieved for every patient at pre/post-operative period.

  9. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  10. Systems biology of personalized nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the

  11. [Nutrition and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusion of a recent systematic review of the literature on the relation between nutrition, physical activity and cancer is that more than 30% of all cases of cancer can be prevented by improving nutrition and increasing physical activity. In The Netherlands, 1 out of 100 men and 1 out of 160

  12. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  13. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  14. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  15. You Score With Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  16. Nutrition in peri-operative esophageal cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhagen, Elles; van Vulpen, Jonna K; van Hillegersberg, Richard; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D

    2017-07-01

    Nutritional status and dietary intake are increasingly recognized as essential areas in esophageal cancer management. Nutritional management of esophageal cancer is a continuously evolving field and comprises an interesting area for scientific research. Areas covered: This review encompasses the current literature on nutrition in the pre-operative, peri-operative, and post-operative phases of esophageal cancer. Both established interventions and potential novel targets for nutritional management are discussed. Expert commentary: To ensure an optimal pre-operative status and to reduce peri-operative complications, it is key to assess nutritional status in all pre-operative esophageal cancer patients and to apply nutritional interventions accordingly. Since esophagectomy results in a permanent anatomical change, a special focus on nutritional strategies is needed in the post-operative phase, including early initiation of enteral feeding, nutritional interventions for post-operative complications, and attention to long-term nutritional intake and status. Nutritional aspects of pre-optimization and peri-operative management should be incorporated in novel Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programs for esophageal cancer.

  17. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  18. A influência da desnutrição na utilização de ventilação mecânica em crianças admitidas em UTI pediátrica The influence of poor nutrition on the necessity of mechanical ventilation among children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Martins Mota

    2002-04-01

    -nificativamente pela presença de desnutrição.Conclusões: em nosso estudo, tivemos oportunidade de documentar que a presença de desnutrição em crianças menores de 4 anos admitidas em UTI pediátrica representa um fator decisivo na sua evolução, aumentando significativamente a necessidade de ventilação mecânica, o tempo de ventilação e o tempo de permanência em UTI pediátrica.Objective: to determine the relation between children's nutritional status when they are admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, the necessity and length of mechanical ventilation and the mortality rate. Methods: a cohort study was conducted between July 1st, 1995 and June 30th, 1996. This study involved all children (28 days old to 48 months old admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of Hospital São Lucas, who stayed there longer than 8 hours. Exclusion criteria were complex cardiac disease, admission to the pediatric intensive care unit for elective procedure (regardless of pediatric intensive care unit admission criteria or elective mechanical ventilation (cardiac, thoracic or other postoperative period. The staff responsible for the daily data collection were not involved with patient care or assistance decisions. On the day of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, patients were evaluated regarding their nutritional status through the z score and the severity of the disease using the Pediatric Risk Mortality score. Demographic data, necessity and length of mechanical ventilation as well as main diagnosis and evolution of each patient were evaluated every day.Results: malnourishment increased significantly the need for mechanical ventilation, especially when associated with (a age under one year old (RR= 2.4; 1.4-3.8; (b children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with low Pediatric Risk Mortality score (less than 10 (RR=2.5; 1.3-4.7; (c presence of respiratory disease (RR=2.1; 1.3-4.7. Otherwise, malnourishment did not show any influence on the mortality rate

  19. Nutritional Issues and Nutrition Support in Older Home Care Patients in the City of Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Kovačević, Marta; Hanževački, Miro; Vrabec, Božena; Benković, Vanesa; Domislović, Viktor; Krznarić, Željko

    2017-12-01

    Population aging is a global demographic trend showing continuous growth and among its consequences is a rise in malnutrition that is characteristic for the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional status of elderly home care patients immediately after hospital discharge and to determine factors that affect nutritional status using questionnaires based on validated tools (NRS-2002, DETERMINE checklist) and basic medical history data. The study involved 76 elderly individuals (51.3% of them older than 70) living in the City of Zagreb. The nutritional status assessment using the NRS-2002 tool showed that 57.6% of the subjects were at nutritional risk. The findings of the assessment by use of the DETERMINE tool were also unfavorable, indicating that 82.1% of persons older than 70 were categorized as being at a high nutritional risk, while 17.9% were at moderate risk. The DETERMINE checklist elements (illness; reduced intake of fruits, vegetables or dairy products; alcohol consumption; oral health problems; and weight loss) were linked to a higher NRS score. The mean number of hospital days in subjects at nutritional risk was 14.27 (the mean number in the Republic of Croatia is 8.56 days). Although the study involved a small number of subjects, the results showed a substantial presence of malnutrition among the elderly. A timely -intervention by the healthcare system and training of healthcare personnel can be a step towards achieving a better nutritional status.

  20. Clinical nutrition counselling service in the veterinary hospital: retrospective analysis of equine patients and nutritional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnano, D; Bergero, D; Valle, E

    2017-06-01

    Nutrition plays a very important role in the healthy and in the ill horse. Although research in this field clearly shows that incorrect nutritional practices may lead to severe pathologies, inappropriate feeding plans often continue to be used. A clinical nutrition counselling (CNC) service could thus be of great use to both horse owners and veterinarians. The aim of this study was to provide information on equine patients referred to the CNC service of the University of Turin and to provide standard dietary protocols as used in our Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the most common nutrition-related pathologies. The data were obtained by retrospective analysis of the nutritional records of referred equine patients. The data collected included information about anamnesis, nutritional assessment, current diet, referring person and follow-up of each patient. Sixty-one horses were included in the study. The majority were adult males. The most common breeds were the Italian Saddle Horse and the Friesian Horse. Old horses (>19 years) had a statistically lower BCS than brood mares or other adult horses (p equine gastric ulcer syndrome. All horses received first-cut meadow hay; 85% also ate concentrates. Young horses (equine population. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Perception of Mothers on Adequate Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshini Valoo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in children less than 5 years old persists around the world. In West Java and one of the districts of West Java (Sumedang, the prevalence of malnutrition is about 18.5% and 15.8% respectively. Numerous factors can lead to child malnutrition. Difficulties in availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of food can be contributing factors. A good perception of mother on adequate nutrition can improve children’s nutritional status. This study was conducted to study the perception of mothers with children 2 to 5 years old on adequate nutrition. Methods: Most of the respondents had good perception on the aspect of adequate nutrition. Results showed perception on availability was 83.8%, physical accessibility was 97.1%, economical accessibility was 98.6%, information accessibility was 84.8% and acceptability was 81.0%. However, perception of respondents on good quality nutrition for the main meal and additional food was still poor. Moreover, there are taboos for eating shrimp and watermelon. Additionally, children were given snacks in large amount. Results: There was a strong correlation between mid-upper arm muscle area/size and muscular strength (correlation cooefficient 0.746. Moreover, the higher the Body Mass Index, the stronger the muscle strength was to some point. If the BMI was more than 25 kg/m2, this findings did not occurred. Conclusions: This study reveals that the perception of mothers on good quality food is poor regardless the good results on availibility, accesibility and acceptability.

  2. Parenteral nutrition dysregulates bile salt homeostasis in a rat model of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelfat, Kiran V K; Schaap, Frank G; Hodin, Caroline M J M; Visschers, Ruben G J; Svavarsson, Björn I; Lenicek, Martin; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2017-10-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN), a lifesaving therapy in patients with intestinal failure, has been associated with hepatobiliary complications including steatosis, cholestasis and fibrosis, collectively known as parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). To date, the pathogenesis of PNALD is poorly understood and therapeutic options are limited. Impaired bile salt homeostasis has been proposed to contribute PNALD. The objective of this study was to establish a PNALD model in rats and to evaluate the effects of continuous parenteral nutrition (PN) on bile salt homeostasis. Rats received either PN via the jugular vein or received normal diet for 3, 7 or 14 days. Serum biochemistry, hepatic triglycerides, circulating bile salts and C4, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, and lipogenic and bile salt homeostatic gene expression in liver and ileum were assessed. PN increased hepatic triglycerides already after 3 days of administration, and resulted in conjugated bilirubin elevation after 7 or more days. This indicates PN-induced steatosis and impaired canalicular secretion of bilirubin, the latter which is in line with reduced hepatic expression of Mrp2 mRNA. There was no histological evidence for liver inflammation after PN administration, and circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, were comparable in all groups. Hepatic expression of Fxr mRNA was decreased after 7 days of PN, without apparent effect on expression of Fxr targets Bsep and Shp. Nonetheless, Cyp7a1 expression was reduced after 7 days of PN, indicative for lowered bile salt synthesis. Circulating levels of C4 (marker of bile salt synthesis) were also decreased after 3, 7 and 14 days of PN. Levels of circulating bile salts were not affected by PN. This study showed that PN in rats caused early mild steatosis and cholestasis, while hepatic and systemic inflammation were not present. The onset of these abnormalities was associated with alterations in bile salt synthesis and transport. This

  3. The child with poor weight gain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-11

    Apr 11, 2007 ... The first-contact health worker has to respond to a baby who is ... His main interests lie in the fields of gastroenterology and nutrition. 176 .... the mother's motivation and confidence ... habits and behaviours, particularly if the.

  4. Pro-poor growth and gender inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent gender gaps in education, health, employment, productive assets and inputs can affect pro poor growth (in the sense of increasing monetary incomes of the poor). After discussing serious methodological problems with examining gender issues in the context of an income-based pro-poor growth framework, the paper considers theory and evidence on the impact of gender inequality on pro poor growth. While there is a considerable literature suggesting negative impact...

  5. Nutrition and Imagenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Allende, Miguel Angel

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present the close, although little explored, relationship between Nutrition and Imagenology, relying mainly on an important number of images which will allow us to explain all the ways an Imagenology can influence upon the nutritional support of a patient.We primarily emphasize the diagnostic aspects of non-operated patients, as well as of those who have undergone surgical treatment, by showing both normality and the resulting surgical complications. We finally describe several interventionist Imagenology techniques used to achieve an adequate enteral nutrition

  6. Assessing nurses’ knowledge levels in the nutritional management of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mogre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although nutrition education for diabetes patients is the responsibility of dieticians and/or nutritionist, nurses have an important role to play. This study measured the knowledge level of nurses’ and associated factors in the nutritional management of diabetes. In this cross-sectional study a sample of 200 nurses completed a 21-item nutritional management of diabetes knowledge test developed based on the ADA and WHO guidelines for the nutritional management of diabetes. Using Cronbach's alpha, reliability was 0.62. The nurses (n = 200 had almost a 1:1 male to female ratio (n = 99, 49.5% and n = 101, 50.5% and a mean age of 27.24 ± 3.66 years. Total mean score was 12.13 ± 3.17 (44.9% correct. Over 70% of the nurses said diabetes patients could exclude any of the major nutrients from their meals. Almost 90% (n = 179 of the nurses did not know the recommended daily caloric intake of carbohydrates for diabetes patients. Higher mean scores were found in nurses who have ever had a refresher course in nutrition, ever counseled a diabetes patient and took 2–3 nutrition courses during school. Nurses’ knowledge in the nutritional management of diabetes was poor. It raises questions about the adequacy of nurses’ knowledge in the nutritional management of diabetes.

  7. The effect of some social factors on adolescents nutritional status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional problems may arise from poor eating habits, snacking and ... result of which may have detrimental health implications as they advance into adulthood. ... had normal weight, 61(6.4%) were underweight while 17 (1.8%) were obese.

  8. Nutritional and health status of adult women of the Lodha tribal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and health status of adult women of the Lodha tribal population of Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal, India: Compared with nontribal women. ... Results: The results indicated that the Lodha women belong to poor socioeconomic ...

  9. Nutritional adequacy of menus offered to children of 2 - 5 years in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development (ECD) programmes are mainly a strategy for alleviating poverty. ... service provision for poor children was a justified cost, as it not only improves ...... meals and snacks served in four daycare centers in Guatemala City. Nutrition.

  10. Nutrition treatment of deficiency and malnutrition in chronic pancreatitis: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, SN

    2010-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis results in exocrine and endocrine dysfunction, affecting normal digestion and absorption of nutrients. In individuals with chronic pancreatitis, nutrition status may be further affected by poor dietary intake, often related to alcoholism. However, some deficiencies may be overlooked, potentially leading to nutrition-related problems with bone health and fatigue. The aim of this article is to describe the deficiencies that occur and to propose an evidence-based algorithm for the nutrition assessment and treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  11. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor M. Gilliland

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL. The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995–2016 addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC. We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1 patients with albumin < 2.5 mg/dL or weight loss > 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2 patients with albumin < 3 mg/dL or weight loss between 5% and 10% should have nutrition supplementation prior to surgery; (3 enteral nutrition (EN should be preferred as a nutritional intervention over total parenteral nutrition (TPN postoperatively; and, (4 a multidisciplinary approach should be used to allow for early detection of symptoms of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of

  12. Evaluation of nutritional support in a regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Hernández González, Miriam; Peñalver Talavera, David; Peralta Watt, María; Temprano Ferreras, José Luis; Redondo Llorente, Cristina; Rubio Blanco, María Yolanda

    2018-05-08

    Disease-related malnutrition (DRM) is highly prevalent in Spanish hospitals (occurring in 1 out of every 4 patients). The 'Más Nutridos' Alliance has developed an action plan to detect and treat DRM. In Extremadura (Spain), the public health system has included nutritional screening as the only mechanism to fight malnutrition. The results of this strategy are evaluated here. An agreement study was conducted in standard clinical practice. Variables collected included the following rates: nutritional screening at entry, coded nutritional diagnoses, nutritional status assessment, nutritional requirements, successful nutritional therapy, weight and height at entry and discharge, referral to a nutritional support unit (NSU). Standards to comparison based on the results of the Netherland Program to Fight Malnutrition. Nutritional screening rate at entry was 20.5% (95% CI: 18.00-21.00). Coding and nutritional status assessment rate at entry was 13%. Weight and height were both measured in 16.5% of patients at entry and 20% at discharge. Nutritional requirements were estimated in 30% and were poorly monitored (13.3%). Only 15% of patients were referred to a NSU. Significantly lower values were found for all indicators as compared to standards, with kappa values lower than 0.2 in all cases. Data analysis showed poorer results when patients referred to the NSU were excluded. A strategy to fight malnutrition based on nutritional screening alone is highly inefficient in hospitals such as HVP. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth and nutritional status of children with homozygous sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Saqladi, A.-W. M.; Cipolotti, R.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Brabin, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Poor growth and under-nutrition are common in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). This review summarises evidence of nutritional status in children with SCD in relation to anthropometric status, disease severity, body composition, energy metabolism, micronutrient deficiency and

  14. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  16. Nutrition screening: science behind simplicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition screening triggers entry into the nutrition care process.1 Screening has informally been described as simple, quick or low-intensity proxy for more complex procedures. More formal definitions for the nutrition setting have been proposed, describing nutrition screening as a process of identifying patients, clients, or ...

  17. Nutrition in children posttransplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    status and to detect, prevent and treat late-onset complications such as obesity ... potential, prevent further liver injury, promote liver regeneration, minimise risk of infection and .... Campos ACL, Matias JEF and Coelho JCU. Nutritional Aspects ...

  18. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  19. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  20. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition’s impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition – from entire diets to specific nutrients – affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns, along with (ii modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging.

  1. Quality of nutrition services in primary health care facilities: Implications for integrating nutrition into the health system in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Masum Billah

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Bangladesh Government introduced the National Nutrition Services (NNS by leveraging the existing health infrastructure to deliver nutrition services to pregnant woman and children. This study examined the quality of nutrition services provided during antenatal care (ANC and management of sick children younger than five years.Service delivery quality was assessed across three dimensions; structural readiness, process and outcome. Structural readiness was assessed by observing the presence of equipment, guidelines and register/reporting forms in ANC rooms and consulting areas for sick children at 37 primary healthcare facilities in 12 sub-districts. In addition, the training and knowledge relevant to nutrition service delivery of 95 healthcare providers was determined. The process of nutrition service delivery was assessed by observing 381 ANC visits and 826 sick children consultations. Satisfaction with the service was the outcome and was determined by interviewing 541 mothers/caregivers of sick children.Structural readiness to provide nutrition services was higher for ANC compared to management of sick children; 73% of ANC rooms had >5 of the 13 essential items while only 13% of the designated areas for management of sick children had >5 of the 13 essential items. One in five (19% healthcare providers had received nutrition training through the NNS. Delivery of the nutrition services was poor: <30% of women received all four key antenatal nutrition services, 25% of sick children had their weight checked against a growth-chart and <1% had their height measured. Nevertheless, most mothers/caregivers rated their satisfaction of the service above average.Strengthening the provision of equipment and increasing the coverage of training are imperative to improve nutrition services. Inherent barriers to implementing nutrition services in primary health care, especially high caseloads during the management of sick under-five children, should

  2. What characterizes persons with poor mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...

  3. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  4. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progressi...

  5. Unilever Nutrition Strategy and Examples in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Karen; Kamonpatana, Kom; Bao, Jason; Ramos-Buenviaje, Joy; Wagianto, Andriyani; Yeap, Pau-wei

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people in Asia are facing challenges from undernutrition, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases. Unilever, as a global food business, has a simple approach to nutrition strategy: 'better products' help people to enjoy 'better diets' and live 'better lives.' For 'Better Products,' Unilever strives to improve the taste and nutritional qualities of all our products. By 2020, we commit to double the proportion of our entire global portfolio meeting the highest nutrition standards, based on globally recognised dietary guidelines. Unilever sets a clear plan to achieve reduction of sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and calories in our products. Unilever developed fortified seasoning and spread products in 2013 for Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines in collaboration with government bodies to address nutrient deficiencies. For 'Better Diets and Better Lives,' Unilever uses targeted communication to raise awareness and promote behavior change for healthy lifestyles. We committed to full nutrition labeling on our food products by 2015. We contribute experience to science-based regional initiatives on product labeling as well as nutrient profiling. Unilever collaborated with international, regional and country bodies to promote consumer understanding and food accessibility on public health priorities such as proper salt consumption, healthier meals, and employee well-being programs. Looking ahead, we are continuing to improve the nutritional profile of our products as well as our communication to improve diets and lives. Collaboration between industry, government and public health organizations is needed to address complex diet and life style issues.

  6. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 1: Linking genotype to healthy nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.M.; Ordovas, J.M.; Lairon, D.; Hesketh, J.; Lietz, G.; Gibney, M.; Ommen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrition science finds itself at a major crossroad. On the one hand we can continue the current path, which has resulted in some substantial advances, but also many conflicting messages which impair the trust of the general population, especially those who are motivated to improve their health

  7. The challenges of molecular nutrition research 1- Linking genotype to healthy nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition science finds itself at a major crossroad. On one hand we can continue the current path that along several decades has resulted in substantial advances but surrounded by conflicting messages and unsubstantiated claims that have been crumbling the trust of the general population, always eag...

  8. Nutrition and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  9. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Beyond liposomes: Recent advances on lipid based nanostructures for poorly soluble/poorly permeable drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M C; Carbone, C; Souto, E B

    2017-10-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and hybrid nanoparticles, have gained increasing interest as drug delivery systems because of their potential to load and release drugs from the Biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) of class II (low solubility and high permeability) and of class IV (low solubility and low permeability). Lipid properties (e.g. high solubilizing potential, biocompatibility, biotolerability, biodegradability and distinct route of absorption) contribute for the improvement of the bioavailability of these drugs for a set of administration routes. Their interest continues to grow, as translated by the number of patents being field worldwide. This paper discusses the recent advances on the use of SLN, NLC and lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for the loading of lipophilic, poorly water-soluble and poorly permeable drugs, being developed for oral, topical, parenteral and ocular administration, also discussing the industrial applications of these systems. A review of the patents filled between 2014 and 2017, concerning the original inventions of lipid nanocarriers, is also provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional Status And Its Association With Diabetes Mellitus In School Children, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muninarayana C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor health and nutrition may impair both the growth and intellectual development of school children. Incidence of malnutrition related childhood diabetes mellitus has increased and continues to be on the rise.Objectives: To assess the nutritional status by anthropometry and to screen for diabetes by capillary blood examination of school children. Design: Longitudinal study Setting: The study was carried out at Sri R.L.Jalappa Central School, Kolar from August 2008 to December 2009. Methods: All the school children were interviewed with pre-designed and pre-tested proforma. Height, Weight was measured by standard procedures. The nutritional status was analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI for age. The school children were also screened for diabetes mellitus by Finger stick capillary random plasma glucose testing. The children were followed up for any major medical problems during the study period.Participants: All the students studying in the school during study period.Results: Mean height and weight of children were found comparable to the ICMR pooled data. However, compared to NCHS standards and affluent Indian children the mean height and weight were found to be much inferior at all ages. According to BMI for age as per NCHS most of the children were undernourished (79.2% and 3 children (0.6% were overweight. Out of 495 children screened for diabetes 14 children had hyperglycaemia (>160mg/dl. These 14 children were further tested by oral glucose tolerance test and found to have normal blood sugars levels. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The magnitude of malnutrition among school going children was found to be 79%. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus, hence under nutrition was associated with diabetes mellitus.

  12. Associations of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and post-partum with maternal cognition and caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Ashorn, Ulla; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Sadalaki, John; Oaks, Brietta M; Haskell, Marjorie; Allen, Lindsay H; Vosti, Steve A; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-04-01

    Pregnant and post-partum women require increased nutrient intake and optimal cognition, which depends on adequate nutrition, to enable reasoning and learning for caregiving. We aimed to assess (a) differences in maternal cognition and caregiving between women in Malawi who received different nutritional supplements, (b) 14 effect modifiers, and (c) associations of cognition and caregiving with biomarkers of iron, Vitamin A, B-vitamin, and fatty acid status. In a randomized controlled trial (n = 869), pregnant women daily received either multiple micronutrients (MMN), 20 g/day lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), or a control iron/folic acid (IFA) tablet. After delivery, supplementation continued in the MMN and LNS arms, and the IFA control group received placebo until 6 months post-partum, when cognition (n = 712), caregiving behaviour (n = 669), and biomarkers of nutritional status (n = 283) were assessed. In the full group, only one difference was significant: the IFA arm scored 0.22 SD (95% CI [0.01, 0.39], p = .03) higher than the LNS arm in mental rotation. Among subgroups of women with baseline low hemoglobin, poor iron status, or malaria, those who received LNS scored 0.4 to 0.7 SD higher than the IFA arm in verbal fluency. Breastmilk docosahexaenoic acid and Vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with verbal fluency and digit span forward (adjusting for covariates ps < .05). In this population in Malawi, maternal supplementation with MMN or LNS did not positively affect maternal cognition or caregiving. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid and B12 status may be important for post-partum attention and executive function. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  14. Nurse Continuity and Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers: A Comparative Analysis Using an Electronic Health Record "Big Data" Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Lodhi, Muhammad Kamran; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Khokhar, Ashfaq; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M

    2015-01-01

    Little research demonstrating the association between nurse continuity and patient outcomes exists despite an intuitive belief that continuity makes a difference in care outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of nurse continuity with the prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU). A secondary use of data from the Hands on Automated Nursing Data System (HANDS) was performed for this comparative study. The HANDS is a nursing plan of care data set containing 42,403 episodes documented by 787 nurses, on nine units, in four hospitals and includes nurse staffing and patient characteristics. The HANDS data set resides in a "big data" relational database consisting of 89 tables and 747 columns of data. Via data mining, we created an analytic data set of 840 care episodes, 210 with and 630 without HAPUs, matched by nursing unit, patient age, and patient characteristics. Logistic regression analysis determined the association of nurse continuity and additional nurse-staffing variables on HAPU occurrence. Poor nurse continuity (unit mean continuity index = .21-.42 [1.0 = optimal continuity]) was noted on all nine study units. Nutrition, mobility, perfusion, hydration, and skin problems on admission, as well as patient age, were associated with HAPUs (p data, showing that it offers rich potential for future study of nurse continuity and its effect on patient outcomes.

  15. Nutritional Psychiatry: Where to Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice N. Jacka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The nascent field of ‘Nutritional Psychiatry’ offers much promise for addressing the large disease burden associated with mental disorders. A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals' diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression. This is the case across countries and age groups. Moreover, new intervention studies implementing dietary changes suggest promise for the prevention and treatment of depression. Concurrently, data point to the utility of selected nutraceuticals as adjunctive treatments for mental disorders and as monotherapies for conditions such as ADHD. Finally, new studies focused on understanding the biological pathways that mediate the observed relationships between diet, nutrition and mental health are pointing to the immune system, oxidative biology, brain plasticity and the microbiome-gut-brain axis as key targets for nutritional interventions. On the other hand, the field is currently limited by a lack of data and methodological issues such as heterogeneity, residual confounding, measurement error, and challenges in measuring and ensuring dietary adherence in intervention studies. Key challenges for the field are to now: replicate, refine and scale up promising clinical and population level dietary strategies; identify a clear set of biological pathways and targets that mediate the identified associations; conduct scientifically rigorous nutraceutical and ‘psychobiotic’ interventions that also examine predictors of treatment response; conduct observational and experimental studies in psychosis focused on dietary and related risk factors and treatments; and continue to advocate for policy change to improve the food environment at the population level.

  16. On becoming a nutritional biochemist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Donald B

    2004-01-01

    Much of the science underlying nutrition has come from biochemical studies. This certainly is true in our understanding of the metabolism and function of such micronutrient cofactors as vitamins and metal ions. My own interest stems from an early desire to understand the molecular events in an organism and ultimately to know the fate of those nutrients that are needed to maintain life. My training in chemistry, biochemistry, and nutrition was helpful in gaining knowledge about the interface among these disciplines. My interests followed an understandable trail, beginning with those factors that cause plant galls and continuing through carbohydrate metabolism to vitamins. After all, from studying such pentitols as ribitol with Professor Touster at Vanderbilt University through indoctrination with enzymes, vitamins, and coenzymes with Professor Snell at the University of California-Berkeley, it was rational to begin my independent academic life investigating the enzymes that convert a ribityl-containing vitamin, namely riboflavin, to its operational flavocoenzymes. While at Cornell University, I encountered Professor Wright, who shared an interest in biotin. My realization that there was a similar need to determine the metabolism of lipoate followed logically. Interactions with inorganic chemists such as Professor Sigel at Basel University, as well as inorganic chemists at Cornell, led to an interest in metal ions. As summarized in this article, my colleagues and I are pleased to have contributed to both basic knowledge about cofactors and to have utilized much of this information in extensions to applications. Along the way, I have served by teaching, researching, and administrating at the universities that provided my positions in academe, and I have worked to share the load of numerous public and professional duties that are summarized herein. Altogether it has been an enjoyable career to be a nutritional biochemist. I recommend it for those who follow.

  17. Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia | Dell | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Due to the high humidity and temperatures throughout the year, fungal leaf diseases such as Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum have had a huge impact on the eucalypt plantation industry in South-east Asia. Often poor ...

  18. The influence of socio-economic and nutritional characteristics on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child malnutrition remains a serious public health problem in Kwale District of Kenya. Data on the levels and patterns of malnutrition and on the factors perpetuating poor nutritional status in the District is lacking, making it extremely difficult to plan appropriate interventions to help reduce the levels of child malnutrition in ...

  19. Agriculture for Improved Nutrition and Health: Support to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agriculture has made remarkable advances in the past decades, but progress in improving the nutrition and health of the poor in developing countries is lagging behind. Long-time IDRC partner, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is launching 15 new cutting-edge programs to tackle the ...

  20. Impact of nutrition education on diabetes knowledge and attitudes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a nutrition education (NE) programme on diabetes knowledge and attitudes of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Eighty-two adults (40–70 years) with poorly controlled T2DM (HbA1c ≥ 8%) and attending two community health centres in Moretele, North West Province ...

  1. 5862 Volume 12 No. 2 April 2012 NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hewgin

    2012-04-02

    Apr 2, 2012 ... Poor nutrition and health can affect children's education. ... The health of school children in Uganda, however, is not well documented. Malaria ... Agriculture remains the main economic activity with 93% of the households .... Science and Technology after the proposal was vetted and approved by Makerere.

  2. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, poor health, and limited physical activity are major health concerns. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) improves the health and well-being of limited resource families and youth. Additionally, EFNEP leads to public savings. Research shows that better health is associated with reduced health care costs, less…

  3. Strategies for Promoting Nutritional and Health Status of Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at investigating the causes of poor nutritional and health status of students in higher institutions in Nigeria and the measures for improvement for sustainable national development. The population comprised nurses, medical doctors, nutritionists, Home Economics lecturers, post graduate students; ...

  4. Nutritional status and hyperglycemia in the peritransplant period: a review of associations with parenteral nutrition and clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Verdi Schumacher

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an established treatment option for various hematological diseases. This therapy involves complex procedures and is associated with several systemic complications. Due to the toxic effects of the conditioning regimen used in allogeneic transplantations, patients frequently suffer from severe gastrointestinal complications and are unable to feed themselves properly. This complex clinical scenario often requires specialized nutritional support, and despite the increasing number of studies available, many questions remain regarding the best way to feed these patients. Parenteral nutrition has been traditionally indicated when the effects on gastrointestinal mucosa are significant; however, the true benefits of this type of nutrition in reducing clinical complications have been questioned. Hyperglycemia is a common consequence of parenteral nutrition that seems to be correlated to poor transplantation outcomes and a higher risk of infections. Additionally, nutrition-related pre-transplantation risk factors are being studied, such as impaired nutritional status, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and obesity. This review aims to discuss some of these recent issues. A real case of allogeneic transplant was used to illustrate the scenario and to highlight the most important topics that motivated this literature review.

  5. Nutritional status and hyperglycemia in the peritransplant period: a review of associations with parenteral nutrition and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi Schumacher, Marina; Moreira Faulhaber, Gustavo Adolpho

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an established treatment option for various hematological diseases. This therapy involves complex procedures and is associated with several systemic complications. Due to the toxic effects of the conditioning regimen used in allogeneic transplantations, patients frequently suffer from severe gastrointestinal complications and are unable to feed themselves properly. This complex clinical scenario often requires specialized nutritional support, and despite the increasing number of studies available, many questions remain regarding the best way to feed these patients. Parenteral nutrition has been traditionally indicated when the effects on gastrointestinal mucosa are significant; however, the true benefits of this type of nutrition in reducing clinical complications have been questioned. Hyperglycemia is a common consequence of parenteral nutrition that seems to be correlated to poor transplantation outcomes and a higher risk of infections. Additionally, nutrition-related pre-transplantation risk factors are being studied, such as impaired nutritional status, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and obesity. This review aims to discuss some of these recent issues. A real case of allogeneic transplant was used to illustrate the scenario and to highlight the most important topics that motivated this literature review. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of infection on nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrimshaw, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    All infections no matter how mild decrease nutrient intakes and increase nutrient losses even when subclinical. The losses include decreased intestinal absorption, direct loss of nutrient in the gut, internal diversion for metabolic responses to infection and increased BMR when fever is present. Infection influences in this way not only protein and energy status but also that of most other nutrients. The clinical importance of these consequences of infection depends on the prior state of the individual, the nature and duration of the infection and the diet of the individual during the infection, particularly dietary intake during the convalescent period and whether full recovery takes place before another infection occurs. In industrialized countries particular attention must be paid to the nutrition of hospitalized patients since they are frequently debilitated by their primary disease, morbidity, and their nutritional status. Morbidity and mortality are increased by nosocomial infections to which the poorly nourished individual is more susceptible. (author). Refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Quality indicators for enteral and parenteral nutrition therapy: application in critically ill patients "at nutritional risk".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Filho, Ronaldo Sousa; Ribeiro, Lia Mara Kauchi; Caruso, Lucia; Lima, Patricia Azevedo; Damasceno, Náglia Raquel Teixeira; García Soriano, Francisco

    2016-09-20

    Quality Indicators for Nutritional Therapy (QINT) allow a practical assessment of nutritional therapy (NT) quality. To apply and monitor QINT for critically ill patients at nutritional risk. Cross sectional study including critically ill patients > 18 years old, at nutritional risk, on exclusive enteral (ENT) or parenteral nutritional therapy (PNT) for > 72 hours. After three consecutive years, 9 QINT were applied and monitored. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 17.0. A total of 145 patients were included, 93 patients were receiving ENT, among then 65% were male and the mean age was 55.7 years (± 17.4); 52 patients were receiving PNT, 67% were male and the mean age was 58.1 years (± 17.4). All patients (ENT and PNT) were nutritionally screened at admission and their energy and protein needs were individually estimated. Only ENT was early initiated, more than 70% of the prescribed ENT volume was infused and there was a reduced withdrawal of enteral feeding tube. The frequency of diarrhea episodes and digestive fasting were not adequate in ENT patients. The proper supply of energy was contemplated only for PNT patients and there was an expressive rate of oral intake recovery in ENT patients. After three years of research, the percentage of QINT adequacy varied between 55%-77% for ENT and 60%-80% for PNT. The results were only made possible by the efforts of a multidisciplinary team and the continuous re-evaluation of the procedures in order to maintain the nutritional assistance for patients at nutritional risk.

  8. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lauren Ball,1 Jennifer Crowley,2 Celia Laur,3 Minha Rajput-Ray,3 Stephen Gillam,4 Sumantra Ray3 1Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1 the approach to medical nutrition education, 2 evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3 areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the

  9. An Integrative Review of Sleep for Nutrition Professionals12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golem, Devon L.; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer T.; Koenings, Mallory M.; Davis, Katherine Finn; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is an essential lifestyle factor that contributes to overall health. The inverse relation between sleep duration and weight status has revealed the importance of sleep in nutritional health. This integrative review builds foundational knowledge with regard to sleep vis-à-vis nutrition by summarizing the importance and process of sleep, current sleep recommendations and trends, as well as lifestyle contributors to poor sleep. Additionally, it details the association between sleep and obesity and potential mechanisms for this association. Furthermore, guidance is offered regarding the incorporation of sleep considerations in nutrition counseling, communication, and research. Like many other lifestyle factors that contribute to nutritional health, sleep needs to be considered when examining weight management and health promotion. PMID:25398735

  10. Nanosuspension Technology for Solubilizing Poorly Soluble Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Deoli Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. It is estimated that around 40% of drugs in the pipeline cannot be delivered through the preferred route or in some cases, at all owing to poor water solubility. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor1 EL). To date, nanoscale systems f...

  11. Between strong continuity and almost continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kohli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As embodied in the title of the paper strong and weak variants of continuity that lie strictly between strong continuity of Levine and almost continuity due to Singal and Singal are considered. Basic properties of almost completely continuous functions (≡ R-maps and δ-continuous functions are studied. Direct and inverse transfer of topological properties under almost completely continuous functions and δ-continuous functions are investigated and their place in the hier- archy of variants of continuity that already exist in the literature is out- lined. The class of almost completely continuous functions lies strictly between the class of completely continuous functions studied by Arya and Gupta (Kyungpook Math. J. 14 (1974, 131-143 and δ-continuous functions defined by Noiri (J. Korean Math. Soc. 16, (1980, 161-166. The class of almost completely continuous functions properly contains each of the classes of (1 completely continuous functions, and (2 al- most perfectly continuous (≡ regular set connected functions defined by Dontchev, Ganster and Reilly (Indian J. Math. 41 (1999, 139-146 and further studied by Singh (Quaestiones Mathematicae 33(2(2010, 1–11 which in turn include all δ-perfectly continuous functions initi- ated by Kohli and Singh (Demonstratio Math. 42(1, (2009, 221-231 and so include all perfectly continuous functions introduced by Noiri (Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 15(3 (1984, 241-250.

  12. Combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To review and discuss the evidence and arguments to combine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the ICU, in particular with reference to the Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients (EPaNIC) study. The EPaNIC study shows an advantage in terms of discharges alive from the ICU when parenteral nutrition is delayed to day 8 as compared with combining enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition from day 3 of ICU stay. The difference between the guidelines from the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Europe and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition/Society of Critical Care Medicine in North America concerning the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition during the initial week of ICU stay was reviewed. The EPaNIC study clearly demonstrates that early parenteral nutrition in the ICU is not in the best interests of most patients. Exactly at what time point the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition should be considered is still an open question.

  13. Prevalence of Exercise Addiction Symptomology and Disordered Eating in Australian Students Studying Nutrition and Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has reported the existence of disordered eating in students studying nutrition and dietetics. However, the occurrence of exercise addiction, previously linked to disordered eating, is poorly understood in this group. The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of exercise addiction and the association with disordered eating in a sample of students studying nutrition and dietetics. A secondary objective was to compare the prevalence of exercise addiction to students enrolled in another health-related degree. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 165 undergraduate students. Participants were students of both sexes enrolled in nutrition and dietetics and occupational therapy degree programs at an Australian university in August 2013. Participants completed four validated questionnaires for assessment of exercise- and eating-related attitudes and behaviors measuring scores for exercise addiction, weekly volume of physical activity (PA), eating disorder symptoms, and cognitive restraint. Stretch stature and body mass were measured and body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ 2 test were completed to compare groups of students based on sex, degree, or eating attitudes. Spearman's correlation was performed to explore associations between continuous variables (exercise addiction scores, PA volume, and scores for eating attitudes and cognitive restraint). Approximately 23% of nutrition and dietetics students were found to be at risk of exercise addiction (20% females and 35% males; P=0.205), while the majority demonstrated some symptoms of exercise addiction. A similar proportion of at risk individuals was found in the female occupational therapy group (19%; P=1.000). In females (nutrition and dietetics and occupational therapy combined), the exercise addiction scores were associated with three other outcome measures: PA volume (r s

  14. Economic evaluation of an extended nutritional intervention in older Australian hospitalized patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Yogesh; Thompson, Campbell; Miller, Michelle; Shahi, Rashmi; Hakendorf, Paul; Horwood, Chris; Kaambwa, Billingsley

    2018-02-05

    Prevalence of malnutrition in older hospitalized patients is 30%. Malnutrition is associated with poor clinical outcomes in terms of high morbidity and mortality and is costly for hospitals. Extended nutrition interventions improve clinical outcomes but limited studies have investigated whether these interventions are cost-effective. In this randomized controlled trial, 148 malnourished general medical patients ≥60 years were recruited and randomized to receive either an extended nutritional intervention or usual care. Nutrition intervention was individualized and started with 24 h of admission and was continued for 3 months post-discharge with a monthly telephone call whereas control patients received usual care. Nutrition status was confirmed by Patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was measured using EuroQoL 5D (EQ-5D-5 L) questionnaire at admission and at 3-months follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted for the primary outcome (incremental costs per unit improvement in PG-SGA) while a cost-utility analysis (CUA) was undertaken for the secondary outcome (incremental costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained). Nutrition status and HRQoL improved in intervention patients. Mean per included patient Australian Medicare costs were lower in intervention group compared to control arm (by $907) but these differences were not statistically significant (95% CI: -$2956 to $4854). The main drivers of higher costs in the control group were higher inpatient ($13,882 versus $13,134) and drug ($838 versus $601) costs. After adjusting outcomes for baseline differences and repeated measures, the intervention was more effective than the control with patients in this arm reporting QALYs gained that were higher by 0.0050 QALYs gained per patient (95% CI: -0.0079 to 0.0199). The probability of the intervention being cost-effective at willingness to pay values as low as $1000 per unit

  15. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  16. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Malaysian Application

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Zanariah; Hamdy, Osama; Chin Chia, Yook; Lin Lim, Shueh; Kumari Natkunam, Santha; Hussain, Husni; Yeong Tan, Ming; Sulaiman, Ridzoni; Nisak, Barakatun; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Glycemic control among patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in Malaysia is suboptimal, especially after the continuous worsening over the past decade. Improved glycemic control may be achieved through a comprehensive management strategy that includes medical nutrition therapy (MNT). Evidence-based recommendations for diabetes-specific therapeutic diets are available internationally. However, Asian patients with T2D, including Malaysians, have unique disease characteris...

  17. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Taylor M; Villafane-Ferriol, Nicole; Shah, Kevin P; Shah, Rohan M; Tran Cao, Hop S; Massarweh, Nader N; Silberfein, Eric J; Choi, Eugene A; Hsu, Cary; McElhany, Amy L; Barakat, Omar; Fisher, William; Van Buren, George

    2017-03-07

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995-2016) addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1) patients with albumin 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2) patients with albumin endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of appropriate treatment to improve the patient's quality of life.

  18. Nutritional evaluation in cirrhosis: Emphasis on the phase angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sabrina Alves; de Mattos, Angelo Alves; Tovo, Cristiane Valle; Marroni, Claudio Augusto

    2016-10-18

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) is a common condition in cirrhotic patients, leading to a worse prognosis, complications, poor quality of life and lower survival rates. Among ways of assessing nutritional status, there are anthropometric methods such as the evaluation of the triceps skinfold, the arm circumference, the arm muscle circumference and the body mass index, and non-anthropometric methods such as the subjective global assessment, the handgrip strength of non-dominant hand, and the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). PCM is frequently under-diagnosed in clinical settings in patients with cirrhosis due to the limitations of nutritional evaluation methods in this population. BIA is a useful method, but cannot be indicated in patients with abnormal body composition. In these situations, the phase angle (PA) has been used, and can become an important tool in assessing nutritional status in any situation. The PA is superior to anthropometric methods and might be considered as a nutritional indicator in cirrhosis. The early characterization of the nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis means an early nutritional intervention, with a positive impact on patients' overall prognosis. Among the usually accepted methods for nutritional diagnosis, the PA provides information in a quick and objective manner.

  19. Does Aquaculture Support the Needs of Nutritionally Vulnerable Nations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Golden

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture now supplies half of the fish consumed directly by humans. We evaluate whether aquaculture, given current patterns of production and distribution, supports the needs of poor and food-insecure populations throughout the world. We begin by identifying 41 seafood-reliant nutritionally vulnerable nations (NVNs, and ask whether aquaculture meets human nutritional demand directly via domestic production or trade, or indirectly via purchase of nutritionally rich dietary substitutes. We find that a limited number of NVNs have domestically farmed seafood, and of those, only specific aquaculture approaches (e.g., freshwater in some locations have the potential to benefit nutritionally vulnerable populations. While assessment of aquaculture's direct contribution via trade is constrained by data limitations, we find that it is unlikely to contribute substantially to human nutrition in vulnerable groups, as most exported aquaculture consists of high-value species for international markets. We also determine that subpopulations who benefit from aquaculture profits are likely not the same subpopulations who are nutritionally vulnerable, and more research is needed to understand the impacts of aquaculture income gains. Finally, we discuss the relationship of aquaculture to existing trends in capture fisheries in NVNs, and suggest strategies to create lasting solutions to nutritional security, without exacerbating existing challenges in access to food and land resources.

  20. Medical nutrition therapy in chronic kidney disease; from dialysis to transplant: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Leal-Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease has direct implications in nutritional status, causing anorexia and muscular catabolism. These situations are frequent in kidney renal replacement therapy in which nutritional disorders and inflammatory mechanisms associated with therapy often lead to the development of protein-energy wasting. Nutrition therapy has shown an adequate therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat metabolic alterations, reducing surgical and nutritional complication risks in kidney transplantation patients. The current case reports nutritional intervention on a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient who was subsequently prescribed to automatic peritoneal dialysis and, finally, kidney transplant from a living donor.

  1. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  2. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS......: Patients diagnosed before the age of 4 (median 1.4) years displayed the classic clinical signs of rickets, whereas patients diagnosed after the age of 4 (median 12.5) years had few clinical signs and unspecific symptoms. Ethnic Danish patients were only diagnosed before age 24 months, and they accounted...

  3. Nutrition and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology.

  4. Nutrition and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  5. Nutrition in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the fundamental factors that influence the effectiveness of physical activity, increase efficiency and replenishment of muscle mass, balances the ratio of energy consumed and restored. The diet of an athlete can and should be built on common foods available and prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles of healthy eating. The need for major macronutrients and micronutrients is determined by the need for energy, the intensity of sweating and the goals for building muscle mass. Depending on the intensity of the proposed load including competition, there are individual nutritional needs and, if necessary, various food supplements may be used. The basic principles of sport nutrition are described in this article

  6. SNA Releases Back to School Nutrition Trends Report: Results Show What Schools Are Doing to Increase Healthy Options for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about the School Nutrition Association's 2008 Back to School Nutrition Trends Report that was released on August 19. According to the report, the trend towards more healthful school meal choices continues this fall with district nutrition programs emphasizing whole grains, fruits, and vegetables while cutting back on trans fats,…

  7. Knowledge of General Nutrition, Soy Nutrition, and Consumption of Soy Products: Assessment of a Sample Adult Population in Montgomery County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Lida Catherine

    1999-01-01

    KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL NUTRITION, SOY NUTRITION, AND CONSUMPTION OF SOY PRODUCTS: ASSESSMENT OF A SAMPLE ADULT POPULATION IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY, VIRGINIA Lida Catherine Johnson (ABSTRACT) Nutrition education programs in the prevention of chronic diseases has flourished over the last 15 years. Investigators continue to demonstrate that soy consumption plays a role in decreasing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis and problems regarding menopause....

  8. A parenteral nutrition use survey with gap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullata, Joseph I; Guenter, Peggi; Mirtallo, Jay M

    2013-03-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication for which safe practice guidelines are available. Recent adverse events associated with PN have been widely reported. A survey of current practices was indicated as new guidelines are being considered. A web-based survey consisting of 70 items was made available for the month of August 2011. Respondents provided answers to questions that addressed all aspects of the PN use process. There were a total of 895 respondents to the survey, including dietitians, nurses, pharmacists, and physicians. They predominantly represented hospital settings (89%), with 44% from academic institutions. Most organizations use a once-daily PN admixture with 21% outsourcing preparation. Electronic PN order entry is available in one-third of organizations, and the use of standardized order sets prevails. Unfortunately, electronic interfaces between computer systems remain infrequent, meaning that at least one transcription step is required by most in the PN use process. There are a wide variety of methods for ordering PN components, many of which are inconsistent with safe practices. Most organizations dedicate a pharmacist to review the PN orders, many of which require clarifications. Documentation at each step of the PN use process with oversight to identify deviations from best practice recommendations is infrequent. A significant proportion (44%) does not track PN-related medication errors. The survey data are a valuable snapshot of current practices with PN. Poor compliance with some of the safe practice guidelines continues. This will help guide new safety initiatives for the PN use process.

  9. Nutrition in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Osama; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd-Yusof

    2016-12-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a key component of diabetes management. The importance of balancing macronutrients, reducing carbohydrate load, lowering glycemic index, and implementing an overall healthy dietary pattern are emerging as better approaches for MNT in diabetes. Recent research points to improved glycemic control, reduction in body weight, and improvement in many cardiovascular risk factors when these approaches are provided by registered dietitians or health care providers. This review article discusses the current evidence about the role of sensible nutrition in diabetes management. Specific eating plans for weight reduction and for patients with type 1 diabetes are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrition and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Filteau, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    , which is mainly synergistic and operating at different levels. HIV infection increases energy and nutrient requirements, yet it reduces food security. The result is nutritional deficiencies, which increase progression of HIV infection. Both undernutrition and food insecurity may also lead to increased...... risk of transmission. Nutritional intake and status may affect metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, some of which may affect body composition, and increase risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, HIV is transmitted through breastfeeding, causing a serious infant feeding dilemma for which...

  11. Clinical avian nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence-Based Guideline of the German Nutrition Society: Carbohydrate Intake and Prevention of Nutrition-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hauner, Hans;Bechthold, Angela;Boeing, Heiner;Brönstrup, Anja;Buyken, Anette;Leschik-Bonnet, Eva;Linseisen, Jakob;Schulze, Matthias;Strohm, Daniela;Wolfram, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The relative contribution of nutrition-related chronic diseases to the total disease burden of the society and the health care costs has risen continuously over the last decades. Thus, there is an urgent necessity to better exploit the potential of dietary prevention of diseases. Carbohydrates play a major role in human nutrition – next to fat, carbohydrates are the second biggest group of energy-yielding nutrients. Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinaemia, hypertension, metabol...

  13. Nutritive value of browses as protein supplement(s) to poor quality roughages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions, pasture grasses and cereal residues are frequently low in nutrients especially protein and therefore cannot support high levels of ruminant production. Many browse species are endowed with high levels of protein and hence suitable as supplements. The

  14. Child Nutritional Status in Poor Ethiopian Households: The role of gender, assets and location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, A.; Bezuayehu, T.O.; Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Seager, J.; Alemu, T.; Asgedom, G.

    2005-01-01

    As one of the poorest countries in the world, Ethiopia¿s rate of child malnutrition is one of the highest, even within sub¿Saharan Africa. The causes and relative importance of various determinants of malnutrition in Ethiopia are not well understood. This paper specifically explores some of the less

  15. Nutritional and Anti – Nutritional Composition of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the nutritional and anti – nutritional composition of the African palmyrah palm (Borassus aethiopum). Subjects/ Materials and Methods: Studies were conducted on the proximate composition, vitamin C, total carotenoids and some anti-nutritional factors / toxins of the fresh seedling of the African ...

  16. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and provide incomes to families. Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Capricorn Municipality, ...

  17. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  18. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  19. Towards implementation of optimum nutrition and better clinical nutrition support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C. F.; Prins, F.; van Kempen, A.; Tepaske, R.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical Nutrition Support--defined as nutrition for hospitalized patients suffering from metabolic stress--plays a limited role in the therapeutic routine of the physician. This is not surprising as most research in the field of clinical nutrition is disappointing with regard to the objective

  20. Nutritional status of an elderly population in Southwest China: a cross-sectional study based on comprehensive geriatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, R; Duan, J; Deng, Y; Tu, Q; Cao, Y; Zhang, M; Zhu, Q; Lü, Y

    2015-01-01

    Few data is available on the nutritional status of old Chinese. The present study aimed to describe the nutritional status and clinical correlates for malnutrition risk in the older people. Cross-sectional study. Hospital- and community-based older people were recruited in the region of Chongqing, China. 558 individuals aged 60 years old or over between April 2011 and October 2012. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed and nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF). Nutrition-associated factors were analyzed, including health status (chronic diseases, depression, cognition, function impaired), social factors (education status, marital status, the type of work before 60 years old) and life style factors (smoking, drinking, diet). The mean age was 73.1±8.0 years and 43.9% were men. Prevalence of malnutrition and risk for malnutrition were 3.2% and 19.3 %, respectively. Several factors increased poor nutrition independently including self-rated health, comorbidity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastrointestinal disease and cognitive impairment. Fish decreased the risk of poor nutrition. The prevalence was relatively low in older people of Chongqing, Southwest China. Poor nutrition was found to be increased due to the common health problems. Thus the patients with these problems should pay more attention on nutritional status. The older people should often have fish because of their nutritional benefit.

  1. Nurses' Knowledge and Responsibility toward Nutritional Assessment for Patients in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Al Kalaldeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional assessment is a prerequisite for nutritional delivery. Patients in intensive care suffer from under-nutrition and nutritional failure due to poor assessment. Nursing ability to early detect nutritional failure is the key for minimizing imparities in practice and attaining nutritional goals. Aim of this article is to examine the ability of Jordanian ICU nurses to assess the nutritional status of critically ill patients, considering biophysical and biochemical measures.Methods: This cross sectional study recruited nurses from different health sectors in Jordan. ICU nurses from the governmental sector (two hospitals and private sectors (two hospitals were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Nurses' knowledge and responsibility towards nutritional assessment were examined.Results: A total of 220 nurses from both sectors have completed the questionnaire. Nurses were consistent in regard to knowledge, responsibility, and documentation of nutritional assessment. Nurses in the governmental hospitals inappropriately perceived the application of aspiration reduction measures. However, they scored higher in applying physical examination and anthropometric assessment.  Although both nurses claimed higher use of biochemical measurements, biophysical measurements were less frequently used. Older nurses with longer clinical experience exhibited better adherence to biophysical measurement than younger nurses.Conclusion: Nursing nutritional assessment is still suboptimal to attain nutritional goals. Assessment of body weight, history of nutrition intake, severity of illness, and function of gastrointestinal tract should be considered over measuring albumin and pre-albumin levels.  A well-defined evidence-based protocol as well as a multidisciplinary nutritional team for nutritional assessment is the best to minimize episodes of under-nutrition.

  2. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  3. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored CE Programs Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  4. Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    ...., second only to smoking. The purpose of this study is to explore the nutritional lifestyle of college women, and to determine if there are differences in nutritional lifestyle, as well as, perception of health status...

  5. Agriculture for improved nutrition: the current research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachel; Hawkes, Corinna; Jeff, Waage; Ferguson, Elaine; Haseen, Farhana; Homans, Hilary; Hussein, Julia; Johnston, Deborah; Marais, Debbi; McNeill, Geraldine; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-12-01

    Concern about food security and its effect on persistent undernutrition has increased interest in how agriculture could be used to improve nutritional outcomes in developing countries. Yet the evidence base for the impact of agricultural interventions targeted at improved nutrition is currently poor. To map the extent and nature of current and planned research on agriculture for improved nutrition in order to identify gaps where more research might be useful. The research, which was conducted from April to August 2012, involved developing a conceptual framework linking agriculture and nutrition, identifying relevant research projects and programs, devising and populating a "template" with details of the research projects in relation to the conceptual framework, classifying the projects, and conducting a gap analysis. The study identified a large number of research projects covering a broad range of themes and topics. There was a strong geographic focus on sub-Saharan Africa, and many studies were explicitly concerned with nutritional impacts on women and children. Although the study revealed a diverse and growing body of research, it also identified research gaps. Few projects consider the entire evidence chain linking agricultural input or practice to nutritional outcomes. There is comparatively little current research on indirect effects of agriculture on nutrition, or the effect of policies or governance, rather than technical interventions. Most research is focused on undernutrition and small farmer households, and few studies target consumers generally, urban populations, or nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. There is very little work on the cost-effectiveness of agricultural interventions. On the basis of these findings, we make suggestions for research investment and for broader engagement of researchers and disciplines in developing approaches to design and evaluate agricultural programs for improved nutrition.

  6. Nutrition of the transition cow

    OpenAIRE

    BEŇASOVÁ, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis titled Nutrition of the transition cow deals with nutrition of dairy cows in peripartum period with regard to prevention of development of metabolic diseases. Anatomy of digestive system and physiology of digestive processes are briefly described. Characteristic of nutrients and of the most common feeds used for nutrition of dairy cattle serves as introduction to formulation of dairy rations. Metabolic diseases caused by inadequate nutrition in transition period are the b...

  7. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thureen, Patti J; Hay, William W

    2006-01-01

    ..., the volume highlights the important longterm effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function. Written by an authoritative, international team of cont...

  8. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  9. Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J.J. van Neerven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow’s milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies. In addition, nutrition can also have indirect effects on allergic sensitization. This includes the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, which influences intrauterine development, as well as breastmilk composition. These include the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women that influences intrauterine development as well as breastmilk composition, effects of food processing that may enhance allergenicity of foods, and effects via modulation of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. This editorial review provides a brief overview of recent developments related to nutrition and the development and management of allergic diseases.

  10. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation; Institute of Medicine

    ... and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recomposed styles, version ...

  11. Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to

  12. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  13. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda van Eysinga, J.P.N.L.; Smilde, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a guide to diagnosing nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums. Deficiencies and toxicities are included, fifteen in all. Colour plates and descriptions are given for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, boron, copper, manganese, iron and zinc deficiency and for

  15. Cystic fibrosis - nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and crackers, muffins, or trail mix. Try to eat regularly, even if it is only a few bites. Or, include a nutrition supplement or milkshake. Be flexible. If you aren't hungry at dinner time, make breakfast, mid-morning snacks, and lunch ...

  16. Food security and nutrition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Efforts to improve one of the world's most resilient staples — cassava — have paid off, with lasting and, in some instances, dra- matic benefits. Plant breeding has increased this starchy root's nutritional value and dis- ease resistance, saving countless lives. IDRC has long recognized cassava, also known as manioc, as an ...

  17. [Nutritional support in sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Leyba, C; López Martínez, J; Blesa Malpica, A L

    2005-06-01

    Although it is considered that metabolic and nutritional support must be part of the management of septic patients, it has not been conclusively shown that nutritional support will improve survival or complications from sepsis. Specific data on this issue are scarce since there are few studies that have investigated specialized nutritional support in septic patients. Thus, most of the recommendations are based on outcomes obtained in severely ill patients with different pathologies. It is assumed that nutritional support should be carried out through the enteral route whenever possible, as in other critically ill patients. The energetic waste in these patients is highly variable, although in general terms the hypermetabolic situation may be classified as moderate. An adjustment factor of 1.25-1.30 is recommended for the Harris-Benedict's equation to calculate the caloric intake. Septic patients should receive a hyperproteic intake. The amount of glucose administered should not exceed 70% of non-protein calories, and lipids intake should not exceed 40%. With regards to micronutrients, it is recommended to increase the supply of those with antioxidant properties (vitamin E, carotenes, vitamin C, selenium). There are data to consider that the use of diets enriched with pharmaco-nutrients (both with parenteral and enteral routes) may be beneficial in septic patients, although there is some controversy when interpreting the outcomes.

  18. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  19. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  20. Maternal nutrition in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... Results: Undernutrition in women aged 15–49 years decreased from ... Food restrictions/taboos are common with proteins and vegetable. ... This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the ... economic resources—all critical toward good nutrition that ..... Indian J Pediatr 2004;71:1007-14. 23.

  1. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  2. Nutritional disturbances by adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Stassart, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional disturbances are frequent by adolescents. That is a psychological defense against dependance toward the mother but also a middle to remain in a childish position i.e. either as a fat baby - in the fall of obesity- or as the ideal pre- or bisexual great child - in the case of anorexia.

  3. Nutrition notes for quick reference. Issues and perspectives reflecting the UN thinking on the global nutritional scenario and its relevance to the activities of NAHRES/NAHU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, V.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional sciences are both complex and multidisciplinary in nature and will be more so in the coming years. Recent developments in nutrition extending into areas such as nutrient gene interactions, nutrient-pollutant interactions, nutritional physiology and preventive medicine among others, are emerging as new dimensions for our understanding the many relationships between nutrition and health on one hand. and nutrition and disease on the other. The future nutritional researcher should be prepared to address a range of scientific and clinical disciplines together. Food safety issues and factors that contribute to nutrient compositional changes are critical to several aspects surrounding the nutrition-health-disease domain, and will continue to attract much attention in the future. Nutritional toxicology too will become a major challenge in this context. New strategies are being sought to address micronutrient malnutrition (vitamin A and iron deficiencies in particular). The UN agencies are supporting several initiatives to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies as major public health problems in nutrition. The IAEA is contributing to these efforts by facilitating the development of a variety of isotope based techniques to improve nutrition monitoring techniques and to identify effective strategies in nutrition intervention schemes particularly among vulnerable groups in developing regions around the world

  4. Nutrition notes for quick reference. Issues and perspectives reflecting the UN thinking on the global nutritional scenario and its relevance to the activities of NAHRES/NAHU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, V [comp.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional sciences are both complex and multidisciplinary in nature and will be more so in the coming years. Recent developments in nutrition extending into areas such as nutrient gene interactions, nutrient-pollutant interactions, nutritional physiology and preventive medicine among others, are emerging as new dimensions for our understanding the many relationships between nutrition and health on one hand. and nutrition and disease on the other. The future nutritional researcher should be prepared to address a range of scientific and clinical disciplines together. Food safety issues and factors that contribute to nutrient compositional changes are critical to several aspects surrounding the nutrition-health-disease domain, and will continue to attract much attention in the future. Nutritional toxicology too will become a major challenge in this context. New strategies are being sought to address micronutrient malnutrition (vitamin A and iron deficiencies in particular). The UN agencies are supporting several initiatives to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies as major public health problems in nutrition. The IAEA is contributing to these efforts by facilitating the development of a variety of isotope based techniques to improve nutrition monitoring techniques and to identify effective strategies in nutrition intervention schemes particularly among vulnerable groups in developing regions around the world.

  5. Transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm: a malaysian application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zanariah; Hamdy, Osama; Chin Chia, Yook; Lin Lim, Shueh; Kumari Natkunam, Santha; Hussain, Husni; Yeong Tan, Ming; Sulaiman, Ridzoni; Nisak, Barakatun; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2013-01-01

    Glycemic control among patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in Malaysia is suboptimal, especially after the continuous worsening over the past decade. Improved glycemic control may be achieved through a comprehensive management strategy that includes medical nutrition therapy (MNT). Evidence-based recommendations for diabetes-specific therapeutic diets are available internationally. However, Asian patients with T2D, including Malaysians, have unique disease characteristics and risk factors, as well as cultural and lifestyle dissimilarities, which may render international guidelines and recommendations less applicable and/or difficult to implement. With these thoughts in mind, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed by an international task force of diabetes and nutrition experts through the restructuring of international guidelines for the nutritional management of prediabetes and T2D to account for cultural differences in lifestyle, diet, and genetic factors. The initial evidence-based global tDNA template was designed for simplicity, flexibility, and cultural modification. This paper reports the Malaysian adaptation of the tDNA, which takes into account the epidemiologic, physiologic, cultural, and lifestyle factors unique to Malaysia, as well as the local guidelines recommendations.

  6. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Malaysian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanariah Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycemic control among patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D in Malaysia is suboptimal, especially after the continuous worsening over the past decade. Improved glycemic control may be achieved through a comprehensive management strategy that includes medical nutrition therapy (MNT. Evidence-based recommendations for diabetes-specific therapeutic diets are available internationally. However, Asian patients with T2D, including Malaysians, have unique disease characteristics and risk factors, as well as cultural and lifestyle dissimilarities, which may render international guidelines and recommendations less applicable and/or difficult to implement. With these thoughts in mind, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA was developed by an international task force of diabetes and nutrition experts through the restructuring of international guidelines for the nutritional management of prediabetes and T2D to account for cultural differences in lifestyle, diet, and genetic factors. The initial evidence-based global tDNA template was designed for simplicity, flexibility, and cultural modification. This paper reports the Malaysian adaptation of the tDNA, which takes into account the epidemiologic, physiologic, cultural, and lifestyle factors unique to Malaysia, as well as the local guidelines recommendations.

  7. Nutritional Interventions for Cancer-induced Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Norleena P.; Mazurak, Vera; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-induced cachexia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer treatment. Cancer research and development continues at an aggressive pace and yet a degree of cancer-induced cachexia is experienced by up to 80% of advanced stage cancer patients. Unfortunately, there are no established treatment regimens for this condition. Weight loss and fatigue consistently appear in patient oncologic histories and progress notes. However, few oncologists fully understand the pathologic mechanisms causing cachexia resulting in well-meaning advice to increase caloric intake with minimal results. Our goal is to describe the pathologic basis of cancer-induced cachexia and to detail accompanying metabolic derangements. Understanding the causes of cachexia sheds light on the subsequent need for multi-modality therapy including clinical intervention with specialized nutrition support, drug therapy, lifestyle and diet changes. In addition to nutrition support modalities, practicing oncologists may prescribe medical therapies designed to increase body weight and lean body mass, including megestrol acetate, tetrahydrocannibinol, oxandrolone, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A variety of experimental therapies are also being investigated for cancer-induced cachexia including tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors and ghrelin infusions. We review the available data to support nutrition-oriented interventions in cancer-induced cachexia, including omega-3 fatty acids, amino-acid loading/protein supplementation, parenteral and enteral nutrition support, and food-derived compounds such as curcumin, reservatrol, and pomegranate. PMID:21420558

  8. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Malaysian Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Osama; Chin Chia, Yook; Lin Lim, Shueh; Kumari Natkunam, Santha; Yeong Tan, Ming; Sulaiman, Ridzoni; Nisak, Barakatun; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Glycemic control among patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in Malaysia is suboptimal, especially after the continuous worsening over the past decade. Improved glycemic control may be achieved through a comprehensive management strategy that includes medical nutrition therapy (MNT). Evidence-based recommendations for diabetes-specific therapeutic diets are available internationally. However, Asian patients with T2D, including Malaysians, have unique disease characteristics and risk factors, as well as cultural and lifestyle dissimilarities, which may render international guidelines and recommendations less applicable and/or difficult to implement. With these thoughts in mind, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed by an international task force of diabetes and nutrition experts through the restructuring of international guidelines for the nutritional management of prediabetes and T2D to account for cultural differences in lifestyle, diet, and genetic factors. The initial evidence-based global tDNA template was designed for simplicity, flexibility, and cultural modification. This paper reports the Malaysian adaptation of the tDNA, which takes into account the epidemiologic, physiologic, cultural, and lifestyle factors unique to Malaysia, as well as the local guidelines recommendations. PMID:24385984

  9. Home parenteral nutrition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousova, J.; Rouskova, B.; Styblova, J.

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition delivered at home presents a major improvement in the quality of life of children dependent on long term parenteral nutrition. Indications, technical conditions, logistics, complications, prognosis of home parenteral nutrition as well as some health-care issues to be addressed by pediatric practitioner are summarized. (author)

  10. Personalised nutrition: Status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost, H.G.; Gibney, M.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Görman, U.; Hesketh, J.E.; Mueller, M.; Ommen, B. van; Williams, C.M.; Mathers, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing

  11. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  12. Nutrition communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are frequently confronted with patients who suffer from obesity or other nutrition-related diseases, such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. There is increasing evidence that nutrition communication is effective in changing nutrition behaviour. Moreover, it is widely

  13. Nutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  14. Parenteral nutrition in patients with renal failure – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druml, W.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Partial EN (enteral nutrition should always be aimed for in patients with renal failure that require nutritional support. Nevertheless PN (parenteral nutrition may be necessary in renal failure in patient groups with acute or chronic renal failure (ARF or CRF and additional acute diseases but without extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, or in patients with ARF or CRF with additional acute diseases on extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis therapy (HD, peritoneal dialysis (PD or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT, or in patients on HD therapy with intradialytic PN. Patients with renal failure who show marked metabolic derangements and changes in nutritional requirements require the use of specifically adapted nutrient solutions. The substrate requirements of acutely ill, non-hypercatabolic patients with CRF correspond to those of patients with ARF who are not receiving any renal replacement patients therapy (utilisation of the administered nutrients has to be monitored carefully. In ARF patients and acutely ill CRF patients on renal replacement therapy, substrate requirements depend on disease severity, type and extent/frequency of extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, nutritional status, underlying disease and complications occurring during the course of the disease. Patients under HD have a higher risk of developing malnutrition. Intradialytic PN (IDPN should be used if causes of malnutrition cannot be eliminated and other interventions fail. IDPN should only be carried out when modifiable causes of malnutrition are excluded and enhanced oral (like i.e. additional energy drinks or enteral supply is unsuccessful or cannot be carried out.

  15. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition services for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Wittenbrook, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutrition services provided by registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered (NDTRs), who work under RDN supervision, are essential components of comprehensive care for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). Nutrition services should be provided throughout life in a manner that is interdisciplinary, family-centered, community based, and culturally competent. Individuals with IDD and CYSHCN have many risk factors requiring nutrition interventions, including growth alterations (eg, failure to thrive, obesity, or growth retardation), metabolic disorders, poor feeding skills, drug-nutrient interactions, and sometimes partial or total dependence on enteral or parenteral nutrition. Furthermore, these individuals are also more likely to develop comorbid conditions, such as obesity or endocrine disorders that require nutrition interventions. Poor nutrition-related health habits, limited access to services, and long-term use of multiple medications are considered health risk factors. Timely and cost-effective nutrition interventions can promote health maintenance and reduce risk and cost of comorbidities and complications. Public policy for individuals with IDD and CYSHCN has evolved, resulting in a transition from institutional facilities and programs to community and independent living. The expansion of public access to technology and health information on the Internet challenges RDNs and NDTRs to provide accurate scientific information to this rapidly growing and evolving population. RDNs and NDTRs with expertise in this area are best prepared to provide appropriate nutrition information to promote wellness and improve quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Current Status of Nutrition Training in Graduate Medical Education From a Survey of Residency Program Directors: A Formal Nutrition Education Course Is Necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Brian J; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill; Van Way, Charles W; Collier, Bryan; Gramlich, Leah; McMahon, M Molly; McClave, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition leaders surmised graduate medical nutrition education was not well addressed because most medical and surgical specialties have insufficient resources to teach current nutrition practice. A needs assessment survey was constructed to determine resources and commitment for nutrition education from U.S. graduate medical educators to address this problem. An online survey of 36 questions was sent to 495 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Program Directors in anesthesia, family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics/gynecology, and general surgery. Demographics, resources, and open-ended questions were included. There was a 14% response rate (72 programs), consistent with similar studies on the topic. Most (80%) of the program directors responding were from primary care programs, the rest surgical (17%) or anesthesia (3%). Program directors themselves lacked knowledge of nutrition. While some form of nutrition education was provided at 78% of programs, only 26% had a formal curriculum and physicians served as faculty at only 53%. Sixteen programs had no identifiable expert in nutrition and 10 programs stated that no nutrition training was provided. Training was variable, ranging from an hour of lecture to a month-long rotation. Seventy-seven percent of program directors stated that the required educational goals in nutrition were not met. The majority felt an advanced course in clinical nutrition should be required of residents now or in the future. Nutrition education in current graduate medical education is poor. Most programs lack the expertise or time commitment to teach a formal course but recognize the need to meet educational requirements. A broad-based, diverse universal program is needed for training in nutrition during residency. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Nutritional approach to preeclampsia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achamrah, Najate; Ditisheim, Agnès

    2018-05-01

    Although not fully understood, the physiopathology of preeclampsia is thought to involve an abnormal placentation, diffuse endothelial cell dysfunction and increased systemic inflammation. As micronutrients play a key role in placental endothelial function, oxidative stress and expression of angiogenic factors, periconceptional micronutrient supplementation has been proposed to reduce the risk of preeclampsia. However, recent studies reported conflicting results. Calcium intake (>1 g/day) may reduce the risk of preeclampsia in women with low-calcium diet. Data from recently updated Cochrane reviews did not support routine supplementation of vitamins C, E or D for either the prevention or treatment of preeclampsia. Evidences are also poor to support zinc or folic acid supplementation for preeclampsia prevention. Dark chocolate, flavonoid-rich food, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids might also be candidates for prevention of preeclampsia. Through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or vasoactive proprieties, micronutrients are good candidates for preeclampsia prevention. Calcium supplementation is recommended to prevent preeclampsia in women with low-calcium intake. Despite positive clinical and in-vitro data, strong evidence to support periconceptional supplementation of other micronutrients for preeclampsia risk-reduction is still lacking. Further studies are also needed to evaluate the benefit of nutritional supplementation such as chocolate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Maintenance of nutritional status in patients with cystic fibrosis: new and emerging therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalnins D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Daina Kalnins,1 Michael Wilschanski21Clinical Dietetics, Respiratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Hadassah University Hospitals, Jerusalem, IsraelAbstract: Poor clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis are often associated with undernutrition. Normal growth and development should be achieved in cystic fibrosis, and nutritional counseling is paramount at all ages. Prevention and early detection of growth failure is the key to successful nutritional intervention. The advance in nutritional management is certainly one factor that has contributed to the improved survival in recent decades. This review outlines the major nutritional parameters in the management of the patient with cystic fibrosis, including recent advances in pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy and fat-soluble vitamin therapy. There are sections on complicated clinical situations which directly affect nutrition, for example, before and after lung transplantation, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and bone health.Keywords: cystic fibrosis, nutrition, fat-soluble vitamins, pancreatic enzymes

  19. Nutrition, hormones and prostate cancer risk: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional factors may influence the risk of developing prostate cancer, but understanding of this topic is poor. This chapter discusses research on this subject, mostly from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort which includes 150,000 men recruited in the 1990s in eight European countries. So far the EPIC collaborators have published analyses of the relationship of prostate cancer risk with the intake of a range of foods and nutrients, and with blood-based markers of nutritional factors, on up to nearly 3,000 incident cases of prostate cancer. Most of the results of these analyses have been null, with no clear indication that the risk for prostate cancer is related to intakes of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, fibre, fat or alcohol or with blood levels of fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, B vitamins, vitamin D, or selenium. There is some evidence from EPIC that risk may be increased in men with a high intake of protein from dairy products, and analyses of hormone levels have shown that risk is higher in men with relatively high blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). More research is needed to better describe the relationships of prostate cancer risk with IGF-I and related hormones, and to better understand whether nutritional factors may influence risk through hormones or perhaps by other mechanisms.

  20. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  1. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition education...

  2. Mongo Beti's The Poor Christ of Bomba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... discovered the Harlem Renaissance Movement or New Negro Movement ... Beti picks up as a subject for his satire in The Poor Christ of Bomba. ..... slave driver, and the indigenous man into an instrument of production” (6).

  3. Development of the Nutrition4Kids website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2009 National Vital Statistics Report, cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the United States. Researchers have determined that consuming a diet low in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is a common risk factor associated with the risk of developing several types of cancer including stomach, colorectal, breast, and pancreatic. Currently, there are few websites devoted to increasing students' knowledge about the role of a healthy diet in cancer prevention. The Nutrition4Kids website is a unique health education tool that targets youth aged 10 to 14 years. The website content and design were based on the Health Belief Model, the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills Model, and the principles of health literacy. The information included on the website was based on recommendations from the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund. The website contains nutrition information, recipes that emphasize the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and interactive games. The primary objectives of the Nutrition4Kids website are to 1) increase students' knowledge of how poor dietary habits can affect their health, 2) increase students' knowledge of healthy dietary habits that can reduce their risk for cancer, 3) increase students' ability to prepare healthy, well-balanced meals and snacks, 4) increase students' ability to discuss healthy eating with their family and friends, and 5) increase students' knowledge of nutrients that have healthful benefits.

  4. Malnutrition and Nutritional Support in Alcoholic Liver Disease: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Andrew; Waitzberg, Dan; de Jesus, Rosangela Passos; Bueno, Allain A; Kha, Victor; Allen, Karen; Kappus, Matthew; Medici, Valentina

    2016-12-01

    Malnutrition is associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and related complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and increased rate of infections. Avoidance of prolonged fasting and overly restrictive diets is important to avoid poor nutrition. Adequate intake of calories, protein, and micronutrients via frequent small meals and evening supplements and/or enteral and parenteral nutrition when indicated has been associated with reduced mortality and morbidity in patients with ALD. Modification of protein/fat sources and composition in addition to probiotic supplementation are promising interventions for decreased progression of ALD and its complications.

  5. Where are the poor in International Economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carvalho; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that a very significant proportion of the human population is living with financial difficulties and other constraints typical of poverty, scientific studies in the areas of Economics and especially in International Economics that address the issue of poverty and of poor countries are very few. Using bibliometric techniques, we measured the attention paid by authors from the field of International Economics to poverty and poor countries. To this end, we sorted and analyzed al...

  6. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  7. Child nutrition in countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States: time to redirect strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Adriano; Timmer, Arnold; Bomestar, Tamara; Bua, Jenny; Kumar, Sanjiv; Tamburlini, Giorgio

    2008-12-01

    Countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States made little progress in child nutrition and mortality between 1990 and 2005. The present paper assesses the nutritional status of children birth weight, infant and young child feeding, underweight, overweight and micronutrient deficiencies were compiled from available reports and databases, complemented through questionnaires to UNICEF Country Offices, and analysed by country, age, gender, urban/rural residence, maternal education and wealth quintiles. Exclusive breast-feeding in the first 6 months and continuing breast-feeding up to 2 years fall short of WHO and UNICEF recommendations. Complementary foods are introduced too early and may be poor in protein and micronutrients. Stunting and underweight are prevalent, especially in children aged 12 to 35 months; overweight is even more prevalent. Vitamin A and I deficiencies are still present in some countries, despite current control efforts. Anaemia ranges between 20 % and 40 %. Higher rates of malnutrition are found in rural areas, children of less educated mothers and lower-income families. Current public health strategies should be redirected to address: (i) overall protection, promotion and support of infant and young child feeding, in addition to breast-feeding; (ii) overweight, in addition to underweight and stunting; and (iii) malnutrition as a whole, in addition to micronutrient deficiencies. An equity lens should be used in developing policies and plans and implementing and monitoring programmes. Capacity building, cross-sectoral action, improved data collection within adequate legal frameworks and community engagement should be the pillars of redirected strategies.

  8. Hydrogen-Poor Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Elena; Mazzali, Paolo A.

    Hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae (SNe) signal the explosive death of stars more massive than the progenitors of hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernovae, i.e., approximately in the range 15-50 M⊙ in main sequence. Since hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae include those that accompany gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which were all rigorously identified with type Ic supernovae, their explosion energies cover almost two decades. The light curves and spectra are consequently very heterogeneous and often bear the signature of an asymmetric, i.e., aspherical, explosion. Asphericity is best traced by early-time (within days of the explosion) optical spectropolarimetry and by late-epoch (more than ˜ 100 days after explosion) low-resolution spectroscopy. While the relationship between hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae to hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae is not understood, a known case of association between an ultra-long gamma-ray burst and a very luminous hydrogen-poor supernova may help unraveling the connection. This is tantalizingly pointing to a magnetar powering source for both phenomena, although this scenario is still highly speculative. Host galaxies of hydrogen-poor supernovae are always star forming; in those of completely stripped supernovae and gamma-ray burst supernovae, the spatial distribution of the explosions follows the blue/ultraviolet light, with a correlation that is more than linear.

  9. Malnutrition in the critically ill child: the importance of enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Marta Botrán; Cid, Jesús López-Herce

    2011-11-01

    Malnutrition affects 50% of hospitalized children and 25-70% of the critically ill children. It increases the incidence of complications and mortality. Malnutrition is associated with an altered metabolism of certain substrates, increased metabolism and catabolism depending on the severity of the lesion, and reduced nutrient delivery. The objective should be to administer individualized nutrition to the critically ill child and to be able to adjust the nutrition continuously according to the metabolic changes and evolving nutritional status. It would appear reasonable to start enteral nutrition within the first 24 to 48 hours after admission, when oral feeding is not possible. Parenteral nutrition should only be used when enteral nutrition is contraindicated or is not tolerated. Energy delivery must be individually adjusted to energy expenditure (40-65 kcal/100 calories metabolized/day) with a protein delivery of 2.5-3 g/kg/day. Frequent monitoring of nutritional and metabolic parameters should be performed.

  10. Clinical management of poor adherence to CPAP: motivational enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloia, Mark S; Arnedt, J Todd; Riggs, Raine L; Hecht, Jacki; Borrelli, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is poor. Previous studies have attempted to identify specific barriers to treatment, but none has identified the sole cause for the problem. We outline a behavioral approach to the problem of CPAP adherence that is based on the theories of the transtheoretical model and social cognitive theory. We used these theories to guide the development of an intervention based on the methods of motivational interviewing. We present our motivational enhancement therapy for CPAP (ME-CPAP) here, with some brief pilot data to show its efficacy. Finally, we outline some strengths and weaknesses of taking a behavior change approach to the problem of poor CPAP adherence.

  11. Nutritional knowledge and eating habits of professional rugby league players: does knowledge translate into practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected during the Super League competitive season in the first team squad of 21 professional Rugby league players (mean age 25 ± 5 yrs, BMI 27 ± 2.4 kg/m2, experience in game 6 ± 4 yrs). According to their nutritional knowledge scores, the players were assigned to either good or poor nutritional knowledge group (n = 11, n = 10, respectively). Their dietary habits were assessment using a food frequency questionnaire. The findings revealed that nutritional knowledge was adequate (mean 72.82%) in this group of athletes with the highest scores in dietary advice section (85.71%), followed by food groups (71.24%) and food choice (69.52%). The majority of athletes were not aware of current carbohydrate recommendations. This translated into their dietary habits as many starchy and fibrous foods were consumed only occasionally by poor nutritional knowledge group. In terms of their eating habits, the good nutritional knowledge group consumed significantly more fruit and vegetables, and starchy foods (p Nutritional knowledge was positively correlated to fruit and vegetables consumption (rs = .52, p nutritional knowledge in professional rugby league players with the exception of recommendation for starchy and fibrous foods. Players who scored higher in nutritional knowledge test were more likely to consume more fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate-rich foods.

  12. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  13. Nutrition in the management of cirrhosis and its neurological complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bémeur, Chantal; Butterworth, Roger F

    2014-06-01

    Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic liver diseases that is often associated with a poor prognosis including worsening of clinical outcome, neuropsychiatric complications as well as outcome following liver transplantation. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis is challenging owing to confounding factors related to liver failure. The objectives of nutritional intervention in cirrhotic patients are the support of liver regeneration, the prevention or correction of specific nutritional deficiencies and the prevention and/or treatment of the complications of liver disease per se and of liver transplantation. Nutritional recommendations target the optimal supply of adequate substrates related to requirements linked to energy, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Some issues relating to malnutrition in chronic liver disease remain to be addressed including the development of an appropriate well-validated nutritional assessment tool, the identification of mechanistic targets or therapy for sarcopenia, the development of nutritional recommendations for obese cirrhotic patients and liver-transplant recipients and the elucidation of the roles of vitamin A hepatotoxicity, as well as the impact of deficiencies in riboflavin and zinc on clinical outcomes. Early identification and treatment of malnutrition in chronic liver disease has the potential to lead to better disease outcome as well as prevention of the complications of chronic liver disease and improved transplant outcomes.

  14. Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia - effects on surgical stress responses and implications for postoperative nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2002-01-01

    for improved mobilization and oral nutrition, and preservation of body composition and muscle function. Studies integrating continuous epidural local anaesthetics with enforced early nutrition and mobilization uniformly suggest an improved recovery, decreased hospital stay and convalescence. CONCLUSIONS......: Epidural local anaesthetics should be included in a multi-modal rehabilitation programme after major surgical procedures in order to facilitate oral nutrition, improve recovery and reduce morbidity....

  15. Nutrition and Prevention of Alzheimer’s dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Jicha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A nutritional approach to prevent, slow, or halt the progression of disease is a promising strategy that has been widely investigated. Much epidemiologic data suggests that nutritional intake may influence the development and progression of AD. Modifiable, environmental causes of AD include potential metabolic derangements caused by dietary insufficiency and or excess that may be corrected by nutritional supplementation and or dietary modification. Many nutritional supplements contain a myriad of health promoting constituents (anti-oxidants, vitamins, trace minerals, flavonoids, lipids,…etc. that may have novel mechanisms of action affecting cellular health and regeneration, the aging process itself, or may specifically disrupt pathogenic pathways in the development of AD. Nutritional modifications have the advantage of being cost effective, easy to implement, socially acceptable and generally safe and devoid of significant adverse events in most cases. Many nutritional interventions have been studied and continue to be evaluated in hopes of finding a successful agent, combination of agents, or dietary modifications that can be used for the prevention and or treatment of AD. The current review focuses on several key nutritional compounds and dietary modifications that have been studied in humans, and further discusses the rationale underlying their potential utility for the prevention and treatment of AD.

  16. Cooperative learning strategies to teach nutrition to geriatric nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marta; Rocandio, Ana Ma; Ansotegui, Laura; Pascual, Estíbaliz; Martínez de la Pera, Concepción

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cooperative learning strategies will help to increase nutrition knowledge of nurses and nursing assistants caring for the elderly in different institutional communities of the Basque Country, Spain. The target population was a sample of volunteers, 16 nurses and 28 nursing assistants. Training consisted of 12 nutrition education sessions using cooperative strategies conducted over a period of 3 consecutive weeks. The assessment instruments included two pretest and two posttest questionnaires with questions selected in multiple-choice format. The first questionnaire was about general knowledge of applied nutrition (0-88 point scale) and the second one on geriatric nutrition knowledge (0-18 point scale). Data were analyzed using SPSS vs. 11.0. The outcomes indicated a significant increase in general nutrition knowledge (difference between the pre- and post-test mean score: 14.5+/-10.1; Pcooperative learning strategies could improve the nutrition knowledge of nursing staff. Additionally, the results of this study provide direction to continuing nutrition education program planners regarding appropriate content and methodology for programs.

  17. Nutrition in pregnancy: Basic principles and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plećaš Draga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy diet in pregnancy should guarantee proper fetal growth and development, maintain (and promote maternal health and enable lactation. Nutritional counseling and interventions need to be an integral part of antenatal care and continue during pregnancy in order to reduce the risk of maternal, fetal and neonatal complications, as well as the short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes are more common in women who begin the gestation as undernourished or obese in comparison to pregnant women whose weight is within normal ranges. Increased nutritional and energy needs in pregnancy are met through numerous metabolic adaptations; pregnancy is successfully achieved within wide range of variations in energy supply and weight gain. However, if nutrient restriction exceeds the limits of adaptive responses, evidence indicates that fetus will develop the alternative metabolic competence that might emerge as a disease (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease and stroke in adult life.

  18. Perioperative nutritional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; García Unzueta, María Teresa; Ortiz Espejo, María; Hernández González, Miriam; Morán López, Ruth; Amado Señaris, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between preoperative malnutrition and morbi-mortality has been documented for years. Despite the existence of tools that allow its detection, and therefore treat this entity, their introduction into clinical practice is not wide-spread. Both perioperative insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with increased perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The intake of carbohydrate-rich drinks 2-4h prior to surgery reduces insulin resistance. In the immediate postoperative period, the enteral route is safe and well tolerated and its early use reduces hospital stay and postoperative complications compared with parenteral nutritional support. Inmunonutrition has been proven effective to decrease postoperative complications and hospital stay. In view of these data we opted for the adoption of these measures replacing bowel rest and the indiscriminate use of postoperative parenteral nutrition. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. School nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M; Kiely, D; Mulvihill, M; Winters, A; Bollard, C; Hamilton, A; Corrigan, C; Moore, E

    1993-05-01

    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  20. The Paradox of Nutrition-Related Diseases in the Arab Countries: The Need for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S.; Obeid, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases). Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs. PMID:22016708

  1. Prognostic significance of perioperative nutritional parameters in patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sung Eun; Choi, Min-Gew; Seo, Jeong-Meen; An, Ji Yeong; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung

    2018-02-20

    It has been suggested that nutritional status is related to the survival outcomes of cancer patients. The purpose of the current research is to evaluate the importance of the prognosis of various nutritional parameters during the perioperative period in patients with gastric cancer. This study enrolled patients with gastric cancer who underwent D2 gastrectomy at the Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, in 2008. The prognostic significance of nutritional parameters was analyzed, along with other clinical and pathological variables, preoperatively and postoperatively at 3, 6, and 12 months. The total number of patients was 1415. The mean values of nutritional parameters, weight, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and total lymphocyte count (TLC) decreased significantly over time after surgery. On the contrary, albumin and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) score increased significantly during the postoperative follow-up period. Preoperatively, low BMI (nutritional prognostic indicators. Various perioperative nutritional parameters were confirmed as independent prognostic factors in patients with gastric cancer. Our results imply prognostic benefit from careful nutritional support for patients with poor nutritional parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Using data from a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system to assess trends and influence nutrition programs and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasima Akhter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* of Helen Keller International (HKI, Bangladesh, implemented in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh’s (GOB Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN from 1990 until 2006, is among the longest running surveillance systems; and was implemented with an overall goal to monitor nutrition and health status of children and mothers in Bangladesh. From 1990-1997, NSP data collection included rural and urban poor populations of disaster prone areas of Bangladesh. Since 1998, it evolved into a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system in rural Bangladesh and also continued assessing trends of malnutrition in urban poor areas. Over the 16 year period, the NSP produced plethora of information that was packaged and shared as bulletins, in peer reviewed journal articles, as presentations at conferences, seminars, workshops. The NSP had a flexible framework that allowed it to assess trends and underlying factors of malnutrition, monitor and evaluate selected programs and conduct special studies related to current and emerging issues. NSP findings were available to contribute to program development and supported policy discussions in-country and internationally. The NSP continuously highlighted the importance of monitoring, which is not only an indispensible element for a successful program, but also helps prioritization and decision making to maximize utilization of limited resources for developing countries burdened with numerous problems to address. The NSP provides an example of a technically sound surveillance system with rapid turnover of data and findings, which is imperative to successful program planning, policy formulation and tracking progress toward developmental goals.Le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* de l’association Helen Keller International (HKI, mis en œuvre au Bangladesh en partenariat avec l’Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN,

  3. The importance of maternal nutrition for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cetin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition plays a major role in maternal and child health and it is widely recognized that optimum nutrition in early life is the foundation for long-term health. A healthy maternal dietary pattern, along with adequate maternal body composition, metabolism and placental nutrient supply, reduces the risk of maternal, fetal and long-term effects in the offspring. While undernutrition is mainly an issue of low-income countries, malnutrition, due to poor quality diet, is becoming a global health problem.Preconceptional counseling of women of childbearing age should spread awareness of the importance of maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy and should promote a cultural lifestyle change, in favor of a healthy weight before conceiving and balanced healthy diet with high-quality foods consumption. Supplementation and/or fortification can make a contribution when recommended micronutrient intakes are difficult to be met through food alone. In industrialized countries, although a balanced diet is generally accessible, a switch to a high-fat and low-quality diet has led to inadequate vitamin and mineral intake during pregnancy. Evidence do not support a routine multiple micronutrient supplementation but highlights the importance of an individualized approach, in order to recognize nutritional deficiencies of individuals, thus leading to healthful dietary practices prior to conception and eventually to tailored supplementation. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  4. Tailoring nutrition therapy to illness and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2017-12-28

    Without doubt, in medicine as in life, one size does not fit all. We do not administer the same drug or dose to every patient at all times, so why then would we live under the illusion that we should give the same nutrition at all times in the continuum of critical illness? We have long lived under the assumption that critical illness and trauma lead to a consistent early increase in metabolic/caloric need, the so-called "hypermetabolism" of critical illness. What if this is incorrect? Recent data indicate that early underfeeding of calories (trophic feeding) may have benefits and may require consideration in well-nourished patients. However, we must confront the reality that currently ICU nutrition delivery worldwide is actually leading to "starvation" of our patients and is likely a major contributor to poor long-term quality of life outcomes. To begin to ascertain the actual calorie and protein delivery required for optimal ICU recovery, an understanding of "starvation" and recovery from starvation and lean body mass (LBM) loss is needed. To begin to answer this question, we must look to the landmark Minnesota Starvation Study from 1945. This trial defines much of the world's knowledge about starvation, and most importantly what is required for recovery from starvation and massive LBM loss as occurs in the ICU. Recent and historic data indicate that critical illness is characterized by early massive catabolism, LBM loss, and escalating hypermetabolism that can persist for months or years. Early enteral nutrition during the acute phase should attempt to correct micronutrient/vitamin deficiencies, deliver adequate protein, and moderate nonprotein calories in well-nourished patients, as in the acute phase they are capable of generating significant endogenous energy. Post resuscitation, increasing protein (1.5-2.0 g/kg/day) and calories are needed to attenuate LBM loss and promote recovery. Malnutrition screening is essential and parenteral nutrition can be safely

  5. Nutrition - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Italiano) Japanese (日本語) Karen (S’gaw Karen) Kirundi (Rundi) Korean (한국어) Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Nepali (नेपाली) Pashto (Pax̌tō / پښتو ) Portuguese (português) ... Agriculture MyPlate Icon - English HTML ... Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion U.S. Department of Agriculture Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Expand Section Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a ...

  6. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  7. Nutrition and pubertal development

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compar...

  8. Dairy cow nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tame, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  9. Child nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to reduce malnutrition, particularly in densely populated, peri-urban areas, is considered a priority among governments around the world. The problem is especially acute in Africa due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency. The International Atomic Energy Agency is providing technical support to a community nutrition programme in Senegal where nuclear techniques help to monitor the programme's effectiveness in order to ensure that it produces maximum benefits on vulnerable groups (women and children). (IAEA)

  10. Nutrient intake and nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kavitha; Razak, Shariza Abdul; Ismail, Karami A; Krishna, Bhavaraju Venkata Murali

    2014-09-30

    Cancer therapy in Malaysia primarily focuses on the clinical management of patients with cancer and malnutrition continues to be one of the major causes of death in these patients. There is a dearth of information on the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer prior to the initiation of treatment. The present study aims to assess the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample of newly diagnosed adult patients with cancer (n = 70) attending the Oncology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical status, anthropometry, dietary intake and biochemical data including blood samples was obtained. The mean (SD) age, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and body mass index (BMI) of participants was 21.1(3.9) years, 17.6(7.9) mm, 24.1(5.5) cm, and 21.1(3.9) Kg/m(2), respectively; 39% participants had BMI cancer were undernourished (i.e. women: MUAC cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia were underweight and undernourished. The majority of patients with cancer had poor micronutrient intakes; the older women had a poor macro and micronutrient intakes. Before the initiation of rigorous clinical management of patients with cancer, screening for nutritional status, subsequent nutrition counseling, and interventions are essential to improve their nutritional status; consequently, response to cancer therapy, survival and quality of life.

  11. Nutrition in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reci Meseri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is defined as decreased ability of heart due to various reasons. It%u2019s seen 2-3% but the prevalence increases sharply after the age of seventy. The objectives of nutrition therapy in heart failure are to prevent from water retention and edema, to avoid from hard digestion and to offer a balanced diet. In order to avoid fluid retention and edema, daily sodium and fluid intake must be monitored carefully. Main dilemma of the heart failure patients is the obesity-cachexia dilemma. Since one of the main reasons of heart failure is cardiovascular diseases, in first phase, the patient may be obese. In the later phases, cachexia may show up. It was shown that cachexia is associated with mortality. Within this period, patients should not be over-fed and the patient should pass from catabolic state to anabolic state slowly. If the gastrointestinal track is functional oral/enteral feeding must be preferred. Multi vitamin and mineral supportsmay be beneficial, which may replace the increased loss, increase anti-inflammatory response and be anti-oxidants. Large, controlled and well-designed studies must be conducted in order to evaluate the benefits of nutritional practices such as nutritional assessment, enteral feeding and nutrient supports in heart failure patients.

  12. Nutrition and acute schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Brazil, nutritional deficiency diseases and schistosomiasis mansoni overlap. An experimental model, wich reproduces the marasmatic clinical form of protein-energy malnutrition, was developed in this laboratory to study these interactions. Albino Swiss mice were fed with a food association ingested usually by human populations in northeast Brazil. This diet (Regional Basic Diet - RBD has negative effects on the growth, food intake and protein utilization in infected mice (acute phase of murine schistosomiasis. Nitrogen balance studies have also shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni has apparently no effect on protein intestinal absorption in well nourished mice. However, the lowest absorption ratios have been detected among RBD - fed infected animals, suggesting that suprerimposed schistosome infection aggravated the nutritional status of the undernourished host. The serum proteins electrophoretic pattern, as far as albumins are concerned, is quite similar for non-infected undernourished and infected well-fed animals. So, the significance of albumins as a biochemical indicator of the nutritional status of human populations residing in endemic foci of Manson's schistosomiasis, is discussable.

  13. Adolescent bariatric surgery: review on nutrition considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Isadora; Hrovat, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adolescents has dramatically increased over the past 3 decades in the United States. Weight loss surgery is becoming a viable treatment option for obese adolescents. The number of surgeries being performed yearly is rising, and this trend is likely to continue. Adolescent patients present a unique challenge to clinicians. There are currently best-practice recommendations and evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the treatment of the adolescent bariatric patient. A review of the current literature was performed to discuss bariatric surgery and nutrition for the adolescent patient. Studies show that most adolescents with obesity will become obese adults, thus increasing their risk of developing serious and debilitating health conditions. It is recommended that the candidates for surgery be referred to a practice that has a multidisciplinary team experienced in meeting the distinct physical and psychological needs of adolescents. Specific nutrition concerns for the adolescent bariatric patient include preoperative educational pathway, postoperative dietary progression, female reproduction, compliance with vitamin/supplementation recommendations, laboratory tests, and long-term monitoring. The medical literature has reported positive outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity. Before surgery is offered as an option, unique factors to adolescents must be addressed. The multidisciplinary clinical team must consider the adolescents' cognitive, social, and emotional development when considering their candidacy for surgery. As the number of adolescent bariatric surgery programs increases, continued research and long-term outcome data need to be collected and shared to base future treatment decisions. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  14. Infant nutrition in the first seven days of life in rural northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aborigo Raymond

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good nutrition is essential for increasing survival rates of infants. This study explored infant feeding practices in a resource-poor setting and assessed implications for future interventions focused on improving newborn health. Methods The study took place in the Kassena-Nankana District of the Upper East Region of northern Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 women with newborn infants, 8 traditional birth attendants and local healers, and 16 community leaders. An additional 18 focus group discussions were conducted with household heads, compound heads and grandmothers. All interviews and discussions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results Community members are knowledgeable about the importance of breastfeeding, and most women with newborn infants do attempt to breastfeed. However, data suggest that traditional practices related to breastfeeding and infant nutrition continue, despite knowledge of clinical guidelines. Such traditional practices include feeding newborn infants water, gripe water, local herbs, or traditionally meaningful foods such as water mixed with the flour of guinea corn (yara’na. In this region in Ghana, there are significant cultural traditions associated with breastfeeding. For example, colostrum from first-time mothers is often tested for bitterness by putting ants in it – a process that leads to a delay in initiating breastfeeding. Our data also indicate that grandmothers – typically the mother-in-laws – wield enormous power in these communities, and their desires significantly influence breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and maintenance. Conclusion Prelacteal feeding is still common in rural Ghana despite demonstrating high knowledge of appropriate feeding practices. Future interventions that focus on grandmothers and religious leaders are likely to prove valuable in changing community attitudes, beliefs, and practices with regard to

  15. Before the beginning: nutrition and lifestyle in the preconception period and its importance for future health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Judith; Heslehurst, Nicola; Hall, Jennifer; Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Hutchinson, Jayne; Cade, Janet E; Poston, Lucilla; Barrett, Geraldine; Crozier, Sarah R; Barker, Mary; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Baird, Janis; Mishra, Gita D

    2018-05-05

    A woman who is healthy at the time of conception is more likely to have a successful pregnancy and a healthy child. We reviewed published evidence and present new data from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries on the timing and importance of preconception health for subsequent maternal and child health. We describe the extent to which pregnancy is planned, and whether planning is linked to preconception health behaviours. Observational studies show strong links between health before pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes, with consequences that can extend across generations, but awareness of these links is not widespread. Poor nutrition and obesity are rife among women of reproductive age, and differences between high-income and low-income countries have become less distinct, with typical diets falling far short of nutritional recommendations in both settings and especially among adolescents. Several studies show that micronutrient supplementation starting in pregnancy can correct important maternal nutrient deficiencies, but effects on child health outcomes are disappointing. Other interventions to improve diet during pregnancy have had little effect on maternal and newborn health outcomes. Comparatively few interventions have been made for preconception diet and lifestyle. Improvements in the measurement of pregnancy planning have quantified the degree of pregnancy planning and suggest that it is more common than previously recognised. Planning for pregnancy is associated with a mixed pattern of health behaviours before conception. We propose novel definitions of the preconception period relating to embryo development and actions at individual or population level. A sharper focus on intervention before conception is needed to improve maternal and child health and reduce the growing burden of non-communicable diseases. Alongside continued efforts to reduce smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity in the population, we call for heightened

  16. The nutrition situation of free-living elderly in Umlazi township, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xolile Mkhize

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk for non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, stroke and ischaemic heart disease in the elderly continues to be on the increase. It is shaped and modified by factors such as economic status and experiences across the whole lifespan. Although malnutrition in this population could be due to poor dietary practices, the nutrition transition of communities in South Africa is partially responsible for nutritional problems. Because of the degree of dependency on others for help and care in communities, the elderly are at risk for malnutrition. The elderly of the Umlazi community are overburdened with the social responsibility of grandchildren and trying to bring stability by managing various households. This becomes a double burden and puts more strain on their quality of life, further impacting on their nutritional status. Die risiko vir chroniese siektes soos hipertensie, diabetes, beroerte en hartkwaal is steeds baie hoog in die bejaardes in Suid Afrika. Dit word deur faktore soos ekonomiese status en ervarings oor die hele lewesiklus gevorm en verander. Voedings probleme wat geïndentifiseer is in die studie hou verband met dieettekorte, alhoewel probleme met oorvoeding verband kan hou met die voedings oorgang wat plaasvind in Suid Afrikaanse gemeenskappe. In verskeie gemeenskappe, as gevolg van die graad van afhanklikheid van ander vir hulp en sorg, is die bejaardes blootgestel aan die risiko van wanvoeding. Die bejaardes van die Umlazi gemeenskap is oorlaai met die sosiale verantwoordelikheid van kleinkinders en probeer om verskeie huishoudings te stabiliseer, wat ‘n dubbele las op hulle plaas en dit kan hulle lewenskwaliteit affekteer wat dan hul voedingstatus verder kan vererger.

  17. Nutritional intervention and quality of life in adult oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Caro, Mónica María; Laviano, Alessandro; Pichard, Claude

    2007-06-01

    The evaluation of quality of life (QoL) assesses patients' well-being by taking into account physical, psychological and social conditions. Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of QoL. These metabolic changes lead to decreased food intake and promote wasting. Cancer-related malnutrition can evolve to cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and host metabolism. Beside and beyond the physical and the metabolic effects of cancer, patients often suffer as well from psychological distress, including depression. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative) and on patients' clinical conditions and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counselling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Such an approach, which should be started as early as possible, can reduce or even reverse their poor nutritional status, improve their performance status and consequently their QoL. Nutritional intervention accompanying curative treatment has an additional and specific role, which is to increase the tolerance and response to the oncology treatment, decrease the rate of complications and possibly reduce morbidity by optimizing the balance between energy expenditure and food intake. In palliative care, nutritional support aims at improving patient's QoL by controlling symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and pain related to food intake and postponing loss of autonomy. The literature review supports that nutritional care should be integrated into the global oncology care because of its significant contribution to QoL. Furthermore, the assessment of QoL should be part of the evaluation of any nutritional support to optimize its adequacy to the patient's needs and expectations.

  18. American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Nutrition Screening and Therapy Within a Surgical Enhanced Recovery Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmeyer, Paul E; Carli, Franco; Evans, David C; Guilbert, Sarah; Kozar, Rosemary; Pryor, Aurora; Thiele, Robert H; Everett, Sotiria; Grocott, Mike; Gan, Tong J; Shaw, Andrew D; Thacker, Julie K M; Miller, Timothy E; Hedrick, Traci L; McEvoy, Matthew D; Mythen, Michael G; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Gupta, Ruchir; Holubar, Stefan D; Senagore, Anthony J; Abola, Ramon E; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Kent, Michael L; Feldman, Liane S; Fiore, Julio F

    2018-06-01

    Perioperative malnutrition has proven to be challenging to define, diagnose, and treat. Despite these challenges, it is well known that suboptimal nutritional status is a strong independent predictor of poor postoperative outcomes. Although perioperative caregivers consistently express recognition of the importance of nutrition screening and optimization in the perioperative period, implementation of evidence-based perioperative nutrition guidelines and pathways in the United States has been quite limited and needs to be addressed in surgery-focused recommendations. The second Perioperative Quality Initiative brought together a group of international experts with the objective of providing consensus recommendations on this important topic with the goal of (1) developing guidelines for screening of nutritional status to identify patients at risk for adverse outcomes due to malnutrition; (2) address optimal methods of providing nutritional support and optimizing nutrition status preoperatively; and (3) identifying when and how to optimize nutrition delivery in the postoperative period. Discussion led to strong recommendations for implementation of routine preoperative nutrition screening to identify patients in need of preoperative nutrition optimization. Postoperatively, nutrition delivery should be restarted immediately after surgery. The key role of oral nutrition supplements, enteral nutrition, and parenteral nutrition (implemented in that order) in most perioperative patients was advocated for with protein delivery being more important than total calorie delivery. Finally, the role of often-inadequate nutrition intake in the posthospital setting was discussed, and the role of postdischarge oral nutrition supplements was emphasized.

  19. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) ... Moreover, some applications of these results in group algebras are .... A linear subspace S(G) of L1(G) is said to be a Segal algebra, if it satisfies the.

  20. Evolution of embryonic developmental period in the marine bird families Alcidae and Spheniscidae: roles for nutrition and predation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipfner, J Mark; Gorman, Kristen B; Vos, Rutger A; Joy, Jeffrey B

    2010-06-14

    Nutrition and predation have been considered two primary agents of selection important in the evolution of avian life history traits. The relative importance of these natural selective forces in the evolution of avian embryonic developmental period (EDP) remain poorly resolved, perhaps in part because research has tended to focus on a single, high taxonomic-level group of birds: Order Passeriformes. The marine bird families Alcidae (auks) and Spheniscidae (penguins) exhibit marked variation in EDP, as well as behavioural and ecological traits ultimately linked to EDP. Therefore, auks and penguins provide a unique opportunity to assess the natural selective basis of variation in a key life-history trait at a low taxonomic-level. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the relative importance of behavioural and ecological factors related to nutrition and predation in the evolution of avian EDP. Three behavioural and ecological variables related to nutrition and predation risk (i.e., clutch size, activity pattern, and nesting habits) were significant predictors of residual variation in auk and penguin EDP based on models predicting EDP from egg mass. Species with larger clutch sizes, diurnal activity patterns, and open nests had significantly shorter EDPs. Further, EDP was found to be longer among birds which forage in distant offshore waters, relative to those that foraged in near shore waters, in line with our predictions, but not significantly so. Current debate has emphasized predation as the primary agent of selection driving avian life history diversification. Our results suggest that both nutrition and predation have been important selective forces in the evolution of auk and penguin EDP, and highlight the importance of considering these questions at lower taxonomic scales. We suggest that further comparative studies on lower taxonomic-level groups will continue to constructively inform the debate on evolutionary determinants of avian EDP, as

  1. Evolution of embryonic developmental period in the marine bird families Alcidae and Spheniscidae: roles for nutrition and predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos Rutger A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition and predation have been considered two primary agents of selection important in the evolution of avian life history traits. The relative importance of these natural selective forces in the evolution of avian embryonic developmental period (EDP remain poorly resolved, perhaps in part because research has tended to focus on a single, high taxonomic-level group of birds: Order Passeriformes. The marine bird families Alcidae (auks and Spheniscidae (penguins exhibit marked variation in EDP, as well as behavioural and ecological traits ultimately linked to EDP. Therefore, auks and penguins provide a unique opportunity to assess the natural selective basis of variation in a key life-history trait at a low taxonomic-level. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the relative importance of behavioural and ecological factors related to nutrition and predation in the evolution of avian EDP. Results Three behavioural and ecological variables related to nutrition and predation risk (i.e., clutch size, activity pattern, and nesting habits were significant predictors of residual variation in auk and penguin EDP based on models predicting EDP from egg mass. Species with larger clutch sizes, diurnal activity patterns, and open nests had significantly shorter EDPs. Further, EDP was found to be longer among birds which forage in distant offshore waters, relative to those that foraged in near shore waters, in line with our predictions, but not significantly so. Conclusion Current debate has emphasized predation as the primary agent of selection driving avian life history diversification. Our results suggest that both nutrition and predation have been important selective forces in the evolution of auk and penguin EDP, and highlight the importance of considering these questions at lower taxonomic scales. We suggest that further comparative studies on lower taxonomic-level groups will continue to constructively inform the

  2. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  3. [Nutrition therapy of cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövey, József

    2017-09-20

    The majority of cancer patients becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Malnutrition deteriorates the efficiency of all kinds of oncologic interventions. As a consequence of it, treatment-related toxicity increases, hospital stay is lengthened, chances of cure and survival as well as the quality of life of the patients worsen. Nutritional status therefore influences all aspects of outcome of oncology care. In spite of this the use of nutritional therapy varies across health care providers but its application is far from being sufficient during active oncology interventions as well as rehabilitation and supportive care. It threatens not only the outcome and quality of life of cancer patients but also the success of oncologic treatments which often demand high input of human and financial resources. Meanwhile application of nutritional therapy is legally regulated in Hungary and a very recent update of the European guideline on cancer patient nutrition published in 2017 is available. Moreover, cost effectiveness of nutritional therapy has been proven in a number of studies. In this review we present the basics of nutritional therapy including nutritional screening and evaluation, nutritional plan, the role of nutrition support teams, oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition, the use of different drugs and special nutrients and the follow-up of the patients.

  4. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control; however, despite the availability of effective and safe medications, for many patients asthma remains uncontrolled. One reason for this is the fear of long-term side effects from the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Adverse...... effects of poorly controlled asthma (for example, obesity, pneumonia, and risks to the fetus) can be perceived as side effects of ICSs. Poorly controlled asthma adversely affects children's cardiovascular fitness, while children with well-controlled asthma perform at the same level as their peers....... Children with uncontrolled asthma also have a higher frequency of obesity than children with controlled asthma. Stress can affect asthma control, and children with poorly controlled asthma are more likely to have learning disabilities compared with those with good control. In adults, focused attention...

  5. Poor housing quality: Prevalence and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.

  6. Is American business working for the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, M J; Ellwood, D T

    1991-01-01

    At first glance, poverty seems to have little to do with business. When most people--managers included--think about poverty, they assume that people are poor because they are isolated from the mainstream economy, not productive participants in it. But according to Harvard University professors Mary Jo Bane and David Ellwood, this is a misleading image of the true face of poverty in the United States today. Most poor adults--and a full 90% of poor children--live in families where work is the norm, not the exception. Poor people often work or want to work. But at the low-wage end of the American economy, having a job is no guarantee of avoiding poverty. Poverty is a business issue, then, because the American poor are part of the American work force. And this poses a problem for managers. In a more competitive and fast-changing economic environment, the performance of companies increasingly depends on the capabilities of their employees. In response to this human-resource challenge, more and more managers are embracing the language of "empowerment". And yet how can low-wage employees believe empowerment when their experience of work is, quite literally, impoverishment? It is unlikely that American companies can create the work force of the future with the poverty policies of the past. Fortunately, there are some simple policy mechanisms that can assist the working poor without putting an undue burden on business. Enacting them, however, requires managers to see poverty policy as one part of a national human-resource strategy that links the strategic concerns of companies to a broad social agenda.

  7. Managing children and adolescents on parenteral nutrition: Challenges for the nutritional support team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tracey; Sexton, Elaine

    2006-08-01

    Managing infants, children and adolescents, ranging from premature infants to 18-year-old adolescents, on parenteral nutrition (PN) is a challenge. The ability of children to withstand starvation is limited and, unlike adults, children require nutrition for growth. PN in children is often required secondary to a congenital bowel problem rather than because of an acquired condition. Conditions requiring PN include motility disorders, congenital disorders of the intestinal epithelium and short-bowel syndrome (SBS). Intestinal failure may be temporary and children with SBS may be weaned from PN. However, other children require permanent PN. There are no comprehensive guidelines for the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents requiring PN. Practice in individual centres is based on clinical experience rather than clinical trials. Requirements are assessed on an individual basis according to age, nutritional status and clinical condition. These requirements need regular review to ensure that they remain appropriate for the changing age and weight of the child. Assessments of intakes use different methods, e.g. reference tables and predictive equations. Complications of PN include infection, accidental damage to, or removal of, the line and cholestatic liver disease. Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is associated with fewer line infections and allows continuation of nutritional support in a more normal environment, encouraging normal development and participation in family activities. However, having a child at home on HPN is associated with physical and psychological stresses. A feeling of depression, loneliness and social isolation is common amongst children and their families. Home-care services are essential to supporting children at home and should be tailored to, and sensitive to, the individual needs of each family.

  8. 21 CFR Appendix C to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Raw Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Raw Fruits and Vegetables C Appendix C to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. C Appendix C to Part 101—Nutrition Facts...

  9. Nutritional knowledge assessment of syrian university students

    OpenAIRE

    Louay Labban

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition knowledge is one of the factors that affect nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and societies. Nutrition knowledge is an important tool in assessing the nutritional status of an individual, group or community. Researchers have been trying to design and develop reliable and valid questionnaires that distinguish and measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary behavior and diet-health awareness. Many studies have shown that nutrition knowledge ...

  10. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin-Fortified Snack Food May Lead Consumers to Make Poor Dietary Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrill, Linda; Wood, Dallas; Cates, Sheryl; Lando, Amy; Zhang, Yuanting

    2017-03-01

    -fortified may cause consumers to make poor dietary decisions. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Nutritional or secondary hyperparathyroidism in a German shepherd litter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, D C

    1980-06-01

    Nutritional or secondary hyperparathyroidism in a litter of German shepherd dogs is reported. The bitch lost interest in the litter 2 weeks post partum, the owner proceeded to feed the pups on a mainly meat diet (low in calcium) together with whole wheat bread (high in phosphate) until they were presented at Onderstepoort at the age of 6 weeks. Clinically the pups showed poor growth, posterior paresis and pain on palpation of the long bones. Radiological examination revealed decreased bone density and thickness of bone cortices. A diagnosis of nutritional or secondary hyperparathyroidism was made. The diet was corrected and in addition the pups were treated with a balanced supplement of calcium and phosphate with very good clinical response. The pathophysiology of nutritional or secondary hyperparathyroidism as well as ricketts and hypertrophic osteodystrophy as differential diagnoses are discussed.

  13. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  14. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...

  15. Poor Appetite and Dietary Intake in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Lee, Jung S; Houston, Denise K; Hue, Trisha; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Visser, Marjolein

    2017-10-01

    Poor appetite in older adults leads to sub-optimal food intake and increases the risk of undernutrition. The impact of poor appetite on food intake in older adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in food intake among older community-dwelling adults with different reported appetite levels. Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longitudinal prospective study. Health, aging, and body composition study performed in the USA. 2,597 community-dwelling adults aged 70-79. A semi-quantitative, interviewer-administered, 108-item food frequency questionnaire designed to estimate dietary intake. Poor appetite was defined as the report of a moderate, poor, or very poor appetite in the past month and was compared with good or very good appetite. The mean age of the study sample was 74.5 ± 2.8 years; 48.2% were men, 37.7% were black, and 21.8% reported a poor appetite. After adjustment for total energy intake and potential confounders (including biting/chewing problems), participants with a poor appetite had a significantly lower consumption of protein and dietary fiber, solid foods, protein rich foods, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, but a higher consumption of dairy foods, fats, oils, sweets, and sodas compared to participants with very good appetite. In addition, they were less likely to report consumption of significant larger portion sizes. Older adults reporting a poor appetite showed a different dietary intake pattern compared to those with (very) good appetite. Better understanding of the specific dietary intake pattern related to a poor appetite in older adults can be used for nutrition interventions to enhance food intake, diet variety, and diet quality. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Changes in utilization of health services among poor and rural residents in Uganda: are reforms benefitting the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyo, George W; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Okui, Olico; Rahman, Mohammed Hafizur; Peterson, Stefan; Bishai, David M; Lucas, Henry; Peters, David H

    2009-11-12

    Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94). The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67). The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP) were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP) in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92), and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48). The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy makers should consider targeting subsidies to the poor and

  17. Changes in utilization of health services among poor and rural residents in Uganda: are reforms benefitting the poor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishai David M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. Methods Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA. The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. Results The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94. The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67. The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92, and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48. The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. Conclusion Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy

  18. Nutrition in acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Mussi Guimarães

    Full Text Available Nutritional status has been considered to be one of the possible determinants of mortality rates in cases of acute renal failure (ARF. However, most studies evaluating possible mortality indicators in ARF cases have not focused on the nutritional status, possibly because of the difficulties involved in assessing the nutritional status of critically ill patients. Although the traditional methods for assessing nutritional status are used for ARF patients, they are not the best choice in this population. The use of nutritional support for these patients has produced conflicting results regarding morbidity and mortality. This review covers the mechanisms and indicators of malnutrition in ARF cases and the types of nutritional support that may be used.

  19. Providing Continuous Assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, Jonne; Hulstijn, Joris

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that continuous assurance can be attained by combining continuous monitoring by management, with continuous auditing of data streams and the effectiveness of internal controls by an external auditor. However, we find that in existing literature the final step to continuous

  20. Who speaks for the poor (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear energy benefits the poor, because it alleviates a shortage of petroleum. Less-developed countries suffer directly from a shortage of petroleum; also petroleum is necessary to raise food in the developed countries for export to the less-developed countries. (L.L.)